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General Physics | Mechanics | Wave Motion | Thermal Physics | Electric Current |Electrostatics | Magnetism | Electromagnetic induction | Wave Optics | Ray Optics |Modern Physics

General Physics

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Dimensions Applications of Dimensions Scalars and Vectors Addition and Subtraction of Vectors Multiplication of Vectors Vector Components

Dimensions By international agreement a small number of physical quantities such as length, time etc. are chosen and assigned standards. These quantities are called µbase quantities¶ and their units as µbase units¶. All other physical quantities are expressed in terms of these µbase quantities¶. The units of these dependent quantities are called µderived units¶. The standard for a unit should have the following characteristics. (a) It should be well defined. (b) It should be invariable (should not change with time) (c) It should be convenient to use (d) It should be easily accessible The 14th general conference on weights and measures (in France) picked seven quantities as base quantities, thereby forming the International System of Unitsabbreviated as SI (System de International) system. Base quantities and their units The seven base quantities and their units are

Base quantity Length Mass Time Electric current Temperature Luminous intensity Amount of substance Derived units

Unit Metre Kilogram Second Ampere Kelvin Candela Mole

Symbol M Kg Sec A K Cd Mole

We can define all the derived units in terms of base units. For example, speed is defined to be the ratio of distance to time. Unit of Speed = (unit of distance (length))/(unit of time)

= m/s = ms-1 (Read as metre per sec.) SOME DERIVED SI UNITS AND THEIR SYMBOLS Quantity Force Work Power Pressure Unit newton joules watt pascal Symbol N J W Pa Express in base units Kg-m/sec2 Kg-m2/sec2 Kg-m2/sec3 Kg m-1/S2

Important: The following conventions are adopted while writing a unit. (1) Even if a unit is named after a person the unit is not written capital letters. i.e. we write joules not Joules. (2) For a unit named after a person the symbol is a capital letter e.g. for joules we write µJ¶ and the rest of them are in lowercase letters e.g. seconds is written as µs¶. (3) The symbols of units do not have plural form i.e. 70 m not 70 ms or 10 N not 10Ns. (4) Not more than one solid¶s is used i.e. all units of numerator written together before the µ/¶ sign and all in the denominator written after that. i.e. It is 1 ms-2 or 1 m/s-2 not 1m/s/s. (5) Punctuation marks are not written after the unit e.g. 1 litre = 1000 cc not 1000 c.c. It has to be borne in mind that SI system of units is not the only system of units that is followed all over the world. There are some countries (though they are very few in number) which use different system of units. For example: the FPS (Foot Pound Second) system or the CGS (Centimeter Gram Second) system. Dimensions The unit of any derived quantity depends upon one or more fundamental units. This dependence can be expressed with the help of dimensions of that derived quantity. In other words, the dimensions of a physical quantity show how its unit is related to the fundamental units. To express dimensions, each fundamental unit is represented by a capital letter. Thus the unit of length is denoted by L, unit of mass by M. Unit of time by T, unit of electric current by I, unit of temperature by K and unit of luminous intensity by C. Remember that speed will always remain distance covered per unit of time, whatever is the system of units, so the complex quantity speed can be expressed in terms of length L and time T. Now,we say that dimensional formula of speed is LT-1. We can relate the physical quantities to each other (usually we express complex quantities in terms of base quantities) by a system of dimensions. Dimension of a physical quantity are the powers to which the fundamental quantities must be raised to represent the given physical quantity.

Example Density of a substance is defined to be the mass contained in unit volume of the substance. Hence, [density] = ([mass])/([volume]) = M/L3 = ML-3 So, the dimensions of density are 1 in mass, -3 in length and 0 in time. Hence the dimensional formula of density is written as [ ]= ML-3T0 It is to be noted that constants such as ½ , or trigonometric functions such as ³sin wt´ have no units or dimensions because they are numbers, ratios which are also numbers. Units and Dimensions are important from IIT JEE perspective. Objective questions are framed on this section. AIEEE definitely has 1-2 questions every year directly on these topics. Sometimes both IIT JEE and AIEEE do not ask questions on units and dimensions directly but they change units and involve indirect application. So it¶s very important to master these concepts at early stage as this forms the basis of your preparation for IIT JEE and AIEEE Physics. At askIITians we provide you free study material on units and dimensions so that you get all the professional help needed to get through IIT JEE and AIEEE easily. AskIITians also provides live online IIT JEE preparation and coaching where you can attend our live online classes from your home!

Applications of Dimensions

Broadly speaking, dimension is the nature of a Physical quantity. Understanding of this nature helps us in many ways. Following are some of the applications of the theory of dimensional analysis in Physics: (i) To find the unit of a given physical quantity in a given system of units: By expressing a physical quantity in terms of basic quantity we find its dimensions. In the dimensional formula replacing M, L, T by the fundamental units of the required system, we get the unit of physical quantity. However, sometimes we assign a specific name to this unit. Illustration: Force is numerically equal to the product of mass and acceleration i.e. Force = mass x acceleration or [F] = mass x velocity/time= mass x displacement/(time)2 ) = mass x length/(time)2) = [M] x [LT-2] = [MLT-2]

(ii) To find dimensions of physical constants or coefficients: The dimension of a physical quantity is unique because it is the nature of the physical quantity and the nature does not change. This is known as the µprinciple of homogeneity¶. If the dimensions of the terms on both sides are same. the exerted by one mass upon another is F=G (m1 m2)/r2 or G=(Fr2)/(m1 m2 ) or [G] = ([MLT]2][L-2]) / ([M][M]) = [M-1 L3 T-2 ] We can find its SI unit which is m3/Kgs2.Its unit in SI system will be Kgms<sup<>-2 which is given a specific name ³newton (N)´. (iii) To convert a physical quantity from one system of units to another: This is based on the fact that for a given physical quantity. we can find the dimensions of the required constant or coefficient. Illustration: Convert one Newton into dyne </sup<> Solution: Dimensional formula for Newton = [MLT-2] Or 1 N = 1 Kg m/s2 . its unit in CGS system will be gmcms-2 which is called ³dyne´. magnitude x unit = constant So. when unit changes. Similarly. But 1 kg = 103 g and 1 m = 102 cm Therefore 1 N = ((103 g)(102 cm))/s2 = 105 g cm/s2 = 105 dyne (iv) To check the dimensional correctness of a given physical relation: This is based on the principle that the dimensions of the terms on both sides on an equation must be same. magnitude will also change. Illustration: From Newton¶s law of Gravitation. If we write any formula or equation incorporating the given physical constant. otherwise not. the equation is dimensionally correct. Illustration: . Caution: It is not necessary that a dimensionally correct equation is also physically correct but a physically correct equation has to be dimensionally correct.

e. using the concept of dimension.g. Again. As we know [g] = [LT2] Therefore [T] = ¥(([L])/([LT-2])) = [T] s Thus the above equation is dimensionally correct (homogenous) and later you will come to know that it is physically also correct. Dimensionally [L] = [LT-1] [L] ± [LT-2] [T2] => [L] = [L] ± [L] In this case also the formula is dimensionally correct but. (iii) The method of dimensions cannot be used to derive relations other than product of power functions. (ii) Consider the formula s=ut -1/3 at2. having no dimensions. T=2¥(l/g) Where T is the time period of oscillation of a simple pendulum in a simple harmonic motion. l and g are the length of the pendulum and gravitational constants respectively.(i) Consider the formula. Check this formula whether it is correct or not. using the concept of dimension. For example. expressions containing trigonometric or logarithmic functions also cannot be derived using dimensional analysis. cannot be deduced by using the concepts of dimensions. s = ut + 1/3at2 or y = a sincot or P= P0e (±Mgh)/RT . whether it is correct or not. The theory of dimensions (in the light of principal of homogeneity) provides us with a powerful tool of research in the preliminary stages of investigation [It must be again emphasized that mere dimensional correctness of an equation does not ensure its physical correctness] Limitations of the theory of dimensions The limitations are as follows: (i) If dimensions are given. physical quantity may not be unique as many physical quantities have the same dimension. Check this formula. you know that it is physically incorrect as the correct formula is given by S = ut + 1/3at2 (v) As a research tool to derive new relations: One of the aims of scientific research is to discover new laws relating different physical quantities. if the dimensional formula of a physical quantity is [ML2T-2] it may be work or energy or even moment of force. (ii) Numerical constants.

e. force etc. For such equations. the law of triangular addition and law of parallelogram are discussed later in this chapter). their dimensional correctness can be verified. any representation of them has to include the direction. energy etc. i. In the enclosed figure the change of position from point P1 to P2 is represented graphically by the directed line segment with an arrowhead to represent direction of motion. velocity. mass m and length l is given by the following equation. and therefore have the magnitude only. the time period of a physical pendulum of moment of inertia I. which besides having both magnitude and direction also obey the law of geometrical addition. method of dimensions cannot be used to derive its formula. are displacement. we cannot derive the equation. which are vectors. Vectors Vectors are physical quantities. though we can still check the dimensional correctness of the equation (Try to check it as an exercise). time. .cannot be derived. (The law of geometrical addition. Scalars and Vectors Scalars Physical quantities which can be completely specified by a number and unit.g. These examples obey the algebraic law of addition. The length of the line represents the magnitude of vector and direction of the arrow represents the direction of the vector. (v) Even if a physical quantity depends on three Physical quantities. the formula cannot be derived by theory of dimensions. out of which two have the same dimensions. Some physical quantities which are scalar are mass. Let us start with a vector quantity called displacement. However. and only its correctness can be checked e. Representation of a Vector Since vectors have directions. only the dimensional correctness can be checked. length. T = 2¥(I/mgl) (I is known as the moment of Inertia with dimensions of [ML2] through dimensional analysis). (iv) If a physical quantity depends on more than three physical quantities. are scalars. Some physical quantities. To represent a vector we use a line with an arrow head. For example.

On x-y co-ordinate system denote unit vector in positive x direction and denotes unit vector in positive y direction. they are called unit vectors. Similarly any vector in a 3 dimensional x y z space can be represented in terms of unit vectors . the vectors also have units. In the figure below. Parallel Vectors: Two or more vectors are said to be parallel when they are parallel to the same line. Equal Vectors: Two or more. whatever their initial points.Vector is a Physical quantity and all physical quantities have units. as shown in figure above. Hence. and k where. the vectors A and B are . In the figure above. Unit Vectors: A unit vector is a vector having a magnitude of unity. k is the unit vector in the positive z direction. Any vector in x ± y plane can be represented in terms of these unit vectors & . Its only purpose is to describe a direction in space. the vectors A B and C are all parallel. vectors are equal if they have the same magnitude (length) and direction.

shift a such that its initial point coincides with the terminal point b .com. and terminal point coincides with the terminal point of vector b represents (a +b ) as shown in the above figure. Null Vectors: A vector having zero magnitude is called zero vector or µnull vector¶and is written as = O vector. To find (b +a ). Now. In figure above vectors A and C or B and C are negative vectors. shift vector b such that its initial point coincides with the terminal point of vector a. . IIT JEE study material is available online free of cost at askIITians. Study Vectors. A vector whose initial point coincides with the initial point of b and terminal point coincides with the terminal point of a represents (b +a ). Negative Vectors: Two vectors which have same magnitude (length) but their direction is opposite to each.equal.com Addition and Subtraction of Vectors Geometrical method To find a + b . the vector whose initial point coincides with the initial point of vector a . In other words. Invariance of the vector: Any vector is invariant so it can be taken anywhere in the space keeping its magnitude and direction same. the vectors remain invariant under translation. The initial point and the end point of such a vector coincide so that its direction is indeterminate. We offer numerous live online courses as well for live online IIT JEE preparation ± you do not need to travel anywhere any longer ± just sit at your home and study for IIT JEE live online with askIITians. The concept of null vector is hypothetical but we introduce it only to explain some mathematical results. Units & Dimensions ± General Physics at askIITians website and be a winner. Scalars. other called the negative vectors of each other.

In case of addition of two vectors by parallelogram method as shown in figure. vector sum of P and Q). The direction of the resultant is . If Q is displacement from position AD to BC by displacing it parallel to itself. then the diagonal drawn through the intersection of the two vectors represents the resultant (i. (AC)2 = (AE)2 + (EC)2 or R2 = (P + Q cos )2 (Q sin )2 or R = ¥(P2+ Q2 )+ 2PQcos And the direction of resultant from vector P will be given by tan = CE/AE = Qsin /(P+Qcos ) =tan-1 [Qsin /(P+Qcos )] Magnitude and direction of the resultant The magnitude of resultant will be R = ¥(P2+ P2+2P2 cos" " ) = 2Pcos /2 Ans. According to this law if two vectors P and Q are represented by two adjacent sides of a parallelogram both pointing outwards as shown in the figure below .e. this method becomes equivalent to the triangle method.Law of Parallelogram of Vectors The addition of two vectors may also be understood by the law of parallelogram. the magnitude of resultant will be given by.

shown in figure A and we have to subtract B and A. Vector addition is commutative i. The resultant is shown in figure B.e . It is just the same thing as adding vectors ± B to A. Vector addition is associative i. Figure (A) Figure (B) Properties of Vector Addition 1.= tan-1 [Psin /(P+Pcos )] = tan-1tan( /2) = Vector subtraction = /2 Suppose there are two vectors A and B.e 2.

Vectors. their addition and subtraction rules. AIEEE and other engineering entrance examinations.) If a + b is inclined at an angle tan with vector a . «..Magnitude and direction of a+b Let angle between vector a and b be In the figure vector (OA) = vector a . 2. vector (AB) = vector b From ADB AD = b cos BD = b sin In right angled ODB OD = a + b cos BD = b sin Therefore OB = ¥(OD2+BD2 ) => |a +b |=¥(a2+b2+2ab cos ) |a +b |max = a+b when = 2n |a +b |min = |a ± b| when = (2n + 1) (where n = 0. 1. then = ((b sin )/(a+b cos )) AskIITians provides free study material for IIT JEE. law of parallelogram addition of .

s-> = Fs cos Here. Many a times questions are directly asked from these topics. If two vectors are mutually perpendicular then = 900 and cos 90 = 0. If m is a negative quantity the direction of the vector will be reversed. a ->.e. b-> = axbx + ayby + azbz . 2. Some examples of dot product: work = F-> . Multiplication of vector by a scalar Let vector a is multiplied by a scalar m.vectors are very important from engineering entrance exam point of view as there are many situations in which these concepts and rules are applied. Hence. only magnitude of the vector will change by a factor µm¶ and its direction will remain same. If m is a positive quantity. AskIITians provides live online IIT JEE and AIEEE coaching. Multiplication of Vectors 1. You can sit at your home and attend our live online coaching classes. their dot product is zero. b-> =b-> . b-> = ab cos where a and b are the magnitudes of the respective vectors and is the angle between them. The dot product obeys commutative law i.a-> a-> . Multiplication of a vector by a vector (i) Dot product or scalar product (ii) Cross product or vector product Dot product or scalar product The dot product of two vectors a and b is defined as a-> . Hence. The final product is a scalar quantity.

B-> = i ± 2j + 3k Solution: We know that A-> × B-> = AB sin n n = (A->×B->)/ABsin We have A-> × B-> = 17i-2j-7k A = ¥29 B = ¥14 .B-> = |A||B| cos |B| =¥(12 + 22+ 3 2) = ¥14 Hence cos = (A-> . where n is a unit vector perpendicular to the plane of vector A and vector B. where is the angle between the vectors. refer to the figure given below. Cross product or vector product The cross product of the two vectors a and b is defined as a-> × b-> = c-> Here.B-> )/(|A||B|)=((2i +3j +3k )(i +2j -3k ))/(¥22×¥14) =(2+6-9)/(2¥77)=(-1)/(2¥77) => = cos-1((-1)/(2¥77)) where |A| = ¥(22 +32 + 32) = ¥22. |c-> |=|a->|×|b->| sin .Illustration : Find the angle between the vectors A and B where Solution : We know A->. To specify the sense of the vector C. Then the direction of advancement of the screw gives the direction of the vector product vectors A-> × B->. Vector product is defined as a vector quantity with a direction perpendicular to the plane containing vectors A and B then C = AB sin n. Illustration: Obtain a unit vector perpendicular to the two vectors A-> = 2i + 3j + 3k. Imagine rotating a right hand screw whose axis is perpendicular to the plane formed by vectors A and B so as to turn it from vectors A to B trough the angle between them.

Since sin 00and sin 1800 both equals zero. n = (17i-2j-7k)/(¥29 ¥14 sin ) Cross Product of Parallel vectors where cos-1 8/(¥14 ¥29) If two vectors are parallel or antiparallel. AIEEE and other engineering entrance exams preparation live online. From the above values we can find n Solving we get. The vector product does not follow commutative law. askIITians also provides IIT JEE. Product of unit vectors Multiplication of vectors is a very important topic from IIT JEE. AIEEE and other engineering entrance exams.you can use these resources as much as you can.and = cos-1 8/(¥14 ¥29) (Use concept of dot product to find ). then is either 00 or 1800. AIEEE and other engineering exams perspective. Hence magnitude of their cross product is zero. Vector Components Components of a Vector: From the figure given below we can write It means B . Dot product or scalar product and cross product or vector product find their use both in physics and mathematics while preparing for IIT JEE.com provides free of cost study material for exam preparation .C and D vectors are the components of vector A . askIITians. It¶s a live online coaching where you can study from your home ± get all the benefits of classroom coaching sitting at your home from askIITians.

