Rasa Theory Applied to Hemingway’s ‘The Old Man and The Sea’ and ‘A Farewell To Arms”.

A dissertation submitted in fulfillment of Doctor of Philosophy Degree

To St Clements’ University.


Gregory P Fernando 19August 2003


Rasa Theory applied to Hemingway’s ‘The Old Man and the Sea’ and A Farewell to Arms’



Rasa Theory Applied to Hemingway’s ‘The Old Man and The Sea’ And ‘A Farewell to Arms’


Gregory Fernando





Evolution and Development of Rasa. The Sanskrit Literary Theory Different views on Rasa ix x 17 17 34 34 34 35 35 35 37 40 41 42 43 50 50 51 Vamana’s View on Rasa Bhatta Nayaka Historical Background. The Sanskrit Literary Theory 53 55 56 21 . Evolution and Development of Rasa. The Sanskrit Literary Theory Properties of Human Soul An Analogy Bharatamuni’s Natya Sastra Different Commentaries An Aesthetic Theory Shloka of Sahityadarpana Fundamentals of Rasa Theory Scope of Rasa.iv Contents Acknowledgement Author’s Preface Chapter 1 Introduction Chapter 2 Definition and Scope of Rasa. The Sanskrit Literary Theory Chapter 3 Origin.

The Sanskrit Literary Theory 79 Aesthetics of Socrates 82 Plato’s view on Reflection 83 Aristotle’s Metaphysics and Aesthetics 84 Aristotle’s View on Poetics 84 Morality. The Sanskrit Literary Theory And Modern Poetics 109 Roland Barthes 110 Post Structuralism 111 Structuralism 112 22 . and Mystery Plays 86 Shakespeare’s concept of Tragedy 86 Shaw sees life as it exists in his own age 87 Christian influence on philosophical principles 90 Bacon. the Adhikavi 57 v Nātya Śāstra Drama Bhavas and Rasas Interpretation of Rasa by Sivaite Mystical School Anandhavardhana’s Dhavanyaloka Abhinavagupta’s Abhinavabharati Various interpretations of Rasa the Sanskrit Literary Theory Obstacles to Rasa Realization 57 59 60 62 64 65 66 70 Chapter 4 79 A Comparative Study of Western Aesthetics and Rasa. Founder of Empiricism 91 Locke and Real Ideas 92 Croce and Comparative Aesthetics 93 Art as Intuition 95 Baumgarten 98 Emmanuel Kant 98 Aesthetic Development in Early Christian era. Middle 100 Ages and Renaissance St.Thomas Aquinas 101 Hegel 102 Certain Aspects Of Modern Poetics 105 Rasa. Miracle.Valmiki.Augustine 101 St.

A. 400) The Middle ages (.vi Chapter 5 Western Literary Criticism Beginning: The Greeks and Romans (c.1500-1600) The Enlightenment (1600-1798) The Romantic Period (1798-1837) The Victorian Period (1837-1901) Growth Of American Culture Lost Generation Hemingway’s Novels Chapter 6 Development of Literary Criticism of The Twentieth Century Formalism Anglophone Criticism The New Criticism Academic Criticism –(1945-1965) Descents from Decadence: (1890-1918) The Modernist Revolution: (1918-1945) Beyond the New Criticism: (1945-1965) Literary Theory and Textual Politics: Since 1968 Novel Re-Opened Chapter 7 Ernest Hemingway’s Life and Works The First World War and Hemingway’s Experiences Short Stories: Fifty Grand His First Novels And Family Shocks One-Man Suicide Squadron Papa Was Up Again Hemingway Casts a Wonderful Spell on His Generation His Philosophy of Life 117 117 117 117 118 119 119 120 121 122 128 139 139 139 141 141 142 144 145 145 147 148 151 151 151 153 153 155 156 157 159 23 .C – A.450 B.400-1500) The Renaissance (c.D.D.

the Sanskrit Literary Theory Applied to Hemingway’s ‘The Old Man and the Sea’. The Sanskrit Literary Theory Applied to Hemingway’s ‘A Farewell to Arms’ During The First World War Metaphysical Theme Description towards Rasa Experience Ambivalent Religious Attitude Social Issues Division of the Novel Time of Events Parallels Hemingway’s Style Images and Symbols Rasa Experiences Descriptions of Various Situations towards Rasa Experience Culmination towards Santa Rasa Bibliography Index 165 165 165 167 168 170 173 174 176 178 183 190 190 190 192 193 194 195 195 198 198 199 200 202 205 207 211 24 . Rasa Experience Santiago.His Narrative Technique His Creative Genius The Champion 160 160 161 vii Chapter 8 Rasa. a means to enjoyment of Rasa His major sources of strength during the struggle Manolin’s gesture of love and gratitude Experience of Vira Rasa A search for Santa Rasa in Bunyan’s Pilgrim’s Progress Contrast of Hemingway’s dramatic rhythm Santa Rasa in Achebe’s ‘ Things Fall Apart’ Dramatic quality of the story Chapter 9 Rasa.

25 . Gregory P.216 ix Acknowledgement I. degree program hereby acknowledge that this thesis has been prepared by me as per the requirement of St Clements University’s Validating Professional Growth Program. All reference works and bibliography are given at the end of each chapter and at the end of this research work before index respectively.D. a student on Ph. Fernando.

x Author’s Preface This research study aims to provide scholars of Literature and Literary Criticism a unique outlook. So I’ve not attempted to engage in prolonged consideration of major critics. Application of Rasa. Literary Criticism and Literature constitute two sides of a coin. has remained mostly in the Indian subcontinent without shedding much light in the international arena. the Sanskrit Literary Theory and apply to Hemingway’s ‘The Old Man and The Sea’ and ‘A Farewell to Arms’. The account I offer here is not a succession of studies on the thought of any critics in particular although some prominent individual positions must play its role. Rasa. without dwelling on the major critics or significant literary periods. an attempt has been made to define Rasa in clear terms so as to enable my readers to become aware of such a unique Literary Theory that can be applied to any works of art that gives us the experience 26 . the Sanskrit Literary Theory. the Sanskrit Literary Theory. in spite of its dynamic nature. I have concentrated not so much on the major literary figures themselves to the successive generations and the different schools of thought on Rasa. It’s an agenda of critical discussion in the aesthetic world. Both are co-related just like breathing is essential to living and primary matter to substantial form. Secondly. As I explain further in the Introduction. So I’ve attempted to expound Rasa. This is indeed a crowded area of study that no volume of this size can suffice without certain degree of simplification. the Sanskrit Literary Theory is very ancient and dynamic in nature. The advantages of such an approach are first of all it embraces humanism as a whole.

But artwork is to infer and enjoy Rasa. Description of various situations in the novels of my choice will certainly enable the appreciative readers/ viewers enjoy the Aesthetic called Rasa experience. Literary critics of the 1990s emphasize that the aim of an aesthetic criticism is to describe the artwork and to infer/draw from the art the aesthetic that may generate this unique combination. North and South closer to each other. Of all the Literary Theories. the scope of this study may seem to be of glaring artificiality and high hopes. no matter whether it is a tragedy or comedy. the Sanskrit Literary Theory stands aloft as a lighthouse that keeps shining and giving light to a very large area guiding the vessels. enjoyable and embrace Rasa.of Rasa instead of analyzing. To present the work as a whole. Appropriate description of the situations in artwork will enable the readers to infer Rasa and enjoy it. Indeed the structure of this study is so planned in a chronological and sequential order that the readers. the introduction gives a substance of the aims. resulting in Rasa enjoyment. a clear evolution and development of Rasa Theory and Western Literary Theory have been briefly given a trace. Presentation of 27 . I hope. Definition. the Sanskrit Literary Theory as a unique literary theory. the Sanskrit Literary Theory will indeed unfold the uniqueness of the latter as it dwells on re-incarnation of humanity that subsequently follows Śānta Rasa. evaluating and judging in a pedagogical manner. At the outset. will perceive and read through lines the things I describe. It aims at bringing the East and West. Origin and Evolution of Rasa Theory traces the birth of Rasa and development at the hands of different commentators. Rasa. I hope that the chronological development of this study will help my readers to proceed in a sequential and natural progression of the study. xi A Comparative Study of Western Literary Theory and Rasa. grading. objectives and scope of this research work besides stating clearly the limitations of the work. both modern and ancient. In order to unfold widely the uniqueness of Rasa Theory.

the Sanskrit Literary Theory applied to Hemingway’s ‘The Old Man and the Sea’ and ‘A Farewell To Arms’ is the most appropriate title. He used his experiences metaphorically and this gives his experiences a touch of universality. Hemingway used his experiences as a parable to substantiate the truth stated in the Book of Common Prayer: “In the midst of life.an experience that later inspired him to write the great war scenes in ‘A Farewell to Arms’ (1929). in a perfectly crafted story is a unique and timeless vision of the beauty and grief of man’s challenge to the elements in which he lives’. “makes separate peace” with himself. underscoring the inevitability of death but man’s determination not to surrender without struggle. He was sleeping on his face and the boy was sitting by him watching him.’ reported Sunday Times. Twentieth Century Literary Theory is given due importance as it centers on Novel re-opened. Meanwhile. It‘s indeed quite convincing that the topic ‘Rasa. It is Rasa. ‘Up the road in his shack. we are in death”. the writers of the ‘Lost Generation’ and Hemingway as a prominent representative of the Lost Generation is vividly shown that the readers will certainly find it quite appropriate to connect things stated in this study. At the outbreak of World War I Hemingway volunteered on ambulance duty in Italy and was badly wounded. Hemingway’s hero shows “grace under pressure”. ‘The Old Man and The Sea. the Sanskrit Literary Theory that is most appropriate to apply to Hemingway’s novels of my choice. ‘… Here. xii Tracing the development of American Literature to the Twentieth Century.the Western Aesthetics in this context will certainly enable my readers to compare the two theories and emerge with a clear view of the uniqueness of Rasa Theory. the old man was sleeping again. withdraws with a stoic resignation from the society 28 . The old man was dreaming about the lions having entered into a trance of tranquility enjoying indeed the aesthetic experience called Santa Rasa.

I am grateful to all those who are directly or indirectly helpful towards the completion of this research work indeed. After a while I went out and left the hospital and walked back to the hotel in the rain”. the Sanskrit Literary Theory that is most suited to apply to various situations and enjoy the aesthetic pleasure called Rasa. It was like saying goodbye to a statue. called Santa Rasa. Having declared some of the unique characteristics of this study and certain limits.but remains undefeated. xiii I would like to thank my spouse Immaculate for her extensive editing this work and continuous supply of fire and energy to bring out this work of Art. Here too Henry Frederic enters into a trance of tranquility of peace experiencing the aesthetic. “ But after I had got them out and shut the door and turned off the light it wasn’t any good. The appendices include bibliographies and index on critics and the works of art. I am deeply indebted to the Administrative Director Dr. It is Rasa.F. Sana’a.P. Republic of Yemen 29 . G. the Sanskrit Literary Theory for further reference. I’m equally indebted and obliged to Professor Damodar Thakur for all helps and guidance received and receiving todate. I would like to state that there are writers who extensively dwelt on Rasa. David Le Cornu on his excellent co-operation towards submission of this research work. Notes are given at the end of every chapter.

xiv 30 .

Nataraja photo posing on all Bhavas xv Hemingway 31 .

xiv 32 .

33 .

But the Greeks believe in Keats’s ‘Lethe wards had sunk11’ or the western philosophy believes in glorified status or on the day of Last Judgment12. if it is a theory of Rasa. ultimately 34 . “True art is never made to order.” We hear a song of Lata Mangeskar6 and are enthralled. behind all such great works of art. it was an act of self-sacrificing dedication to their successive generation to relish such a unique gustation called Rasa. It is because I’ve lived with fishermen like Santiago experiencing similar behavior. I experience Rasa within me.e. He himself advised him to go ahead. but Rasa theory alone emphasizes Śānta Rasa i. Rasa theory has been so firm that many scholars confirmed themselves to Indian Literary works mainly dramaturgy2 so much so. the spontaneous relishing or enjoying the gustation when a story is viewed on the screen or read. tranquility or quietitude. It’s all because. To me. An artist should be free from rules governing him. Various periods have experienced varied concepts of Greek and Western poetics. When Bharatamuni3 asked Brahma4 if he could apply Nātya Śāstra to other arts. if died in pure status..e. it comes as a result of an irresistible inner urge.Chapter 1 Introduction Rasa. But Rasa is enjoyed and relished. why not apply this unique Rasa theory and enjoy it? Why should there be rules to someone’s enjoyment as enjoyment or relishing any work of art? It is purely subjective. Greek and Western Literary theories express and give great importance to Katharsis9 (tragedy). It’s the artists who poured their devotion into the shape of such exquisite works of art. rise with glorified bodies after death. But the concept of Indian poetics. What attracted me most is Rasa.. Besides Rasa theory believes in re-birth or re-incarnation10 that becomes part of one’s cycle of life. the Sanskrit Literary Theory has been a study of great interest to me1. we look at Taj Mahal and keep gazing on it with wonder and awe. is a great aesthetic urge. i. I enjoy when I look at Santiago drinking a glassful of shark liver oil for strength or the way he is talking to the warbler or the manner he is abusing the gelatinous7 bladder of a Portuguese man-of-war8. which are filled with tradition and convention. the ancient Sanskrit Literary theory. We see the ancient sculptures and feel thrilled. I was advised by a scholar of Aesthetics to tread carefully on Rasa theory because it is solely applicable to drama.

the reader or the spectator various emotions giving rise to their related Rasas. It will also probe briefly the views propounded by various thinkers such as the Greek. if we apply this supreme theory to Hemingway’s Novels such as ‘The Old Man and the Sea’ and ‘A Farewell to Arms’? As I have been learning with pupils of ICSE class X on screen and reading the texts. I wondered if there was a better literary/critical theory in the world than Rasa theory. Scholars of great caliber have attempted comparative studies on these aspects. Procedure of this study shall be to proceed by part method to the whole. the Sanskrit Literary Theory. They have successfully brought forth various similarities. As I tried it with the 15 years old smart students. to apply to the novels of my choice to show clearly how the writer’s imagination can evoke in him. I motivated them narrating with personal experiences. This in fact limits the scope of my research work.the reader/spectator experiencing ‘Santa Rasa’. Rasa theory therefore is an allpervasive humanistic theory. the Sanskrit literary Theory as an aesthetic theory. This concept indeed is as old as the first century B. Rasa. The readers and spectators too enjoy gustation like the way the artist or critic enjoys writing/producing the work of art. to fourth century A. It is then they started loving the novel ‘The Old Man and the Sea’. This indeed has captured my whole self to dwell deeply on Rasa. Moreover the scope of this research is not to go into various critics of Rasa theory. Rasa Theory embraces humanism as a whole.C. which added further more weight to Rasa theory. According to Bharata’s Natya Sastra. I would elucidate the concept of Rasa and all its nine kinds. Western and Indian.D. particular to general. which could produce Rasa. My research study will investigate the validity of Rasa. they had at the beginning aversion to various ways of Santiago. I longed to find the most appropriate theory to appreciate and enjoy gustation. Won’t it be a unique way. the Sanskrit Literary Theory dwells on the ‘emotive content’13of a work of art howsoever various emotions are depicted and inferred and transmitted. But we use Rasa theory as it is. I would adhere to the commentaries of 10th century Aesthetician Abhinavagupta. In the course of such study. It does not leave out any of the emotions. 35 . We find it in the eminent sage Bharata’s14 Nātya Śāstra15. inductive to deductive as it imbibes whole human picture.

poetry. It is thus befitting to dwell upon this study in a more detailed manner so as to achieve the objective of making the third millennium generation of the new knowledge. Rasa. the Sanskrit Literary Theory. The objective of any literary works. it is proposed to make the literary world aware of such an all-pervasive humanistic approach in the world of literary criticism. This study is intended not to dwell upon various controversial interpretations of Rasa Theory but to take it as a literary/critical theory as it is. As a writer creates his work of art. fiction was not in existence then. by giving evocation in his work towards sentiments to be expressed whether it is in poetry. drama or fiction so as to experience Rasa. novels are pure forms of works of art. Rasa theory moreover dwells on human sentiments as essential part of any literary works. enacting a play such as Shiva18 cuddling the ocean for the gods and the great snake vomiting poison in it lest the gods live forever? Why did Brahma suggest this to be enacted? They all wanted to please themselves enjoying gustation during their leisure hours. emotions and is indeed dynamic in nature because it is born of Brahma16 the Lotus-Seater17. as it embraces all human feelings. what is the role of an artist? Writer? Can we say that his work is to depict a particular Rasa? How? By giving expression. Hardly had an attempt been made before to enjoy these novels by way of applying Rasa. As Rasa theory studies human sentiments.Moreover no literary theory is static. this research study is intended to open out new avenues to bring forth a very modern outlook of Rasa theory. They wanted all kinds of gestures by the actors etc. It is greatly believed to experience a definite theoretical perspective. It could still be emotive and move the spectators to enjoy sentiments of various kinds. This will certainly. the Sanskrit Literary Theory too. The spectator or the reader too in his own composure experiences the ‘out-leap of ecstatic beauty and delight’. Probably and most certainly. pervading through the study of Hemingway’s novels of my choice. Now. So. to state clearly. Every literary theory keeps evolving in the literary world. his heart thumbs and leaps out of ecstatic beauty and joy. thus limiting the scope of my study. it is hoped. 36 . North and South together into one literary world. is to help man transcend human wail to attain quietitude. bring the West and East. So. be it fiction. Why was Bharatamuni particular about drama only. drama. This need not be displayed on the screen.

