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Apparel Standards Specification and Quality Control - 1

Apparel Standards Specification and Quality Control - 1

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Published by: P. Lakshmanakanth on Jun 13, 2011
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Sections

  • 1.0. Introduction to Apparel Industry
  • 1.1. Performance of Indian Apparel Industry
  • 1.2. Some Interesting Facts
  • 2.0. Apparel Industry Departments
  • 2.1.1. A Merchandisers key responsibility
  • 2.2. Sampling Department
  • 2.2.1. Types of Samples in Sampling Dept
  • 2.4. PURCHASING DEPARTMENT
  • 2.5. FABRIC AUDIT DEPARTMENT
  • 2.6. ACCESSORY STORES DEPARTMENT
  • 2.7. PLANNING DEPARTMENT
  • 2.9. MACHINE MAINTENANCE
  • 2.9.1. The function of PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE
  • 2.10. CUTTING ROOM
  • 2.11. Production Department
  • 2.12. IED DEPARTMENT
  • 2.13. EMBROIDERY DEPARTMENT
  • 2.14. WASHING DEPARTMENT
  • 2.15. QUALITY ASSURANCE DEPARTMENT
  • 2.16. FINISHING DEPARTMENT
  • 3.0. What is Quality?
  • 3.1. Answers for Quality from Different Peoples
  • 3.2. Meaning of Quality
  • 3.2.1. Expectations of Quality
  • 3.3.1. Holistic Perspective
  • 3.3.2. Product Perspective
  • 3.3.3. Producer Perspective (Manufacturer Perspective)
  • 3.3.4. Customer Perspective
  • 3.3.5. Value based perspective
  • 4.0. Dimensions of Quality
  • 4.1. Performance
  • 4.2. Features
  • 4.3. Reliability
  • 4.4. Conformance
  • 4.5. Durability & Serviceability
  • 4.6. Aesthetics & Perceived Quality
  • 5.0. Quality Related Terms and Definitions
  • 5.1. Quality related terminology
  • 5.2. Introduction to Quality Assurance
  • 5.2.1. The Textile Industry Complex
  • 5.2.2. Textile quality Assurance
  • 5.2.3. Quality Control
  • 6.0. Quality Standards and Quality Grade
  • 6.1. Standards – Introduction
  • 6.1.1. Standards – Definition by ISO
  • 6.1.2. Standardization
  • 6.1.3. Developing Standards
  • 6.1.4. Benefits of Standards
  • 6.1.5. Levels of Standards
  • 6.2. Types of Standards
  • 6.3. Other types of Standards in the Industry
  • 6.3.1. Company Standards
  • 6.3.2. Industry Standards
  • 6.3.3. Voluntary Standards
  • 6.4. International Standards
  • 6.5. APPLICATION OF STANDARDS TO TEXTILE INDUSTRY
  • 6.5.1. Purpose of standards & specification
  • 6.5.2. Focus of Company towards Quality Standard
  • 6.5.3. Construction Standards
  • 6.5.4. Special Consumer needs
  • 6.5.5. Appearance of the finished product
  • 6.5.6. Packaging
  • 7.0. Different Textile and Apparel Standards
  • 7.1. Sources of Standards
  • 7.2. American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists (AATCC) Introduction
  • 7.2.1. About AATCC
  • 7.3. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Introduction
  • 7.3.1. ASTM Committees
  • 7.3.2. ASTM Standards
  • 7.4. American Society for Quality (ASQ)
  • 7.4.1. The ASQ code of Ethics
  • 7.5. American Apparel and Footwear Association (AAFA)
  • 7.5.1. AAFA Committees and Divisions
  • Textile / Clothing Technology Corp
  • 7.7. American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
  • 7.8. ISO – International Organization for Standardization
  • 7.8.1. Need for ISO
  • 7.8.2. ISO 9000 Series Standards
  • 7.8.3. How does the series work?
  • 7.8.4. Elements of ISO 9000 Standards
  • 7.8.5. Who is using ISO 9000?
  • 7.8.6. What does being registered to ISO 9001, 9002 or 9003 mean?
  • 7.8.7. Advantages of Implementing or registering to these standards
  • 8.0. Quality Specification
  • 8.1. Two important elements in Specifications
  • 8.1.1. Minimums
  • 8.1.2. Tolerances
  • 8.2. Key element in Specification
  • 8.3. Types of Specification
  • 8.3.1. Open Specification
  • 8.3.2. Closed specification
  • 8.4. Types of specifications used by various industries