It implies that we can draw any number of set of components in any desired direction. is extremely useful in physical analysis because both have mutually independent effects. These are called theperpendicular or rectangular component of vector A and are expressed as: . For resolving a vector A along two directions making angles figure given below. These two vectors are labeled A and A. we use the following:and with it as shown in A = (A sin )/(sin( + )) Perpendicular Components Representation of any vector lying in the x ± y plane. Note that we can also write A =X +Y.. one parallel to the x-axis and the other parallel to y-axis. as shown in figure given below. as the sum of two vectors. So vectors X and Y are also components of vector A.

Most of the Physics is based on usage of vectors and components of vectors. physics and mathematics at higher levels. Learning components of a vector is very important from IIT JEE. AIEEE and other engineering exams perspective. Illustration: A vector quantity of magnitude L acts on a point A along the direction making an angle of 450 with the vertical. Then simply add all the components in the x direction and all the components in the y direction.If magnitude and direction of vector A are known then Ax = A cos and Ay = A sin . we will resolve each of these 30 vectors in rectangular components in any x and y direction. it should be clear that if we have to add 30 vectors. Vectors and their components are also useful in trigonometry and mathematics as a whole. Adding these two resultant perpendicular components will give us the final resultant. as shown in the figure given below. . This is a very useful concept and should be learned thoroughly at the beginner¶s level so that it paves a way for great understanding of statistics. Find the component of this vector in the vertical direction? Solution: The component of the vector in the vertical direction will be L*(cos /4) = L/¥2. Hence we can write Ax2 + Ay2 = A2 and tan = Ay/Ax Now.

Young s modulus 10. 8.FREE Study Material. 4. Utilize askIITians free resources like:.************************** 1. Fluid mechanics Kinematics .AskIITians.com provides free study material for students aspiring for IIT JEE AIEEE and other engineering entrance exams. You can study in our live online batches and do your exam preparation with us from your home. 5. FREE A Question A Day. 2. 6. FREE Test Series while preparing for IIT JEE. We also provide live online IIT JEE and AIEEE preparation over internet. 9. ************** ------. Kinematics Newton s Law Conservation of Momentum Work Power And Energy System of particles Gravitation Rotational Motion Simple Harmonic Motion Hooke s Law. 7.Mechninics -----. 3. AIEEE and other engineering entrance exams.

Introduction to Motion in One Dimension Graphical Representation and Equations of Motion Motion under Gravity Motion in a Straight Line with Acceleration Motion in Two Dimensions Motion of Projectile Circular Motion Relative Motion Solved Examples Introduction to Motion in One Dimension A body A certain amount of matter limited in all directions and consequently having a finite size. Thus. 2. we will consider a body to be a particle for the sake of simplicity. 6. In the problems we are going to discuss.e. So we can define motion as follows:An object or a body is said to be in motion if its position continuously changes with time with reference to a fixed point (or fixed frame of reference). Particle A particle is defined as a portion of matter infinitesimally small in size so that for the purpose of investigation.1. 3. To understand the essential concepts of one dimensional motion we have to go through . motion of object along straight line is called motion in one dimension. A body is said to be moving like if every portion of it moves in the same direction and at the same rate. Caution : The moving object is either a particle. Motion in One Dimension When the position of object changes on a straight line i. a point object (such as an electron) or an object that moves like a particle. shape and occupying some definite space is called a body. 8. 5. 9. 4. 7. the distance between its different parts may be neglected. but no dimension. a particle has only a definite position. MOTION IN ONE DIMENSION Motion The position of object can change on a straight line (like on x-axis with respect to origin) or on a plane with respect to some fixed point on frame.

In one-dimensional motion: vector In two-dimensional motion: vector = xi. y. So the study of motion is a combined property of the object under study and the observer. it should be rigid. which we have arbitrarily chosen as per our observer's requirement. who is on platform. Z is a set of coordinate axes representing a 3-dimensional space and each point in this space can be uniquely defined with the help of a set of X. It is a vector joining the origin to the particle. Hence there is a need to define a frame of reference under which we have to study the motion of an object. all three axes being mutually perpendicular to each other. we define position of a point (essentially we treat body as a point mass) with the help of three co-ordinates X. Y. Definition A frame of reference is a set of coordinate axes which is fixed with respect to a space point (a body or an object can also be treated as a point mass therefore it can become a site for fixing a reference frame). Position vector It describes the instantaneous position of a particle with respect to the chosen frame of reference. (x. z) be the Cartesian coordinates of the particle then its position vector is given by vector = xi + yj + zk. The line drawn from origin to the point represents the position vector of that point. But one. If at any time. Frame of reference One can see the platform from a running train. y=z=0 (along x-axis) (in x-y plane z = 0) = xi + yj . Y and Z coordinate. and it seems that all the objects placed on platform are continuously changing their position. The essential requirement for a frame of reference is that. concludes that the objects on the platform are at rest. Y and Z.some basic definitions. It means if we will take the trains are reference frame the objects are not stationary and taking reference frame as platform the objects are stationary. As a convention. Position of an object The position of an object is defined with respect to some frame of reference. Hence X.

Suppose the point A travels from point 1 to point 2 in the time interval t. Now consider the motion of a point A with respect to a reference point O. It is seen from the figure that the displacement vector of the point . The motion of point A makes its radius vector vary in the general case both in magnitude and in direction as shown in figure above. Caution: Motion of a body cannot be correctly identified unless one knows the position of body as specified by a fixed frame of reference. Suppose at certain instant 't' the position of an object is x1 along the x axis and some other instant 'T' the position is x1 then the displacement x is defined as x = x2 .x1 It can be seen in the figure above where x1 and x2 are instantaneous position of the object at that time.In the figure above. Displacement Consider a case in which the position of an object changes with time. the position of a point P is specified and vector OP is called the position vector.

A represents the increment of vector

in time =

2

t: t

Difference between distance and displacement To understand the difference between distance and displacement, we study the motion of vertical throw of a ball with respect to point O, as shown in the figure below, to height h.

After some time it will come again to the same point O. The displacement of ball is zero but there is some distance traversed by the ball. It's because distance is a scalar quantity but displacement is a vector quantity. Uniform and Non Uniform Motion Speed is the rate of change of distance without regard to directions. Velocity is the rate at which the position vector of a particle changes with time. Velocity is a vector quantity whereas speed is scalar quantity but both are measured in the same unit m/sec. The motion of an object may be uniform or non-uniform depending upon its speed. In case of uniform motion the speed is constant, whereas in the non-uniform motion, the speed is variable. In uniform motion in one dimension the velocity (v) is mathematically defined as v = (x2 - x1)/(T-t) ...... (1)

where x1 and x2 are instantaneous displacement as shown in figure above at time 't' and 'T' respectively.

Graphical representation of the uniform motion Form the equation (1) we have the following equation

x2 = x1 + v(T - t) where v is constant. Take t = 0, the equation becomes x2 = x1 + vT, from this equation it follows that the graph of position of object 'x2' against 'T' is a straight line, cutting off x1 on the position axis where x1 is the distance of the particle from the origin at time t = 0. v = slope of the graph which is constant Note: If the graph is not a straight line, it will represent non-uniform motion.

Velocity Vector in Non Uniform Motion In any non-uniform motion, we can define an average velocity over a time interval. Average velocity is the ratio of the displacement x (that occurs during a particle time interval t) to that interval of time i.e.

Now refer to the example, related to figure 2.3, the ratio of / t is called the average velocity < > during the time interval t. The direction of the vector < > coincides with that of . Average velocity is also a vector quantity. Note: The ratio of total distance traveled and time taken during the motion is called average speed. Average speed is a scalar quantity. If at any time t1 position vector of the particle is and at time position vector is then

1

2

2

for this interval Instantaneous velocity Instantaneous velocity is defined as the rate of change of displacement.

Illustration: This question contains statement-1 (Assertion) and Statement-2 (Reason). Question has 4 choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which only one is correct. Statement-1 A bus moving due north take a turn and starts moving towards east with same speed. There will be no change in the velocity of the bus. Statement-2 Velocity is a vector quantity. (A) Statement-1 is true, Statement-2 is true, Statement-2 is a correct explanation for statement-1. (B) Statement-1 is true, Statement-2 is true, Statement-2 is not a correct explanation for statement-1. (C) Statement-1 is true, Statement-2 is false. (D) Statement-1 is false, Statement-2 is true. Solution (D) This is so because bus is changing its direction of motion. Illustration: A man started running form origin and went up to (2, 0) and returned back to (-1, 0) as shown in figure 2.7. In this process total time taken by man is 2 seconds. Find the average velocity and average speed.

the average velocity approaches a limiting value. 0)+(0. since the total distance traveled by man = (0. which is a vector quantity. The magnitude v of the instantaneous velocity is called the speed and is simple the absolute value of In the example related with figure given below. 0) to (2. s = So average velocity = Displacement/total time = where as. 0) to (-1. called instantaneous velocity. As t tends to zero. mathematically we can define it as /2 = (-1/2) m/sec. 0) to (0. 0) =2+2+1=5m Hence average speed = (Total distance)/(Total time)=5/2 m/sec.Solution: The man is displaced form origin to (-1. 0) Hence displacement. the instantaneous velocity is . 0)+(2. Velocity The velocity at any instant is obtained from the average velocity shrinking the time interval closer to zero. which is the velocity at that instant.

as shown in figure above. As s>| |. Speed Speed is defined as rate of change of distance with time. (b) average velocity. In any interval of time. Solution: In the figure. The velocity of a particle at any instant is the slope (tangent) of its position curve at the point representing that instant of time. in m/s.Hence instantaneous velocity is the rate at which a particle's position is changing with respect to time at a given instant. hence Think : (i) Can a body have a constant speed and still have a varying velocity? (ii) Can a body have a constant velocity and still have a varying speed? Illustration: A cyclist moves 12 km due to north and then 5 km due east in 3 hr. average speed is defined as <speed> = (total distance)/(total time taken) = <speed> > <velocity> s/ t. Find (a) his average speed. The total distance covered by the cyclist AB+BC= (12+5)km = 17 km. . A shows the initial position and C the final position of the cyclist.

Solution: (a) In the frame of train. displacement covered by A=0 + 5x10 = 50 m. find (a) displacement covered by A. Its average speed = 17/3 km/hr = 1. Then. Acceleration ..2 m/s along AC. (b) distance covered by A in frame of reference of train and in frame of reference of C. Another person C is standing on the ground.6o East of North. displacement covered by A is zero and in frame of reference of C. (b) Distance covered by A in frame of reference of train is 20m and distance covered by A in frame of reference of C is (20 + 50) = 70 m.e at tan-1(5/12) or 22. Illustration: A train is moving with a constant speed of 5 m/s and there are two persons A and B standing at a separation of 10 m inside the train.·. i. Its average velocity = 13/3 km/hr = 1. if he moves towards B and back to its position in 10 seconds in frame of reference of train and in frame of reference of C.57 m/s Its displacement is AC and the magnitude is given by AC = ¥(AB2 + BC2) = ¥(122 + 52) km = 13 km .·.

Instantaneous acceleration is defined as Acceleration vector in non uniform motion Suppose that at the instant t1 a particle as in figure above. . Average acceleration is the change in velocity per unit time over an interval of time. which is the acceleration at that instant called instantaneous acceleration which is vector quantity. The average acceleration < > during the motion is defined as Variable Acceleration The acceleration at any instant is obtained from the average acceleration by shrinking the time interval closer zero. As t tends to zero average acceleration approaching a limiting value. has velocity velocity is 2 1 and at t2. . It is a vector quantity. The concept of acceleration is understood in non-uniform motion.Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity with time.

the instantaneous acceleration is the derivative of velocity.... Equations of motion The relationship among different parameter like displacement velocity.. When acceleration is constant...i.. Instantaneous acceleration at any point is the slope of the curve v (t) at that point as shown in figure above. (2) ...e. This is the first useful equation of motion.. Hence instantaneous acceleration of a particle at any instant is the rate at which its velocity is changing at that instant. Similarly for displacement ... so we can write where Now 0 is the velocity at t = 0 and is the velocity at some time t Hence. acceleration can be derived using the concept of average acceleration and concept of average acceleration and instantaneous acceleration. a distinction between average acceleration and instantaneous acceleration loses its meaning......

. square both side of this equation we get This is another important equation of motion.0 meters long which forms part of a particle accelerator.. how long is the particle in the tube if it enters at a speed of 1000 meter/sec and leaves at 9000 meter/sec? (b) What is its acceleration during this interval? Solution: (a) We choose x-axis parallel to the tube.... Now from equation (2)...e. (3) in which > is the average velocity between 0 is the position of the particle at t0 and < t0 and later time t. its positive direction being that in which the .. the motion in which the acceleration is constant. If at t0 and t the velocity of particle is This is the second important equation of motion... Illustration: The nucleus of helium atom (alpha-particle) travels inside a straight hollow tube of length 2. (a) If one assumes uniform acceleration....... Caution: The equation of motion derived above are possible only in uniformly accelerated motion i...

. Pause : The above equations of motion are. t = ((2)(2.particle is moving and its origin at the tube entrance. universal and can be derived by using differential calculus as given below: Ans. vx = vx0 + axt => ax = (v0-vx0)/t = ((9000-1000)meters/sec)/(4. with x0 = 0 or t = 2x/(vx0+vx). x = x0 + <v> t.0/10-4 sec (b) The acceleration follows from equation 2. The acceleration ax is not involved. however. We get x = v0 + ½ (vx0) + vx) t. We are given x and vx and we seek t. Hence we use equation 3.0 meters))/((1000+9000)meters/sec) = 4. we have derived the same equation of motion using calculus.0 × 107 meter/sec2 Ans. Thus.0×10(-4) sec) = 2.

.. v = dx/dt Hence we get v = dx/dt = 2t .3 Squaring both sides.. we get x = t2 .. we get. Hence a v => a = kv.6t + 9. t = 3s When t = 3s.To understand the use of calculus in solving the kinematics problems we can look into the following illustrations. find the time taken by particle from A to B. x = t2 .6 Put v = 0. Solution: Here t = ¥x + 3 => ¥x = t ... Solution: Here acceleration a is proportional to velocity v..·. 2t . (1) => (dv/ds)(ds/dt) = kv => (dv/ds) v = kv . Find the displacement of the particle when its velocity is zero. where k is constant => dv/dt = kv .. If acceleration is proportional to velocity. at point B which is at a distance 'd' from point A.. Illustration: A particle starts from a point whose initial velocity is v1 and it reaches with final velocity v2.6 = 0 .... under the action of a constant force is related to the time t by the equation t = ¥x + 3 where x is in meter and t is in seconds.6t + 9 = 9 . Illustration: The displacement x of a particle moving in one dimension. As we know velocity... The path is straight line.6(3) + 9 = 0 Hence the displacement of the particle is zero when its velocity is zero.

you do not need to travel anywhere any longer . Chemistry and Mathematics at askIITians website and be a winner. Then. We offer numerous live online courses as well for live online IIT JEE and AIEEE preparation . This indicates that the particle is stationary in the given reference frame. the straight line nature of position-time graph parallel to the time axis represents the state of rest. This graph is very convenient to analyse different aspects of motion of a particle.com ************* Graphical Representation and Equations of Motion ********** (i) (ii) Position . Let us consider the following cases.just sit at your home and study for IIT JEE and AIEEE live online with askIITians.com. displacement. Position . velocity and acceleration vectors are collinear and can be treated as algebraic quantities. dv/v = K dt = ln v2/v1 = kt Ans. (i) In this case.dt. Let x-axis be the path of motion. position (x) remains constant but time changes.Time Graph If we plot time t along the x-axis and the corresponding position (say x) from the origin O on the y-axis.Time Graph Velocity . Study Physics. x-coordinate represents the magnitude of position vector. we get a graph which is called the position-time graph. Note that its slope .Time Graph Note : These graphs will have validity only if motion under study is along a straight line. Then. Hence. => t = (d/(v2-v1))ln v2/v1 << Back | IIT JEE study material is available online free of cost at askIITians.=> dv = k ds => k = (v2-v1)/d From equation (1) => (dv/v) k.

the particle traverses equal displacement x in equal intervals of time t. (iii) When the x-t graph is a curve. It either speeds up or slows down depending upon whether the slope (tan successively increases or decreases with time. the motion slows down and for t>t3 the particle remains at rest in the reference frame. From t=t2 to t=t3. The slope of the line measured by x/ t = t represents the uniform velocity of the particle. From t=t1 to t=t2. The motion of the particle is said to be uniform rectilinear motion. (ii) When the x-t graph is a straight line inclined at some angle ( ) with the time axis. Illustration: . motion is not uniform.(tan ) is zero. As shown in the figure the motion speeds up from t = 0 to t=t1 (since the slope tan increases). AB represents a straight line indicating uniform motion.

