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FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES
“Not what we give, But what we share, For the gift, without the giver Is bare” ~James Russell Lowell
A journey to the world outside text books and class rooms has remained the best teacher for ages. “Foray between the Shopping Aisles”, was an expedition to learn, in a different way. We are deeply indebted to our professor, Dr. Deepak Gupta, for holding our hands when we risked stumbling and guiding us through this study with his immense fund of wisdom and patience. We express a deep sense of gratitude to our mentor, Mr. Arpit Mishra, for his unfaltering support and motivation which made this study worthwhile. A token of gratitude, to the staff of Big Bazaar, Nilgiris, Reliance Fresh and More outlets of Palakkad and Coimbatore, for without their support this study would have been impossible. We are indebted to Mr. Anupam Goyal and Mr. Mohit Saxena for helping us out although we were perfect strangers to them. We are deeply obliged to all those customers who filled our surveys both at the stores and online, for without them this study would have been nonexistent. Thanks to all the students of Amrita School of Business, who, with their ideas and suggestions fostered this study to completion.
AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS, COIMBATORE
FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES
The study “Foray Between the Shopping Aisles” was aimed at finding out the Impact of Visual merchandising (VM) on customer buying behaviour. Visual Merchandising, which deals with elements of display of products is fast gaining momentum in India with the growth of retail industry. While double conversion theory of
converting visitors to shoppers and shoppers to buyers is making marketers around the world pour efforts towards the area it of is
important to notice that Visual merchandising is involved in
getting more visitors to stores and also in converting them into shoppers. As this accounts for 2/3 rd of the process, it is of immense importance.
The research methodology consisted of experience surveys with floor managers and visual merchandising managers. This was followed by questionnaire survey, which was done both at stores and online. The total sample size amounts up to 176. Social media was also used as a tool for learning in this study. A free lance interior designer who has designed over 100 stores including those for Zaara, Pocket and Nautica provided us with a telephonic interview and also provided us with valuable secondary data which aided this research. Another respondent who helped us out through social media was a Visual Merchandiser with VF Arvind Brands who gave valuable insights about VM efforts and chanllenges in India.
The results obtained from qualitative and survey analyses are described in respective chapters. Transcripts of interviews are available in Appendices 1-5.
AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS, COIMBATORE
FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 Although we got some wonderful insights about the role of visual merchandising in retail stores on consumer behaviour. Visual merchandising varies significantly across states. COIMBATORE Page iii . The study was conducted in a sample which was from Kerala and Tamilnadu. Yet. this study was conducted after a lot of cerebration. this study had a few limitations. planning and hard work and throws some much needed light on the subject. which due to limitations of time and other resources were unexplored. AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS.
11 2............................................................................ 12 2..4 TIME DURATION OF THE WINDOW DISPLAY ...... 76 CITATIONS ........................................................ 82 APPENDIX 2: DEPTH INTERVIEW – FLOOR MANAGER 1 ...........................................................................4 STATUS QUO OF RETAIL MARKET IN INDIA................. 15 3.. 5 1...............................................................................................................2 OBSERVATIONAL RESEARCH .......... 22 3.....................................................................................................................................4 DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH ...................... 17 3............................................................................................. COIMBATORE Page 1 ...... 11 2.............5 PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN .......................................... 53 4. 4 1.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3 1.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................2 THE 5 SENSORY ELEMENTS .....................2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ......................................................... 53 4................................... 55 4.............1 OBJECTIVES ................................................................................. 15 3......................... 58 4....1 TOUR OF THE AISLES ........................................................................................... 57 4...................................................... 13 2........DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH .................................................................................................................................................................................3 IMPACT OF SOCIAL MEDIA ..................... 3 1.................................................... 23 CHAPTER 4: EXPLORATORY RESEARCH .............. 6 1.............2 INTRODUCTION TO RETAIL INDUSTRY ...............................................................................4 DATA COLLECTION AND CLEANING ................... 8 CHAPTER 2: RESEARCH DESIGN ............................................................................................ 59 CHAPTER 5: RECOMMENDATIONS............................................. 81 APPENDIX 1: DEPTH INTERVIEW – VM MANAGER ..............................................................................................QUALITATIVE METHODS ..................................................................................................................................... 19 3......................1 INTRODUCTION TO QUALITATIVE METHODS ..1 DEPTH INTERVIEWS ..............................................................................................3 REASONS FOR EMERGENCE ...........................................................................5 BIG PLAYERS IN INDIAN RETAIL MARKET ............................................................... 85 APPENDIX 3: DEPTH INTERVIEW – FLOOR MANAGER 2 ...........................................................................1 DESK RESEARCH .3 SAMPLING PLAN..........................................................................................5 RESULTS ..........................................................FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO PROJECT ................3 VISUAL MERCHANDISING ELEMENTS ............................................................................... 14 CHAPTER 3: EXPLORATORY RESEARCH–SECONDARY DATA ANALYSIS ........... 14 2.......................... 53 4................................ 88 AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS..5 ANALYSIS PLAN.................................................
............................................................................................................. 89 APPENDIX 5: DEPTH INTERVIEW – ASST................................. 105 AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS........................................................................................................................................................................................... VM MANAGER ..... 93 APPENDIX 6: SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE .......... 96 APPENDIX 7: CODE BOOK ........................................ COIMBATORE Page 2 .................FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 APPENDIX 4: DEPTH INTERVIEW – RETAIL STORE DESIGNER ..................................................... 99 ADIEU TO THE AISLES ................
the need arises to seek a correlation. and Big Bazaars rule hearts with “Is se sastha aur acha kahin nahi”.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO PROJECT 1. Shopping is a welcome break from hectic schedules. It’s more of an experience. VISITOR SHOPPER Figure 1: The Double Conversion BUYER At this juncture it is important to notice that visual merchandising. A good display makes people walk into the store and also helps in making them feel like taking a look around. opportunity for celebration. Since VM is directly involved in 2/3 of the entire process of converting a mere visitor into a buyer. Marketers around the globe are pouring efforts and currency into shopper’s marketing. COIMBATORE Page 3 . Do those attractive mannequins and 3D displays of Play stations actually make more sales at your store? The double conversion theory talks about visitors converting into shoppers and shoppers ultimately in to buyers. AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. time to let your hair down and hit the malls. which deals with the display of products and creating an ambience is involved in the first two stages. Retail giants like Central woo their patrons with mottos of “Shop Eat and Celebrate”.1 TOUR OF THE AISLES Shopping has transformed from necessity to an adventure. Gone are the good old days when a list is made and shopping is done at the nearby Kirana store.
and sprawling complexes which offer food. It also consists of a separate chapter on the impact of social media in this study in the form of expert interviews. shopping. that they can satisfy their needs better than their competitors.stored malls. methodology. 1. with an employment of around 8% and contributing to over 11% of the country's GDP. retailers must be able to convince the shoppers. Retail industry in India and its growth India has the highest shop density and is rated the fifth most attractive emerging retail market in the world 2nd in the global retail development index out of 30 (AT Kearney Global Management Consultants) The growth of Retail Companies in India has a long way to go and great potentials within this sector is yet to be explored. where the individual stores comes in contact with the customers and responds to their everyday needs. huge shopping centres. The truly dangerous thing is asking the wrong questions”. To be successful. “Most serious mistakes are not being made as a result of wrong answers. This report will contain the purpose. AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 As Peter Drucker rightly said.2 INTRODUCTION TO RETAIL INDUSTRY Retailing is considered as one of the most agile industry. conclusions and recommendations that would make the foray between shopping aisles a memorable one to customers. In India there are multi. procedure. Retailing one of the largest industries in India. Retail industry in India is expected to rise by 25% yearly as it is being driven by strong income growth. changing lifestyles and favourable demographic patterns. Shopping in India has witnessed a revolution with the change in the consumer buying behaviour. COIMBATORE Page 4 . and entertainment all under the same roof.
Females have started working outside. Now people have more disposable income so they can spend easily. AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. Future Group.200 billion. COIMBATORE Page 5 .FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 1. Nilgiris. It is expected that by 2016. Revenues from the sector are expected to rise up to US$ 24 billion by 2010. Relaxation in rules and regulations. More (Aditya Birla Group) to name a few. Large population: India being a second largest country in terms of population possesses large potential market for all the products/services. they have no time for actively looking out for new stores for their needs. Paucity of time: People have no time for product searching. Spencers. Double income group: Emergence of double income group leads to increase in disposable income. with the economic liberalization of 1991. This results into entry of large number of fast food players in the country. So. Because of emergence of working women and also number of other entertainment items. Bharti – Wal-Mart. They want all their needs to be fulfilled in one single shop. D mart. Shoprite Hypermart. Industry Growth Rate and Trends: Most of the big companies have forayed into the retail sector for a better business. Reliance Fresh. people want to spend their time either at work or with family. This helped significantly the retail industry. however the smaller towns are also catching up. most of the tariff and non tariff barriers from the Indian boundaries are either removed or minimized. modern retail industry in India will be worth US$ 175.3 REASONS FOR EMERGENCE 2010 Gender roles: Gender roles are now changing. The Growth of Retail Companies in India is most pronounced in the metro cities. The growth of Indian retail sector is expected to touch US$440 billion landmark by 2010 with the growth rate of 30-35 % as per Associated Chamber of Commerce and Industry of India (ASSOCHAM).
medium general stores. AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. kirana stores (apart from accessories stores).20 percent over the next decade.4 STATUS QUO OF RETAIL MARKET IN INDIA Currently there are about 51. In India. Retail universe in India comprises large. COIMBATORE Page 6 . more than12 millions outlets are run by small business houses The expected boom in retailing is $ 300 billion and going to occupy second largest retail market after China Retailing contributes 3% to GDP (around 10^10 rupees) in comparison to organized sector There are over 2400 supermarkets. Figure 2: Expected Growth of retail and contribution of GDP 1. which account for 10% of total grocery sales within the 28% urban towns. In the last couple of years this industry has made agile move from its nascent stages.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 The share of modern retail is likely to grow from its current 3 per cent to 15 . The retail companies are found to be rising in India at a remarkable speed with the years and this has brought a revolutionary change in the shopping. 30.000 retail outlets selling about Rs5000 billion worth of products. chemists and pan-bidi. 85 % of organized retailing is taking place in India’s urban areas.
There are hypermarkets following backward integration and 70% stock is procured from agricultural markets in India. Food and apparel retailing key drivers of growth in this industry. 2010 In other countries the ratio is 80% foods or grocery and remaining 20% non-food items are kept. Individual retailers MBO’s Hypermarkets Convenience stores Indian Retail Industry Discount stores Department Stores Supermarkets Shopping malls Specialty Chains Figure 3: Types of Indian Retail Sector AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. There are 50 hypermarkets in India. operated by 5 big retailers.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES In India 60% of food and 40% of non-food items are kept in retails stores. COIMBATORE Page 7 .
COIMBATORE Page 8 . Central . ( Lifestyle. Inorbit) Specialty Chains (Mega Mart) Convenience stores (Kirana Stores) MBO. Coupons.5 BIG PLAYERS IN INDIAN RETAIL MARKET Pantaloon and the Big Bazaar Landmark and Central Shopper's Stop Lifestyle Globus Will's Lifestyle Westside Subhiksha/ Vishal Mega mart Vivek's Nilgiris Tata Godrej Reliance Aditya Birla-MORE Metro Varkey’s AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS.Mart.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES Types of Indian Retail Sector Supermarkets (Nilgiris. Big Bazaar. Brand Factory) 2010 1. Kannan’s Departmental Store) Hypermarkets (Shoprite) Department Stores (Apna Baazar. Maharashtra) Individual retailers Shopping malls (Forum . Pocket Stores) Discount stores (D. ( Multi Brand outlets).
It was founded in 2001 with the 1st store founded in Kolkata. COIMBATORE Page 9 . Nilgiris. It provides products at best prices. More and Reliance fresh. Here is a brief description about each: Big Bazaar Big Bazaar is India’s 1st hypermarket retail outlet. it’s promoted by Future Group headed by Mr Kishore Biyani.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 This study was focussed in Coimbatore. Big Bazaar. Figure 4: Flowchart showing Big Bazaar assortment AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. where the concentration was mainly on modern retail outlets viz. There are currently around 110 outlets across india. The target customers are price conscious segment which forms the major chunk of in the market.
Has 90 supermarkets across India’s southern states. AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. RIL is setting up Ranger Farms — outlets that will specifically service streetside vegetable sellers who can stock up on fresh farm produce. Aditya Birla Group in 2007. Reliance Fresh Reliance fresh is a supermarket from RIL. 2010 Nilgiris Nilgiris was established in 1905 with humble beginning in Ooty and Coonor. Reliance Select. COIMBATORE Page 10 . It was established with a clear vision for serving people. with the first store in Pune. rice) as well the company’s inhouse brand. These stores will sell fresh fruit and vegetables besides staples (dal. According to sources.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES More More was started by Kumarmangalam Birla. started in 2006 and has 560 stores across the country. Now there are over 600 More stores in the country. RIL is targeting not only the households but also street side vegetable sellers. More started off as a supermarket but More Megastores are fast mushrooming. atta.
1 OBJECTIVES Decision maker's problem Does “What” and “Where” and “How” in a store really matter as far as customers’ buying decisions are concerned? Market Researcher's problem What attracts customers towards different products in a retail store? On a more specific note. COIMBATORE Page 11 . the market researcher’s problem (MRP) can be divided into the following:MRP 1: To explore the impact of visual merchandising on the buying decisions of customers in a retail store (how factor of DM Problem) MRP 2: To explore if buying choices are made before reaching the store or thereafter (General question which will help us understand consumer behaviour) MRP 3: To explore the impact of layout in a retail store on customer buying behaviour (Where factor of DM Problem) MRP 4: To analyze whether customers actively seek for new products at a retail store (What factor of DM problem) MRP 5: To get an insight on “Are buying decisions unconscious or purely conscious” (General question which will help us understand consumer behaviour) AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 CHAPTER 2: RESEARCH DESIGN 2.
supermarkets and hypermarkets and the apparel industry which are the pioneer in area of implementing visual merchandising.Problem Definition Stage 2 .FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2. COIMBATORE Page 12 .Recommendations Figure 5 – Research Process Flow AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. The objective of the study was to understand the impact of visual merchandising on the buying behaviour and the buying decisions of the customers.2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 2010 The study was done on the retail industry.Field Work Stage 5 . specifically the discount stores.Conclusion Stage 7 .Analysis of Data Gathered Stage 6 .Research Design Stage 4 .Desk Research Stage 3 . Stages of research process:- Stage 1 .
