ACKNOWLEDGE

First of all, I would like to say Alhamdulillah, for giving me the strength and health to do this project work.

Not forgotten my parents for providing everything, such as money, to buy anything that are related to this project work and their advise, which is the most needed for this project. Internet, books, computers and all that. They also supported me and encouraged me to complete this task so that I will not procrastinate in doing it.

Then I would like to thank my teacher, Encik Mohamed bin Masri for guiding me and my friends throughout this project. We had some difficulties in doing this task, but he taught us patiently until we knew what to do. He tried and tried to teach us until we understand what we supposed to do with the project work.

Last but not least, my friends who were doing this project with me and sharing our ideas. They were helpful that when we combined and discussed together, we had this task done.

project two

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OBJECTIVE
The aims of carrying out this project work are: to apply and adapt a variety of problem-solving strategies to solve problems to improve thinking skills to promote effective mathematical communication to develop mathematical knowledge through problem solving in a way that increases students¶ interest and confidence to use the language of mathematics to express mathematical ideas precisely to provide learning environment that stimulates and enhances effective learning to develop positive attitude towards mathematics

project two

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Part One project two 3 .

provide basic math practice for young children. Hari Raya. such as counting ingredients and setting the oven timer. project two 4 . Cakes are treasured not only because of their wonderful taste but also in the art of cake baking and cake decorating Baking a cake offers a tasty way to practice math skills.INTRODUCTION Cakes come in a variety of forms and flavours and are among favourite desserts served during special occasions such as birthday parties. such as fractions and ratios. it helps you become a more flexible and resourceful baker. such as how to make a cake recipe larger or smaller or how to determine what size slices you should cut. weddings and others. Older children and teenagers can use more sophisticated math to solve baking dilemmas. Practicing math while baking not only improves your math skills. in a real-world context. Many steps of baking a cake.

MATHEMATICS IN CAKE BAKING AND CAKE DECORATING GEOMETRY To determine suitable dimensions for the cake. the faster the item will bake. thick item. to estimate min. If the pan is too big. Size of cake produced. The baker must then choose the appropriate size and shape of pan to achieve the desired result. to estimate volume of cake to be produced When making a batch of cake batter. to assist in designing and decorating cakes that comes in many attractive shapes and designs. or max. the baker will have to lower the temperature a little bit and bake for a longer time. The ratio of the surface area to the volume determines how much crust a baked good will have. For a very large. the cake becomes too tall. This leads into the next situation. CALCULUS (DIFFERENTIATION) To determine minimum or maximum amount of ingredients for cake-baking. project two 5 . or max. amount of cream needed for decorating. to estimate min. To avoid having a rock-hard outside in this case. compared to the volume. We mix ingredients in round bowls because cubes would have corners where unmixed ingredients would accumulate. determined by the recipe. and we would have a hard time scraping them into the batter. If the pan is too small. and the less "inside" there will be. you end up with a certain volume. it will take a long time for the heat to penetrate to the center. the cake becomes too short. The more surface area there is.

When the diameter of the first layer of the cake is 8´ and the diameter of second layer of the cake is 6´. We can also use ratio. we need to decrease its ratio from lower layer to upper layer. then the diameter of the third layer should be 4´. So we can say that it used arithmetic progression. we can use fraction to devide the cake according to the total people that will eat the cake. because when we prepare the ingredient for each layer of the cake. we must fix the difference of diameter of the two layers. we use arithmetic progression where the difference of the diameter is constant that is 2. project two 6 . That is the way how the cake is balance to prevent it from smooch.PROGRESSION To determine total weight/volume of multi-storey cakes with proportional dimensions. When we cut the cake. to estimate total ingredients needed for cake-baking. In this case. the weight also decreases. to estimate total amount of cream for decoration. When the diameter decreases. For example when we make a cake with many layers.

Part Two project two 7 .

142) = ( )² 863.872 = ( )² = 29. 45cm height a) The formula that formed for d in terms of h by using the formula for volume of cake. and the height of the cake is to be 7.142)( )² x 7 (3. V = 19000 is: 19000 = (3. 60cm width.0 cm.142)( )²h  = ² = d² d= project two 8 . the diameter of the baking tray to be used to fit the 5 kg cake ordered by your school 3800 is Volume of 5kg cake = Base area of cake x Height of cake 3800 x 5 = (3.392 d = 58. Diagram 1 1) If a kilogram of cake has a volume of 38000cm3.Best Bakery shop received an order from your school to bake a 5 kg of round cake as shown in Diagram 1 for the Teachers¶ Day celebration.784 cm 2) The inner dimensions of oven: 80cm length.