This may be an unusual work of study to many. He bade first a Farewell to Arms (war) and now he bids a Farewell to Arms. drama or fiction. But ‘Hemingway Code’ characters have an honorable failure. excellence and economy of words. Sometimes. He introduces ‘them in boyhood. This. Christian in ‘Pilgrim’s Progress’ endures sufferings and pains inflicted on him. the Sanskrit Literary Theory is a possible force of national unity. But this work examines numerous feelings that give rise to various Rasas in Hemingway’s novels of my choice. critics. ‘Hemingway Hero’ characters appear in many of his novels. they appear to be vigilant and very nervous. during delivery after which he bids her farewell. and students of literature and readers of various fields as well. He too enters into a trance. I hope. It is greatly believed that it would indeed evoke and arouse them to watch on screen/read the novels of Hemingway who is known for his unique. an evidence of his nobility and greatness. Santiago struggles nobly and courageously in spite of his losing the great catch in quietitude or tranquility dreaming of lions on the east African coasts. having fought the enemies to the last heroically. in spite of being mortally wounded. will be effectively achieved in this study. (his love). Catherine dead. colloquial style. Let us recall John Bunyan’s ‘Pilgrims Progress’ and Chinua Achebe’s ‘Thing Fall Apart’ to make a close comparative study with ‘The Old Man and the Sea’. Hemingway in his novels depicts two types of characters namely ‘Hemingway Hero19’ and ‘Hemingway Code20’. The result of this analytical study is completely a new perspective that pervades any works of art. A comprehensive way of understanding this unique heritage of Rasa. walks back to the hotel in the rains having entered into a trance in tranquility and quietitude i. Santa Rasa. international unity and mutual goodwill. Hemingway’s hero enters into a world of violence and suffering. poetry. He bids farewell to Maria convincing her of taking care of the unborn child of Roberto.e. simple. Intended audience will comprise scholars. 37 . These are the ideals placed before this research study. This character is demonstrated in Santiago of ‘ The Old Man and the Sea’. Roberto in “For whom The Bell Tolls” represents Hemingway Code character.. Ultimately. This arouses the sentiments called Rasas. they grow up in abnormal environments and encounter series of struggle’. In ‘A Farewell to Arms’ Frederic Henry too is depicted as ‘Hemingway Code’ character who gives a befitting response to the ‘statue’. He solely endured and persevered in all trials and ultimately entered into the Kingdom of God.

an old fisherman in Havana. Santiago. These characters indeed finally evoke in the writer/creator and the spectators or readers Santa Rasa. Society which Hemingway lived in.Paul21 puts it in his letter.. people loved to eat and drink. The novel does not put anyone in any kind of gloom. did not have religious or ethical principles. But he prepares the reader/spectator metaphysically as to what to expect towards the end of the novel. his hero Santiago was Anselmo Hernandez. indulged in witty conversation and women. for its unique ontological existence. dignity and even heroism that is unique in any works of art. this world is a ‘wasteland’ and he bids farewell to the same society. he bids farewell to the arms and armaments of war.Again in Chinua Achebe’s ‘Things Fall Apart’.e. Right since the beginning of the novel. Patriotism is meaningless. war in killing Catherine’s fiancé etc. To Frederic Henry. the ruthless battle exists and his life is warfare on the earth as St. the work of art itself is. Above all. He had minutely managed to minute it down and brought to the world such a wonderful work of art. So all the five characters. To him war is futile. Christian and Okonkwo are of ‘Hemingway Code’. Hemingway’s ‘The Old Man and the Sea’. In his novels. which are quite inevitable. Cuba. It is a work of art in which human courage and endurance against forces of nature have been well accounted for. To him. i. Henry’s waiting for a home life becomes a waiting for ‘Godot’. Finally he bids farewell to the arms of Catherine Berkley who lay dead during delivery. Frederic Henry. Hemingway has taken ‘A Farewell to Arms’ the title from ‘University Wits’ George Peele’s poem ‘A Farewell to Arms’. rains coming for something bad. The latter narrated his encounter with a huge marlin. in order to forget their emptiness of life. our attention to the tragic states of life itself. Instead it teaches us how a simple man like Santiago is capable of decency. which he portrays in ‘A Farewell to Arms’. Hemingway’s impression of his mind pervades his strange contemplations on death. The reaction of ‘Hemingway Hero’ in all his novels is the same to violence and pain. tranquility and quietitude. 38 . Hemingway did not have faith in the traditional things. Obi Okonkwo who persevered and endured all tyrannical sufferings in the hands of the Englishman’s messengers and court-attendants is found dangling in the tree behind his Obi. he describes things with difference between mountains and plains. Roberto.

in his shack. His book ‘Huckleberry Finn’ had much influence on Hemingway. ‘Men without Women’ and ‘A Farewell to Arms’ 39 . emotions and frustration of people of post war period are very well portrayed in ‘The Sun also Rises’. Hemingway utilized the hints and suggestions for his colloquial style from Sherwood Anderson and Gertrude Stein. which were typical of his period. He enters into a kind of quietitude i. He was still sleeping on his face and the boy was sitting by him watching him. In ‘The Old Man and the Sea’ Santiago begins his struggle fighting with the giant Marlin. like the creator. He makes his hero fight all evils under strange pressure and ultimately brings him to tranquil state of life wherein there is no pain or suffering. He was also greatly bound to Mark Twain. Most reporters in the world do collect certain unique experiences or encounters and give such artistic touch no doubt. He gave them an artistic touch of his poetic tone. The Old man was dreaming about lions”. had a wish to live each moment skillfully and nobly. Śanta Rasa. Hemingway does not believe in any philosophy but in only the philosophy of life22. Those who survived the First World War found in him their exact mouthpiece. Like Twain. He was the only writer among so many of his contemporaries to put into writing the precise feelings. But Hemingway excels them as he puts himself in the place and views it. the old man was sleeping again. This indeed goes to account for his moral triumph. Hemingway comes very close to Wilfred Owen that becomes clear in his Poem (Old Lie): ‘Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori’. Hemingway has won a place among the primitivists23 as he managed to collect some of the basic human facts. ‘A man can be destroyed but not defeated’ speaks adequately enough of Hemingway’s philosophy.e. emotions and frustration.His characters are naturally set to endure pain and suffering physically or mentally. He accepts his defeat at the hands of the scavenger-sharks but wins the final victory in spite of having lost the catch. His heroes also. The feelings. Santiago knew very well that a man is not made for defeat only. Hemingway too adopted his colloquial style and played an effective role in American prose fiction. The sharks had taken away his big catch after a long period of eighty-five days of no catch. in the sports arena in boyhood or in battlefields. Hemingway probably created in him a great love and longing to live. Hemingway used power and simple prose in expounding the depth of the minds of his people. “Up the road. Hemingway’s heroes are severely wounded in war.

their screams. Ford describes his narrative technique thus: ‘The words strike you each one. Hemingway was awarded the highest honor of the world. Each day since I have renewed my faith and tried to understand the practical difficulties of governing he must face as they arrive and admire the true courage he brings as our President in times as tough as these are for our country and the world. Hemingway was among the American artists. He used minimum-strokes with word-pictures avoiding long sentences. We can’t but admire his great skill and determination with which he stripped every falsehood. Watching on the screen I was sure our President could stand any of the heat to come as he had taken the cold of that day. A draft of the cable. horror. It is said. writers. as if they were pebbles fresh from a brook’. 40 . and musicians invited to attend the inauguration. is on display in the library’s exhibit dealing with the inaugural address: ‘Watching the inauguration from Rochester there was happiness and the hope and the pride and how beautiful we thought Mrs. terror. he wrote”. Massachusetts. with a simple exchange of letters. Boston. Hemingway was a great creative genius. idiosyncrasies and traditional evils. In 1968. “Others yelled. With a few pen strokes he makes the speech living and have day-to-day use. bitterness of war and its effects by way of pen-sketch of word-pictures. Kennedy was. Kennedy library. It is quite appropriate to substantiate his genius quoting from the preface of the catalogue of the Ernest Hemingway collection at the John F. of ‘The Old Man and the Sea’. Sunday Times reported: ‘the best story Hemingway has written: no page of this beautiful masterwork could have been done better or differently’. the Nobel Prize in 1954 for his narrative mastery in modern fiction. Their husbands never met. He has been maintaining purity and simplicity of style using compound sentences. Hemingway speaks the truth all through the fiction. Mary Hemingway and Jacqueline Kennedy arranged for Ernest Hemingway’s papers to be donated to the Kennedy Library. which Hemingway sent to President Kennedy from the Mayo Clinic. at the inauguration in 1960. We find the biblical brevity24 and simple diction. but had Hemingway’s health been better they would have.

Marshall. Fenn. Our Father. In a statement released by the White House when Hemingway died. the Sanskrit literary theory is a Universal Critical/Literary Theory. celebrants experienced the excitement of the Kennedy White House cultural events. and Hemingway–the opening pages from the then-unpublished Island in the Stream. when the male marlin stayed back. Director of the Library. During the Kennedy administration. Kennedy noted: Few Americans have had a greater impact on the emotions and attitudes of the American people than Ernest Hemingway…. reciting Hail Mary. is within the scope of my study. Santiago’s past youthful memory of hand-wrestling with a Negro. Following this dinner Frederic March read excerpts from the works of three previous Nobel Prize winners. Proceeding further. George C.President Kennedy more than once expressed his reciprocal admiration for Hemingway. Mary Hemingway was permitted to return to Castro’s Cuba to remove some of her husband’s papers from their abandoned home. At the dedication of the Hemingway Room on July 18. He almost singlehandedly transformed the literature and the ways of thought of men and women in every country in the world’. My childhood days were spent amidst fishermen like Santiago. the Sanskrit literary theory applied to Hemingway’s ‘The Old Man and the Sea’ and ‘A Farewell to Arms’ shall stand a unique work 41 . He had Hemingway’s definition of courage in mind while writing his won Profiles in Courage. Kennedy honored Hemingway at the White House dinner for the Nobel Prize winners in April 1962. eating dolphin flesh raw that tastes better with salt and lime. I would like to say why such a topic became a great interest to me.1980. in Havana. Dan H. which are predominant over the others. We’ll see how certain Rasas. the Finca Vigia. an experience of hooking the female marlin once. This shall certainly show how Rasa. their topics of interaction such as American Baseball and the champions. The topic Rasa. eating yellow rice and fish curry. promising to go on pilgrimage if hooked the marlin are all universal experiences with fishermen and their assistants or helpers. The relation between Santiago and Manolin. addressed the guests: “Tonight we unite art and politics under one roof as a tangible and permanent reminder of President Kennedy’s conviction that neither is whole and true without the other”. Sinclair Lewis. going turtling and drinking their eggs. All the nine Rasas shall be applied to various situations in the novels of choice.

Tracing its origin from the Ancient Greeks to European Aesthetics is indeed within the purview of this research work. Evolution. Simultaneously. the Sanskrit Literary Theory. Brahma the point of all creation. The second chapter shall center on the definition and scope of Rasa. Western Literary Criticism is the fifth chapter that shall briefly trace Western Literary Criticism in particular. the Sanskrit Literary Theory holds in the sphere of Aesthetics. It’ll be a point of discussion on how and where Western Aesthetics and Rasa.. The present work is divided into nine chapters.e. Moreover drawing a line from the meeting and dwelling on some aspects of Modern Poetics closely touching some of the critics of Post-Structuralism and Structuralism shall be my endeavor. the Sanskrit Literary Theory. the Sanskrit Literary Theory meet one another and where they depart from each other. North and South together in emotional and sentimental aspects. the Sanskrit Literary Theory that stands unique without any kind of essential changes in it over the period from the time of its inception. the Sanskrit Literary Theory. tracing the origin of Rasa the Sanskrit Literary Theory right from the beginning of beings. The third chapter shall be on the Origin.of art as hardly anyone has trodden on these grounds so as to bring the East and West. Besides. A brief description of Bharatamuni’s Natya Sastra shall enlighten my appreciative readers so as to perceive the various commentaries on the Theory as an Aesthetic Theory with all the fundamentals of Rasa. the scope of the thesis has been vividly placed before the readers. and the Sanskrit Literary Theory. In the first chapter Rasa is clearly defined as Vibhavanubhavavyabhicaribhava samyogad Rasa Nispathi25 justifying the application of Rasa. Let me be very clear to my readers that all such references are made in order to emphasize an all-pervasive and all-embracing humanistic Rasa. Besides bringing out the form and content of the Literary Work. The fourth chapter is on A Comparative Study of Western Aesthetics and Rasa. Tracing it from the Greeks and 42 . to Bharatamuni and his successor. We come to know the unique and dynamic stand that Rasa. Abhinavagupta to-date. We shall see how they are competitive and complementary to each other. the Sanskrit Literary Theory to Hemingway’s ‘The Old Man and the Sea’ and ‘A Farewell to Arms’. Development of Rasa. i. our study shall on the properties of Rasa as well.

Towards the end of the Second World War. his Creative Genius. El Champion all go to help us strengthen the statement that Hemingway casts a Wonderful Spell on his Generation. not for any kind of patriotism but not for the sake of experiences. in Matthew Arnold’s phrase. and allegory. America and other parts of the world. symbolism. youth and as a matured man of genius. as representative of ‘Lost Generation’. The Romantic Period to The Victorian Period is within the scope of this research work. above all the culture of the 43 . Fictionists such as Bronte Sisters. In the sixth chapter. was a criticism of life. as for Philip Rahv and other New York critics in the Partisan circle. Literature carried a moral value. The Middle Ages and The Renaissance. His boyhood and youth went in great frustration and vexation due to misunderstanding between his parents. Ernest Hemingway: Life And Works indeed systematically gives us a clear camera-like picture of his childhood. and could be disentangled from ideas and ideologies. and George Elliot in the 1920s suffered but in the 1960s their works of art reached the culmination point that has been titled as Novel Re-Opened. an Academic Criticism has been thriving simultaneously in Europe. We observe that Beyond The New Criticism (1945-1965). His philosophy of life.Romans. Jane Austen. The seventh chapter. The form of the novel is enriched with abundance of figures of speech. which succeeded the period of Descents from Decadence (1890-1918) and The Modernist Revolution (1918-1945). the most important principle was that literature. For Trilling. This chapter gives us adequate information on how Formalism has been held high followed by Anglophone Criticism and the New Criticism. the Sanskrit Literary Theory Applied to Hemingway’s ‘The Old Man and the Sea’ is the Eighth chapter that is filled with descriptions of Rasa experiences. Development of Literary Criticism of the twentieth century has been traced so that the readers may certainly think that nothing has been left out which one will otherwise feel of any kind of vacuum. his Narrative Technique. We feel free then to enter into The Growth of American Culture with the Lost Generation where we come into intimate contact with Ernest Hemingway and his Fiction. Rasa. the emergence of Academic Criticism under the umbrella of The New Criticism dominated the Academic world. Such experiences supplied him with the necessary themes. Critics looked for some alternatives to New Criticism that they discovered it in Matthew Arnold. The novel has not only a perfect form but it has a unique content too. His Fifty Grand made him popular. however hard Eliot and his followers might try to insulate it. This led him to join the First World War in the Italian army as ambulancedriver.

drawing strength from past experiences of heroic deeds etc. Manolin’s experiences were similar to mine too during my childhood days. Hemingway’s life in brief and discussion on his works. eating raw fish. eating of fried bananas with yellow rice. The chapter further makes a comparison of Hemingway’s novel with that of Bunyan’s ‘Pilgrim’s Progress’. how gustation is enjoyed from the beginning to the end and ultimately we. The chapter consists of various Vibhavas. Parallels are in plenty. Rasa. We shall see Rasa theory applied to Hemingway’s ‘The Old Man and the Sea’. Anubhavas. plains and hills. the spectators and the readers. Moreover. symbols and parallels are abundantly used. war and peace. hooks. Meanwhile the contrasting rhythm and dramatic quality are indeed described adequately for the readers/ viewers to appreciate the content and form of this work of art. images. how Hemingway rightly fitted into American literature during the particular period are given clearly. the old lie: ‘Dulce et Decorum est Pro patria mori’ of Wilfred Owen (1893-1918) in his famous poem:(Dulce Et Decorum Est). Chinua Achebe’s ‘Things Fall Apart’ world classics have been compared with. minute calculation of time and distance. Sthayibhavas and Vyabhicaribhavas at various situations so as to enable the reader/viewer experience the gustation called Rasa. the chapter has a number of experiences that will certainly bring forth Rasa experiences universally. Hemingway has indeed used these simple day-to-day techniques to bring home sublime thoughts of both Sambhoga Srngara Rasa and Vipralambha Srngara Rasa both of which enable us enjoy the ultimate Santa Rasa. experience 44 . Experience of Vira Rasa is indeed prominent in the novel that ultimately puts readers/viewers in the mood of quietitude. arranging his food and drink etc. drinking a jug full of shark liver oil in the morning for strength. with the writer. lines. But Hemingway depicts a universal culture of fishermen all over the world especially with regard to their relationship between him and Manolin. The ninth chapter. This is found existing all over the world. Manolin too Santiago in the making shows his love and gratitude by way of helping him in carrying the fishing harpoons. rains and clear sky etc. Adbhutha Rasa too plays an important part in so for as it co-ordinates in bringing about the final Santa Rasa. Hemingway too does not believe in the great International lie. Describing the landscape. The Sanskrit Literary Theory Applied to Hemingway’s ‘A Farewell to Arms’ is a wartime Romantic novel with contrasting themes of home and not home.American and European societies. called Santa Rasa.