(ii) The slope of the tangent to the curve at any point gives instantaneous acceleration.and then stops. The Velocity .Time Graph The velocity-time graph gives three types of information (i) The instantaneous velocity. The particle moves at a constant acceleration upto a time t0.The adjacent figure shows the displacement-time graph of a particle moving on the x-axis. particle is said to have uniform rectilinear motion and after that comes to rest as the slope is zero. The particle is at rest. Choose the correct option given below. . and then stops. Solution (C) Up to time t0. The particle moves at a constant velocity upto a time t0. a = dv/dt = tan (iii) The area under the curve gives total displacement of the particle. (A) (B) (C) (D) The particle is continuously going in positive x direction.

s= v dt Now. find . The acceleration of the object is the slope of the line CD. The velocity-time graph will be a straight line. a = tan = BC/BD = (v-u)/t (1) v = u + at The total displacement of the object is area OABCD s = Area OABCD = s = ut + (1/2)at2 Again s = Area OABCD = 1/2(AC + OD) x OA = 1/2(v + u)xt OABD + BCD (2) Illustration: From the velocity-time plot shown in figure. let us consider the uniform acceleration.

the curve is plotted as in Fig. (a) (b) (c) Displacement = area under the curve in Fig. (b) = 0 Vav = Displacement/time As displacement is zero.(a)distance travelled by the particle during the first 40 seconds. . Solution: (a) Distance = area under the curve = 1/2 x 20 x 5 + 1/2 x 5 x 20 For distance measurement. Illustration: Vav = 0 .·. (c) Also find the average velocity during the period. (b)displacement travelled by the particle during the first 40 seconds.

The velocity-time graph of a moving object is given in the figure. Find the maximum acceleration of the body and distance travelled by the body in the interval of time in which this acceleration exists.

Solution: Acceleration is maximum when slope is maximum amax = (80-20)/(40-30) = 5m/s2 S = 20 m/s x 10 s + 1/2 x 6 m/s2 x 100s2 = 500m

Illustration: The displacement versus time curve is given:

Column I (a) (b) (c) (d) OA AB BC CD (p) (q) (r) (s)

Column II Velocity increase with time linearly Velocity decreases with time Velocity is independent of time Velocity is zero

Solution:

A

(p)

(B)

(r)

(C)

(q)

(D)

(s)

This is so because slope of displacement-time curve gives instantaneous velocity. The acceleration-time graph Acceleration time curves give information about the variation of acceleration with time. Area under the acceleration time curve gives the change in velocity of the particle in the given time interval.

<< Back |

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*************** Motion Under Gravity ********************** When a body is dropped from some height (earth's radius = 6400 km), it falls freely under gravity with constant acceleration g (= 9.8 m/s2) provided the air resistance is negligible small. The same set of three equations of kinematics (where the acceleration remains constant) are used in solving such motion. Here, we replace by and choose the direction of y-axis conveniently. When the y-axis is chosen positive along vertically downward direction, we take v = u + gt, as positive and use the equation as and h = ut + 1/2gt2

v2 = u2 + 2gh,

where h is the displacement of the body and u is initial velocity of projection in the vertically downward direction. However, if an object is projected vertically upward with initial velocity u, we can take y-axis positive in the vertically upward direction and the set of equations reduces to v = u - gt, v2 = u2 - 2gh, and h = ut - 1/2gt2

In order to avoid confusion in selecting as positive or negative, it is advisable to take the y-axis as positive along vertically upward direction and point of projection as the origin. We can now write the set of three equations in the vector form:

where h is the displacement of the body.

Illustration: The motion of a particle is described by the equation u = at. The distance travelled by the particle in the first 4 second. Solution: Because for the motion u = at. So acceleration is uniform which is equal to a. .·. Distance traveled = 1/2(a)/(4)2 = 8a

Illustration: A body moving with a constant retardation in straight line travels 5.7 m and 3.9 m in the 6th and 9th second, respectively. When will the body come momentarily to rest? Solution: A body moving with initial velocity u and acceleration a, traverses distance Sn in nthsecond of its motion. Sn = u + (1/2)(2n - 1)a or 5.7 = u + (11/2) a and 3.9 = u + (1/2)(2 x 9 - 1)a or, 3.9 = u + (17/2) a => 5.7 = u + (1/2)(2 x 6 - 1) a

Solving eqns. (1) and (2) we get, u = 9 m/s and a = -0.6 m/s2. If the body stops moving after t seconds, then from the relation v=u+at .·. 0 = 9 + (-0.6)t or, t = (9/0.6)s = 15s

Illustration:

(displacement in 2s) = Here u = 30 m/s. t3 = 3 s s = 30(3-2) + 1/2(-4)(32-22) = 20 m Alternatively Sn = u + a/2(2n . we have a = (v-u)/t = (10-30)/5 = -4 m/s2 (b) s = (displacement in 3s) . t2 = 2 s.A car moving in a straight line at 30 m/s slows uniformly to a speed of 10 m/s in 5 sec. u = 30 m/s.1]= 20 m Illustration: A bullet fired into a fixed target loses half of tis velocity after penetrating 3 cm. a = -4 m/s2. we have t = 5 s. Solution: Let initial velocity of the bullet = u After penetrating 3 cm its velocity becomes = u/2 From v2 = u2 . (a) For the 5 s interval. How much further it will penetrate before coming to rest assuming that it faces constant resistance to motion. .·. Determine: (a)the acceleration of the car.1) Hence n = 3.2as . v = 10 m/s Using v = u + at. (b)displacement in the third second. Solution: Let us take the direction of motion to be the +x direction. s3 = 30 + ((-4))/2 [(3).

9. At t = 10 s. Solution: (a) Here.2 (u2/8)x . x = 1 cm Illustration: An anti-aircraft shell is fired vertically upwards with a muzzle velocity of 294 m/s.8 t2 . The maximum height reached by the shell is.(u/2)2 = u2 . v = 294 . t = 10 s and 50 s.·. T = u/g = 294/9. Calculate (a) the maximum height reached by it.2as . the initial velocity u = 294 m/s and g = 9.8 = 30 s The velocity at the end of 20th second is given by v = u .1/2 x 9.gt = 294 . (d) When will its height be 2450 m? Given g = 9. the shell is at a height of 2450 m and is ascending. and at the end of 50 s it is or 2450 = 2941 t .8 m/s2 .8 x 40 = -98 m/s The negative sign implies that the shell is falling downward. and the velocity at the end of 40th second is given by. H = us/2g = 2942/(2 x 9.·.·.8) = 4410 m = 4. a = u2/8 Let further it will penetrate through distance x and stops at some point 0 = (u/2)2 .9.60 t + 500 = 0 .·. (d) From the equation H = ut + (1/2)gt2 or t2 . (b) time taken to reach this height.8 m/s2.41 km (b) (c) The time taken to reach the height is. (c) the velocities at the ends of 20th and 40th second.8 x 20 = 98 m/s upward.

<< Back | Motion in a Straight Line with Acceleration Illustration: A particle moves with a velocity v(t) = (1/2)kt2 along a straight line. (b)Evaluate it for u = 2 m/s. Find the average speed of the particle in time T. (a)Find the displacement of the particle in the last 1 second.at the same height. a = 1 m/s2 and t = 5 sec. Solution: . Solution: Illustration: A particle having initial velocity is moving with a constant acceleration 'a' for a time t. but is falling.

ut + u .1) S (b) S = Putting the values of u = 2 m/s.4 x 4 + 8 = -2m.4 x (2)2 + (2)3 = 6 .4t2 + t3. a = 1 m/s2 and t = 5 sec.1/2 a (t+1-2t) = 1/2at2 + u .1)2 1/2at2 + u .4t2 + t3 => x(2) = 3 x 2 .·. .5 = 6.1) = 2 + 1/2 x 9 2 + 4.a/2 + at u + a/2(2t . Displacement in the last 1 second is St = S . (b) x(o) = 0 X(4) = 3 x 4 .1).1/2a(t .(a) The displacement of a particle at time t is given s = ut + 1/2at2 At time (t . (a)Find the position of the particle at t = 2 s. (b)Find the displacement of the particle in the time interval from t = 0 to t = 4 s. we get = = 2 + 1/2(2 x 5 . where x is in meters and t in seconds.5 m Illustration: Position of a particle moving along x-axis is given by x = 3t . the displacement of a particle is given by S' = u (t-1) + 1/2a(t-1)2 .S' = = = ut + 1/2 at2 ± [u(t-1)+1/2 a(t-1)2 ] ut + 1/2at2 .1/2at2 . (d)Find the velocity of the particle at t = 2 s. (c)Find the average velocity of the particle in the time interval from t = 2s to t=4s. Solution: (a) x(t) = 3t .4 x (4)2 + (4)3 = 12 m.

8 x 2 + 3 x (2)2 = -1m/s Analysis of Uniformly Accelerated Motion Case-I: For uniformly accelerated motion with initial velocity u and initial position x0.x(0) = 12 m.Displacement = x(4) .8t + 3t2 v(2) (dx/dt)2 = 3 . (c) (d) < v > = X(4)X(2)/(4-2) = (12-(-2))/2 m/s = 7 m/s dx/dt = 3 . Velocity time graph In every case tan = a0 Position time graph Initial position x of the body in every case is x0 (> 0) .

Draw a-t. where a is in m/s2 and t is in sec. Solution: . v-t and x-t curve for the particle. If the particle is starting its motion with a velocity of -3 m/s from x = 0.2t.Case II: For uniformly retarded motion with initial velocity u and initial position x0. Velocity time graph In every case tan = -a0 Position time graph Initial position x of the body in every case is x0 (> 0) Illustration: A particle is moving rectilinearly with a time varying acceleration a = 4 .

************** Motion in Two Dimensions ********************* In this part. its velocity is indicated by vector (tangent to the path of the particle) and acceleration as shown in the figure. Consider a particle moving on x-y plane along a curved pat at time t. Its displacement from origin is measured by vector . and are inter related and can be expressed in terms of their components. we discuss motions in two dimensions like the motion of a particle moving on a circular path or on a parabolic path. using unit vector notation as. The vectors . . as shown in figure given below.

ax = 8 m/s2 Hence velocity after 4 second. the velocity and acceleration cannot be treated as a scalar.) . Frame of reference (Contd. all the parameters can be resolved in two mutually perpendicular directions. This is for the reason that in any twodimensional motion. Solution: As the velocity and acceleration vectors are not parallel. In x-direction Initial velocity = vx0 = 3m/s.From the above relations we can say that two-dimensional motion is nothing but superimpose of two one dimension motions. Illustration: A particle starts with initial velocity (3i + 4j) m/s and with constant acceleration (8i + 6j) m/s2. Find the final velocity and final displacement of the particle after time t = 4 sec. and displacement = s sx i + sy j = (76 i + 64 j) m Ans. ay = 6 m/s2 Velocity after 4 second vy = 4 + 6 × 4 = 28 m/s Displacement after 4 second sy = 4 × 4 + ½ 6 (4)2 = 64 m It means final velocity v = vx i + vy j = (35 i + 28 j) m/s Ans. vx = 3 + 8 × 4 = 35 m/s Displacement after 4 second sx = x = 3 × 4 + ½8 (4)2 = 76 m In y-direction Initial velocity vy0 = 4m/s. Now divide the whole phenomenon in two one-dimension motions.

accelerations as functions o time. which are defined by a unique set of (x. This is called a frame of reference because we shall refer to all positions in this coordinate system fixed on that body. Here. remembers that we fix all three axis of coordinate system i. Here. 0). 0. z). which we have arbitrarily chosen as per our observer requirement. And in some other nights it doesn't move at all! We shall all agree that it cannot be. Choice of a frame of reference Let us come back to the concept of motion. Then what is the phenomenon there? We start with the first point that whenever we speak of any motion it should be with respect to some fixed frame of reference.e. y.e. It is the origin where we mostly assume that the observer is sitting to observe the motion in the concerned reference frame. So. an important thing to notice is that earth becomes a natural choice for the frame of reference as in most of the cases it is very easy to visualize the motion with respect to it. then we have done the exercise of fixing the frame of reference and we can proceed to solve problems and study various parameters i. X-axis.e. Y-axis and Z-axis as well as the origin on the body and the coordinates of origin are (0. To fix a frame of reference one has to fix the origin to a chosen space point and then fix the co-ordinate system on it. What we shall do is that we shall keep ourselves free to take it there. position. Once the origin and coordinate system are fixed. As it is a routine in our daily life we innocently (even in early childhood) refer and perceive all motion phenomenon with respect to earth only. Do you believe that all what you see moving is in motion and what you see not moving is at rest! Like vehicles on road! You should be warned that motion or observation of motion is really not that simple! Let us take an example: The moon in the night sky! Some time at night you see that moon is travelling across the clouds towards east or west. While analyzing any motion we will take the help of the coordinate system. velocity. i. It cannot sometimes move faster and sometime slower and sometimes become stationary. It is constituted of two components: (i) Body on which observer is apparently sitting to observe the motion. It is not with certainly . when we see the moon moving. the origin.A frame of reference is a set of coordinate axes which is fixed with respect to a space point (a body or n object can also be treated as a point mass and therefore it can become a site for fixing a reference frame). (ii) A coordinate system fixed on this body so that whatever is being observed can be measured or mathematically determined with the help of the coordinates of space points.

But in all the forthcoming exercises in this chapter we shall deal with and look only for inertial frames of reference. These are called inertial or unaccelerated frames of reference. Also. based on the choice of reference frames one can have many apparent motion of an object under consideration. See Figure shown above. Similarly. The fact is that if we have clouds in some nights moving towards west or east then we see moon travelling towards east or west in the sky respectively. we can't see it moving with respect to itself. Each observer will record a displacement. An important observation to remember is that once we choose an object as a frame of reference. Let us do it. It is equivalent to say that we are sitting on the clouds itself. say a passenger sitting on a bus. Now the question is "How will we compare their results"?. Relative motion Consider a observer S is fixed to the earth. then due to relatively bigger size of clouds (as seen by us) one gets his eyes fixed on clouds and therefore frame of reference gets fixed on the clouds (Figure shown above). When we see two objects in the sky one moon and other a cloud. Now obviously. How to explain it with the help of reference frames? It is like this. which means it's acceleration is zero. Now let us deliberately fix our eyes on the moon and see. So it is an effect of the clouds. What we are doing now is that we are fixing frame of reference on the moon.one can point out that in the night when it looked stationary there were no clouds. we see things going backwards when we travel on a road. which looks stationary to us and the feeling comes. velocity and acceleration for the cyclist measured relative to his reference frame. It is equivalent to say that we are sitting on the moon to observe the cloud's motion and now we can see clouds drifting away (which is the fact). we are left with one more choice of class of reference frames that is the accelerated ones. Each observer is studying the motion of a cyclist in his or her own frame of reference. as if moon is travelling across this stationary cloud in the opposite direction to the clods motion (see figure given above). These are called non-inertial or accelerated frame of reference. Here one important point to be noted is that in all previous discussion we have assumed that the reference frames are not accelerating. Naturally. The other observer S' is moving on the earth. in most of the cases of observations the Earth becomes a natural choice for the reference frame. . To do this we need the concept of relative motion. Hence other frame of reference S' is fixed with bus.

which moves along the x-axis with a constant velocity u. Once again differentiating equation [A] We get. the instantaneous velocity of the particle measured in the s-frame...In figure shown above at the top. fixed with the bus... The displacement of the particle from its position in the S-frame is the vector from A to B.. '.. the instantaneous velocity of the same particle measured in the S' frame. Differentiating equation leads to d /dt = d /dt + But d /dt = . At a time t later. [A] Hence the velocity of the particle relative to the S-frame. The displacement of the particle from its initial position in the S'-frame is the vector r' from A' to B.and y'-axes. can be thought of as fixed to the earth. so that = '+ . a particle is at a point called A in the S-frame and called A' in the S'-frame. the reference frame S.. Initially.. and the velocity of the S'frame relative to the S-frame. The other reference frame S'.. is the vector sum of the velocity of the particle to the S' frame. represented by x'.. measured in the ssystem. represented by the x and yaxes.. From the second figure shown above we see that is the vector sum of is the vector sum of and t: = + t.... These are different vectors because the reference point A' of the moving frame has been displaced a distance ut along the x-axis during the motion. . and d /dt = . the reference frame S' has moved a distance ut to the right and particle has moved to B....

Hence the acceleration of particle is the same in all reference frame moving relative to one another with constant velocity. Water flow velocity is 10m/sec away from the bank. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Bank (earth) B1 B2 Water . When at one instant of time. b1 is 50 away and B2 is 25m away from the bank. observation was taken we found that B1 and b2 are at a position (figure is gen below) which is 100 m from the bank and after 1 sec. Find out all possible (motion) velocities observed from different reference frames choices. Solution: Here we have four (at least) immediate choices of reference frames with respect to which we can observe velocities. They are continuously moving towards a bank. Illustration: There are two boats B1 and B2.

