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Henry C. Co Technology and Operations Management, California Polytechnic and State University
Job design involves specifying the content and methods of job
will be done Who will do the job How the job will bob will be done Where the job will be done Ergonomics: Incorporation of human factors in the design of the workplace
Design of People System (Henry C. Co)
Design of Work Systems
Specialization Behavioral Approaches to Job Design Teams Methods Analysis Motions Study Working conditions
Design of People System (Henry C. Co)
Decisions in Job Design Who Mental and physical characteristics of the work force What Where Geographic locale of the organization. Co) 5 . time of occurrence in the work flow Method of performance and motivation Ultimate Job Structure Design of People System (Henry C. objectives and motivation of the worker How Tasks to be performed Time of day. location of work areas When Why Organizational rationale for the job.
The work of Herzberg. Efficiency approaches From Taylor’s scientific management concepts (Time study. Hackman. methods.Approaches in Job Design Behavioral approaches The Hawthorn studies. Design of People System (Henry C. Oldham. and others. improvement study). work sampling. Co) 6 . Japanese management systems.
Meaningful work. Job Rotation: Workers periodically exchange.Behavioral Approaches (Psycho-Social Factors) Job enlargement (high task variety). Horizontal (greater variety). Design of People System (Henry C. responsibility for outcomes. Taylorism (high task specialization). Knowledge of actual results. Vertical (job enrichment). organizing. Co) 7 . To include planning. inspecting one’s own work.
Feedback. Socio-technical system Blends the sociological concerns of the worker with modern technology of robots and computer-controlled machines. Task variety. Task identity. Task autonomy. Design of People System (Henry C. Design job to adjust the needs of the workers and work group. Skill variety. Co) 8 .
Little control over work 4. Worker dissatisfaction. Co) 9 . Limited opportunities for advancement 3. Difficult to motivate quality 2.1) For Management: 1. possibly resulting in absenteeism. poor attention to quality For Labor: 1. disruptive tactics. high turnover.Specialization in Business (Table 7. Monotonous work 2. Little opportunity for self-fulfillment Design of People System (Henry C.
Little control over work 4. poor attention to quality For Labor: 1. Worker dissatisfaction. high turnover.Disadvantages For Management: 1. Little opportunity for self-fulfillment Design of People System (Henry C. Limited opportunities for advancement 3. Co) 10 . disruptive tactics. Difficult to motivate quality 2. possibly resulting in absenteeism. Monotonous work 2.
arms. body temperature. fingers. sweat rate. Mental Tasks Rapid decision making based upon stimuli.g. lactic acid in blood. Motor Tasks Controlled by the central nervous system. hands). Design of People System (Henry C.Efficiency Approach (Technical-Physical Factors) Work Physiology (Study of Manual Tasks) Human-Factors Engineering Manual tasks entail stress on large muscle groups.. Effectiveness measured by response time and kind/number of errors. Co) 11 . oxygen intake. Fatigue is localized in small muscle groups (e. Physiological Indices of Fatigue heart rate.
Co) 12 .The Work Environment T e m H u m W orking Conditions p e r a t u r e & V e n t ila t io n id it y I llu m in a t io n C o lo r Design of People System (Henry C.
Co) 13 .Noise & Vibration Work Breaks Safety Causes of Accidents Design of People System (Henry C.
Changes in materials or procedures. Jobs that are prone to human error. Maintain and follow up on the new method. Changes in product design or new products. Other factors (e. Implement the improved method.g. Changes in tools and equipment. High labor content.Work Methods The need for methods analysis can come from a number of different sources: Focus on doing the job right. Unsafe or tiring that offer the most potential for improvement. poka yoke. Co) 14 . Document and analyze the present method. quality problems). Develop an improved method. Select the job to be studied. Design of People System (Henry C. done frequently. accidents.
flow process chart. Procure manufacturing and cost data. etc.Document and Analyze Present Method Obtain production requirements. Procure engineering data. worker-machine activity chart. Description and sketches of work station and tools. Design of People System (Henry C. Co) 15 . flow diagram. Use assembly chart.
Co) 16 .Assembly Chart (Operation Process Chart) Information conveyed Purposeof ope ration De sign of the part Tolera nces and specifica tions Materia ls Proce of ma ss nufa cture Setup a tools nd Working conditions Plant lay out Design of People System (Henry C.
