F R O N T L I N E E N G L I S H G R A M M A R S E R I E S

MODAL VERBS

Diane Hall & Mark Foley

MODAL VERBS
Written by - Escrito por: Diane Hall & Mark Foley Translated by - Traducido por: Eduardo Rosset Published by - Editado por: Editorial Stanley Layout - Diseno y Maquetacion: Angela Gomez Martin Design front page - Diseno portada: DISENO IRUNES

© 1998 Diane Hall & Mark Foley

© 2003 Editorial Stanley
Apdo. 207 - 20300 IRUN - SPAIN Telf. 943640412 -Fax. 943643863 richard@stanleyformacion.com www.gentedellibro.com ISBN: 84-7873-367-1 Dep. Leg. BI-1295/03 Primera edition 2003 Printed at - Imprime: Imprenta Berekintza

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CONTENTS
Prologue Introduction 1 Can/Can't/bBe able to Exercises 2 Could/Couldn't/Be able to Exercises 3 Should/Ought to/Had better Exercises 4 Must/Have to Exercises 5 Need (to) Exercises 6 Will/Won't Exercises 7 Shall/Shan't Exercises 8 Would Exercises 9 May/Might Exercises 10 Used to Exercises Summary Consolidation exercises Answers to exercises (Units 1-10) Answers to consolidation exercises Glossary 2 5 7 10 12 14 15 17 19 22 23 25 27 30 31 33 35 38 40 43 44 46 51 65 68 70

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MODALVERBS

PROLOGUE

Modal Verbs are an integral part of the English language. Each Modal Verbs can have several meanings and serve diferent functions, all of which are covered in this book.

Los verbos modales forman una parte integral del idioma ingles. Cada verbo modal puede tener varies significados y llevar a cabo diferentes funciones, todas las cuales se cubren en este libro.

What this book consists of:
if 10 main units. Each unit explains and practises one of the ten modal verbs. A detailed summary in which the modal verbs are presented according to their many varied meanings (ability, permission, offers, etc.). A series of consolidation exercises. These exercises practise all the modal verbs in varying contexts. Full answers to all exercises. English-Spanish glossary of words /phrases which occur in the exercises instructions.

En que consiste este libro:
10 unidades principales. Cada unidad explica y practica uno de los 10 verbos modales. Un resumen detallado en el que se presentan los verbos modales segun sus significados (habilidad, permiso, oferta, etc.). Una serie de ejercicios de consolidation. Estos ejercicios practican todos los verbos modales en diferentes contextos. Solucionario de los ejercicios. Glosario espanol/ingles de palabras/frases utilizadas en las instrucciones de los ejercicios.

55

Si KS

Key features of the book:
Clear and precise Grammar explanations in Spanish. Exercises in the ten main units linked very closely to the Grammar explanations. More than 70 all-English Exercises. Comprehensive cross referencing between units, and between the summary and individual units.

Principales caracteristicas del libro:
Explicaciones en espanol claras y concisas. Ejercicios de las 10 unidades principales relacionadas con las explicaciones gramaticales. Mas de 70 ejercicios en ingle's. Una relation entre las unidades y entre el resumen y las unidades individuales.

Who is the book for?
The book is designed for intermediate students of English, who are working by themselves or in a school or language institution. Students above and below intermediate level will also gain much indispensible knowledge about the meaning of modal verbs from this book.

Para quien es este libro?
Este libro esta disenado para estudiantes de ingles, de nivel medio, autodidactas o que estudien en una academia o institute. Los estudiantes que tengan un nivel superior o inferior al medio tambien obtendran de este libro unos conocimientos indispensables sobre el significado de los verbos modales.

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MODAL

VERBS

M ODA L V ERBS

INTRODUCTION Qes Que esun verbo modal?
Los verbos modales son diferentes de los demas verbos tanto en su significado como en su comportamiento gramatical (vease, a continuation, como se comportan los verbos modales). Hay diez verbos modales: can could should must ought to will shall would

may might

Ademas de estos verbos modales, hay otros cinco verbos y expresiones que pueden funcionar de la misma manera. Estos son:

be able to have to need (to) had better used to

TODOS ELLOS SE VERAN DETALLADAMENTE EN ESTE LIBRO.

Que quieren decir los verbos modales?
La caracteristica de los verbos modales es que a menudo ttienen diferentes significados y diferentes funciones. For ejemplo, el verbo modal could puede expresar: una capacidad o habilidad en el pasado: When I was young I could run very fast.
Cuando yo era joven (era capaz) de correr muy rdpido.
LOS VERBOS MODALES SE USAN MUCHO EN INGLES Y ES NECESARIO TANTO ENTENDERLOS COMO TENER LA CAPACIDAD DE USARLOS DE MODO CORRECTO.

posibilidad de presente y de futuro: He's very tall. He could be a basketball player.
Es muy alto. Podria serjugador de baloncesto.

If it snows tomorrow, we could go skiing.
Si nieva manana podriamos ir a esquiar.

permiso: Could I use your telephone?
Podria usar su telefono?

petition: Could I ask you a question?
Podria hacerle una pregunta? y deduction:

sugerencias: How about going out tonight. We could go to the theatre.
Que tal si salimos esta noche? Podriamos ir al teatro.

He couldn't have done it. He wasn't here.
El no pudo haberlo hecho. No estaba aqui.

<;C6mo se comportan los verbos modales?
Hay reglas gramaticales especiales para los verbos modales: Los verbos modales son defectives, es decir, no se conjugan en todos los tiempos. No tienen tiempos pasados o formas en gerundio. No anaden una -s en tercera persona del singular, del presente (he, she, it). I must/He must go home.
Yo debo/ El debe ir a casa.

No usan do (o did) en la forma interrogativa y negativa. Can you...?
I can't...

Van seguidos por el infinitive sin to. Las dos excepciones a esta regla son ought to y used to. I can dance. (No: I can to dance)
Yo se/puedo bailar.

No tienen infinitivo (no se puede decir to can, to must, etc.). No se pueden combinar con los verbos auxiliares. No se puede decir I will must..., I have must... . Pueden ir seguidos por have + participio. He should have written.
El deberia haber escrito.

They must have passed their exam.
Ellos deben haber aprobado su examen. Presente:
Presente:

I must go home.
Debo ir a casa.

Se puede ver que a fin de expresar tiempos diferentes y formas verbales con verbos modales, generalmente recummos a otros medios de expresion, por ejemplo: had to, will have to en vez de must:

pasado: I had to go home> Yo tema que ir a casa.

Fiituro: I mil have to go home soon.
Tendre que ir a casa pronto.

;,Como usar este libra?
Este libra consiste en diez unidades, cada una de las cuales contiene explicaciones y ejemplos de los verbos modales. Estas explicaciones estan muy relacionadas con los ejercicios que van a continuacion. Puede elegir entre hacer todos los ejercicios del libra comenzando por la pagina 1 hasta la unidad 10, o usted puede elegir la unidad que quiera. El sumario (summary) divide los verbos modales por sus funciones (habilidad, permiso, etc.). Hay muchas referencias en las secciones gramaticales de las diez unidades. Una serie de ejercicios de consolidation (consolidation exercises) va a continuacion del sumario. Se practican los verbos modales en combinaciones diferentes para comprobar que se entiende el significado en su conjunto. Hay respuestas a todos los ejercicios y finalmente hay un glosario (glossary) de palabras y frases de los ejercicios.

CAN- CAN'T- BE ABLE TO

Can/Be able to - Habilidad
Se usa can para describir una habilidad en presente. La forma negativa es cannot (o can't). Cannot solo se usa generalmente en una forma de hablar muy formal: Tambien se usa can y can't con verbos de sensacion (see, feel, taste, hear, smell) para describir el uso activo del sentido: I can speak three languages, but I can't swim.
Yo se hablar tres idiomas, pero no se nadar.

Can you drive?
jSabe usted conducir?

I can't see you.
No puedo verte.

I can smell something burning.
Huelo a algo quemdndose.

No se usa can para describir habilidad en el pasado o en el future, usamos una forma de be able to. Se usa was able to/were able to para describir una habilidad que se uso en un momento especifico en el pasado: Her car broke down yesterday, but she was able to repair it.
A ella se le estropeo el coche ayer, pero pudo repararlo.

They missed the last bus last night, but they were able to get a taxi.
Perdieron el ultimo autobus ayer noche, pero pudieron coger un taxi.

55 Pero fijese que cuando se habla acerca del pasado y se quiere describir una habilidad general mas que una habilidad que se usa en un momento especifico, se puede usar could (vease 2.1, pagina 10): When I was a child I could run very fast.
Cuando era nino corria muy rdpido. (podia correr)

Se usa will be able to para describir una habilidad en el future:

At the end of the course I'll be able to speak German fluently.
A final de curso podre hablar aleman confluidez.

Can no tiene forma infinitiva (no se puede decir I'd like to can ski) o formas de participio. Tenemos que usar be able to despues de verbos o frases que vayan seguidas de un infinitive o gerundio (ejemplo: enjoy, hate, love, like, would, etc.)

I'd like to be able to swim.
Me gustaria saber nadar.

I love being able to hear the birds sing.
Me encanta poder oir cantor a los pdjaros.

Can - Posibilidad
Can se usa para describir posibilidades generates o teoricas. Es la clase de posibilidad que no esta relacionada con una situacion o momento especifico. Tiene un significado parecido a sometimes: The sea can be very dangerous.
El mar puede ser muy peligroso.

No se usa normalmente can para una posibilidad teorica si nos referimos al pasado, al futuro o al momento presente (el momento de hablar). Se usa may o might (vease 9.1, pagina 38). La exception es cuando se habla acerca de arreglos personates en futuro: We can meet you at the cinema at eight o'clock.
Nos podemos ver en el cine a las ocho.

Can/Can't - Permiso y petition
Can es la forma usual de pedir y conceder permiso en ingles. En una situacion formal se puede usar may, might o could (vease 2.4, pagina 12; 9.2, pagina 39): Can we smoke hi here? Yes, you can.
Se puede fumar aqui? Si, se puede.

Tambien se puede usar can para hacer peticiones o para pedir a alguien que haga algo por usted:

Can I borrow the car tonight?
puedo tomar el coche prestado esta noche?

Can you help me with the crossword?
^Me puede ayudar con el crucigrama?

Can't se usa para negar el permiso o para decir que algo esta prohibido. (Vease tambien mustn't 4.1, pagina
17):

Can I use your phone? No, you can't.
<;Puedo usar su telefono? No, no puede.

You can't smoke on the underground in London.
No se puede fumar en el metro de Londres.

Can/Can't have • Deduction negativa
Se usa can't para deducciones negativas sobre el presente, cuando se quiere expresar certeza de que algo no es cierto. En este sentido can't es lo contrario de must (vease 4.3, pagina 18): The exam can't be difficult - everyone passes it! El examen no puede ser muy dificil - todo el mundo lo aprueba! Se usa can't have + participio para hacer una deduction logica sobre el pasado. Esto se puede considerar como lo contrario de must have + participio (vease 4.3, pagina 19): She can't have gone out - her coat's still in the hall. No puede haber salido - su abrigo todavia estd en el vestibulo.

EXERCISE 1 1

Rellene los huecos con can o be able to. 1. When I finish my medical degree I will be able to work as a doctor. 2. Julian's a weightlifter. He lift over 200 kilos. 3. The exam wasn't too difficult. I answer most of the questions. 4. Would you like speak a foreign language? 5.1 got home late yesterday so I record the TV programme for you. (negative) 6. My brother's slightly colour-blind. He tell the difference between green and brown, (negative) i. Amanda's just got a place at art school. She paint really well. 8. Our children really enjoy play in their own garden. 9.1 hope that by the end of the course you speak French quite fluently. 10.1 lost my house keys yesterday but luckily I get in through the window. 11. What a delicious soup! I taste all those fresh herbs from your garden. 12. I really like watch new films on satellite television.

RCISE ISE 2 2
Complete las frases y unalas con los dibujos. 1. Now I throw away these L-plates! 2. By Friday you swim a hundred metres. 3. The rain's terrible. I see anything! 4. I'd like snowboard like that. 5.I enjoy help people.

EXERC1SE 3 Senate 1. A B 2. A B 3. A B 4. A B 5. A B las frases correctas, A o B. Eating sweets is able to ruin your teeth. Eating sweets can ruin your teeth. My house can get very cold in the winter. My house can get very cold next winter. These days travelling can be very expensive. These days travelling is able to be very expensive. Some tortoises can live to be a hundred. My tortoise can live to be a hundred. The motorways can be very busy this weekend. The motorways can be very busy at the weekends.

EXERCISE 3 iQue diria usted en estas situaciones? Escriba una pregunta usando can y el verbo que esta entre parentesis 1. You are at the check-in desk at the airport. You have a large bag and you want to take it on the plane with you. (take) Can I take this bag on the plane? 2. You want to borrow £10 from a friend, (lend)

3. You are at the railway station and you want to know the time of the next train to Paris, (tell) 4. You are talking to the cashier in a shop. You want to pay by credit card, (pay) 5. You are in a bank. You want to cash some cheques, (cash) 6. You go into a restaurant with a friend and there is a nice table near the window, (sit) 7. You bought a shirt yesterday which is too small. You take it back to the shop. (change)

EXERCISE 5
Mire este extracto de un folleto de una agenda de viajes y use la information para completar las frases con can o can't. 1. You 2. You 3. You 4. You 5. You 6. You plane. smoke on LuxAir flights. take up to 20 kilos of baggage. use mobile phones. watch a movie during the flight. buy duty free goods. bring alcoholic drinks onto the
LuxAlR FLIGHTS
1

LuxAir flights are completely non-smoking. ' The baggage allowance is 20kg. ' Use of mobile phones is forbidden. A movie will be shown during the flight. Duty free goods will be available for purchase during the flight. Passengers are not permitted to bring alcoholic drinks onto the plane.