disgust and other experiences of different nature. The main cause is that Rasa Theory stands on the solid rock foundation of humanism as a whole. applying Rasa. Humanism alone can satisfy the ever-growing needs. drama and fiction. It is aimed at achieving a definite theoretical perspective pervading the study of modern fiction. especially. the Sanskrit Literary Theory. My major premise is that Rasa. it is intended as I mentioned earlier to give a new focus on Rasa. thus enlarging upon the scope of the study. With the modification of human concept at every stage. As long as we don’t strike upon a greater truth than human sensibility in the field of literature. the theory of Rasa too with every change in the history of literature evolves itself. not from a culture or region point of view but as an independent discipline itself with a global outlook. Because its conception is allpervasive with the basic element of human emotion. with all values of tradition and culture. The uniqueness is due to Rasa. both body and soul with all its potencies and limitations. It accepts man in his entirety. In this research study. so the theory of Rasa constantly keeps evolving. inspired by love and hate. With the development of man in every walk of life humanism continues. It can provide universal criterion to appreciate any creative literature for every generation. innocence and ignorance. I shall explore and establish that Rasa. This theory can indeed climb up the ladder of literary criticism from the past to the present and to the future. This will certainly open out new avenues for the scholars of modern literature to forge or to bring about a global outlook and start examining modern fiction in a new perspective. Besides Rasa theory embraces all other significant human instincts. It is genuinely hoped that this study would undoubtedly take critics and appreciative readers of fiction across all language and other man-made barriers. Subsequently all contradictions inherent and implicit in various critical attitudes would completely be merged. which can satisfy the ever-growing dynamic requirements of literature. the Sanskrit Literary Theory is an authentic principle of art. the Sanskrit Literary Theory to Hemingway’s ‘The Old Man and the Sea’ and ‘A Farewell to Arms’. the Sanskrit Literary Theory is a Universal Critical\Literary Theory. poetry.Ś?nta Rasa that is unique in ‘The Old Man and the Sea’. Furthermore. The theory of Rasa therefore is in perfect harmony with all its aspects. the past ness of the past. showing various Bhavas at various situations in the novels. the Sanskrit literary theory. 45 . present and future.

poetry. it is not possible to think and draw a more authentic principle of art other than Rasa theory. It is then we are able to perceive the particular and unique quality of Rasa. different works of art with the two novels chosen. The specific aim of my research work is to bring out the uniqueness of Rasa. the Sanskrit literary theory and place various aspects of both before my readers for their final evaluation. comparing. Emotions are the chief constituents of a literary experience. interpreting. evaluate and grade works of art. How do we grade work of art? Hemingway’s ‘The Old Man and the Sea’ has attained greatness. engaging self to provide my readers as completely and as clearly as I can. evaluating and grading. Like all other values. The popular Marathi scholar Vrinda Karandikar26 in his ‘Literature as a vital art’ emphasizes the importance of creative literature accepting the significance of form as only a means to end and not end in itself. It is all set to proceed to criticism proper. the Sanskrit literary theory applied to Hemingway’s ‘The Old Man and the Sea’ and ‘A Farewell to Arms’. Having placed all possible aspects of both I propose to make my readers evaluate the one that excels the other. the Sanskrit literary theory. It is then we apply various Rasas to unique situations in Hemingway’s novels. the Sanskrit Literary Theory. He regards aesthetic form as co-extension with it. shall be within the scope of my research. ‘The Old Man and the Sea’ and ‘A Farewell to Arms’. Greatness may be considered as a principle that helps us to organize these emotional meanings. interpret. Mardhekar27 considers the dynamic imaginative vision of life in its concrete character as the substantial medium of creative literature. the first shall be a comparative study of Greek literary theory with Rasa.be it drama. I shall support my fundamental remarks in a persuasive way with certain extracts of the examined texts out of which my final evaluation is given shape. my genuine response to Rasa. it should help us to organize all aspects of life and relate it to harmony that is present in the universe. compare. The main objective is to help the readers with the fuller enjoyment and understanding. art and fiction. the Sanskrit Literary Theory above all 46 . Analyzing. This implies that greatness is a value. The methodology of procedure to this study shall be of dual-parallelism. I am therefore justified in the choice of my topic Rasa. The study of aesthetics analyses the conceptual structure underlying the activities of the practical critics. The main task of a critic is to analyze. The second one shall be a comparative study of Western Aesthetics and Rasa. Sanskrit Literary Theory.

But unfortunately critics force their individualities in all dimensions on the readers and scholars who would like to only appreciate the work of art. narrative passages to the minimum shall be used for application. criticism is the outer aspect as well. If creation is the inner aspect. it becomes clear which sentiment is predominant over the other and ultimately how a particular feeling overpowers all other feelings bringing to fruition Santa Rasa as its outcome. If creation is the primary matter. Historical criticism emphasizes historicity of the artist and the psychological criticism takes us to the milieu of metaphysics. From very particular incidents. criticism is art too. “We should dethrone the concept that all art is expression. what strikes us immediately is the Neo-Criticism. giving birth to various Rasas. We would dwell upon Ernest Hemingway. from part to the whole. the popular fictionist who has captured my mind and heart with his simple way of writing. They try to re-imagine the writer’s ‘dream’ and ‘re-live’ his life and thus try to replace one work of art by another.other theories to my readers so as to experience the special gustation called Rasa. This is the basic foundation of Neo-Criticism. (Springarn’s. ‘The New Criticism’ p. So we should find out a way to put them together. criticism is other side of the same. criticism is substantial form. “Creation of art and Criticism of art are not entirely two distinct aspects but both are two sides of the same currency. When we speak of modern literary criticism. But it is Neo-Criticism that is more appropriate as on today’s literary criticism as it emphasizes “art can find its alter-ego (other-self) only in art”. If creation is one side of a currency. from inductive to deductive. We should achieve in bringing together creative art and art criticism into the phases of our culture and tradition. If creation is art. Neo-Criticism looks upon the critic as a sensitive soul detailing his adventures among masterpieces of art”. We will understand the different feelings giving rise to different Rasas. 47 . The critics try to take the place of the writer/artist in place of the work of art. Various incidents. ‘The New Criticism. I shall proceed to general. consequents (Anubhavas) and Vyabhicari Bhavas (transient/impermanent) feelings together combine.” (Cf.19). bringing out the various feelings giving vent to various emotions which blossom into Rasas. Besides.6). Springarn’s. Both constitute the essence in totem. We should come to the conclusion that all expression is art. How the latent feelings of various thoughts and experiences when evoked by various causes (determinants).’ p. Schopenhaver describes criticism as “the feminine aspect of the creation”.

What is the role of a critic? His role is to depict the particular Rasa giving clear expression in his work. This reminds me of Rabindranath Tagore29 who clearly pointed out a synthesis between literary law and literary freedom: “When we come to literature. The laws are its wings. The critic should be at liberty to appreciate the work of art. drama or fiction. we find that though it conforms to rules of grammar. The most appropriate proper proportio analogy is the woman-man comparison between Creation of Art and Art-Criticism. yet it transcends them. Tagore here shows the future generation an imaginative vision for centuries to come.Kuppuswami’s statement is quite self-explanatory with the depth of meanings. it is yet a thing of joy. They do not keep it weighed down.Kuppuswami Sastri28 in his ‘Highways and Byways of Literary Criticism in Sanskrit’ clearly states that it would be appropriate to say that genius and tastes are inseparable phases of the same art. an essential aspect of any and every works of art. it is freedom itself. the Sanskrit literary theory is a down to earth study of sentiments. drama or fiction is to help man overcome the struggle and enjoy composure and thus experience gustation. Strict laws bind the beauty of a poem. He should be free to create the work of art. The specific aim of poetry. a theory of dogma? Let us utilize the freedom and liberty granted to us drawing a broader outlook and applying it to world literature as a whole. This gives sentiments to enjoy the gustation whether it is poetry. They carry it to freedom. It may be more correct to say that poetic genius and tastes are related to each other as woman and man. the Sanskrit Literary Theory is so richly endowed with universal values.As Maha Mahopadhyaya Prof. which stands and shines on the pedestal of law”. Let not the artist be strictly governed by rules and restrictions. When Rasa. Beauty is the complete liberation. It is so established to the world of literary critics that Rasa.S. Professor S. why keep it convention-filled and tradition-prevented. Rasa is therefore the essence of Creation and Art-Criticism. the ancient Sanskrit literary theory bringing it out of tradition. convention and dogmatism so as to establish and achieve uniqueness of the Sanskrit literary theory. It is genuinely intended that a 48 . The primary concern of this research study is therefore to make aware the world of literary criticism of an all-comprehensive humanistic approach of Rasa.

MA. Her collection of essays.2). She has written regularly as poetry critic for the New Yorker magazine. This will be done not from any culture or tradition or dogmatic point of view but as an independent discipline par excellence with a global/universal scope. that still leaves a substantial critical and literary theory from which we can gather continuing rewards. The best critical writing. ‘The Old Man and the Sea’ and ‘A Farewell to Arms’.definite theoretical perspective shall pervade the study of Hemingway’s novels in particular. Poets. It is greatly felt to keep my appreciative readers informed of the late Twentieth Century American literary critic Helen Vendler. Critics Cambridge. past and present. of course still does satisfy that expectation. opens with a reaffirmation of her commitment to a distinctively ‘aesthetic criticism’: The aim of a properly aesthetic criticism…is not primarily to reveal the meaning of an art work or disclose (or argue for or against) the ideological values of an art work. (HelenVendler. As the following chapters ought to demonstrate. still pursues sensitive ‘close reading’ according to NewCritical traditions. 49 . Closely following this latest literary/critical theory may I persuade my readers to enjoy the gustation at the outset of the description of various situations? A clear definition and scope of Rasa. It is my earnest belief that this research study will open out new arena for critics. scholars and students of literature to forge or bring about a global outlook and begin to examine modern American fiction especially Hemingway’s novels. 1988. a professor at Harward University. ‘The Music Of What Happens’ (1988). the Sanskrit Literary Theory in the forthcoming chapter will place my readers at a desirable position. and to infer from the artwork the aesthetic that might generate this unique configuration. The Music of What Happens: Poems. The aim of an aesthetic criticism is to describe the artwork in such a way that it cannot be confused with any other artwork (not an easy task). She sees little in the clamor of recent decades to distract her from this task. p.

S) – Natya Sastra (Gaekwad Oriental Series) 26. Nobel prize winner 50 .Keat’s Ode to Nightingale with reference to Greeks’ Belief 12. (Blue bottle) – common name given to a complex animal colony 9.Form and matter together churning one’s mind towards the tasting of Work of art 14. Involves emotional relief and purifying of emotions so relievedacts on feelings 10. demoniac or divine beings later developed by Bhratamuni. Bharata Natyam etc.Beginning to end struggles but ends up heroically giving gustation 20. That which gives pleasure here and now 3. Scholar and Critic 27.S.O.Bharatamuni.20th c. (G. Earliest available source in Dramaturgy 6. A popular Hindi Lyric Singer.Biblical 22.Chapter. 16.20th c.Nataraja (king of Dancers) 19. Scholar and Critic 28.1 Notes 1. Jelly like fish 8.Short and straightforward verses.Real and sensible experiences of life 23. Indian Scholar and Critic 29.Christian’s belief of after the end of the world when all the dead and living will be judged by God 13.the origin of Natya Veda evolved by him 17. Writer of Nātya Sāstra 4. 2.N.Omnipresent-grand-father.Natya Sastra-Brahma author of Natya Veda lays down elaborate rules facilitating a drama to become mimicry of the exploits of human.Fitting response to trials and tribulations and e 21.Vedas of Hindu scriptures 11.Believers in the basic human lives through traditions 24.All-powerful Brahma’s throne is made of sweet scented lotus flowers 18. 7. Earliest Dance-Drama: Thandava. Creator of the world and everything on it 5. 25. to Brahma and other gods 15.20th c.A great poet and critic of India.

” The Nātya Sāstra. physical and temperamental activities and become delighted…. Vibhāva (condition exciting a particular state of mind or body) grows into a plant called Anubhāva (symptoms indicating feelings outwardly) according to the environments. India in 1741 AD in his Hindi Book ‘Rasa Prabodha’ describes Rasa in a fine simile: human mind is the soil where Rasa gets its seeds. relish the tastes thereof and become excessively delighted. I shall answer him/her thus: principle is something from which something else proceeds. so also sophisticated onlookers (theatre-goers) relish Sthaiybhavas indicated through gesticulation of Bhavas. defining certain concepts is difficult to precisely state what they are. irregular or unfaithful) flowers blossoming at frequent intervals and in 51 . Sthaiybhava (enduring state of mind) is the sprout irrigated with water. The Sanskrit Literary Theory “That which is relished is Rasa”.Chapter 2 Definition and Scope of Rasa. It is not part of essence. Can we call Rasa the root that gives vent to the trunk. Vyabhicaribhāvas are feelings which are (transitory. Can we call it primordial sentiment? Well. “How is Rasa worthy of being relished? Just as noble minds consuming cooked food seasoned with various kinds of spices. Will he be satisfied with this definition? Similarly I would try to define with the help of commentaries made by various scholars and justify my stand on definition of Rasa. “It is Rasa because it is worthy of being tasted (relished)”.Ghulam of Bilgram. branches and flowers. Can we then call Rasa as ‘wish fulfillment of one’s longing’? How John Keats escapes from the misery filled-world to a world of Nightingales and relishes the joy that the Nightingales had! Can we call Rasa as sentimental response to verbal stimuli or Abhynaya? Can we call an appreciative reader experiencing up-leap of soul out of gustation? Properties Of Human Soul Rasas are indeed properties of human soul based on one’s culture and tradition. neither substantial form nor primary matter. But necessarily they follow the essence. through verbal. which may be called emotions? Let me recall the analogy S. If someone asks me what a principle is.

and Vyabhicari Bhavas give vent to the particular Rasa that is ready to become act. Bharatamuni’s Natya Sastra: To make things clearer. And a poem. I am still not justified in the equivalent meaning or definition as it inadequately imbibes certain aspects. so also the Sthayibhavas in combination with different Bhavas attain the state of Rasa”. “The combination of Vibhavas (Determinants) and Anubhavas (consequents) together with Vyabhicari Bhavas (transitory states) produces Rasa. always in a state of becoming act with the combination of different Bhavas (feelings) so the Vibhavas in conglomeration with Sthayibhavas. 52 . Rasa.” If you ask me. which excite our emotional activities. Rasa. is a sentence or sentences containing juices. this outer world has its own juices. spices and herbs. To us. If I state that Rasa is a primordial sentiment. An Analogy Our great poet Rabindranath Tagore in his lecture on Art refers to the theory of Rasa in his own way. herbs and other articles are pressed together so also Rasa (sentiment) is produced when various Bhavas get together.consonance with Śthai (enduring/lasting). Anubhavas. having their various qualities. “where is a specific instance thereof?” “Just as there is production of good taste through juice produced when different spices. which stimulate the juices of emotion. collected by the poet acting as a bee”. ready to be made into the life-style of nature”. which signifies outer juices having their response in inner juices of our emotions. It brings to us ideas vitalized by feelings. Just as through molasses and other articles. Tagore has indeed used this wonderful analogy to bring home to progeny actual concept of the term Rasa. a detailed explanation of Rasa. He says: “Our emotions are the gastric juices which transform this world of appearance into the more intimate world of sentiments. six kinds of tastes are produced. this act is relishing or gustation called Rasa experience. On the other hand. according to it. These combined produce honey called Rasa. If I simply state that Rasa is a sentimental response to verbal stimuli or Abhinaya. This is called in our Sanskrit Rhetoric. adhering to Bharatamuni’s ‘The Natya Sastra’ may be quite appropriate here. the word is so much loaded with gourd that it is not easy to define in simple terms. I am not giving an equivalent term or definition. So Rasa is in a state of potency.

dance etc. a thought that inspired Vamana’s partiality towards dramatic composition expressed in i.So. mastery or sovereignty among ‘forty-nine different Bhavas. gestures and internal feeling. Rasa is ‘spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings. basis of Rasa that which brings into existence the sense of poetry2.30-32. eight Sthayibhavas eight Sattvika-Bhavas and thirty three Vyabhari-Bhavas mentioned by him 53 . Rasa. the archetype ‘the True. which help and strengthen it. Similarly Anubhava is explained as that which follows on and makes three kinds of representation actually sensed. Vyabhicaribhava consists of accessory facts.1 Without Rasa there can be no sense of poetry. A Vibhava is used to imply knowledge or understanding that makes representation capable of being sensed. the Good and the Beautiful’ (Satyam. the Sanskrit Literary Theory is a study of sentiments or Rasa realized in Indian arts.3 This Bhava when permanent and not transitory. which is concisely put forth by Abhinavagupta saying Kavyamtavad Dasarupatmakam Eva. so the permanent mood. He explains Bhava. called Rasa. It takes its origin from emotion (Vibhava) recollected in tranquility’ (Santa). Bharata lays down VibhavanubhavaVyabhicaribhavasamyogad Rasa-Nispattih. As to what relation these factors bear to Rasa and how this state or relish is brought about. Is Rasa Theory. viz.. from time immemorial tracing it to Nataraja. That which is relished is Rasa. through three kinds of representation. Bharata explains this formula by an analogy. Sundaram)’. reaches the state of Rasa through factors known as Vibhava and Anubhava4. as it were.7 and it is so called because its essence consists in its taste or relish. Viz. for he says that the drift of sense which arises from Rasa appeals to heart and pervades through the body like fire lighting up dry pieces of wood.3.5The third element of Rasa. Sivam. drama. Bharata seems to be of the opinion that Vibhavas and Anubhavas according to later theory constitute essential factors. Sthayibhava reinforced (Upagata) by various Bhavas attain the state of Rasa. Just as a beverage is accomplished through various seasoned articles and herbs. Bharata’s primary theme is drama and his conception of poetic drama. In such dramatic composition Rasa according to Bharata should be predominant. a theory of liquid? Or is it honey? Honey metaphorically means sentiments. through words. He also explains that Sthayibhava is the basis of Rasa because it attains.

which can only be reinforced by other elements. This imitation 54 . It runs through all other moods like the thread of garland. Vyabhcaribhava is only concomitant or accessory. Different Commentaries The questions arise are: what is this process of realization actually consisting of? What relation do these elements bear to Rasa in this process? Bhatta Lollata seems to be one of the earliest commentators of Bharata with an explanation. It appears that Lollata took Vibhava as direct cause (Karana) of Rasa.1 which naturally rests upon it as being presumably principal theme of composition of the work of art. In case of love as a permanent mood. dress and action. of Anubhava. transient subordinate feelings of joy and anxiety. a Vibhava may be taken as that which makes the permanent mood capable of being sensed. Vibhava. anger or fear. of Vyabhicarin. The general foundations of the theory however remain as fixed by Bharata. glance and embrace. Anubhava and Vyabhicaribhava.. the first two are more important. apt examples given of Vibhava are women and seasons. Those elements. while a Vyabhicarin (also called Sancari Bhava) as that which acts as an auxiliary or gives an impetus to it. This permanent mood constitutes principal theme of composition. Of these. viz.able conditions through three elements. Anubhava and Vyabhicaribhava8 which in ordinary world is known as cause and effect (Karana and Karya).16. which excite.in viii and 6 and vi. is attributed to actor who imitates the character in form. found in characters like Rama. an Anubhava as that which makes it sensed. are in poetry and drama known as Vibhava. It is practically accepted by most commentators that Rasa is realized when a permanent mood or Sthayibhava is brought to a relish. grief. which is therefore an effect (Anukarya or Utpadya). In general. By Sthayibhava in poetry and drama is meant certain more or less permanent conditions of mind such as love. Bharata says that Rasa is realized through a certain correlation of Vibhava Anubhava Vyachicarin with Stayibhava or permanent mood. follow and strengthen Sthayibhava. The word Nispatthi of Bharata is explained as Utpatti or Pusti. thus charms the spectator. Rasa.9 Mammata and his followers make it clearer saying that permanent mood or Sthayin is directly connected with the hero but it is recognized as existing in the actor through a clever imitation of the original character.

