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MT S PHONG PHP TNH CT THP


CHO VCH PHNG B TNG CT THP
ThS. Nguyn Tun Trung
ThS. V Mnh Tng
(B mn Cng trnh B tng ct thp - i hc Xy dng)
Tm tt
Vch phng l mt trong nhng kt cu chu lc quan trng trong nh nhiu tng. N
kt hp vi h khung hoc kt hp vi nhau to nn h kt cu chu lc cho nh nhiu
tng. Tuy nhin, vic tnh ton ct thp vn cha c cp c th trong tiu chun
thit k ca Vit Nam. Bo co trnh by phng php tnh ct thp dc v ngang cho
vch phng b tng ct thp v a ra cc nhn xt v vic p dng trong thit k.
I. M U
Nhng nm gn y, nh nhiu tng ang pht trin vi mt s lng ln Vit Nam.
Trong cc dng h kt cu, tng b tng ct thp l mt trong nhng kt cu chu lc
quan trng. u im ca n l tnh lin khi tt, bin dng ngang nh do c cng ln.
Tng b tng ct thp c th c s dng cho nhng mc ch khc nhau nh:
- l mt phn ca h vch.
- tng chu ti trng ngang nh gi, ng t tc dng trong mt phng.
- tng chu ti trng trong mt phng v ngoi mt phng.
Khi chu ti trng ngang, vch cng c xu hng bin dng do un. Do vy, khi b
tr vch cng trn mt bng kt cu nh cn lu mt s im sau:
- Cc vch cng thng c b tr thnh dng t hp ch C, I tng kh nng
chng un ca h vch.
- Nn ko di cc vch theo phng mt phng un.
- B tr cc vch phng sao cho tm cng ca h vch trng vi tm t ti trng v
hn ch b tr nhiu hn 3 vch ng quy.
- a c cng nhiu vch phng ra ngoi bin cng tt chu lc ct v m men
xon.
kim tra v b tr ct thp cho tng, mt s tiu chun thit k thng dng hin
nay nh Australian Concrete Standard (AS3600), American Concrete Institute Code
(ACI318) hay Bristish Standard (BS8110) a ra cng thc xc nh kh nng chu lc
dc trc ca tng hoc cho php thit k tng nh cu kin chu nn thng thng.
[1] gii thiu cch tnh vch bng cch chia tit din vch thnh nhng phn t nh,
sau tnh ng sut ko chnh v nn chnh trong vch. T ng sut ko chnh, tnh ra
c din tch ct thp chu ko. ng sut nn chnh s c kim tra vi kh nng chu
nn ca b tng. [5] pht trin tng ny, s dng ng sut ko chnh v nn chnh
tnh ct thp, bin i a ct thp va tnh c v 2 phng chnh ca vch v b tr
c ct dc v ct ngang trong vch. Tuy nhin, n c sai s ln do ch k n tnh n
hi ca b tng. [6] nghin cu v pht trin cch tnh ton cho vch c iu kin bin
khc nhau chu lc dc trc vi b tng c cng khc nhau.
2
Tiu chun thit k hin hnh ca Vit nam nh TCXDVN 356-2005 hay TCXDVN
5574-1991 cha cp c th cch tnh ton loi cu kin ny, do , gy kh khn cho
vic p dng trong thc t thit k.
Mc ch ca ti l gii thiu v so snh cc phng php thit k vch thng gp
v qua v d tnh ton rt ra cc kin ngh ng dng.
Ni dung ca ti gm:
- Tnh ton ct thp dc cho vch phng.
- Tnh ton ct thp ngang cho vch phng.
- V d tnh ton.
- Kt lun v kin ngh.
Nhm tc gi xin gi li cm n su sc n cc ging vin trong B mn Cng trnh
B tng ct thp - Trng i hc Xy dng. c bit l PGS.TS Phan Quang Minh,
nhit tnh gip hon thnh ti ny.
Rt mong nhn c nhng kin ng gp bo co hon thin hn.
II. TNH TON CT THP DOC CHO VCH PHNG
Thng thng, cc vch cng dng cngxon phi chu t hp ni lc sau: (N, M
x
, M
y
,
Q
x
, Q
y
). Do vch cng ch chu ti trng ngang tc ng song song vi mt phng ca n
nn b qua kh nng chu m men ngoi mt phng M
x
v lc ct theo phng vung gc
vi mt phng Q
y
, ch xt n t hp ni lc gm (N, M
y
, Q
x
).