0 5.55 63. An equation which is suitable and relevant for the graph: 19000 = (3.84 49.h 1.98 89. the cake would be too short and too wide.142)( )²h.0 10.53 project two 9 .78 54.0 6.18 b) i) h < 7cm is NOT suitable.d 155.0 Table 1 Diameter. The same process is also used.0 3. c) i) The same formula in 2(a) is used. that is. because it can fit into the oven. d = 54.76 69. Furthermore.99cm.0 8.0 7. that is 19000 = (3. make d the subject. b) ii) The most suitable dimensions (h and d) for the cake is h = 8cm. and the size is suitable for easy handling.0 2.79 77.Height.142)( )²h = ²  = d² d= d= log d = Ž‘‰ log d = Š Š log h + log 155.49 58.0 4. because the resulting diameter produced is too large to fit into the oven.53 109. making it less attractive.0 9.99 51.

53 109.95 1.84 49.0 4.00 0.0 9.99 51.30 0.18 Table 2 Log h 0.74 1.h 1.19 2.69 project two 10 .0 Diameter.04 1.89 1.0 3.77 1.0 10.48 0.80 1.60 0.98 89.0 5.55 63.49 58.78 0.84 1.78 54.90 0.0 8.0 2.79 77.85 0.0 7.70 0.d 155.Table of log d = log h + log 155.95 1.53 Height.0 Log d 2.76 69.71 1.0 6.

Graph of log d against log h project two 11 .

142)( = 2375 cm³ Volume of cream at the side surface = Area of side surface x Height of cream = (Circumference of cake x Height of cake) x Height of cream = 2(3.5cm.ii) Based on the graph: a) d when h = 10. h = 13.142)( = 1382. we don't decorate the bottom part of the cake Volume of cream at the top surface = Area of top surface x Height of cream = (3.23 cm³ )(8) x 1 )² x 1 project two 12 . d = 54.021. with uniform thickness 1cm is decorated a) The amount of fresh cream needed to decorate the cake.99cm Amount of fresh cream = volume of fresh cream needed (area x height) Amount of fresh cream = volume of cream at the top surface + volume of cream at the side surface The bottom surface area of cake is not counted. using the dimensions I've suggested in 2(b)(ii) My answer in 2(b)(ii) ==> h = 8cm. because we're decorating the visible part of the cake only (top and sides). log h = 1.23 = 3757. log d = 1. Obviously. log d = 1.86cm b) h when d = 42cm d = 42cm.140.623. log h = 1.80cm 3) The cake with fresh cream.23 cm³ Therefore.680. d = 47.5cm h = 10. amount of fresh cream = 2375 + 1382.

The volume of top surface is always the same for all shapes (since height is same). 2375 = 50 x 47.5 (length = 50.b) Three other shapes (the shape of the base of the cake) for the cake with same height which is depends on the 2(b)(ii) and volume 19000cm³. and volume of cream on top surface = = 2375 cm³): 1 ± Rectangle-shaped base (cuboid) height width length 19000 = base area x height base area = length x width = 2375 By trial and improvement. My answer (with h = 8cm.5 x 8)(1) + 2375 = 3935 cm³ project two 13 . width = 47. volume of cream = 2(Area of left and right side surface)(Height of cream) + 2(Area of front and back side surface)(Height of cream) + volume of top surface = 2(50 x 8)(1) + 2(47. height = 8) Therefore.5.

amount of cream = Area of rectangular front side surface(Height of cream) + 2(Area of slant rectangular left/right side surface)(Height of cream) + Volume of top surface = (50 x 8)(1) + 2(98.68 cm³ project two 14 .23 x 8)(1) + 2375 = 4346.23 Therefore.2 ± Triangle-shaped base width slant height 19000 = base area x height base area = base area = 2375 x length x width = 2375 length x width = 4750 By trial and improvement. width = 50) Slant length of triangle = ¥(95² + 25²)= 98. 4750 = 95 x 50 (length = 95.

amount of cream = 5(area of one rectangular side surface)(height of cream) + vol. 475 = 25 x 19 (length = 25. project two 15 . since it requires only 3135 cm³ of cream to be used. width = 19) Therefore. of top surface = 5(19 x 8) + 2375 = 3135 cm³ c) Based on the values above. the shape that require the least amount of fresh cream to be used is: Pentagon-shaped cake.3 ± Pentagon-shaped base width 19000 = base area x height base area = 2375 = area of 5 similar isosceles triangles in a pentagon therefore: 2375 = 5(length x width) 475 = length x width By trial and improvement.

Part Three project two 16 .

The minimum height.22 therefore. well.22cm.44cm ² project two 17 .142)rh From (1): h = ² (3) Sub. d is calculated by using the differentiation and function. Method 1: Differentiation Two equations for this method: the formula for volume of cake (as in 2(a)). there's differentiation and quadratic functions. d = 2r = 2(18. h and its corresponding minimum diameter. (3) into (2): V = (3.142)r ± ( ² ² ) =0 0 = 2(3.22) = 36.142)r² + 38000r-1 ( ) = 2(3.When there's minimum´ or maximum´.104 = r³ r = 18. therefore = 2(3.142)r = r³ 6047. and the formula for amount (volume) of cream to be used for the round cake (as in 3(a)).22 Sub.22 into (3): h= h = 18.142)r² + 2(3.142)r( V = (3. 19000 = (3.142)r²h (1) (2) V = (3. r = 18. h = 18.142)r² + ( ) ² ) V = (3.142)r ± ( ² ) -->> minimum value.142)r² + 2(3.