(viz). The analogy by which a horse in a picture is called a (horse). Permanent mood is inferred to exist in the actor though not actually existing in him10 by means of Vibhavas etc. like Rama who is different or superior to spectator himself. contends that Rasa is not produced as an effect but inferred. it exists in the audience also. which does not exist. The locus of Rasa. therefore is supposed to be in the hero. It has been pointed out that Rasa is not capable of being cognized by ordinary means of arriving at knowledge. cleverly exhibited by him in his acting. the false (‘he is Rama’ with the following negation’ he is not Rama’). 55 . This thus develops into a relishable condition called Rasa. and Sankuka. subsequent commentator on Bharata. the doubtful (‘he may or may not be Rama’) knowledge as well as knowledge of similarity (‘he is like Rama’). produced or inferred. being sensed by spectator through its exquisite beauty12 adds to itself a peculiar charm. This cognition or knowledge is characterised13 as based on what is called Citra-Turaga-Nyaya. for. as interpreted by Abhinava in his Locana (pp. cannot he cognized by organs of sense to the present time and present place. The mood thus inferred. and should be differentiated from the true (‘he is Rama’). as held respectively by Lollatta.8). Difficulty in both these theories is that Rasa is an objective entity. but it is unclear how it is apparently transferred to the actor. The realization of Rasa is therefore simply a process of logical inference. the hero represented on the stage. how a feeling. Govinda sums up the objections: it disregards the well-recognized fact that an inference of a thing can never produce same charm as it directs cognition. Sankuka. but are simply its suggestion or (Vyanjaka). charms the spectator.14 But Vibhava cannot be taken as middle term in proving Sthayin. being past. because Vibhavas do not stand in relation to Sthayin as middle term (Sadhana) does to major term (Sadhya). can he relish or realize as his own by the spectator? Bhatta Nayaka has ably set such objections forth. the question still remains as to how particular feelings of a particular hero. so as to produce an illusion of identity with feelings of hero11.67. rejecting Lollata’s theory. How can it bring about a subjective feeling of relish in the audience in whom these factors are presumably absent? Suppose.apparently is source of the charm to the spectator. Vibhavas therefore are neither efficient cause (Karaka-Hetu) nor logical cause (Gnapaka-Hetu) of Rasa. the feeling of Rama.

that is not worldly experience (Alaukika). self-sufficient and blissful knowledge arising in language of Samkhya philosophers. until it is raised to a state of pleasurable relish. Vibhavas. e. This is indeed closer to philosophic meditation of Brahma. These ideas have been borrowed by these theorists from prominence of attribute of goodness (Sattva) in a man that differs from what is known as worldly happiness. sensed also in a general form: and this enjoyment is described as a process of delectation similar to enlightened. cannot bring about real effects. as well as Sthayi-Bhava. not really being before the audience. (ii) it cannot be inferred. It’s enjoyed by a blissful process. this is roused. there is a latent impression of a feeling in the mind. being non-realities. Rasa consists in Sthayibhava or permanent mood. because character Rama.g. Sita is understood through this power not as a particular individual but in general character of a woman16. By universal sympathy we become part of the same feeling and imagine ourselves in that condition. described as power of generalization. accompanied by Vibhavas. It’s experienced in a generalized form in poetry and drama through powers of Abhidha and Bhavakatva. Thus the feeling is raised to a state of relish. is taken as love in general without any reference to agent or object. Those who have experiences left in them. Briefly stating. they have therefore no impression of experience left in them. namely. called Rasa in which lies essence of poetic enjoyment. This makes Vibhavas. But what happens to those who have never experienced (Vasana) any universal sympathy (Sadharanya) or Sadharanikarana)? Those who have never experienced feeling of love. Bhavakatva as Abhinavagupta suggests that it is derived apparently from Bharata’s general definition of Bhava. Rama’s love towards Sita. because causes.17 By the third function of Bhojakatva.Bhatta Nayaka argues that: i) Rasa cannot be produced as an effect. that describes similar things. For instance. Once we go through a work of art. his feeling does not exist and what does not exist cannot be inferred. Sthayin is enjoyed as a general form. sensed in their general character without any reference to their specific properties15. Vibhava. According to Bhatta Nayaka. as well as those who have 56 . Sthayibhava. how is it possible for an ordinary reader or spectator to identity himself with extraordinary virtues of a hero like Rama? To solve these difficulties Bhatta Nayaka as interpreted by Abhinava and others maintain that Rasa is enjoyed in connection with Vibhavas through relation of the enjoyer and the enjoyed (Bhojaka and Bhojya). (iii) Moreover. known as Bhoga.

Critics and Readers/Viewers have always relished this beauty spontaneously within oneself. the key concepts are Mimesis. It studies beauty in Art. the Sanskrit Literary Theory stands a step ahead spelling it as a process of an appreciative reader. This Ananda aspect “may be identified with beauty” for. out-leap of ecstatic beauty and joy that is the essence of poetry. Thus a degree of culture and aesthetic instinct are demanded in the critic. transcending actual self from real self. The Vasana we are told is natural (Svabhaviki or Naisargiki). “blissfulness” cannot be disassociated from “beauty”. Ananda aspect is indeed delight of oneself. Similarly in Western Aesthetics. Drama Poetry and Fiction. Catharsis and Sublime. But what is it? Catharsis is “facing” mastering and going beyond the impact of pain. This study of beauty has been a subject matter right from time immemorial. As Rasa is an objective entity that can reside in the hero or the actor. Artists.no sense of community of human feelings. This study of beauty has been always felt in our Sanskrit Literature and Criticism. viewer viewing it. It keeps affecting the Sahrydaya his/her thoughts. This artistic pleasure is given as almost equivalent to the philosophic bliss known as Ananda being lifted above worldly joy. a study of beauty. Rasa Theory is indeed an Aesthetic Theory. An Aesthetic Theory Rasa. Beauty has been a topic of study during various periods of different generations. beauty in nature and life.. be it creation of art or art criticism etc. can never relish Rasa in poetry. Epics. sensations co-relating to nature and its varied aspects. Problems of enjoyment of poetry or drama or fiction raise the question. Therefore. beauty is truth and truth. the ancient Sanskrit Literary Theory is an Aesthetic Theory. Puranas and the later philosophical literature. as Dhananjaya puts it (n. Rasa. Brahma and Nataraja to Bharatamuni subsequently Abhinavagupta. by the readers’ own capacity of enjoyment. These become their parallel terms in Sanskrit as Rasa. i. can there be a pleasure in pain.36). Dhvani and the ultimate Rasovaisah. Aesthetic is a study of beauty variously referred to in Vedas. beauty. but may be acquired by study and experience. delight in disorder? Can there be a beauty that gives us bliss in Sita’s sorrows in Ashokvan? Or in Kannagi’s sorrow and pain at the unjust killing of her beloved Govalan? Aristotle advises us to apply his therapy of Catharsis. It is getting attached to 57 . it is realized.e. his predecessors and his successors in Hindustan. The beautiful is the good.

(Pleasure. Jugupsa (censure. terror. Vatsalya or affection especially for one’s offspring and Bhakti or worship and devotion.what is played on screen.) 6 Utsaha (effort. disgust. Sexual pleasure in passion 2. Firmness. affection. a tragedy does not seem to be a tragedy.Rati. enumerated in the following: Shloka of Sahityadarpana: Feelings 1. perseverance.Hasa (laughter. merriment. but propounds a joyous notion of re-birth. 5.) 8. surprise. dislike. Various feelings (Vibhavas). admiration) 9. alarm. restraint of senses) (Terror) Vira (Heroism) Bibhatsa (Disgust) Adbhuta (Marvelous) Santa (Undisturbed) Later successors of Abhinavagupta have added two extra Rasas. amusement. rest. terrible) Rasas Srngara (love) Hasya (laughter) Karuna (sorrow) Raudra Bhaynaka (wrathful. absence (Passion. that give rise to sentiments or Rasas. ridicule) 3. pitiable ness) 4. which are grouped into nine.Shama (tranquility.) 7.Shoka (grief. There are different kinds of Rasas which blossom into act by the combination or amalgamation of Vibhavanubhava Vyabhicaribhava Samyogad Nispatti. fortitude. Bhaya (fear. Krodha (anger. instead it poses to be a reincarnation of tragic self. wrath). love. 58 . Vismaya (wonder. Rasa Theory thus deletes stings of death. determination. In such process.

It can’t be true. opinion of some people is that outcome and relish are due to mutual contact. Now let us raise an important question. “Just as people conversant with foodstuffs and consuming articles of food consisting of different things and many spices. When affecting the body. which shall be out of the scope of this study. There is therefore neither Rasa without Bhava nor Bhava without Rasa. divided into two kinds namely Sambhoga Sringara when two lovers enjoy each other’s company and Vipralambha Sringara when they experience separation due to any causes. but when they come and go at intermittent intervals. Practically it has been accepted by all succeeding interpreters that Rasa is realized/relished when a permanent mood or Sthayibhava is brought to relishable conditions through three 59 . Is the production and relish thereof Bhavas from Rasas or Rasas from Bhavas? In this regard. sentiment of love is called so. Further. The nine Bhavas noted above are Sthayi when they are pervading feelings of a particular Rasa. Their effectiveness is very mutual with regard to Abhinaya. enjoy their taste so also learned men enjoy Sthayibhavas in combination with Abhysayas mentally”. so also Bhavas and Rasas contribute to mutual development. It’s quite appropriate to enter into the fundamentals of Rasa that has been fixed by Adi Kavi Bharata. We experience that relish of Rasa is from Bhava and Bhava from Rasa. Just as a tree takes its origin from seed.Śringara. Dramatic critics call emotional fervor as Bhavas as they bring about outcome of Rasas by means of impact of different Abhinayas. flowers and fruits from the tree. Tanu manifests itself in eight ways and Manu in thirty-three manifestations. so also Rasas are the root and all Bhavas are stabilized therein. they are known as Vyabhicarin. There are two traditionally passed on views. Also otherwise it is known as Rasa Raja. Just as putting together of spices and herbs gives rise to taste. Vira a sentiment of Utsaha is fourfold namely (a) Danaviraheroism based on liberality or sentiments of enthusiastic liberality (b) Dharmavira that is heroism based on piety and righteousness or sentiment of enthusiastic piety (c) Dayavira that is heroism based on composition or sentiments of chivalrous composition (d) Yuddhavira or heroism in battle. Various commentators dwell closely on it with certain clarifications. Fundamentals of Rasa Theory Rasas remain fixed by Bharata. as it is very important Rasa Sringara (peak of mountain). they are Tanu that gives rise to Anubhavas. It is Manu Vybhicari when it affects the mind.

feelings or Bhavas namely Vibhava, Anubhava and Vyabhicaribhava. But Vybhicarin is only ‘concomitant’ or ‘accessory’ if ‘unfaithful’ ‘coming’ and 'going'. But what is pervading, what is in potency readily, is Sthayibhava to become act; thereby Rasa is mainly in poetry, drama and fiction. The condition of Sthayibhava in potency is love, grief, anger or fear, effort or fortitude. These fundamental conditions enable him to create. Such Sthayibhavas keep pervading through all other conditions/moods like strings of a rosary. No other moods/conditions closer howsoever can overcome it but can only be ‘reinforced’. These elements (conditions/moods), that excite, follow and strengthen Sthayibhavas in poetry; drama and fiction are known as Vibhavas (excitants). This may be taken as that which makes fundamental mood (permanent mood) capable of being sensed, Anubhava (ensuants) as that which makes it sensed. Vyabhicarin called also (Sancaribhava), are women and seasons and nature; of Anubhava, a glance and embrace; of Vyabhicarin, transient subordinate feelings of joy and anxiety. Bharata says that Rasa is realized through a certain correlation of these elements with Sthayibhava. Similarly, in case of Vira as fundamental mood, Vibhavas are Marlin and forces of nature. Of Anubhava, hooking marlin and various heroic experiences acquired before, such as hooking female marlin and the male marlin jumping so high to see his beloved being hooked swam away sadly and swiftly, enjoying sight of lions on African beaches, defeating Negro in hand wrestling and great baseball champion DiMaggio, of Vyabhicarin, transient subordinate feelings of Utsaha and anxiety of Santiago of ‘The Old Man and the Sea’. In ‘A Farewell to Arms’, we have love as predominant and fundamental mood. Examples of Vibhava are Catherine and nature of Anubhava, a glance of embrace; of Vyabhicarin, transient subordinate feelings are one of joy and anxiety. To define Rasa in simple words will be: the combination/coming together of Vibhava, Anubhava and Vybhicarin makes Sthayi that is in the condition of potency to act is called Rasa. Bharata says that Rasa is realized through a certain correlation of various elements with Sthayibhava or permanent mood. What does this correlation comprise? What relation of these elements co-relate to Rasa in the process? The solution depends on ‘Samyogad Nispatti’ in Bharata’s original diction. The term permanent mood shall be taken to understand feeling Sthayi-in-potency yet to be actuated by particular Vibhava, Anubhava and Vyabhicaribhava to become


act, a mood in act, particular Rasa. It is therefore urged to persuade my readers to use mood-in-potency in place of permanent feelings for sthayibhavas. Permanent feelings will imply that they are always present there within oneself; but it is not so. Instead it’s in a state of potency and when particular Vibhava and Anubhava, that are external feelings, frequent particular potency-in-potency, it becomes act-in-act. Thus the creator and critic experience or relish Rasa. With such a vivid picture of Rasa as stated here, I would like to clearly state the extent and limitation of this research work. Scope of Rasa, The Sanskrit Literary Theory Having defined Rasa, the Sanskrit Literary Theory to a great extent, I would like to further proceed to speak clearly of the scope of this theory. Well, Bharatamuni synthesized Rasa, the Sanskrit Literary Theory to apply to dance, drama and other arts. His successors too unto Abhinavagupta used the same Literary Theory applying it to dance and to its Abhinaya, drama and its gestures of face and hand etc. and also to music with all its Laya and Tala. I am extending this same Sanskrit Literary Theory to novels. Writers and spectators relish a pure act or act in its purest form with no external gesture influencing Vibhava or Anubhava or Vyabharin. Logically all creation is art. All criticism is art. Therefore all criticism is creation. To any appreciative readers, all creation is art; all criticism is also art and therefore all criticism is creation. Rangoonwala Firoze, author of ‘Satayjit Ray’s Art’ during a study session at the Film and T.V. Institute at Poona raised the questions: What do we mean by film aesthetics? What is your approach towards this in your films? Ray answered him: “If film is an art, aesthetics ought to emerge from it. But I do not consciously strive for achieving any qualities. I am an instinctive worker. There are no previous calculations in art. Things cannot be worked out for getting precise results.” Rasa, the Sanskrit Literary Theory is a unique critical theory that we should be at liberty following certain rules to apply to drama, dance, music and poetry but also to fiction as well. Novels are a purer creation in so far as they take writer/creator and spectator/ reader to a world of ‘La Belle Dam Sans Merci’ of John Keats. It does not at first place involve external Abhinaya or gestures. The reader involves himself forgetting his whole self, engrossed with the particular story, I am certain that he would enjoy gustation to the brim. Before elaborating the scope of Rasa, the Sanskrit Literary/Critical Theory, I would, as stated previously, proceed from known to unknown


but here, worldwide known since long, to recently known works of art and apply the theory to Hemingway’s “The Old Man and the Sea” and “A Farewell to Arms”. This application of Rasa, the Sanskrit Literary Theory to the above mentioned works would certainly widen and extend the scope of Rasa, the Sanskrit Literary Theory. Valmiki’s Ramayana the last Book is called Sundara Kanda that means emerging there in that phase of the epic, is beautiful. Commentators interpret that Lanka, Sita, Hanuman, Rama’s absence, story by itself and diction; above all, all nine Rasas have their placements and evocation. But, of all the Rasas, Karuna Rasa is the most prominent which is essence of the whole book; all other Rasas are very much there. But Karuna is mainly imagined and depicted in Sita under Simpsu tree. Ultimately all these nine Rasas, with Karuna being greatly relished, give way to the experience of Santa Rasa. Hanuman explains to Rama towards the end of his Lanka Tour: ‘Seen Sita’ in Kamban’s Ramayana. In Valmiki: “When I concluded, Mithilia’s daughter, Sita, long lacerated By the thought of your absence, felt consoled By my reassuring words Marked by forthrightness and well-reasoned hope Concerning coming events And with the easing out of her despair She felt the descent of peace! In this Octave, Hanuman sums up the whole thing into ‘she felt the descent of peace’ so as to experience and enjoy Santa Rasa. The very core of Sundara Kanda is the revelation of Sita seated at the foot of Simpsu tree, defying Ravana and victoriously holding her ground. As the two confront each other an all-powerful question that is raised “who is whose prisoner in Ashokvan in Lanka?” Only in appearance, Sita is Ravana’s prisoner. Ravana is the real prisoner, caged by self with malicious intentions and compulsion of Dharma. As this is in progress, one hears rumbling undertones and everyone there, was dazzled by Sita’s light, effusion of her sovereign purity attacking Ravana like arrows.