·. other parts) . water's velocity w.r. at t = 0 was away by 100 m.t. VB2 = 25 m/sec (+ direction) (c) Bank. B1 .. Since B1 travels 50 m towards the bank in 1 sec.·. its velocity towards the Bank (that is in +y direction) is 50m/sec.t.t.r. (a) Since B1 cannot move w. and at t = 1 it has come closer by 50 m towards B1 . Similarly B2 travels 75 m/s towards the bank .r. a part of this boat can be seen moving w. to itself) at t = 0. See Figure shown below.t.·. let us fix frame of reference on Boat B1. the bank is 10m/sec (-y direction). its velocity with respect to bank or as observed by an observer sitting at rest on the bank is 75m/sec (+y direction) Since water moves away from bank at speed of 10m/sec. itself (only in case of deformation. (b) VB1 = 0 (relative velocity w.t.(i) Bank: (See figure shown above) First we shall fix the frame of reference on the bank.r. B1 and B2 were in the same line and had no at t = 1 B2 leads B1 by 25 m that is B2 has moved 25m in 1 sec w.·.r. . (ii) Boat B1: Now.

.r. which are fixed. floating on the water surface. Frame S is attached with ground while S' attached with car. At t = 1 sec it will move away by 10m from the bank that is its distance from b1 will be 60m (see figure shown above) Following a similar approach find out various relative velocities as seen from frames of reference. What is the magnitude and direction of car's velocity? Solution: Here we have two frames S and S'. Let RG = velocity of rain with respect to ground . B1 we can imagine a wooden piece of negligible mass. Bank is approaching B1 by a speed of Vbank = 50m/sec (-y direction) (d) To visualize the motion of water w. we use the concept of relative motion discussed earlier. To determine the magnitude and directions of car's velocity. Passengers in a car see the rain falling vertically. At t = 0 the piece was in the same line joining B1 and B2 at a distance of 100 m from the bank. on boat B2 (figure shown below) and when the reference frame is fixed on water. at 5 m/s. (Figure shown next after this given below) Illustration: A windblown rain is filling.t.·. 20 degrees from the vertical. Its velocity will be equal to that of water.

To analyze the projectile motion we use the following concept "Resolution of two dimensional motion into two one dimension motion" as discussed earlier. we get RC = RG - C From the vector diagram we see that car should be travelling along the inclined direction of rain with velocity C =5 sin 20o m/s << Back | **************** Motion of Projectile ****************** Motion of Projectile Now we discuss some example of curved motion or two dimensional motion of constant acceleration such as the motion of constant acceleration such as the motion of a particle projected at certain angle with the horizontal in vertical x-y plane (this type of motion is called projectile motion).RC = velocity of rain with respect to car = Velocity of car with respect to ground C From the equation for relative velocity in two frames. Hence it is easier to analyze the motion of projectile as composed of two simultaneous rectilinear motions . Note: Air resistance to the motion of the body is to be assumed absent in this type of motion.

which are independent of each other : (a) (b) Along the vertical y-axis with a uniform downward acceleration 'g' and Along the horizontal x-axis with a uniform velocity forward. the resultant displacement in vertical y-direction is zero. Use equation B.(½)gt2 or t = 2u sin /g (as t cannot equal to 0) . Therefore. Total Time of flight: When body returns to the same horizontal level. 0 = (u sin ) t . Velocity and accelerations can be resolved into two components: Velocity along x-axis = ux = u cos Acceleration along x-axis ax = 0 Velocity along y-axis = uy = u sin Acceleration along y-axis ay = -g Here we use different equation of motions of one dimension derived earlier to get the different parameters. Consider a particle projected with an initial velocity u at an angle with the horizontal xaxis as shown in figure shown below.

we get.2g Hmax Or. Therefore. Illustration: A gun moving at a speed of 30m/sec fires at an angle 30o with a velocity 150m/s relative to the gun. vertical component of velocity is zero. (g = 10 m/sec) Solution: Vertical component of velocity = 150 sin 30o = 75 m/sec Horizontal component of velocity relative to gun = 150 cos 30o .gx2/2u2cos2 This is the equation of trajectory which is a parabola (y = ax + bx2). y = x tan . Then x = u cos .Horizontal Range: Horizontal Range (OA) = Horizontal velocity × Time of flight × 2 u sin /g = u cos = u2 sin 2 /g Maximum Height: At the highest point of the trajectory. Let P (x.t .1/2 gt2 Eliminating 't' form the above equations.t and y = u sin . y) be the position of the particle at instant after t second. 0 = (u sin )2 . Hmax = u2 sin /2g Equation of Trajectory: Assuming the point of projection as the origin of co-ordinates and horizontal direction as the x-axis and vertical direction as the y-axis. Find the distance between the gun and the projectile when projectile hits the ground.

(1) .... ... Let P (x... Horizontal projection Consider a particle projected horizontally with a velocity figure given below...... from a point O as shown in Assuming the point of projection O as the origin of coordinates and horizontal direction as the X-axis and vertical direction as Y-axis.... with its vertex at the origin O...= 75¥3 m/sec Horizontal component of velocity relative to ground = 75¥3 + 30 § 160m/sec Time of flight = (2*75)/g = 15 sec Range of projectile = 160 × 15 = 2400 m Distance moved by the gun and projectile = 2400 .·. y) be the position of the particle after t seconds. Hence the trajectory is a parabola..... x = horizontal distance covered in time t = ut.. y = (1/2)(g/u2) (x2) This is the equation of parabola passing through the origin.. ...450 = 1950 m. (2) .... y = vertical distance covered in time t = ½gt2 Eliminate t from equations (1) and (2) then We get.

·. We have. (i) Vertical motion (downward direction negative) : Initial vertical velocity y = 19.8 m/s2 Vertical distance covered = h = 490 m Using. h = ut + 1/2gt2 490 = .8t2 100 = .6 cos 30 × 11.2t .02 = 190 m Ans. (ii) Horizontal motion: Initial horizontal velocity y = 19.8 m/s Hence distance from the foot of tower to the point where stone hits the ground = Horizontal component × time of flight = 19.8t + (1/2) 9.6 sin 30o = 9. . Also find the distance from the foot of the tower to the point where stone hits the ground? Solution: Let us consider the motion of stone in the horizontal and vertical directions separately.25 sec. Ans.2t + t2 or t2 . Find the time during which the stone will be in air.Illustration: A stone is thrown at a speed of 19.100 = 0 t= .6 m/sec at an angle 30o above the horizontal from a tower of height 490 meter. t = 11.6 sin 30o Acceleration a = g = -9.9.

) t . The acceleration due to gravity g can be resolved into two components: (i) g sin (ii) g cos parallel to the plane perpendicular to the plane.½g => t = 2u sin( . 0 = u sin ( . the horizontal velocity u cos Hence.Projectile Motion on an inclined plane Let the particle strike the plane at A so that OA is the range of the projectile on inclined plane.)cos /gcos Now.)/gcos Range During time of flight. Horizontal distance OB = (ucos ) t = 2u2sin( .) along the plane (ii) u sin ( . In this time the displacement of the projectile to the plane is zero. Time of Flight Let t be the time taken by the particle to go from A to B.)cos /gcos Think : The greatest distance of the projectile from the inclined plane is u2sin2 ( )/2gcos . remains constant. This initial velocity can be resolved into two components: (i) u cos ( . t2 .) perpendicular to the plane. Hence. OA = OB/cos = 2u2sin( .

Illustration: A Particle is projected with a velocity 39. Therefore 0 = 39. (b) Range downward = 39.1/2 gcos T2=0 [for y'=0] => T = (2v0 sin( + ))/gcos R = v0 cos( + )T+ 1/2 g sin T2= ( )/g [(sin(2 + )+sin )/(1-sin2 )] .2 m/sec at an angle of 30o to an inclined plane (inclined at an angle of 45o to the horizontal).2 sin 30o t .2 cos 30o t .7m Ans. Motion down the plane Let the particle be thrown at a velocity v0 at angle µ ¶ with the horizontal as shown in figure.2 sin 30)/(g cos 45) = 4¥2 sec Range upward = 39.(1/2) × 9.2 × ¥3/2 × 4¥2. (a) t = (2×39.(½) g cos 45o t2 Or.5m Ans.2 × ¥3/2 × 4¥2 + (1/2) × 9.8 × (1/2) × (4¥2)2 = 270. v0 sin ( + )T. Solution: Time of flight will be same in both cases because the acceleration perpendicular to the plane is same. Find the range on the incline (a) when it is projected upward (b) when it is projected downward.(½) g sin 30o t2 = 39.8 × (1/2) × (4¥2)2 = 113.2 cos 30 × t + (½) g sin 30o t2 = 39.

Consider a particle P is moving on circle of radius r on X-Y plane with origin O as centre.... its angular position changes.... (i) + t2/2 0) 0 . **************** Circular Motion**************** Now we shall discuss another example of two-dimensional motion that is motion of a particle on a circular path..Since is the variable and maximum value of sin function is 1. .. = = 2 0 + t + 0t ..... This type of motion is called circular motion.. (ii) . therefore for R to be maximum. As the particle moves on the path..... the angular acceleration is = d /dt = d2 /dt2 Relation between These Parameters It is easy to derive the equations of rotational kinematics for the case of constant angular acceleration with fixed axis of rotation....... called angular position of the particle. Thus.. These equations are of the same form as those for on-dimensional transitional motion.. measured in rad/s2........ The rate of change of angular position is called angular velocity. = lim t 0 / t = d /dt = ds/rdt = v/r The rate of change of angular velocity is called angular acceleration. measured in radian per second........ The position of the particle at a given instant may be described by angle .... (iii) .. measured in radian.. sin (2 + )=1 and Rmax ( )/g [(1+sin )/(1-sin2 )]= ( )/(g(1-sin )) down the plane. (iv) = 02 +2 ( 0 = 0 +( + )/(2t) .

5 => d /dt = 0. where is angular velocity at that instant.5 . after it moved an angle ? Solution: Here angular acceleration is = 0. Find the angular velocity. Use equation (ii) to get the angle covered by the minute hand in one day. when the clock begins to malfunction. 0 is the initial angle and 0 is the initial angular speed. Illustration: A particle is rotating in a circular path having initial angular velocity 5 rad/sec and the angular acceleration = 0. = 0(1 day) 1/2 (1 day)2 = 46 rad Hence the minute hand complete 23 revolutions. How much time would the clock loose by 7 AM next day? Solution: (a) Angular speed of mh minute hand : hour hand : (b) hh =2 rad/hr = 48 rad/day = ( /1800) rad/sec rad/day = ( /21600) rad/sec = ( /6) rad/hr = 4 0 Assume at t = 0.5 => => d /d = 0.5 => (d /d ) (d /dt) = 0. Illustration: (a) What is the angular velocity of the minute and hour hands of a clock? (b) Suppose the clock starts malfunctioning at 7 AM which decelerates the minute hand at the rate of 4 radians/day. so the clock losses 1 hour.5 . So.Here. = 0.

For this. parallel to itself and placing it back to back with A. it is our aim to calculate the magnitude and direction of its acceleration.57 rad/sec. Hence. such that | | = v = constant For this particle. called uniform circular motion. Let there be a particle moving along a circle of radius r with a velocity . use the method of calculus as shown in above illustration. We know that Now. as shown in figure given below.5 × = 6. as shown in figure given below.=> => . Motion of a particle in a circular path It is a special kind of two-dimensional motion in which the particle's position vector always lies on the circumference of a circle.5 × = 5 + 0. when acceleration is not constant. We have . we have to find an expression for in terms of known quantities. Displacing B.5 = 0. Ans. consider the particle velocity vector at two points A and B. In order to calculate the acceleration parameter it is helpful to first consider circular motion with constant speed.

·.36 mega second.·. v/v = AB/r and Now AB is approximately equal to v t. we have / t = v2/r is instantaneously along a radius is called radial or centripetal This is the magnitude of the acceleration. because of this acceleration. Illustration: The moon revolved about the earth making a complete revolution in 2. OB = OA = r and | A| =| B| =v A. What is the magnitude of the acceleration of the moon towards the earth? Solution: Here first of all we calculate speed v of the moon which is given by v = 2 R/T where R = 385 mega meter = 385 × 106 m .= B - A B Consider AOB. angle between OA and OB is same as angle between A and because A is perpendicular to vector OA and B is also perpendicular to vector OB. .·. AOB is similar to the triangle formed by From geometry we have. The direction inward towards the centre of the circle. Assume that the orbit is circular and has a radius of 385 mega meter. B . Think: The acceleration vector of a particle in uniform circular motion averaged over one cycle is a null vector. . In the limit | | = lim t t 0 0 the above relation becomes exact.

Refer to figure 2. In the previous enquiry we have discussed the uniform circular motion in which the particle has constant speed. are unit vectors along radius and tangent vector r and respectively. We can obtain instantaneous d /dt + v(d )/dt Recall : (d )/dt = rv 2 /r r = aT . =ev In this case. =(d )/dt = but v also varies with time.aR Where aT= dv/dt and aR = v2/r 2 .36 × 106 sec.30. Ans. not only acceleration as. If the particle's speed varies with time then the motion will be no more uniform but a non-uniform circular motion. Hence v = 1020 m/sec.e r v /r = aT .36 mega second = 2. Let us discuss about this motion using the concept of vectors.and T = 2. The magnitude of centripetal acceleration is a = v2/R = 0. Non uniform circular motion Let us use the vector method to discuss non-uniform circular motion.00273 m/sec2. In terms of er and e the motion of a particle moving counter clockwise in a circle about the origin in figure 2.30 can be described be the vector equation.

*************** Relative Motion ****************** Relative Velocity The position. velocity and acceleration of a particle depend on the reference frame chosen. The magnitude of | | = ¥(a2T+a2N ) Illustration: Point A travels along an arc of a circle of radius r as shown in figure given below. can be found by means of the aR = v2/r=(A2 l)/r. aT= dv/dt = dv/dl = A/(2¥l)×A¥l = A2/2 Hence tan = 2l/r. Its velocity depends on the arc coordinates l as v = A ¥l where A is a constant.The first term. is the vector component of that is tangential to the path of the particle and arises from a change in the magnitude of the velocity in circular motion. The frame S is stationary and the frame S' is in motion. Let us find aR and aT. aT. is Solution: It is seen from figure shown above that the angle formula tan = aR/aT. Let at any time position vector of the particle P with respect to S is . Let us calculate the angle between the vectors of the total acceleration and of the velocity of the point as a function of the coordinate l. called tangential acceleration whereas aR centripetal acceleration. A particle P is moving and is observed from two frames S and S'.

The person A notices person B to be moving towards him with a speed of (10-4) m/s = 6 m/sec.Position vector of the origin of S' with respect to S is From vector triangle OO'P. we get Physical Significance of Relative Velocity Let two cars move unidirectionally. That means BA is directed from B to A. That is the velocity of B with respect to (or relative to) A. Similarly A seems to move towards B with a speed 6 m/sec. VA = 10 m/s & VB = 4 m/s. Assume. Two persons A and B are sitting in the vehicles as shown in figure. . That means the velocity of A relative to B ( AB) has the magnitude 6 m/sec & directed from A to B as shown in the figure.

r. ground.r.r.t. ground and rm vmg = rm - m velocity of rain w.Relative Motion between Rain and Man We know that.t.t. vr = vrg = velocity of rain w.man . vm Velocity of man w.

In which direction should the cyclist hold his umbrella to project himself from rain? Solution: Relative to stationary frame. A cyclist is moving on the level road.j are the unit vectors along x and y axes respectively. R.c c= R- 10i c = = -30j . The magnitude and direction of r can be given as vr = ¥((vrm)2+(vm)2+ 2vrm vm cos ) Ø = tan-1((vrm sin )/(vrm cos + vm )) with horizontal m Illustration: A stationary person observes that rain is falling vertically down at 30 km/hr. Take horizontal axis as x-axis and vertical axis as y-axis and i.30j .10i = -10i . R= 0-30j .=> r = rm + m That means the vector addition of the velocity of rain with respect of man ( rm) and the velocity of man (vehicle) ( m) yield the actual velocity of rain r. velocity of rain is 30 km/hr downward. at 10 km/hr.

