11.

Gear Design

11. Gears

Objectives
• • •

Understand basic principles of gearing. Understand gear trains and how to calculate ratios. Recognize different gearing systems and relative advantages and disadvantages between them. Understand geometry of different gears and their dimensional properties. properties. Recognize different principles of gearing. Recognize the unorthodox ways gears can be used in different motion motion systems.

August 15, 2007

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August 15, 2007

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Introduction
Gears are the most common means used for power transmission They can be applied between two shafts which are
Parallel Collinear Perpendicular and intersecting Perpendicular and nonintersecting Inclined at any arbitrary angle

Introduction
Gears are made to high precision Purchased from gear manufacturers rather than made in house However it is necessary to design for a specific application so that proper selection can be made Used to be called toothed wheels dating back to 2600 b.c.
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August 15, 2007

An 18th Century Application of Gears for Powering Textile Machinery
http://www.efunda.com/DesignStandards/gears/gears_history.cfm
August 15, 2007 5 August 15, 2007 6

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and plastics Can also be made from sheet metal August 15. 2007 9 August 15. cast iron. 2007 10 Spur gear nomenclature Gear Types Helical gears Teeth are at an angle Used for parallel shafts Teeth engage gradually reducing shocks Kalpakjian • Schmid Manufacturing Engineering 11 and Technology.2 Types of Gears August 15. 2007 12 2 . 2007 8 Gear Types Spur gears Internal gears Gear Parameters Number of teeth Form of teeth Size of teeth Face Width of teeth Style and dimensions of gear blank Design of the hub of the gear Degree of precision required Means of attaching the gear to the shaft Means of locating the gear axially on the shaft Most common form Used for parallel shafts Suitable for low to medium speed application Relatively high ratios can be achieved (< 7) Steel. bronze. brass. 2007 7 August 15.11. 2007 August 15. Prentice Hall August 15.

2007 18 3 . 2007 13 August 15.Helical Gears Helical Gear August 15.byAxial thrust gets cancelled August 15. 2007 15 Herringbone Gears Two helical gears with opposing helical angles side-by-side side. 2007 14 Helical Gear Characteristics Helix angle 7 to 23 degrees More power Larger speeds More smooth and quiet operation Used in automobiles Helix angle must be the same for both the mating gears Produces axial thrust which is a disadvantage August 15. 2007 16 Herringbone Gears Herringbone Gear August 15. 2007 17 August 15.

2007 24 4 . 2007 20 Bevel Gears (Miter gears) For one-to-one ratio Used to change the direction Bevel Gears August 15.Herringbone Gear Machining Gear Types Bevel gears They have conical shape August 15. 2007 19 August 15. 2007 23 August 15. 2007 22 Bevel Gears Gear Types Worm gears For large speed reductions between two perpendicular and non-intersecting shafts nonDriver called worm looks like a thread August 15. 2007 21 August 15.

11.Rack and pinion A rack is a gear whose pitch diameter is infinite. 2007 28 Internal spur gear Provides more compact drives compared to external gears They provide large contact ratio Relatively less sliding and hence less wear compare to external gears Internal spur gear August 15. 2007 30 5 . resulting in a straight line pitch circle.7 Rack and pinion Rack and pinion August 15. 2007 26 Fig. 2007 27 August 15. 2007 25 August 15. Involute of a very large base circle approaches a straight line Used to convert rotary motion to straight line motion Used in machine tools August 15. 2007 29 August 15.

Hamrock. 2007 Vr = Ng Np = Dg Dp 34 August 15. 2007 Velocity Ratio Velocity ratio is defined as the ratio of rotational speed of the input gear to that of the output gear Vr = Ng Np = Dg Dp Velocity Ratio Vr = Velocity ratio Vr = N p = D p Np = Number of teeth on pinion Ng = Number of teeth on gear Dp = Pitch diameter of pinion Dg = Pitch diameter of gear Ng Dg August 15. 11-9 Velocity Ratio 11- Bevel and Miter Rack-and-pinion Rack. 2007 31 August 15.Internal spur gear Internally Meshing Spur Gears Figure 14.andgears Cross-helix CrossWorm gears 33 August 15. 2007 35 August 15.14 Internally meshing spur gears. Jacobson and Schmid 32 Gear Assemblies Identified based on the input and output shaft positions Parallel shaft Spur gears Helical gears Perpendicular shaft Other types Fig. August 15. 2007 36 6 . 2007 ©1998 McGraw-Hill.