His black mindedness against her light of chastity has no chance at all. For Sita, the prison is only an appearance: nectar is the reality. It is only in a contemplative trance of understanding that, we can see how Ashoka grove is really a spiritual reactor. This transforms all evil things into soul’s beauty, sacredness of Sita’s beauty. All the way in Sundara Kanda, we enjoy all Rasas with Karuna as predominant, Srngara as pervading and ultimately take us to the experience of Santa Rasa. Similarly in ancient Tamil epic ‘Silappadikaram’ written by Sangam poet, Ilango Adigal, we experience Santa Rasa at the end of the story. In Madurai, the capital city of Pandya Kingdom, royal goldsmith brought about treacherously the murder of Kovalan merchant from Boom Puhar. All through the epic, after the marriage of Kannagi and Kovalan, the latter goes to Puhar leaving his beloved Kannagi in Madurai. A dancer called Madhavi, who became his beloved, usurped her place then. Extravagantly he spent all his fortune. It is only towards the end, Kovalan realizes his follies in life. He returns to his beloved Kannagi who warmly welcomed him and offered her anklet to be sold and restart his business. So they went to Madurai city. It is on this occasion of selling an anklet more precious than that of Queen Kopperundevi’s pearl anklet that was stolen by a court goldsmith. Same goldsmith reported of recovery of the lost anklet. Great Aryappadai Kadanda Nedunchalyan ordered execution of Kovalan without proper judicial enquiry for alleged innocence. When Kannagi heard of this, she appeared holding in her lifted hand the other anklet, in great anguish, proceeds to the palace. On her way she stopped the sun’s movement by power of her virtue of chastity. She proves to the king that her anklet is filled with manikkam. On his throne sitting, king died. He could not withstand the injustice meted out due to his own negligence, died instantly. By the very intensity of sorrow (Karuna) queen Kopperundevi died. Aryappadai Kadanada Neduncheliyan who inadvertently ordered the execution of Kovalan, on realizing his great error died on the throne. Here again, all Rasas, are experienced especially Srngara both Sambhoga and Vismaya Srngara at the time of their union and absence respectively. But Karuna is predominant at peak and ultimately the writer, viewers; readers experience Santa Rasa as they see Kannagi go on board a Pushpabiman.


The blotches ran well down the sides of his face and his hands had the deep-creased scars from handling heavy fish on the cords. But in the end with Obi Okonkwo dangling in a tree behind his Obi brings all to standstill and we experience Santa Rasa. Santiago holding his line during his painful combat with the Marlin. let us see how in Chinua Achebe’s ‘Things Fall Apart’ all nine Rasas are experienced. Going still further. Hasa feeling is also abundant when he laughs at the warbler as it sat on skiff. enabling spectators to enjoy Vira. brown blotches of the benevolent skin cancer the sun brings from its reflection on the tropic sea were on his cheeks. All through the journey. Everything of Santiago was old. Hemingway paints a sad picture of Shoka and Jugupsa at the beginning of the novel. Vismaya that gives readers relish of Adbhuta Rasa. thin and gaunt with deep wrinkles in the back of his neck. This goes to give us the feeling. All these descriptive pictures evoke shoka leading to Karuna Rasa. a stage of Christian’s journey to celestial city.In Bunyan’s ‘Pilgrim’s Progress’. Immediately after that Hemingway says ‘everything about him was old except his eyes and they are the same color as the sea and were cheerful and undefeated’. he was filled with Shoka for Santiago. Santiago was considered then ‘definitely and finally Salao which is the worst form of unlucky’. But none of these scars were fresh. the reader and the writer experience a kind of nostalgia. in Christian. We experience Utsaha and Vismaya feelings and frequenting Rasas are Vira and Adbhuta. it looked like the flag of permanent defeat. The protagonist Obi Okonkwo has been firm in upholding his African values and tradition with various encounters with other villagers and mainly with white-man. We are able to establish Vira Rasa and Adbhuta Rasa in a similar manner with that of Santiago at the end with the giant marlin and the scavenger sharks but ultimately spectators and writers enjoy gustation of Santa Rasa. They were as old as erosions in a fishless desert. anxiety. and Adbuta Rasas. Christian is determined to reach celestial city due to his great love towards salvation. Manolin is filled with Shoka when his parents advised him after forty days without any catch to go on board another boat. But ultimately his entry into celestial city brings us to experience final unique Rasa Santa. 64 . All through the fiction. They are Vybhicaribhavas. anger. Love for his tradition and values are Sthayibhava. and furled. In spite of Manolin’s success at another boat with good catch. as the latter is the only person who had taught him ‘how to fish and fish well’. Meanwhile Santiago’s sail was patched with flour sacks. Utsaha feelings are experienced which are predominant.

The final result will certainly taste of Rasa. morals etc. The reading of the particular work of art causes such a feeling of excitement or joy. subject matter. I also believe that a film should have to grow organically with all its parts inter-related and everything adding up to a harmonious whole. Vyibhicaribhava and transitory mental states. Some works of art may cause joy. still others may cause fear etc. in choosing a subject. Every work of art is unique in itself. He was greatly committed to life. we put all kinds exhaustive discussions on the subject. As a filmmaker. Contrast relates to both the emotional and visual aspects of the film. When we read a novel or a poem we feel a kind of excitement or joy indeed. I look for three elements that relate to the aesthetic aspects of a film: contrast. neither in the actor nor in the viewer/reader. It is for this concise and precise way. using all the devices at one’s disposal. He enjoyed a great degree of freedom and hoped to continue to work with greater freedom. others may cause pity.Hemingway in his fiction ‘The Old Man and the Sea’ gives us Utsaha feelings right from the beginning gathering bricks by bricks to arrive at Vira Rasa which is the culmination that takes us to final story that ends up with Santa Rasa. principle or school of art? Do you like it even if you don’t subscribe to it? Does art creation need such channel ring? What is your definition or conception of art? Ray said: I cannot think of any one theory that would apply to all branches of art nor do I consciously apply any cinematic principles when I make a film. to human beings…anything that interested him deeply. Broadly speaking. Anubhava. Various feelings are not inherent in the viewer/ reader. author of ‘Satyajit Ray’s Art’ proceeded to ask him: Do you believe in any particular theory. while rhythm and pace have to do with the unfolding of the narrative. Rangoonwalla Firoze. Rasa. the Sanskrit Literary Theory is defined well enough as the combination of Vibhava. 65 . Rasa. But all these resultants are not in the writer. rhythm and pace. He holds a unique place in the film-world for his choice of themes. I see no basic conflict between the two. Satyajit Ray is today known as worldrenowned artist. Rasa is experienced. All the three Bhavas are in a state of potency to become act. I am familiar with the tenets of the Natya Sastra as well as with the main theories current in the West. Similarly every writer/critic must have that unique freedom to create his works of art.

Tracing Rasa the Sanskrit Literary Theory to the origin.These varied feelings when actuated by viewing /reading a particular work of art. the appreciative reader/viewer enjoys Rasa the object of any works of art.p. p.p. Ed. evolution and development in the following chapter will certainly enlighten my appreciative readers on the theory.87.cit.p.70 tatra vibhavanubhava-vyabhicari-samyogad rasa-nispattih op.op.op.cit.100. So. Final chapters in this work shall be dedicated towards illustrating various feelings that give vent to different Rasas. p.kavyamata. op.cit 5. yad ayamanubhavayati 66 .vii. Natya Sastra. Ed Grosset. spontaneously gives rise to the experiencing of Rasa.62 3. Vag-anga-sattvo petan kavyarthan bhavayantiti bhavah.69. Sthayin eva bhavarasatvam apnuvanti. But various feelings that arise in us during the time of viewing/reading a work of art.2 Notes 1. op. Na hi rasat rte kascid arthah pravartate. 4.cit.102.cit. Rasa is not inherent in anyone. Chapter. p.7 2. Anubhava iti kasmad ucyate.

Cit.94 11. Abhinavabharati. 14. Locana.62 8. 7.66 17. Govinda. cit.cit. p. 9.Balad rasniyatvena sthayinam anyanumaya Vailaksamyat. H.. Loc. p.on Bh. Bharata deals with laksana. karana and karya). dosa and guna under vaci Abhinaya treated in ch.. p65. Hemacandra.65 13. Loc. effect and concurrent.Mammata Ibid.Vamadyabeda-bhavitena nate tatprahasitair eva vibavadibhir Anumitah.69 6.59 12..p. p. the ensuant and the effect. Abhinavagupta’s commentary on the Natya Sastra.xix to xx. Hemacandra. Ed. Govinda.Vidyadhara.Abh. Evolution and Development of Rasa. Ballantyne renders these terms as the excitant. 1902.Vastu-saundandarya.58 Chapter 3 Origin. Locana. The Sanskrit Literary Theory 67 . Cit.Jacobi (zdmg. kavyamala p. 16. Govinda. mallinatha. expanding Abhinava’s exposition on this point p.Nanarthabhinispan namvag-angasattva-krtam abhinayam iti op.85. p. 10. and these are thus made subordinate to Rasa-all these elements are considered as dramatic beautification and accessory respectively.on Bh. p.394p) used the terms factor. alankara. (laukika.p.101.op.Mallinatha p.Natetyanta’Vidyamane.85 15 Abh. p.

which is the life of literature. In Upanishads Rasa stands for essence or quintessence7 and self-luminous consciousness8 though the sense of taste9 is at various places reflected. Hardly any science seems to do without it. and flavour4. They were as true. Rasayana Sastra (Chemistry) goes round the pivot of Rasa.g Veda. on practical side. cow’s milk3. movement. towards the end of Vedas. it is equated to a sense closer to the above with aesthetic pleasure. above the plain of physical since it gets connected as vital element with Śiva. On attaining this. milk. Rasa in this context plainly stands for delightful and pleasurable experience relating to emotions. prose or poetry or as representation of a dramatic work.. assuredly in contents. one becomes all bliss. In Sanskrit other than Vedic. is seen either in sudden activities. Rasa is found being used in senses of water1. In R. The Ayurvedic science recognized six Rasas which are principles supporting its whole superstructure. powerful and vehement before.The concept of Rasa in the study of Sanskrit Literary Theory has a wider scope. Rasa (Mercury) in Tattiritya Upanishad11 is called the ultimate reality. The manifestation of this delightful experience. In the mundane world. The connotation that is attached to it in each science differs according to the context. therefore they remain in the material and concrete plain. some juice2. Mercury called Rasa plays here an important part.6 the latter becoming very common. of the readers and spectators during the recital and representation or verbal expressions and statements made at their completion. as they are now or they will ever remain so. juice. Sanskrit poeticians. In the above objects. Atharva Veda extends the sense to the sap of grain5 and taste. rhetoricians and dramaturgists fully 68 . According to this Darśana. We can discover the concept of Rasa in Upanishads. essence. Nevertheless human beings feel highly pleased with abstract pleasure that is above physical sphere. Vedas and the earliest literary monuments of Indian culture have traces when we try to dwell upon the origin. though physical yet it is spiritual. tasteful liquid etc. In the Saiva Darśana Mercury (Pārada) Rasa is called the semen of Lord Śiva10. Aesthetic pleasure is experienced as recital of a literary work. Subsequently any concepts evolved will bear the verdict of time. rapt attention etc. Knowledge of Rasa and concrete objects denoted by it in medical system do cater to health and happiness of living organism. the word Rasa is used for water.

Vibhava Anubhava Vyabhicharibhava and Sattvikabhava and Sthayibhava in the seventh chapter. He has also mentioned in the sixth chapter that a sympathetic and responsive spectator at a dramatic representation enjoys Sthayibhava evoked and consummated as Rasa. Bharata therefore stands as first authority in this science. But in the absence of any works by them. He then points out the foremost importance of Rasa. This is Rasa.14 Bharatamuni records the views of different authorities but only in bits and pieces. Vyabhicaribhavas and Sattvikabhas when represented on the boards by skilful and expert actors. In the seventh chapter he points out the importance of Sthayibhava that gets the name of Rasa19. Bharata enumerates the items16 that he has considered in his compendium in connection with Sanskrit drama. This concept will be clear with the knowledge of different views on Rasa.realized this aspect of Rasa in their works of art. Anubhavas. It is from him apparently that all later schools and theories sprang. Different views on Rasa Rajaśekara mentions one Nandikeśvara12 to whom the essence of Rasa was entrusted. He gives the famous formula17 that brought forth different interpretations from authorities in different fields. He does this in the beginning of the sixth chapter (first five chapters devoted to consideration of theatre).S. which matures into Rasa20. and further. Bharata in his Natya Sastra defined the terms. (Arthakriyapeksam Kavyam)15 It is mainly concerned with dramaturgy. aesthetic pleasure enjoyed by the spectator’. Bharata’s view can be stated as: ‘Through several operations and then a harmonious blending of appropriate Vibhavas. The analogy given is that of pleasure experienced mentally by a person after having tasted food dressed with spices etc18. Bhava. the latent Sthayibhava in the spectators is aroused and consummated into a relishable condition. thus: ‘Kāvya is that composition that requires a harmonious combination of sense and action’. He formulated for the first time that Rasa is the essence of poetry13. it is Sthayibhava. they do not desire our attention. But Bharata gives his view in the N. 69 . These authorities indeed preceded him. Keśava Miśra too quotes the view of one Sūtakāra Bhagavan Saddhodani. No regular works by Rajasekara and Kesva Misra are yet available.

it may sometimes be delineated with Vakrokti22. The former mentions with illustrations of three Alankaras. an appeal through quality (Guna)27. Bhāmaha. Preyas are the development of emotions like love through manifestation of Anubhava etc. comprising affection of the object of love.25 He recognized qualities (Gunas) in the presence of which depended excellence of arrangement. the next writer for consideration after Bharata has distinctly hostile opinion about Rasa. Rasa therefore was considered as an ancillary though predominating one. He has also fully expounded most striking characteristic of the eight Rasas. which beautify it. however. Nevertheless he brought Rasas under Alankaras: Rasavad. He states that Kavya Rasa removes bitterness of Śāstra. Rasavad depicts fully developed stages of different Rasas through 70 . Preyas and Urjasvin. illustrating them in beautiful verses. treated them as only objectively present in literary composition. Rasaad and Urjasvin. as rendering poetry into a suitable factor of Rasa. He thus established Rasa as an equally important factor with Alankaras.29 His Preyas and Alankaras are like that of Bhāmaha’s. He thus belonged to Guna School of poetry and not to Alankara School.26 Dandin assigned Rasa. But he has admitted the importance of Rasa making the quality called Madhurya that Rasa makes a sentence or a statement delectable. Preyas.30 In case of affection towards woman it is called Sringara28. To him.28 He was also conversant with the process of realization of Rasa. Udbhata had a favourable attitude towards Rasa in spite of affinities towards Alankara school of Bhamaha. Dandin attached importance to combination of words harmonized with agreeable sense as chief characteristic feature of poetry24 and recognized Alankaras as elements. the Sanskrit Literary Theory emerged at the school of dramaturgy because Bharata’s Natya Sastra21 as its name implies is a realistic of Sanskrit dramaturgy.It is acknowledged that this Rasa. Abhinava tries to interpret Bhamaha’s Vakrokti on the basis of Vibhavyate. to an extent of Bhava only and not to fully matured state of Rasa32. He views that Rasa need not be invariably present in poetry. Dandin. He enjoins that all Rasas should find place in Mahakavya23. Sringara and Raudra are illustrated as instances. It depended on dramatic representation only for its consummation. Rasa is similar to Bhatta Lollata’s objective. He emphasized that a Mahakavya should be pervaded all through with poetic sentiments (Rasas) and emotions (Bhavas)31.