10 = -5 m/s. R. Find the velocity of the wind.·.If angle between horizontal and tan => = -30/-10 = 3 = tan-1 3 => =72°.10) => v2= v1 . . => vw= (5i . Solution: Let velocity of the wind is vw=(v1i+v2j)m/s And velocity of the man is vm=5i . he observes that wind is blowing from north-east.5j) m/s. v1. On doubling his speed eastward. Illustration: A man walking eastward at 5 m/s observes that wind is blowing from the north.vm=(v1-5)i + v2j In first case. to protect himself from rain the cyclist should hold the umbrella at an angle of 72° from horizontal. . tan 45o = v2/(v1. vwm = vw. then Therefore.c is .5 = 0 => v1= 5 m/s. In the second case.

a man throws a ball vertically upwards with a velocity v relative to the lift. w mw = velocity of swimmer w.t. g . s = ut + 1/2at2 or a + g = 2(v/t) .Illustration: From a lift moving upward with a uniform acceleration 'a'. river mw m can be found by the velocity addition of and w . Again.r. Crossing of the River with Minimum Drift . The ball comes back to the man after a time t.(-a) = a + g ( ) Now. Show that a + g = 2 v/t Solution: Let us consider all the motion from lift frame. downwards => 0 = vt . the velocity with respect to the lift frame is v.1/2 (a+g)t2 Relative Motion of a Swimmer in Flowing Water Take m = velocity of man = velocity of flow of river. displacement and velocity everything will be considered from the lift frame itself. Then the acceleration. therefore displacement from the lift frame is zero. As the ball comes back to the man.

r. If you want to reach the directly opposite point or cross the river perpendicularly. => vm= vw. you are moving perpendicular to the shore. Suppose the drift is equal to zero.Case 1: mw > w A man intends to reach the opposite bank at the point directly opposite to the stationary point. must report you that. For zero drift. such that his actual velocity m will direct along AB. m w You can realize the situation by a simple example. the velocity of the man along the bank must be zero. What does this report signify? Since Hari observes your actual velocity ( perpendicular to w m ) to be perpendicular to the bank m is . that is perpendicular to the bank (or velocity of water w). t = d/vm t = d/¥(vmw )2 . water.vmw sin '=0 . that is to say. a man.t. He has to swim at angle with a given speed mw w.(vw)2) => => The time of crossing. & vm = vmw cos Observing the vector-triangle vw = vmw sin => = sin-1 (vw/vmw ) & vm = ¥((vmw )2.(vw)2) Case 2 : vw > vmw Let the man swim at an angle ¶ with normal to the bank for minimum drift. Hari. => For minimum drift.

Now. Therefore. Suppose that the drifting of the man during time t when the reaches the opposite bank is BC = x x = (vm)x (t) where t = AB/((vm )y cos ) = d/(vmw cos ) and (vm)x = vw ± vmw sin Using (1). sin ' = vw / vmw. the drift cannot be zero.This gives. (2) & (3). we obtain . sin ' > 1 which is impossible. since vw > vmw. dx/d = (vw/vmw sec .vmw sin d/(vmw cos )) « (1) « (2) « (3) = (vw/vmw sec -tan )d x = (vw/vmw sec -tan )d « (4) For x to be minimum. let the man swim at an angle with the normal to the bank to experience minimum drift.tan .sec2 )d = 0 vw/vmw tan = (sec ) => sin = vmw/vw = sin-1(vmw/vw) Substituting the value of in (4). we obtain x = (vw.

x= Crossing of the River in Minimum Time Case 1: To reach the opposite bank for a given vmw Let the man swim at an angle with AB. The total time of journey t = the time taken from A to C and the time taken from C to B => t = tAC + tCB . The time of crossing = t = AB/(vmw cos ) Time is minimum when cos The maximum value of cos is maximum is 1 for = 0. To attain the direct opposite point B in the minimum time. Only the component of velocity of man (vm) along AB is responsible for its crossing along AB. We know that the component of the velocity of man along shore is not responsible for its crossing the river. Let the man swim at an angle with the direction AB. That means the man should swim perpendicular to the shore => mw w => Then tmin = d/(vmw cos )|( =0) = d/vmw => tmin= d/vmw Case 2: To reach directly opposite point on the other bank for a given vmw & velocity v of walking along the shore.

tan /v (1+vw/v) (sec2 )/v] = 0 => => => tan /vmv (1+vw/v) sec /v sin = (vmw/v+vw) = sin-1(vmw/v+vw) This expression is obviously true when vmw < v + vw. t = AB/vmwcos + ((vw . A and B at any instant as visualized from .tan /v] Putting dt/d = 0.where tAC = AB/vmvcos & tCB = BC/v where v = walking speed of the man from C to B. Relative Angular Velocity Let thane be two particles A and B with velocity ground frame.tan /v] = [sec /vmv . => t = AB/vmvcos + BC/v Again BC = (vm)xt => BC = (vw . For minimum t we get dt/d = d/d [d/vmv (1+vw/v) sec /vmv .tan /v] t = d/vmv[(1+vw/v)sec /vmv .vmwsin ) (AB/vmwcos ) Using (1) & (2) we obtain. Velocity of Separation/Approach.vmwsin )/v(vmvcos )) => => t = AB[(1+vw/v)sec /vmv .

r. is relative velocity of B w.VA cos . Then VB cos y y If VB cos If VB cos .t.VA sin )/l Relative angular velocity = (VB sin . the car b is given a deceleration of 20 km h-2. The distance travelled by the car A moving with a velocity of 60 km h-1 in time hours is given by s1 = 60 t km.VA cos > 0. B - A .t. .5 km . After what distance and time will B catch up with A? Solution: Suppose the car B catches up with the car A in t hours. The distance traveled by the car B moving with an initial velocity u = 70 km h-1 and decelerated at the rate of 20 km h-2 in time t hours is given by s2 = ut + ½ at2 = 70t + ½ (-20)t2 = 70t .t. If Then. VB sin .r.VA cos is relatively velocity of B w. A along direction perpendicular to AB. A is (VB sin .VA sin length of AB is . it is called as velocity of approach.5 km.VA sin )/l. < 0.r. angular velocity B w. be the angle made with line AB. Solved Examples Example 1: A car A is travelling on a straight level road with a uniform speed of 60 km h-1. When the distance between them is 2. A along line AB. It is followed by another car B which is moving with a speed of 70 km h-1.10t2 But (s2-s1) = 2. it is called as velocity of separation.If we visualize the motion of B from frame of A the velocity of particle B would be If .

t2 .·. 70 t -10 t2 . Change in the velocity in this interval = (60-20) km h-1 .·.·.10t + 2. Acceleration in this interval = (60-20)/(1-(3/4)) km h-2 = 160 km h-2 (ii) Distance travelled during this interval is given by s = ut + 1/2 at2 = 20 (1/4) + 1/2(160)(1/4)2 = 10 km Ans.5)2 = 0 => t = ½ h Substituting t = ½ h.25 = 0 => (t .75 hour to 1 hour.5 km. . Ans. it is given by the slope of the velocity time curve. Its speed during the motion is shown in the graph (Figure) Calculate: (i) (ii) maximum acceleration during the journey. Solution: (i) Since acceleration is the rate of change of velocity.5 => 10t2 .. we get s2 = 32. Example 2: A train moves from one station to another in two hours time.0.60 t = 2. distance covered during the time interval from 0. Here the slope is greatest between ¾ and 1 hour.5 = 0 .t + 0.

(s1+s3) s3 = v2/2 s1 = v2/2 = vt2 Hence. Example 4: .BC v = t1.AB IIIrd stage . we can divide the distance covered into three stages: Ist stage . total time t = t1 + t2 + t3 = v/ + l(-s1+s3 )/v + v/ = v/ + l/v . Example 3: The speed of a train increases at a constant rate from zero to v and then remains constant for an interval and finallydecreases to zero at a constant rate .v/2 . s2 = l .OA: IInd stage .Note: We can find distance covered during the time interval from 0.v/2 + v/ = v/2 + v/2 + l/v = l/v + v/2 [1/ +1/ ] Hence Proved. If l is the total distance covered.75 hour to one hour by assuming the concept of: "Area enclosed between the velocity time graph represents the distance travelled covered". prove that total time taken is l/v + v/2 [1/ +1/ ]. Solution: As shown in figure.

. . Let the car acceleration is for time interval t1.t1 = v/ . Then acceleration = v/t1 Retardation = v/(t-t1) . Here it is easier to find area under the triangle OAB.. (1) . If the total time elapsed is t seconds Calculate (i) the maximum velocity reached (ii) the total distance traveled. t .A car accelerates from rest at a constant rate for some time.. t1 = v/ . Let v be the maximum velocity reached... To determine the total distance we can use equations of motion or area under the triangle OAB...·... Hence Total distance traveled = area of the triangle OAB = (1/2) × base × height = (1/2) × t × v = 1/2 t × (( )/( + )) t = 1/2 (( )/( + )) t2 Ans.. Solution: The velocity time graph for the motion in question is as shown in figure...·... after which it decelerates at a constant rate to come to rest........ (2) Adding (1) and (2) we get. or t = v = (1/ + 1/ ) Hence v = t( )/( + ) Ans..

t = t1 + t2 where t1 = time taken from O to A and t2 = time taken from A to B Hence t1 = ¥2(H-h)/g . To find the maximum value. Solution: In this example we use the equation of motion of the following form. For what value of (h/H) the body will take maximum time to reach the ground. h = ut + 1/2 gt2 Total time to reach the ground. t2 = ¥2h/g . As result of this impact the direction of the velocity of the body becomes horizontal.Example 5: A body falling freely from a given height "H" hits an inclined plane in its path at a height 'h'.h)½ (-1) + h-½ = 0 or H . the value of |¥(H-h) + ¥h| is maximum. Hence. .·. we have to use the concept of differential calculus. d/dh[¥(H-h) + ¥h] = 0 or (H .h = h or h = H/2 h/H = 1/2 Ans. t = ¥2(H-h)/g + ¥2h/g For maximum value of t.

He has to direct his boat towards the point C. v respectively each 20 km h-1. If AD = 2v represents the and DE = v. find. Solution: The man starts from A and wishes to reach the point B on the opposite bank. Solution: Suppose the two ships X. to reach the point B. Y moving with velocities u. What is the distance of closest approach. Hence.Example 6: A man wishes to cross a river to an exactly opposite point on the other bank. the velocity of the river. Hence the inclination with the current = 30o + 90o = 120o Example 7: Two ships are 10 km apart on a line running south to north. at what inclination to the current he must keep the boat pointed. The other is streaming north at 20 kmh-1. sin . If he can pull his boat with twice the velocity of the current. = v/2v = 1/2 = 30o Ans. The velocity of Y relative to X = v .u = v + (-u) . The one farther north is streaming west at 20 kmh-1.·.

We therefore draw OA to represent v and add to it AB which represents -u. The relative velocity is then represented by OB. OB = ¥(OA2 + AB2) = ¥(202 + 202)= 28.28 km h-1. Also tan = AB/OA = 20/20 = 1 => = 45o

Thus the ship Y will be move along a direction QR relative to the ship X where QR is at 45o to PQ, the north south direction. When the relative velocity is considered, the ship X is at rest.

If PQ = 10 km the distance of closest approach is PN where PN is the perpendicular from P to QR. PN = PQ sin 45o = 10 sin 45o = 7.71 km The distance QN = 10 cos 45o = 8.071 km Time to reach N = 7.071/28.28 = 0.25h

Example 8: The speed of a motor boat with respect to still water is v = 7m/s and the speed of current in a stream is u = 3 m/s; when the boat began travelling upstream a float was dropped from it. The boat traveled 4.2 km upstream and turned about and caught up with float. How long is it before boat reaches the float? Solution: Velocity of the boat while travelling upstream = boat velocity - stream velocity = v - u Time taken by the boat for travelling the distance l = 4.2 km, t1 = l/(v-u) Let 't' be the time taken by the launch after dropping the float and meeting it again. Distance traveled by the float during time t = ut Down-stream velocity of the boat = v + u Distance traveled down the stream by the boat = l + ut Time taken t2 = (l+ut)/(v+u); Total time taken by the boat t = t1 + t2 t = l/(v-u) + (l+ut)/(v+u) = l/(v-u) + l/(v+u) + ut/(v+u) t(1-u/(v+u)) = [(v+u)+(v-u) ]l/(v-u)(v+u) Hence, t (1-u/(v+u)) = 2vl/(v-u)(v+u) t = 2l/(v-u) = (2×4.2×103)/((7-3)) h = (2×4.2×103)/(4×60) min = 35 min

Example 9: A particle is projected vertically upwards, and 't' seconds afterwards particle is projected upwards with same initial velocity. Prove that the particles will meet after a lapse of [t/2+u/g] seconds from the instant of projection of the first particle. What are the velocities of the particles when they meet? Solution: Let the particles meet at a height h from the ground t0 seconds after the projection of the first particle.

For the first particle, S = h, initial velocity is u m/s and time is t0. Using the formula, S = ut + (1/2) at2 h = ut0 - (1/2) gt02 For the second particle, S = h, initial velocity is u m/s and time is t0. Using the same formula, we get h = u (t0 - t) - (1/2)g(t0-t)2 Equation (i) and (ii) ut0 - 1/2gt02 = u(t0 - t) - 1/2 g(t0 - t)2 = ut0 - 1/2 gp[t02 - 2t0t + t2] => => -1/2 gt2 + gt0t - ut = 0 -1/2 gt + gt0 - u = 0 => t0 = (t/2+u/g) seconds Hence proved ...... (ii) ...... (i)

Velocity of the first particle = u - gt0 = u - g (t/2+u/g) = -1/2 gt Ans.

Example 10 : A cricket ball is thrown with a speed of 49 m/sec. Find the greatest range on the horizontal plane and the two directions in which the ball may be thrown so as to give a range 122.5 m. Solution : Here initial speed u = 49 m/sec Horizontal range = u2sin2 /g The range will be greatest when sin 2 = 1 => = /4

u2sin2 /g = 122.5 => (49*49)sin2 /9.8 = 245 m Now it is given that range = 122. .) with the horizontal.·.·. Think : The range remains the same when the particle is projected at an angle of (/2 . Prove that the initial velocity was gt cos /[2sin( .5 are 15o and 75o Ans. Example 11: A particle is projected form O at an elevation and after t seconds to have an elevation as seen from the point of projection.)/].5 m .·. The required two directions which will give the range of 122. or Solution: .5 => sin2 = ½ => 2 = 30o or 150o => = 15o or 75o Ans.. Greatest horizontal range = (49 * 49)/9.8 = 122.

Example 12: A projectile aimed at a target.Let the velocity of projection of the particle be u. which is in a horizontal plane through the point of projection. We have l cos = u cos t t ... Solution: Let O be the point of projection of the projectile and the target is T.. => u = gt cos /2sin( . we get cos /sin = 2u cos /(2u sin -gt) After solving this equation. in terms of . It goes b meter too far when the angle of projection is .. (i) . (ii) l sin = u sin Dividing (1) by (ii).. Find the angle of projection.½ gt2 . b and a to hit the target if the velocity of projection be the same in all cases..) Hence proved. falls a meter short of it when the angle of projection is .. Let the particle be at P after time t such that OP = l then in time t the particle moves Horizontal distance ON = l cos Vertical distance PN = l sin Hence considering motion of the particle in horizontal and vertical direction.... . Here AT = a .

... and adding. (iii) Multiplying (i) by b and (ii) by a.) for a given range. 122..e. (iv) Example 13: A shell bursts on contact with the ground and pieces from it fly in all directions with velocities up to 49 metres per second.... Show that a man 122.. Solution: Given that R = 122.TB = b OT = c Let be the proper angle of projection and u the velocity of projection which is the same in all cases..a = u2sin2 /g .5 m/sec.5 metres and u .. hence for the range of 122.8 or sin 2 = ½ As there are always two directions of projections and (½. then . When angle of projection is . the range is OT = c = u2sin2 /g .·... We get ' ' after solving => = 1/2sin-1[(b sin 2 + a sin 2 )/(b+a)] Ans..5 metres there will be two directions of projection i..49.5 metres away is in danger for 5¥2 second.... 15o and 90o 15o and 75o.5 = [(49)2 sin 2 ]/9. the range is OA = c .. . Let t1 and t2 be the times of flight in the two cases.. we have c(b+a) = u2(b sin 2 + a sin 2 )/g Substitute value of c from (iii) in (iv). (ii) When angle of projection is .. the range is OB = c + b = u2sin2 /g .. But R = (u2 sin 2 )/g ... (i) When angle of projection is .

..t1 = 2u sin15°/g and t2 = 2u sin75°/g The man is in danger for a time = t2 .8*2*1/¥2*1/2 = 5¥2 seconds. x1 + x2 = (2u2 sin cos )/g = R.8 u2cos2 /g . (ii) - Let the distances of the walls from the point of projection of the particle be x1 and x2... Solution: Let us be the velocity of projection and R the required range of the particles Then R = (2u2 sin cos )/g .. from (i) .x1)2 = (x2 + x1)2 .gx2/2u2cos2 As the top of the walls of height a lie on it.·. The distance of the walls from the point of projection of the particle be a = x tan gx2/2u2cos2 or gx2 . so that it is just able to clear two walls of equal height 'a' at a distance '2a' from each other.4x1x2 or 4a2 = R2 .t1 = 2u/g (sin 75o . . Hence proved Example 14: A body is projected at an angle to the horizontal.sin 15o) = 2u/g (2 cos 45o sin 30o). the equation of the path is y = x tan .. or 4a2 = R2 ...4a cos2 => R2 ... = 2*29/9.2u2x sin cos + 2au2 cos2 = 0 .. .. Then x1 and x2 are the roots of the equation (ii). Show that the range is equal to 2 cot /2.4aR cot [ R/sin from (iii) and (iv) cos ].x1 Squiring 4a2 = (x2 ..·.4a2 = 0 .. .. (iii) and x1 x2 = (2au2 cos2 )/g Now distance between the walls = 2a = x2 . (i) Also referred to horizontal and upward drawn vertical lines through the point of projection (and lying in the plane of flight) as coordinate axes.