  • 8.4.1. Target Specification:
  • 8.4.2. Functional specifications
  • 8.4.3. Product specification
  • 8.4.4. Materials Specification
  • 8.4.5. Process specification
  • 8.4.6. Inspection specifications
  • 8.4.7. Test specifications
  • 8.4.8. Acceptance Specifications
  • 8.4.9. Installation Specifications
  • 8.4.10. Use Specifications
  • 8.4.11. Maintenance Specifications
  • 8.4.12. Disposal Specifications
  • 8.4.13. Procurement Specifications
  • 8.5. Tolerances
  • 9.0. Fabric Inspection Systems
  • 9.1. Inspection Loop:
  • 9.2. Fabric Inspection Machine
  • 9.3. General Inspection Procedures
  • 9.4. 4 – Point System
  • 9.5. 10-Point System
  • 9.6. Correlation between Fabric Quality and Apparel Quality
  • 10.0. Sewing Threads:
  • 10.1. Properties of Sewing Thread
  • 11.0. Zippers:
  • 11.1. Avoiding Zipper Problems
  • 12.0. BUTTONS, BUCKLES AND SNAP FASTENERS
  • 12.1. Buttons
  • 12.2. Buckles
  • 12.3. Snap Fasteners
  • 13.0. TRIMS TESTING
  • 13.1. Testing of Fusible Interlining
  • 13.2. Testing of Zippers
  • 13.2.1. Zipper Strength Tests
  • 13.3. Elastic Waistband Testing
  • 13.3.1. Fit for the labeled Size
  • 13.3.2. Resistance to Degradation, Accelerated Aging Method
  • 13.4. Sewing Thread Testing
  • 13.5. Buttons Testing
  • 14.0. Procedures practiced for Quality Control and Assurance (Cutting)
  • 14.1. Introduction – In-Process Inspection
  • 14.2. In-Process inspection - Spreading defects
  • 14.3. Pattern Defects – Marker making Defects
  • 14.4. Cutting Defects
  • 14.5. Glossary of Cutting room defects
  • 15.0. Inspection procedures in Sewing Room
  • 15.1. What to Inspect during Sewing?
  • 15.2. Sewing Defects
  • 15.4. Seaming Defects
  • 15.5. Assembly Defects
  • 16.0. Procedures practiced for Quality Control and Assurance in Fusing Operation
  • 16.1. Interlinings
  • 16.1.1. Functions of interlinings
  • 16.2. Fusing Technology
  • 16.2.1. Base cloths
  • 16.2.2. Resins
  • 16.2.3. Coating Systems
  • 16.2.4. Machinery and Equipment
  • 16.3. The Control of Quality
  • 16.3.1. Temperature
  • 16.3.2. Time
  • 16.3.3. Pressure
  • 16.3.4. Peel- Strength test
  • 16.3.5. Dry clean and /or wash
  • 16.4. Problems associated with the use of the fusible interlinings
  • 16.4.1. Boardiness
  • 16.4.2. Bubbling
  • 16.4.3. Color Change
  • 16.4.4. Delamination
  • 16.4.5. Shrinkage
  • 16.4.6. Strike back
  • 16.4.7. Strike Through
  • 17.0. Final Inspection
  • 17.1. Measurements for men’s L/S dress shirts
  • 17.3. Some possible defects in garments with diagrams
  • 17.4. Not readily apparent defects
  • 18.0. How much to Inspect?
  • 18.1. No Inspection
  • 18.2.100 % Inspection
  • 18.3. Spot Checking
  • 18.4. Arbitrary Sampling
  • 18.5. Statistical Sampling
  • 18.6. Acceptable Quality Level (AQL)
  • 18.6.1. What is AQL?
  • 18.6.2. Brief History of AQL and Acceptance sampling
  • 18.6.3. How do the Acceptance Sampling Plans Work?
  • 18.6.4. How to ensure success at AQL based inspections?
  • 18.6.5. What AQL is not?
  • 18.7. Sampling Plan – Production System:
  • 18.7.1. Continuous Sampling Plan – CSP – 1
  • 18.8. Average Outgoing Quality Level (AOQL)
  • 19.0. Procedures practiced for quality control and assurance (Finishing)
  • 19.1. Quality / workmanship standards in general
  • 20.0. Different Stages of Samples and their requirements
  • 20.1. Development samples or enquiry samples
  • 20.2. Salesmen samples or promotional samples
  • 20.3. Photo samples or fit samples
  • 20.4. Counter samples or reference samples or approval samples
  • 20.5. Wash test samples
  • 20.6. Pre-production samples
  • 20.7. Production samples
  • 20.8. Shipment samples
  • 21.0. Product Zones – Zoning defects and Appearance
  • 21.1. Product Zones
  • 22.0. Packaging
  • 22.1. Apparel – Packing Merchandise
  • 22.2. Diagram for Packaging a shirt

