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Standardized composite slab systems for building constructions
Sebastiao A.L. de Andrade a,b,Ã, Pedro C.G. da S. Vellasco b, ˜ ´ Jose Guilherme S. da Silva c, Tadeu H. Takey a
Civil Engineering Department, Pontiﬁcal Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro, PUC-Rio, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil b Structural Engineering Department, State University of Rio de Janeiro, UERJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil c Mechanical Engineering Department, State University of Rio de Janeiro, UERJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Abstract The use of steel deck slabs has proved over the years to be one of the most economic structural building systems. Despite this aﬃrmative, mainly for various historic reasons beyond the scope of the present paper, the Brazilian construction industry has not fully exploited the considerable potential of this structural solution. The ﬁrst part of this paper presents and discusses the analytical and experimental results of a wide-rib composite steel deck developed at the Structural and Materials Laboratory of PUC-Rio. The steel decks results are centred on the steel/concrete longitudinal shear ultimate limit state, load vs. slab strain curve responses and on steel deck design and detailing recommendations. The ﬁnal part of the paper focuses on an innovative composite slab system made of a steel deck and a styrofoam plate, side by side, ﬁlled with reinforced concrete also developed at PUC-Rio. A parametric analysis of the steel deck proﬁle was ﬁrst performed. When an optimum steel deck proﬁle was established, the investigation proceeded with a series of full-scale-experiments to access the system’s ultimate and serviceability limit states. The experiments also comprised the study of the concrete vs. steel deck interlocking or mechanical shear transfer devices. # 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Structural steel design and behaviour; Steel structures; Composite construction; Steel deck slabs; Steel deck interlocking; Mechanical shear transfer; Building construction; Composite slab system; Experimental analysis
Corresponding author. Address: Civil Engineering Department, Pontiﬁcal Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro, PUC-RIO, Brazil. 0143-974X/$ - see front matter # 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/S0143-974X(03)00126-3
S.A.L. de Andrade et al. / Journal of Constructional Steel Research 60 (2004) 493–524
1. Introduction The substantial increase in Brazil’s steel production has motivated the building construction segment to use more technologically eﬃcient construction processes. On the other hand, the conventional pre-cast slab that utilises pre-cast concrete beams with ceramic bricks as ﬁlling blocks is still widely used by the construction industry due to its associated low cost and construction speed. Despite this fact, the quest for more economic structural systems for ﬂoors and roofs is still a very pressing issue. Steel or aluminium cold-formed plates with a reduced thickness can be eﬃciently used as permanent deck scaﬀolding for concrete slabs. The main advantage of these structural systems is related to the fact that they do not require the standard scaﬀolding and propping systems and the intrinsic construction speed. If the steel plates present corrugations to provide a mechanical shear transfer, it can be used as a composite slab positive reinforcement and is generally known as a composite steel deck. When building construction is considered, the main advantages of the steel decks are: 1. Capacity of sustaining wet concrete loading without any kind of additional propping; 2. Assembled steel slab creates a safe working platform for construction workers and equipments; 3. Reduction of the construction time due to the fact that the construction tasks made on the ﬂoor become independent of slab completion; 4. Reduction in the usage of the slab reinforcement bars, only required in negative moment regions or to avoid shrinkage and creep eﬀects; 5. The steel deck allows the use of diaphragm action to be considered on the beam’s and wall’s lateral bracing scheme and on the portal frame’s lateral stability due to sideway eﬀects; 6. High associated stiﬀness allowing the achievement of longer spans; 7. Use of the steel deck voids to locate building services like: telephone, water plumbing, communications wiring, etc; 8. The bottom slab surface aesthetics was substantially improved by reducing the slab ﬁnishing tasks. However, for a satisfactory structural performance of the steel deck, it is necessary to avoid excessive deﬂections during the concrete casting and that an eﬀective mechanical interlock between the concrete slab and the steel deck is guaranteed. An interesting alternative to pre-cast slab system is associated with the substitution of the ceramic bricks by styrofoam plates. The concrete slab became lighter, but the diﬃculties associated with their handling and transport, that frequently induce cracks in the recently cured concrete beams, were still a strong setback. A second system of evolution was related to the use of concrete ﬁlled cold-formed steel proﬁles to replace the conventional concrete beams. This structural solution, besides the intrinsic shape and thickness versatility associated with cold-formed
S.A.L. de Andrade et al. / Journal of Constructional Steel Research 60 (2004) 493–524
solutions, reduced the construction time signiﬁcantly. Additionally, these structural systems, as in the case of steel decks, do not require the use of temporary propping systems and can be considered in structural design as part of the slab positive reinforcement. The main motivation for the present study was the development of eﬃcient composite slab systems that would be easy to manufacture, erect and also be economic [1,2]. The developed slab system should maximise the free space usage, disregarding the need for temporary shores having as a direct consequence the minimisation of the construction waist. Preliminary results indicated that although the investigated slab system cost is equivalent to popular slab systems, other important features like the time and waist saved in the construction phase pointed out for its usage [3–5]. The ﬁrst part of this paper deals with the development of a wide-rib composite steel deck. The steel decks results are focused on the steel/concrete longitudinal shear ultimate limit state, load vs. slab strain curve responses and on steel deck design and detailing recommendations. The second part of this paper begins with a parametric design study of the steel deck proﬁle. Variables like the maximum span length, load capacity, minimum fabrication costs and the possibility of using continuous spans were considered. When a typical steel deck proﬁle was established, the investigation proceeded with a series of full-scale-experiments to access the system’s ultimate and serviceability limit states. The experiments also evaluated the concrete vs. steel deck mechanical connection. Natural concrete vs. steel adherence and shear connectors made of self-drilling bolts in the steel deck were also investigated.