. (ii) . then as the horizontal component of velocity remains constant throughout the motion and the horizontal distance traveled si due to this component of velocity....y1).... then as shown in the diagram the depth of P below O' is (h ... Time taken by each shot in reaching P is the same. Let this time be t. Let u1 and u2 be the velocities of the shots fired from the top and bottom of the cliff respectively.. Show that if a be the horizontal distance of the object from the cliff.gx2/2u12cos2 .·.. (iii) Let the height of P above O be y1..t = u2 cos t . .. (i) Also referred to horizontal and vertical lines through the points of projection as coordinate axes. Solution: Let OO' is the cliff of height h.. Example 15: Shots are fired simultaneously from the top and bottom of a vertical cliff with elevation and respectively strike on object simultaneously. the height of the cliff is a (tan .·. .tan ). so we have a = u1 cos . the equations of the paths traced out by the shots projected form O and O' are y = x tan and y = x tan . R = 2a cot /2. P is the object.gx2/2u12cos2 ..=> R = ½ [4a cot + ¥{16a2 cot2a + 16a2} (negative sign is inadmissible as R is positive) or T = 2a cot 2a cosec = 2a [(cos + 1)/sin ] Hence proved .

1/2u12cos2 ) . . be the . making an angle q with the horizontal.gx2/2u12cos2 and y1 = a tan . Horizontal component of velocity remains constant throughout the motion. then show that it will be moving at right angles to the direction after time (u/g) cosec . Hence proved. and its direction of motion to the horizontal. u cos = v cos (90o . from (i). Solution: Let at P the velocity of the particle be u.. Hence from (ii) and (iii) we have -(h . .·.tan ).ga2/2(1/2u12cos2 . At Q its direction of motion is inclined to the horizontal at an angle (90o . when it is moving at right angles to its direction at P. h = a(tan = a (tan ..·..gx2/2u12cos2 Example 16: If at any instant the velocity of a particle be u. . . .tan ) . The coordinates of P referred to axes through O are (a.. y1) and through O' are (a..y1) = a tan Subtracting.) or u cos = v sin .·. (i) Also for the vertical component of velocity from "v = u + at"..h + y1). Let velocity of the particle at Q.·.) as shown in the diagram.

.. (i) . Where t is the time taken in moving from P to Q. (iii) ·. the trajectory lying in the vertical plane containing the line of greatest slope.. Trajectory is y = x tan gx2/2u2cos2 gh2/2u2cos2 .. Hence proved. Solution: Let B be that point of the path which is most distant from the inclined plane.. Show that if be the elevation of that point of the path that is farthest from inclined plane.. from (i) = (u/sin ) [sin2 + cos2 ] Or t = (u/g) cosec .. then 2 tan = tan + tan .We have v sin (90o . k) referred to the horizontal and vertical lines through the point of projection O and lying in the plane of flight as coordinate axes....· B (h. then the tangent at B to the trajectory must be parallel to the inclined plane. so k = h tan Also from (i) we get dy/dx = tan Which gives the inclination of the tangent to horizontal a any point of (i)..gt.gx2/u2cos2 . At B. (ii) . Let the coordinates of B be (h. Example 17: A stone is thrown at an angle a with the horizontal from a point in a plane whose inclination to the horizontal is .. tangent to (i) is inclined at an angle b to the horizontal.) = u sin .... .. k) lies in it.. Or gt = u sin + v cos = u sin + [u cos /sin ] cos .

from (iii) at B.y0 = (v0 sin )t . Solution: Let the F1 be fired upward at an angle 60o with the horizontal and the gun G2 be fired horizontally at the time interval of . from (iv) Hence Proved Example 18: Two guns.·. so tan or k = h tan . (i) The coordinates (x. and (ii) the coordinates of the point P. y) of a projectile as a function of time are x . If t1 and t2 are the respective times taken by the shots 1 and 2 to reach the common point P. Take origin of the coordinate system at the foot of the hill right below the muzzle and trajectories in x-y plane.[gh2/2u2cos2 )] .1/2 gt2 ..tan is the elevation of B (h. The shots collide in air at a point P. From (ii). . we will have t1 = t 2 + . situated on the top of a hill of height 10 m one shot each with the same speed 5¥3 ms-1 at some interval of time...·.gh/2u2cos2 = tan = k/h .tan ].-gh/2u2cos2 or .. Find (i) the timeinterval between the firings... One gun fires horizontally and other fires upwards at an angle of 60o with the horizontal. k).[tan + tan . h tan or tan 2 tan = tan = tan = h tan .x0 = (v0 cos ) t y . tan Also = tan .

. t1 = 2t2 = 2 (1 s) = 2s = t1 . The coordinates of the point P at which shot 1 reaches in time x ..1/2 gt22 = 10 m . The coordinates of P at which the two shots collides are x = x0 + v0t2 = 0 + (5¥3ms-1) (1s) = 5¥3 m y = y0 .4t22) = 0 or. ¥3/2 v0t1 + 1/2 g(t22 .x0 = (v0 cos 60o) t1 => x ..1/2 gt22 => y = y0 .. we get ¥3/2 v0(2t0) + 1/2 g (t22 . Ans.x0 = 1/2 v0 t1 y . we get 1/2 v0t1 = v0t2 => 1/2 t1 = t2 Equating y-coordinates.1/2 gt12 For the gun G2.t2 = 2s . we get t2 = 2/¥3 (5¥3ms-1)/(10ms-2) = 1s Thus. .1/2 gt22 Equating x-coordinates.For the gun G1. The coordinates of the point P at which shot 2 reaches in time t2 are x .1/2 gt12 => y = y0 + ¥3/2 v0 t1 .1 = 1 s (Equation ii) (Equation i) Ans. t1 are = 60o.y0 = (v0 sin 60o) t1 .1/2 gt22 or.t12) = 0 Making use of equation (ii).1/2 (10 ms-2)(1s)2 = 5 m We can do the above problem using another: Ans. = 0o.y0 = (v0 sin 0o) t2 . t2 (¥3v0 .x0 = (v0 cos 0o) t2 => x = x0 + v0t2 y . (ii) Substituting the values of v0 and g in the expression of t2.3/2gt2) = 0 This gives t2 = 0 and t2 = (2/¥3)(v0/g) or t1 = 2t2 .1/2 gt22 = . we get ¥3/2 v0t1 ..

2gx2/ This gives x = 0 and x = 2 Substituting the values of v0 and g... the motion of projectile at an angle horizontal x-axis is y = x tan 2(gx2/2 cos2 ) with the For the gun G2. y).Taking the point of firing as the origin.. tan 60o = ¥3 .2gx2/ . we get x = (2(5¥3 ms-1)2)/(¥3 (10ms-1)) = 5¥3 m y=gx2/( ) = -(10ms-2)(5¥3 m)2/2(5¥3 ms-1)2 = -5m Ans... = 60o.. tan = 0 and cos =1 . (i) Thus. Ans.gx2/2 = 3gx2/2 /¥3g Or.. y = -gx2/2 For the gun G1... (ii) Since the two shots meet at P (x. The coordinates of point P with respect to the bottom of the hill are (5¥3 m. Time taken for the shot from G2 to travel a distance 5¥3 m with velocity v0 . -gx2/2 = x¥3 . 5 m). = 0o. x¥3 ..2gx2/ . we equate the y-coordinates as given equations (i) and (ii).gx2/2 (1/4) = x¥3 . and cos 60o = 1/2 y = x¥3 .

t1 = 2 s . Example 19: A large. Solution: (a) To determine the distance PQ. as shown in figure... The initial speed of the particle with respect to the box is u. a particle is projected inside the box. (a) Find the distance along the bottom of the box between the point of projection P and the point Q where the particle lands. (i) . From a point P on the bottom of the box. (Assume that the particle does not hit any other surface of the box.1 s = 1 s Ans.t1 = x/v0 = (5¥3 m)/(5¥3 ms-1 ) = 1s Time taken for the shot from G1 to travel a distance 5¥3 m with velocity v0 cos 60ois t2 = x/(v0 cos 60o ) = (5¥3 m)/((5¥3 ms-1 )(1/2)) = 2s Time interval between the two shots is = t2 . and the direction of projection makes an angle a with the bottom as shown in figure.. (ii) . we consider the motion of the projectile with reference to the frame of the box. find the speed of the box with respect to the ground at the instant when the particle was projected.. (b) If the horizontal displacement of the particle as seen by an observer on the ground is zero. Neglect air resistance). heavy box is sliding without friction down to smooth plane of inclination . The initial velocity u of the projectile has two components along x axis ux = u cos along y axis uy = u sin The accelerations experienced by the projectile are .

. If V is the velocity of the box at the instant the projectile was projected.. Or. we get x = ux t = (u cos ) (2u sin /gcos ) (u sin /gcos ) Ans..along x axis gx = g sin along y axis gy = g cos . (v) .sin sin )/cos = u(cos( + )/cos ) Example 20: . This gives t = 2uy/cos = 2u sin /gcos Substituting this in equation (v). the box covers a distance exactly equal to the projectile range x(= u sin2 /gcos ) in time t(= (2u sin /gcos ).. (iii) ..1/2 gyt2 . we get (u sin2 /gcos ) = V (2u sin /gcos ) + 1/2(g sin )(2u sin /gcos )2 After solving the above equations.. we set y = 0 in equation (vi) so as to determine the time at which the particle returns on the x-axis. (b) Since the horizontal displacement of the particle as seen by an observer on the ground is zero.. The acceleration experienced by the box along the inclined plane is g sin . V = u (cos cos . (vi) To determine the range of the projectile along the x-axis. (iv) The displacement of the particle along the x and y axes are x = u xt y = uyt . we get u cos = V + (u sin sin )/cos Ans. then by using the expression s = ut + (1/2) at2..

where a and b are positive constants and t is time. The point was set in motion with the velocity v0. or a = ¥2 v02/re2s/r. In this case |aT| = aN. Find the velocity v and the magnitude of the total acceleration a of the point as a function of the distances covered by it.A point moves along a circle of radius r with deceleration. We can write dv/v = -ds/r. The distance covered s = at2/2. The point started moving at the moment t = 0. The curvature radius for the path can be represented as r = v2/aN = a2/bt2. The integration of this expression with regard to the initial velocity yields the following result : V = v0e-s/r. Find the curvature radius r of its path and its total acceleration a as a function of the distance s covered by the point. Or r = a3/2bs. at any moment the magnitudes of its tangential and normal accelerations are equal. and therefore the total acceleration a = ¥2 aN = ¥2 v2/r. Integrating this equation. we get v = at. Example 21: A point moves along a plane path so that its tangential acceleration aT = a and the normal acceleration aN = bt4. Solution: As we know. dv/dt = -v2/r. The total acceleration a = ¥(a2T + a2N) = ¥(1+4bs3/a2)2 Example 22: . Solution: The elementary velocity increment of the point dv = aT dt.

Find the acceleration w of the particle at the point x = 0. Solution: Here we notice that a change in reference frame changes the observation and mathematics involved in it i. An observer on a train.e. which is usually needed to determine the normal acceleration (aN = v2/r). the statements made about the rain by two different observes are different. where a is a positive constant. Determine the speed of rain drops relative to Earth.A particle moves uniformly with the velocity v along a parabolic path y = ax2. however.d2y/dt2 = 2a [(dx/dt)2 + x d2x/dt2] Since the particle moves uniformly. sees the drops fall perfectly vertical. Keeping in mind that at the point x = 0 |dx/dt| = v we get a = 2av2.·. 'D = D - T. Let us draw vector diagram with the given information. VTrain = 30 m/sec due south (see figure) VDrop = VD at an /22o with vertical (observed from the earth) VDrop = V'D vertical as seen from train . Note that in this solution method we have avoided calculating the curvature radius of this path at the point x = 0. as measured by an observer stationary on Earth. . Example 23: A train travels due south at 30 m/s (relative to ground) in a train that is blown towards the south by the wind. Solution: Let us differentiate twice the path equation with respect to time: dy/dt = 2ax(dx/dt). The path of each raindrop makes an angle of 22owith the vertical. its acceleration at all points of the path is purely normal and at the point x = 0 is coincides with the derivative d2y/dt2 at the point.

VD = ¥(V'D2 . Newton s Second Law of Motion 4. forces may be broadly classified as follows. Newton s Third Law of Motion 5. Friction 7. Inertial and Non-Inertial Reference Frames 6. Based on the nature of the interaction between two bodies. So this is an influence (force) needed to change the natural state of body. from the .·. Banking of Roads 9.. . Some Definitions 2.VT2) VD = 80. Solved Examples Types of Forces |1||2| Force "Force" is an external or internal agent present to "influence" the natural state of motion of an object. that is of rest or of uniform motion. Newton's First Law of Motion 3. Classification of Forces There are different types of forces in our universe.08 m/sec > Physics > Mechanics > Newton s Laws of motion 1. Free Body Diagram 8.

Friction etc. i. Spring Force in an extended (or compressed) spring is proportional to the magnitude of extension (or compression). Tension (T) When a string. (b) Field Forces (Non-Contact Forces) Forces that act between bodies separated by a distance without any actual contact. where k is a positive constant. F = -kx. F x. For example. This force is known as Tension. Spring. For example.e. Weight etc. Normal Reaction. the ends of the string or thread (or wire) pull on whatever bodies are attached to them in the direction of the string. The direction of tension is always from the point of attachment to the body. Tension. then the tension T has the same magnitude at all points throughout the string. but opposite in direction. in magnitude. So. thread or wire is held taut. In the given figure. two segments of tension act at O towards A and B. . If the string is massless.(a) Contact Forces Forces that act between the bodies in contact with each other. also known as the spring constant of the spring.

|1||2| Examples: Friction It is a force that acts between bodies in contact with each other along the surface of contact and it opposes relative motion (or tendency of relative motion) between the two bodies. Each one "stops" the other by applying a force away from itself. Normal reaction When a body is in contact with another body. is the action is reaction: they are equal in magnitude but opposite in direction. The direction of friction force on A is opposite to that of force on B and magnitude is same for both. shown in the diagram acting on bodies A and B. If . there exists a force that prevents them from penetrating each other. Further. . and.and x is the compression or elongation from the natural length. The forces . . are both perpendicular to the surfaces in contact and note that they act on two different bodies. respectively. and prevent the two bodies from "occupying the same space". act away from the surface of contact.

without an external force acting on it. Therefore. It can be easily deduced from the statement of change in the state of motion. To mark the point here. in the absence of a net external force acting (impressed) on it Mathematically. the passengers in the car are thrown back due to inertia of rest. it is equivalent to say that for producing acceleration (that is for changing velocity) in a body. . (By net external force we mean vector sum of all the external forces acting on it).Weight (W) It is a field force. when the car stops suddenly. we need to have a net external force. Similarly. Momentum Momentum is the measure of motion contained in a body. Inertia The first law of motion 'describes a property of matter: No body (dead or living) can change its velocity by itself. Newton¶s First Law of Motion It states that every object persists in its natural state of motion i. It has the magnitude mg. Its direction is same as that of the velocity of the body. continues to be at rest or moves in a straight line with uniform (constant) velocity! (This is what is meant by natural state of motion). the force with which a body is pulled towards the centre of the earth due to its gravity. This property is known as inertia. we can discover that by viewing objects from different frame of references the natural state of motion as perceived by different observers will be obviously different (can only be same if the frames are truly equivalent). When a car suddenly starts moving. It is directly related to a frame of reference about which we have discussed earlier. the passengers stoop forward due to inertia (of motion).e. the amount of acceleration produced in a body (or change in velocity) will depend on our choice of reference frames. It is measured by the product of mass and velocity of the body. Finally. where m is the mass of the body and g is the acceleration due to gravity. the change in state will also depend on the choice of reference frame.

but d Recall : /dt = Acceleration is rate of change of velocity Since direction of a is same as F. As per Newton's first law of motion it will keep on lying at rest with respect to table for infinite time. Here. F = d(mv)/dt. Here the momentum is defined as the product f mass and velocity i.r. comes out a very important. ewton¶s Second Law of Motion It states that rate of change of momentum of a body is equal to the force applied on it. if 'm' remains constant then => F = m dv/dt .=m . = Illustration: A mass 'M' is lying (figure shown below) on a table which is at rest (w. m Therefore we can write mathematically.t. if it is in motion) which is termed as INERTIA of an object. Since 'M' is lying on a table. where velocity of the body = momentum of the body. the table on which it is kept). there is no external force acting on it (forget about gravity just for the immediate discussion). m= mass of the body. we can write =m . intrinsic (that is inherent) property of a body which is that it retains its state of motionlessness (as well as of motion. in terms of the magnitude as well as in the sense of direction. This is present in all materialistic bodies in this universe.e. Explain its state with the help of Newton's First Law of motion.