output torque. 2007 40 Example Problem 11-2: Velocity Ratios and Gear Trains (cont’d. output speed.5 Nm 307. 2007 39 August 15.000 Example Problem 11-2: Velocity Ratios and Gear Trains • For the gear train shown below. 2007 37 August 15.7 rpm 9.) − Direction: Vr = Vr = NB N N • D • E NA NC ND 65 60 • = 9. 2007 41 August 15. calculate output speed. and output power. 2007 38 Example Problem 11-1: Velocity Ratios and Gear Trains (cont’d.75 / 1 20 20 (11-1) • If: Gear A – clockwise Gear B – counterclockwise Gear C – counterclockwise Gear D – clockwise Gear E – counterclockwise Idler cancels out and has no effect on overall train value. and horsepower for both input and output conditions and overall velocity ratio: Example Problem 11-1: Velocity Ratios and Gear Trains (cont’d.000 hp = 11.4 − Output horsepower: hp = 1800 in-lb 400 rpm 63. – Output speed: nE = NA Vr = 3000 rpm = 307.) − Input horsepower: (2-6) hp = Tn 63.5 Nm August 15.5 rev min π min 60 sec J or W s 42 – Output torque: TE = T A Vr TE = 10 Nm (9.4 August 15.75 / 1 − Output power: P = TnE = 97.Example Problem 11-1: Velocity Ratios and Gear Trains • For the set of four gears shown below.) – Train value: Example Problem 11-2: Velocity Ratios and Gear Trains (cont’d. hp = 200 in-lb 3600 rpm 63. determine the train value.75 / 1) = 97.57 kW 7 . 2007 P = 1571 Nm/sec or P = 1.000 hp = 11.) (11-1) Vr = N2 N4 • N1 N3 Vr = − Output speed: 60 60 9 • = 20 20 1 n4 = n1 Vr 3600 rpm • − Output torque: 1 = 400 rpm 9 T4 = T1 Vr T4 = 200 in-lb • 9 = 1800 in-lb 1 August 15. output torque. output direction.

Pitch point: The point on the imaginary line joining the centers of the two meshing gears where the pitch circle touch D-d 2 August 15. When two gears meet their pitch circles are tangent to each other Pitch diameter (Dp) and pitch radius (r): These are (D the diameter and radius of the pitch circle.1. 2007 46 Pitch circle Figure 14.Spur Gears Pinion Gears August 15. August 15. 2007 44 Internal Gears Spur gear geometries Pitch circle: is the imaginary circle on which most gear calculations are made. Hamrock. 2007 Text Reference: Figure 14. page 616 ©1998 McGraw-Hill. 2007 45 August 15.1 Spur gear drive. 48 Jacobson and Schmid 8 . 2007 43 August 15. 2007 47 August 15.

7. Backlash: is the difference (clearance) between the tooth thickness of one gear and the tooth space of the meshing gear measured along the pitch circle (Fig. 7.2).2). (Fig. 2007 50 Spur gear geometries Face width (W): is the length of the tooth measured parallel to the gear (Fig.2). Pressure angle (φ): is the angle between the line of (φ action and a line tangent to the two pitch circles at the pitch point. 7. 7.2). Figure 14.8 Hamrock). Addendum (a): is the radial distance from the pitch circle to the outer end of the teeth. 7. Hamrock. 7. 7. 7. 7. Hamrock). August 15.2). Working depth: is the distance that one tooth of a meshing gear penetrates into the tooth space. 7. 7. Tooth thickness: is the thickness of the tooth measured along the pitch circle (Fig. 7. 7.2).2). 7. 7. Face: is the surface between the pitch circle and the top of the tooth (Fig.2).2). 7. 2007 ©1998 McGraw-Hill.2).2). Dedendum circle: It is the circle that bounds the bottoms of the teeth and whose center is at the center of the gear (Fig. rb = r cosϕ D b = D p cosϕ August 15. 2007 51 52 Spur gear geometries Line of action: is the locus of all the points of contact between two meshing teeth from the time the teeth go into contact until they lose contact.2). August 15. Flank: is the surface between the pitch circle and the bottom of the tooth (Fig.2).8 Pitch and base circles for pinion and gear as well as line of action and pressure angle.2). August 15. Jacobson and Schmid August 15.Spur gear geometries Addendum circle: It is the circle that bounds the outer ends of the teeth and whose center is at the center of the gear (Fig. Module: replaces diametral pitch in metric system. 2007 54 August 15. dedendum. 7. Fillet: is the radius that occurs where the flank of the tooth meets the dedendum circle. Tooth space: is the space between the adjacent teeth measured along the pitch circle (Fig. 14. (Fig.2).2).5). (Fig. Dedendum (b): is the radial distance from the pitch circle to the bottom of the teeth. 7. (Fig. Base circle: is an imaginary circle about which the tooth involute profile is developed.2).2). 2007 49 Spur gear geometries Circular pitch (Pc): is the distance between corresponding points on adjacent teeth measured along the pitch circle (Fig. 7. 2007 53 9 . Pinion: is the smaller of the two meshing gears. 7. Diametral pitch (Pd): specifies the number of teeth per inch of pitch diameter. 7.2).5) Gear terminology Clearance (c): is the addendum minus dedendum.2). 7.