Co) 17 .Assembly Chart … (Continued) Standard symbols: Circle (operation) and Square(inspection) Design of People System (Henry C.
Co) 18 . irregularities. or quality Delay: Process having to wait Storage: Store of the product or service Design of People System (Henry C.Process Flowchart Symbols Operation: An activity directly contributing to product or service Transportation: Moving the product or service from one location to another Inspection: Examining the product or service for completeness.
Figure 7-2 Op era tio Stor age 19 Mo ve Ins p Details of Method Requisition made by department head Put in “pick-up” basket To accounting department Account and signature verified Amount approved by treasurer Amount counted by cashier Amount recorded by bookkeeper Petty cash sealed in envelope Petty cash carried to department Petty cash checked against requisition Receipt signed Petty cash stored in safety box Design of People System (Henry C. Kolb 1 of 2 ect ion me nt n ay . Co) Del FLOW PROCESS CHART ANALYST PAGE Job Requisition of petty cash D.
Co) 20 .Worker-Machine Chart Graphical model of the simultaneous activities of a worker and the equipment he/she operates. Helps identify idle time and costs of both workers and machines. Design of People System (Henry C. For analyzing alternative workermachine combinations to determine the most efficient arrangement.
Job Photo-Id Cards Time (min) Operator Date Time (min) Photo Machine 10/14 –1 –2 –3 –4 WorkerMachine Chart –5 –6 –7 –8 –9 Key in customer data on card Feed data card in 2.2 Idle Design of People System (Henry C.6 Idle 0. Co) 21 .6 Idle 3.4 Accept card Idle Begin photo process Position customer for photo 1.4 Photo/card processed Inspect card & trim edges 1.0 Take picture 0.
Co) 22 . Why? Where? What? Who? When? How? Design of People System (Henry C.Operation Analysis Question every detail.
Tolerance and specifications. Working conditions. Plant layout. Setup and tools. Material. Design of the part. Principles of motion economy.Operation Analysis 10 Primary Approaches Purpose of the operation. Process of manufacture. Material handling. Design of People System (Henry C. Co) 23 .
Co) 24 . Each hand should go through as few motions as possible. The hands should work in opposite symmetrical directions. Avoid using the hand as a holding device. Design of People System (Henry C.Principles of Motion Economy Both hands should work at the same time. The work place should be designed to avoid long reaches.
Uses of standards Us s of s nda e ta rds Estim ating a cost nd Ince ntive compensation pla ns Production sche duling Perform ance a ppraisal Sta ffing & capacity pla ns % 8 9% 59 55 41 2 25 Design of People System (Henry C. Work measurement: Measures time requirement to make a product Time standards: The time required for a trained worker to perform a given task using a prescribed work method with normal effort and skill. Co) .Work Measurement Motion study is the systematic study of the human motions used to perform an operation.
Major Methods of Work Measurement Type of Task Very short interva hig l. Co) 26 . hly repetitive Short interva repetitive l. Task in conjunction with m achinery or other fixed processing time equipment Major Me thods Filmanalysis Stop watch time study or prede term ined data Eleme l data or subjective nta estim ate Infrequent work or work of a long Work sampling or subjective cycle tim e estim ate Design of People System (Henry C.
Productivity and profits are high. Maynard & Co. “Time study is a dark-ages technique. “UPS runs counter to the drift of many companies who see (1) Automation (such as Roadway) or (2) Employee Involvement as better ways to higher productivity. rather than rigid monitoring at UPS.The Critics of Work Measurement UPS has 1000 industrial engineers (out of a work force of 152.000) set standards for a myriad of closely supervised tasks. Co) 27 .B.” Vice President. and it’s dehumanizing to track someone around with a stopwatch.” Wall Street Journal Design of People System (Henry C. H.
Time Study Sheet .
Co) 29 . Design of People System (Henry C.Elemental Standard Time Data Develop tables of performance times for operations that are common to many applications. Avoids the need for separate time studies.
Design of People System (Henry C. Very useful in estimating new product cost. Add all element times together. Work factor. Co) 30 . Basic motion time study (BMT). Motion time survey (GE). elements of operation. or even an entire operation. Rate the difficulty of each element. Procedure Systems available Divide total task into elements. Look up tables for the time allowed for each element.Predetermined Motion-Time Data Systems Uses historically developed data for time required for basic body movement. Methods time measurements (MTM).