.which is mathematically Newton's second law of motion. let us have M = 10 kg and a new net external force in the direction as shown in figure below is 150N. the three acceleration produced when Fx. Further we can extend second law of motion. Fy & Fz act simultaneously) in the body are. hence J = The area under F . Mathematically it is described as the product of force and time. Impulse (J) = F t (For constant force) . Dimension : MLT1 . That is. Find its acceleration. Now. if net external force is absent. y and z direction are Fx. . If components in x. if F = 0 then we find a = 0. (in fact its decomposition) to three mutually perpendicular directions as per our coordinate system. Here. system is kgm/sec or newton -second.mu and since force is variable. Impulse (J) = mv . Illustration: In Figure shown below.·. Impulse is a vector quantity and its direction is same as the direction of Unit of Impulse : The unit in S. If we add three forces then resultant is called net external force. then there will be no change in state of motion. Similarly is called net acceleration produced in the body. Impulse: A large force acting for a short time to produce a finite change in momentum which is called impulse of this force and the force acted is called impulsive force or force of impulse. that means its acceleration is zero.t curve gives the magnitude of impulse. Fy & Fz respectively.·.I. This reminds us of first law of motion.

the second body always exerts a force on the first one". Now. Let us visualize and understand this phenomena with an experiment: Suppose. did that surface also exert a force on the stone. Just to know about it let us change our throwing object from stone to an egg of almost equal mass.·. and the surface is made of glass. What happens? Obviously with your daily experience you know that the egg will be broken (And . = 15 m/sec2 (X-direction) Newton¶s Third Law of Motion |1||2||3| Newton's third law of motion was discovered and formulated. we throw a stone on a surface of good strength. the question is. one throws this egg on the same surface of good strength with the same throwing force which he used for the stone. Now. during the investigation of the fact that in all experiments it appeared that "whenever a body exerts a force on a second appeared that "whenever a body exerts a force on a second body. From here one concludes that a force was exerted by stone on the surface and consequently it was broken. one finds it broken (the surface).= 15m/sec2 (in the direction of force) .

(or point. In fact we can now conclude that there is mutual force acting on the contact point of the surface and the object thrown. This is the force of reaction. The ground pushes the person in forward direction with an equal force (reaction). . 5. Book kept on a table: A book lying on a table exerts a force on the table which is equal to the weight of the book. The breaking of either one (or may be both) depends on their ability to absorb forces without getting damaged (that is their strength) so in precise words:To every action there is always opposite and equal reaction. Therefore. Illustration of Newton's Third Law: Some of the examples of Newton's third law of motion are given below: 1. The water pushed the swimmer forward (reaction) with the same force. net force on it is zero. the bullet moves forward (action). on two different point (broadly on two different objects) For balancing any two forces the first requirement is that they should act one one and the same object. forces of action and reaction must be equal and opposite. This is only possible if there was a force acting on the egg at the time it hit the surface. as shown in the figure. The component of reaction in the horizontal direction makes the person move forward. |1||2||3| |1||2||3| 2. This is the force of action. Firing from a gun: When a gun is fired. 4. Note: The most important fact to notice here is that these oppositely directed equal action and reaction can never balance or cancel each other because they always act. if object can be treated as a point mass. Swimming: A swimmer pushes the water backwards (action).the damage to the surface will not be visible due to egg's spoiling the observation). As the system is at rest. Hence the swimmer swims. by exerting an equal force on the book. The table supports the book. The gun recoils backwards (reaction). Walking: while walking a person presses the ground in the backward direction (action) by his feet. Fight of jet planes and rockets: The burnt fuel which appears in the form of hot and highly compressed gases escapes through the nozzle (action) in the backward direction. it is equivalent to say that mutual actions of two bodies upon each other are always equal and directed to contrary parts. 3. which is a common practice).

the block and nails both move forward on being hit with a hammer. The ball rebounds with an equal force (reaction) exerted by the wall or floor on the ball. Driving a nail into a wooden block without holding the block is difficult:This is because when the wooden block is not resting against a support. However. Illustration: Suppose in figure shown above we put one more block of 5 kg mass adjacent to 10 kg and a force of 150 N acts as shown in the figure below. In case of ice. There is force acting on 5kg called R1. the jet or rocket moves. when the block is held firmly against a support. to oppose it by third law this body exerts a force R2 on 10kg. and the nail is hit. sand gets displaced and reaction from sandy ground is very little. third law tells us that R1 = R2 in magnitude and is opposite in direction. It is difficult to walk on sand or ice: This is because on pushing. . 6. Rebounding of a rubber ball: When a rubber ball is struck against a wall or floor it exerts a force on a wall (action). 7. force of reaction is again small because friction between feet and ice is very small. The combined acceleration of the two bodies when treated as one is a = F/((10+5))=150/15=10/sec2 So each one moves with a = 10m/sec2 keeping their contact established. The interface is as shown in Figure given below. Here you can feel that due to 150N force the body of 5 kg feels as if it is being pushed by the 10 kg mass.The escaping gases push the jet plane or rocket forward (reaction) with the same force. 8. hence. Also. then find the forces acting on the interface. an equal reaction of the support drives the nail into the block.

When Newton stated his first law he made a very important distinction. But this is impossible so it will not change at all. Net force experienced by 10kg block is (150-R) = 10a 150-R = 1010 = 100 N . He decreed the absolute equivalence between a state of rest and one f uniform motion and distinguished it specifically and absolutely from that of an accelerated motion. since all direction are equally favoured. We can write the initial equation as: F = 150 = (10 + 5) a 150 = 10a + 5a Here 10a is force experienced by 10kg mass. he said to be understood as an irregularity and he expressed force as that basic asymmetry in the environment which produces this irregularity. i. If suppose we say that the velocity will change then we will have to concede that the velocity changes in a particular direction. For motion in 5kg only R is responsible. Hence we find "action and reaction are equal and opposite". But why should it change in one direction and not in the other. R = 5a . if environment is really symmetric.·.·. Inertial and non-Inertial Reference Frames a = 10m/sec2 |1||2||3||4||5|6|7| In general we solve the problem of mechanics using inertial frame. Now net force on the body of 10kg mass is 100N & Net force on the body of 5kg mass is 50N and on the interface action and reaction are both equal and also are equal to force experienced by second body. And 5a is experienced by 5kg mass. R1 = R2 = R Here since 150 N force acts on the 10kg mass and only r acts on the 5kg mass. R = 50 Therefore we get R = 50N for both blocks.e. The most important aspect in all this is that force is theoretical construction to explain away the irregularities in motion and is not to be understood as a tangible entity.·.·. R = 50N . . The acceleration. So the only way it can change is to change in all directions. Let us discuss about the difference between these frames. . If the environment is completely symmetric then no direction is preferred over another and therefore if a body possesses a initial velocity (which might be zero) it will persist with that velocity. Therefore if we grant a change in velocity we will also have to grant an irregularity in the environment in the same direction as the change in velocity.·. but as the same time it is possible to solve the same problem using a noninertial frame. which was discussed in chapter two..

= d(m )/dt =m . Let us see if this is true. Force on it will be inertial and we will reason that =m =m = inertial inertial rest rest (iii) Now reference frame moves with constant acceleration Let the acceleration of frame be frame . Consider a body of mass m. We will observe its motion from three different frames. that . Now. Therefore the force on it will be We will reason that rest rest rest =m rest (ii) Reference frame starts moving with constant velocity The acceleration of frame = =0 . The acceleration of the mass will be.·. say. Acceleration of mass relative to frame will be = = rel rel inertial frame rest -m frame Let there be force frame on mass we will reason.·. (i) Reference frame is at rest .·. for constant mass system If force is a tangible entity then the force in all systems on the same body should be same. Acceleration of mass m relative to frame is given by = = inertial rest rest .

. Now.m frame = rest + m(- frame = rest + pseudo |1||2||3||4||5|6|7| We see that the force is not the same as that in the inertial frames. The mass m2is pulled to the right by a constant force F. What will be the maximum extension of the spring? Solution: (i) Solution in inertial frame The spring will keep stretching for as long as v2 > v1 Force on m2 = F2 = F . Illustration: We have two masses connected by a light spring of stiffness k. This force we call as pseudo force. Let us illustrate our point.frame =m rel =m ) rest . Therefore we postulate that under observation from an accelerated reference frame we substitute the inertial forces on the body with those same initial forces plus an additional force which numerically equal to the mass of the body under observation times the acceleration of the frame taken in the opposite direction.kx Force or m1 = F1 = kx where x is elongation of spring Now initially kx will be small therefore the acceleration of m2 will be more than m1 and have velocity of m2 will be more than that of m1 and spring will kept stretching. we can work on a problem from an accelerated reference frame by just adding a pseudo force and pretending that nothing has changed.

With time 'kx' will increase and so a1 will increase and a2 will decrease.x1 so x1 .k (1+m2/m11 )x = m2 x = m2v2dv2/dx Remember that in the reference frame of m1. F . Beyond that time v2 will become less than v1 and so spring will not stretch anywhere. So after a while v1 will be equal to v2. the spring stretches by exactly the same amount as the displacement of m2. Force on m2 F . Now forces one m2 in this frame = = F . Therefore at maximum elongation v1 = v2.·. .kx .(m2/m1 )kx rest + pseudo .kx = m2 x2 Force on m1 Kx = m1 x1 Also x = x2 . So .x1 = x (ii) In the reference frame of m1. After some time a2 will obviously become zero and then negative all this while a1 will increase. which is non-inertial frame? Acceleration of m1 = F1/m1 = (k/m1)x Also the elongation will be maximum when v1 = v1 or velocity of m2 is zero relative to m1.

stars. therefore when small time intervals are involved effect of rotation and revolution of earth can be ignored.·. strictly speaking earth or any frame of reference fixed on earth cannot be taken as an inertial fame. . Furthermore. Fxmax = 1/2k ((m1+m2)/m1 ) xmax2 Now we introduce the concept of friction. xmax = 2Fm1/(k(m1+m2)) Is earth an inertial frame of reference? Earth rotates around its axis as also revolves around the sun.r. centripetal acceleration is present. This is isotropic property of the inertial frames of reference. Therefore. without spinning and with its engine cut off. In both these motion. this speed of earth can be assumed to be constant. This acts on the weighting machine which offers a reaction R given by the reading of the weighing machine. (iv) The fundamental laws of Physics have the same mathematic form in all the inertial frames of reference. This reaction exerted by the surface of contact on the person is the apparent weight of the person. relative to m1 is zero. Inertial frames of reference are important because: (iii) All fundamental laws of Physics have been formulated in respect of inertial frames. We shall discuss how is related to mg in the following different situations: Case I: . A space ship moving in outer space. as we are dealing with speeds § x 108 ms-1 (speed of light) and speed of earth is only about 3 x 104 m/s. Hence earth or any other frame of reference set up on earth can be taken as an approximately inertial frame of reference. a frame of reference which is accelerated or decelerated is a non-inertial frame. final velocity of m2.t. However. (v) The optical experiments performed in an inertial frame in any direction will always yield the same results. On the contrary. The actual weigh of the person equal to mg. Apparent weight of a Man in a Lift/Elevator Suppose a person of mass m is standing on a weighing machine placed in an elevator/lift.Since. Other examples of inertial frames of reference are: (i) (ii) A frame of reference remaining fixed w.

i. apparent weights is equal to the actual weight of the person. R ..e..e. when the elevator is accelerating upwards.·. in the figure Case II: When the elevator is accelerating upwards Suppose uniformly upward acceleration of the person in the lift = a or R1 = mg + ma = m(g + a) Thus R1 > mg Hence apparent weight of the person becomes more than the actual weight. (i) Case III: When the elevator is accelerating downwards Suppose uniform downward acceleration of the person in the lift = a .When the elevator is at rest Acceleration of the person = 0 Net force on the person F = 0 i.mg = 0 or R = mg . ...

e. apparent weight of the person becomes negative.. Applying Newton's laws alone is not sufficient in some cases where the number of equations is less than the number of unknowns. Constraint Relations The equations showing the relation of the motions of a system of bodies. apparent weight of the body becomes zero or the body becomes weightless..R2 = mg .e. In that event. R2 = m(g .. (ii) Hence apparent weight of the person becomes less than the actual weight when the elevator is accelerating downwards. R2 = m (g . a > g.. Note that weightlessness is felt only because the force of reaction between the person and the plane with which he is in contact vanishes.g) = 0 i. Case IV: In free fall of a body under gravity. the person will rise from the door of the lift and stick to the ceiling of the lift. then.e.·. . Case V: When downward acceleration is greater than g. in which motion of one body is constrained relations.a). R2 becomes negative i.ma = m(g . i.a) Thus R2 < mg . a = g ..

Also.t. acceleration of block m1 is twice the acceleration of block m2.r. In this case. .l 1 = l (i) Subtracting eq. time we get A1 = 2a2 i. Consider the situation in the adjacent figure. constraint equation is very simple. (ii). Assume pulleys and strings to be massless and frictionless.e. Solution: Y + 2X + Z = l Y + X + l2 + X + l 2 + Z . we get 2l2 = l1 Differentiating twice this equation w. (i) from eq.Note: Relation of velocities or acceleration through constraint relation only give relation between magnitude of velocity or acceleration. assume the string to be inextensible. a1 = a2 Illustration: Find the acceleration of two blocks.

T2 = 2T Illustration: Find the accelerations of the rod A and the wedge B in the arrangement shown in the figure if the ratio of the mass of the wedge to that of the rod equals and the friction between all surfaces is negligible. a1 = 2a. a1 = 2a = (2 m2 g)/(m2+4m1) . .·.For block m1: T1 = m1a1 For block m2: M2g .2T = m2a Solving a = (m2 g)/(m2+4m1) .· .·. T1 = T m2g . Pulley is massless] T = 2m1a .·.T2 = m2a2 2T1 = T2 Let a2 = a [·.·.

Solution: Let the acceleration of blocks m1.N cos N sin => = ( m). respectively. we get aWedge = g/(tan + cot ) and aRod = g/(1+ cot2 ) Illustration: Find the acceleration of the two blocks m1 and m2.Solution: y = x tan => (d2y)/dt2 = (d2x)/dt2 tan (constraint equation) = maR and arod = awedge.N cos Solving. . m2 and pulley B be a1. a2 and a3.tan mg .awedge = m aw tan mg . Assume that the pulleys are massless and frictionless and the strings are inextensible.

T1 = 2T2 m1g ..2C1 = constant Differentiating twice w.T1 = m1a1 T2 .... (iii) [from equations (i) and (iii)] Taking the magnitudes only and ignoring the sign.m2g = m2a2 . (d2x3)/dt2 + (d2x2)/dt2 = 0 => a2 = 2a3 A2 = 2a1 .....x3 + x2 .x3 = constant.Constraint relationship for the string attached to block of mass m1: X1 + x3 .(vi) Solving equations from (iii) to (vi) for a1 and a2.. we get . we get (d2x1)/dt2 = (d2x3)/dt2 = 0 => a1 = a3 .. (iv) . time. (ii) . (v) . Constraint relationship for the string attached to block of mass m2: c2 .. (i) The minus sign signifies acceleration of pulley B is opposite to that of block of mass m1...t.r.

however.2m2)/(m1+4m2 ) Friction |1||2||3||4||5|6| Whenever the surface of a body slides over another. a2 = 2a1 = 2(m1.2m2)/(m1+4m2 ) . is much less than the total overall area in contact.a1 = (m1. This. This contact force is called frictional force. Interlocking of irregularities of the two surfaces causes hindrance to sliding. In one experiment. lesser is the friction.000th of the . it came out to be 1/10. each body experiences a contact force which always opposes the relative motion between the surfaces. Cause of sliding friction Old view Earlier it was thought that roughness of the two surfaces causes friction in the figure because it can be easily seen that smoother the surfaces. Intermolecular interaction arising due to elastic properties of matter is the cause of frictional force. is not the current view Current view The current view is a slight deviation form the old view. the common surface area which is in actual contact of the two surfaces. it is though that due to irregularities. Earlier we thought that interlocking of irregularities of surfaces was causing friction. Now.