Hnh 1: Ni lc tc ng ln vch

Vic tnh ton tc ng ng thi ca c m men v lc ct rt phc tp v kh thc
hin c. Cho nn, n nay trong cc tiu chun thit k vn tch ring vic tnh ct dc
v ct ai.
Vic tnh ton ct thp dc cho vch phng c th s dng nhiu phng php. Bo
co trnh by 3 phng php tnh ton ct thp dc cho vch phng thng dng trong
thit k nh cao tng:
- Phng php phn b ng sut n hi.
- Phng php gi thit vng bin chu m men.
- Phng php xy dng biu tng tc.
3
1. Phng php phn b ng sut n hi
a. M hnh :
Phng php ny chia vch thnh nhng phn t nh chu lc ko hoc nn ng tm,
coi nh ng sut phn b u trong mi phn t. Tnh ton ct thp cho tng phn t.
Thc cht l coi vch nh nhng ct nh chu ko hoc nn ng tm.
Cc gi thit c bn:
- Vt liu n hi.
- ng lc ko do ct thp chu, ng lc nn do c b tng v ct thp chu.
b. Cc bc tnh ton:
- Bc 1: xc nh trc chnh v m men qun chnh trung tm.
- Bc 2: chia vch thnh nhng phn t nh.
x
x
.i
y
t
w
.
L
a

Hnh 2: Minh ho cch chia phn t
- Bc 3: tnh lc dc tc dng vo mi phn t do lc dc N v m men trong mt
phng M
x
gy ra:
2
x
i i
i
N M
N y
n y
=


- Bc 4: tnh din tch ct thp chu ko, nn.
- Bc 5: kim tra hm lng ct thp. Nu A
sc
< 0: t ct thp chu nn theo cu
to.
c. Nhn xt:
- Phng php phn b ng sut n hi tng t phng php trong [1]. Tuy nhin,
vic k n kh nng chu nn ca ct thp cho php gim tit din b tng ca vch.
- Phng php ny n gin, c th p dng tnh ton khng ch i vi vch
phng.
- Tuy nhin, gi thit ct thp chu nn v chu ko u t n gii hn chy trn
ton tit din vch l cha chnh xc. Ch ti nhng phn t bin hai u vch, ct thp c
th t n gii hn chy, cn phn t gia vch, ct thp cha t n gii hn chy.
2. Phng php gi thit vng bin chu m men
a. M hnh:
Phng php ny cho rng ct thp t trong vng bin hai u tng c thit k
chu ton b m men. Lc dc trc c gi thit l phn b u trn ton b chiu
di tng.
Cc gi thit c bn:
- ng lc ko do ct thp chu.
4
- ng lc nn do c b tng v ct thp chu.
b. Cc bc tnh ton:
- Bc 1: gi thit chiu di B ca vng bin chu m men. Xt vch chu lc dc trc
N v m men un trong mt phng M
x
. M men M
x
tng ng vi mt cp ngu lc
t hai vng bin ca tng.
P
r
P
l
M
x
N
v

n
g

b
i

n

p
h

i
v

n
g

b
i

n

t
r

i
B
r
.
t
w
0.5L
l
B.