44 Moreover. Rudrata has recognized nine Rasas and added Preyan42 tenth Rasa to the list. The third Alankara. 71 . however. Poetry attains fame by writing a work full of sentiments41. perhaps. It is affection existing between two friends43. Urjasvin. Vamana however asserted that drama is the best form of poetry40and in a way paid tribute to Rasa as it can be best developed in drama only. He gave status of Rasa to Vyabhicari Bhāvas as Nirveda etc. De says that Udbhata. with great efforts. whereas he recognized Alankaras as mere ornaments37 He asserted that in quality called Kānti all Rasas were brilliant. he shows his mature knowledge of Rasa. essential elements of poetry. of Bharata’s definition of Udara Guna’39. setting up an aesthetic system on its basis! Udbhata however shows in a way his relationship with Rasa theory that he used terms as Vibhava. This has been severely criticized. without. Sthayibhāva etc.It occurred to him to include Rasa in one of the qualities from a consideration. concerns itself with depiction of Sthayibhavas. Rasa of Sthayibhava. Vamana’s View on Rasa Vamana belongs to Riti School on Sanskrit poetics. He illustrated it with reference to Śringara Rasa38. He holds Riti as soul of poetry. when they developed into particular Rasa. He describes them objectively in connection with literary composition. of another Rasa. Udbhata therefore appears as much a representative of Rasa School as that of Alankara36. Udbahata’s fourth Alankara. apparently designated Rasa as “soul” of poetry. Rasas are either incongruous or misplaced34. Samahita presents suppression of Rasa or Bahama. He classifies Vira into three kinds. His definition of Preyan corresponds partially to that of Bhava (immature stage of Rasa) developed later. It is devoid of Anubhāvas etc. Rudrata gave importance to Rasa in literary composition other than drama. So are the sentiments expressing either in Alankara School or in Guna School then raised higher. Literary works other than dramas should be composed filled with sentiments.express reference. But all this is simply to constitute charm of particular poetic figure.Udbhata couldn’t help but express his leanings towards Rasa School as expounded by Bharata in Natya Sastra. it was recognized as an independent entity. He seems to have known the process of realization as he has distinguished immature stage.33. Rasabhasa or Bhavabhasa.35 Pratiharenduraja expressed briefly in this Alankara. Mention here of Santa Rasa along with the eight Rasas is fit to be represented in drama.

Subjectively when full of Rasa. He calls Sringāra as the leading Rasa (Nāyak Rasah)49. That manifestation is called Rasa. Its first transformation is called Alankara (self-consciousness) out of which comes Abhimana (conceit). a compiling of so many items from various sources. is indestructible. The ultimate reality. In Vedanta. both drama and others.54AnandaVardhana author of Dhavanayloka Karikas and Vritti thereon55. hence Rasa is predominant in both. Bhavas are fully described and knowledge of process of Sthāyibhāva maturing into Rasa is indicated too53. is called Srngāra. for it does not make any attempt to corelate with this central principle. if not of equal importance. the wonderful nature of (at the apprehension of transcendental) consciousness. but emphasis is laid on Rasa50.. Brahman. His work is an attempt to prove the development of Rasa in poetry other than dramas47 . It is manifested by experience of last sound of a word combined with 72 . Rasa is there with their constituents as Vibhavas etc. Out of the latter comes Rati (pleasure) nourished by Vyabicarin etc. The origin of Rasa is recorded in a peculiar way. which Rasa attained at the hands of scholars after Bharata. devoid of that. Rasa etc. effulgence and lord. Alankaras are also recognized as of great. it is eternal without any origin and all pervasive. It is a treatise dealing with literary works. other factors of poetry viz. in several beautiful stanzas. Dharmavira and Danavira45. He asserts that vital element in literary composition is Rasa. He admits that it had its origin centuries before him. Next work for consideration is Agnipurana. devoid of which is uninteresting and dreary as a night without moon48. Guna. became famous as the greatest exponents of Dhvani school.51 that recognizes nine Rasas52 but gives prominence to Srngāra. it gives knowledge of four Wangas to persons fond of Rasa. consciousness. Riti. Special consideration for Rasa becomes clear but ‘Agnipurana’ cannot be relegated to Rasa school entirely. Bliss is innate in it and sometimes apprehended by suggestion.56 Dhvani theory was based on Sphotavāda of grammarians who hold that Sphota is the permanent capacity of words to signify these imports. Riti.Yuddhavira. it is just like Sāstra46 Rudrabhatta’s keynote of his work is the idea of Rasa. This fact indeed expounds the importance. He describes Srngara as the main objective in literary composition other than drama that must be teaming of Rasa. It then describes that Rati (pleasure) is transformed into other Rasas as Hasya etc. it is called one without the second. It enumerates constituents as Alankaras.

objective (as residing in the Kavya)58 and subjective (as enjoyed in themselves) by Sahrdayas. Alankaras concerned themselves first with this grammatico-philosophical problem about relation of a word to its connotation in order to get support. In the same way desire or Tatparya of the poet makes the reader or the spectator understand Vibhava from poetry. a statement of fact or imaginative element and poetic figures. strong and confirmation to their theory. This adds to the credit of this school as it brought out a definition of poetry. Moreover. Pleasure is in the minds of the spectators whereas the latter attributed pleasure in spectators to suggestion of words. The formulation of Sphota doctrine was made to determine important seat of a word. Dhananjaya another opponent of Dhvani theory includes Vyanjana Vritti in Tatparya Sakti (intention of speaker) when a word uttered by speaker. Therefore. Instead he stated that words in kavya were endowed with three functions: Abhidha. Ananda puts a special premium over Rasa. Through these three functions. Because Dhvani had a much wider scope. whether expressed or suggested by words created.57 Rasa has become a unifying and principal factor. they adorn the principal element that is Rasa. there naturally came into some points of difference between Bharata and Anandavardhana to Bharata. But Bharata called the best poetry that suggested Rasa only through representation of Vibhavas etc. such as. Bhatta Nayaka Bhatta Nayaka. so also act likewise. best poetry is not only that which suggests Rasa but also others. The hearer does not only understand it but it actuates him to work. Rasa held predominant position.impression of experiences of previous ones. factors such as Vibhavas etc. more comprehensive than that of Rasa School. His recognizing Santa Rasa as the principal one in Mahabaratha59 confirms his preference to Rasadhvani. Nevertheless. the function of poetry was to suggest Rasa or Alankaras or Vastus as applied to both poems and dramas according to Ananda. To this theory. Alankaras and Gunas are dependent entities. He did not recognize Vyanjana Vritti. He recognized both aspects. He was a strong follower of Rasa as his view quoted by Abhinava in his commentary on Natya Sastra makes it evident. BhavaKatva and Bhojakatva. 73 . the readers or spectators enjoy aesthetic pleasure. as it was the soul of poetry. another writer opposed Dhvani theory. considered and declared.

This might have been staged in sacred places. the Adhikavi 74 . This is Rasa. ‘He causes the death of Kamsa. In the Mahabhasya of Patanjali. excitants. Evolution and Development of Rasa. Historical Background. Such sacred places might have become temples later. that is. his theory of Rasa agrees with that of latter. It is not Janyajanakabhava of the logicians. Mahabhasya gives indication that some sort of dramatic activities were known but no regular code of dramatic constituents is available now in Panini. ensuants. As Dhanajaya was almost contemporaneous with Abhinava. through Vyanjana. full of sentiments61. the Grammar of Panini. The commentary makes it clear that reader or spectator through reading or representation enjoys it. as Rasas exist in Sahrdayas’ minds in the form of permanent moods but according to Sankhyas. A permanent emotion matures into a relishable condition through combined operation of dependants. poetry manifests in the form of Rasas60. This leads us to think that religion was the originator of drama as well as dance-dramas. Thus through this Tatparya Sakti. The connection between Kavya and Rasa is Bhavyabhavakabhava (cause and effect) and not Vyangyavyanjajabhava (suggest or/and suggested) as maintained by Dhavani School. But he does not admit Vritti. transitory emotions and psychic conditions. poetry becomes Bhavaka of Rasavada. But the various instances quoted bear witness to religious shows such as Krishna killing Kamsa and binding of Bali. and he causes the binding of Bali’63 The use of verbs is justified on the basis that those persons are no more living in the present. Nata may be understood as an actor in drama. we find words such as.The resulting activity is enjoyment of aesthetic pleasure. a textbook for Natas. Valmiki. as the gods were involved. Dhananjaya thus had knowledge of Rasa realization as also of objective and subjective aspects of Rasa. Yet any incidents in their connection can be described in similar way. It gives evidence effectively bearing an existence of drama. The Sanskrit Literary Theory Grammar of Panini makes mention of ‘Nata Sutras62’. It is characterized by consciousness full of complete bliss Rasavat.

Manipuri in North East (Assam) and Kathak in the North. The result was an instant couplet. This is filled with local variations and colloquialism. We. Valmiki himself was perplexed and thrilled at his marvelous way of extreme simplicity. dancing has been made in NatyaVeda64. But at sometime in remote past.e. A cruel hunter had shot it dead. Adbhuta and Santa. i. Vira. in India have a concept of God who dances. king of dancers. a sublime offering. Dancer is 75 . In dancing. In this Rasa experience. Srngara. Maharaja of Travancore wrote ‘Balarama Bharata’. These dance forms received and nourished and attained full stature in Hindu temples and nourished and attained full stature in Hindu temples originally. Nātya Śāstra The earliest work on dance is Natya Sastra. Here the rules seem to have been very much imposed on ancient regional art. most beautiful expression of human spirit. Regional and traditional folk dance themes were depicted in classical art. But for all that. Foreign influences such as Greek and Islamic were also at work. Every region assumed a local idiom based on their culture and tradition. Kathakali in Kerala. Kathakali has a peculiar Persian influence. Dance was considered an important part of worship in temples. Mention of this kind of worship. Raudra. Bharata Natya in Tamil Nadu. Vismaya is the determinant and Shoka is the consequent and ultimately the poet and the appreciative reader taste Santa Rasa. i. Bibhatsa. Let us briefly see how temples may have been the places where all classical dances might have originated. In 18th century. there might have been a unified system of classical dancing in Hindustan. these dance forms have originated in essence from one central tradition guiding all arts. Karuna. Nine Rasas have been commonly recognized. Manipuri clearly has both local and foreign influences. Bhayanka. Natya Sastra of Bharata. working in the minds and creating rhythm of the world. a great manifestation of Indian Aesthetics on music and drama. It is this way the four main classical schools came into existence.e. Hasya. Many books have been written on dancing since then. Śiva is Nataraja. but some remote regions developed new characteristics. Rasa is experienced through bhava or expression.Valmiki’s spontaneous overflow of powerful and emotional outburst when he saw the female curlew crying at the death of male partner during time of mating is the beginning of classical Sanskrit poetry.

In Bharata Natya. stress is only on the beauty of costume. These Hastas are important aspects of all Hindustani dances. Songs are mainly composed for each dance comprising apt ‘sentiment’ in a befitting musical code or raga that gives the dancer scope for expression. alphabet of a regular language. there the mind is. The fourth Abhinaya is emotion conveyed through facial and other gesticulations. various postures. Hastas are hand gestures made either with one hand or with both the hands. In classical style. But in Kathakali only the musician provides accompaniment. former is an intricate abstract dance with rigid movements and poses signs of dramatic content. Expression through posture of body and through gesture.expected to perform in such a manner so that ‘where the hand is. manner of walking. each actor is dressed differently. Ra for Raga or melody and Ta for Tala or 76 . In Kathakali hand gestures and Hastas are very dynamic and depiction of emotion is excelling but in Bharata Natya. there is Rasa’. combination of movements form a single dance sequence. Accordingly. But in Kathakali. The technique by which Bhava manifests itself is Abhinaya65. there are four kinds of Abhinaya. steps. They give meaning to song that accompanies dance. In Bharata Natya. The third type of expression through Abhinaya is by costume. and a situation to audience through various means. Every one of hand gestures can have several meanings in accordance to various ways in which it is used. a story. these various types of Abhinaya are used differently. Dancers were attached to the great temples and they participated in offerings at worship. there is Bhava and where there’s Bhava. Dances are further divided into Nritta and Nritya. But Nritya is suggestive and interpretative with every movement and gesture loaded with deep meanings. the three components of all dancing elements are Bha for Bhava or expression. where the mind is. In the word of Bharata. it is a more stylized form. as this difference in costume and makeup denote different characters. literal meaning is ‘to carry forward!’ This is done in order to convey a sentiment. Bharata Natya is still prevalent mainly in Tamil Nadu. on the contrary the dancer is expected to sing during portions of the dance. The second type of Abhinaya is that expression through spoken words is greatly important. which was enjoyed by royal and religious patronage for centuries. This is an art.

Anecdotes from Vedic stories. Dance dramas too were popular among Bharata Natya tradition adopting the same technique as in solo dance. The only Kuravanji that’s still performed in a temple once in a year can be seen in the great temple at Tanjore. are terms which are limited to these aspects connoting different shades in their meanings too. There is yet another kind of drama employing Bharata Natya technique in the ‘Kuravanji’ where they are the dancers. costumes. Moreover dances of Seratkella have seemingly derived from Bharata Natya. Nrya. the world in general. After performing the rite of adoration thus Brahma was addressed by me“command me quickly. According to various interpreters. Hence O Daityas do not become offended with the Śuras because imitation of everything taking place in the world of seven continents is an invariable feature of the dramatic art66’. The “Kuchupudi” dance dramas of Andhra Pradesh performed by priestly class men can also be ascribed to Bharata Natya School. But Bharata must have had a wider area including the theory and practice of dramatic art. All kuravanjis portray human soul-represented by heroine in search of the Almighty. Nritta.. is called drama69. Tanjore and Kanchipuram were most important centers of this dance. These are still enacted and enjoyed in certain village temples of Tanjore district. the term signifies to a layman today. ornaments and general make up of the actor or the actress is equally important as the other aspects such as Vachika. Strange enough. A strange thing is that only the priestly class takes part in them. Abhinaya etc. What shall be the play to be produced?” Then I was told by the Lord-“perform the play on the churning of the ocean for the sake of the nectar. Today it has spread all over India. from Ithihasas and other sources are so utilized to give pleasure to those who witness. This is the beauty of drama. Bharata Natya. daityas. Angika. just the dance aspect with facial and manual gesticulations. the Nritta Gita and Vadya is the “sine qua non”. more so. householders etc. In the past. For an overall effect. O lord. different arts and actions converge there in.. ‘All the branches of learning find a place in the drama devised by me. It is highly pleasing to the Suras and 77 . Hastamudra.67 Drama A close imitation of the gods.rhythm. depicting stories and episodes from India’s great epics. they are becoming nearly extinct due to lack of patronage. and their day-to-day activities represented through gestures etc. particularly USA but Chennai is its real home. and Mukhavikara etc. kings.

Nātya Sāstra is with the production of drama and the training of actors. each feeling is manifested and accompanied by three elements namely causes (Karana) effects (Karya) and concomitant 78 . It is purely conceived intuitively and concretely as a juice or taste or honey called Rasa. excluding all other things of hindrance. Bharata says in essence. Drama takes its origin here with the Lotus born/self-born Lord (Brahma). poets and the spectators. sorrow (Soka). that Rasa is born from the union of play with the performance of the actors. and wonder (Vismaya) are the various states of mind. drawing its origin from motives of ‘a purely empirical’ order. As we have seen earlier. a state of awareness called Sui generis70. Aesthetic experience is therefore the act of tasting this Rasa. Delight (Rati). This is very peculiar to Indian conception of aesthetic experience as a juice or taste or honey experienced by the reader or spectator. spontaneously but forcibly than by other forms of art. They permanently exist in the mind of every man. It is indeed a work of deep psychological insight. In our day-to day life. This particular Rasa experience when tasted by the reader or spectator pervades and enchants him in a whole method. These eight states of mind are inborn in human soul. the birth of Rasa takes place”70. This study of aesthetics in India first was restricted to drama. Laughter Hasya). Mainly both sight and hearing merge together in bringing forth in the spectator. Fear (Bhaya). the consequents and the transitory mental states. “Out of the union of the Determinants. Heroism (Utsaha). The author classifies various emotions of the human soul and treats their transition/transformation from the practical to aesthetic range. the most ancient text that has traditionally been passed on to us is the Nātya Sāstra ascribed to the mythical Bharata. of submerging oneself in it. Disgust (Jugupsa). Drama is considered to be the highest form of art as it appeals to sight and hearing.caused enthusiasm among them”69. Bhavas and Rasas According to Bharata. in the form of latent impressions (Vasana) derived from actual experiences in the present life or from inherited instincts such that they are ready to change into his consciousness under any situations. Anger (Krodha). essentials of the empirical psychology in his Nātya Sāstra are eight fundamental feelings of emotions or mental states called Bhava or Sthayibhava that can be distinguished in the human soul. he says literally.