2. Steel deck geometry and related ultimate limit states The steel deck load carrying capacity is mainly inﬂuenced by the steel deck geometry and its associated mechanical shear transfer. One of the ﬁrst attempts to provide the mechanical shear transfer in the early years of steel deck developments was made by welding steel reinforcement bars to steel roof cover panels as shown in Fig. 1a. Subsequent alternatives to provide the steel deck to concrete slab interlock utilised more elaborated geometries presenting indentations and corrugations on the steel deck web and ﬂanges, Fig. 1b and c. The steel proﬁle depicted in Fig. 1c, known as the ‘‘Holorib’’ steel deck, generally presents a 50 mm height and is widely used in Western Europe. North American countries preferred the trapezoidal steel deck illustrated in Fig. 1d and e. These steel decks present heights ranging from 38 up to 90 mm with thickness varying from 0.76 to 1.5 mm. Based on these facts, it is not diﬃcult to conclude that the steel deck geometry is directly related to its mechanical shear transfer capacity as can be observed for example in the steel deck web corrugations present in Fig. 1d. The main objective of this geometry detail is to increase the concrete to steel deck interlock resistance in the bottom deck corrugations due to the associated concrete three-dimensional state of stress present in this region.
3. section III–III. concrete slip. 3 where each mode application range is well characterised. the ﬂexural collapse is controlled due to the fact that the slab is under-reinforced. If the Lv length is large. as shown in Fig. In this ﬁgure. as depicted in Fig. when the mechanical shear transfer capacity is supplanted. / Journal of Constructional Steel Research 60 (2004) 493–524 Fig. Longitudinal shear collapse. . Based on these factors. 2. 1. 1a–e  are used to cover spans from 600 m to 6000 mm according to the deck geometry and thickness. The steel decks depicted in Fig. Flexural collapse at the maximum moment location point. 2. Geometry and mechanical shear transfer devices . section I–I.L. the vertical shear collapse predominates. the usual case for a great number of slabs. Intermediate values of Lv. If Lv length is suﬃciently small. the use of temporary shoring or the slab thickness can also directly inﬂuence the steel deck load carrying capacity.A. have their collapse associated to a longitudinal shear collapse associated with the steel deck vs. Lv is the slab length subjected to the maximum shear. Vertical shear collapse. Other variables like the concrete weight and compressive strength. 2. section II–II. A very eﬀective interpretation of the steel deck collapse modes is depicted in Fig. 2. as illustrated in Fig.496 S. the steel deck collapse is associated to the following ultimate limit states: 1. de Andrade et al.
After this limiting point. From this moment on. Steel deck composite slab collapse modes. The main crack pattern is formed near the load application point and as a direct consequence of this crack an initial slip occurs as illustrated in Fig. A linear behaviour up to the ﬁrst appearance of concrete cracks occurs. / Journal of Constructional Steel Research 60 (2004) 493–524 497 Fig. other less signiﬁcant cracking patterns appear near the maximum moment region. the composite deck presents a structural behaviour associated to mechanical shear transfer and slip conditions. de Andrade et al.S. At this point. 4.A. 2.L. the composite slab strength is almost entirely dependent on the mechanical shear transfer capacity provided by the steel . The vertical shear collapse is usually determined with the aid of experiments.
The web ﬂexibility favours the loss of mechanical shear transfer capability since the concrete slips over the steel deck corrugations causing the structural collapse by loss of steel to concrete adherence. deck corrugations and indentations. / Journal of Constructional Steel Research 60 (2004) 493–524 Fig. Steel deck composite slabs collapse mode diagram.498 S.L. The steel proﬁle geometry plays a signiﬁcant role on the composite slab structural response since deep decks tend to possess more ﬂexible webs. Load vs. vertical displacement curves for steel deck composite slabs. de Andrade et al. 5 depicts a typical longitudinal shear collapse where the ultimate limit state is associated to the loss of mechanical adherence. 3. Fig. 4.A. Fig. .
L. specially designed for this purpose. 5. 3. adopted thickness and fabrication process). The main steps considered during the steel deck development were: 1. Tested composite slab geometry. Fig.9 mm thick ASTMA570 or SAE 1010 steel grades with a 230 MPa yield stress as illustrated in Fig. / Journal of Constructional Steel Research 60 (2004) 493–524 499 Fig. . PUC-Rio. Material speciﬁcations (steel grade. All the steel decks were made of a 70 mm height. 0. Typical longitudinal shear collapse. 3. This composite slab assessment was made with the aid of an experimental programme.A. conducted at the Structural and Materials Laboratory of the Pontiﬁcal Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro. 6. Steel deck experimental programme The steel deck development process involves the balance of several technical questions related to fabrication. Steel deck corrugations or mechanical interlocking device eﬃciency. Steel deck diaphragm action capacity and design recommendation procedures. 5. transport and erection procedures in order to produce a competitive and eﬃcient product. de Andrade et al. Composite slab design methodology. 4.S. Steel deck geometry optimisation. 6. surface protection treatment. The present paper is centred on the evaluation of the mechanical shear transfer between the steel deck and the concrete slab provided by the use of corrugations and indentations on the steel plate. 2. The steel deck experimental programme was based on eight full-scale composite slab tests using the steel deck proﬁle as the only slab reinforcement present.