3 SAMPLING PLAN 2010 Target Population: Individuals between the age group of 15 to 85 years. Sample Elements: The sample element consisted of people who visit and shop from large retail stores. Only those respondents were chosen who visit retail outlets on a regular basis. Sample Size: 176 Sample Elements: Handpicked elements. Figure 6 – Sampling Plan Target Population: Individuals between the age group of 15 to 85 years were chosen as the target population. a sample of 176 customers was taken. Data Collection: Survey done on the sawmple elements using questionnaire. This technique was chosen to avoid sample elements that had not been to the retail outlets that are focused in the study conducted. Sampling Procedure: Judgement sampling. It is people under this age group who are frequent visitors and shoppers to the large retail stores. COIMBATORE Page 13 . AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2. Sampling Procedure: The sampling procedure used here was judgemental sampling. Sample Size: Since covering the entire population for the study was not feasible. Out of the 176 samples 97 were surveyed directly at Coimbatore and Palakkad and 79 were online surveys from people all over India.
This was divided into 2 parts.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2. the direct survey and online survey.4 DATA COLLECTION AND CLEANING 2010 The data collection was done using the survey method. 2. Much of the data cleaning was required for the online surveys though the samples were judgemental. The analysis done using SPSS was used to arrive at a meaningful conclusion of the research. AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. There was not much data cleaning needed for the direct surveys. The responses outside the target sample elements that crept in were filtered. In case of missing or the ambiguous responses the variable was assigned 9 or 99 to distinguish it from the valid responses. The data was cleaned and coded to give as input to the SPSS.5 ANALYSIS PLAN Analysis of the data collected through survey was done using SPSS. A code book was prepared for the entire questionnaire. COIMBATORE Page 14 .
1 DESK RESEARCH A better part of any successful study owes to the secondary research of published works. A striking data that came out of this research was that signage of discounts and offers influenced the group with monthly income between INR10000 and INR 25000. Stemming from Neural marketing. The increase in Existing Indian middle classes with an increased purchasing power turn implies that retail industries are finding various ways to attract customers of different SEC to buy the goods for which visual merchandising plays a very important role. AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 CHAPTER 3: EXPLORATORY RESEARCH–SECONDARY DATA ANALYSIS 3. Introduction of slotting allowances which necessitate payments by manufactures to retailers for providing shelf space for new products becomes relevant in this context. an intriguing marriage of marketing and science is the window to human mind. It is the key to unlock Buylogy – the subconscious thoughts.  Studies reveal that indoor signage play a dominant role in attracting customers to buy certain products. Significant amount of work has been done in what drives people to choose some products over the others from shelves. It also highlighted various forms of visual merchandising and their impact on consumer buying behaviour. feelings and desires that drive the purchasing decisions that we make in everyday lives.  Visual merchandising has taken retailing by storm. COIMBATORE Page 15 . This gave us published data on what attracts customers towards products and buying behaviours of customers with reference to visual merchandising. “Standee” is preferred by the majority of shoppers followed by drop down and shelf stock signage. A brief idea of what was already done will provide wonderful insights about how it can be taken to the next level. It is all about how to make customers look at your products.
is lacking.” The context. 35 percent of all brand purchases were made when one or more pieces of POP were present for a brand. in test versus control stores.Purchase Advertising Institute. as a percent of all store SKUs. for example. the study found that “more than 70 percent of brand purchase decisions are made in-store at supermarkets.  AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. In addition to its conclusion that “more than 70 percent of brand decisions are made instore. which would help explain the significance or lack thereof of these conclusions. These percent findings are stated as a conclusion.” The study found that “in supermarkets. [and] at mass merchandise stores. 42 percent of all brand purchases were made when one or more pieces of POP were present for a brand.P. in which this data is presented. More precisely. and more than 74 percent are made in-store at mass merchandisers.” it was also advanced that “POP (point-of-purchase displays) are a significant decision influencer.  They also designed special section and racks for fruits and vegetables to make it look more appealing. etc. rather than. COIMBATORE Page 16 .FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 Figure 7: graphical representation of the range of information carried by signage (Source: Report by V. Shivani Sharma and Nirdesh K. he turns to the left instead of right.S. Singh for the Agricultural Economics Research Review) Study on ITC Choupal fresh revealed that all the racks were placed on the left hand side and the cash counter was on the right side of the store keeping in view that the moment the customer enters the store. Arora.. however. The 70% Rule 70 per cent of the purchase decisions happen on the store floor according to the study conducted in the US in 1995 study initiated by the Point-of.
aspects like how the merchandise is placed.” A store should always be viewed as a catalyst for raising revenues for the retailer. Yuri Bolotin. “Retail design can increase sales of a store. They can see. Indulging the sense of sound through pleasing music (in accordance with the merchandise and brand concept) is a must. fashion shows on screens and tips by stylists can be aired in the store to help shoppers select clothes for themselves. The emotions should follow the AIDA and ultimately to satisfaction at having received the best that the retailer has to offer the clients. Design Portfolio. Australia. “Try and involve all the senses to attract the clients.mts (the retail floor) are effectively designed. For example. all go into working for creating that ‘sight’ for a consumer. But the buck does not stop here. Principal.2 THE 5 SENSORY ELEMENTS Sight: The first thing that motivates a consumer to walk into a store is how the store ‘looks’. A welcoming and friendly store always scores a plus over those which are not. Neither is silence a good option. durability. says. keeping that purpose in mind. Idiom Design & Consulting Ltd.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 This study was large in scope.” ‘In-store’ decisions to buy a product depend on a lot of factors like. what is the colourscheme of the walls. encompassing data from a nationwide field intercept study of 4. Bright colours. pricing and so on. At an apparel store for young adults. what kind of music does the store play. is the ambience pleasing or otherwise are important for a visual merchandiser to take care of. Interviews or quotes by famous authors can AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. says. well-placed merchandise and in-store advertisements. 3. Design Director. COIMBATORE Page 17 .200 consumers across 14 cities. Manu Neelakandhan. its layout’s importance can never be over stressed. how does it smell. Sound: Cacophony and chaos is not something that a retailer should ever associate his/her store with. whether the in-store advertisements are properly put. in a furniture store. And therefore. read and take informed decisions. facts and helpful tips by interior designers can be put up next to merchandise to aid the consumers. provided the productive sq. the quality of the product.
Taste: Not all retail stores can hope at utilising the sense of taste. candy stores. Musty odours or strong paint fumes can act as a deterrent for clients. where bad odour is just unacceptable. COIMBATORE Page 18 . A good odour is a sure-shot bonus to the store. For today’s quality-conscious consumer it is more than a necessity to be able to ‘feel’ the merchandise. But that sense shall only prevail if the other five have been effectively stimulated! AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. snack and juice bars should aim at always treating the sense of ‘taste’ of their consumers. Pampering the five senses of the consumers ensures a sensory shopping experience for them. especially in the case of an F&B outlet. in this case.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 be played at bookstores to educate the customers on what books to pick up. but its absence shall surely be remembered. holding a porcelain vase. Be it in trying on clothes in the trial room. the client should always be made to feel at home when it comes to the sense of ‘touch’. On the house samples for tasting. The sixth sense. The worth this cannot be over emphasised. Touch: This is a tricky sense to indulge in. A visual merchandiser while working in accordance to the retailer’s details should always keep in mind the sense of smell of a shopper. Working out the visual merchandising of a store with this end in mind can work wonders for a brand. free dishes or drinks on certain amount of purchases or sweets and chocolates for kids at any other kind of store are a few ways the retailer can indulge in the sense of taste of the consumer. can be the sense the consumer exercises in purchasing the product. feeling the texture of a glass table or judging the sturdiness of a hammock. it may not be remembered always. Smell: A pleasing smell always adds to the ambience of a store. like chocolate stores. F&B outlets. But for those who can. but most vital. or testing a perfume with a tester.
well designed. creates interest and invites the customer into business. To put it in simple words simple brief. Good exterior visual merchandising attracts attention. Logo is also very important and plays a major role in attracting customers.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 3. They should be unique and noticeable. The important point to be noted is that how a store visually welcomes a customer has to do a lot. A design of the sign conveys a great deal about the business. A stores signs is its identity. whether they enter or not. Elegant design and expensive sign material will convey a business of luxury goods and services. well lettered and easy to read signs will attract more customers and convey a feeling of welcome to the customers. women. COIMBATORE Page 19 . lavish or discount image to the customer. EXTERIOR SIGNS An effective sign is a silent sales person. A sign must attract attention of customers in less than 10 seconds and should convey what the business is and what it has to sell. The exterior appearance silently announces what customers can expect inside. Signs can also be used to target a specific market segment such as youth. Generally the exterior presentation should be progressive. The size of the letter used in signs should be large enough to be read from a distant place. It is with the sign that the AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. singles etc.3 VISUAL MERCHANDISING ELEMENTS EXTERIOR PRESENTATION The quality of a store front is a major determinant and the for a 2010 customer store appearance should never be compromised.
AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. MARQUEES Marquees are special type of signs used to display stores name. on promotional materials and newspaper ads. BANNERS Banners are economical but colourful and eye catching means of promotion. COIMBATORE Page 20 . They can be changed frequently to create different appearances which will in turn attract customers to the store. cuts down on glare and reflection and also prevents fading of merchandise from exposure to sun. They also act as production to customer from rain and sun. It will be more effective when the colour scheme and design concept used in the banners are the same as what is used in the store. Hence it should create an image that can be consistently carried out as an identity of the store. AWNINGS Colour and appeal can be added to a store exterior with the use of awnings. This also facilitates the customers to view the window display more comfortably as it reduces heat. Effective marquees should be designed so as it is different from others and attracts the attention of customers. Awnings if wrongly used can be distracting factor to the total image of the store.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 public recognize the store.
Plants and flowers used in front of store ads to the general appearance of the store. A good landscaping should be simple one which is also easy to maintain.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES ENTRANCE & AISLES Most of the first time customers remember the store entrance. than advertising. As many as one in every four sales could be the result of a good window display. AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. LANDSCAPING Landscaping should ultimately lead a customer’s eye to the focal point using colour and texture to provide contrast in harmony. Special emphasis has to be placed on a store’s window displays because they are the information link to the potential customer. Giving the best impression to the customer’s right at the entrance is mandatory for any store. This goes on with the quote ‘first impression is the best 2010 impression’. Entrances that allow shopping to come into a store without being aware of their entering are also becoming very popular. Well chosen plans which are properly placed and maintained will help a lot in welcoming customers. COIMBATORE Page 21 . Window display can be as important. Changing window displays to suit themes and moods and seasons is gaining popularity. if not more important. Cluttered aisles makes the shoppers feel uncomfortable and hence leave to a bad shopping experience. WINDOW DISPLAYS The Window to Customer’s Heart The display at shop windows is becoming increasingly popular as far as visual merchandising stands.
Properly lighted window display can help sell specific products or ideas that promote a store’s image. Too much of merchandise must not be crowded at a window.4 TIME DURATION OF THE WINDOW DISPLAY Shoppers also lose interest when the same window display is left up too long. price cards and specific items in a massed display. create interest and invite people into the store to purchase goods. Miniature portable spotlights should be used to accent small display areas. 3. Compact footlights help relieve shadows near the bottom of vertical displays. such as parked cars and buildings. AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. as customers find it difficult to determine the message and what items are being promoted. and that is the maximum time available to achieve this. COIMBATORE Page 22 . The average amount of time an individual spends looking at a window display is about 11 seconds. It is especially important to frequently change window displays in small towns where customers pass by several times a week. New displays indicate that new. Window lights should be strong enough to overcome the reflections from outside objects. Closed-back windows require a high level of general illumination. At night. up-to-date merchandise is available. additional lights overhead marquees and projecting cornices can make the window area look larger. Massed window displays are often lighted with overhead fluorescents which are supplemented by closely spaced clear incandescent lamps.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 Window display should attract attention.
efforts to utilize each square foot will help to maximize sales. 3. institutional or 2010 promotional in nature. such as in holiday windows that draws crowds of shoppers The use of sculpture. COIMBATORE Page 23 . with current area activities. people and their perceptions. lighting and viewing angle. One proven way to do this is through interior displays that effectively show merchandise to the customer.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES THEME CREATION IN A WINDOW DISPLAY Window displays are more successful when a prominent theme is carried throughout the display.5 PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN INTERIOR PRESENTATION Selling space is the most important part of a store and therefore. colour harmony. stars or best-selling books Window displays should be in harmony with the entire surroundings. street. regardless of whether the featured products are fashion-oriented. it should be kept in AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. films. painting or art objects for a touch of glass Media tie-ins. a whole is being created rather than a fragment. When planning a window display consider the building façade. Suggested window treatments that have proven successful include: A single object against seamless paper Merchandise displayed as it would be utilized in a realistic setting A theatrical setting using fantasy and drama Straight merchandise glamorized with props Animation. When planning interior displays.
FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 mind that the theme and image presented on the exterior must be carried throughout the interior of the store to provide consistency for the customer. this is a critical selling point. The purpose of interior display is to develop desire for the merchandise. Three major goals of a store should be to motivate the customer to spend money. show what is available. Most people indicated they purchased the item because they saw it displayed.The trick of Visual Merchandising A research conducted in US suggests that 64. This included impulse purchase along with substitutions and generally planned buys where the shopper had an item in mind. Displays or advertising alone may not increase product sales substantially. but no brand. project the image of the store and keep expenses to a minimum. AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. Information provided by the Point of Purchase Advertising Institute (POPAI) indicates that nothing influences the consumer’s purchase decisions more than advertising used where the sale is actually made---the point of purchase. Although the percentage of in-store purchase decisions may vary by type of store and product. However.8 per cent of all purchases decisions were made inside a supermarket. COIMBATORE Page 24 . and encourage both impulse and planned buying. combining advertising and display into an integrated promotional campaign will usually be more effective. Well-designed displays and in-store promotions are essentials for a consistent theme and to help the customer find advertised items. INTERIOR DESIGN AT SHOPPERS STOP Impulse buying .
A customer will be attracted to a display within three to eight seconds. These principles apply to all displays ---window and interior. An understanding of these principles will make it easier to design a display for all types of merchandise. This means the design attracts attention in a way that strengthens the store image. which is the time a customer spends to determine interest in a product. COIMBATORE Page 25 . both exterior and interior. Good design makes a visual presentation come together. rhythm. all parts of display are pulled together to create a purposeful effective and aesthetically pleasing presentation.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 Some effective displays are created by suppliers or brand-name manufacturers. The primary principles of design used in display include balance. Sale or promotional good in front of the store should be placed for short period of time only. emphasis. merchandise should be moved to the rear of the store. colour. lighting and harmony. proportion. Traditional or symmetrical balance is the large on one side and large on other this can be effective when expensive and quality merchandise is being presented AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. Balance Balance involves equilibrium and weight of elements between 2 sides of a display. Display Design An effective way of attracting customers to a store is by having good displays. If the sale or promotion lasts for several weeks. The main principles of design used in display are balance. two types of balances include 1. When applied appropriately. PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN To execute a display that will sell merchandise it is necessary to have a working knowledge of the principles of design. while others are developed from scratch. proportion. Balance is based on theory of equals. emphasis. rhythm. The customer should always get to see new exciting and creative merchandise with display at the front of the store. as well as introducing merchandise to the customer. colour. lighting and harmony. Every display should be planned and must have a theme.
Informal or asymmetric balance Creates flow or rhythm and a feeling of excitement.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 2. but they are not replicas of each other. empty space loses importance because its shape is predictable and has less recognition as its own element A pleasing distribution of weight using merchandise of similar value will provide importance to both sides AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. a bright colour or a shot of lights. Several soft colours in a large space can be balanced by one bright colour because the intensity of bright colour will compensate for small size When planning a display following points concerning balance has to be considered If colours are too bright they will overwhelm pastels If several small objects are more exciting than the large object. COIMBATORE Page 26 . Something large can be balanced by several small items or an expanse of empty space. they will overpower the large item A large expanse of empty space will call attention to a single object placed within it If an item is placed at an angle or to one side (Off Centre) the space on either side of that piece becomes important If an object is centred. The two sides of the display appear to be of equal weight .
COIMBATORE Page 27 . The focal point is in the upper left and eye movement is to lower right An isolated item can be emphasised when surrounded by a blank space Shiny surfaces emphasize and enlarge objects Dull surfaces absorb light and help to de emphasize an area AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. This can be by virtue of focal point’s size. There should be emphasis in all displays. the following points regarding Emphasis are to be considered A display needs to emphasize a theme or mood such as the use of sports equipment. Eye movement is from the square along the dashed line. celebrations. From this spot all eye movements flow. The merchandise is the focal point in a majority of displays. colour or position. with all else in display subordinate. Eye Movement is from left to right When planning display. Themes may also depict seasons. holidays and other special store events. Emphasis is therefore formulation of focal point. All elements in a display must then reinforce one other and emphasize the mood created Focal point is the small square. work equipment or leisure equipment set up in a lifelike situation.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES Emphasis 2010 Emphasis is the point of initial eye contact. anniversaries.
dull intensities. Each item may look normal when isolated. it seems out of proportion. even light absorption. It is comparative relationship of distances. dull opaque textures and small all-over or no pattern Repetition usually means something is important. cool hues. sizes. degree or parts. nondescript shapes.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 Colour is a powerful medium for creating emphasis. Each piece of merchandise must be considered in relationship to all the other merchandise. extreme tints or shades contrast in right places will provide striking accents Unusual textures highlight an area Emphasis is diminished with receding variations such as thin. colours or motifs grouped together reinforces their importance and creates emphasis. related items to large creates more interest and balance. but if it is inconsistent in area or dimension with neighboring items. the following points concerning proportion has to be considered All large objects should not be used together. because there is nothing to break the monotony and sameness of that large feeling. PROPORTION Proportion is the ratio of parts to the whole display. regular spacing. When planning a display. COIMBATORE Page 28 . bright intensities. So repeated shapes. Adding an odd number of smaller. Small amounts of advancing colour. AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. amounts. Medium tints or shades. fuzzy lines.
repeated or vaguely similar. o Each object should not be too large or too small. The rhythm in a display leads the viewer’s eye from the dominant object to the subordinated object(s) or from the primary presentation of the grouping down of the display. For example. The initial pattern or design when repeated makes more of an impression on the viewer because it provides a continuous beat and completion.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 Proportions take on more meaning when items define one another. which is satisfying to AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. and /or side. background to foreground. shape and colour. a pair of baby shoes will appear smaller and more delicate when placed next to an enormous teddy bear. Ratio of merchandise to space is critical: o Each piece of merchandise must be considered in relation to others. clearly stated or subtly suggested. nor too heavy or too light in proportion to other items in display areas. o The ratio of props and show cards to merchandise must be in proportion to avoid the appearance of stressing or selling props rather than merchandise. Rhythm may be broken-up or continuous. For example the size of a dinosaur is defined when it is standing next to a two story house. COIMBATORE Page 29 . a self contained movement from object to object. Drastically changing the proportions and the colour and texture can work wonders in attraction attention to a display. Proportion and balance can best be accomplished when articles within the display play off each other thorugh their size. Proportion and contrast are important elements of good display. RHYTHM Rhythm or flow involves the measurement of organized.
is placed in the baskets (one and one-half times the height if the baskets). A display can lead the eye with the colour. A flow exists if eye travels from one area of a display to another. Overlapping of objects placed together in the display area can prevent the blank space that could exist with a number if items in display. covering the entire display. either with colour or light has to be created. lettering or texture. If a very tall object such as mannequin. Rhythm entails an arrangement of organized motion and does not necessarily need repetition. it does gain impact from repetition. read from left to right. When planning a display the following points concerning rhythm have to be considered: People who read English. Overlapping is one of the most effective tools for creating good flow. A pattern through the use of light and dark. For example. Props that are repetitions either in form or theme are to be used AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. Elements that mean something together and relate to the merchandise are to be used. repetition. The eye should travel easily through the entire design. A fabric or colour that unifies the theme has to be used.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 the viewer. A left to right reading should be created in the display. shadows created by light placement. the height of the smaller objects is raised so the eye flows easily from the head and neckline of the mannequin to the baskets. It is usually recommended to use an odd number of items when displaying multiples. COIMBATORE Page 30 . However.
AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. Without harmony. . the observer is uncomfortable and will not be entitled to purchase merchandise. the feeling that all parts of display relate to each other and to the whole display. HARMONY Harmony is a coordinating umbrella principle that can cover and incorporate every other principle. i. Structural and decorative must be in agreement in a display.e.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 The technique of flying merchandise to create flow can be used Lettering with repetition of similar items or with dominance by using oversized items to create flow can be used Lettering with repetition of similar items or with dominance by using oversized items to create a flow is to be employed It is important that the eye is led through the display and does not leave until all parts have been seen. Three forms of Harmony namely Functional. COIMBATORE Page 31 . It is an agreement in feeling and consistency in mood.
merchandise should not be out of place in the display. which means it must be realistic and must work. Structural Harmony is correctly fitting together the entire piece.: an electrical appliance is not structurally consistent in an outdoor or camping display. Colour can change the shape and add interest to a dull room. A warm colour end walls of a long narrow room will appear to shorten the room. COLOUR AND LIGHTING COLOUR Colour contributes significantly to peoples impression of a display. and can direct attention toward a specific object or ways from the problem areas.g. These help create a relaxing atmosphere. These items are attractive and add to the theme. E. yellow. green. A good window display may have pot and pans. Warm colours make a room seem smaller while making objects in the room appear larger. Cool colours are especially pleasing in smaller rooms. People tend to respond a certain way to different colours. Warm colours (red.Kitchen counter used in a display that is the appropriate height and depth for working. fishing gear and outdoor furniture all mixed together because these items truly would be used on a camping trip. are cool colours. E. walls floor covering and the overall décor can affect the atmosphere of the store. Rooms decorated primarily in cool colours tend to appear larger and more spacious. as well as a stores overall appearance. Blue. and can increase (or decrease) business. If an atmosphere of spring is being developed. They make a room feel warm and intimate. hence camping theme is carried out.g. orange and colours with red or yellow hues such as yellowgreen.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 Functional Harmony deals with how something works physically. AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. Colour in a display can catch the eye and make people pause and look. COIMBATORE Page 32 . peach brown and orange-red) are stimulating and cheery.: . such as blue green and violet-blue. The colour combinations of the ceiling. Decorative harmony includes the parts of a display that are included for decorative purposes. butterflies and/or flowers may be used as props. beige. these responses are outlined in the chard on the following page. violet and colours containing blue. All merchandise is brought together as part of the trip and harmony would be created or a mood would be set. Changing the colour scheme of a store.
Table 1: Emotional Response to colour AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. The colour wheel consists of 12 colours. Some common colour schemes that can be used to plan a display are listed below. as shown on the following wheel consists of 12 colours. Several colour schemes are possible by choosing different combination. COIMBATORE Page 33 .FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 A colour wheel is a handy tool to use in developing a colour scheme for a store.
Example of analogous scheme could be yellow. is an example of a monochromatic colour scheme. The type of merchandise featured. jewelry. ANALOGOUS SCHEME Any three or four consecutive colours on a colour wheel create an analogous scheme. This can be used to create a soft and subtle décor and warm or cool effect. yellow-green. COIMBATORE Page 34 . Imagination and experimentation will find colour schemes that lend to the atmosphere and attract customer. green and bluegreen. This colour scheme needs to be used with caution so as not to end up with and over stimulating nor depressing atmosphere. only flexible guidelines. or blue. clothing etc.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 Figure 16: Colour Wheel There are no absolute rule for choosing and combining colours. MONOCHROMATIC SCHEME A Single colour on the colour wheel is used with three to five tints and shades of that single true colour in this scheme. blue-green and green. such as hardware. Several pieces of blue merchandise each consisting of a different value ranging from baby blue to navy blue. AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. will have effect on the type of colour schemes that can be used and the extent to which they can be used.
AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. or in tints or shades is used in a tone on tone scheme. Generally no change in either intensity. Using opposite colours in equal amounts of lights and dark combinations should be avoided. blue and yellow. such as green and red or yellow and purple. SPLIT COMPLEMENTARY SCHEME Three colours forming a y on the colour wheel consists of base colour and one colour on each side of the base colour scheme to create interest and richness. This is a good combination of colours that can create the muted. yellow. A display of blue and blue-violet silk flowers is an example of this scheme. however a pleasing effect can be obtained by adding the right colours using an uneven balance between warm and cool colours. such as degree of brightness. A dominant colour must be selected in developing a colour scheme. as well as redorange and blue-green.This colour scheme would be yellow and purple. blue-violet and re-violet or blue. It can result in a very pleasing combination of warm and cool colours.orange and red-orange.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES TRIADIC SCHEME 2010 Every fourth colour on the colour wheel for a total of three colours makes a triadic scheme. Examples are yellow. TONE ON TONE SCHEME Two colours that are next to one another on the colour wheel with very little space between them make ip a tone on tone scheme. traditional look as well as more vibrant colour characteristics of moderns colour schemes. consisting of any two sets of complementary colour create a double complementary scheme.Eg:. An Example could be red. A single colour can be monotonous. COIMBATORE Page 35 . DOUBLE COMPLEMENTARY SCHEME Four colours. COMPLEMENTARY SCHEME A complementary colour scheme is represented by two colours that are exactly opposite one another on the colour wheel.
neutral colours selected are white. friendly colour scheme and will be less intense and offensive over the long run. gray. The colour a retailer wants featured should be positioned on the wall where it can be easily seen. make up or other merchandise that shows merchandise in the store is current.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 Knowing about colour and its effect on the viewers can be helpful in designing displays. drawing customers into a department or store. clothing. Generally. The colour may also be popular in fashion. Bright colours can also be broken up by an eye-relieving area of solid neutral or light tone. COIMBATORE Page 36 . beige and black. and house wares. Bright red and yellow create a hot. Using different tints or shades of the colour (such as a lighter yellow with a pinked red) will set up a warm. Certain colours create intense vibrations when used together. festive atmosphere that suggests a celebration or circus. AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. Combining colour scheme choice with traffic patterns can see more items. Other colours can fan out on either side and complement the feature colour. Too much of any vibrating colour scheme will detract from the merchandise and irritate the customer after prolonged exposure. blue. Some of the most effective displays utilize monochromatic schemes because a large area of any one colour can be seen from a great distance and will create an impression of strength in that colour. Background colours should be selected which will show off the merchandise at its best.
A red chair will appear yellower when put next to blue wall. A dark colour placed near a lighter colour will appear deeper while the light colours will appear lighter yet. Next to green wall a red chair will appear lighter and brighter. AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. Colours are also radically altered by difference in pattern and texture. as a colour change dramatically when viewed under different circumstances.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 Colours must be considered in view of their surroundings. COIMBATORE Page 37 . Colour forecasts can also be received as they pertain to a season. and beside gray it will appear brighter. Table 2: Colour Combination in stores A major concern is choosing a background colour used in display areas and store that will work for a reasonable period of time. There are companies that do colour forecasts and track expected colour preferences for five years.