Bharata’s text and the above mentioned aphorism in particular became the subject of study for a number of successive thinkers mainly Sivaite Mystical School. Rasa. the Erotic (śrngara). Each of the fundamental permanent states appears in association with other concomitant mental states as Discouragement. even the causes. brought about by the determinants. the Odious (Bibhatasa)..e. they are elements of poetic expression. accordingly there are also eight Rasas. as it is so in the ordinary life.elements (Sahakarin). give the spectators the particular pleasure to which Bharata gives the name. by which they are excited. effects and the concomitant elements just as the permanent mental states take another name called Determinants (Vibhava). and the concomitant elements. according to Bharata. i. They were bent upon contributing a clearer understanding of the terms given by their master. the Heroic (Vira). These occasional transitory or impermanent mental states are. Although they are not part of real life. thirty-six. and the Marvelous (Adbhuta). The causes are the various occasions and encounters of life. Serenity (Sama) the corresponding Rasa is the Quietistic (Santa). the effects. These same causes etc. not lived in real life. the accessory and temporary mental states are those that follow them. Apprehension and so on. Interpretation of Rasa by Sivaite Mystical School 79 . It is the later interpreters of the theory who admit generally a ninth permanent or fundamental feeling. the Furious (Raudra). the consequents do not follow the feeling. by which they are lured. our gestures and so on. Weakness. But from the point of view of the spectator. the visible reactions caused by it and expressed by our face. The fundamental or permanent mental states are eight in number. being acted on the stage. the Terrible (Bhayanaka). or described in poetry or in novel. The different volumes of our mental states are too complex. the Comic (Hasya) the Pathetic (Karuna). Consequents (Anubhva) and Transitory mental states (Vyabhicaribhava). The above-mentioned eight Bhavas do not appear in very pure or individual form. They too act as causes intensifying and prolonging the feeling.

that the aesthetic state of consciousness or Rasa is nothing but perception of an imitated mental state. a Kasmiri lived about the first half of the 10th c..) raised to its highest pitch by the combined effect of the determinants. But the spectators do not realize it so. Sankuka who lived later than Bhatta Lollata disagrees with the latter’s view. they forget the difference between the actors and the characters.) and Bhatta Lollata (9thc... the actor can manage well with them by virtue of recollection. This peculiar form of inference. and reflection etc. How shall we understand this word? Perception. in fact. personally to himself. Bhatta Lollata states that Rasa lies in the represented personage and in the imitating actor.. and memory. Rama feels himself as Rama. the mental state of a man is revealed by the causes that excite it. the transitory mental states. He does not forget himself of his real nature as depicting actor of someone who was the real one before.e. Lollata answers that. According to Abhinavagupta. they have nothing 80 . himself. Ultimately they inferentially experience the mental state of the characters themselves. used by Bharata. laughter and mockery.) probably followers of the Sivaite mystical school flourished in Kashmir. on the contrary. consciousness. referring to painstaking as acute. awareness. Bhatta Lollata does not concern himself with the problem of how the spectators relish Rasa. i. The author of the lost Sahradayadarpana.Dandin (7thc. Sankuka states firmly that the successful imitation by the actors of the characters and their experiences are indeed truly unreal and artificial. consequents and transitory mental states. They interpreted Rasa as the permanent mental state (anger. Bhatta Nayaka criticized first and the foremost the word “birth”. to Sankuka is different from any other kind of knowledge. Will the actor not fail to maintain or follow the tempo and the other conventions? To this objecting question. This has no connection with aesthetic experience. the consequents and by these concomitant feelings. the weak point of Sankuka’s theory is his major premise.e. for e. Sankuka states that Rasa is not an intensified state but imitated mental state. production. The actor feels the different Bhavas of Rasa. as if they had belonged to him truly.g. are facts of everyday life. Abhinavagupta and his master Bhatta Tauta strongly refute this aspect. In the normal worldly life. fear etc. Instead. the effect of imitation (as when a clown imitates the son of a king) has. manifestation etc. Ashoka after his Kalinga war feels Karuna Rasa. i.

The images depicted on the stage or poetry reading or fiction are seen by an aesthetician independently of any relationship with his normal mundane life or with the life of the actor or of the protagonist of the play or poem or novel and appear in a generalized way. beautiful shapes or listening to sweet sounds. instead. in his soul. his practical interests of everyday life. the perversion of the inner self by bliss and light. are felt as a source of pleasure. This fruition is characterized by the state of Laya and Tala. Therefore the real meaning of “birth” as used by Bharata cannot connote perception. or a poem recited or novel read has the power/potential to raise the spectator for the time-being above and beyond his limited ego. Let us try then to understand that a drama performed on the stage. feels in himself a keen disquiet. but it is seen and experienced in a complete independence of any interest of any individual. it is found entirely in a different concept called “revelation” (Bhāvāna) which is ‘special’ different from the power of denoting. as depicted on the stage. sights and events painful in themselves do not repel us. when they are generalized or contemplated universally. Kalidasa says in a stanza quoted by Abhinavagupta “often a man in the act of admiring in happiness. therefore the aesthetic experience revealed by the power or revelation (Bhāvāna) is an experience of fruition (Bhoga). drama and novels. Rati or Karuna etc.” One of the most significant contributions of Indian Aesthetics is this concept of generalization. that words assume in poetry.to do with aesthetic fact. Bhatta Nayaka says (action or actors) or poetry (the words of a poet) does not make Rasa perceptible. Rasa. like “a thick layer of mental stupor”. does not put itself into everyday life.e. Does he perhaps recall. Rasa. universally but released of individuality. when they are described aesthetically i. anger. This change of pain into pleasure is established by the fact that. The relation between the practical or real meaning is conveyed by none of these. aesthetic pleasure or Rasa. Situations and events in our daily life when related with ‘I’ with ‘mine’ repel. 81 . we enjoy them. the rest into our own inner self. Whether it is feeling. Bhatta Nayaka says: the specific task of this power. “has the faculty of suppressing the thick layer of mental stupor occupying our consciousness is generalization or universalization of the things presented or decided” “That Rasa revealed by this power is then enjoyed (Bhuj) through a sort of enjoyment different from direct experience from memory etc. produce it or manifest it. and put a limitation and dim his consciousness. It belongs to same supreme order as the enjoyment of the supreme Brahman.. or production or manifestation. Theatrical performance.

It has also a didactic value. an image out of focus and ultimately unreal. 82 . antithetical with the practical one. Abhinavagupta reconciles this view with the current opinion by stating if drama and poetry nourish our sensitivity. Buddhist thinkers hold that it is powerless to grasp the living reality of things. a rhetor and philosopher. from which the yogins draw their satisfaction”. But this comprised the very life of poetic language. Sunk into his own being. his speculation is based on difference between ordinary and poetic language.c. This is quite different from the modes of practical language dominated by direct way of expression. feels pleasure throughout performance. Buddhist and Sanskrit scholars agree that language is essentially pragmatic.quotes Nayaka: “Dramatic performances and music accompanying them feed Rasa in all its fullness. Anandhavardhana’s Dhavanyaloka During the time of Avantivarman (855-883) king of Kashmir there was Anandavardhana a court poet. deep within his spirit without his knowledge?” Such disquiet is an un-objectified desire that corresponds to what is metaphysically known as the desire which induces/motivates consciousness to deny its original fullness and to fall back to time and space. they deal with general that is simply an image of things. The religious and the aesthetic experiences spring from the same source. What then is the new nature of dimension that speech assumes in poetry? What is drawn or inferred from? Udbhata another Kashmiri poet of the 8th. he forgets everything (pertaining to practical life). The words we use exist in so far as they serve some purpose and later they ceased to be. figures of speech are but essential in the poetic language. At the outset. hence the spectator absorbed in tasting of this turning inward. Nayaka also holds that drama and poetry should have the intrinsic value of the work and all other including didactic value will be secondary. The most important element of figures of speech is certainly the secondary function of words. His book Dhvanyaloka (Right of Resonance) stands unique till today.affections of past lives. There is manifested in him that flow of inborn pleasure. Mahimabhatta a Rhetor of the 11thc. Does Udbhata think that the poetic speech at the very outset of its practical value enriches itself with various proceeding? Rhymes.rehtor and philosopher states that the essence of poetic language was secondary or metaphysical function of the words.

of a famous Brahmin family. Poetry knows no synonyms. Rasa is not revealed. Abhinavagupta’s Abhinavabharati Mahesvaranda. a 13th c. He has earned his reputation in the field of aesthetics through Abhinavabharati. Poetic words manifest or suggest it unexpectedly but spontaneously without any visible bridges. that is. sentiments not practically experienced but aesthetically contemplated that it suggests. “Poetical meaning is different from conventional meaning. Rasa is not anything but THIS. He argues that the secondary function does not connote poetry. In the words of great poets.e. historical and secondary sense. Temporal sequence between cognitions of the expressed and suggested sense would be noticeable only in case the suggested sense were opposed to the expressed one or similar to it. it loses its value because it has been removed from its originality. 83 .Anandavardhana does not agree to this argument. But this new concept again cannot form a poetical language without figures of speech. Modern Sanskrit philosophers think staunchly that a truly poetical word or expression cannot be replaced by its equivalents. a commentary on Natya Sastra and a commentary on Anandavardhana’s Dhvanyaloka in which Abhinavagupta played a major role in developing Dhvani School. on the same footing. The source of poetry must be another sense or value that is made certain by different words from primary sense i. Further he rejects Nayaka’s assumption of poetic words or power of revelation. According to Abhinavagupta. But Rasa is a perception sui generis entirely different from all other concepts unique in itself. “When we read a poem. we become as it is. Abhnavagupta accepts Nayaka’s concept of generalization but rejects his concepts of aesthetic experience. viz. philosopher says that the poetic meaning of words that co-exists paradoxically with historical or literal meaning stands in relation to the other powers of words just as freedom does in man’s other capacities and activities. son of Narasimhagupta.” Abhinavagupta. If it does so. rhymes and inversion. simultaneously aware of Rasa. alias Chukla was born in Kashmir during second half of 10th c. a fruition rather than knowledge. it shines out and towers above the beauty of the well-known outer parts even as charm does in ladies”67. known as resonance (Dhvani) or suggested manifested sense (Vyangya). All language actually is metaphysical.

It sounds quite ‘nonsensical’ to Abhinavagupta and proceeds to state that Rasa does not lie in the actor. Bharata should have first expounded permanent states and then Rasas. time etc. time and knowing subject. Why is it so? How? Without determinants etc. indeed. I have said that Rasa is not limited by any difference of space. I say. Sankuka criticized that Lollata’s view is completely unsound. are nothing but permanent mental states. are characteristic signs. If Lollata’s thesis is right. logical reasoning through which knowledge of it. Your doubt is then devoid of sense. that is only a means necessary to tasting of it. As the second definition of Determinants etc. Difference between various ”egos” is illusory according to Abhinava. is the means of tasting and hence he is called by name of “vessel”. because determinants etc. Indeed. in their full state of development put forward by Bharata in relation to Rasa.Various Interpretations of Rasa. “you have all forgotten and I remind you again of what I have already said. to Lollata. that is to say. weaker. universally released from individuality. This state of universality required by Bhatta Nayaka not only connotes elimination of any means of time or space but even the particular knowing subject. 84 . weakest. does not stay in the vessel. But where is it then? Abhinavabharati says. Actually “I” or consciousness is unique. This reduction of singular knowing subjects of “practical” personalities of spectators. They appear in a generalized way that is to say. “a knowing subject” which is unique. Because every feeling then would come to be sub-divided into infinite number of different gradations. permanent mental state cannot be known. weak. Bhatta Lollata questions: where lies Rasa. indifferent etc. “generalized” not circumscribed by any determination of space. This will then become useless waste of words. different each from the other is succeeded by a state of consciousness. But what is the actor? The actor. The taste of wine. The actor then is necessary and useful only in the beginning”. whether in actor or in the represented character. is made possible. the Sanskrit Literary Theory Bhatta Nayaka states that images contemplated on stage or read in poetry are seen by a man of aesthetic senses independently of any relation with his ordinary life or with life of hero of the play or poem.

in the same way. Further. gesticular representation does not consist merely in movement of limbs but in effect that this movement produces.. More precisely Rasa is simply a permanent state of mind. But permanent state cannot be realized even through power of poetry. as they are. Though these causes etc. Determinants could be realized through power of poetry. This reproduced mental state is perceived by means of three kinds of elements. This permanent state is perceived as lying in reproducing actor. to be expected from expressing words are indeed only to turn feeling of delight. As we see. they are artificial and unreal. “sorrow” etc. They refer to an expressed thing but they are not able to communicate it in its fullness as if they were forms of verbal representation. Thus the Erotic Rasa is simply the permanent mental state of delight imitated. The words “delight”. Representation (Abhinayana) is nothing but verbal expression. there will be an infinite number of mental states and Rasas. yet they are not perceived to be so. For such reasons. Rasas therefore are made up of permanent feelings and are born of them. firmness and sexual enjoyment are absent. Therefore. consequence through skill of the actor and transitory mental states through actor’s ability to present his own artificial consequents. it is called by a different word that is Rasa. viz. “This is 85 .Because there will no longer be six varieties of comic Rasas. causes are called by name determinants. It is indeed quite appropriate.” “That man is not happy” “Is this Rama or not?” “This is similar to Rama”. In ten states of love. Bharata did not mention at all the word “permanent mental state” in his Sutra. In the feeling of anger. Just because it is a reproduction. heroism and delight a reduction/decrease is met with when indignation. are brought into existence by conscious effort of the actor. etc. effects are called by name consequents and accompanying elements are called by transitory states of mind. here there is none of the following perceptions: The actor is really happy: “Rama is really that man. words produce. what happens is just the contrary that sorrow is at first intense and grows weaker with time.. communication differing from that of verbal expression. But rather it is the perception. Rasa is simply a permanent state of mind. Rama etc. More precisely Rasa is reproduction of permanent state of mind peculiar to the person reproduced. Verbal representation does not consist merely in words but rather in what effect.

Reproduction can be something perceived by means of cognition.e. i.” “This is that”. This again is the problem. that is a feeling.Neither the actor has this notion: “I am reproducing Rama or his feeling”. then we reply. But here. nor truth. how is this reproduction performed.that Rama who was happy”. being devoid of any contradictory idea. the headwear that crowns it. one cannot distinguish any error. for instance. but a notion which appears. his faltering words.. the raising of his arms. “Thus did so and so drink the wine”. following his master Bhatta Tauta criticizes theory of reproduction. So the possibility that the actor is reproducing Rama is excluded. is without intrinsic value and is incapable of resisting a close criticism”. his frown. We may be allowed to say that the actor does not produce a particular being and that he has only this notion. is. Abhinavagupta. Consciousness of reproduction presupposes perception both of the original and the copy. 2. a production of actions similar to those of someone whose nature we have never perceived would extend to ordinary life too. It is not appropriate to say that from the point of view of the spectators.The first alternative ‘Reproduction’ cannot be upheld. which might seem to be a reproduction of some feeling like delight? This is the problem. This. or finally. his expressive glances etc. 86 . but none of the spectators has ever in his life perceived the delight of the hero. what is it that is perceived in the actor. certainly cannot be regarded by any one as reproduction of delight. 1. nor error. From what point of view was Sankuka saying that Rasa has nature of a reproduction? Is it from the point of view of spectator’s perception? or from that of the actor? or that of critics who analyze the real nature of dramatic presentation? For it has been said that it is in fact. as has already been said. Sankuka himself said: “Here there is neither doubt. in the case of a person drinking some milk (this action being directly perceived by the spectators) and stating. It is undoubtedly not done by tears etc. His body. For a reproduction. not “This is really that” what sort of an argument could disprove an experience evident in and by itself an experience wherein. critics who analyze in this way. Rasa is the reproduction of the permanent mental state. following the opinion of Bharata himself? Abhinavagupta says that this thesis too my masters say. the waving of them. It is certainly not by sorrow as this is absent in the actor. are of a nature other than that of sorrow. let’s say Rama. his horripilations. I am reproducing the sorrow of some noble person. for these.

These made up of pleasure and pain is internal. This thesis agrees with the Sankhya’s doctrine. in Bharata every now and then. What is the view of Bhatta Nayaka? Rasa is neither perceived nor produced nor manifested. ‘it is like a cow’. there is no identification of the image of Sita with that of (his own beloved). cannot logically arouse (in 87 . subjects any more.. At the same time. but these people too are in error. the situation is different. Because we can’t say that minimum etc.. It is a combination possessing the power of generating pleasure and pain.Nor can it be said that there is a reproduction from the point of view of the nature of things. of the beloved one? 5. has a real nature. they are not Rama etc. 4. But this expression is met with. In this combination. Then no one will go to see plays on pathetic etc.3. In the case of aggregate of the determinants etc. he would necessarily experience pain. The sole object of the image. are born of the permanent mental states.Nor did Bharata say in any passage: “Rasa is the reproduction of a permanent mental state”. if the spectator as really present in him perceived it in the pathetic Rasa. then what will be the difference between it and the reproduction of the attire. Again such a perception does not stand to reason because Sita etc. All they do is to produce a particular aggregate similar to a cow. Even if this was a reproduction. manifest a real cow like the one that may be manifested by a lamb etc. The word “compose” is understood in the sense of “manifest”. and the consequents and the transitory mental states do duty for that which garnished it. it is not true that Rasa is the reproduction of the mental states. is simply this minimum etc. this can’t be perceived as similar to delight. so that it is impossible to suppose that the fortune of Sita can play the role of determinant in their case) because no memory of his own beloved one. undoubtedly compose a cow”. for it is impossible that a thing of which one is not conscious. “Drama is an imitation (of all the forms of existence) in the seven islands etc”. applied so as to constitute a particular arrangement similar to the arrangement of the limbs of a cow.Some other theories propounded by some people state: “The pigmentsorpiment etc. Out of it again. the determinants take the place of petals. For. Rasa that is made up of pleasure and pain is nothing but an external combination of various elements. does arise in the spectator’s consciousness (while he looks at Sita). Therefore. the walk etc. does not play the role of a determinant (as regards spectators. The representation of deities etc. Further some other people say.