1

Table of Contents

1.0. Introduction to Apparel Industry ....................................................................................... 8

1.1. Performance of Indian Apparel Industry .......................................................................................... 8
1.2. Some Interesting Facts ..................................................................................................................... 9
1.3. Quotas, Tariffs and the End of the Multi-Fibre Arrangement .......................................................... 9

2.0. Apparel Industry Departments ........................................................................................... 9

2.1. MERCHANDISING ............................................................................................................................ 10
2.1.1. A Merchandisers key responsibility ......................................................................................... 10
2.2. Sampling Department .................................................................................................................... 11
2.2.1. Types of Samples in Sampling Dept. ........................................................................................ 11
2.3. FABRIC SOURCING .......................................................................................................................... 11
2.4. PURCHASING DEPARTMENT ........................................................................................................... 11
2.5. FABRIC AUDIT DEPARTMENT .......................................................................................................... 11
2.6. ACCESSORY STORES DEPARTMENT ................................................................................................ 12
2.7. PLANNING DEPARTMENT ............................................................................................................... 12
2.8. LABORATORY DEPARTMENT .......................................................................................................... 12
2.9. MACHINE MAINTENANCE .............................................................................................................. 12
2.9.1. The function of PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE .......................................................................... 13
2.10. CUTTING ROOM............................................................................................................................ 13
2.11. Production Department ............................................................................................................... 13
2.12. IED DEPARTMENT ......................................................................................................................... 14
2.13. EMBROIDERY DEPARTMENT ........................................................................................................ 14
2.14. WASHING DEPARTMENT .............................................................................................................. 14
2.15. QUALITY ASSURANCE DEPARTMENT ............................................................................................ 14
2.16. FINISHING DEPARTMENT ............................................................................................................. 15

3.0. What is Quality? ................................................................................................................. 16

3.1. Answers for Quality from Different Peoples .................................................................................. 16
3.2. Meaning of Quality ......................................................................................................................... 16
3.2.1. Expectations of Quality............................................................................................................ 16
3.3. Definitions of Quality. ..................................................................................................................... 16

2

3.3.1. Holistic Perspective ................................................................................................................. 16
3.3.2. Product Perspective................................................................................................................. 17
3.3.3. Producer Perspective (Manufacturer Perspective) ................................................................. 17
3.3.4. Customer Perspective ............................................................................................................. 17
3.3.5. Value based perspective.......................................................................................................... 19

4.0. Dimensions of Quality......................................................................................................... 20

4.1. Performance ................................................................................................................................... 20
4.2. Features .......................................................................................................................................... 20
4.3. Reliability ........................................................................................................................................ 20
4.4. Conformance .................................................................................................................................. 21
4.5. Durability & Serviceability .............................................................................................................. 21
4.6. Aesthetics & Perceived Quality ...................................................................................................... 21

5.0. Quality Related Terms and Definitions ............................................................................ 22

5.1. Quality related terminology ........................................................................................................... 22
5.2. Introduction to Quality Assurance ................................................................................................. 23
5.2.1. The Textile Industry Complex .................................................................................................. 23
5.2.2. Textile quality Assurance ......................................................................................................... 24
5.2.3. Quality Control ........................................................................................................................ 26

6.0. Quality Standards and Quality Grade .............................................................................. 29

6.1. Standards – Introduction ................................................................................................................ 29
6.1.1. Standards – Definition by ISO .................................................................................................. 29
6.1.2. Standardization ....................................................................................................................... 29
6.1.3. Developing Standards .............................................................................................................. 30
6.1.4. Benefits of Standards .............................................................................................................. 30
6.1.5. Levels of Standards .................................................................................................................. 30
6.2. Types of Standards ......................................................................................................................... 31
6.3. Other types of Standards in the Industry ....................................................................................... 31
6.3.1. Company Standards ................................................................................................................. 31
6.3.2. Industry Standards .................................................................................................................. 32
6.3.3. Voluntary Standards ................................................................................................................ 32
6.4. International Standards .................................................................................................................. 32

3

6.5. APPLICATION OF STANDARDS TO TEXTILE INDUSTRY .................................................................... 33
6.5.1. Purpose of standards & specification ...................................................................................... 33
6.5.2. Focus of Company towards Quality Standard ......................................................................... 33
6.5.3. Construction Standards ........................................................................................................... 35
6.5.4. Special Consumer needs .......................................................................................................... 36
6.5.5. Appearance of the finished product........................................................................................ 36
6.5.6. Packaging ................................................................................................................................. 36