2.4 25.8 17. 3. DM4 test slab presented premature slippage. Concrete and steel deck strains were measured with strain gauges located on the slab central section. The production of load vs. Support and central span vertical deﬂections as well as concrete vs.5 11. Steel deck displacements isolated from all other elements under the load actions. invalidating this test. probably due to the ridging procedure. 4. vertical deﬂection curves for the composite slab after a minimum of 10. Sine-shape cyclical load application ranging from not less than 50% up to no more than 150% of the predicted design load approximately equal to 0. The main test data information is present in Table 1. / Journal of Constructional Steel Research 60 (2004) 493–524 The test was conducted at a simply supported slab conﬁguration subjected to two symmetrically located concentrated loads.005 MPa. Composite slab ﬁnal test up to collapse.3 23. steel slab end slip were measured with the aid of mechanical dial gauges and Lvdts. The DM1 to DM5 tests were made on steel plates without any kind of paint or surface protection commonly known in Brazil as ‘black’ plate.A. Every test was subjected to ﬁve diﬀerent stages: 1. de Andrade et al.15 kN/m2) produced by the CSN mill factory.5 30. The concentrated loads were distributed to the composite slab by means of two U 203 Â 17:1 proﬁles to avoid a patch load failure mechanism.L. vertical deﬂection curves for the composite slab 28 days after the concrete casting phase.0 23. Despite all required preventive measures during the transport phase. The production of new load vs. The DM1 to DM4 tests were cast outside the laboratory reaction slab later to be transported to the testing site. All the tests were executed without any kind of temporary shoring under the slab span i. This was the main reason for the subsequent tests being cast directly in the test ﬁnal location. The subsequent test was conducted on zinc coated plates class C (requiring a minimum deposit of 3. 5. The steel plate to concrete longitudinal shear transfer is divided into two parts: the natural chemical bond adherence due to the zinc and concrete reaction and the Table 1 Test setup characteristics Test DM1 DM2 DM3 DM4 DM5 DM6 DM7 DM8Ã Length (mm) 650 650 1195 1180 935 820 1560 1560 fck (MPa) 11.7 Span (mm) 3200 3200 3200 3200 3200 3000 3000 3000 Lv (mm) 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1125 1125 1125 Surface treatment Black Black Black Black Black Zinc Zinc Zinc .000 loading cycles.e.5 22.500 S. the composite slab panels were simply supported during the casting phase.
(1) and (2) recommended by Porter and Eckberg . / Journal of Constructional Steel Research 60 (2004) 493–524 501 mechanical adherence provided by the steel deck indentations and corrugations. (3) is generated: " # Ap Vu pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ¼ kr þ mr pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ð3Þ BS ds fck BS Lv fck where: kr ¼ 0:0106 and mr ¼ 51:917. If a straight line is ﬁtted to the Luttrell analytical results. Table 2 Steel deck composite slab experimental results Test DM1 DM2 DM3 DM4 DM5 DM6 DM7 DM8 Ap Â106 BS Lv pﬃﬃﬃﬃ (MPa)À1/2 fck VE ﬃﬃﬃﬃ p BS ds fck (MPa)1/2 Web corrugation type Vertical Vertical Vertical Vertical Vertical v Sloped 30 —same direction v Sloped 30 —opposite direction v Sloped 30 —opposite direction 408 408 318 110 199 233 252 293 0. The distance from the concrete compressive extreme ﬁbre to steel deck gross area centroid was equal to 107.0125 – 0. present similar characteristics. Ap pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ BS Lv fck VE pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ fck ð1Þ BS ds ð2Þ Fig. 2 and 3. de Andrade et al.0095 0.22 mm for all the tested slabs. Table 2 presents the main experimental results as functions of the parameters described in Eqs.0105 0.0305 . Unfortunately. Eq. 4. a single curve cannot be ﬁtted to these points since only two experimental sets. The chemical bond adherence is extremely variable and can be easily jeopardised by repetitive load actions.A. 3.0160 0. DM1–DM2 and DM7–DM8. Steel deck main experimental and analytical results All the tests described here were designed to achieve a longitudinal shear collapse as illustrated in Figs.S.L. Table 3 presents an analytical evaluation of the tested specimens using the composite slab longitudinal shear design method proposed by Luttrell . 7 depicts a better visualisation of the experimental results in a graphical form similar to Fig.0285 0.0175 0.
13 39. 8 depicts a graph summarising the central section load vs.A. A clear similarity to the curve Table 3 Steel deck composite slab analytical results Test DM1 DM2 DM3 DM4 DM5 DM6 DM7 DM8 Ap Â106 BS Lv pﬃﬃﬃﬃ fck Vpﬃﬃﬃﬃ U BS ds fck Mu (kN m) 16.46 Lvo (mm) 5651 5651 4398 – 2755 3018 3273 3796 408 408 318 110 199 233 252 293 0.L. displacement curves for the DM8 test. This curve. greater than the Lvo limit. for all the tested slabs is presented in the last column of Table 3.0286 . Lvo.0289 0.82 41.98 16.0214 0.0289 0. will have their collapse associated to a ﬂexural collapse.98 39. up to the composite slab collapse.25 21. de Andrade et al. the longitudinal shear limit length.0180 0. The longitudinal shear limit length. 7.0296 – 0.502 S. Theoretical and experimental results comparison. was made after the completion of the cyclic loading phase. is determined. Lvo.93 20. Composite slabs presenting longitudinal shear lengths Lv. Fig. / Journal of Constructional Steel Research 60 (2004) 493–524 Fig. The composite slab ﬂexural strength curve using this coordinate system is given by: " # Ap Vu pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ¼ 174:8 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ð4Þ BS ds fck BS Lv fck If an intersection point of these two straight lines is established.0258 0.86 20.