EXERClSE 6
Una los numeros con las letras para hacer frases correctas. 1. They can't have split up ... A he's just had a drink. 2. They can't be away on holiday ... B I saw them together yesterday. 3. He can't have stolen the car ... c her skin is so smooth. 4. Sylvia can't have lost all her money .. D she's got a brand new Mercedes. 5. John can't be thirsty already ... E the lights are on in their house. 6. She can't be as old as you say ... F he can't drive.

COULD-COULDN'T-BE ABLE TO

Could/Couldn't - Capacidad
Se usa could para describir una habilidad general que existia en el pasado: Pero cuando se describe el uso presente de una habilidad en un momento especifico en el pasado, no se usa could, se usa was able/were able to (vease 1.1, pagina 6) When I was a child I could run very fast.
Cuando yo era nino corria muy rdpido. (podia correr)

Her car broke down yesterday, but she was able to repair it.
A ella se le averio el coche ayer, pero pudo arreglarlo.

Sin embargo, se usa could para describir el uso de una habilidad en un momento especifico en el pasado con los verbos de sensation (see, feel, taste, hear, smell):

I could hear an owl last night.
Oi un buho ayer noche. (pude oir)

§ La forma negativa de could es could not (normalmente couldn't en el habla diaria). Couldn't se puede usar para una falta general de habilidad en el pasado. o una falta de habilidad especifica en el pasado: The teacher couldn't answer my question.
i El profesor no pudo responder a mi pregunta. (No supo)

I couldn't swim until I was fifteen.
Yo no sabia nadar hasta los quince anos.

Couldn't se puede usar para describir una habilidad que existia en un momento especifico en el pasado pero que no se uso: Para describir habilidad en el The mechanic couldn't repair my car yesterday. presente se usa can (vease 1.1) El mecdnico no me pudo arreglar el coche ayer. para habilidad en el future se usa will be able to (vease 1.1)

Could - Posibilidad
Se usa could para describir una posibilidad en el futuro: If my sales figures don't improve next month I could lose my job.
Si las cifras de mis ventas no mejoran el mes que viene podria perder mi empleo.

Tambien se usa could para describir una posibihdad en el presente: There could be intelligent life on other
planets. Podria haber vida inteligente en otros planetas.

_ Where's my shirt?
Dondeestd mi camim?

— I'm not sure. It could be over there,
No estoy seguro. Podria estar alii.

Could se usa para describir una posibilidad muy remota, algo de lo que no estamos seguros. Si la posibilidad es mas segura usamos may o might (vease 9.1). Se usa couldn't o can't para decir que algo defmitivamente no es posible en el presente o en el future. Si se quiere decir que algo posiblemente no sucedera se usa may not o might not (vease 9.1). Compare los ejemplos que vienen a continuation: She couldn't become a teacher - she's not patient enough.
Ella no podria ser profesora - no tiene bastante paciencia..

She might not become a teacher - she's thinking of studying law.
Ella podria no hacerse profesora - estd pensando en estudiar derecho.

Could have - Posibilidad o habilidad en elpasado y para la critica
"3 Se usa could have + pasado para describir una posibilidad
que existia en el pasado: Tambien se puede usar could

My boss offered me two holiday dates last year. I could have gone in June or in July.
Mijefe me propuso dosfechas para mis vacadones el ano pasado. Podia haber ido en junio o en julio.

have + pasado para describir algo que era posible en el pasado pero que no sucedio: Esto incluye una habilidad en el pasado que existia pero que no se uso en una ocasion
especilica:

didn'tlock the door last night. Someone could have come in. No cerraste lapuertaayernoche.Cualquiera
podia haber entrado.

You

I could have helped her with her homework, but I was too tired Yo podia haberla ayudado con la tarea del colegio,
peroestaba demasiado cansado. pero

La forma negativa couldn't have + participio se usa para hacer una deduccion negativa sobre el pasado. Se puede considerar como lo contrario de must have + participio (vease 4.3): Could have se usa, a menudo, para criticar ala genteporalgoque no hicieron en el pasado:

wasn't here. El no pudo haberlo necho, no
estaba aqui

He couldn t have done it, he .

I didn't hear from you for two weeks!
You could have phoned me! No he tenido noticias tuyas desde hace dos semanas! Podias haberme telefoneado!

Could - Permiso, petition y sugerencias
Could se usa de una manera cortes para pedir permiso o para pedir algo. Es mas cortes y mas formal que can. (vease 1.3):, Could I use your bathroom?
iPodria usar su bano?

Could you lend me 10 pounds?

iPodria prestarme 10 libras? Tambien se usa could para hacer sugerencias. Las sugerenHow about going out tonight? We could cias con could son un poco mas sugerentes que con can: — go for a meal.

Que tal si salimos esta noche? Podriamos ir a cenar.

EXERCISE

1

Escriba de nuevo estas frases correctamente. 1. When I was a child I was able to ski better than my brother. 2. It was so cold yesterday I wasn't able to feel the tips of my fingers. 3. My computer broke down last Wednesday, but the engineer could fix it. 4. The jewels were stolen from the shop, but the police could get them back. 5.1 lost my dictionary yesterday and I wasn 't able to find it anywhere. 6. The earthquake was terrible - we were able to feel the whole house shaking!

EXERC1SE 2
Escriba frases sobre posibilidades futuras en cada dibujo. Combine las palabras de cada columna con el verbo modal apropiado. Wigs Men Robots Scientists Children People get live discover have become perform the vote to the age of 200 operations in hospitals fashionable again oil on the moon babies

|EXERCISE 3 Complete cada frase con could o couldn 't.
1. Karen didn't go to university so she become a teacher. 2. My son was only fifteen so he vote in the election. 3. —Where's the hammer? —It be in the garage. Why don't you look there? 4. Sarah help you with your accounts, she knows a lot about finance. 5. If you need some milk, you try the corner shop; it stays open late. 6. Simon be in Japan - he hasn't got a passport. XERClSE 4 Use la informacion de la casilla para unir a una persona con cada una de las situaciones.

Marion is a cook Liz lives next door Karen is rich

Katie can sew Ralph owns a big car David is a teacher

Ahora use los nombre y una forma de could para completar las frases. i. Katie could have repaired the hole in my jacket, but she was too busy. 2. corrected my essay, but he couldn't be bothered. 3. prepared lunch, but she got a take-away instead. 4. given us a lift, but he didn't offer. 5. looked after my cat, but she didn't want to. 6. lent me some money, but she was too mean.

EXERCISE 5
Use la information de los dibujos para completar los minidialogos. Use could y los verbos y sustantivos en las casillas. go to write about buy fly to drive to the country Napoleon some CDs New York the cinema

— Where shall we go on holiday this year? — We — What shall we do tonight? — We — What do you feel like doing at the weekend? — We — Have you got any ideas for my history essay? — Yes, you — What do you think I should spend this money on? — You

SHOULD • OUGHT TO • HAD BETTER
Should/Ought to/Has better - Consejos y recomndaciones
Se usa should y ought to (y las formas negativas shouldn't y oughtn't) para consejos en general y para hacer recomendaciones: You look pale. You should/ought to see a doctor.
Estds pdlido. Deberias ir al medico.

You shouldn't/oughtn't to talk and eat at the same time.
No deberias hablar y comer al mismo tiempo.

Had better es mas fuerte que should y ought to. En el ingles hablado se suele usar la forma contracta 'd better. La forma negativa es had ('d) better not. Had better se usa para dar consejos en situaciones donde hay alguna urgencia, y para dar avisos y amenazas: . I can smell something burning. We'd better phone the fire service.
Huelo a quemado. Mas vale que Home a los bomberos.

You'd better put that necklace back or I'll report you to the police.
Mas vale que devuelvas el collar o llamare a la policia.

AUNQUE HAD BETTER PARECE UNA FORMA EN PASADO SOLO SE PUEDE USAR EN SITUACIONES PRESENTES Y FUTURAS. NO SE PUEDE USAR EN PASADO.

Should have/Ought to have/Ought to have - Emm pasados
Se usa should have + participio u ought to have + participle para hablar acerca de algo que salio mal en el pasado. Se usa para criticar a alguien por sus acciones pasadas o falta de action: You got wet? You should have/ought to have taken an umbrella.
jTe mojaste? Deberias haber cogido un paraguas.

The road was icy. You shouldn't have/oughtn't to have driven so fast!
La carretera estaba helada. No deberias haber ido tan deprisa.

Should/Ought to - Probabilidad
Se puede usar should y ought to para expresar algo que es probable en el momento de hablar o en el futuro: Mary isn't here. She should/ought to be back later.
Maria no estd aqui. Deberia estar de vuelta mas tarde.

Se puede usar should have + participio u ought to have + participio para describir algo que fue posible en el pasado. Puede describir algo que se esperaba que sucediera en el pasado pero que no sucedio:

Why did he fail that exam? He should have/ought to have passed it easily.
^Por que suspendio ese examen? Deberia haberlo aprobado fdcilmente.

53 Should have + participio y ought to have + participio tambien se pueden usar para algo que se esperaba que sucediera pero que no se sabe actualmente si sucedio o no: I don't know where he is. He should have/ought to have arrived yesterday.
No se donde estd. Deberia haber llegado ayer.

EXERCISE 1
Complete tres de las frases con una forma de had better y cinco de las frases con una forma de should.
1. Look, someone is trying to break into that house. We phone the police. 2. If you've got a headache, you smoke! (negative) 3. The engine's getting very hot. I think we slow down. 4. You saw Sonia stealing money from the till? You really tell the boss. 5. It's starting to rain. You bring the washing in. 6. You're getting fat! You eat so much, (negative) 7.That lake might be deep. You let the children play near it. (negative) 8. The food at that new cafe is delicious. You try it some day.

RCISE ISE 2
Estudie las situaciones y complete las frases. Use una forma de ought to en cada respuesta. 1. Clare's car broke down. She forgot to have it serviced. She ought to have had it serviced. 2. Michael's house was burgled. He forgot to lock the door. He 3. Sandra was late for work. She overslept, (negative) She 4. The President lost the election. He didn't promise to cut taxes. He 5. The patient died. The doctor didn't give him any antibiotics. The doctor 6. The new house collapsed. The builder used cheap materials, (negative) He 7. The party wasn't very good. They didn't invite Harry. They
EXERCISE 3

Use la information que se da en la casilla para casar las preguntas con las respuestas.
• The dry cleaner expects your jacket to be ready on Thursday. • Sarah is a student. • You keep clean shirts in the wardrobe. • Jackie's course ends next month. • You believe the present arrived yesterday. • You think the mechanic repaired the car and returned it this morning. • You expect a letter to arrive tomorrow.

1. Where's my clean shirt? 2. When's that letter arriving? 3. What happened to the present I sent? 4. Where is Sarah? 5. When's Jackie coming home? 6. What's happened to my jacket? 7. What happened to my car?

A It should be in the wardrobe. B She should be home next month. c It should have arrived yesterday. D It should be here tomorrow. E She should be at college. F It should be back by now. G It should be ready on Thursday.

MUST • HAVE TO
El verbo must es defectivo (no se puede usar en todos los tiempos. Vease: ' Como se comportan los verbos modales?'). Usamos la forma have to donde no se puede usar must: AFIRMATIVA PRESENTE FUTURO PASADO PRETERITO PERFECTO must/have to must/will have to
had to

NEGATIVA mustn't/don't have to mustn't/won't have to didn't have to haven't had to

INTERROGATIVA must I?/do I have to? must I?/will I have to? did you have to? have you had to? ,

have had to

EN EL INGLES BRITANiCO HAVE/HAS GOT TO A MENUDO SE USA EN PRESENTE. EN ESTE LIBRO SE USA LA FORMA MAS SENCILLA Y MAS COMUN EN EL INGLES AMERICANO: HAVE TO/HAS TO.

Must/Mustn't/Have to/Don't have to - Obligacion
S Se usan tanto must como have to para expresar una obligacion positiva: . You must eat all your vegetables!
Debes comer toda la verdura!

You have to shower before entering the swimming pool. Debes ducharte antes de entrar en la piscina. Hay una pequena diferencia entre el significado de must y have to en forma afirmativa: Cuando se usa must, el que habla expresa una obligacion que el o ella siente: I must do some physical exercise.
Debo hacer algo de ejercicio fisico.

Pero cuando se usa have to, el que habla esta justo expresando un hecho, una obligacion desde 'fuera', por ejemplo, una ley o una regulation: Look at the sign. You have to stop here.
Mira la serial Tienes que pararte aqui.

En ingles, se usa mustn't para expresar una obligacion negativa, por ejemplo, una obligacion de no hacer algo: You mustn't open the present before your birthday!
No debes abrir el regalo antes de tu cumpleanos!