Hnh 3: Mt ct & mt ng vch
- Bc 2: xc nh lc ko hoc nn trong vng bin:
( )
=

,
0, 5 0, 5
x
l r b
l r
N M
P A
A L B B

vi A
b
: din tch ca vng bin.
A: din tch mt ct vch.
- Bc 3: tnh din tch ct thp chu ko, nn.
- Bc 4: kim tra hm lng ct thp. Nu khng tho mn th phi tng kch thc
B ca vng bin ln ri tnh li t bc 1. Chiu di ca vng bin B c gi tr ln nht l
L/2, nu vt qu gi tr ny cn tng b dy tng.
- Bc 5: kim tra phn tng cn li gia hai vng bin nh i vi cu kin chu
nn ng tm. Trng hp b tng kh nng chu lc th ct thp chu nn trong
vng ny c t theo cu to.
c. Nhn xt:
- Phng php ny tng t nh phng php 1, ch khc ch b tr tp trung lng
ct thp chu ton b m men hai u vch.
- Phng php ny kh thch hp i vi trng hp vch c tit din tng cng
hai u (b tr ct hai u vch).
- Phng php ny thin v an ton v ch k n kh nng chu m men ca ct thp.
3. Phng php s dng biu tng tc
a. Khi nim:
Phng php ny da trn mt s gi thit v s lm vic ca b tng v ct thp
thit lp trng thi chu lc gii hn (N
u
, M
u
) ca mt vch b tng ct thp bit. Tp
hp cc trng thi ny s to thnh 1 ng cong lin h gia lc dc N v mmen M ca
trng thi gii hn.
b. Cc gi thit c bn:
- Tit din vch c gi thit nh sau: tit din vch phng trc khi chu lc
th vn phng sau khi chu lc. y l gi thit rt quan trng trong tnh ton, gi thit
5
ny c s dng tnh ton cu kin chu un (dm), cu kin chu nn un (ct) trong
cc tiu chun ca Hoa K, Anh, Australia, ... . Da trn gi thit ny, chng ta c th
tnh ton c bin dng ti mt im bt k trn tit din theo bin dng ln nht ca b
tng vng nn v ct thp trong vng ko hoc nn t.
- Gi thit quan h ng sut bin dng ca ct thp, quan h ny c n gin
ho thun tin cho tnh ton.
- Gi thit v biu ng sut b tng vng nn v b tng vng nn quy i.
- Gi thit v bin dng cc hn quy c ca b tng vng nn.
c. Thit lp biu tng tc:
- Nguyn tc chung: da vo bin dng cc hn ca b tng vng nn v v tr ca
trc trung ho c th hin qua chiu cao vng nn x, ta c th xc nh c trng thi
ng sut trong b tng v ct thp trong vch, cc ng sut ny tng hp li thnh 1 lc
dc v 1 mmen ti trng tm hnh hc ca vch, chnh l 1 im ca biu tng tc.

y s
fy

0.3%
x
0
.
8
5

x
0.85 fc
1.5
0.67 fcu
0
.
9

x
x
0.35% 0.3%
x
0
.
8
5

x
0.85 fc'

Hnh 4: Biu ng sut trong b tng, biu bin dng, quan h ng sut bin dng
ca ct thp theo tiu chun ACI 318, BS 8110, AS3600.
- Cc im chnh trn biu tng tc: v biu tng tc l mt ng cong,
mi im trn ng cong ny tng ng vi 1 v tr ca trc trung ho trn tit din vch
(1 gi tr ca x), v vy vic thit lp biu ny thng c thit lp bng s tr gip
ca my tnh. Tuy nhin, vn c th thit lp biu gn ng bng cch ni mt s
im chnh bng on thng. C 5 im chnh sau y:
+ im A: lc dc N
u
=0, giao im vi trc honh M
+ im B: im cn bng, bin dng ln nht ca b tng vng nn t n bin
dng cc hn quy c ca b tng ng thi bin dng ln nht ca ct thp t
n gii hn chy.
+ im C: im chu nn, tt c ct thp trn tit din u chu nn (x=h).
+ im D: M
u
=0, giao im vi trc tung N
+ im E: x=h/2
6
- Cc bc tin hnh:
+ Bc 1: gi thit x
+ Bc 2: tnh ton chiu cao b tng vng nn quy i
+ Bc 3: tnh ton bin dng ca ct thp
+ Bc 4: tnh ton ng sut trong ct thp
+ Bc 5: tnh ton hp lc ca vng b tng chu nn v ct thp ti trng tm
hnh hc ca vch.
+ Bc 6: thay i x v lm li t bc 1











Hnh 5: Trnh t thit lp biu tng tc
d. Nhn xt:
- Phng php xy dng biu tng tc c th coi nh l phng php chnh xc
nht, phn nh ng nht s lm vic ca vch b tng ct thp trong 3 phng php
c tng kt.
- Phng php ny thc cht coi vch cng l mt cu kin chu nn lch tm v ct
thp phn b trn ton tit din vch c k n trong kh nng chu lc ca vch.
- Vic thit lp biu tng tc i hi khi lng tnh ton kh ln. gim bt
khi lng tnh ton, ta c th s dng biu tng tc gn ng (hnh 5).
III. TNH TON CT THP NGANG CHO VCH PHNG
i vi cc vch cng thng thng t l chiu cao/chiu di tng ln, nh hng
ca lc ct l nh. Tuy nhin, khi t l chiu cao/chiu di tng tng i nh, vch c
dng cngxon ngn, nh hng ca lc ct l nguy him. Lc ny, cn xt n lc ct.
Kh nng chu lc ct ca tng gm kh nng chu ct ca b tng Q
b
v kh nng
chu ct ca ct thp Q
sw
:
= +
u b sw
Q Q Q
Ch rng kh nng chu lc ct ca b tng
b
Q phi xt n nh hng ca lc dc.
Khi c lc nn, ng sut ko gy bi lc ct s gim, do lm tng kh nng chu ct
ca b tng.
0.3%
x
0.85 x
7
Quy trnh tnh ton ct thp chu ct tng t nh i vi kt cu dm thng thng:
- Bc 1: Kim tra xem vch c b ph hoi gin hay khng? Tc l kim tra iu
kin ng sut nn chnh c tho mn hay khng?
- Bc 2: Kim tra iu kin tnh ct ai.
- Bc 3: Tnh ton kh nng chu ct ca b tng.
- Bc 4: Tnh ton ct thp chu lc ct.
- Bc 5: So snh vi cc iu kin hn ch v b tr c ct thp ngang.
Chiu cao lm vic h
o
, khong cch t th bin chu nn ca b tng n trng tm
ct thp chu ko, l mt thng s ht sc quan trng trong qa trnh tnh ton ct thp
ngang. Tiu chun ACI318 cho php ly
0
0, 8 = h L hoc mt gi tr chnh xc hn ca h
o