de Andrade et al. Fig. illustrated in Fig.A. 4.68 kPa). The collapse load was 5. Load vs. When the structured reached this load level. . 9. Fig. an unloading procedure was necessary due to the fact that the hydraulic jack maximum stroke was reached.L. 9 illustrates a typical load vs. DM8 test. 8. some concrete cracks had already occurred but the unloading procedure did not compromise the experimental results. composite slab end slip for the DM8 test.84 kPa) and 28.7 times greater than the composite slab design load (4.5% greater than the predicted experimental ultimate load (9. End composite slab slip. / Journal of Constructional Steel Research 60 (2004) 493–524 503 Fig. typical in composite slabs presenting a longitudinal shear collapse.S. central vertical displacement curve. was observed. When the vertical displacement was around 15 mm.
Signiﬁcantly high strains were found on the concrete top ﬁbre. strain curves measured. respectively. 10 and 11. Measured bottom side steel deck strains.e.L. DM8 test. A simple way to avoid this problem is to use a Fig.A. 11. DM8 test. The use of lightweight concrete can considerably reduce the concrete pounding in the constructive phase. / Journal of Constructional Steel Research 60 (2004) 493–524 Fig. 1200 le and on the steel deck (e ﬃ 3:6ey ) near the composite slab collapse as indicated by an inspection of Figs. 10 and 11 present the load vs. i. Concrete creep and shrinkage eﬀects can produce concrete cracks on the composite slab even at design loads and can compromise the mechanical shear transfer strength. de Andrade et al.504 S. Measured concrete strains. at the concrete extreme compressive ﬁbre and steel deck. Figs. . 10.
. To overcome these diﬃculties. as well as to improve its structural response searching for longer free spans. span (1. It is clear that an increase in the maximum span is reached as the number of used supports grows.00075 times concrete area above the steel deck . 14b presents a similar graph based Fig. S136-94 .S. To minimise the slab cracking. thickness (1. divided by its cross-sectional area and plotted vs. On the other hand. 12. Fig. slab systems using steel decks are still the focus of investigations in various research centres in many countries [10–12]. Idealised composite slab system. Fig. When the composite action is developed. the steel section sustains the main tensile component while the concrete cover slab works mainly in compression. de Andrade et al. continuous two spans and continuous three spans).52–3 mm). The alternative composite slab system The use of pre-cast slabs and pre-stressed pre-cast slabs in low-cost construction is becoming a routine procedure in Brazil. Fig. a composite slab made of a steel section and a styrofoam plate side by side ﬁlled with concrete was conceived. Fig. the section height. The optimum steel section was found based on a parametric analysis of the coldformed section resistance according to the Canadian Design Standard. These structural systems are very eﬃcient from an economic point of view but still show disadvantages associated with transport and availability when used in remote locations. 13. The results present in Table 4 related to the 75 mm height steel proﬁle are associated with the ﬁnal experimental proﬁle that will be described better in the following sections of this paper.5–6 m) and structural system (simply supported. calculated based on the ultimate limit states for a given proﬁle thickness and adopted structural solution. 14a and Table 4 present the maximum span values. a welded wire mesh was used at the cover slab mid-height. / Journal of Constructional Steel Research 60 (2004) 493–524 505 welded wire mesh presenting a minimum area of 0. the optimum solution was reached with a continuous two span structural system. 12. Despite this fact. 5.A. The main variables of this parametric study were: the section height (70–175 mm). The steel section is responsible for providing the necessary resistance to the slab system discarding the need for temporary shoring during the construction phase.L.
de Andrade et al. the maximum vertical deﬂection. A simple way of determining the most economical proﬁle. 15 where the optimum steel section with 75 mm height and 2 mm thickness was used in slabs ranging from 1. is depicted in Table 5 for a certain span range. the ideal solution was associated with a 1. An interesting comparison is depicted in Fig. . on the serviceability limit state i.e. From Table 6 results.5 to 4. (a) Cold-formed steel section ultimate limit state comparisons.L. using the proﬁles investigated in the present paper. The results demonstrated that the Fig. (b) Cold-formed steel section serviceability limit state comparisons.506 S.5 m spans. Table 6 depicts the steel weight limitations associated with the ideal proﬁle solution. An extensive investigation on commonly used steel decks pointed out that the ideal steel proﬁle weight was 120 N/m for a 5-m span. 14. Composite slab system before and after concrete casting. Three structural systems were considered: simply supported. A simple inspection on this graph makes clear that thicker plate proﬁles are not always associated with the ideal solution. / Journal of Constructional Steel Research 60 (2004) 493–524 Fig.A.52 mm thick steel proﬁle with a 125 mm height. continuous two spans and continuous three spans. The serviceability limit state controlled the design procedure as shown in the same graph. 13.