Brown colour especially goes well with bon china and blue work well for porcelain. the surroundings of the colour must also be considered. Strong colours should not be used to paint large areas. For example. For example. blue and white should not be used in infant garment section because these are generally the colour of the garments. The small size and light tone of garments generally make them invisible. AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 Before using any colour. The more intense the colour is. One should be very careful while using intense and strong contrast colours. Bright and sharp colours should be used in these areas to make the garments stand out and more visible. COIMBATORE Page 38 . brown and blue backgrounds work well for stores carrying chinaware and glassware. a red chair will look brighter in front of a green wall than in front of a blue wall. When intense colours are used. the smaller the area it should cover. Intensity of the colour and contrast should be considered while developing colour schemes. Choosing a background colour for display areas and interiors that will work for a reasonable period of time is a major concern for companies. Gray. Background colours affecting the colour of the merchandise should not be used. Brown and burgundy colours acts as a good background to display brass merchandise. light colours such as pink. SOME COLOUR RULES 1. yellow. the second colour should be a softer one. Brown colour should not be used as background for silver merchandise because the reflection of brown colour on the merchandise will make it appear tarnished. Sky blue and tennis court green are some colours that can give a great look to stores with sports merchandise. Colours can change drastically with respect to the surroundings.
Vivid hue is generally used to display low priced merchandise. 3. Certain colour combinations work well because they are used for a long time and also are accepted internationally. Bold combinations can be very effective if it is done with a good taste. Light tints are pleasing to the eye and seem to deepen the window space increasing the window size. Colours such as blue and green are cool. red and their combination with white and black are pleasing to the eye and enhance the appearance of the merchandise. Mixing of low priced and high priced merchandise is not advisable. Items should be grouped by price and design. Lighting is also used to direct customers through the store. orange. balanced and soothing and they create an illusion of enlarging window. 7. Dark shades shorten the perceived window space because they appear to bring the background to the foreground. COIMBATORE Page 39 . The colour scheme used in the background should match with the merchandise on display. Bright areas and items generally attract the attention of shoppers. 5. The value of the merchandise should be associated with the selection of background colours used in the display area. Warm colours such as yellow. 6. It is better to use neutral colours for background.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 2. Contrasts are effective if they are done properly. AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. calming. None of the main colours of the merchandise should be used for floors or walls. New colour combinations should be worked out carefully and one can learn more about colour combinations by observing the colour scheme used by new stores. LIGHTING Lighting plays a major role in visual merchandising. 4. Lighting is used extensively in shops and malls to draw attention of customers to a specific area or a product.
FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 Customers follow the lighting of the store and navigate through the lighted path. pinpoint spotlights and black lighting are used to create dramatic effects on certain displays. So. Fluorescent light sources are generally used for primary lighting. Colour filters. They are 1. Incandescent lights varying from small to bigger sizes are generally used for accent lighting. Primary lighting Accent or secondary lighting Atmosphere lighting Primary lighting Primary lighting is the basic overall lighting of the store which includes both internal and external lighting. Atmosphere lighting “Playing with light against shadow” is the concept of atmosphere lighting. showcase lighting and valence lighting are some ways in which accent lighting is done. A store with only primary lighting can be very boring to the customers and shopping in such a store becomes no fascination gradually. 2. marquee lights illuminating the sidewalks and the lighting for the general lobby. Accent or secondary lighting Accent lighting provides illumination to specific display areas. Accent lighting provides a change to this boredom. essentially the display lights should be more powerful and effective than lighting used in other parts of the store. Internal primary lighting includes lighting which fills the store area from overhead lighting fixtures and provides only very basic store illumination. COIMBATORE Page 40 . External primary lighting includes basic window lighting. There are three types of lighting for illuminating stores. This is used to create distinctive effect on specific displays. AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. Down lighting from the ceiling. 3.
FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES Types of lights used 2010 Fluorescent lights are used for this purpose because they cannot be directed towards a product. COIMBATORE Page 41 . They emit a lot of heat which is considered to be a safety issue and also increases the cost of air conditioning in the store. They are cost effective also. Spotlights are either installed in ceilings or on the racks. These lights enhance the merchandise and also flatter the customers. AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. but are less expensive. But one should take care that filters should not change the colour of the merchandise. Merchandise racks on the whole can also be illuminated well using spotlights. The advantage is that they provide more light per watt than fluorescent or incandescent lamps. Coloured filters that change the colour of light are available for spotlights. These are available in numerous sizes. shapes and colours.D) is considered to be the most efficient lamps available. The direction of spotlights can be changed frequently or as and when new products are introduced in the store so as to highlight them. Incandescent lamps have sharply defined beams that can be easily used to highlight a particular merchandise or display. The angle in which the spotlight is directed is very important. These lights are surrounded by a shade which affects the way the light is emitted. A large range of shades of colours are available for illuminating the merchandise as well as the store. A combination of lighting effects can be used to avoid this. High intensity discharge (H. They are similar to filters. One should also be careful while using fluorescent lights to illuminate the store as the store may appear dull or boring. They are available in rolls and can be used by cutting it as required. Fluorescent lights wash an area with light in which no shadows or accents are made.I. Gels are coloured acetates that can be placed over light bulbs. Spotlights are very effective for merchandise displays. This type of light is relatively small in size and provides shadows and highlights. Gels need to be changed every week.
pens. Props may also be merchandise that is for sale. desks and tables is an example. AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. large boulders used to give the idea of strength and power to a tractor. But it is not the theme merchandise. If a store does not have merchandise available that can be used in the display.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES PROPS. IMAGE When using sellable merchandise as a prop. Examples include a branch from a lilac Bruch for a spring or summer theme. but highlight the merchandise for sale. backgrounds. such as floor coverings. display props can be used for non-merchandise categories. pencils. it should be ensured that it is appropriate for the theme of the display and in sufficient quantity to meet an increase demand arising from the display. hangers. COIMBATORE Page 42 . Including tissue paper. shopping bags. A display prop is something which is not for sale. wall treatments. Non-merchandise props used for their original purpose can assist in telling a story. dried leaves and wood created if assorted size used to enhance a fall theme. such as golf bulbs used in conjunction with golf wear. the merchandise concept or the store itself. They are used in visual merchandising to tell a story about a product. Props are the integral part of a display. shocks of wheat. chairs. shelves. and steps. FIXTURES AND SIGNAGE PROPS 2010 A prop is something used with a product in a display that clarifies the function of the merchandise being sold. Props may also be natural or ordinary objects such as such as items carried on from the woods or rustic antiques found in someone’s attic. These object props are not generally beautifully themselves. mannequins. Theme and prop merchandise must be prominently displayed in their respective departments for the easy access by the customer. and grey rocks to provide contrast to jewellery.
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The merchandise in a display should always be the dominant element. The presence of prop is to highlight or complement the merchandise and add visual excitement to the surrounding area. A prop not present to distract the customer from their original purpose for shopping for and purchasing goods.
FIXTURE TYPES STRAIGHT RACK - long pipe suspended with supports to the floor or attached to the wall
FOUR WAY FIXTURE: two cross bar that are perpendicular to each other in a pedestal
OTHER COMMON FIXTURES: tables, large bins, flat desks
WALL FIXTURES: To make store walls merchandisable, wall usually covered with a skin, that is fitted with a vertical columns of notches similar to those on the Gondolas, into which a variety of hardware can be inserted can be merchandised much higher than floor fixtures.
MERCHANDISE DISPLAY PLANNING SHELVING – flexible and easy to maintain. HANGING- Suspending merchandise from hangers PEGGING – small rods inserted into walls or gondolas. FOLDING – for softlines that can be folded and stacked on shelves or tables – creates high fashion image. STACKING – for large hardlines that can be stacked on shelves, base desks of gondolas or flats – easy to maintain and show an image of high volume and low
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price. Stacking cushions is one such practice. Soft
materials stacked is seen in the figure.
DUMPING – large quantities of small merchandise can be dumped into baskets or bins – highly effective for softlines (socks, washcloths) or hardlines(batteries candy, grocery products) – creates high volume, low cost image.
DEPTH - Depth is the distance from the front of the window to the back of the window. It is important to give the display the right amount of depth. Consider the way we watch movies and we; look at the painting; we step or sit back from whatever we wish to see. The same applies to the windows – to grasp the whole picture it must be set back from the window, not positioned right at the glass. The rule of thumb is to start 3 quarters away from the glass, then work forward. At the same time the display should be stepping down from the highest.
PLANOGRAM Planogram is tool used by the retailer, which helps the retailer to determine the location of the merchandise within a department. It is a diagram that visually communicates how merchandise physically fit on to a store fixture or window, to allow for proper visibility and price point options. It helps in listing the exact number of square feet used for various products and exact number of products to be displayed in a particular area.
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Planogramming benefits: Improved sales presentation and closure results Increased consumer appeal of product displays Better brand awareness through consistency Improved efficiency of shelf space allocations Improved financial performance of assortments Faster more accurate replenishments Quicker inventory resets Much better marketing through targeting displays
MERCHANDISE AND FIXTURE DISPLAY RECOMMENDATIONS Goods can be effectively displayed on a variety of fixtures such as gondolas, tables, cubes, mannequins, waterfalls and other racks, display cases and manufacture point of purchase displays.
A fixture should not only complement the merchandise, but also the atmosphere created in the store. Each fixture should present the merchandise to the public and thereby act as a silent salesperson.
One of the most common fixture in stores are gondolas - movable shelving approachable from all sides which are used in self service retail stores, to display merchandise. They can be lined up in rows as in grocery, hardware and drug stores or used singly to create an island.
End caps are units at the end of aisles. End-caps are important selling locations and should be used for high profit impulse or seasonal merchandise on a gondola sides. For example golf balls displayed on a end-cap indicate that related golf accessories are located on gondola sides.
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FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 Customers generally look to the centre of gondola sides first and then. beige. red. An acceptable means of arranging merchandise on a gondola is by colour. Some merchants may use variations of this concept to provide greater contrast in the display. The high turnover. peach. The fire exit must not be blocked with fixtures and extraneous materials. Finish with cool colours: blue. pink. as well as from smallest to largest and from left to right. gray and black. As the merchandise begins to have broken sizes or assortments. green. AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. Old merchandise should be cleaned and pulled forward as new merchandise should be added to back. COIMBATORE Page 46 . cream. Group merchandise by colour as previously mentioned. Start with neutral colours: off-white. If possible remove a sample from the container to allow the customer to handle and feel the item. Use a starter gap in which at least one item is missing. ivory. orange. gold. Proceed with warm colours: yellow. each style (small to large sizes) should be grouped separately by colour. 2. but rather guidelines that fit in well store set-up and customer traffic patterns. to either right or left. lavender and violet. 3 ft distance between racks must be allowes The aisle leading to directly to the fire exit is considered a major aisle. People think of colours is as follows: 1. tan and brown. high-profits items should be placed at the eyelevel. Cerise. so the customer will not feel like they are messing up a neat display. the remaining items should be moved to the bottom shelves of gondola. These are not absolutes. When a variety of styles are shown. Larger more expensive merchandise should be placed to the right. 3. Rust. Additional high profit impulse items should be placed in the centre of gondola sides and other related merchandise to either right or left. Restock the display before it gets down to the last item so customers will not get the impression that something is wrong with the item. Basic rules for fixture placement Outlined below are some basic rules for fixture placement.
geometric aisle pattern works best to maximise sales. They can also be used to explain customer benefits and describe merchandise features. Fixtures that racks well for sale items include tub tables. Although their primary purpose was these. This feeling is necessary to sell higher-priced goods. AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. now signage commonly advertise vendors. place cubes in the front with gondolas to the rear of the department or store. A good point-of-purchase sign. Signs were originally used to identify a store. Store signage that communicates a sales message to the customers can make up for lack of sales personnel. round racks and rectangular racks. tstands and four ways can be used to create an illusion of space and selective goods. Higher priced stores require fewer fixtures because there is less stock. progress from small (sized or capacity) fixtures at aisles to large fixtures near the back walls. INTERIOR SIGNAGE Signage is a critical part of interior display and point-of-purchase promotion. COIMBATORE Page 47 . announce sales and sale merchandise. colours.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES A well-planned. name various departments. Exciting displays of mass merchandise in quantity and colour must be created. When working with hard goods. Aisle displays must be placed on an island rather than wing fixtures. properly placed. Cubes can be used for folded goods. quality and prices. 2010 When placing racks. acts as a salesperson without wages.