0/ Pd 1. a = NP DP Specifications for standard gear teeth Item Full depth & pitches coarser than 20 20° 20° 25° 25° Full depth & pitches finer than 20 20° 20° 14½° full 14½ depth 14½° 14½ π DP NP Pressure angle Addendum (in. Pc = π m Addendum.250/ Pd 1.002 1/ Pd 1. Pd August 15.0/ Pd 1. 2007 Metric System Module (m) = 1 Pd Metric System Diametral pitch. b = 1. 2007 58 Dp = pitch diameter of pinion Np = number of teeth on the pinion It can be shown that Pd × Pc = π August 15.250 Dedendum.) 1 Pd 1. Pd = 1 m See Table 11.157/ Pd Dedendum.1 for equivalents Normally they are not converted Circular pitch.250 Pd Basic formulas for spur gears Center to center distance D + D pp Ng + Np CtoC = pg = 2 Pd 2 Where Dpp = pitch diameter of pinion Np = number of teeth on the pinion Dpg = pitch diameter of gear Ng = number of teeth on the gear Pd = Diametral pitch 57 August 15. Pd = Circular pitch.) Dedendum (in. 2007 55 August 15.250/ Pd 1. c = b – a = Where 0. 2007 59 August 15. b = 1.25 m Dedendum. 2007 60 10 .2/ Pd + 0. Pc = Addendum. August 15.0/ Pd 1. 2007 56 Basic formulas for spur gears Clearance.Basic formulas for spur gears Diametral pitch. a = m Dedendum.

2007 66 11 . − Pitch diameter: (11-4) Dp = − Pinion: Dp = − Gear: Dp = − Circular pitch: Pc = 32 = 4 inches 8 (11-3) 16 = 2 inches 8 Np Ng or Pd Pd Example Problem 11-3: Pressure Angle (cont’d. Find The pitch diameter The circular pitch The outside diameter (addendum diameter) August 15. and shaft center-to-center distance.Inch units A spur gear of the 14 ½ degree involute system has 32 teeth of diametral pitch 8. if diametral pitch is 8. 2007 65 August 15. • The pinion has 16 teeth and the gear has 32 teeth. 2007 64 August 15.C = C-C = 2 2 2Pd C-C = 16 + 32 2 (8) C – C = 3 inches π Dp Np = . 2007 61 August 15. Find The pitch diameter The circular pitch The outside diameter (addendum diameter) Metric units A spur gear of the 14 ½ degree involute system has a module of 8 mm and 35 teeth.) − Centerline distance: (11-2) Np + Ng Dp Dg + or C . 63 August 15. 2007 62 Example Problem 11-3: Pressure Angle • For the set of gears shown in Figure 11-17.393 inch Pc = π 2 in 16 • Circular pitch would be the same for both pinion and gear. circular pitch. 2007 August 15. find the pitch diameter.

August 15. Good gear design should take care of the power. 2007 68 12 . A number of gear manufacturing methods are available. 2007 67 August 15. Speed of mating gears is inversely proportional to the number of teeth. Spur gears are most commonly used for transmission of power. Mating gears should have the same diametral pitch.Summary To understand the gears one should be familiar with the gear terminology. speed. life and material properties.

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