8 7178.3 3706.9 6148.9 6272.1 6401.8 4291.7 3893.2 Ultimate limit state Serviceability limit state Ultimate limit state 3.8 6374.1 5295.4 4514.5 6094.0 5827.3 507 .1 S.2 7182.3 6421.3 6806.5 70 70 4712.1 4603.6 8508.0 5634.00 Structural solution Thickness (mm) 1.2 4226.0 4702.2 X X X 5137.9 6970.2 6006.4 4015.9 4824.0 5608.5 9095.4 6083.9 4495.Table 4 Maximum span values.4 9380.4 4704.1 70 5890.0 5202.2 8215.1 175 175 7019.4 75 75 X X 75 X 125 125 5891.1 3901.8 7678.L.0 5880.6 125 7364.9 7685.4 5700.5 6865.3 6297.7 6590.2 5745.0 5789.6 5071.6 5619.6 X X X 5120.A.0 5699. / Journal of Constructional Steel Research 60 (2004) 493–524 175 Simply supported Continuous two spans Continuous three spans Simply supported Continuous two spans Continuous three spans Simply supported Continuous two spans Continuous three spans Simply supported Continuous two spans Continuous three spans 8774.6 4324.00 Serviceability limit state 4552. Cold-formed steel section ultimate and serviceability limit state assessment Height (mm) 2.2 4866.3 7872.52 Ultimate limit state Serviceability limit state 3120. de Andrade et al.0 X X X 3461.2 4560.
3 m. The second composite experimental programme It is common knowledge that the shear connector geometry and type associated with the steel vs.5 146. self-drilling bolts. The concrete adopted in the specimens presented an unconﬁned compressive strength of 44 MPa. Fig. A painstaking analysis of the acquired data leaded to a steel section 2 mm thick.0 112.00 3.7 . were adopted as shear connectors. the ideal proﬁle dimensions were slightly changed to a 2 mm thickness and 75 mm height proﬁle part of a continuous two span solution. respectively.7 m. In summary.L.9 120. 1=400 Â 3=400 (diameter Â length). 16. The experimental programme comprised ﬁve tests of simple supported slabs with the shear connector conﬁguration shown in Table 7. The structural system adopted. deﬂections for a given span and maximum span over minimum weight ratio. two spans can be utilised up to 3.8 136.52 1.52 2.5 m while three spans can be adopted until 3.0 and 4.00 3.7 m. was considered.1 102. was simply supported. depicted in Fig. among others.A.3 2 mm 113. 17. / Journal of Constructional Steel Research 60 (2004) 493–524 Table 5 Optimised steel proﬁle for a determined span range Span length range (m) 0–2 2–3 3–4 4–5 5–6 6–7 Maximum number of spans No limitation No limitation 4 3 3 3 Height (mm) No limitation 70 125 175 125 175 Thickness (mm) No limitation 1. Table 6 Cold-formed steel proﬁle weight per metre (N/m) Height/thickness (mm) 70 75 125 175 1. To minimise this waist. When the width of the steel coil.3 3 mm 164. and a styrofoam plate is illustrated in Fig. installed with a simple portable drill.0 213. 6.5 m in length and 950 mm in width.5 121. a signiﬁcant material waist was detected. in which the cold-formed section is made.2 259.00 simply supported solution can be used up to 2. 18a and b.52 mm 88. The composite slab system tested was 4. concrete interface bond directly inﬂuence the structural system load carrying capacity. the parametric study enables the comparisons of maximum ﬂexural resistance. Two spans were tested 3. while the yield stress of the steel proﬁle was 320 MPa. based on the parametric study results previously described.4 177.508 S. de Andrade et al. In this test programme.
depicted in Fig.S. L4) and lateral (R1. R5) directions and the slippage between steel deck and concrete at slab ends (R2. as shown in Fig.L. 15. Both tests had their collapse associated with slippage in the steel/concrete interface. . L3. 19a and b. 20. The measurement of displacements in the vertical (R3. The ﬁrst and second tests utilised specimens with 4. This was no surprise since the chemical bond between the steel proﬁle and the concrete cover is not suﬃcient to ensure the interface shear ﬂow at high Fig. L2.A.3 and 3 m span without shear connectors. L5) was done with ﬁve Lvdts (L series) and ﬁve dial-gauges (R series). de Andrade et al. Tested cold-formed steel proﬁle. Strain measurements were obtained with the aid of 10 strain-gages located at positions (S0–S9). / Journal of Constructional Steel Research 60 (2004) 493–524 509 Fig. 21 where the obvious span inﬂuence is characterised by the larger stiﬀness associated with the 3 m span test. centre span deﬂection curve is depicted in Fig. R4. 16. L1. A load vs. Optimum steel section structural evaluation.
The maximum steel deformation was 35% of the steel yield strain.510 S. 24. as can be seen in Fig.3 and 3 m span with 100 mm spaced shear connectors. represents the failure mode reached in the third and fourth tests. Figs.A. The slippage between the concrete and the deck. 17. 27 depicts an overview of the third test collapse conﬁguration. The third and fourth tests was performed on slabs with 4. de Andrade et al. the collapse was again related to the concrete steel slippage. 29 and 30 present a direct comparison between the 4. It should be emphasized that despite the fact that the slab initial stiﬀness was similar for both cases.3 3 3 Shear connectors conﬁguration Without shear connectors Without shear connectors 100 mm spaced shear connectors 100 mm spaced shear connectors 200 mm spaced shear connectors . Fig.3 m span slabs without and with 100 mm spaced shear connectors. as seen in Fig. / Journal of Constructional Steel Research 60 (2004) 493–524 Fig. load levels. 26 presents the steel proﬁle normalized (e=ey ) strains measured from S4 and S5 strain gauge positions. Self-drilling bolts used as shear connectors. A load vs. Both ﬁrst and second tests presented the same shear bond failure mechanism as shown in Fig. the 100 mm Table 7 Description of the experimental test series Test 1 2 3 4 5 Span (m) 4. 22 presents measured strains at S4 and S5 positions at centre span. centre span deﬂection curve is depicted in Fig. 25. Although the self-drilling bolts substantially improved the shear resistance in the concrete steel interface. 23. Fig. indicating that the shear bond failure prevented the full load supporting capacity to be reached. Fig.3 3 4. The maximum steel proﬁle measured a strain which reached 60% of the steel yield strength. In the second test without shear connectors. 28. the failure conﬁguration was predominantly due to slippage between the steel deck and the concrete.L.