Como se vio con una obligacion positiva, mustn't You can't park here. expresa los sentimientos del que habla. Cuando la obliNo se puede aparear aqui. gacion viene del 'exterior' del que habla, generalmente se usa can't (vease 1.3) o not allowed to: Se usa couldn't o wasn't/ We weren't allowed to expresa We weren't allowed to wear jewellery at school. prohibition en el pasado: No se nos permitia llevar joyasen la escuela. Se usa la forma negativa del verbo have to para expresar la ausencia de obligacion en todos los tiempos: The children don't have to go to bed early tonight. They're on holiday.
Los ninos no tienen necesidad de ir a la cama temprano hoy. Estdn de vacaciones.

We didn't have to pay for the museum, it's free on Sundays.
No tuvimos que pagar para entrar al museo, es gratis los domingos.

Tambien se puede usar needn't para expresar ausencia de obligacion (vease 5.1). Asi como con must y mustn't, needn't expresa los sentimientos del que habla: You needn't go to school today as you're not feeling well.
No tienes por que ir al colegio hoy, pues no te sientes bien.

... mientras don't have to/doesn't have to expresa un hecho:

You

No tienes que ir al colegio hoy pues es domingo.

it's don'thave to g° to scho°l today as it's Sunday.

Must - Fuerte recomendacion
Se dice must para recomendar algo: Tambien se puede usar must para expresar algo que realmente queremos hacer:
You must see the new art

Debes ver la nueva exposicion de arte.

exhibition.

We really must have a holiday,
Verdaderamente debemos tomarnos unas vacaciones.

Must - Deduction
Se usa must para una deducdon
logica SObre el presente, Cuando

them there last

The tickets must be in my bag! I put night
Losbilletes tienen que estar en mi bolsa!

queremos expresar certeza:

Los puse alh ayer noche.

Lo contrario de must en este uso es can't (vease 1.4):

Maria can't be in London. I spoke to her in Rome this morning.
Maria no puede estar en Londres. Hable con ella en Roma esta manana.

Es muy corriente usar aquf una forma continua: must be -ing: People have got their umbrellas up. It must be raining. Se usa must have + participio para hacer una deduction logica sobre el pasado:
La gente tiene abiertos los paraguas. Debe de estar lloviendo.

Jake must have written that. It's his handwriting.
Jake debe de haber escrito eso. Es su letra.

Una vez mas, lo contrario aqui, es can't have/couldn't have + participio (vease 1.4): Jake can't have written that. He's only five!

Jake no puede haber escrito eso. {Solo tiene cinco anos!

EXERCISE 1
Ponga la forma correcta de must/have to en las frases. Use los verbos de la casilla.

mustn't do we have to

have to hasn't had to

will I have to had to

1. He doesn't go to work at the weekend. 2. If I join the club, pay the membership fee straight away? 3. Be careful - that's hot. You touch it. 4. wear a special uniform for this job? 5. We arrived late at the theatre and wait outside until the interval. 6. Susan's been in France for a week and she still speak French.

IEXERCISE 2 Complete los bocadillos de los dibujos con must o has to/have to.

EXERCICE 3
Elija el verbo apropiado para cada frase. 1. Look. That sign says 'Men only'! We go in! A can't B don't have to 2. Free drinks before seven o'clock today! I pay anything! A mustn't B won't have to 3. There are no entrance requirements for this course. You take a test. A don't have to B mustn't 4. You be rude to your aunt when she comes tomorrow! A won't have to B mustn't EXERCISE 4 Una las columnas A y B para hacer recomendaciones o expresar deseos. A i. My brother lives in your town. B A You must take the children. 2. We've got a big flat in London. B We must meet again soon. 3. The new theme park is wonderful! c You must come and visit us. 4. I've really enjoyed seeing you. D You must give him a call.

Complete las frases junto a las seiiales. Use: must/mustn't, has to/have to o doesn't have to/don't have to.

Householder: This is my drive. You

Woman to friend: Put your money to every charity

Park here. purse away. You give

Cashier: Sorry, but your dog stay outside It's the rule.

Driving instructor: Slow down! YOu Stop at that sign!

Man to woman: Oh good. when we go to the party, we Wear anything format.

Librarian: Please be quiet. You Shout in the library.

E X ERCI SE 6
Complete la segunda frase del par de forma que signifique lo mismo que la primera. Use: must be/must have o can't be/can't have. 1. I'm sure that Japanese is a difficult language for Europeans to learn. Japanese a difficult language for Europeans to learn. 2. I'm sure that my boyfriend phoned me while I was out. My boyfriend phoned me while I was out. 3.1 don't believe it's midnight already! It midnight already! 4.1 don't believe that shop has closed down. It was always so busy. That shop closed down. It was always so busy. 5. I'm certain that he's the best player in the club. He the best tennis player in the club. 6. Look at those trees! I'm sure the wind blew them down! Look at those trees! The wind blown them down!

NEED (TO)
Need se puede usar como un verbo ordinario con el significado de 'requerir': I need/She needs more money. Necesito/Ella necesita mas dinem.

Need (to) - Necesidad y obligation presente yfutura
Como verbo modal need expresa necesidad (a menudo una necesidad que siente el que habla), en la forma afirmativa del presente siempre usa to + infinitivo: Laformanegativasepuedeformarcomo un verbo modal needn't o como un verbo normal con don't/doesn't need to: I
need to Spend more time at home. Necesito pasar mastiempo en casa

La pregunta se puede formar de dos maneras (aunque need I... no es muy corriente):

We needn't/don't need to go out if you don't want to. No tenemos necesidad de salir si no te apetece. Need I/Do I need to do that course?
jTengo necesidad de hacer ese curso?

88 Need tambien puede expresar una obligation desde 'fuera', por ejemplo, una ley una regulation, una autoridad externa. En este sentido, es parecido a have to (vease 4.1): La forma negativa needn't a menudo expresa los sentimientOS del due habla' No hay
You

Do we need to/have to teke our

passports? Tenemos que coger nuestws pasaportes?

cesidad de cocines esto. Me gusta crudo. necesidad de que

needn't cook this. I like it raw.

Pero don't/doesn't have to expresa un hecho (vease 4.1): You don't have to cook this. It can be eaten raw.
No tienes necesidad de cocer esto. Se puede comer crudo.

Need (to) - Necesidad y obligation pasada
Se vera que el pasado de need es mas directo que el presente: Did you need to see me? Tenias necesidad de verme?

Sin embargo, hay dos formas negativas en el pasado, las cuales tienen sentidos diferentes. 5? Con la forma didn't need to, no sabemos si la action pasada fue llevada a cabo ono: We didn't need to get a visa.
No necesitdbamos conseguir un visado.

... ESTO PODRIA SIGNIFICAR QUE, 0 BIEN CONSEGUIMOS UN VISADO PERO NO FUE NECESAR10, 0 QUE NO CONSEGUIMOS UN VISADO, PERO QUE NO IMPORTO.

Con la forma en pasado de needn't have + participio, solamente es posible el primer significado:

We needn't have got a visa.
No teniamos necesidad de haber conseguido un visado.

... ESTO SIGNIFICA QUE CONSEGUIMOS UN VISADO PERO QUE NO NOS FUE NECESAR10.

Need + -ing - Permiso y petition
!2 Need + -ing tiene el mismo significado pasivo que need to be + participio: The car needs washing/needs to be washed.
El coche necesita un lavado.

EXERCISE 1
Complete los huecos con need en forma afirmativa, negativa o interrogativa. Tenga cuidado, hay dos formas para las preguntas y las negaciones. 1. We're starting to argue too much. We to spend some time apart. 2. to take all those clothes with you on holiday? 3. I take an umbrella, do you think? 4. We're going to the museum, but you come if you don't want to. 5. You look very stressed. You to relax more. 6. Good news! I've already passed the course, so I to do the last essay.

EXERCISE 2 Son estas frases correctas o no? Haga una marca o una cruz en las casillas. 1.We really needed to have a holiday. We were exhausted! 2. You needn't have come to see me. I was going to call you. 3. You didn't need to come to see me. I was going to call you. 4. He didn't sign the form, but that was OK because he needn't have signed it. 5. He didn't sign the form, but that was OK because he didn't need to sign it. 6. We took our tent, but we didn't need to take it. 7. We didn't take our tent, but we needn't have taken it.

EXERCISE 3 Escriba frases sobre cada dibujo con la forma need + ing.

1. (the tyre/blow up) The tyre needs blowing up.

2. (the armchair/repair)

3. (his eyes/test)

4. (the shirt/wash)

5. (the house/rebuild)

6. (the plant/water)

Vuelva a escribir las frases usando need to.

WILL • WON'T
Probablemente usted conocera will como verbo auxiliar para formar el futuro. Will tambien es un verbo modal con una variedad de significados que veremos en esta unidad.

Will/Won't - Decisiones hechas a la hora de hablar
Se usa will/won't para expresar una decision hecha mientras hablamos. Se usa para una intention que acabamos de tomar, una intencion no premeditada:. 5! A menudo se usa will/ won't de esta manera para expresar ofertas, negativas, promesas y amenazas: „ A menudo, se usa el verbo think con will: Oferta Negativa Promesa Amenaza Are you going now? I'll come with you.
Vas a salir?, ire contigo.

We won't take the car.
No cogeremos el coche.

I'll carry the heavy bag.
Yo llevare la bolsa pesada.

I won't move the car.
No pienso mover el coche.

Your father mil give you the money.
Tu padre te dard el dinero.

I'll call the police if you don't go.
Llamare a la policia si no te vas.

I don't think I'll join the club.
No pienso ingresar en el club.

I think well buy the blue car.
Creo que compraremos el coche azul.

Will/Won't - Predicciones
Se usa will/won't para simples predicciones sobre el futuro: 35 Para predicciones, a menudo se usan verbos que expresan incertidumbre, tales como think, expect, suppose, con will/won't: It will be colder tomorrow.
Hard mucho mdsfrio manana.

England won't win the World Cup.
Inglaterra no ganard la Copa del Mundo.

I expect he'll arrive in a minute.
Supongo que llegard dentro de un momento.

Tambien se usan adverbios tales como definitely (defmitivamente) y certainly (ciertamente) para hacer que las predicciones scan mas fuertes, o probably (probablemente) y possibly (posiblemente) para hacer que las predicciones scan mas debiles:

Unemployment will definitely rise this year.
El paw es seguro que suba este ano.

We probably won't see you later.
Seguramente no te veremos luego.

Will/won't - Deduction
Se puede usar will/won't para formar deducciones que son casi seguras: That will be the postman at the door.
Ese debe de ser el cartero que estd en la puerta. (Siempre viene a esta hora).

She must be staying at the Hilton.
She'll be Staying at the Hilton. Ella se hospedard en el Hilton. (Siempre se queda en el Hilton). Ella debe de hospedarse en el Hilton. (Hemos llamado a todos los otros hoteles y no estd en ninguno)

COMPARE ESTE ULTIMO uso CON MUST PARA
UNA DEDUCCION LOGICA (VEASE 4.3)

3 Will/won't - Disposition y determination
Se puede usar will para expresar disposicion: Evidentemente, podemos tambien usar won't para expresar falta de disposicion (vease 6.1 'negativa') Podemos usar will/won't para expresar una fuerte determination para hacer algo o para no hacerlo: I won't be intimidated by you!
jNo me intimidards!

My husband will fix that tap for you.
Mi marido te arreglard ese grifo.

I'm afraid he won't see you.
Me temo que no va a verte.

FUESE QUE CUANDO EL ACENTO SE PONE EN WILL, COMO EN EL ULTIMO EJEMPLO ANTERIOR, SE USA LA PALABRA COMPLETA NO LA CONTRACC10N.

We mil get our money back!
/Recuperaremos nuestro dinero!

Will - Peticiones
Se puede usar will para hacer peticiones, generalmente de forma mas familiar que cortes: Para ser mas cortes, se usaria o bien would (vease 8.1) o could (vease 2.4) , Will you close the window, please.
Quieres cerrar la ventana, por favor.

Would/Could you close the window, please?
Quieres cerrar la ventana, por favor?

Will/won't - Ordenes
Se puede usar will/won't para ordenes fuertes, generalmente dadas por una persona con autoridad sobre otra, por ejemplo, en una situation militar... o un padre hablando a un nino: You will report to the office at once.
Usted vendrd a la oficina inmediatamente.

You will stay in your room today!
Te quedards en tu habitation hoy!

EXERCISE 1
Complete las respuestas en cada minidialogo. Use will o won't y un verbo frasal de la casilla. come with you get some pay for help you stay long enough time

1. I think I'm going to play a trick on the teacher. - That's a horrible idea. I won't help you if you do. 2. - Oh no! I've forgotten my purse and we've already ordered the food! - Don't worry. I the meal this time. 3. - I'm going to a lecture on astronomy tonight. Is anyone interested? -Yes, I . I'm fascinated by astronomy. 4. - We've got friends in Vienna. Do you want their address? - No, thanks. We to visit anyone. 5. - Oh, we haven't got any milk. What a nuisance! -1 for you on the way home. 6. - Why don't you stay for dinner? - No, I . I've got a lot of work to do.