It is almost independent of the area of contact (Although it is dependent on micro area of contact). cold-welded joints are formed by the strong adhesive forces between molecules which are very close together. Maximum static friction force is the smallest applied force necessary to start the motion of the body. It is proportional to normal force. Thus. |1||2||3||4||5|6| |1||2||3||4||5|6| Cause and direction of rolling friction . the pressures at the points of contact are extremely high and cause the humps to flatten out (undergoing plastic deformation) until the increased area of contact enables the upper solid to be supported. small. Types of frictions (a) Static friction: it is the friction force that acts between surfaces at rest. These have to be broken away before one surface can move over the other. The ratio of the magnitude of the maximum force of static friction tot eh magnitude of normal force is called the coefficient of static frictional ( s). This static friction force can vary from zero to a certain maximum value. The ratio of the magnitude of maximum kinetic frictional force to the magnitude of the applied force during motion is called coefficient of kinetic friction. If the magnitude of the applied force is less than the maximum frictional force.apparent area. then we can say fS = Applied force < s N (Maximum frictional force) (b) Kinetic Friction: The kinetic friction is present between surfaces which have relative motion. while the total interactive (action and reaction) forces between the two surfaces remain the same. It is thought that at the points of contact.

. the total clockwise torque acting on the wheel about M must be more than or marginally more than the total anticlockwise torque about M. which is sometimes elastic sometimes inelastic.·. then no ridge will be formed and q will be zero i. > mg × R sin Laws of Friction 1.e. Laws of limiting friction (i) Limiting frictional force is independent of the apparent area of contact till the value of the normal reaction remains same.04 for rubber tyres on concrete surfaces. coefficient of rolling friction will be zero. This value does not depend upon R. i. . F = Frictional force .006 for steel and 0.A wheel of radius R rolling without sliding on a flat surface will experience a resistance due to the very small local deformation that takes place. whose line of action passes through the centre C of the wheel and P the horizontal force necessary to force the wheel to topple over the point M. Laws of Static Friction Static friction force is always equal and opposite to the net external force acting on the body. P × R cos P > mg tan The value of "tan " is called the coefficient of rolling friction ( g).e. This gives rise to the force FR.02 . (ii) The direction of limiting frictional force is opposite to the direction in which one body is on the verge of starting its motion. Typical values are R = 0. Rolling friction is very small compared to the sliding friction.0. 2. If the two surfaces are absolutely rigid.. a kind of ridge is formed in front of the wheel as shown exaggerated in the figure. In case of pure rolling R = 0. (iii) The limiting frictional force depends upon the nature of surfaces in contact.

. (ii) material of the surfaces in contact... Or F = R where is a constant of proportionality and is called the coefficient of limiting friction between the two surfaces in contact. whether dry or wet. FR Or F = R Where m is the constant of proportionally called coefficient of friction. the magnitude of the force of limiting friction (F) on one of the two bodies in contact.. polished or not polished. (4) Hence coefficient of limiting friction between any two surfaces in contact is defined as the ratio of the force of limiting friction and normal reaction between them. |1||2||3||4||5|6| Co-efficient of Friction According to the law of limiting friction.... Therefore.. and and k. k F R . = F/R .5.1. When a body is actually moving over the surface of another body.. we place F by Fx.. has no units.. the kinetic friction. The value of depends on (i) nature of the surfaces in contact i. is directly proportional to the normal reaction (R) on this body due to the other. when two polished metal surfaces are in contact... § 0. From (3). For example.2. § 0.. Obviously... rough or smooth. (3) = Fk/r .e..(iv) Quantitatively.2 and 0..... when these surfaces are lubricated. varies between 0.. Between two smooth wooden surfaces..

e.57 0. As Fk < F. Let us gradually increase the force until the body starts moving. therefore.74 0.10 Coefficient of kinetic friction 0.40 0.50 0. coefficient of kinetic or dynamic friction is always less than the coefficient of limiting friction. the body will not move.k is then called the coefficient of kinetic or dynamic friction. 4. The coefficient of static friction s = F/N where F is the applied force and N = mg is the normal force. Surface in contact Wood on wood Wood on leather Steel on Steel (mild) Steel on Steel (hard) Steel on Steel (greased) Coefficient of limiting friction 0.No. i. 1.05 |1||2||3||4||5|6| Angle of friction It is the angle between normal Reaction and the resultant of the normal reaction and limiting frictional force.40 0.78 0. If we apply a small force F. Angle of repose . At one stage the applied force will be equal to the frictional force. Table gives the values of coefficient of limiting/kinetic friction between some pairs of materials: S. 2.42 0. k is always less than i.e. we have a body of mass m which is placed on a table and we say that the body and the surface of the table have a coefficient of friction between them.70 0. 3. 5.

5m/s2 . F= s N and N = mg so. The body and the surface of the table have a coefficient of friction between them. Illustration: A body of mass 100kg is placed on a table. Analyse the motion (a) find acceleration (b) a relation between angle of repose & angle of friction. If we gradually increase the inclination of the table at a certain stage the body will start moving under gravity. for the motion of the body F . Let us take a body of mass m placed on a table.It is the minimum inclination of an inclined plane at which a body just starts moving under its own weight. A force equal to the maximum static frictional force is applied and the body is slightly disturbed.Fk = ma or a = (Fs-Fk)/m = ( smg kmg)/m = ( s- k)g = (0.35 respectively.0. The coefficients of static & kinetic frictions are 0. The angle made by the table to horizontal is called the angle of repose.4 & 0.5) × 10 = 0.4 .

mg sin = m mg cos . though the force which is reducing the acceleration was enough to balance the body in static friction. We draw the force diagram as shown in figure above. only a slight disturbance will move the body with an acceleration a = 0. R cos => m = tan =N R sin = tan-1 = N we can say that the resultant of friction force and the normal force is making an angle with the normal force.|1||2||3||4||5|6| So. is called limiting angle of friction : The same body is placed on an inclined plane and the angle of inclination is increased slowly. In the limiting case when the body starts moving. Let us now take the same body placed on the table again.5 m/s. Now limiting frictional force is applied without disturbing it.

we always need to know all the forces acting on the system on which we want to apply Newton's Law's because without knowing all the forces we can't know the net external force and for that we have to convert our system in a free body diagram.e. But just to tell you. angle of repose = limiting angle of friction |1||2||3||4||5|6| (c) Rolling Friction: (In pure rolling only the static friction acts which is necessary for pure rolling). .tan =m is called angle of repose where also since m = tan = i. This will be dealt with in detail in module 2 (with Rigid body dynamics) After knowing three laws of motion and friction let us see that how can we use these laws for solving problems. to actually apply the Laws related to force and acceleration.

make them free (that's where comes the name free body) from other components and at the same time show all the forces acting on it. Now each system is ready to get treatment of laws of motion e... external as well as internal.|1||2||3||4||5|6| Study Material > Physics > Mechanics > Newton s Laws of motion > Free body diagram Free body diagram | 1 | | 2 | | 3 | | 4 | | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | It is to be noticed here that during previous examples. arising due to separation from other parts.. Whenever one attempts a problem involving forces and acceleration (say of dynamics or statics) one must show all forces and acceleration (possible acceleration may be unknown also) on each part of the system treating that part separately (it is called dividing system into possible subsystems)... The diagram thus obtained is called a free body diagram.. say mass m1. pulley 1. These are called mutual interaction forces (one of this type we have seen in the illustration of IIIrd law) and show all possible acceleration... Illustration : Let us draw FBD for various given systems [Here we are assuming that all the surfaces strings and pulleys are ideal that is we are neglecting their masses & any friction present] FBD (1) : Block of mass M is resting on a frictionless rigid surface .g. By all forces we mean external as well as internal forces (internal forces refer to mutual reactions). velocity. pulley 2. mass m2 . Coming to actual situation one should first identify all the component involved in the system... It is like this. Now separate them from others by cutting the string contacts (sort of imaginary separation) In effect. acceleration. etc. we were using a concept called FBD implicitly which can now be brought to you conscious attention.

That is why. mg which is the weight of the block. here itself from FBD we can see that net external force on the block is zero. So. and is acting on the surface. | 1 | | 2 | | 3 | | 4 | | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | Free body diagram .There are only two forces in the system in figure above. R2 = mg through its centre (since the body is symmetric). it is stationary on the surface.

| 1 | | 2 | | 3 | | 4 | | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | FBD (2) : Draw the free body diagram of the block shown in figure 1. . Where R is reaction from the surface (R = Mg) FBD (3) : Draw free body diagrams of both the blocks (figure 1.13 a). Now a question comes Can 'R' have a direction opposite to what is shown here? Answer is. of course it can have. Assuming a reaction of magnitude 'R' is present at the interface.12.

Let us cut it (imagine) at then the situation is as shown in figure shown below. which tells us that earlier direction were the correct ones].[before we proceed further let me point out that once you make calculations you will find that values of R will automatically come negative. | 1 | | 2 | | 3 | | 4 | | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | | 1 | | 2 | | 3 | | 4 | | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | FBD (4) : Suppose situations is as shown in figure above that a light inextensible string pulls a block of mass M on a frictionless rigid surface. So tension t is responsible for dragging mass of block. (We join it again then net force should become zero at that point. Since t. Here string is acting as a force transmitting element It will experience a tension T in it. and T are oppositely directed their sum will come out to be zero). Therefore free body representation is .

. then by cutting it at 1-1' and 2-2' we can draw FBD's as shown in figure shown below. and from Newton's law they are equal to the weights of respective blocks. FBD (6) : Draw FBD where one of the block is resting on an inclined plane and rope goes over a frictionless massless pulley (Figure given below).Caution : What happens if rope is not massless? FBD (5) : Draw free body in case of system shown (figure shown below). R1 and R2 are reactions from plane. | 1 | | 2 | | 3 | | 4 | | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | | 1 | | 2 | | 3 | | 4 | | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | Suppose T is tension in the string.

Here for "ease" we can resolve force Mg in two components. (Here. which provides the reaction). of the block on the inclined plane can be represented by figure shown below. R2 is due to the component of Mg. . free Body. which is acting. Since Mg is always directed downwards. One parallel to inclined plane and other on perpendicular to inclined plane. | 1 | | 2 | | 3 | | 4 | | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 1 | | 2 | | 3 | | 4 | | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | .·.FBD becomes Here the noticeable fact is that R2 is perpendicular to the inclined plane and mg is perpendicular to horizontal plane. As shown in figure below. the rule is that reaction force is always normal to the surface. perpendicular to inclined plane.

For FBD cut the strings at 1-1' and 2-2' and separate the two blocks and pulleys as subsystems. .Finally at the end of this FBD. FBD (7) : Suppose both the block are on inclined planes as shown in figure given below. I want to point out that T2 will always be equal to T2for a continuous homogeneous massless inextensible string passing over a massless frictionless pulley.

) is zero. using Newton's II Law. FBD's become.| 1 | | 2 | | 3 | | 4 | | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | | 1 | | 2 | | 3 | | 4 | | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | FBD (8) : If pulley is hanging from a rigid support say roof and masses are connected as shown in figure given below. But prior to that. Equilibrium: An object is said to be in equilibrium if the vector sum of all the forces acting on the body (externally applied + forces arising due to mutual interaction. . Once we are comfortable in drawing FBD then we can proceed to write equation of motion. it is necessary to briefly introduce you with the concept of equilibrium of bodies.

...... (to be more specific ..translator equilibrium)... + Fnz = 0 | 1 | | 2 | | 3 | | 4 | | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | | 1 | | 2 | | 3 | | 4 | | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | Enquiry : How to apply equations of motion to any problem? Writing Down Equations of Motion: Once we have made a free body diagram then we can write equations of motion for each part of the system.... + Fnx = 0 F1y + F2y + ... as it is... + Fny = 0 F1z + F2z + .. For inclined plane is the right choice of coordinate axis. Y & Z equilibrium and if some of the forces is zero in each direction then the body is said to be in equilibrium..... tilted as per inclination... to problems.. To write down equations of motion for a sub-system for which we have already drawn the FBD the requirement is to choose two direction (if required we will need three directions) in which we shall work to reduce the complexity say.. ... where we are dealing with inclined planes we can fix our coordinate axis x-y in any desired orientation which reduces our trouble of finding out components of the forces which are acting in various directions and by experience one knows that it is better to choose X axis parallel to the inclined plane and Y axis perpendicular to it...That is 1 + 2 +..... F1x + F2x + ..+ N =0 But since it is impractical to apply it. In other cases.. Now once can go for writing F = ma equations in two directions for any ith sub-system.. for which we have drawn FBD. direction X and Y which in most of the cases is natural. therefore we resolve all forces in the three directions X...

.mg = 0 => R = Mg and Fx = F And this alone should accelerate it F = Ma. for the smaller block .Mg It will be zero since we know that on the surface the body can't move upwards or downwards.·. => a = F/m Refer to FBD (3): Here Figure is given below. R . Fy = R . Refer to FBD (2): Here figure is given below.Fx = miax Fy = miay Let us write down equation of motion for the FBD's we have already drawn.

mg = 0 Fx = F-R For the Large Block Fx = R .·. R = Ma2 Since both Blocks move as on system.Fy = R1 . F-R = m a1 Fy = R2 . R2 = Mg .·.·.R = ma from here we can solve for R & a. | 1 | | 2 | | 3 | | 4 | | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | | 1 | | 2 | | 3 | | 4 | | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | Refer to FBD (4): Here figure is given below.·.·.·.·. their accelerations will be equal a1 = a2 & R = Ma .Mg = 0 .Mg = 0 . a = T/m Refer to FBD (5): Here Figure is given below. . F . R = mg Fx = T = Ma . For block Fy = R . R1 = mg .

·..... Blocks m and M as well as the string will move with the same acceleration 'a'. Fy = R2 . R1 = mg Fx = T = ma .T = Ma .mg = 0 ...'M' ....Here also.... then the acceleration in different parts will be equal.·. since system is fully connected and we assume that string is not loose..... (ii) solving (i) & (ii) we get T & a.Mg = 0 Refer to FBD (6): Here Figure is given below. system is fully connected by light inextensible string therefore acceleration in all the parts will be equal. (1) For Block . R2 = Mg Fx = F .. That is.. . Equation for smaller Block Fy = R1 . Since..

.Mg cos = 0 (since it is not moving to the plane) and is parallel to the plane ..·.| 1 | | 2 | | 3 | | 4 | | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | | 1 | | 2 | | 3 | | 4 | | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | For Block 'm' R1 ..... R1 = mg T1 = ma.T2 = Ma .. (ii) & mg sin components...mg = 0 . For Block 'M' (Refer to the diagram made with mg cos R2 . R2 = Mg cos Mg sin ...

m2g cos = 0 R2 = m2g cos and m2 g sin ... T-m1g sin = m1a ....... solving (i) & (ii) we get 'T' & 'a' for the system.. (1) = 0 R1 = m1g cos . (ii) . Refer to FBD (7) : Here Figure is given below.T = m2 a ...m1g cos Parallel to the plane.It is already explained that T1 = T2 = T . T1 = T2 = T (similar to the analysis done in FBD (6)) For block m1 perpendicular to inclined plane T1 ......·. For block m2 perpendicular to plane R2 ..

. Therefore the pulley experiences a force F = 2T. Now you are well conversant with making FBD's and writing down equations of motion for the given system. Therefore.m1g = m1a For Block m2 m2g .T = m2 a From (i) & (ii) we can solve for 'T' & 'a'. In Y-direction : For block m1 T . On pulley 2T force is acting downwards. which can considerably reduce your diversion or confusion or say the possibility of getting trapped into complexity of a problem. now we can write down some definite steps to follow for any given problem. (of course for that you have to use your brain all the time with these steps). | 1 | | 2 | | 3 | | 4 | | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 1 | | 2 | | 3 | | 4 | | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | Refer to FBD (8) : Here Figure is given below.Solving (i) & (ii) we get 'a' & 'T.

it is continuously towards the centre of rotation with magnitude vr/r (known as centripetal acceleration).42. Eliminate some variables and get the required one(s). Therefore. . Fy. about a vertical. Analyze the dynamics of this system. (iii) Draw free body diagrams for all possible subsystems. Fz equations with the physical constraints appearing in the problem. (or perpendicular and || to the plane whenever require). | 1 | | 2 | | 3 | | 4 | | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 1 | | 2 | | 3 | | 4 | | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | Illustration: A bob of mass m is suspended form a inextensible. (v) (vi) Write. net force acting on the body towards the centre = mv2/r. Centrifugal force is a pseudo force acting on the body from a rotating frame. where v is the speed of the particle and r is the radius of the circular path. (iv) Resolve forces as well as accelerations in x y & z direction. as seen from an inertial frame. Fx. where m is mass of body. that is parts of the system on which you will work to get your answers. massless describe a horizontal uniform circular motion as shown in figure 1. Centripetal Force If a body is moving with a constant speed in a circle. this body will experience net force directed towards the centre called the centripetal force. (ii) Define subsystems.(i) Draw the fully connected clear diagram. According to Newton's second law.

Tenstion T is resolved in two components T cos and T sin as shown in figure 1.42. We can draw the free body diagram of bob at a as shown in figure 1. The force acting on the bob is it's weight mg and tension T of the string. The string makes an angle with the vertical. Consider the bob is at A. we can write the equation of motion T cos = mg T sin = mv2/r | 1 | | 2 | | 3 | | 4 | | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | .43. Let the radius of circular path of bob is r equal to l sin and tension in string is T.Solution: The path of the system described above is shown in figure 1.43.

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