As expected.S. the closer spaced shear connector slab was associated with the higher collapse load. as shown in Fig. . (a) and (b) Experimental layout. spaced shear connectors ultimate load was 86% higher than the test without shear connectors. de Andrade et al. It is also interesting to observe that the deformations attained in the 100 mm spaced shear connector test were signiﬁcantly smaller than the deformation from the test without shear connectors indicating that the full composite action was only achieved in the third test. 28. / Journal of Constructional Steel Research 60 (2004) 493–524 511 Fig. The ﬁnal test was made on a 3 m span slab with 200 mm spaced shear connectors. 18.L. Another interesting point is that all the slabs had nearly the same initial stiﬀness. centre span deﬂection curves for 3 m span slabs possessing the shear connector arrangements is presented. This eﬀect is clear in Fig.A. 31 where load vs. The purpose of this particular specimen was to access the inﬂuence of shear connector spacing.
Fig.A. Fig. S6. The maximum strain was reached at the S8 strain gauge corresponding to two times the steel yield strain. 34 shows a typical concrete crack pattern of this test series.L. 33 presents the result of the 3 m span series.3 and 3. and the ﬁfth test with shear connectors spaced 200 mm centre to centre.0 m span slabs. (a) and (b) LVDT instrumentation for the 4. de Andrade et al. S3. Fig. / Journal of Constructional Steel Research 60 (2004) 493–524 Fig. . This series was composed of three tests: The second test that had no shear connectors at all. the fourth test with shear connectors spaced 100 mm centre to centre.512 S. 19. S7) measured in the ﬁfth test. 32 presents the normalized steel deck strains (S2.
21. The vibration serviceability limit state associated to this structural system is evaluated through its dynamical characteristics.A. . de Andrade et al.L. Load vs. These maximum vibration levels can Fig. Adopted strain gauge distribution. The initial stiﬀness and collapse load for the 3 m span series is presented in Table 8.S. / Journal of Constructional Steel Research 60 (2004) 493–524 513 Fig. 20. The initial stiﬀness was almost identical for all the tested slabs while the collapse load increased as the connector spacing diminished. deﬂection curves for slabs without shear connectors.
be determined with the aid of design codes like the Canadian Standard . L (m) is the slab’s span and m (kg) is the structure’s Fig. (4). . velocities and displacements. suggested by the Canadian Standard .L. A ﬁrst theoretical estimation of the composite slab natural frequency was made with the aid of an expression. I (m4) is the moment of inertia of the composite cross-section. normalized deformation. Table 9. Eq. First test. de Andrade et al. 23.A. This code speciﬁes the main parameters related to the dynamic behaviour and in general are characterised by the frequencies of structures and excitations. Second test. Load vs. f01 (Hz) represents the structural system fundamental frequency. accelerations. This paper presents and discusses theoretical and experimental results for the natural frequencies associated with the investigated composite slab system. / Journal of Constructional Steel Research 60 (2004) 493–524 Fig. Collapse conﬁguration. In this equation.514 S. E (MPa) is the steel Young’s modulus. 22.
Fig. 24. / Journal of Constructional Steel Research 60 (2004) 493–524 515 Fig. Load vs. deﬂection curves for slabs with 100 mm spaced shear connectors.A.S. .L. 25. de Andrade et al. First and second tests. Steel/concrete slippage limit state.
Third test. Fig. The slabs that used 100 mm spaced shear connectors presented a slightly higher frequency due to the small increase in ﬂexural stiﬀness.516 S. 26. / Journal of Constructional Steel Research 60 (2004) 493–524 Fig. since the maximum diﬀerence was less than 10% for the slabs without shear connectors. 27. normalized deformation. mass. Load vs. Third test. de Andrade et al.A. Collapse conﬁguration. f01 rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ EI ¼ 1:56 mL4 ð5Þ The results presented in Table 9 indicated a good agreement between the theoretical and experimental results. .L.
Load vs. it is possible to conclude that the vibration serviceability limit will not be violated. construction schedule chronogram. Steel/concrete slippage limit state. de Andrade et al. a preliminary cost estimation comparison among the most commonly used slab systems was made. 29. .S. Having in mind that the dynamic loads induced by regular human activities generally produce frequencies ranging from 1 to 4 Hz and that the composite slab system fundamental frequency is out of these limits. materials Fig.L. Third and fourth tests.A. / Journal of Constructional Steel Research 60 (2004) 493–524 517 Fig. It is important to observe that the current estimation can only be interpreted as a preliminary assessment since variables like delivery costs from the supplier to the site. First and third tests. deﬂection curves. In order to determine the proposed alternative composite slab system’s economic viability. 28.
First and third tests.518 S. normalized deformation. deﬂection curve. The cost estimation presented in Tables 10–12 for a cast in place slab. the use of shoring is not always possible as in footbridges over highways with heavy traﬃc. Two aspects related to these facts have to be considered. Additionally. / Journal of Constructional Steel Research 60 (2004) 493–524 Fig. 31. Brazil in 2001. especially if the use of temporary propping can be avoided. Load vs.A. The temporary shoring generates additional costs to the construction.L. The composite slab solutions are very competitive when their associated costs are considered. size and scale (large size orders have generally cheaper costs) were not considered. de Andrade et al. . a standard pre-cast slab and the proposed composite slab system were made based on cost numbers obtained in Rio de Janeiro. construction sites that are already being used or in tight schedule constructions where the temporary propping inhibits the execution of other tasks. Fig. Load vs. Fifth test. 30.