EXERCISE 2

Escriba una prediction por cada uno de los titulares de los periodicos. Use los adverbios definitely, certainly, probably o possibly, solo una vez. JAPANESE LIKELY TO BUILD UNDERGROUND CITY PRIME MINISTER CERTAIN TO RESIGN NEXT WEEK POSSIBLE HOUSE PRICE RISE NEXT YEAR CHANCELLOR NOT TO RAISE TAXES - DEFINITE 1. The Japanese 2. The Prime Minister 3. House prices 4. The Chancellor

EXERCISE 3
Use la information para formar frases con will/won't + infinitivo o will/won't + be + ing. 1. The telephone rings. You're expecting your sister to call. That'// be my sister. 2. It's Saturday afternoon. Tom always plays cricket on Saturday afternoon. Tom will be playing cricket. 3. The postman calls. You're expecting a parcel. That 4. It's Wednesday. Your friend Sara always works at the gym on Wednesday. Sara 5. Your boss is always busy. Someone asks to see him without an appointment. I'm afraid he
EXERCISE

4

Busque dos respuestas entre A y H para cada una de las frases. 1. Dad, I can't do this homework. It's too difficult. 2. My television's broken. Can Michael repair televisions? 3. Do you think you'll get the job as Director? 4. 1 don't believe we'll ever get the money for the car. A Yes, I want it so much that I will get it! B I agree. I think the insurance company won't pay us. c Yes, but he won't repair friends' things. D Bring it to me. I'll help you. E No, of course not. They won't give it to a woman! F We will get it, even if we have to fight for years! G Well, I won't help you. You have to learn to do it by yourself. H Yes, he'll fix it for you.

EXERCISE 5

Una los bocadillos numerados de los dibujos con una de las frases. A B c D E F Will you marry me? Will you tell Mrs Green? You will do your homework, Billy! Will you help me cross, young man? You won't go out with him, my girl! Will you turn that down?

SHALL . SHA N'T

Shall y su forma negativa shall not (contraccion shan't) se pueden usar de la misma forma que will y won't (vease 6.1.) pero solo con las primeras personas del singular y del plural (I y we) ! GENERALMENTE SE CONTRAE EL I shall/will come with you. WILL Y EL SHALL A 'LL HABLANDO Y Ire contigo. We shan't/won't stay for dinner.
No nos quedaremos a cenar.
EN LA ESCRTTURA FAMILIAR. LA DIFERENCIA SE HACE MAS NOTABLE EN LA ESCRITURA FORMAL.

Shall - Consejos y sugerencias
Se puede usar shall (no will) para pedir consejo: En estas situaciones tambien se puede usar should (vease 3.1): ! Should we wait any longer por him?
! iDeberiamos esperarle mas tiempo? \ What shall we do at the weekend? Que hacemos en elfin de semana?

What shall I wear tonight? Que mepongo esta noche? Shall we wait any longer for him? ! Le esperamos mas tiempo?

Tambien podemos pedir y hacer sugerencias con shall (no will): -

Shatt we try that new pizzeria? Vamos a la nuevapizzeria?_

Tambien podemos usar shall (no will) shall I carry for you? para ofrecer algo: .Quiere que le lleve eso?

Shall- Predicciows
Comosevio con will/won't, se puede usar shall/shan't para hacer predicciones:

I think I shall/will be late. Creo que llegare tarde We shan't/won't make much money
No haremos mucho dinero.

I shall/will come as soon as I can. Esto tambien puede expresar intencion: _Llegareencuantopueda.

Shall - Promesas y reglas
Es posible, aunque bastante anticuado, hacer una promesa a alguien con shall: 1 Shall se puede usar para expresar reglas formales y ordenes, generalmente por escrito; You shall go to the party.
Tu iras a la fiesta.

The panel's decision shall be final. La decision del jurado sera inapelable.

A menudo, se usa la voz pasiva de esta manera formal en la escritura: Applications shall be submitted by 1st August
Las solicitudes deberdn ser entregadas para el 1 de agosto.

EXERClSE 1 Case las preguntas en la columna A con las respuestas de la columna B. Despues complete las preguntas de A con las palabras de la casilla.
A

1. 2 3. 45. 6.

go to the country at the weekend? get you a notepad? take as a present tonight? put this chair? address the Minister? stay at home this evening?

i Shall I Shall we
Shall we | What shall we Where shall I How shall I

B A Why don't we take some flowers? B You can just call him 'Sir'. c Over there, under the window. D Good idea. I'd like to get away from the city. E Yes, I want to watch the football on the TV. F Yes, please. I'd like to write some things down.

EXERCISE 2
Esta es una lista de resoluciones de Ano Nuevo: cosas que tiene intention de hacer durante el ano. Escriba tres con shall y tres con shan't. 1.1 shall 2.1 shan't 3.1 shall 4.1 shan't 5.1 shall 6.1 shan't

EXERCISE 3
He aqui unas reglas para una competition. Hagalas mas normales (tal como pone en las instrucciones) con shall/shall not. 1. Please arrive at the hotel at 8.45 a.m. Entrants shall arrive at the hotel at 8.45 a.m. 2. We'll give out the competition papers at 9.00 a.m. Competition papers shall be given out at 9.00 a.m. 3. You mustn't talk during the competition. Entrants 4. You must finish writing by 10.30. Entrants 5. We'll hold the interviews between 11.00 and 12.00. Interviews 6. We'll announce our final decision at 12.30. Our final decision

Would - Peticiones
1 Would cuando se usa en peticiones es mas cortes que will: Could es igual de cortes que would
(vease 2.4):

Tienela bondad de

Would you pass the salt, please? Pasarme la sal?sal? Could you pass the salt, please?
Podria pasarme la sal, por favor?

Would like - Deseos, ofertas y peticiones
88 En el ingles coloquial generalmente usamos la forma contraida ( 'd like) en las frases afirmativas. Would like puede ir seguido por un infinitivo: I'd like to buy a ticket to Oxford, please.
Quisiera comprar un billete para Oxford, por favor.

Would like se usa para hacer
ofertas corteses...

Would you like some coffee?
Quiere algo de cafe?

o por una frase nominal:

I'd

I'ticket to Oxford, please. please.
Quisiera un billete para Oxford, por favor.

invitaciones y sugerencias:

Would you like to come for

r lunch?

Le gustaria venir a comer?

y para hacer peticionesI de cosas:

I'd like a double room, plase.
Quisiera una habitacion doble, por favor.

Podemos usar would like + infinitivo para expresar un deseo general. Fijese que hay una diferencia entre el significado de would like + infinitivo y like + infinitivo. Compare estas frases:

Me

I'd like to swim every day. gustaria nadar todos los dias. Un ( deseo para el futuro) I like to swim every day. Me gusta nadar todos los dias.

Would like - Una posibilidad futura
Se usa would para hablar sobre predicciones y posibilidades futuras. Son posibilidades que dependen de alguna otra cosa que ha sucedido o algo que cambia en el futuro: An alarm clock would help us wake up on time.
Un despertador nos ayudaria a despertarnos a la hora. (Pew no tenemos uno ahora.)

Carol would be an excelent manageress.
Carol seria una directora excelente. (Pero no es directora todavia.)

Se usa would be + adjetivo para hablar sobre nuestras reacciones a posibilidades futuras:

A pay rise would be nice.
Un aumento de salario seria bienvenido.

Would rather/Would prefer - Preferentias
Would rather va seguido por el infmito sin to. Se usa para describir una preferencia. Significa lo m i s o que prefer (preferir): - Would you like some tea? Se usa la forma negativa would rather not como una manera cortes de rehusar una oferta o peticion: - Would you mind answering some questions? - Yd rather not, thank you.
- jLe importaria responder a algunas preguntas? - Prefiero no hacerlo, gracias. iLe gustaria un poco de te?

• Yd rather have coffee.
Prefiero tomar cafe.

- Would you prefer the yellow or the green shirt? - Yd rather have the green one.
- tPreferiria usted la camisa amarilla o la verde? - Prefiero la verde.

Would - Acetones habituates en pasado
Se puede usar would para describir cosas que sucedieron en el pasado. Se refiere a cosas que sucedieron regular, habitual o frecuentemente. Se puede usar para eventos individuales. Tiene un significado parecido a used to (vease 10.1): 55 Would solo se puede usar para acciones en el pasado. No se puede usar para estados permanentes. (When she was young she would have long hair). We would go swimming every Tuesday afternoon.
Soliamos ir a nadar todos los martes por la tarde.

Para describir estados en tiempos pasados se usa used to o el pasado simple (vease 10.2): When she was young she used to have/she had long hair.
Cuando ella era joven solia llevar el pelo largo.

I wish... would
51 Para expresar un deseo de que algo cambie o sea diferente, o para que algun otro haga algo, se usa: I wish + pronombre/sustantivo + would/wouldn't. Usamos esta estructura solamente para hablar sobre cosas que estan fuera de nuestro control personal. No se puede usar I wish... would para hablar sobre nosotros mismos:

It's cold. / wish they would turn on the heating.
Hace frio. /Ya podian poner la calefaccion!

I wish Sheila wouldn't complain so much.
/Ya podia Sheila dejar de quejarse tanto!

EXERCISE 1 Haga esta conversacion mas cortes reemplazando las frases subrayadas con expresiones apropiadas usando la forma would. Por ejemplo: I'd like to buy a ticket to Edinburgh. Clerk Customer Clerk Customer Clerk Customer Clerk Customer Clerk Customer Clerk Customer Can I help you? Yes, (1)1 want to buy a ticket to Edinburgh. (2) First class or standard class? First class, please. Can I reserve a seat? Of course, sir. Which train (3) do you want to travel on? (4) I want the 3.05. Smoking or non-smoking carriage? (5) I want non-smoking, please. Very good, sir. (6) How do you want to pay? By credit card please. (7) Do you want a receipt? No, thanks.

EXERCJSE 2 Rellene los huecos con 'd like o like. 1.When I go to Switzerland next January I to learn to ski. 2.1 to sit by the fire on cold winter evenings. 3. After I finish college I to take a secretarial course. 4. I'm feeling rather fat. I to lose some weight. 5. I to take a shower before I have breakfast in the mornings. 6.1 to play more sport, but I just don't have the time. 7. - Would you like a drink? - Yes, please. I to have an orange juice with ice. 8. - Would you like to see my holiday photos? - Yes. I to see them. 9. We always to take lots of photos when we go on holiday.

EXERCISE 3 Carolina esta planeando unas vacaciones para el proximo verano. Esta hablando sobre las diferentes posibilidades. Complete sus frases usando would be y un adjetivo apropiado de la casilla.

expensive

fascinating

unusual

relaxing

exhausting

boring

1. Two weeks on a beach 2. Staying at the Ritz hotel in Paris 3. Mountain climbing in Switzerland

4. A tour of Egypt 5. Staying at home trip to Antarctica arctica

4 EXERCISE 4
Una las sugerencias en la columna A con las respuestas en la columna B.

A 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

How about lunch on Tuesday? Shall we meet at nine? How about going to the theatre? Would you like some chicken? Shall I buy her a plane ticket? Shall I buy them some toys?

B A B c D E F

I'd rather have a steak. She'd rather take the train. I'd rather make it Wednesday. I'd rather meet at ten. They'd rather have books. I'd rather go to the cinema.

EXERCISE 5 5
Ana esta hablando sobre las cosas que solian suceder en su ninez. Complete las frases. 1. A We went to the cinema every Saturday. B Every Saturday we would go to the cinema. 2. A I sat and read books for hours and hours.
BI

3. A My mother read stories to me at bedtime. B At bedtime my mother 4. A My father took us for long walks. B He 5. A My aunts and uncles visited us at the weekends. B At the weekends my aunts and uncles

EXERCISE 6
Una los dibujos con las frases.

1. 2. 3. 4.

-I -I -I -I

wish he'd wear a tie. wish he wouldn't wear a tie. wish it would stop raining. wish it would rain.

MAY • MIGHT

May/Might - Posibilidad
En las unidades 1 y 2 vimos el uso de can y could para expresar posibilidad. Tambien podemos usar may y might para expresar posibilidad May y might pueden expresar ambos una posibilidad en el futuro. Son muy parecidos, pero, might es algo mas remoto, por ejemplo: may sugiere entre un 50-60 por ciento de posibilidades de que suceda algo. might sugiere entre un 30-40 por ciento de posibilidades: It may rain on Sunday. It's so cold that it might even snow.
Puede que llueva el domingo. Race tantofrio que podria incluso nevar.

No se suele usar may o might para preguntar sobre posibilidades. En vez de ello se usa el verbo think:

Do you think you might leave your job?
^Crees quepodrias dejar tu trabajo?

Se puede usar may y might para hablar sobre la posibilidad en el presente. En este caso, estamos haciendo una deduction basada en nuestro conocimiento de la situation:

She may/might be busy today.
Puede que este ocupada hoy.

Una vez mas, might expresa una posibilidad que es un poco mas remota: It's not likely, but he might be at the library.
No es muy probable, pero el podria estar en la biblioteca.

Se puede usar tanto may have como might have + participio para hablar sobre una posibilidad en el pasado. Se pueden usar ambos verbos para sugerir una incertidumbre sobre si una action sucedio o no:

She may not have waited at the right place.
Puede que ella no haya esperado en el sitio apropiado.

I think I might have seen this film.
Puede que haya visto esta pelicula.