7.0. Different Textile and Apparel Standards ......................................................................... 37

7.1. Sources of Standards ...................................................................................................................... 37
7.2. American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists (AATCC).................................................. 37
7.2.1. About AATCC ........................................................................................................................... 37
7.3. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) ...................................................................... 38
7.3.1. ASTM Committees ................................................................................................................... 38
7.3.2. ASTM Standards ...................................................................................................................... 38
7.4. American Society for Quality (ASQ) ................................................................................................ 39
7.4.1. The ASQ code of Ethics ............................................................................................................ 39
7.5. American Apparel and Footwear Association (AAFA) .................................................................... 40
7.5.1. AAFA Committees and Divisions ............................................................................................. 40

7.6. TC2

Textile / Clothing Technology Corp .......................................................................................... 41
7.7. American National Standards Institute (ANSI) ............................................................................... 41
7.8. ISO – International Organization for Standardization .................................................................... 41
7.8.1. Need for ISO ............................................................................................................................ 41
7.8.2. ISO 9000 Series Standards ....................................................................................................... 41
7.8.3. How does the series work? ..................................................................................................... 42
7.8.4. Elements of ISO 9000 Standards ............................................................................................. 43
7.8.5. Who is using ISO 9000? ........................................................................................................... 43
7.8.6. What does being registered to ISO 9001, 9002 or 9003 mean? ............................................. 43
7.8.7. Advantages of Implementing or registering to these standards ............................................. 43

8.0. Quality Specification ........................................................................................................... 45

8.1. Two important elements in Specifications ..................................................................................... 45
8.1.1. Minimums ................................................................................................................................ 45
8.1.2. Tolerances ............................................................................................................................... 45

4

8.2. Key element in Specification .......................................................................................................... 45
8.3. Types of Specification ..................................................................................................................... 46
8.3.1. Open Specification ................................................................................................................... 46
8.3.2. Closed specification ................................................................................................................. 46
8.4. Types of specifications used by various industries ......................................................................... 46
8.4.1. Target Specification: ................................................................................................................ 46
8.4.2. Functional specifications ......................................................................................................... 47
8.4.3. Product specification ............................................................................................................... 47
8.4.4. Materials Specification ............................................................................................................ 47
8.4.5. Process specification ............................................................................................................... 47
8.4.6. Inspection specifications ......................................................................................................... 47
8.4.7. Test specifications ................................................................................................................... 47
8.4.8. Acceptance Specifications ....................................................................................................... 48
8.4.9. Installation Specifications ........................................................................................................ 48
8.4.10. Use Specifications .................................................................................................................. 48
8.4.11. Maintenance Specifications .................................................................................................. 48
8.4.12. Disposal Specifications .......................................................................................................... 48
8.4.13. Procurement Specifications................................................................................................... 48
8.5. Tolerances ...................................................................................................................................... 49

9.0. Fabric Inspection Systems .................................................................................................. 50

9.1. Inspection Loop: ............................................................................................................................. 50
9.2. Fabric Inspection Machine ............................................................................................................. 51
9.3. General Inspection Procedures ...................................................................................................... 51
9.4. 4 – Point System ............................................................................................................................. 52
9.5. 10-Point System .............................................................................................................................. 55
9.6. Correlation between Fabric Quality and Apparel Quality .............................................................. 55

10.0. Sewing Threads: ................................................................................................................ 57

10.1. Properties of Sewing Thread ........................................................................................................ 57

11.0. Zippers ............................................................................................................................... 59

11.1. Avoiding Zipper Problems ............................................................................................................ 59

12.0. BUTTONS, BUCKLES AND SNAP FASTENERS ....................................................... 64

5

12.1. Buttons ......................................................................................................................................... 64
12.2. Buckles .......................................................................................................................................... 64
12.3. Snap Fasteners ............................................................................................................................. 64

13.0. TRIMS TESTING ............................................................................................................. 65

13.1. Testing of Fusible Interlining ........................................................................................................ 65
13.2. Testing of Zippers ......................................................................................................................... 65
13.2.1. Zipper Strength Tests ............................................................................................................ 66
13.3. Elastic Waistband Testing ............................................................................................................. 67
13.3.1. Fit for the labeled Size ........................................................................................................... 68
13.3.2. Resistance to Degradation, Accelerated Aging Method ....................................................... 68
13.4. Sewing Thread Testing ................................................................................................................. 68
13.5. Buttons Testing ............................................................................................................................. 70