Fifth test. deﬂection curves for specimens with 3 m spans. other intrinsic advantages could make its use viable. The results of the preliminary cost evaluation demonstrated that even in cases where the proposed composite slab system presents a slight economic disadvantage.S. 32. Load vs. 33. the proposed composite slab system does not present cracking patterns very commonly found in ordinary pre-cast slab systems among others.A. de Andrade et al.L. . Load vs. normalized deformation. / Journal of Constructional Steel Research 60 (2004) 493–524 519 Fig. Fig. Some of these advantages are cold-formed steel proﬁle and better quality control.
7. de Andrade et al. The DM6 poor Table 8 Structural comparison of the 3. due to a fabrication error. 34. were made with steel decks presenting corv rugations with 30 slope angle to the web longitudinal axis. DM6 to DM8. Fourth test. led to the following observations: (a) All the tests presenting vertical corrugations and indentations on the web steel deck exhibited an unsatisfactory structural response. Concluding remarks This paper presented an analytical investigation backed by experimental results of the structural behaviour of composite slabs with steel decks.39 83.72 138. The experimental results demonstrated that steel decks with web corrugations and indentations v sloped 30 in an alternate direction in each valley web presented an excellent longitudinal shear strength with negligible end slip deﬂections.L. This fact happened because the deck geometry presented a 20% higher bottom ﬂange width than speciﬁed in design.A. / Journal of Constructional Steel Research 60 (2004) 493–524 Fig. when compared to analytical results. (b) The DM5 test was associated with the lowest collapse load.520 S. Final crack conﬁguration. . The composite slab experimental result. may be caused by the natural concrete/steel slipping ease associated with these mechanical interlocks.0 m composite slabs EI (kN mm2) Second test Fourth test Fifth test 4:8E þ 09 5:1E þ 09 5:4E þ 09 Total collapse load (kN) 73. (c) The last three tests.40 .
Eq. around 0. de Andrade et al.00 US$ 4. / Journal of Constructional Steel Research 60 (2004) 493–524 Table 9 Fundamental frequencies: composite slab frequencies for 4.20 US$ 50. 9. can be explained by the substantial ductility found in this composite slab.60 Adding the propping costs Shore columns US$ 1.1 1 m m3 m2 Total m m2 Total Total in US$/ m2 US$ 4.00 m m3 m2 Quantity per m2 Unit 22 0. The DM8 steel deck presented an end horizontal slip exceptional behaviour as shown in Fig.S.20 Scaﬀolding plates US$ 1. This experimentally based longitudinal shear curve will then be used to produce steel deck composite slab design tables and charts. and for higher shears lengths. the measured end slip deﬂection was negligible.00 US$ 4. 15 kPa. for smaller shear lengths.60 m m2 3 1 .2 (d) (e) (f) (g) structural performance is explained by its web corrugation arrangement.5 m will lead to this ultimate limit state. the specimen presented higher end slip deﬂections due to an increase of the concrete cracks. around L/50. Table 10 Cast in place slab cost per square metre Materials Welded wire mesh Concrete (25 MPa) Labour costs Unitary cost in US$ Unit US$ 0.3 m span slabs Theoretical frequencies Canadian pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ standard : f01 ¼ 1:56 EI=mL4 (Hz) 7.6 m. DM4 test. ﬁrmly stresses the need for the specimens to be cast in the testing place to inhibit unavoidable torsion moments being applied to the composite slab.60 US$ 18. DM8 test.A.40 US$ 3.00 US$ 13. only longitudinal shear lengths greater than 6. This specimen was made using the same angle pattern for both webs creating a preferential slip path that led to a premature longitudinal shear collapse. The large vertical displacements.40 US$ 5. Up to a load value equal to three times its design load. to determine Fig. around 30 MPa.L. 7 curves.0 to 1. typical case of the DM8 test. based on the same optimised geometrical characteristics.5 521 100 mm spaced shear connectors 9.e.60 US$ 1. The premature loss of mechanical and chemical adherence during the transport to the testing site. At higher load values.8 Experimental frequencies f01 (Hz) Chemical concrete steel bond 8.3 m. ranging from 1. (3). A ﬂexural collapse is very rarely found in these kinds of steel decks i. Further investigation will be centred on new tests. for test specimens presenting a concrete cylindrical compressive strength fck.