Pero tambien se puede usar might not have cuando sabemos que la action sucedio:

We might not have caught this train!
fPodiamos no haber cogido este tren! (Pero si lo cogimos).

I might not have heard the phone ring.
Podria no haber oido el telefono. (Pero si lo oi).

O podemos usar might cuando sabemos que la action no sucedio:
a could (vease 2 3) Por que e te subiste al arbol? Podrias haberte caido. (Pew no te caiste.)

Esto es parecido Why did you climb the tree? You might have fallen down.

May/Might - Permiso
Ya hemos visto la forma mas corriente de pedir permiso, con can (vease 1.3). Tambien se puede usar may para pedir permiso. May es mas formal que can: a Se puede usar might para pedir permiso, peroes muy cortesyde tanteo, es deck, que no estamos muy seguros de cual sera la respuesta: Might May I use your phone, please? i Puedo usar tu telefono, por favor?
Mightl make a suggestion?
Podria hac hacer una sugerencia?

Si usamos may para dar permiso, da la impresion de ser muy formal. escrito: Food may be eaten only in the bar area.
Solo se puede comer en la zona del bar.

mas corriente por

Se puede usar tanto may not como
might not para rehusar permiso. Las dos lormas son muy loraiales y den ser muyfuertes:pue

No.ou may not/might y not leave the room.
No, no puedes sahr de la habitacion.

n

Might - Sugerendas y petidones
Se puede usar might para hacer sugerencias de tanteo: Se podria usar might para hacer una peticionde tanteo:

- Idon't know where Bill is. - You might look in the garage.
No se donde estd Bill.
Podrias

mirarenelgarajeaje.

You might call me when yo arrive.
Podrias llamarme cuando llegues.

Esto tiene el mismo significado que, por ejemplo, will you call me when you arrive? (vease 6.5), pero es mas de tanteo (el que habla no esta seguro de una respuesta positiva).

Might have - Critica
Se usa might have + participio para critical a una persona por no hacer algo en el pasado, como con could have (vease 2.3): You might have told me.
Podrias habermelo dicho.

She might have offered to help.
Podria ella haberse ofrecido a ayudar.

May as well/Might as well
Las frases may as well/might as well se usan corrientemente para expresar un curso de action que no es el ideal, pero que es el mejor bajo las circunstancias: We may/might as well watch TV.
Podemos ver la 'tele '. (No hay nada mejor que hacer).

You may/might as well tell the truth.
Ya podrias decir la verdad. (Se que estds mintiendo).

EXERCISE 1
Mire los partidos de semifinal del campeonato de terns con el ranking del mundo y las veces que lo han ganado. Complete las frases con las posibilidades que tiene cada jugador de ganar. 1. Brown. 2. Miller _ 3. Nelson 4. Stiles

EXERCISE 2
Complete el dialogo entre una secretaria distraida de la escuela y el director. Usa la information en la casilla para ayudarte. Usa may o might.

visited her parents at the weekend Mr Jones: trip to museum with Class 3B - all afternoon Mrs Allen: bad toothache this morning - did she go to dentist Mr Wyndham: still has 'flu - visited doctor in morning Mrs Lewis: training course Monday - how many days Mr Travis: here? teaching Mr Jones' First Certificate group

Ms Price:

HEAD Where is everybody this afternoon? Where's Mrs Price? SECRETARY Ah, I'm not sure, but she (1) might have visited her parents at the weekend. HEAD Oh. What about Mr Jones? SECRETARY Now, Mr Jones ... I think he (2) may be on a museum trip with 3B. HEAD Right. And Mrs Allen isn't here, is she? SECRETARY Er, no. She (3) to the dentist. HEAD Have you seen Mr Wyndham? SECRETARY Um, no. He's got flu and he (4) the doctor this morning. HEAD I suppose Mrs Lewis is here? SECRETARY Er, well, actually. I think she (5) on a two-day course. HEAD Good grief! Are any teachers here today? What about Mr Travis? SECRETARY Mmm. Mr Travis (6) Mr Jones' First Certificate group, as Mr Jones is out. HEAD Well, I'm glad to hear that someone's doing some work!

EXERCJSE 3
Complete la segunda frase de cada pareja de manera que signifique lo mismo que la primera. book bring pay take wear wear 1. You may wear only soft shoes on court. 2. more than two guests at one time. 3. food or drink onto the courts. 4. for the courts by cheque or credit card. 5. tennis clothes in the lounge. 6. courts one week in advance.

EXERC1SE 4 Una las preguntas de la columna A y las sugerencias o peticiones de la columna B.
A 1.I can't think of a good restaurant. 2. How can I study for this exam? 3. Shall I help you cook the dinner? 4. Where can I get good Spanish wine? 5. Can I help you close your suitcase? B A You might send for past papers. B You might sit on it. c You might ring the Spanish shop. D You might peel the potatoes. E You might try the 'Good Food Guide'.

EXERCJSE 5 Complete la segunda frase de cada pareja de manera que signifique lo mismo que la primera. 1. They didn't tell me they were coming. They might have told me they were coming. 2. He didn't tell me he was a vegetarian! He 3. You didn't listen to me! You 4. She didn't offer to buy one drink! She

EXERClSE 6 Escriba una frase por cada situation. Use las palabras claves entre parentesis. 1. You are fishing in a river. You haven't caught a fish all day. (may/go/fish shop) We may as well go to the fish shop. 2. You go to the cinema. When you arrive, the film has started. (might/come back/tomorrow) We 3. Your car is twenty years old. It never starts in the morning. (may/sell/buy/new one) We 4. You phone your friend every day. She is never at home. (might/write/letter) I

USED TO

Used to • Acciones de pasado habitual
Se usa used to para describir acciones que sucedieron frecuentemente o regularmente en el pasado pero que ya no suceden. (corresponde al imperfecto espanol): I used to run everywhere when I was young. Nowadays I walk.
Solia ir corriendo a todos los sitios cuando era joven. Hoy en dia voy andando.

Tambien se puede usar would con este significado (vease 8.5): I would run everywhere when I was young. Nowadays I walk.
Yo solia ir corriendo a todos los sitios cuando en era joven. Hoy en dia voy andando.

Para hacer una pregunta con used to se usa did + pronombre/nombre + used to. Cuidado con la forma en que se escribe: used to se convierte en use to despues de did): Did you use to smoke?
Solias fumar?, fumabas antes?

Did Shakespeare use to live in London?
Solid vivir Shakespeare en Londres? Vivid Shakespeare in Londres?

La forma negativa de used to es didn't use to (no didn't used to): Para hacer el significado mas fuerte, se usa never used to:

I didn't use to like classical music.
No me solia gustar la musica clasica/No me gustaba la musica cldsica.

She didn't use to wear jeans.
Ella no solia llevar jeans/Ella no llevaba jeans antes.

I never used to eat meat:
Yo nunca solia comer carne/Yo nunca comia carne antes.

She never used to swear!
Ella nunca solia decir tacos/ Ella nunca decia tacos.

Used to - Sitmdones y estados pasadvs
Tambien se usa used to para describir situaciones o estados en el pasado que ya no existen o que ya no son ciertos: Holly used to live in Tokyo. Now she lives in Florence.
Holly solia vivir en Tokio. Ahora vive en Florencia.

Colour televisions used to be really expensive.
Los televisores en color solian ser muy cams.

No se usa used to para describir cuanto tiempo duro en el pasado una situation o action. Para eso se usa el pasado simple (en espanol se usa el indefmido): . -

I lived in an apartment for ten years. (No I used to live in an apartment for ten years).
Vivi diez anos en un apartamento.

He worked hard all his Me. (No He used to work hard all his life).
El trabajo duro toda su vida.

EXERClSE 1 Las frases siguientes describen los habitos actuates de algunas personas. Escriba frases sobre su pasado usando used to o never used to. 1. Jean is a heavy smoker. Jean didn 't use to/never used to smoke. 2. Simon doesn't drive these days. Simon used to drive. 3. Elizabeth often eats spicy food. 4. Our children don't wake up during the night any longer. 5. Michael does a lot of exercise. 6. The police spend a lot of time in cars these days. 7. My husband doesn't play golf any more.

EXERCiSE 2
Mire las fotos de Sasha y Holly. Use la information para completar las frases con las formas apropiadas de used to. Recuerde que algunos de los huecos pueden ser negatives.

10 years ago
1. Sasha 2. Holly 3. Sasha have a beard. wear long dresses. wear glasses. 4. Holly 5. Holly 6. Sasha

now
wear glasses. have short hair. wear jeans.

EXERCiSE 3 No todas estas frases son gramaticalmente correctas. Senale solo las frases correctas. 1. It would always be sunny when I was a child. 2. It always used to be cold in the winters. 3. She didn't use to ski very well. 4. Coffee would be very expensive in those days. 5. It wouldn't rain during the holidays. 6. He would drink a cup of coffee every morning. 7. It used to be wet in April for five years. 8. We would go to the south of France every spring.

De la unidad 1 a la 10 de este libra se ban visto los verbos modales uno por uno. Como se sabe, los verbos modales pueden expresar un niimero diferente de significados. Este sumario esta, por lo tanto, organizado segun estos significados mas que segun cada verbo. El numero entre parentesis se refiere a las secciones en las unidades principales donde se puede encontrar mas information sobre cada ejemplo. VERBO Can/Can't (1.1) EJEMPLO I can speak French. Yo se hablar fiances. I can't see you. No puedo verte. Could (2.1) I could speak French when I was younger. Yo sabia hablar fiances cuando era mas joven. He couldn't repair the car yesterday. El no pudo arreglar el coche ayer. Be able to (1.1) I'll be able to speak French at the end of the course. Sabre hablar fiances al final del curso. He was able to repair the car straightaway. Pudo arreglar el coche inmediatamente. I won't be able to see you tomorrow. No podre verte manana. 2. POSIBILIDAD/ PROBABILIDAD Can (1.2) (presente): He can be a difficult child. El puede ser un nino dificil. (futuro): Could (2.2) We can meet you tonight at 8 o'clock. Podemos verte a las ocho.

SlGNIFICADO

1. HABILIDAD

(presente): There could be Me on other planets. Podria haber vida en otros planetas. (futuro): We could move next month. Podriamos trasladarnos el mes que viene.

Could have (2.3) Should (3.3)

We could have been killed in the crash! jPodiamos habernos matado en el choque! She should be at work by now. Ella deberia estar trabajando ahora.

Should have
(3.3)

He should have passed the exam.
El deberia haber aprobado el examen.

Would
(8.3)

He would be perfect for the job.
El seria perfecto para el trabajo.

May
(2.1)

(presente): The doctor may be able to see you now.
El doctor qukd pueda verte ahora.

(futuro) May have Might
(9.1)

The weather may be better tomorrow.
El tiempo puede que mejore mahana.

I may have met her before.
Puede que le haya conocido antes.

(presente): He might still be in Venice.
Puede que el este en Venecia todavia.

(futuro): Might have
(9.1)

The director might retire early.
El director puede que se retire temprano.

They might have left already -1 don't know.
Puede que se hayan retirado temprano - no se.

3. PERMISO

Can/Can't
(1.3)

Can I smoke in here?
(Puedo fumar aqui?

Yes, you can / No, you can't.
Si, puedes/No, no puedes.

Could
(2.4)

Could I use your bathroom?
(Podria usar tu bano?

May
(9.2)

May I use the office phone, please?
iPuedo usar el telefono de la oficina, por favor?

Might
(9.2)

Might I borrow a company car tonight?
Podria tomar prestado uno de los caches de la empresa esta noche?

4. PETICIONES

Can
(1.3)

Can you help me with my homework, Dad?
iMe puedes ayudar con mis deberes, papa?

Could
(2.4)

Could you show me the way to the station?
iPodria usted mostrarme el camino a la estacion?

Will
(6.4)

Will you close the window, please?
iQuieres cerrar la ventana, por favor?

Would
(8.1)

Would you take this to the bank, please?
iquieres llevar esto al banco, por favor?

Might
(9.3)

You might get me some milk while you're out?
iPodrias traerme algo de leche ya que sales?

5. OFERTAS

Will (6.1) Shall (7.1) Would (8.2)

I'll carry that heavy bag for you. Ya te llevo esa bolsa pesada. Shall I get you something to eat? traigo algo para comer?

tE fle Would you like to lie down for a while? le echarte un rato? gustaria

6. PROMESAS

Will (6.1)

Your father will give you some money. Tu padre te dard algo de dine.ro. I promise I won't tell anyone. Prometo no decirselo a nadie.

Shall (7.3) 7. ORDENES Must (4.1) Will (6.6) Shall (7.3) 8. CRITICA Could have (2.3) Should have (3.2)

You shall have that bike for Christmas! jTendrds esa bid para Navidades! You must be on time in future! jDebes llegar a tiempo en elfuturo! You will report to the officer in charge. Deberds presentarte al oficial de guardia. The exam shall be conducted in silence. El examen se hard en silendo. You could have invited me to your party! iYa podias haberme invitado a la fiesta! You should have written your name in full. Deberias haber escrito el nombre completo. You shouldn't have said that. No deberias haber dicho eso.