142)(r + h)² ± (3. value). Let f(r) = volume of cream.142)r² + 2(3.894 r = 18. r = --h into (1): 19000 = (3.104 h = 18.142)h² (a = (3.142) (positive indicates min. value = f(r) = ±(3. h = 18. but only the formula for amount of cream is the main equation used as the quadratic function.22 cm.142).22 therefore.22) r² = 331.142) = (3.142)h².Method 2: Quadratic Functions Two same equations as in Method 1. b = 2h and c = 0 (1) (2) f(r) = (3. h = 18.44 cm I would choose not to bake a cake with such dimensions because its dimensions are not suitable (the height is too high) and therefore less attractive.142)hr = (3. d = 2r = 2(18. with a = (3. project two 18 .142)(--h)²h h³ = 6047.142)(r² + 2hr) -->> factorize (3. Furthermore.142)r²h From (2): f(r) = (3.142)[ (r + h)² ± h² ] = (3. corresponding value of x = r = --h) Sub.22 Sub. such cakes are difficult to handle easily.22) = 36.22 into (1): 19000 = (3.142)[ (r + )² ± ( )² ] -->> completing square. r = radius of round cake: 19000 = (3. min.142)r²(18.

Further Exploration project two 19 .

« a = 31. Radius of 4th cake = 22.142)(25. Radius of 3rd cake = 25.9.599)²(6) 9627. 9627. 3rd.772 volume of 2nd cake = (3. 25.9.585 volume of 3rd cake = (3. Radius of 2nd cake = 27.11. 14674.142)(31)²(6) = 18116. as shown in Diagram 2. r = T2/T1 = T3 /T2 = « = 0. and 4th cakes: Radius of 1st cake = 31.414 volume of 4th cake = (3. The height of each cake is 6.0 cm. « (it is a geometric progression with first term.599. with h = 6 to get the volume of cakes. h of each cake = 6cm radius of largest cake = 31cm radius of 2nd cake = 10% smaller than 1st cake radius of 3rd cake = 10% smaller than 2nd cake 31.142)(22. volume of 1st cake = (3.9)²(6) 14674.Diagram 2 Best Bakery received an order to bake a multi-storey cake for Merdeka Day celebration.585.11. r = V = (3.11)²(6) 11886.772. Given: height. 27. The radius of the second cake is 10% less than the radius of the first cake.142)(27. 2nd.414. 11886.995 The volumes form number pattern: 18116.81) project two 20 . Volume of 1st. a = 18116.142)r²h.772 and ratio.599. a) By using the formula for volume V = (3. 22.995.142)r²h. the radius of the third cake is 10% less than the radius of the second cake and so on.0 cm and the radius of the largest cake is 31.

n = 4 is suitable) project two 21 .81 57000 =     1 ± 0.81n = 0. so the maximum number of cakes that needs to be baked is       Sn = Sn = 57000.40221 = 0.b) The total mass of all the cakes should not exceed 15 kg ( total mass < 15 kg.40221 = n n=    n = 4.81)4)) / (1 ± 0. change to volume: total volume < 57000 cm³).322 therefore.772(1 ± (0.81 0.59779 0.81n og0.81)5)) / (1 ± 0.772(1 ± (0.81) = 62104.767 < 57000 (Sn < 57000.772 and r = 0. n § 4 Verifying the answer: When n = 5: S5 = (18116. n = 5 is not suitable) When n = 4: S4 = (18116.443 > 57000 (Sn > 57000. a = 18116.81) = 54305.

Reflection project two 22 .

TEAM WORK IS IMPORTANT BE HELPFUL ALWAYS READY TO LEARN NEW THINGS BE A HARDWORKING STUDENT BE PATIENT ALWAYS CONFIDENT project two 23 .

"rise over run". also known as a geometric sequence. project two 24 . An arithmetic progression (AP) or arithmetic sequence is a sequence of numbers such that the difference of any two successive members of the sequence is a constant A geometric progression. It differs from algebra in that one develops a logical structure where mathematical relationships are proved and applied.Conclusion Geometry is the study of angles and triangles. perimeter. area and volume. Say you have y = x^2. etc. The equation y' = 2x will give you the gradient of y at any point along that curve.) at any point along the curve. is a sequence of numbers where each term after the first is found by multiplying the previous one by a fixed non-zero number called the common ratio Differentiation is essentially the process of finding an equation which will give you the gradient (slope.

one-school net additional mathematics textbook form 4 and form 5 project two 25 .Reference Wikipedia www.