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Optional Geography 6 Human Geography

Optional Geography 6 Human Geography

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Published by: ABID H on Jun 13, 2011
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These benefits can be indirect or direct. Among the indirect benefits, the

most important is the capacity of forests to influence rain producing mechanisms.

Forests make the micro-climate of an area more equable and moderate. Forests

check the flow of surface water during rains and their root systems trp the

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125

rainwater and channel it intounderwater streams. This water reemerges in the form

of surface water in rivers, lakes, springs, ponds etc. Also, this water is absorbed by

the plant anatomy andpart of it gets evaporated to rejoain the atomospheric hydro

logical cycle. Thus, they act as nature’s giant sponges. Root systems of forests bind

the soil together and thus check woil erosion. This way, the forests check

occurrence of floods. Also, by reducing the velocity of air currents, they protect the

adjoinging fields against cold and dry winds and also provide cool shade to cattle,

game, birds and humans. Also, if the agricultural fields are closer to the forests,

there is a lesser chance for pests to grow in numbers because of presence of a large

numbr of predators. Finally, forest itself is theproduces of new soil, for it is the

decayed leaf litter which, over the centuries, becomes soil. The forest keeps

producing fresh soil and the pest problem is contained to a large extent.

Forests also contribute directly to the nation’s economy by making available

a number of useful products. The major products include timber, pulp, charcoal

wood, firewood, round wood and matchwood.Timber, an important produce, is

largely derived from the forests of Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Karnataka, Uttar

Pradesh, Assam and Jammu and Kashmir. Two – thirds of the total firewood is

derived from Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka andMadhya Pradesh alone.

The minor forest products include cane, bamboo, many types of grasses (Sabai,

elephant and bhabhar used for makingpaper; munj, Kans, bansi, sarkanda used for

making thatch), fodder, tendu leaves, lac, resins, gums, tanning and dying material

etc. Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan, Madhaya Pradesh, Bihar andAssam

account for more than 70% of bamboo production. The various grasses and fodder

are obtained from northern India including Maharashtra. Madhya Pradesh and

Orissa are leading producers of tendu leaves.

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