Might have (9.4) 9. CONSEJO/ SUGERENCIAS Could (2.4) Should (3.1) Must (4.2) Shall (7.1) Might (9.3)

She might, at least, have thanked me. Por lo menos, podria haberme dado las gradas. We could go to the new bar this evening. Podriamos ir al nuevo bar esta tarde. You should really go to the doctor. Verdaderamente deberias ir al medico. You must try these chocolates - they're delicious! Deberias probar estos bombones, estdn delidosos. Shall I tell him the truth? iLe. digo la verdad? You might phone the restaurant and check that it's open. Podrias telefonear al restaurante y comprobar si estd abierto.

10. OBLIGACION

Should
(3.1)

You should tell the police what you saw.
Deberias decir a la policia lo que viste.

Ought to
(3.1)

You ought to phone home.
Deberias telefonear a casa.

Must
(4.1)

You must circulate that report before the meeting.
Deberias hacer circular ese informe antes de la reunion.

You mustn't touch those wires.
No debes tocar esos hilos electricos.

Have to
(4.1)

You have to wait in the queue.
Tienes que esperar en la cola.

You don't have to pay on a Sunday.
Los domingos no se paga.

Need
(5.1)

I need to lose another three kilos.
Necesito perder otros tres kilos.

You needn't/don't need to show me your passport.
No necesita usted ensenarme su pasaporte.

Do I need to answer all the questions?
Tengo que responder a todas las preguntas?

Needn't have You needn't have bought any milk. I've got plenty.
(5.2) No tenias por que haber comprado leche. Tengo cantidad.

11. NECESIDAD

Need
(5.3)

This report needs typing/needs to be typed.
Hay que pasar a mdquina este informe.

The door doesn't need painting/need to be painted.
La puerta no necesita que la pinten.

12. DEDUCCION

Can't (1.4) Can't have (1.4) Couldn't have
(2.3)

Those calculations can't be easy.
Esos cdlculos no pueden serfdciles.

They can't have bought a new car.
No pueden haber comprado un coche nuevo.

He couldn't have done it. He wasn't there.
No puede haberlo hecho. El no estaba alii.

Must
(4.3)

She must be at home. The lights are on.
Ella debe de estar en casa. Las luces estan encendidas.

Must have
(4.3)

It must have rained a lot in the last week.
Debe de haber llovido mucho la semana pasada.

Will
(6.3)

What's that noise?
Que es ese ruido?

It'll be the express train.
Sera el tren expreso.

13. INTENCION / VOLUNTAD

Will/Won't (6.4)

Shall/Shan't (7.2)

He'll help you paint the walls. Te ayudard a pintar las paredes. I won't pay more than 20 pounds for a ticket. No pagare mas de 20 libras por una entrada. I shall come as soon as I can. Ire en cuanto pueda. I shan't stay very long. No me quedare mucho tiempo. One day scientists will find a cure for cancer. Un dia los cientificos encontrardn la cura del cancer. He probably won't recognize me. Probablemente no me reconocerd. I think I shall be late. Creo que llegare tarde. We shan't learn much in this class. No aprenderemos mucho en esta clase.

14. PREDICCION

Will/Won't (6.2)

Shall/Shan't (7.2)

15. DESEOS

Would (8.2) Would rather (8.4)

I'd like to go home now. Me gustaria ir a casa ahora. I'd rather stay here with you than go out. Preferiria quedarme aqui contigo que salir. I'd rather not go out today. Preferiria no salir hoy. Wish + would I wish he would speak louder. (8.6) jYa podia hablar un poco mas alto! I wish you wouldn't argue so much. jYa podias dejar de discutir tanto! When I was young we would go to the beach every morning. Cuando era joven soliamos ir a la playa todas las mananas. I used to go to the cinema twice a week. Yo solia ir al cine dos veces por semana. She used to have lovely hair. Ella solia tener un pelo precioso.

16. HABITOS Y Would ESTADOS PASADOS (8.5) Used to (10.1) Used to (10.2)

C

Preguntas
EXERCISE 1
Ponga estas palabras en el orden correcto para hacer preguntas. 1.1 bed go have do to to Do I have to go to bed? 2. tomorrow to able will go skiing be we 3. football he play use to did 4. coffee like would tea or you 5. the the Post Office you me could tell to way 6. that carry you for I shall 7. nine come o'clock can at they 8. need we visa a get to do 9. your may use I telephone 10. this me with you will help

Referenda de tiempo
EXERCISE 2. <,Se refieren estas frases al pasado, presente o futuro? Senate la casilla correcta. 1. She must be Spanish. 2. He can't have done it. 3. She'll have to get a visa. 4. We would walk for miles in those days. 5. They used to live next door to us. 6 I wasn't able to help him. 7. They could find a cure for cancer soon. 8. You could have invited us! 9. You needn't have bought any milk. 10. That exercise can't be difficult. 11. You mustn't take any photos in here. 12. Answers shall be written in ink. 13.I may have left it on the bus. 14. She'll be able to see you at six. 15. Could I use your phone?

Uso del infinitive con o sin "to"
EXERCISE 3
Rellene los huecos con to si es necesario. 1. Danny can't _ drive. 2. He has _ Gget a driving licence. g 3. He ought _ _ take some driving lessons. 4. He used drive his father's car. 5. He should _ practise driving every day. 6. He might pass the test the first time. 7. He will be able work as a taxi driver. 8.He must find a good instructor. 9. He needs _ talk to other learners. 10. He could _ phone a driving school.

EXERCICE 4
Complete las frases con can, can't have y unalas con los dibujos. 1. I'm afraid you smoke in here. 2. She been there - she was with me all day! 3. Working on a computer make you feel tired. 4. They be on holiday, their dog's in the garden. 5. On a clear day you see the French coast. 6. But mum, I broken it. I was in my bedroom all day!

^EXERCISE 5

Complete las frases con una forma de can o be able to. retire. 5.1 would love to 6. When he is eighteen he vote in the election. 7.1 want to play the violin when I grow up. 8. The goalkeeper fell over but he catch the ball.

i. We really enjoy sunbathe in our own garden. 2.1 know your name, but I remember it. (negative) 3. In my garden you hear the sea. 4. Jackie ski really well.

EXERClSE 6 Rellene los huecos con can't o must have y un verbo de la casilla. 1. Gerry's car is still in the garage, he out. 2. There's no ice cream in the fridge, Sylvia it all. 3. The video isn't working. Clive it. 4. The streets are wet. It last night. 5. It's very cold in the office today. The caretaker the heating this morning. 6. The cigar box is empty. My dinner guests all my cigars. 7. He doesn't have a key to the safe so he the money. 8. The dogs aren't in the house. Sarah them for a walk.

EXERCISE 7 Solo una frase de cada par es correcta. Senale la frase correcta, A o B. 1. A I missed the party. You could have told me about it! B I missed the party. You could tell me about it! 2. - What shall we do tomorrow evening? A - Well, we will be able to go to the skating rink. B - Well, we could go to the skating rink. 3. A In the future they could find a cure for cancer. B In the future they are able to find a cure for cancer. 4. A He's feeling better now. I'm glad the doctor was able to help him. B He's feeling better now. I'm glad the doctor could have helped him. 5. A Excuse me. Are you able to tell me the way to the police station? B Excuse me. Could you tell me the way to the police station? 6. A John could have taken the car, it's still in the garage. B John couldn't have taken the car, it's still in the garage.

EXERCISE 8
Lea el parrafo sobre Southerton, una pequena ciudad de Inglaterra, y use la information para rellenar los huecos de la frase. Use las formas apropiadas de can, could y be able to.

Southerton Southerton has seen a lot of changes recently. People used to drive into town and shop at all the small shops in the centre. They often parked on the main road and so there was a lot of traffic. The Town Council decided to introduce restrictions last month, and now it isn't possible to park in the town centre. Shoppers have to park in an expensive car park near the Town Hall. But now a large supermarket is being built just outside the town. When it opens next January it will have a large free car park. It will be good news for shoppers but many of the small shopkeepers in the old town centre believe that they will lose money. Some even think that they will be forced to close down completely. Some are predicting that in five years' time there will be no shops left in the town. People without cars may find it very difficult to get their food and basic essentials.

1. In the old days people could/were able to shop in the town centre. 2. They park their cars on the main road. 3. Now you park in the town centre. 4. Shoppers park their cars in a car park near the town hall, but it's quite expensive. 5. Next year, people shop at the new supermarket. 6. They park their cars free of charge. 7. In five years' time people probably shop in the town centre, as all the shops will be gone. get the things they need very easily. 8.And people who don't have cars

EXERCISE 9
Complete las frases usando should have o shouldn't have y el verbo entre parentesis. 1. John's good at chemistry but he failed the exam, (pass) He should have passed the exam. 2. Susan's got a car but she took the bus and was late, (take) She her car. 3. Derek stayed in the sun all day and got sunburnt, (stay) He in the sun so long. 4. The manager resigned but she couldn't find a new job. (resign) She . 5. My brother ate too much chocolate and felt sick, (eat) He so much chocolate. 6. Clare didn't drive carefully and she had an accident, (drive) Clare more carefully. 7. Elizabeth didn't bring an umbrella and she got very wet. (bring) She an umbrella. 8. Henry wore jeans to the interview and didn't get the job. (wear) Henry such unsuitable clothes. 9. Jenny shouted at a customer and got the sack, (shout) She at a customer. 10. Our teacher expected Juan to get an 'A' in the test but he only got a 'C'. (get) Juan a better result.

EXERCISE 10
Complete los minidialogos usando las frases de la casilla y should, shouldn't o 'd better. get your eyes tested smoke so much lie down for a few minutes eat so much phone the fire service buy one for the office hurry then stop the car and call a mechanic ecarry such a heavy bag try it sometime

1. - Oh look, that building's on fire! - We . 2. - I've got an awful pain in my back. - You . 3. -1 can't read small print very well these days. - Perhaps you . 4. - The car engine's making a very strange noise. - We . 5. -1 can't stop coughing. - Well, you .

6. - What do you think of that new Mexican restaurant? - It's fantastic. You . 7. - Oh, I'm feeling quite dizzy and sick! - You . 8. - What's that new computer like? - it's excellent. We . 9. _ Oh, look at the time. We're going to be late! - We . 10. - Dave's put on a lot of weight recently. - Well, he really

EXERCISE 11 Vuelva a escribir cada frase usando una forma de need.
1. My car should be washed. My car needs washing/to be washed. 2. Do I have to see you tomorrow? Do I need to see you tomorrow?/Need I see you tomorrow? 3. Did she have to get any books? 4. I have to go to the bank later. 5. They didn't have to take their car. 6. Must I get up early tomorrow? 7. My jacket should be cleaned. 8. You don't have to come if you don't want to. 9. That house ought to be repainted. 10. You don't have to bring a present.

EXERCISE 12
Elija el verbo correcto, A o B, por cada frase.
1. You smoke in here. It's forbidden. A don't have to B can't 2. You bring any money, the drinks are free. A needn't B mustn't 3. get a visa to enter the USA? A Do I have to B Must I 4. Look at that sign. You park here. A don't have to B aren't allowed to 5. I'm getting so fat - I really try to lose weight. 11. Listen, children, you finish the essay now if you don't want to. A don't have to B can't 12. You really go to that restaurant, the food's awful. A needn't B mustn't 13. Look at the water in the garden. It have rained last night. A has to B must 14. take a towel or does the hotel provide them? A Will I have to B Mustn't I 15. She be married, she isn't old enough. A must B can't 16. The instructions are clear, you use the camera underwater. A shouldn't B don't have to 17. Look at the sign. You swim here, it's too dangerous. A can't B needn't 18.Everyone's carrying an umbrella, it be raining outside. A must B has to 19. Now that the law has changed we show our passports when we cross the border. A mustn't B don't have to 20. Students take a long time to learn Russian. It be very difficult. A has to B must

A have to

B must

6. We pay for the coffee, it was included in the price. A needn't B didn't have to 7. It's ages since we met. We really get together soon. A must B have to 8. The neighbours be at home, I saw the light on in their bedroom. A have to B must 9. In my country, men spend one year in the army. A must B have to 10. You take a taxi, there's a good bus service. A don't have to B mustn't

EXERCISE 13 Case las frases con los dibujos. 1. They needn't have brought their skis. 2. He didn't need to bring his sunglasses. 3. She needn't have brought her umbrella. 4. He needn't have brought his sunglasses. 5. They didn't need to bring their skis. 6. She didn't need to bring her umbrella.

EXERCISE 14
Case las frases de la columna A con las respuestas en la columna B. 1. The phone's ringing. 2. Do you know the way to the post office? 3. It's very hot in here. 4. Can you join us for lunch on Sunday? 5. We've run out of tea. 6. It's late, I'd better order a taxi. A B c D I'll open a window. I'll go out and get some. I'll answer it. We won't be able to, we're going away. E Don't bother. We'll take you home. F I'll show you where it is.

1 EXERCISE 15
Lea el texto y las predicciones a continuation. Despues use la information para completar los nombres del personal del hotel Horse White.
Sarah Smedley has just taken over as the general manager of the White Horse Hotel in Warmington. She is going to make a lot of changes to the staff. She has noticed that the housekeeper is always late and looks untidy. She thinks that the assistant receptionist is very efficient and could easily become the chief receptionist. She is very impressed by the catering assistant and thinks she could cope with a managerial position if one became available. She is quite happy with the cleaner and thinks she is well suited for her present job. On the other hand, Sarah thinks that the reservations manager finds her work too difficult and would be better off doing something less responsible. Sarah's worst problem is that she has found out that the bar manager has been stealing money from the cashbox.