The MTM Predetermined Motion-Time Data System .
.Work Sampling Observing an activity during a fixed duration (e. Co) 32 .g. a day) at random intervals to estimate the fraction of time spent directly on some sub-activities of interest Applications Ratio delay = % idle time Performance measurement Time standard Confidence level Experimental approach Level of confidence Sample size Accuracy of observations β Maximum probable error Maximum probable error Design of People System (Henry C.
the observer randomly samples 60 times in a day and notes that a particular element is performed 12 times.Work Sampling Study A work sample is being conducted. Co) 33 . Calculate the precision of the estimate (at 95% confidence interval) Determine the appropriate sample size required for a second set of observations if the acceptable numerical error is 0. Design of People System (Henry C.02. Estimate the % of the time that worker spend on this element.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Design of People System (Henry C. Co) 34 .
Co) 35 . Design of People System (Henry C. Many jobs do not lend themselves to an individual incentive plan.Compensation Methods Some reasons a company might use a wage incentive plan Increased pay for employees Lower total cost to the company for each unit produced.
Recommendations for developing and implementing successful wage incentive plans: The plan should permit earnings about the base rate. The standards should be protected from capricious and indiscriminate rate cutting. The plan should benefit both the company and the employees. The plan should be simple and understandable. Standard hour wage plans. good performance should pay at least a 30% bonus. Earnings should not be affected by factors beyond the control of the worker.Wage Incentive Plans Piecework plans. Gain-sharing plans. Co) 36 . Design of People System (Henry C.
Design of People System (Henry C.Group Incentive Plans Direct-wage group. Profit-sharing and cost-reduction plans.the higher the level of productivity. The Scanlon plan. Productivity is increased by a well-designed employee suggestion plan and through the use of special committee that constantly prod employees for ideas on how to improve productivity. Whenever a plant-s productivity exceeds a preestablished “normal” level. the bigger the bonus. The plan also involves a style of management designed to give each worker some control over his or her job by encouraging participation in decision making affecting it. Co) 37 . every employee gets a bonus .
salary. Job security: guaranteed minimum of 30 hours. Promotion from within.Lincoln Electric The Lincoln Electric Plan Average incentive bonus for the last 10 years = 11 months. Co) 38 .pay per week for employees who have served the company for 2 years or more. Design of People System (Henry C.
Co) 39 .Lincoln Electric Disbursed Ten Year Average Design of People System (Henry C.
Co) 40 . Federal.Employee Health & Safety Several regulations and government agencies monitor and control.safety and health in the workplace.. State . Safety and Health departments in plant. proactive. Federal. proactive.. reactive.. OSHA .. Design of People System (Henry C. EPA ...Environmental protection outside of the workplace.safety and health in the workplace.. Worker’s Compensation .
Co) 41 .Learning Curves Processing time per unit Illustrates improvement rate of workers as a job is repeated Processing time per unit decreases by a constant percentage each time output doubles Units produced Design of People System (Henry C.
Co) 42 .Time required for the nth unit = tn = t1nb where: tn = t1 = n= b= time required for nth unit produced time required for first unit produced cumulative number of units produced ln( r ) ln( 2 ) . where r is the learning curve % (decimal coefficient) Design of People System (Henry C.
t1 = 18 hours.674hrs 43 Design of People System (Henry C.8)/ln2 = (18)(9)-0.874hrs t18 = (18)(18)ln(0. learning rate = 80% What is time for 9th.322 = (18)/(9)0. 18th.322 = (18)(0.Learning Curve Effect Contract to produce 36 computers.493) = 8.394) = 7. 36th units? t9 = (18)(9)ln(0.092hrs t36 = (18)(36)ln(0.8)/ln2 = (18)(0. Co) .8)/ln2 = (18)(0.315) = 5.
Co) 44 .Learning Curve for Mass Production Job Processing time per unit End of improvement Standard time Units produced Design of People System (Henry C.
) Advantages Limitations planning labor planning budget determining scheduling requirements product modifications negate learning curve effect improvement can derive from sources besides learning industry-derived learning curve rates may be inappropriate Design of People System (Henry C.Learning Curves (cont. Co) 45 .