The focal point of a sign appears near the optical centre of the sign which is exactly halfway between the left and the right margins and slightly above the midpoint of the poster. signs should be avoided where the merchandise itself can tell the entire story. GUARANTEE All these words should be aptly used. The human eye makes the first contact in this portion. A border drawn or printed around the edge of a show card can attain the customer focus. FREE. There should be no over usage or under usage Clutter of information should be avoided. The left and right margins must be exactly equal and usually not exceed2 inches. It is better to use the price information directly rather than percentage discounts as the customer would find it difficult to compute The signage should be checked daily to ensure that It displays the current promotion and not of the previous day or of the previous sale Information can be printed on both the sides for sign holders as this would enabe the customers approaching from different directions to read the signs Same style print of the signage can be used in the interior signs so that there is an cohesive appearance The signage should appeal to all the audience Stimulate the customer by asking them to buy AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. EASY.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES A good signage would use the AIDA principle of Drawing the customer attention Identify the merchandise item being sold State the customer benefit Communicate the underlying value for the customer 2010 Common principles in designing and using signs effectively Special attention to be given to the sign and show card margins. SAVE. White space must be maintained as much as possible around the copy Action adjectives or adverbs must be used to describe a hidden feature that will benefit the customer. DISCOVER. PROVEN. Some of the key words that can be used in the signage can be YOU. NEW. COIMBATORE Page 48 . MONEY. LOVE. RESULTS.
theme or motive. The consumer should be able to understand the concept presented by the display in a few seconds. Generally the lack of merchandise on the display is that the merchandise has been sold and it has not been replaced. soap. Regardless of the type of the merchandise used. i. shampoo and deodorant with a signage showing complete body care package Props AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS.e. An example would be combining body wash. The reverse scenario can also happen. after wash hair cream. the location or the store type. If the items needed for display are unavailable then the display dimensions has to be reduced to make it appear in proportion with the available merchandise. using too many mini themes in a display making each one completely ineffective. Some precautions must be taken so that the display area is not Cramped up with may similar items Many different items . such that any selling message is lost Appear aesthetically offensive to the customer Too little merchandise A window or display area with too little merchandise makes a store appear to be going out of business or indicates to the customer that the establishment is less than prosperous.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES Errors commonly occurring in display 2010 There is no thumb rule as to how much merchandise should appear in an area. It is possible to effectively combine several types of merchandise in one area using one theme. COIMBATORE Page 49 . Lack of underlying theme Merchandise is often placed in a space with no selling message. However one major consideration is the price of the merchandise. The more expensive item the fewer it is displayed. the display needs a strong theme. Poor planning is also one of the main reasons.
The type and number of props are dependent on the merchandise. Large window displays may be changed as often as two times a week or as infrequently as every other week. after all other monetary needs have been fulfilled. Special window and internal store promotions have a longer display life. Display areas are often budgeted with the left over. This generally depends on the season and the length of time a current store theme has been planned. contemporary. time and planning of a display is also used as a guideline for frequency of change. However the error of over propping a display can be more serious than using too many props. no display or set of props should remain until it collects dust and every person in the community has seen a number of times. feminine or masculine and whether they will appeal to the store’s target market. a green velvet backdrop will not be reflective in a display promoting summer merchandise. The display of a living room suite will need fewer props to complete its message. COIMBATORE Page 50 . An example of a display that might stay longer would be an unusual festive display.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 There is no specific rule that stipulates the number of props appearing in a display. Poorly selected Props One should evaluate the props as to whether they are seasonal. rustic. Therefore props must be in harmony with the goods shown. provides opportunity to show more merchandise and presents more to the shopper Limited or No Display Budget An empty display area generally indicates the declining path of sales. The expense. Frequently changing the display sends a positive message to the community. For example. Other goods especially smaller items will need more props to elevate it to the eye level or provide a central theme to the grouping. A low budget look should be AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. However. Props are important to effectively present a display with a theme. This generally means that there is little or no budget for the display. Length of time for a display As a standard many interior displays are changed daily because they are effective and merchandise sold directly from them needs to be replaced.
An example would be. An example of the same can be as follows.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 avoided. wood. Good theme development without expensive background can be created. This is generally the first thing the customer notices. balance. construction items or other such perishables. Hence paying attention to small detail is an important factor. Such a pattern creates a scattered and spotty display. Moreover caution is to be taken to avoid fire and other related disasters The display area should be checked from all the angles so that all merchandise should be easily visible and aesthetically pleasing Mistakes in applying principles of display The four principles of design and display include emphasis. rhythm and proportion. COIMBATORE Page 51 . high level of creativity is needed to plan and execute a great display with very little budget. A low budget display may generally consist of crepe paper. Belo w is the list of things that needs to be taken care of prior to the finished display The display should be absolutely clean without any dust Signs should be attached in the display providing all the necessary information Lights in the display area should be covered. These principles must be reviewed every time the display is completed Every display needs a point where the viewer’s eye can easily start. A display which is displayed too frequently has no definite point of emphasis or the point of emphasis is in the wrong place The principle of rhythm should not be violated. clothes effectively to create a classic image. use of old furniture. Low budget displays generally give a negative image to the end customer. Many small items kept in a single area with no attempt made to keep the eye following a planned pattern. Lack of attention to Detail Making a good impression is very much important. The visual display should be tightly tied to each other to depict a story AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. tissue paper. However.
Segments of the store having soaps and toiletries can enchant the customers by the use of perfumes and scents. helps to motivate the subconscious mind and create long lasting impression on the customers. The best example of using the music can be entering the Raymond showroom and one can hear constantly the music of its famous advertisement ‘The complete man’.  AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. i. Layout having fresh breads and buns. cleaning products are all bought while keeping scent in the mind. Thus shopping at a Raymond outlet would actually mean that. the customer actually is a complete man!! Perfumes and Scent The other use of stimulation can be use of stimulating the olfactory lobe of the brain. can entice the customers by the aroma. Specific music for a particular merchandise can create a good shopping experience and can be an important tool for creating a brand. COIMBATORE Page 52 .e use of perfumes and scents. toiletries.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 Props and merchandise when not arranged together by size or weight creates a disproportion in the VM. A pleasing scent can create a wonderful ambience and add to the customers shopping experience. if it’s sparsely stocked then it looks as if the remains are leftovers Use of other sensory organs for merchandising Use of music The store image and the mood of the customers can be changed dramatically by the use of music. Scent can also be a major factor in determining which product to buy. The scent generally determines which product the customer purchases. Music establishes moods. scented candles. In some cases the best may be the absence of any noticeable scent! This is particularly important if the section has a non-vegetarian food court. Everything from perfumes. Small items should not be clubbed with large items unless there is a continuous graduation The fixtures in the store should be adequately stocked .
interviews were set up with the floor managers of Big Bazaar and Visual Merchandising Manager. The most surprising addition to this study is the involvement of social media like Orkut. It threw light on some of the difficult questions whose answers kept evading us. Some of the valuable insights of this study came from structured observation of customers shopping and also the visual merchandising efforts at these retail outlets.1 INTRODUCTION TO QUALITATIVE METHODS Some things make perfect sense when they come from people who are closest to the action. One of them also sent literature that aided in secondary research.QUALITATIVE METHODS 4. For getting a clear picture of the objectives of study. 4.1 DEPTH INTERVIEWS Depth interview with key informants like floor ma nagers and visual merchandising manager was done. COIMBATORE Page 53 . separate mails were also sent to the members of these communities seeking experience surveys. A request was put up on communities dedicated to visual merchandising. The respondents were: AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. These interviews gave invaluable insights about visual merchandising and its impact on customers at a retail store. Two visual merchandisers took active interest in this study and gave interviews over telephone. Some of the observation was done by following passengers discreetly to see how many of them stopped at the promotional areas in a store to get an idea about the effectiveness of VM implementations. It was not difficult to get them talking although some of the information they shared could be confidential as they were also interested in finding out the effectiveness of VM implementations.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 CHAPTER 4: EXPLORATORY RESEARCH .
The respondents took us around the floors and briefed us on the VM efforts implemented at various points and also the need for them . the amicable nature of the respondents prompted to have a dialogue rather than a Q&A session.Mr. The bins kept at various locations in Big Bazaar is just a way to add to the sales by making people feel that a heap is associated with what a crowd would buy. AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. Palakakd) (Transcript available in Appendix 2. the conversation however provided answers to specific questions that were drafted. Apparel Section. Big Bazaar. Rajesh (Floor Manager. The drop downs from the ceilings and the wall drops etc create an ambience of some event happening. Shiju . COIMBATORE Page 54 . Big Bazaar.Mr. This is done at the level of 5 sense organs. VM efforts must touch their senses. when customers walk into the store . Fashion at Big Bazaar. Sujatha (Visual Merchandising Manager. Luggage and Footwear Department. Coimbatore) (Transcript available in Appendix 1.Ms.0) 2010 Although a set of questions were prepared for the interview. S( Floor Manager. They feel that a good VM attracts people even though the product may not have been on their list. This is an indicator for in-store promotions in the form of displays. VM comes into picture also when some product is not selling enough.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 1. Key Findings All the respondents felt that VM contributed to increased sales.0) 2. The ambience of the store matters. Palakkad) (Transcript available in Appendix 3.0) 3.
at Chandranagar. Retail outlets like Nilgiris never keep new products on their lowest rack. Some non branded items kept at the entrance BIN MANAGEMENT (non branded items fetch max profit for the store).FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 4. People turned left on entering the store although there were merchandise on the right. AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. BIG BAZAAR (Coimbatore and Palakkad) As already proven by research. which is a posh neighbourhood with upper middle class dwellings. The Big Bazaar Coimbatore had a ladies cosmetics division on the right. 79” Customers do not mind bending or stooping to look for new products. Same is the case with Nilgiris outlet in Palghat. We observed that a lot of customers picked up things from lower shelves Big Bazaar places new products in the lowest rack in addition to the top ones contrary to other retail stores. Palakkad) Nilgiris is a single floor department store.2 OBSERVATIONAL RESEARCH 2010 Observing customers during their shopping at the store gave us some wonderful insights. The Focal point was a pavilion of Swarovski crystals in front of opening window Nilgiris have also done some kind of Bin Management. pastries and chocolates. but customers could not have cared less. The entrance had magazines and chocolates and the right side had cakes. cups. passed the Mobile Junction without stopping and proceeded into the store to the area where the first shelf talker said “Deo Rs. The location of the store is strategically selected to be in RS Puram. They just veered left. It is used only to keep the extra stock of already available products Almost all the customers who shopped during our presence at the store bought plastic items that included buckets. COIMBATORE Page 55 . hangers etc NILGIRIS (Coimbatore.
More (NSR Road. which are priced by Nilgiris themselves. This is decided by Head office at Mylapore. COIMBATORE Page 56 . There were no salesmen at this floor to aid cutomers. with noodles. The entrance was crowded with the farm products. However the assortment was not done well.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 The stationary department had a gondola. Coimbatore) Contrary to their next door neighbour. it did not look as though it was implemented. out of the blue a section of food items pops up. The store housed a wide variety of groceries. What appeals about Nilgiris is that there is a logical flow in the arrangement. More was smaller (small size departmental store). What meets a customer in the eye on reaching this floor is a rack of Outlook Magazine. The lighting of the store was not adequate. Very little sales assistance was available to customers. rubber. gifts and other miscellaneous items. AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. fruits and farm products. Himalaya had a space near the right of the counter. Revlon and Cadbury. Chennai The food section was flooded with yellow lighting RELIANCE FRESH (NSR Road Coimbatore) Reliance fresh had very little VM done The store is located in Sai Baba colony right in front of Aditya Birla’s More. Although the store was filled and had a lot of scope for VM. Dairy products had a separate section which was spotlighted. for which reliance is famous. no new products were kept bottommost rack. there were gondolas of Lakme. The 2nd floor consisted mainly of plastic. They derive the maximum margin out of the sales of these items. Plastics and sanitary kept at the end of the store . jams and ketchups . This would puzzle a customer. which was a big pen stand (in shape of pen) In addition to this. However wallets were arranged in place of Outlook magazine While walking amidst plastic in the 2nd floor. Contrary to Big Bazaar.
and the joy of having a testimonial all for oneself is one of its kind! A key word of “Visual Merchandising” yielded a handful of communities (Groups of likeminded people join communities in Orkut). An event was posted in the forum seeking for help with this project and what followed was some of the most wonderful moments in the making of this study! AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. 4. Vacancies for VM jobs were also advertised on these pages. COIMBATORE Page 57 . some had not revealed e-mail addresses in their profiles. These were communities dedicated to visual merchandising and served as a forum for experts to share latest news and views with their counterparts in rest of the nation. There are a good number of sales people assisting every customer. The shop Is properly lighted and the shopping conditions are superior.3 IMPACT OF SOCIAL MEDIA To explore the presence of visual merchandising in social media. Customer who enters the store is guided by the store itself and almost every customer sees what is in the store at least once. However users can post event in these communities. More has thus shown that size of the store does not really matter when it comes to visual merchandising and assortment planning.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 The VM efforts in the store are quite evident. the social networking site of Google. Orkut was one of the pioneers of social media revolution. The products are arranged in a great fashion and quite logically. New products are also kept in the lowest rack They maintain their uniform colour theme (orange base) They have placed a hut outside the store which has assortment of all grocery items o attract customers in the road. These communities had hundreds of members. a search was made in Orkut. The days of waiting for the 100th or 1000th scrap is still fresh in memories.
Nilgiris. AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. (Refer Appendix 4 & 5). QUESTIONS MAILED Could you tell us what would be a regular day at work for a VM? What are the most commonly used VM in the industry that you are in? What are the new trends in this area? Do you feel VM helps in increasing sales? What are the challenges in VM? How do you get to know about new trends.4 DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH Methodology Used A questionnaire which asks the ‘right’ questions was circulated among customers who walked out of the stores of Relaince Fresh. The responses of respondents were tabulated using SPSS. Big Bazaar. Big Bazaar and More. Some of the members who frequented these communities made visits to the survey link and participated in the study. A set of questions regarding VM was mailed to them prior to telephonic interview.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 The link to the online survey was also posted on communities dedicated to Retail. The survey was also posted online and respondents were asked to do the survey keeping in mind the retail outlet they visited last. Nilgiris. Big Bazaar Trivandrum etc. COIMBATORE Page 58 . Responses were received from 4 professionals from various areas of Visual Merchandising. is India at par with the VM efforts elsewhere on globe? 4. The results obtained were analysed as follows and the following conclusions were drawn.
Hence it can be concluded that most of buying decisions are made inside the store Hence the hypothesis is true AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS.5 RESULTS .FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 4.DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH 2010 Question: 5 (To get an insight on “Are buying decisions unconscious or purely conscious”) Method Used: Frequency Charts Hypothesis Buying decision are made before reaching the store Analysis Mostly people never carry a written list while going out for shopping. COIMBATORE Page 59 . More than 60 % of the people agree to this fact.