1. GENERAL MANAGER Sarah Smedley 2. HOUSEKEEPER 3. RESERVATIONS MANAGER 4. ASSISTANT RECEPTIONIST 5. BAR MANAGER 6. CATERING ASSISTANT 7. CLEANER Estas son las predicciones que la gente en Warmington hizo cuando Sarah se hizo cargo de su trabajo. - I suppose Amanda will stay in the same job. - I think Jean will probably be moved to an easier job. - Jackie will possibly be made a manager. - Carol will definitely be sacked. - I expect Janine will get a promotion. - I think Hilary will probably be sacked.

EXERCISE 16
Use las claves (entre parentesis) para hacer deducciones usando will o won't. Haga cambios y anada cualquier palabra que sea necesaria. 1. - Someone's knocking on the door. (That/be/postman) - That'll be the postman. 2. - Where's Sylvia today? (She/be/at/office) . 3. - Why isn't George answering his phone? (He/not/be/at home/today) . 4. - Why can't Mike meet us for lunch? (He/be/work/all day) . 5. - Where do you think the twins are staying this week? (They/not stay/Ritz) . 6. - The phone's ringing. (That/be/plumber) .

EXERCISE 17
Complete las frases usando shall o shan't. Anada cualquier otra palabra que sea necesaria. 1. Why don't we go to the new James Bond film tonight? go to the new James Bond film tonight? 2. Would you like me to record that programme for you? record that programme for you? 3. I'm afraid I can't arrive until after dinner. arrive until after dinner. 4. What are we going to do tomorrow evening? do tomorrow evening? 5. Would you like me to take that bag for you? take that bag for you? 6. We aren't going to enjoy this meal. enjoy this meal. 7.1 will definitely give up smoking this year. give up smoking this year. 8. You will definitely get a pay rise next month. get a pay rise next month.

EXERCISE 18
Ponga estas palabras en el orden correcto para hacer una lista de los reglamentos de los examenes. Empiece con la palabra que se le da. 1.sides both candidates of write shall on paper the Candidates . 2. not calculators used shall be Calculators . 3. shall write page on name candidates their each Candidates . 4. written answers ink shall in be Answers . 5. room permitted shall talking examination in be not the Talking . 6. one shall examination completed the in be hour The .

EXERCISE 19
Vuelva a escribir las frases usando una forma de would. Haga cualquier cambio y anada cualquier otra palabra que sea necesaria.
IN A RESTAURANT

1.1 want two coffees and a croissant, please. 2. Bring us the bill. 3.1 prefer the steak.

4. Do you want the set menu? 5. How about sitting at this table? 6. How do you want to pay? 7. What do you want to drink?

EXERCISE 20

Lea este texto sobre los modales ingleses. Complete los huecos con una forma de would o wouldn't y un verbo apropiado de la casilla. Social manners have changed a lot in England in the last seventy years, especially in the way that men treat women. In the old days men (1) whenever a woman came into the room, and they (2) again until she sat down. If a man was wearing a hat he (3) as a sign of respect to a woman. A man (4) a door for a woman and usually he (5) for her to walk through before he went through himself. And when a man and woman were walking along a street the man (6) on the outside nearest the road. At dinner parties men and women (7) together but after the dessert the women (8) in the dining room. The men (9) their brandy and smoke their cigars and the women (10) and drink coffee in a separate room.

talk sit down take it off stand up open wait stau
walk

eat

drink

EXERCISE 21
Lea las situaciones y complete las frases mostrando lo que la gente siente. Use wish + would/wouldn't. 4. Lizzy is angry because Carl uses his 1. Jane is very angry because her mobile phone in the car. mother won't allow her to wear make-up. Lizzy: use his phone in the car. Jane: / wish my mother would 5. Jonathan is upset because his parents allow me to wear make-up. don't allow him to play football on Sundays. 2. Simon is disappointed because his girlfriend won't marry him. Jonathan: allow me to play football on Sundays. Simon: marry me. 3. Danny isn't pleased because his 6. Clive is annoyed because his flatmate leaves the door unlocked. sister won't lend him her car. Clive: leave the door unlocked. Danny: lend me her car.

EXERCISE 22
Case las preguntas de la columna A con las respuestas en la columna B. 1. Do you think you'll take early retirement? 2. Do you think the weather will improve? 3. Where's the gardener gone? 4. Do you think Gary's going to get the job? 5. What's happened to the car? 6. Is there any milk in the fridge? 7. Do you think Real Madrid will win the cup? 8. Are you and Jim going to buy that new house? A I'm not sure, but he may be in the greenhouse. B I don't think so. It might even snow, c They might. They've got a very good team. D I might do if they offer me a good pension. E I don't know. Steve might have borrowed it for the day. F We might if we agree on a good price. G Well he might. It all depends on the interview? H There may be. I think John bought some yesterday.

EXERCISE 23
Lea las frases y senale las aserciones verdaderas, A, B, o C. Senale solamente una. 1. -1 may have watered the plants yesterday. A She watered the plants yesterday. B She isn't sure whether she watered the plants yesterday. c She didn't water the plants yesterday. 2. - We might have crashed the car! A They didn't crash the car. B They crashed the car. c They don't know whether they crashed the car. 3. - The floor was really slippery. I might have hurt myself! A He had an accident and he hurt himself. B He isn't sure whether he hurt himself. c He slipped on the floor but he didn't hurt himself. 4. - He may have put it in the filing cabinet. A He didn't put it in the filing cabinet. B She isn't sure whether he put it in the filing cabinet. c He put it in the filing cabinet. 5. - Well, really John. You might have invited us to your party! A John didn't invite them to his party. B John invited them to his party. c They don't know whether John invited them to his party. 6. -1 might have been there as a child. A She has been there. B She isn't sure whether she has been there. c She hasn't been there. 7. - Look at this mess, Daisy! You might have washed up! A Daisy washed up. B Daisy didn't wash up. c He doesn't know whether Daisy washed up.

EXERCISE 24
Complete las frases con should, must o had better. Cada una de estas formas se usara dos veces. 1. There's something wrong with the steering. You stop the car. 2. You look rather pale. Perhaps you start taking vitamin pills. 3. That fish is definitely not fresh. You not eat it. 4. That new show is really fantastic. You really see it! 5. If you're looking for a carpet you try that new shop on the High Street. 6. That restaurant was unbelievably good. You really try it!

EXERCISE 25
Mire las fotos de Beech Road en 1890 y Beech Road hoy. Escriba cuatro frases usando used to, y cuatro frases usando didn't use to. Use las frases de la casilla.

POSITIVE 1. There 2. There 3. People _ 4. Children

NEGATIVE 5. There 6. There 7. There 8. There

a shop on the corner any parking meters any cars ride horses

play in the street any satellite dishes any street lamps trees on the street

EXERCISE 25
Algunas de estas frases son gramaticalmente incorrectas o estan mal escritas. Senale las frases correctas. 1.1 would eat sweets all the time when I was a child. 2. Cars would be very expensive in those days. 3. Didn't you used to live in our street? 4. Clare used to be happy. 5. My brother would be very happy when he played football. 6. Did you use to have a Mercedes? 7.1 would cycle up and down the road for hours. 8. We never used to watch TV every day. 9. We used to live in Paris for three months last year. 10. He didn't used to smoke in those days.

CONSOLIDATION EXERCISES EXERCISE 27 Elija el verbo correcto, A, B o C para cada frase. 11. Where's David? He be here by now. A) had better B) might o should 12. At the end of the course you speak fluently. A) can B) can't C) will be able to 13.Peter left it on the table, I don't really know. A) might have B) can't have C) must have 14. Clare be at home, her light's on. A) can't B) must c) shouldn't 15. You take any money, it's free entry on Sundays. A) mustn't B) needn't c) can't 16.1 think they probably lose the election. A) can B) will c) should 17. It's going to be a very long film. I'm sure we enjoy it. A) shan't B) can't c) needn't 18.You show me your tickets. I've already checked them. A) may not B) needn't o couldn't 19. Don't bother phoning Jack. It's three o'clock, so he be out.

1.He's late. He overslept. A) must have B) should have c) has to have 2.1 lost my room key but the hotel receptionist replace it. A) could B) could have c) was able to 3. Your answers be written in pencil or ink, it's up to you. A) must B) have to c) can 4. Excuse me, you tell me the way to the bank? A) could B) should c) shall 5. We're running out of petrol. We stop at the next filling station. A) may B) could c) 'd better 6. If you want to go to Brazil next year, you get a visa. A) might B) will have to C) may 7. It's lucky that we weren't caught in that storm. We got soaked! A) needn't have B) might have c) have to have 8. The sun shine all the time when we were children. A) used to B) might c) could 9. But he done it, he was with me all day! A) mustn't have B) should have c) can't have 10.1 hear you had a party yesterday. You invited us! A) may have B) needn't have O might have

A) can't B) will C) can 20. The examination be conducted in complete silence.
A) shall B) would c) can

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UNIT1
Exercise 1 Exercise 2 2. can 1. Can Picture C 3. was able to 2. will be able to Picture A 4. to be able to 3. Can't Picture B 5. wasn't able to 4. to be able to Picture D 6. can't 5. being able to Picture E 7. can 8. being able to 9. will be able to Exercise 3 10. was able to 1. B 2. A 3. A 4. A 11. can 5. B 12. being able to Exercise 4 2. Can you lend me £10? 3. Can you tell me the time of the next train to Paris? 4. Can I pay by credit card? 5. Can I cash some traveller's cheques? 6. Can we sit near the window? 7. Can I change this shirt for a larger size? Exercise 5 1. can't 2. can 3. can't 4. can 5. can 6. can't Exercise 6
1. B 4. D 2. E 5. F 5. A 6. C

UNIT 2
Exercise 1 1. When I was a child I could ski better than my brother. 2. It was so cold yesterday I couldn't feel the tips of my fingers. 3. My computer broke down last Wednesday, but the engineer was able to fix it. 4. The jewels were stolen from the shop, but the police were able to get them back. 5. 1 lost my dictionary yesterday and I couldn't find it anywhere. 6. The earthquake was terrible -we could feel the whole house shaking! Exercise 2 B Children could get the vote. C Men could have babies D People could live to the age of 200. E Wigs could become fashionable again. F Robots could perform operations in hospitals. Exercise 3 1. couldn't 2. couldn't 3. could 4. could 5. could 6. couldn't Exercise 5 1. We could fly to New York. 2. We could go to the cinema. 3. We could drive to the country. 4. Yes, you could write about Napoleon. 5. You could buy some CDs.s.

Exercise 4 1. Katie could have 2. David could have 3. Marion could have 4. Ralph could have 5. Liz could have 6. Karen could have

UNIT 3
Exercise 1 1. had better 5. should 2. shouldn't 6. shouldn't 3. had better 1. had better not 4. should shouldld Exercise 2 2. He ought to have locked the door. 3. She oughtn't to have overslept. 4. He ought to have promised to cut taxes. 5. The doctor ought to have given him antibiotics. 6. He oughtn't to have used cheap materials. 7. They ought to have invited Harry. Exercise 3
1. A 2.D 3. C 4. E 5 B 6. G 7. F

8.

UNIT 4
Exercise 1 1. have to 2. will I have to 3. mustn't 4. Do we have to 5. had to 6. hasn't had to Exercise 2 1. have to 2. has to 3. have to 4 must Exercise 3
1. A 2.B 3. A 4 B

Exercise 4 1. mustn't 2. don't have to 3. has to 4. have to 5. don't have to 6. mustn't

Exercise 5
1. D 2.C 3. A 4 B

Exercise 6 1.must be 2. must have 3. can't be 4. can't have 5. must be 6. must have

UNIT 5
Exercise 1 1. need 2. Do you need 3. Need 4. needn't/don't need to 5. need 6. don't need Exercise 2
1. / 4. X 7.X 2. / 5. / 3. / 6. /

Exercise 3 2. The armchair needs repairing/to be repaired. 3. His eyes need testing/to be tested. 4. The shirt needs cleaning/to be cleaned. 5. The house needs rebuilding/to be rebuilt. 6. The plant needs watering/to be watered.

UNIT 6
Exercise 1 2. '11 pay for 3. '11 come with you 4. won't have enough time 5. '11 get some 6. won't stay long Exercise 2 1.The Japanese will probably build an underground city. 2. The Prime Minister will certainly resign next week. 3. House prices will possibly rise next year. 4. The Chancellor definitely won't raise taxes. Exercise 3 3. That'll be my parcel. 4. Sara will be working at the gym. 5. I'm afraid he'll be busy/ he won't be free/he won't see you. Exercise 4
1. D/G 3. A/E 2. C/H 4. B/F

Exercise 5
1. D 3 F 5. E 2. C 4 A 6. B

UNIT 7 Exercise 1 1. D Shall we 2. F Shall I 3. A What shall we 4. c Where shall I 5. B How shall I 6. E Shall we Exercise 2 1.I shall give up smoking. 2.I shan't watch TV all evening. 3.I shall read for an hour every day. 4.I shan't eat snacks between meals. 5.I shall be friendlier to people. 6.I shan't borrow money from my friends. Exercise 3 3. Entrants shall not talk during the competition. 4. Entrants shall finish writing by 10.30. 5. Interviews shall be held between 11.00 and 12.00. 6. Our final decision shall be announced at 12.30.