s nhn c thng qua vic phn tch biu tng thch bin dng.
Quy trnh tnh ton theo tiu chun ACI318 s c trnh by chi tit hn phn v
d tnh ton.
IV. V DU TNH TON
Cho vch c tit din nh hnh v. Chu lc dc N = 1000T ; m men trong mt phng
M
y
= 1050 Tm ; Lc ct tnh ton Q
x
= 300T. Tnh ton v b tr ct thp cho tng. Tiu
chun p dng ACI 318. B tng c
'
30
c
f MPa = . Thp AIII, 400
y
f MPa = .
4300
2
5
0

Tnh ct dc
Phng php 1: Chia vch thnh nhng phn nh nh hnh v. V l do i xng v
m men c th i chiu nn ch cn tnh cho mt na vch.
4300
2
5
0
1 2 3 4
500 500 500 650 650 500 500 500

Din tch ct thp chu nn c tnh t phng trnh cn bng:
( )
'
0, 8 0, 85
c c b sc y sc
N f A A f A = +


vi A
b
= t
w
.a : din tch b tng ca phn t th i ;
A
sc
: din tch ct thp chu nn c b tr trong phn th i ; = 0, 7
c
: h s gim
bn khi chu nn i vi tng
suy ra
'
'
0, 85
0, 8
0, 85
c b
c
sc
y c
N
f A
A
f f


Din tch ct thp chu ko l:

=
k b
s
b y
A
A
f
;

b
= 0,9 : h s gim bn khi chu un.
Hm lng ct thp chu ko ln nht l 0,06, chu nn ln nht l 0,04.
8
Kt qu tnh c cho trong bng sau:
im Lc dc ti tm PT Thp Hm lng
ko nn ko nn ko nn
T T cm
2
cm
2

1 -28.80 278.80 -8.00 47.83 0.006 0.038
2 11.67 238.33 Cu to 28.53 - 0.023
3 52.15 197.85 Cu to 9.23 - 0.007
4 98.69 151.31 Cu to -38.50 - Cu to
2300 500
4300
2
5
0
500 500 500

Phng php 2: Thc hin tnh ton theo tiu chun ACI318.
Gi thit chiu di phn t bin nh hnh v.
1100 1050 800
2
5
0
4300
x
1350
.
l
B B
r
.
M
x

Tnh ton kim tra vng bin
- Lc ko trong vng bin: P
l
= 127,39T ; lc nn trong vng bin: P
r
= 499,48T.
- Din tch thp chu ko tnh c A
s
= 37,70 cm
2
, hm lng 1,77% ; din tch thp
chu nn tnh c A
sc
= 50,92 cm
2
, hm lng 1,85%. Chn 20a120, do m men c th
i chiu nn b tr nh hnh v.
Tnh ton kim tra phn tng cn li
- Chiu di on tng gia: B = 2,4m
- KNCL nn ca tng khi cha c ct thp: P
u
= 856,8T. Lc dc trc m tng
phi chu: N = 558,14T.
- Vy ct thp trong phn tng ny t theo cu to. Chn 12200.
1100
2
5
0
4300
1100 2100

Phng php 3: TC p dng ACI 318. Thp b tr 3020. Thit lp biu tng
tc.
9

0.3%
0.2%
fy
0.2%
0.2%
fy
fy
0.3%
x
0.85 x
fy
0.2%
0.85 fc' 0.85 fc'
0.2%
fy
0.85 x
x
0.3%
0.2%
2
5
0
40 14x250 40
4300
0.3%
x
0.85 x
fy fy
0.2%
0.85 fc' 0.85 fc' 0.85 fc'
0.2%
fy
0.85 x
x
0.3%