Thus a good product coupled with good visual merchandising will have a greater impact on consumer buying behaviour. To get an insight on “Are buying decisions unconscious or purely conscious”) Hypothesis Buying decisions are taken inside the store Method used: Crosstabs Analysis It can be seen that most of the customers do not carry a written list of items(47. COIMBATORE Page 60 . Hence the hypothesis is true AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES Question: 4 & 5 (To explore if buying choices are made before reaching the store or 2010 thereafter.2%) to be bought which means that most of the buying decisions are made inside the store.
Hence the hypothesis is true AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS.4 % of the sample comes to a store only when there is a need.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES Question: 4 Hypothesis Customers visit stores to fulfill their needs 2010 Method used: Frequency Analysis It can be seen that 72. COIMBATORE Page 61 .
COIMBATORE Page 62 . They have also bought more due to the reason that either it was a good product or it was a good discount. 12 Hypothesis Customers only confine shopping to their needs 2010 Method used: Frequency Analysis It can be seen that 62% of people buy more than what they need and more than 92% of people buy more than what they have written it down on a list. Attractive display also played a major role in this. Thus customers mostly do not confine to their needs and generally buy more than what they need Hence the hypothesis is not true AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. 11.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES Question: 4.
FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 Question: 1. 6 (To analyze whether customers actively seek for new products at a retail store) Hypothesis Frequently visiting customers actively seek new products Method used: Crosstabs AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. COIMBATORE Page 63 .
New products generally have an enhanced VM. COIMBATORE Page 64 .FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES Analysis 2010 It can be seen that customers who visit the store regularly are the people who actively seek for new products. 70 % of population visit these stores at least once a month. Hence VM targets such population Hence the hypothesis is true AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS.
FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES Question: 8 & 9 (To explore the impact of layout in a retail store on customer buying behaviour) Hypothesis VM inside the store traps customers to follow layout plan 2010 Method used: Crosstabs AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. COIMBATORE Page 65 .
they follow the stores path. COIMBATORE Page 66 . Hence the hypothesis is true AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 Analysis It can be inferred from the graph that about 40% of the customers feel that they don’t have any particular direction. Also around 60% of customers agree to the fact they follow signage board to find the product. This clearly gives an indicator of VM as a leading indicator for product sales.
COIMBATORE Page 67 . 10 & Gender Which gender is attracted the most by VM Method used: Crosstabs 2010 AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES Question: 7.
AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. While only 22.9 % of females pay attention to the signage boards. COIMBATORE Page 68 . This can be said from the two bar charts where 34% of males are the ones who mostly see the signage board and the product layout and they also agree to the fact that they get attracted to it.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 Analysis: From the above analysis it can be seen that males are the most affected by VM.
FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES Question. COIMBATORE Page 69 .4 & Age 2010 Whether there is any correlation between different age group with VM. Method used: Cross-tab. AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS.
FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 Analysis From this cross tabulation we cannot conclude the correlation. however we can conclude with some certainty that age group of 16-21 are not interested in checking out new products. AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS.28. COIMBATORE Page 70 . So it can be said that this age group is the most influenced by VM and product layout. They usually come to buy what they need and they also are interested in looking out for new offers. The most relevant people who come to the store are of the age group 22.
Hence the hypothesis is true AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES Question 13 2010 Hypothesis VM plays a major role in internalising the image of the product in the store Method used: Projective question asked outside the store Analysis 62% of the sample recalls the product displayed by VM. This can lead to the conclusion that good product coupled with a good VM will enable the customers not only to buy the product but also internalise the brand image of it. COIMBATORE Page 71 .
COIMBATORE Page 72 .FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 Question – Occupation and 11 (To explore the impact of visual merchandising on the buying decisions of customers in a retail store) Method Used: Crosstabs AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS.
Hence it must be ensured that of the entire layout.7%). VM should be emphasised AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 Analysis Most of the shopping is done by professionals who are educated. Moreover they are the ones who end up in buying more than what they need (52. COIMBATORE Page 73 .
1% N 176 Total Percent 100.9% N 2 Missing Percent 1. Hence there is a definite correlation between the occupation and the role that people play in shopping. COIMBATORE Page 74 . AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES Question: Occupation and 3 Whether there is any correlation between occupation and the role played in shopping Method used: Cross tabs 2010 Case Processing Summary Cases Valid N What is your role in shopping * occupation 174 Percent 98.0% Analysis: It can be inferred that professionals do most of the shopping (50%).
645. 2010 Method used: One sample T. So we can say that the hypothesis is strongly rejected i. T-Critical is 1. VM has a great impact on consumer buying behaviour Hence the hypothesis is not true AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES Question: 7 Hypothesis VM has no impact on consumer buying behaviour of the customer in a retail store.Statistic Analysis T-Statistic is 29. so clearly TStatistic > T-Critical. COIMBATORE Page 75 . Hence the hypothesis is rejected.e. On that CI.548 at 95% confidence interval.
A lounge with a set of magazines can be provided at the left AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. COIMBATORE Page 76 . which in turn attracts more customers to the store from outside. As per the code books of typical store designs the entrance of a store should not have any merchandise kept up to 30 ft from the entrance as the customers on entering will just take some time to absorb the layout of the store. They can try increasing the number of signage in the store which according to our study also plays an important role in attracting the customers. COIMBATORE At the entrance there are the billing counters facing backwards which blocks the view of all the merchandise of the store for the visitors and the customers of the Chowatty store just outside the entrance. shelf talkers and very few signages. Posters or cut outs can also serve the same purpose. to the people outside about the customers inside the store. One of our recommendations is to make use of the glass window at the entrance to display their attractive products. Instead of billing staffs facing backwards at the billing counter at the entrance.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 CHAPTER 5: RECOMMENDATIONS RECOMMENDATIONS FOR NILGIRI’S. These are people who seek luxury. Through observation study it came into our notice that most of the customers who hit the store are upper middle class or above who come in luxury cars. Another recommendation would be to change the direction of the billing counter. This can also give more visibility. The visual merchandising which was used to promote their offers or products was confined to only gondolas. The unpacked cardboards are littered most of the time immediately near the entrance along the glass windows. A few posters or flex at the entrance would also serve a good purpose to convert the passersby on the road and visitors in of Subway just beneath the store at Coimbatore to visitors of Nilgiris. In Nilgiris. the store looked crowded at the entrance which can be avoided by replacing at least one of the billing counters near the entrance.
Keeping the unchilled cooldrinks near the chill zone will help customers who don’t want chilled ones. Suggestions for Big Bazaar would be very few. COIMBATORE Improve the customer service significantly. There is clutter near the staircase (if customers decide to take the stairs) which is the first thing a customer sees on using the stairs. the stuffed toys section can be kept near that of kids sections to attract them as implemented in Big Bazaar. significant changes have to be made in this upfront. The amount of VM is very low. Coimbatore The shubh Muhurat displays can be made more attractive by making them theme based and employing the use of some props. Tang etc. An arrangement of visual merchandising around this place can be effective. Backdrops can also create some good effects in this region. but will ceratnly add some value to the store There are repetitions of shelves for cooldrinks. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR RELIANCE FRESH. Horlicks. COIMBATORE Page 77 .FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 corner of the entrance which cannot be utilized by the store for any displays because of its very low visibility. An arrangement like this can attract the shoppers or the people who accompany the shoppers who wish to take weight off their feet. Also. PALAKKAD Big Bazaar strikes a good balance between visual merchandising and lay out to allow customers to have a good shopping experience. The chilled ones are kept in chill zone and the unchilled ones are kept in another shelf between the aisles which houses sugar free items. AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. The apparel section for kids can be a little more organized. Big Bazaar Coimbatore had done a good job in this regard. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR BIG BAZAAR.
Improper lightings: Pickles are kept in a corner where there are no lights. This should change immediately as the customer is encouraged by proper lights Improper product assortment: The ground floor consists of many food products. This encourages the customer to leave the store as soon as they arrive. which was placed in a very dark place. They are not given a chance to explore the entire store. Half of the store was under lighted. RECOMMENDATIONS TO RELIANCE FRESH MADURAI Lightings –Poor: They have provided a separate gondola and wall mounted racks for shirt and jeans. AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 Low sales force: Customers complain of bad customer service. as it looks more attractive than the ordinary lights. They can place spot lights. However a huge section of food products appears on this floor as well. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR BIG BAZAAR. The cash counter is just placed on the right side very close to the entrance. rubber items and clothes. 1nd floor has mainly plastics. COIMBATORE Have excellent Visual merchandising implemented The only recommendation is that to decrease the size of the aisle of the luggage. The position of the cash counter should be changed. Throughout the store. There are more luggage kept than required. COIMBATORE Page 78 . They can provide sodium lights for fruits and vegetables. only ordinary lights were provided. so that customers can at least view them. This can be evident from the fact that there were just two sales persons in the entire store out of which one was in the cash counter.
The main advantage for Reliance Fresh is that. as people crowd in that section more than in others. these offers aren’t announced through loud speakers. they are congested and people get confused. To check the bills after customers purchase. and plastics section. COIMBATORE Page 79 . They have provided SAVE THIS MONTH offer pamphlets. Recommendations to Spencer’s daily Madurai The entrance and exit are same. which are provided at the entrance. they provide many exciting offers between 8pm and 9 pm daily. The billing counters are placed at the entrance. To avoid this problem they can provide exit at the other end of the floor as the shop is placed at the corner. this adds further crowd. They can instead provide offer boards for all those products in that section. AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. which makes the entrance very crowded and people find hard to cross the entrance. They can provide exit at another end or divide the entrance and exit with any divider. Another guard can be appointed during the peak hours to check the bills as it can reduce crowding at the exit.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 Aisle was medium in the biscuits and snacks. Instead customers have to ask the sales person every time. only one guard is present at the entrance. The pamphlets are not displayed properly. Around 4 to 6 feet wide aisles can be provided. All the offer pamphlets are placed at the entrance of the store and people stay there for a while before they purchase. But it also has a disadvantage. at the entrance of that section aisle also. They can announce these offers through speakers. This can be provided inside the store also.
When product promotions remain constant. we can go by the folklore that says . increasing levels of visual merchandising efforts can be employed to see the response of customers. Periodically monitoring increase in sales during times of dramatic VM implementations can also be a way to determine if the VM efforts paid off. Although this would be difficult in terms of implementation. there are no real metrics for measuring its effectiveness. As Ms. COIMBATORE Page 80 . There is no 2010 way to find out what worked. “Something is better than nothing” AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. that a Dosage test can be employed in this regard. Some things work.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES ON A FURTHER NOTE It evolved out of our study that although the importance of VM is growing.5 years of experience in retail noted. Mallika who has 4. “There is no right or wrong as far as retailing and Visual merchandising are concerned. some things do not” We feel. It is just trying out new things. The judges who evaluated our presentations also agreed to this fact.
from retailnetworks http://www. (2007). Singh. from Digital Signage Expo online.org/index. BUY. Retrieved March 10. Retrieved March 11. Retrieved March 11.com/articles/Retail-Store-Operations/VM-and-Design/Sensoryexperience-must-in-retail-design-163/  Electronic References: Electronic Media and URLs (2003). COIMBATORE Page 81 .umn.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1425&Item id=302  Lindstrom. 2010. Nature and Functioning of Visual Merchandising in Organized Food Retailing.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 CITATIONS  Loganathan.. Retrieved March 10.S. Retrieved March 10.edu/bitstream/47438/2/3-VPS-Arora  Electronic References: Electronic Media and URLs (2003). from Retail Franchise India online.digitalsignageexpo.P. Nirdesh. D. London: The Random House Group Limited  Arora .net/DNNArticleMaster/DNNArticleView/tabid/78/smid/104 1/ArticleID/1688/reftab/243/t/The-Impact-of-Digital-Signage-on-In-Store-DecisionMaking/Default. Digitalsignageexpo website: http://www. (2009). Indian Retail Industry – An Exploratory Study. Scribd website: http://www. from Ageconsearch http://ageconsearch.retailnetworks.franchiseindia. and K. Retailfranchiseindia website: http://retail. 2010. 2010. from Scribd online.com/doc/17926288/Role-of-Visual-Final AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. 2010.V. Shivani. Martin (2008).aspx  Electronic References: Electronic Media and URLs (2003). Sharma.ology How everything we believe about why we buy is wrong. 2010.scribd.
.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 APPENDIX 1: DEPTH INTERVIEW – VM MANAGER Depth Interview Ms. We see a lot of brands specific to Big Bazaar. Some AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. At every floor or at every merchandising counter there is something called as Focal point which is a strategic location on that particular section. learn from the best”. AFL Jeans. floor stickers. display ambience. Mannequins. Q. These make up a major share of our in. Matrix. Sujatha responds to the questions posed to her regarding VM Q. Matrix Jeans. “When you learn. The focal point often correlates to the positioning of the products and also the segment they cater to. Koryo. AFL. Visual Merchandising Manager Big Bazaar. All those mannequins. printed banners etc are examples of VM focal points. Sujatha. Always the best merchandise is kept at the focal point.. Coimbatore. Tasty Treat. And what better place can one find to learn about visual merchandising (VM) in retail stores than at Big Bazaar! Ms. Q. COIMBATORE Page 82 .What are these? A. Ms. visuals etc are the same across stores all over India and are standardized. How are the VM efforts co-ordinated? A. like Koryo for Electronics. For each product there is something called SOP(Standard operating Procedure) which is designed at the Head Office (HO) in Mumbai. headers and drop downs are in place due to the hard work and enthusiasm of this eminent woman. Sujatha is the Visual Merchandising Manager of Big Bazaar. lights. Big Bazaar has several of these. Knitwood. Who decides the where and how to display merchandise? A. The HO gives us these instructions. The layout. Coimbatore People say.store promotion. These are called SIS(Shop inShop) alliances. Srishti and many more.