where plate width and thickness are selected in order to minimise cost and to provide an increase in stiﬀness and strength.68 US$ 1. This was made by means of full-scale experimental study to access its structural performance and calibrate a previous cold-formed section optimisation study.20 US$ 2. The use of self-drilling bolts (5 mm diameter) was investigated and proved to be very eﬃcient.20 Adding the propping costs Shore columns US$ 1.40 Unit un kg f un m3 m m2 Quantity per m2 Unit 2 1.20 US$ 12.40 US$ 0.L.00 US$ 0. Future developments will consider embossments or indentations in the steel proﬁle for shear transfer.60 US$ 16. These promising results enable the following conclusions: 1.20 m2 m m3 m2 Quantity per m2 Unit 1 11 0.86 30 0. Selection of positive means of shear bonding between steel and concrete is very important for the composite slab strength and stiﬀness.522 S.08 1 m2 m m3 m2 Total m Total Total in US$/ m2 US$ 3. The collapse in all the tests occurred by shear connector bond failure in locations close to the load application points.36 US$ 2.20 US$ 50.20 US$ 0. 2.73 .07 US$ 58.20 US$ 2.61 US$ 2.60 US$ 3. Steel section shape optimisation is a key issue in this development.00 US$ 3.06 US$ 2. 3.A.10 US$ 4.20 US$ 2.40 US$ 14.20 m 3 An innovative composite slab system developed for low-cost building construction is the main focus of the second part of the present investigation. The composite slabs with self-drilling Table 12 Proposed composite slab system cost per square metre Materials Styrofoam plates Cold-formed steel proﬁle Self-drilling bolt connector Concrete (25 MPa) Welded wire mesh Labour costs Unitary cost in US$ US$ 0.00 US$ 3.07 11 1 un kg f un m3 m m2 Total Total in US$/ m2 US$ 1. de Andrade et al.20 US$ 4. The results also conﬁrmed the hypothesis that the composite slab ultimate load increases with a reduction of the shear connector centre-to-centre spacing. / Journal of Constructional Steel Research 60 (2004) 493–524 Table 11 Pre-cast slab cost per square metre Materials Precast slab Welded wire mesh Concrete (25 MPa) Labour costs Unitary cost in US$ Unit US$ 3.
Special thanks to ETEEL—Design and Systems. EASEC8—The Eighth East Asia Paciﬁc Conference on Structural Engineering and Construction. . just by the development of portable rolling equipment that can produce very long and continuous proﬁles. 5. PUC-Rio. Singapore (CD-ROM 6 p). 2. References  Bittencourt FA. A preliminary cost estimation demonstrated that the proposed composite slab system was associated with the lowest cost when compared to conventional cast in place and pre-cast slab systems commonly used in Brazil. An innovative composite slab system for residential buildings. 1990. PUC-Rio. Vellasco PCG. Laje Mista com Deck Metalico. Vellasco PCG.A. Um Sistema de Lajes Misto para Ediﬁcacoes Populares. de Andrade SAL. da S. de Andrade et al. Sexto Coloquio Sobre Estruturas de Concreto Armado e Protendido. A composite slab system for lowcost building construction. 6. de Andrade SAL. MSc Dissertation. da Silva JGS. Um Sistema de Lajes Mistas Para Construcoes de Baixo Custo. Thanks are also due to Metalfenas Construction Industry for the steel proﬁle specimens. The authors would like to thank all the technical personnel that collaborated on the tests.S.  Takey TH. Part 1: code of practice for design in simply and continuous construction: hot rolled sections. UERJ. Rio de Janeiro. PUC-Rio. Brazil: Pontiﬁcal Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro. Third European Conference on Steel Structures.  British Standards Institution. London. 1985. BS5950. / Journal of Constructional Steel Research 60 (2004) 493–524 523 4. vol. Finally. Coimbra. 2001. as required by the construction teamwork. The composite slab system dynamical behaviour was found to within the acceptable vibration limits present in current design standards for human comfort for the tested span range. The use of lightweight concrete in the proposed composite slab system is highly recommended. 2001.L. Civil ¸˜ Engineering Department. Lima RM.  Takey TH. Concrete creep and shrinkage eﬀects can inﬂuence the results shown in this investigation by the loss of chemical bond in the steel/concrete interface. Structural use of steelwork in buildings. State University of Rio de Janeiro. (CD-ROM 10 p). these composite slab systems can be implemented in large scale construction. for the constant support on the development of the steel deck investigation. da S. Faculty of Engineering. BSc Final Pro¸˜ ject. da Silva JGS.  Takey TH. 7. 2002. bolts had their collapse associated with connector shear failure or connector excessive bending deformations. 1999. The slab system behaved consistently in terms of pounding deﬂections presenting no more than a 3% increase in self-weight due to this eﬀect. EUROSTEEL 2002. Pontiﬁcal Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro. 8. Acknowledgements This investigation was performed on the Structures and Materials Laboratory of the Pontiﬁcal Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro. ´ ´  de Andrade SAL.
p. Ekberg Jr EE.  Steel Deck Institute. Istanbul.1-94.A. 1989.  Luttrell LD. Proceedings of the International Conference on Steel and Aluminium Structures. form decks. Ontario. 1994. p. J Struct Div 1976:2121–36 ASCE. Limit states design of steel structures. Ontario. roof decks and cellular metal ﬂoor deck with electrical distribution. Evaluation of the Eurocode 4 methods for composite slabs with proﬁled steel sheet¨ ing. Cold formed steel structures members. International Conference on Steel Structures of the 2000’s. / Journal of Constructional Steel Research 60 (2004) 493–524  Porter ML. . 2000. ST11. 1987. Publication Number 27. Canada. 185–90. 106–16. Theoretical investigations of displacements of corrugated sheet subjected to shear. Canada. Turkey.  CAN/CSA-S16. International Conference on Steel Structures of the 2000’s. Design manual for composite decks. 47 p. 1993. cold-formed steel in tall buildings. p. 95– 102.  Gierczak J. 27–59.  Leskela MV. p.L. 113–8.  Tall buildings and urban environment series. Turkey. Cardiﬀ. 102. 2000.524 S. Flexural strength of composite slabs. 1994. Istanbul. de Andrade et al. UK. Design recommendations for steel deck ﬂoor slabs.  CAN/CSA-S136-94.
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