UNITS
Exercise 1 2. Would you like first class or standard class? 3. Which train would you like to travel on? 4. I'd like the 3.05. 5. I'd like non-smoking, please. 6. How would you like to pay? 7. Would you like a receipt? Exercise 4
1. C 2. D 3. F 4. A 5. B 6. E

Exercise 2 1. 'd like 2. like 3. 'd like 4. 'd like 5. like 6. 'd like 7. 'd like 8. 'd like 9. like

Exercise 3 1. Two weeks on a beach would be relaxing. 2. Staying at the Ritz hotel in Paris would be expensive. 3. Mountain climbing in Switzerland would be exhausting. 4. A tour of Egypt would be fascinating. 5. Staying at home would be boring. 6. A trip to Antarctica would be unusual. Exercise 6
1. C 3. A 2. B 4. D

Exercise 5 2.1 would sit and read books for hours and hours. 3. At bedtime my mother would read stories to me. 4. He would take us for long walks. 5. At the weekends my aunts and uncles would visit us.

UNIT 9
Exercise 1 1. Brown may win. 2. Miller might win. 3. Nelson might win. 4. Stiles will probably Exercise 2 3. might have gone 4. may have visited 5. might be/might have gone 6. may be teaching Exercise 3 2. You may not bring 3. You may not take Exercise 4
1. E 2. A 3. D 4. C 5. B

win.

4. You may pay 5. You may not wear 6. You may book

Exercise 5 2. He might have told me he was a vegetarian! 3. You might have listened to me! 4. She might have offered to buy a drink!

Exercise 6 2. We might as well come back tomorrow. 3. We may as well sell it and buy a new one. 4.1 might as well write her a letter.

UNIT 10
Exercise 1 3. Elizabeth didn't use to/never used to eat spicy food. 4. Our children used to wake up during the night. 5. Michael didn't use to/never used to do a lot of exercise. 6. The police didn't use to/never used to spend a lot of time in cars. 7. My husband used to play golf. Exercise 2 1. didn't use to 2. used to 3. used to 4. didn't use to 5. didn't use to 6. used to Exercise 3
2.

3
6. 8 /

Exercise 1

Exercise 2
Past 2. 4. 5. 6. 8. 9. 13.

Exercise 4
1. Can't 3. Can 4. can't 5. Can Picture C Picture B Picture A Picture D

2. Will we be able to go skiing tomorrow? 3. Did he use to play football? 4. Would you like tea or coffee? 5. Could you tell me the way to the Post Office? 6. Shall I carry that for you? 7. Can they come at nine o'clock? 8. Do we need to get a visa? 9. May I use your telephone? 10. Will you help me with this?
Exercise 5 Exercise

Present 1.10. 11. 15. Future 3.7.12.14.
Exercise 3
1. 5. 2. tO 6. 3. tO 7. tO 4. tO

2. can't have Picture F

8.8. 9. tO 10. -

6. can't have Picture E

Exercise 7
1. A 2. B 3. A 4. A 5. B 6. B

Exercise 8

1. being able to 2. can't 3. can 4. can 5. be able to 6. will be able to 7. be able to 8. was able to
Exercise 9

1. can't have gone 2. must have eaten 3. must have broken 4. must have rained 5. can't have turned on 6. must have smoked 7. can't have stolen 8. must have taken

2. could/were able to 3. can't 4. can 5. will be able to 6. will be able to 7. won't be able to 8. won't be able to

Exercise 10

2. She should have taken her car. 3. He shouldn't have stayed in the sun so long. 4. She shouldn't have resigned. 5. He shouldn't have eaten so much chocolate. 6. Clare should have driven more carefully. 7. She should have brought an umbrella. 8. Henry shouldn't have worn such unsuitable clothes. 9. She shouldn't have shouted at a customer. 10. Juan should have got a better result.
Exercise 11

1. We'd better phone the fire service. 2. You shouldn't carry such a heavy bag. 3. Perhaps you should get your eyes tested. 4. We'd better stop the car and call a mechanic. 5. Well, you shouldn't smoke so much. 6. It's fantastic. You should try it sometime. 7. You'd better lie down for a few minutes. 8. It's excellent. We should buy one for the office. 9. We'd better hurry then. 10. Well, he really shouldn't eat so much!
Exercise 12
l.B 5.B 9.B 2.A 6.B 10. A 14. A 18. A 3. A 7. A 4.B 8.B 12. B 16. A 20. B

3. Did she need to get any books? 4.1 need to go to the bank later. 5. They needn't have taken their car. / They didn't need to take their car. 6. Do I need to get up early tomorrow? / Need I get up early tomorrow? 7. My jacket needs cleaning. / My jacket needs to be cleaned. 8. You don't need to come if you don't want to. / You needn't come if you don't want to. 9. That house needs repainting. / That house needs to be repainted. 10. You needn't bring a present. / You don't need to bring a present.

ll.A
15. B 19. B

13.B 17.A

Exercise 13
1. E 5. F 2. C 6. A 3. B 4. D

Exercise 14
l.C 5. B 2.F 6. E 3. A

4.D

Exercise 15

Exercise 16

Exercise 17

2. Housekeeper 3. Reservations manager 4. Assistant receptionist 5. Bar manager 6. Catering assistant 7. Cleaner
Exercise 18

Hilary Jean Janine Carol Jackie Amanda

2. She'll be at the office. 3. He won't be at home today. 4. He'll be at work all day. 5. They won't be staying at the Ritz. 6. That'll be the plumber.

1. Candidates shall write on both sides of the paper. 2. Calculators shall not be used. 3. Candidates shall write their name on each page. 4. Answers shall be written in ink. 5. Talking shall not be permitted in the examination room. 6. The examination shall be completed in one hour.
Exercise 19 Exercise 20

1. Shall we go to the James Bond film tonight. 2. Shall I record that programme for you. 3.I shan't arrive until after dinner. 4. What shall we do tomoorow evening? 5. Shall I take that bag for you? 6. We shan't enjoy this meal. 7.I shall give up smoking this year. 8. You shall get a pay rise next month.
Exercise 21

1. I'd like two coffees and a croissant, please. 2. Would you bring us the bill, please? 3. I'd prefer the steak. / I'd rather have the steak. 4. Would you like the set menu? 5. Would you like to sit at this table? 6. How would you like to pay? 7. What would you like to drink?
Exercise 22
l.D 5.E 2.B 6.H 3.A 7.C 4.G 8.F

1. would stand up 2. wouldn't sit down again 3. would take it off 4. would open 5. would wait 6. would walk 7. would eat 8. wouldn't stay 9. would drink 10. would talk

2.I wish my girlfriend would marry me. 3. wish my sister would lend me her car. 4. wish Carl wouldn't use his phone in the car. 5. wish my parents would allow me to play football on Sundays. 6.I wish my flatmate wouldn't leave the door unlocked.
Exercise 24

Exercise 23
l.B 5.A 2.A 6.B 3.C 7.B

4.B

1. had better 2. should 3. had better

4. must 5. should 6. must

Exercise 25 Positive

Exercise 26
1. / 4. / 6. /
7 / 8/

1. There used to be a shop on the corner. 2. There used to be trees on the streets. 3. People used to ride horses. 4. Children used to play in the street. Negative 5. There didn't use to be any parking meters. 6. There didn't use to be any cars. 7. There didn't use to be any satellite dishes. 8. There didn't use to be any street lamps.

Exercise 27
1.A 5.C 9.C 2.C 6.B 10. C 14. B 18. B 3.C 7.B 4. A 8. A 12. C 16. B 20. A

ll.C
15. B 19. B

13.A 17.A

Las siguientes palabras y expresiones se usan en las instrucciones en ingles para los ejercicios. Es muy posible que usted no tenga necesidad nunca de hacer uso nada mas que de unas pocas de ellas, pero siempre le serviran de apoyo para asegurarse que todas las instrucciones estan totalmente claras. Polite Speech bubble Manners Dialogue A form of... modales bocadillo (en cortes dialogo una forma de Match comics) Positive During Absent-minded partido Spelling mistake positive durante distraido Mini dialogue falta de ortografia Possibility Each sentence Add mini didlogo Staff posibilidad cada frase anadir Mistake plantilla, personal Prediction Examination Adjective equivocation Start with prediction examen adjetivo Necessary para empezar Present day Expression Adverb necesario Study actual expresion adverbio Negative estudiar, estudio Prompt Extract Answer negativa Suggestion pronto extracto respuesta New Year sugerencia Put Feelings Be careful resolution poner Suitable sentimientos, ten cuidado resolution de ano apropiado Question emociones Box nuevo Take over pregunta First caja, recuadro Newspaper hacerse cargo Recommendation primero (gramatical) headlines Tennis recomendacion Formal Brackets portada del championship Refer formal parentesis periodico campeonato de referir Future Brochure Noun tenis Remember futuro folleto sustantivo The (number of ) recordar Gap Cartoon Numbered times Replace numerado dibujos animados hueco (en un Once el numero de veces reemplazar didlogo) Childhood una vez The same as Request Grammatical ninez Only lo mismo que requerir, petition gramatical Choose solamente Tick Response Habit elegir responder, hacer una serial, habito, costumbre Order Column orden, secuencia marca respuesta Half /halves columna (de un Pair Time reference Rewrite mitad / mitades texto) par referencia horaria volver a escribir Head teacher Competition Paragraph Twice Rule director competition parrafo dos veces regla, regulation Incorrect Complete Passage Underlined Second incorrecto completo pasaje, texto subrayado segundo Infinitive Conversation Past Secretary Use infmitivo conversation pasado usar, uso secretaria Information Correct Phrase Semi-final line-up Verb information correcto frase verbo semi final Instruction Cross Picture Verb phrase Sign instruction cruz cuadro, dibujo frase verbal letrero, serial de Intend Cue word Plan Word ranking trdfico tener intention palabra clave plan, planear el ranking mundial Situation List Deduction (vacaciones) (jugadores de situation lista deduction Player tenis, por jugador (de tenis, Some of Make a change Desire ejemplo) algo de por ejemplo) hacer un cambio deseo

FONDO E D I T O R I A L S T A N L E Y INGLES
3000 TESTS ELEMENTARY LEVEL KEYS 3 0 TESTS 00 2000 TESTS ADVANCED LEVEL KEYS 2000 TESTS 1500 STRUCTURED TESTS
• NIVELES 1, 2 Y 3

ESPANOL
TESTS ESPANOL •NIVELES 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 Y 5 CLAVES TESTS ESPANOL CRUCIGRAMAS DIDACTICOS
• NIVELES 1, 2 Y 3

FRANCES
1000 TESTS EN FRANQAIS • NIVELES 1,2,3,4 y 5 CLES POUR LES TESTS EN FRANQAIS TRADUIREAUJOURD'HUI
• NIVELES 1, 2 Y 3

DICTADOS EN ESPANOL
• NIVELES A, B Y C

KEYS 1500 STRUCTURED TESTS GRAMATICA ESPANOLA EN MARCHA 2000 BILINGUAL PHRASES • FRASES BILINGUES • NIVELES 1, 2, 3, 4 Y 5 TRANSLATIONS • TRADUCCIONES
• NIVELES 1, 2, 3 Y 4

NOUVEAU GUIDE DE CORRESPONDANCE COMMERCIALE MOTS CROISES-NIVEL 1 MON BILAN GRAMMATICAL DICTEESENFRANQAIS
• NIVELES 1-A, 1-BY1-C

CLAVES GRAMATICA ESPANOLA LOS VERBOS ESPANOLES DIFERENCIAS ENTRE SER 0 ESTAR CLAVES DIFERENCIAS SER 0 ESTAR

FILL IN THE GAPS • NIVELES 1, 2 Y 3 KEYS FILL IN THE GAPS DIDACTIC CROSSWORDS NIVEL 1 (EDICI6N FOTOCOPIABLE) NEW GUIDE TO PHRASAL VERBS EXERCISES - GUIDE TO PHRASAL VERBS ENGLISH GRAMMAR
• NIVELES 1, 2, 3 Y 4

ENTRAlNEZ-VOUS AUX VERBES FRANQAIS - LIVRE DU PROFESSEUR ENTRAlNEZ-VOUS AUX VERBES FRANQAIS-ELEVE ENTRAlNEZ-VOUS AUX VERBES FRANQAIS - CAHIER D'ACTIVITES

LECTURAS GRADUADAS EN ESPANOL
NIVEL o LA FAMILIA PEREZ iQUIEN SABE? LA CLASE DE YOGA NIVEL 1 LA ISLA MISTERIOSA 20.000 LEGUAS VIAJE SUBMARINO EL CONDE DE MONTECRISTO DON QUIJOTE DE LA MANCHA NIVEL 2 LOS TRES MOSQUETEROS UN CAPITAN DE 15 ANOS MIGUEL STROGOFF URDANETA. EL TORNAVIAJE

KEYS ENGLISH GRAMMAR GUIDE TO PREPOSITIONS ENGLISH TO SPANISH USING PREPOSITIONS ENGLISH VERBS ONE BY ONE IRREGULAR VERBS AND MODALS MY ENGLISH TELLTALE DICTATIONS IN ENGLISH
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