The Apparel Section also has a lot of promo areas. We try to influence at least one of them every time the customer is anywhere in the store. In Furniture section you can see artificial living rooms and bed rooms that we have created. This aids impulse buying even in food! The Food Bazaar is kept at ground floor as this is the most sought after section. The ambience of food fort is aided by the ads on the walls. there are five sense organs for every human being. The Chowpatty (food court) is consciously kept at the top floor so that customers walk between various aisles and when finally reach the food court are welcomed by aromas of various dishes. Every floor has something called a Circulation Plan. What is the role of lay out in VM? A. We try to achieve this goal. Merchandise moves very fast from food bazaar and needs constant replenishment also. The Coimbatore Big Bazaar does not have a window area.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 products sell less and need a push. In short the VM people decide how people should enter and leave the store. As you know. The layout in the store and arrangement of products is in such a way that every customer who enters the store sees all the merchandise in the store at least once. COIMBATORE Page 83 . it is a promo area. You can see Asin in beautifully clad kurtis and saree. The store also has some Promo Areas (Promotional areas) and Window Areas intended only for promotion and not sales. but we have a number of promo areas in each section. in a floor to ceiling manner with pictures that make customers want to try out. The menu is plastered on the wall. This kind of visual merchandising helps the customer to visualise how the piece of furniture will look when arranged at home. VM plays a major role here. At the entrance you might have seen mannequins of different kinds of clothing. although Big Bazaar is not a lunch destination. AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. these are products which are laggard are concentrated in these focal points to increase their sales. we have huge wall drops of Asin and Dhoni at the promo areas in Apparel Section. Q.VM takes care of the eye part of it.
Indians like buying things from crowded places. The layout is designed in such a way that even if the number of people in the store is few. The aim is to give homemakers the power to save the most. Layout changes are not frequently unless some product is afflicted by low sales or low visibility. Everyone knows that in weekend the sales are the highest. This motivates them to buy when there is crowd surrounding merchandise. the promo areas. The offers include 50% off on most items Solid surprises on food items . Big Bazaar has introduced a Wednesday Bazaar concept called “Hafte Ka Sabse Sasta Din”. Why Wednesday s? A. Big Bazaar has Wednesday Bazaars for weekly discounts. accessories and fashion jewellery and personal care products. The wednesday Bazaar also offers clothes. AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. What purpose do these Bins serve? A. bins kept heaped with merchandise at various locations in the store etc are the keys to this . the store will look crowded. Hence there should be some stimulus to boost the sales during the week and hence Wednesday offers are given. COIMBATORE Page 84 . as they believe fast moving goods are of good quality and that is why people crowd for them. The stores don a fresh look to make customers feel that it is their day. How often does the layout of the store change? A. Wednesday is chosen as the day for giving weekly discounts as it falls in middle of the week.Every Wednesday. Q. Q. This is done by VM. Some layout changes also occur as a result of new arrivals.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 Q.
If it is a shift in floors. the keen. Some products which sell less are put in front at a prominent space in the store to promote it and thus aid in its selling. Shiju. The width of aisles are 1. Mr. Otherwise white fluorescent tube lights are used in the store. observant floor manager of Luggage and Footwear department of Big Bazaar. The shoes/ trolleys with lowest MRP are thus placed at the entrance. How often does the floor undergo a layout change? A. Shiju amidst our Foray Between the Shopping Aisle.. like it is happening now (The Apparel section will come down to where the Luggage and Footwear section is) the decision comes from Mumbai. Lighting also plays an important role. that is where the visual merchandising can help. AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. There is no need to change the way of display as long as customers ask for a certain product. If no one is asking or rather buying. Palaghat. How do you think layout complements VM efforts? A.25 feet. A good VM is essential for this section as these items are sought only by customers when they are in need for it Q. This helps to make customers think about buying. The layout is also designed in a way so as to help customers to enjoy a spacious shopping. There would have been some common indicators that initiated this change. We stumbled upon Mr. Shiju answers some questions pertaining to Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar Q. We arrange the products according to price. although the trolley or shoe might not have been on the shopping list. Palakkad True answers come to the right question from people who are close to the action. Luggage and Footwear Big Bazaar.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 APPENDIX 2: DEPTH INTERVIEW – FLOOR MANAGER 1 Mr. Spotlights are used to attract customers to fancy footwear. When we feel there is a problem and see a dip in sales. COIMBATORE Page 85 . Thus layout also becomes a part and parcel of VM. The overall arrangement at the footwear and luggage section follows a pattern. Floor Manager. we change layout.
Signage: Signage are posted at each section which communicate the offers or new arrivals. Q. For instance Big Bazaar is known for “Killing Offers”. The VM changes centrally with new offers and seasons. A few are: Shelf Talkers: “AFL Jeans. Some AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. just to create an ambience. The two major ways to attract customers are offers and display. Over days these items keep changing.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES Q. COIMBATORE Page 86 .Thus attractive offers and display are the key to customer’s heart. Offer Price: RS239” These strips of papaer which are inserted in transparent slots of the shelves are the major medium in Big Bazaar for conveying their offers. Flooring Stickers: Stickers are stuck onto floors especially during Onam in Kerala. Asin sporting sarees and Kurtis. selected products are sold at half rate or even less for about an hour or so. Q. Dhoni wearing DJ&C T-Shirts welcome shoppers amidst their search between the aisles. Big Bazaar believes that good product coupled with good offers and apt display will sell more. What are the major ways in which VM is done in this store? A. It is akin to the decorations we do at temples. These offers will definitely attract customers who are within the store. Sometimes. Movable Wall Drops: These are lookalike of pillars that are omnipresent at Big Bazaar. A look around the store will bring some items into quick notice. What drives these VM efforts? 2010 A. The Exchange signage which promotes the exchange mela would be on till the 4th of April Drop Downs: The A4 sized cardboards with exchange mela written across them hang from the ceilings of each floor. The colourful stickers portraying flower carpets would aid in creating an celebration mood among the shoppers. These drop downs are used just to make customers feel something is happening. These promote the specific offer of the season (as of now the “Exchange Mela”) There are numerous of these in the store. How often does the VM change? A. MRP RS 299. There are several VM aids in store.
layout and display are done. they started Big Days for Independence. Republic and May Days to attract holiday crowd with killing offers lasting for 5 days. AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. which are one of the pioneering inventions of Future Groups. who can do shopping for the entire family when they visit the store. Customers queue up and this at times even extends outside the store as they wait to gain entry. This in turn increases the walk ins of a day. in short no scope for mega shopping.It is keeping them on mind that offers. COIMBATORE Page 87 . Thus.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 of them even communicate to their friends using mobiles. Future recognized that some months of the calendar do not have any festivals. Shiju observes that Big Bazaar caters more to homemakers. So we have to make the ambience look as if something is happening! So is the case with Big Days.
the floor had them arranged in a similar set up as found in real homes. COIMBATORE Page 88 .” Instead of arranging cots. The Shubh Muhurat sported an attractive summer collection which definitely caught some eyeballs. Sporting a ramp with fashionably clad and decorated mannequins . Shubh Muhurat woos customers. sofas and Television stands. the more the customers see. The Electronics section also has employed some visual merchandising of its own. apparels are arranged in the order of colors (White –Cream-Yellow-Green-Blue-PinkMaroon-Red-Black) Bin Management: The Bins that are kept throughout the store house some products merely for aiding impulse buying. the more they buy. the electronics brand promoted by Big Bazaar was celebrating summer with backdrops of ice capped mountains and penguins. The most visually merchandised section of Big Bazaar is the Apparel Section. Temperature at Electronics Section 160C. AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. Floor Manager Apparel Section (Fashion@Big Bazaar) Q) How are the VM desicons made at Fashion@Big Bazaar? A. The Bins are a sheer way to increase sales and go by the principle.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 APPENDIX 3: DEPTH INTERVIEW – FLOOR MANAGER 2 Mr. Color Blocking: Color blocking is done for a better look. Rajesh. Koryo.According to MPM. A huge flex said at the footwear section: “Temperature today at footwear section.300C. color and pattern. From Left to Right on the floor. Big Bazaar’s apparel section has altered its arrangement of jeans according to size. the App section puts “Fashion at First”. Q) What are the different methods of VM used in this section? Shubh Muhurat: This is one of the major attractions on the App Floor. Contrary to the footwear section where the arrangement is based on lowest priced item near the entrance. Recently Big Bazaar has adopted the Merchandising Presentation Manual to visually merchandise the products.
Pocket is a multi Branded Outlet (MBO) renowned for 62 international brands in Apparels. who is also an MBA has designed nearly 100 stores in the last 2 years. ANUPAM GOYAL Interior Designer. Van Heusen. Mumbai Anupam Goyal is a young interior designer based at Mumbai who specialises in designing retail stores. It involves a lot of little things that make up the store. COIMBATORE Page 89 . he delivers guest lecturers to designing students in Mumbai. The 3 preliminary things that I feel makes up the identity of a store are its.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 APPENDIX 4: DEPTH INTERVIEW – RETAIL STORE DESIGNER ROLE OF SOCIAL MEDIA IN VISUAL MERCHANDISING TELEPHONIC INTERVIEW MR. It will include the furniture fit outs and lighting. which will find a place in the minds of customers. This designer. Pull and Bear. Could you tell us what would be a regular day at work for a VM? A. A visual merchandiser is involved in creating an identity for a store. Zaara. This enthusiastic designer was full of words when he spoke of Visual merchandising. Puma. In his free time. Q. These things change as per the AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. Nike. Pocket etc. Greg Norman. Footwear and Accessories like CK. Reebok etc. Gap. Ambience: How appealing is the store to customers is decided by the ambience of the store. bins and aisles. This will not include just mannequins. Anupam has designed stores for Nautica. Austin Reed. Nautica. He believes in creating an identity for every store.
It primarily depends on what kind of apparel you are displaying. In stores of international brands. I manage a log book near the billing counter which collects data about customers. sectional signages etc. Managing these will directly help customers in their purchase. I change music according to crowd in the stores that I design and manage. The store’s logo and theme has to be maintained well . COIMBATORE Page 90 . In-Store Branding: This includes managing posters and banners inside the store. In addition to this. Fragrance: The store must have a constant fragrance. The air fresheners or cooler perfumes must not be changed as when liked. spotlights and window displays. by evening it’s an air of romance in my stores. a customer tells about what he felt when he walked into the store. AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. so that you can change according to their tastes. This is the responsibility of a VM A VM is also responsible for changing the stacking. Once this is done. In this log book. Once customers walk in.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 display. Music in store plays a role in this. No customer will walk into a store that looks stale and has the same display for a long time. where I tied up a hammock at the window area and put a denim clad mannequin in it. they should feel that the store is friendly. I had designed a store in Goa. This should be done periodically to make the store look fresh. hanging. It was well appreciated. On week days I play some soft music. Q. What are the new VM trends in the apparel industry? A. On weekends. which is frequented by youth. It is very important to know all about your customer. Music: The choice of right music for the store is of great importance. Friday evenings are dedicated to rock. shelf talkers. they would not even look for a sales person. he talked about mannequins. mannequins etc. Denims are stuffed with polythene bags to resemble a mannequin. The stacks should be reshuffled. As he specialised in apparels. romantic numbers and soft music is played.
Q. The new Levis store has used a theme of red and black. I used spotlights to display the merchandise and put mannequins under spotlights. dark shades all over. COIMBATORE Page 91 . Do you thing VM adds to sales? A.000. It is very dark inside.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES These days casuals can be seen rolled up and tied to give them a rough look. Themes are among the commonest things. and had rough surface. That with a friendly feeling would make customers buy. roughly and did not polish or lay tiles on it. It’s about thinking and doing different. But they have used 2010 yellow spotlights to display jeans. It will be great to use the ceiling area above the display as well. Displaying near the glass windows are becoming increasingly popular as this lets customer see what is inside. The ceilings were dark. Big brands like Levis and Spykar can afford to do this as customers know the quality associated with the brand and might not even care if the lighting is not adequate. 60% of the footfalls in a store depend on VM. This idea was well received and the store won an award for its interiors. a basket ball etc. I had left the flooring cemented. AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. The walls of the store had an uneven coating of white cement. If you are creating a display for sportswear. you might want a water bottle nearby. Levis is soon coming out with a new red and black format with red lights to make the store appealing to the youth as the store would give the ambience of a pub with its red lighting! I had designed a saree store in Mumbai which sold sarees with a beginning price point of INR25. Good VM makes people want to enter the store.
on contract basis for an unbranded store. as women love the ones I design. and I also received a month long training from them. Q. The way VM is done in Europe is way too good. India has a lot of catching up to do when it comes to this. I had the opportunity to meet with some of the best ones from Germany. Later I got a project on retail. A lot depends on the mindset of people. I learnt a lot of things during this training which I use in my store designs now. attended training and also travelled around the world and looked at stores. What are the challenges that VM faces? A.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES Q. Is VM in India at par with that in countries across the globe? 2010 A. it was difficult to take people into confidence. German stores are awesome when it comes to displays. I came to Mumbai as an Interior designer. I still think I design good kitchens. Thank god it did! AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. I later became an expert in residential and commercial kitchens. I promised them that I would give back their money if the design did not pay off. COIMBATORE Page 92 . I then started learning from all available sources. Getting business was not easy. I enjoyed what I did although I was not trained in VM.
Bangalore Mohit Saxena is a graduate from National Institute of Fashion Technology. He is responsible for coordinating VM efforts across 70 stores in the South and West region. Kipling. Hero by Wrangler. has formed a joint venture with US based VF Corporation for marketing various brands owned by the US firm in India. The existing business including intellectual assets and licenses from VF for Lee. Nautica. MOHIT SAXENA Asst. Riders by the makers of Lee brands . Wrangler. Lee Youth. Let me begin with a return question. Jansport. it resembles a wardrobe. He works in Visual Merchandising with VF Arvind and is based at Bangalore. Visual Merchandising VF Arvind. has now been transferred to the new company. which was a wholly owned subsidiary of Arvind Mills Ltd. If there are two stores. Who wants to buy at a wardrobe? AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. one which has attractively displayed merchandise and a neighbouring one which looks normal and unattractive which one would you go to? Naturally. Q. Tell us about how important is visual merchandising in apparel industry? A.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 APPENDIX 5: DEPTH INTERVIEW – ASST. When products are kept randomly. Manager. Visual merchandising gives richness to the merchandise and makes it exclusive. COIMBATORE Page 93 . Arvind Brands Ltd. VM MANAGER TELEPHONIC INTERVIEW MR. the first one. which was held by Arvind Fashions Ltd.