Tnh ct ngang
Quy trnh tnh ton theo tiu chun ACI318 c trnh by di y, cc cng thc
c vit di dng ca h n v SI. Ni lc tc ng c k hiu l N
u
, M
u
, V
u
.
bn danh ngha ca b tng v ct thp tng ng khi chu ct l V
c
v V
s
. Chiu cao lm
vic d.
- Kh nng chu ct ca tng l:
( )
+
u c s
V V V vi 0, 85 = .
- bn danh ngha ca b tng ly theo gi tr nh hn trong hai biu thc sau:
'
0.87
4
= +
u
c c w
N d
V f t d
L
(a)
'
'
0, 33 0, 2
0,16
( )
2


+



= +




u
c
w
c c w
u
u
N
L f
Lt
V f t d
M L
Abs
V
(b)
Biu tng tc
3118
2589
2192
1872
1685
1165
794
422
-1
-500
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
0 500 1000 1500 2000
M (T.m)
N

(
T
)
10
Khi ( )
2

u
u
M L
Abs
V
< 0, khng c p dng biu thc b.
- Nu / 2 <
u c
V V th t ct ngang theo cu to.
- Nu / 2
u c
V V v
'
2 / 3
s c w
V f t d vi:

=
u
s c
V
V V th din tch ct thp ngang
yu cu l: =
s
s
ys
Vs
A
f d
, vi s l bc ca ct thp ngang theo phng ng.
- Nu
'
2 / 3 >
s c w
V f t d th ngn cn ph hoi gin xy ra, cn phi tng tit din
vch.
Theo quy trnh nh trn tnh c V
c
= 329,59 T ; V
s
= 23,35 T. T tnh c din
tch thp ngang yu cu l A
s
= 0,754 cm
2
, vi khong cch s = 25cm. Do , b tr
210a250.

V. Kt lun
- Phng php phn b ng sut n hi n gin, c th m rng tnh ton li
cng, nhng gi thit vt liu n hi khng ng vi vt liu b tng ct thp.
- Phng php gi thit vng bin chu nn n gin, d p dng. Tuy nhin, phng
php ny thin v an ton khi ch cho hai phn t bin ca vch chu m men.
- Phng php xy dng biu tng tc c th coi nh l phng php chnh xc
nht trong ba phng php trnh by, phn nh ng nht s lm vic ca vch b tng
ct thp, tuy nhin, quy trnh tnh ton kh phc tp.
- Vic tnh ton ct thp ngang cho vch kh phc tp, nht l khi c ch ph hoi
ca n l khng r rng.
- Phng php xy dng biu tng tc cng nh quy trnh tnh ct ngang c th
p dng c vi tiu chun thit k kt cu BTCT ca Vit Nam, tuy nhin phi chp
nhn mt s gi thit nh trnh by trn.













11

Ti liu tham kho
1. L.E. Linovits , Tnh ton v cu to nh dn dng. Bn dch ting Vit, L c Thng & V
Cng Ng. Nh xut bn KH&KT.
2. Ng Th Phong, L Trn Cng, Trnh Kim m, Nguyn L Ninh, Kt cu B tng ct thp
Phn kt cu nh ca. Nh xut bn KH&KT.
3. TS Nguyn Trung Ho, Kt cu BTCT theo quy phm Hoa K, Nh xut bn xy dng.
4. PGS. TS Trn Mnh Tun, Tnh ton kt cu BTCT theo tiu chun ACI318-2002, Nh xut
bn xy dng.
5. Nguyn c Chin, Thit k vch BTCT trong kt cu nh nhiu tng, Lun vn Ths KT,
trng HXD.
6. Jeung-Hwan Doh, Thesis of doctor Experimental and Theoretical studies of normal and
high strength concrete wall panels, Griffith University.
7. Building code requirements for structural concrete (ACI318-02) and commentary (ACI318R-
02).
8. Australian Standard, Concrete Structures (AS3600-2001).
9. Reinforced Concrete Design Theory and Examples. T.J. Macginley, B.S. Choo.


SOME METHODS FOR DESIGN REINFORCEMENT OF R.C. WALL
M.Sc Nguyen Tuan Trung
M.Sc Vo Manh Tung
(Departement of R.C structure - HUCE)

Abstract
Reinforced concrete wall is important element of bearing members in the highrise
building. But its design is not mentioned clearly in R.C structure vietnamese design
standard. The report presents and comments some methods for design reinforcements of
R.C wall.

Related Interests