14.0. Procedures practiced for Quality Control and Assurance (Cutting) ........................... 71

14.1. Introduction – In-Process Inspection ........................................................................................... 71
14.2. In-Process inspection - Spreading defects .................................................................................... 72
14.3. Pattern Defects – Marker making Defects ................................................................................... 72
14.4. Cutting Defects ............................................................................................................................. 73
14.5. Glossary of Cutting room defects ................................................................................................. 74

15.0. Inspection procedures in Sewing Room .......................................................................... 77

15.1. What to Inspect during Sewing? .................................................................................................. 77
15.2. Sewing Defects ............................................................................................................................. 79
15.4. Seaming Defects ........................................................................................................................... 80
15.5. Assembly Defects ......................................................................................................................... 81
15.6. Glossary of sewing room defects ................................................................................................. 82

16.0. Procedures practiced for Quality Control and Assurance in Fusing Operation ........ 85

16.1. Interlinings .................................................................................................................................... 85
16.1.1. Functions of interlinings ........................................................................................................ 86
16.2. Fusing Technology ........................................................................................................................ 86
16.2.1. Base cloths ............................................................................................................................. 86
16.2.2. Resins ..................................................................................................................................... 87
16.2.3. Coating Systems .................................................................................................................... 87

6

16.2.4. Machinery and Equipment .................................................................................................... 88
16.3. The Control of Quality .................................................................................................................. 89
16.3.1. Temperature .......................................................................................................................... 89
16.3.2. Time ....................................................................................................................................... 89
16.3.3. Pressure ................................................................................................................................. 90
16.3.4. Peel- Strength test ................................................................................................................. 90
16.3.5. Dry clean and /or wash .......................................................................................................... 90
16.4. Problems associated with the use of the fusible interlinings....................................................... 90
16.4.1. Boardiness ............................................................................................................................. 90
16.4.2. Bubbling ................................................................................................................................. 91
16.4.3. Color Change ......................................................................................................................... 91
16.4.4. Delamination ......................................................................................................................... 91
16.4.5. Shrinkage ............................................................................................................................... 91
16.4.6. Strike back ............................................................................................................................. 91
16.4.7. Strike Through ....................................................................................................................... 91

17.0. Final Inspection ................................................................................................................. 92

17.1. Measurements for men’s L/S dress shirts. ................................................................................... 93
17.3. Some possible defects in garments with diagrams ...................................................................... 93
17.4. Not readily apparent defects........................................................................................................ 97

18.0. How much to Inspect? ...................................................................................................... 98

18.1. No Inspection ............................................................................................................................... 98
18.2.100 % Inspection ........................................................................................................................... 98
18.3. Spot Checking ............................................................................................................................... 98
18.4. Arbitrary Sampling ........................................................................................................................ 99
18.5. Statistical Sampling ....................................................................................................................... 99
18.6. Acceptable Quality Level (AQL) .................................................................................................. 100
18.6.1. What is AQL? ....................................................................................................................... 101
18.6.2. Brief History of AQL and Acceptance sampling ................................................................... 101
18.6.3. How do the Acceptance Sampling Plans Work? .................................................................. 102
18.6.4. How to ensure success at AQL based inspections? ............................................................. 103
18.6.5. What AQL is not? ................................................................................................................. 103
18.7. Sampling Plan – Production System: .......................................................................................... 104

7

18.7.1. Continuous Sampling Plan – CSP – 1 ................................................................................... 104
18.8. Average Outgoing Quality Level (AOQL) .................................................................................... 104

19.0. Procedures practiced for quality control and assurance (Finishing) ......................... 105

19.1. Quality / workmanship standards in general ............................................................................. 105
19.2. Glossary of finishing department defects .................................................................................. 107

20.0. Different Stages of Samples and their requirements ................................................... 108

20.1. Development samples or enquiry samples ................................................................................ 108
20.2. Salesmen samples or promotional samples ............................................................................... 108
20.3. Photo samples or fit samples ..................................................................................................... 109
20.4. Counter samples or reference samples or approval samples .................................................... 109
20.5. Wash test samples ...................................................................................................................... 110
20.6. Pre-production samples ............................................................................................................. 110
20.7. Production samples .................................................................................................................... 110
20.8. Shipment samples ...................................................................................................................... 110

21.0. Product Zones Zoning defects and Appearance ....................................................... 111

21.1. Product Zones ............................................................................................................................. 111

22.0. Packaging ......................................................................................................................... 113

22.1. Apparel – Packing Merchandise ................................................................................................. 113
22.2. Diagram for Packaging a shirt ..................................................................................................... 114

8

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