COIMBATORE Page 94 . I am based at Bangalore.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 Q. to ensure that everything is in order. click photographs of the implementation and mail it back to me. theme displays etc are relatively new in India. They implement the design. But they are looking at it now. Rolling casuals. stacking or grouping I click photographs of these arrangements and mail it to the VM co-ordinators in the other stores. arrange the brands in a specific manner. I might drop in at some of the stores in other locations and conduct quick surprise visits. These things happen every week. So on a weekly basis I go the stores in Bangalore. United Colours of Benetton is doing an unmatchable job in this regard when it comes to India This is because they have more VM staff than anyone else AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. Be it folding. For instance. But in Europe it is ruggedness that is new. VM in India is relatively new. signage. In addition to this. How exactly do you go about with the VM activities across the 70 stores that you manage? A. Changing the displays according to seasons is also an important thing to be done. Q. hanging the merchandise asymmetrically etc which are hot trends abroad are just in their infancy in India. In this context window displays. But they have been prevalent for quite long abroad. About 6 years back no one even knew about VM. displaying merchandise in a neat way is the in thing. Can you tell us about some new trends in the area of VM with respect to apparel industry? A.
Industries have recognized the need in India and VM is fast growing. But all of us know that visitors come in due to display and then buy if the product matches their needs. The problem is that there are no clear metrics available to see the impact of VM on sales. AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. In European nations there is a coveted title of VM director. What do you feel are the challenges for VM in India? A. Let’s think about this 2010 experiment in which we decide to keep a store unarranged for some time without VM. There is also trouble with the posts of VM in India. Some of the best VMimplemented stores have more visual merchandisers than sales people. COIMBATORE Page 95 .FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES Q. or many other things. But the parameters for measuring a successful VM are few as a higher turnover could be due to promotions. monitor sales and then try doing the same with VM implementation. The indicators are also pretty fuzzy. sales people. We can soon catch up with what the other countries are doing. Another challenge is the number of staff doing VM in a store. It’s simply not possible. whereas in India the highest anyone can get to be is a Head VM.
What is your role in shopping? (Tick the most relevant) □ I do the shopping □ I look around □ I look around and suggest □ I do not do anything 4. Do you actively seek new products when you go out for shopping? □ Always □ Mostly □ Sometimes □ Rarely □ Never 7. Name of the Store: Location: 1... Please help us by filling out this questionnaire and be a part of our Marketing Research project. Does the way products are arranged or displayed attract you? □ Always □ Mostly □ Sometimes □ Rarely □ Never 8.. With whom do you usually come shopping? □ With parents □ With spouse and kids □ With friends □ Alone □ With spouse 3. When I enter a store. AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. How often do you carry a written list when you go out for shopping? □ Always □ Mostly □ Sometimes □ Rarely □ Never 6. What do you feel about shopping? (Tick as many as applies) □ To take a break □ To look for new products □ To check for new offers □ To buy what I need □ Others (Please Specify) __________________________________________ 5. How often do you visit this store? □ More than once in a week □ Once a week □ Once a month □ Very rarely □ Once a fortnight □ I come when I feel like 2. It would be really great if you can help us (MBA students of Amrita School of Business) in understanding a few things that would make shopping effective and entertaining. COIMBATORE Page 96 .FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 APPENDIX 6: SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE A study on consumer buying behaviour Hi! Hope you enjoyed the shopping.
how do you come to know about the offers for the day in the store? (Tick only one option which is most relevant) □ I do not pay attention to offers □ Sales People □ Shelves and sign boards/banners □ Pamphlets □ Loudspeakers in the store □ No offers 11. □ Strongly Agree. Can you recall one product which was prominently promoted in the store. So I did not buy anything. □ Agree □ Neither agree nor disagree □ Disagree □ Strongly Disagree 10. I just bought because I liked the Product □ I did not buy anything out of list 13. □ I bought lot more than what I came for. COIMBATORE Page 97 . I just walk randomly and pick up products □ I seek the help of salesperson to navigate in the store □ Others (Please specify) __________________________________________ 9. which of the following factors made you buy more? (Tick as many as applies) □ Good Product □ Good Discount Offer □ Attractive display of the product □ Information provided by salesperson □ Others (Please Specify) __________________________________________ □ No specific reason.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 □ I go straight to the products which I want □ I walk through the store as it leads me □ I do not follow any pattern. Nothing More. Please specify _________________________________________ AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. 12. While shopping. □ I did not find what I needed. Which of these is most relevant with regard to your shopping? □ I bought what I came to buy. If you have bought some products other than what you came to buy. □ I bought everything that attracted me. Generally I follow the signage board and layout to find a product. □ I bought a little more than what I came for.
FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 Personal Information: Gender : Male / Female Age : Occupation : Education : Thanks for spending your valuable time. COIMBATORE Page 98 . Your response means a lot to us AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS.
9 1.ID: □ More than once in a week (1) □ Once a week (2) □ Once a fortnight (3) □ Once a month(4) □ Very rarely(5) □ I come when I feel like(6) Missing .name): Missing – 9 Location(location): Missing . 3. How often do you visit this store? Question.9 Nominal Variable – accompany to shopping. With whom do you usually come shopping? □ With parents(1) □ With friends(2) □ With spouse(3) □ With spouse and kids(4) □ Alone(5) Missing . What is your role in shopping? (Tick the most relevant) AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS.9 Ordinal Variable .frequency 2.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 APPENDIX 7: CODE BOOK A study on consumer buying behaviour Name of the Store(store. COIMBATORE Page 99 .
FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES
□ I do the shopping(1) □ I look around(2) □ I look around and suggest (3) □ I do not do anything(4)
Missing – 9 Nominal Variable – shopping role
4. What do you feel about shopping? (Tick as many as applies)
□ To take a break (Shop4break) (0=No,1=Yes,9=Missing) □ To look for new products (shop4newprod) (0=No,1=Yes,9=Missing) □ To check for new offers (shop4newoffer) (0=No,1=Yes,9=Missing) □ To buy what I need (shop4need) (0=No,1=Yes,9=Missing) □ Others (Please Specify) __________________________________________
5. How often do you carry a written list when you go out for shopping?
□ Always (1) □ Mostly(2) □ Sometimes(3) □ Rarely(4) □ Never(5)
Missing 9 Interval Variable – shopping list
AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS, COIMBATORE
FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES
6. Do you actively seek new products when you go out for shopping?
□ Always(1) □ Mostly(2) □ Sometimes(3) □ Rarely(4) □ Never(5)
Missing 9 Interval Variable – seeking new product
7. Does the way products are arranged or displayed attract you?
□ Always(1) □ Mostly(2) □ Sometimes(3) □ Rarely(4) □ Never(5)
Missing -9 Interval Variable – product arrangement
8. When I enter a store....
□ I go straight to the products which I want(1) □ I walk through the store as it leads me(2) □ I do not follow any pattern. I just walk randomly and pick up products(3) □ I seek the help of salesperson to navigate in the store(4) □ Others (Please specify) __________________________________________(5)
Missing -9 Nominal
AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS, COIMBATORE
FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES
Variable – enter to store Others description (string, 0=not applicable)
9. Generally I follow the signage board and layout to find a product.
□ Strongly Agree(1) □ Agree(2) □ Neither agree nor disagree(3) □ Disagree(4) □ Strongly Disagree(5)
Missing 9 Interval Variable – following signage
10. While shopping, how do you come to know about the offers for the day in the store? (Tick only one option which is most relevant)
□ I do not pay attention to offers(1) □ Sales People(2) □ Shelves and sign boards/banners(3) □ Pamphlets(4) □ Loudspeakers in the store(5) □ No offers(6)
Missing 9 Nominal Variable –knowledge about offer.
11. Which of these is most relevant with regard to your shopping?
□ I bought what I came to buy. Nothing More. □ I bought a little more than what I came for. □ I bought lot more than what I came for. □ I bought everything that attracted me.
AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS, COIMBATORE
9=Missing) □ I did not buy anything out of list Nominal (no. Missing 9 Nominal Variable – shopping relevancy 12.1=Yes.9=Missing) □ Information provided by salesperson (info.extr) (string)(0=No.prod) (0=No.9=Missing) □ No specific reason.extra)(0=No.1=Yes.1=Yes. Can you recall one product which was prominently promoted in the store.disp)(0=No.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 □ I did not find what I needed.1=Yes. which of the following factors made you buy more? (Tick as many as applies) □ Good Product (good.1=Yes. COIMBATORE Page 103 .1=Yes.9=Missing) 13. If you have bought some products other than what you came to buy. I just bought because I liked the Product (no.sp)(0=No. So I did not buy anything.9=Missing) Product recall String AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. Please specify _________________________________________ (0=No.1=Yes.9=Missing) □ Others (Please Specify) __________________________________________ (others.offer)(0=No.1=Yes.9=Missing) □ Attractive display of the product (attr.reason)(0=No.9=Missing) □ Good Discount Offer (good.
FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES Personal Information: Gender : Male / Female Age 1—below 15 2—16-21 3—22-28 4—29-35 5—36-45 6—46-60 7—above 60 2010 : Male-1 / Female-2 / Missing.9 Nominal Occupation : AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS.9 Gender Nominal Scale Missing. COIMBATORE Page 104 .9 Education: undergrad—1 grad—2 post grad—3 Ordinal Missing-9 Student-1 Professional—2 Selfemployed—3 Home maker—4 Missing.
one akin to learning to walk all over again. Orkut. Analysis of the data was the foundation of our conclusions and the amount of learning received from that was immense. Observation study proved to be very effective as it helped to personally get a feel of what each of the hypothesis was and what could be the expected conclusion. Amidst the “Foray between the aisles” what caught me off guard is the role of social media in this study. The two expert interviews included in this study owe fully to the social networking site. It made me look at social media with a renewed interest and respect. Be it waging the scorching sun to fill out questionnaires or sleepless nights or drafting and report making. ~Anitha Kaveri Experience survey gave excellent insights of what each store actually follows with regard to VM and how and when they implement it. ~ Pooja Nair AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 ADIEU TO THE AISLES Chewing the cud! It was a tremendous experience. I am amazed at how communities of interest can aid in researches like this. COIMBATORE Page 105 . I thoroughly enjoyed the MR bug that had gotten into my system. After all it’s the customers who are the base of the study conducted because every VM is based on what appeals to them. In addition to this some Visual merchandisers on Orkut took active interest and shared works done on this field with us in the form of power point slides and PDFS.
This happened every time I visited a store with my mother. Anupam Goyal really amazed me. Every time I would come home and recheck bills and the items. Visual Merchandising!! Now after going back I will explain this concept to my mother ~Sankar Rajan AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. why we always end up in buying a lot more than we need. This may also be because I was working at that time and never cared how much I spent. I always found that I have bought much more than I actually need. I always bought what I just need. nothing less. Nothing more. ~ Karthik Krishnan I realised something now. by virtue of the experience I gained out of this study. However in my engineering days even if I go to any kind of store. This invoked the creativity in me and one such was displayed during the presentation we delivered. The ideas that issued out of the expert interview with Mr. Doing this project helped me in a way to find the culprit. I always used to exclaim to my mother.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES 2010 I was fascinated by the study. Being the owner of a retail textile store. especially the findings that evolved out of the study. With the insights they gave I could understand the frequency at which they try to influence their customers. I am used to taking my mother shopping at various shopping malls. She also couldn’t figure out. COIMBATORE Page 106 . I found some of his insights were very relevant to make shopping a wonderful experience to customers by implementing visual merchandising at my store.
I got an opportunity to meet Ms. C The project gave me valuable insights about various methods of in-store promotions. the first place I would hit will be any organised retail store and do window shopping. I am an avid shopper. One of the interestin g and surprising facts from her was that any big bazaar throughout the country is designed in such a way that the store always looks packed even if it has 5 customers. COIMBATORE Page 107 . Now I know why it happened to me all the time. I enjoy looking for products in retail stores.Sujatha. ~Subbu. Visual merchandising is really an interesting and important area for retails to concentrate. Many other insights received from experts through direct meeting as well as telephonic interviewing made me understand that there is logic between each and every aspect of a store and its design.FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES Modern organised retail stores were one my favourite places to hang out. Given an off day. A little different from others. The findings from the project were really fascinating and have also made me look for an opportunity to extend the same project further as my summer internship project. as it deals with promotion. I am planning to venture into retail business sometime soon. During the course of the project. Visual Merchandising Manager. ~ Surendran AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. This not only made me understand how important these display were to customer. Signing off from the learning’s section of foray between the shopping aisles. now I understand what I should watch out for. but they will also give me a good foundation for my summer internship in Marketing at LG. This project was of my area of interest and also nevertheless a great learning 2010 experience. and always come out of the store with empty wallets. That was the control established by a well planned layout and floor plan.
FORAY BETWEEN THE SHOPPING AISLES It was a nice learning experience. It helped me understand how important the attitude towards customers and product assortment were when it comes to retail outlets. ~Suman Ghosh AMRITA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS. The best of my learning comes from the observation at 2010 Reliance Fresh and More outlets of Coimbatore. I learnt the importance of visual merchandising from Big Bazaar. COIMBATORE Page 108 . conduct interviews and surveys. Coimbatore and also realised the importance of logical flow in the arrangement of things. It gave me the opportunity to talk to a lot of people.
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