Bhatta Nayaka apparently considers Rasa as manifested so that the theory of manifestation is maintained rather than discarded. with mystical experience.. it is quite important to note the obstacles towards the realization of Rasa. Rasa is simply the aim of poetry. It is used in the sense that the poem becomes matter of perception that consists of tasting made up of gustation and generated by the determinants etc. that Rasa is the object of the above mentioned experience.” But this cognition (knowing) is not ordinary form of consciousness. What Bhatta Nayaka says by this is “The various Rasas. the subject is completely absorbed in the object contemplated and the whole of the reality which surrounds him disappears from his view. thus behave as no one has behaved before? The audience will certainly impute this double serious and evident error to me. Behold! This is just the fruit of the doctrines which have succeeded each other on the ladder of thought. the mind of man climbs ever higher to gaze on truth.the spectator) the state of generality (the deeds of good are too different from human affairs). This may be accepted without any question. it is said. “Rasas are revealed by the poem”. Obstacles to Rasa Realization At this juncture. “why repeat truths disclosed already in the thought of our predecessors.e. 88 . manifested by the union of determinants etc. Let us understand by the word ‘experience’ as the object of it. “During the aesthetic experience. What are the elements that eliminate the obstacles in the realization of Rasa? It is nothing but the determinants. They are required for aesthetic experience because ocean crossings etc. are revealed by the power of revelation”. Abhinavagupta at this juncture says. (are extra-ordinary undertakings and thus) fall short of generality.”68 What then is the nature of Rasa? What is the nature of Rasa purified from earlier mistakes? Therefore. Similarly Rasa is simply the aim of Fiction. “Rasa is the aim of poetry. it is an experience comprising tasting and is a matter of cognition. Bhatta Nayaka was perhaps the first one to associate aesthetic experience. in other words. for this reason it is different from that “which is (laboriously) milked by yogins”.” This Rasa (aesthetic pleasure) is poured forth spontaneously by the word that is like a cow for love of her children. Tireless. i. the Vibhavas (or the causes). the erotic etc. Again in the stanza.

can do nothing but can 89 . They are different from the ordinary ones. What exactly is the nature of Rasa? Rasa is just that reality by which the determinants. the consequents and the transitory feelings after having reached a perfect combination. enjoyment. Such expressions as “the permanent sentiment becomes Rasa” are due to the correspondence only. They are this way presented in the form of determinants. of the word “permanent sentiment”. free of obstacles. It tastes exactly as long as the gustation lasts and does not prevail on any time separate from it or independent of it. Determinants are not the causes of production of Rasa. not on any objective thing. leading position in the mind of the spectator that makes the whole thing a gustation that comprises a form of consciousness. This Rasa differs from the permanent feelings. relish. On the contrary.The different words Camatkara. immersion. The determinants etc. Rasa should continue to exist even when they no longer fall under cognition. expressive glances. But what are the obstacles we are thinking about? The obstacles we are thinking and conceiving about are unsuitability. and their uses etc. mean the form of consciousness completely free from any obstacles whatever is there. absence of certain very important factor and pervading sense of doubt too contain obstacles towards realization of Rasa. inference and any form of ordinary self-consciousness. It is due to previously considered causes related to a given permanent sentiment. that consist of garden. immersion in temporal and spatial determinants understood exclusively as one’s own or exclusively that of another. as these are perceived in ordinary life. It is quite right to state that perception of a permanent mental state that Rasa is also of this nature. mention of it would have been a source of difficulties. What kind of Rasa is there in the inference of an ordinary sentiment? Therefore. consisting wholly in this state of gustation.. etc. now serve to relish gustation. absence of proper evidence. relation and machination. the fact of being at the mercy of our own sensations of pleasure. accomplishment. the tasting of Rasa differs from both memory. Moreover. that is designated by the expression. tasting. in turn. rest. Does any such thing appear elsewhere? But the fact that it does not appear elsewhere we reply. if it were so. Neither are they the causes of its cognition because Rasa is not an objective thing that could function as a knowledge object. etc. defective state of the means of our perception. lysis. They will be. transcend on their side. feelings of contentment etc. What is it then. That is why Bharata has made no mention in the sutra. “determinants etc”? They do not designate any ordinary thing but what serves to realize gustation.

is the tasting (Rasana). In the case of a play. In poetry. That is what really happens and it happens aptly. and in doing so. there is generally one dominant motive. various moods of the soul occur in alternation with each other (delight. what is produced by the combination of the Determinants etc. In short.). indeed the determinants and the consequents are respectively the causes and effects of Rasas. words do not deserve to be a source of disagreement. in the sense that it follows the ‘production’ of real ordinary life. which are of non-ordinary nature. this theory indeed is not faced with any difficulty. it is a reproduction. Likewise if the expression “The production of Rasa” is understood in the sense of a production of Rasa whose subsistence is exclusively depending on tasting.. of which. “But someone might say in this way. Does the case of Panaka perhaps appear in (molasses. a form of consciousness affected by discursive cognition. and the transitory states to co-operate with them. we see that Rasas are connected with the determinants the consequents etc. sorrow etc. fiction etc. in the case of a short poem or story. pepper etc. and Rasa is non-ordinary reality that is the matter of this tasting. But how then do we think that the expression that Bharata uses in the Sutra can be justified when he says: “The production of Rasa (Rasa Nispatti)”? Let us try and understand this expression in the sense of a production not of Rasa but of tasting which refers to Rasa”. Rasa is not an object of cognition”. however it consists)? This is indeed a proper proportio analogy. but not a form of reproduction. Such difference is due to the means of determinants etc. etc. Tasting itself is not made certain by any means of knowledge. long poem. Rasa indeed consists solely of a tasting and has not the nature of an object of cognition. there is no fault. that are directly expressed. there is no element that can provoke unsuitability of the primary meaning. ‘Does this mean that the apprehension of Rasa is merely the apprehension? Will it be but an inference of the feelings proper to such people’? What sort of Rasa can it possess? 90 . In the conveying of the determinants etc. Drama is only a ‘narration’ made up of the things of re-perception. What is drama? “Drama is a re-narration of things of all the three worlds”. as its real existence is not a refutable data of our own consciousness. This tasting is solely a form of cognition but a form of cognition different from any other ordinary perception.strengthen our thesis of their non-ordinary character.. It is therefore perceived. Once we have clearly determined facts. However we may say.

makes one experience (the mental states) called ‘consequents’. from things as gardens. too. as if merged in a gustation. we must take the ‘birth of Rasa’ mentioned in the Sutra as birth of relishing as relishing. gesture and the temperament. not consequents”. that is the sprout of Rasa-tasting about to appear in its fullness. latent within us of the feeling correspondent to the determinants and the consequents. in worldly life. inferences etc. that may be aroused by different causes such as meeting with a friend appears to develop gradually. we do not apprehend a feeling of others. Therefore. a consent of heart. Bharata says: “by means of words. as if he were indifferent. they are called effects. we call them causes. On the contrary. because Bharata himself has said: “The word determinants is used for the sake of clear knowledge. Rather the truth is that he whose heart possesses the latent traces of the ordinary inferential process from the effect to the cause etc. bristling of the hairs etc. non-ordinary because of the representation.). We are able to apprehend the permanent feelings of delight etc. Therefore. The expressions ‘determinants’ etc. mention of it would have been a source of difficulty. a sort of immersion in gustation. does not apprehend the determinants and so on. not a 91 . such expressions as “The permanent mental state becomes Rasa” are due to correspondence only because gustation of beautiful as it is. not determinants. with this view in mind. the consequents and the transitory mental states. is nothing but an identification with feelings. inference etc. being at the mercy of his own sensibility. The word ‘consequents’ is. This experiencing provoked by the consequents. This gustation therefore is only a manifestation. suitable to an identification (with the determinants etc.But tasting of Rasa. In every day life. The transitory mental state is a feeling but enjoyed in so far as it is entirely dependant on the principal. the birth of Rasa takes place”. The same appears as superior to all the other ordinary feelings of delight etc. are of non-ordinary nature. cannot certainly be so disregarded as to be placed on the same level as the ordinary processes of memory.” In our daily life. the one that is reckoned by Bharata among the determinants and the consequents. Bharata had made no mention of the permanent mental states in the sutra: “Out of the union of the determinants. made up of a non-ordinary Camatkara and is animated by gustation of the determinants etc. proper to poetry. he rather apprehends them without mounting on the path of memory.

It regards a mental state. the spectators will necessarily feel pain. admitting it. this will be with no purpose because at the sight of this excessive particularity.revelation that is through the means of knowledge. gustation is only a particular nature so that even alliterations of harsh or soft sounds can be suggestive of it. 92 . what else do you desire? We may very well reply that it is not ascertained by any means of knowledge. “But” at this point if someone argues: “If this gustation is neither a cognition nor a production. What is then the right one? Due to the infinitude of gradations. it is called “Theatre Rasa”. Therefore this thesis too is not sound. in front of a pathetic scene. Then there can be no useful teaching. though they are of little use to the meaning. what Camatkara would still subsist? On the contrary. Surely. What indeed they say is the sense of this intensification of state of mind by another. the spectators will remain indifferent. But (someone might say) in this way Rasa is not an object of cognition. pleasure and instruction derived. then what is it”? We reply: “Have we not said that Rasa is of non-ordinary nature? What are then these determinants? Are they revealing causes or producing causes? They are neither revealing causes nor producing causes but only something that serves to realize gustation. obviously he could not follow the tempo etc. which naturally develops in a succession. because its real existence is irrefutable details of our own consciousness (that cannot be expounded but is there anything that cannot be proved/argued wrong)? Moreover. neither astonishment nor sorrow nor anger etc. since from its gustation. is perceived as really present in the reproduced personage only. we have only a permanent state of mind that gets nourished by transitory states of mind etc. not a production that is the working by means of action. is experienced as Rasa. in the first stage. If on the other hand. no reproduction of a definite permanent feeling must be made. Therefore the thesis that Rasa is (perceived as really) present in the reproduced personage does not stand to reason.. let us reply: and what of it? For. we say that Rasa is of non-ordinary nature. This is not true. we say that it is in the reproducing actor. and being displayed in the theatre. This Rasa they add. is seen to grow more intense with time. Some critics say that.” Let us raise the question: does any such thing appear elsewhere? For the very reason why it does not appear anywhere else. if finally we say that it is in the spectators.

”This is Rama who was happy”. the necessary measures and the end. We. Having once established that Rasa is suggested. The other power also viz. as its object. This perception in its turn presents itself in the form of relishing. ‘the power of effectuation is actually based on the usage of appropriate qualities and ornaments’. That is the power of suggestion. “as the desire is permanent. Rasa. not in the represented personage. and “on the ground that the remembrances and impressions are homogenous. Therefore Rasa lies in the theatre only. these are beginning-less”.The true nature of Rasa is then: when determinants. it is believed that it has been established that Rasa is perceived. there is an uninterrupted succession of latent impression. it is quite obvious that the power of suggestion will correspond to the means. The perception has. Further the effectuation process is endowed with three distinct parts namely. If we say that poetry is affecting Rasa. Therefore. the means. then we revive the reproduction theory. that the express sense and the expressing words come to possess. for as it has been said. 93 . the sense of the word suggests the implied meaning”. Our minds are characterized by the most latent impressions. different from memory. maintain that this power of effectuation pertaining to the two of them as it is confirmed in the stanza: “That kind of poetry. on the other hand. there arises perception. The spectator tastes it in the actor who is considered as identical with the reproduced ‘Rama’. power of effectuation can be proper neither to the poetic words only if the express-sense is not known. it does not prolong its beingness. That is ultimately found on the reproducing actor that is to be found only in theatre. and has. viz. space and time”. Besides this. even if separated by birth. Therefore. wherein either. (A critic). appropriate qualities and ornaments to the necessary measures and Rasas to the end. as its object. The above said power cannot logically exist. if we make the power of manifestation corresponding to the means. This is briefly the nature of aesthetic experience. nor to the express sense only. This so-called power of bringing about enjoyment proper to poetry consists actually of this power of suggestion only. the consequents and the transitory states of mind are joined together with reference to a permanent state of mind. devoid of any defined stage. produced by the effecting poem. Rasa is noting but that. the permanent feeling. because this is conveyed by other words. This relishing is produced by a unique power different from the power of denotation. is made up of a tasting.

we cannot object anyway whatsoever. to them who maintain that poetry at the end produces a teaching that differs from usual analogy. therefore. tasting of Rasa is similar to tasting of supreme Brahman. Rasas are manifested and are tasted through perception. viz “as Rama. We have nothing to reproach. This intuition becomes instrument. so I”. propose to state that it is definitely established: that is. the teaching to be derived from poetry is different from the injunctions and instructions imparted by religious treatises and historical narratives. Moreover. As to the theory. consists in an enrichment of our own power of intuition.the above-mentioned power of bringing about enjoyment is too clearly established. However. 94 . Enjoyment indeed is identical with Camatkara arising from Rasa experience itself. I. that allows tasting of Rasa.

G. p.Chapter.1-2 39. p.2&iii.Sarvadarsanangraha.p120.275-292 26. (Gaekwad Oriental Series) vi.21 5.Ibid. 10..Ibid.Ibid 1. Vol. v. Kavya Mala.73.) 36.48.Paranjpye. Ibid.R.5.Natya Sastra.1.p. . Benares. 6.1.ii. Rg. .37. br.iv.Veda.208.63.5. 15. Vidya Vilas Press.viii. 14. 2 kavyadarsa. By Dr. iv.4. Natya Sastra.292 30.3 Notes 1.Kavyadarsa. .13.Veda.3. Ibid.81 19. iv.10 24. Poona.Ibid.Veda.7 35.Ibid 1.iii.b.Veda.Ibid.viii. iii.br. D. 1895. 11.71 17. 1.3.vi.p.13 4.Alankarasekhara. ix.573 12.Natyasastra.Ibid.19: ch.274 (commentary) 33. Ibid ii. .O.11.1.2 2.Sir Asutosh Mookerjee Silver Jubilee Volumes.Taittiriya Upanisad.26.) vi. b.1.3.281 and 283 27. Natya Sastra (Kashi Sanskrit Series. (Kashi Sanskrit Series. Upanishads. 1924.ii.p. 1925.ii.iv.15 3.275 29.ii.Ibid.18 31.10. 7.Ibid.9.katha.15.vii.1.Kavyadarsa. Ibid 18.44. Atharva Veda. Oriental-part 2.p.d.13.3.21 23.44. xvi.ii.1 25. Kavyadarsa.) vi.I.4 34.2.S.1 13.x. Natya śastra 21.iii.iv. t. 1907. (Vamana) Benares Sanskrit Series134. 95 .Ibid. viii.30.i.4. Upanishads.i. Upanishads. Rg. Bombay.Ibid.Kavyalankarasarangraha.84-85 22. Rg.5.27 28.4 8.281 32. iii.Calcutta.11.2. Pub.20 1x.V. 20.2 (Bhanarkar Oriental Research Institute.1 9.iv.7 (com) 38. pub. Benares.vii.1.Kavyalankarasutra.p. 16.Kavyamala p. Atharva Veda. By B.11.204 Government Oriental (Hindu) Seriesno.3 37. Rg.iii7.102 40.

London W. 1929. Calcutta.4 45.i.) 42. 1950.1.Natyasastra. 67.Ibid.Ibid. 1.Anandavardhana-Dhvanyaloka .p.3.333.119. 1879.Ibid. xv.Natyasastra. A unique kind of awareness.1909.529 etc 58. Bombay. . 50. spectators performers get moved and actuated to enjoy gustation.Agnipurana. Rudrata-Kavyalankara.pp.135. Ganesa press.338.Natya Sutras.S. 2.iv.110 60.ii7-ii8 64.Natyasastra.338.K.336. 1:4 70. By the University of Madras.Ibid.15 46.xii: 3 43.Ibid.Rudrata–Kavyalankara.i.17.256-257 54. iv.ii.37 (Avaloka com) 59.s.9 52.1.P.Dhavanyaloka.336.vi. C.1-5 51.2. 1923 & vol.Ibid. 65 Natyasastra.RasaSutra:ch.Ibdid. vol.4. 68. 62.voi.With various Bhavas.Dhvanyaloka.i.xv. 96 .iii.Natya Veda (creation of the fifth Veda by grandfather Brahma at the of all gods & goddesses at the leadership of Indra. i. 1925. pub.. 61. 66.50. pp.1.1.Mahabhasya of Patanjali.O.1. the Grammar of Panini.xii. 63 Natyasastra. 1. Luzac &C. ii.Ibid.Great Russell Street.338.20 48.s.120-121.iv.Ibid. 56. (Kavyamala.5 (Vritti) 57. k.4 53 S.19 44.De Sanskrit Poetics.m.Abhinavagupta’s commentary. k. . 46. p. 69.D.Ibid.pp.-60 55 Anandavardhana. 49.41. 47.xii.Ibid. No.33.Sankaran-Some Aspects of Literary Criticism in Sanskrit.

are mainly concerned with technique. Aesthetics is a “philosophy of fine art”. a statutory. Cleito3. The Sanskrit Literary Theory Greek word ‘aesthetica’ is a study of things perceptible to senses. From Hegelian point of view it is a “philosophy of fine art”. Socrates referred to the theory of selective imitation during the course of his talks not only with Parrhasium. He also refers to phenomena of nature as instances of sublime. in art or nature. We are now entering into the problem of ‘beautiful’. Different thinkers have studied beauty at different times. or a science that is concerned with ‘obscure’ knowledge. a corslet-maker. and nature. it is in the form of feeling or sensing. it is a study of “science and philosophy of fine art”. Addison maintains that pleasure of imagination is possible both from art. a painter. which a work of art arouses in Aestheticians. and philosophy is closely connected to it.Chapter 4 A Comparative Study of Western Aesthetics and Rasa. In the context of Indian aesthetics. because the experience. Because its ‘obscure’ knowledge. We are going to learn of ‘beautiful’ not only from philosophical point of view but also from technical point of view as well. but also to Pistias. I am proposing here to persuade my readers that an appropriate and comprehensive concept that fits in here may be that Aesthetics is a science and philosophy of ‘beautiful’ and ‘sublime’ in both art and nature. It is a science of fine art because art problem was originally a technique of art. From popular use. Literary works where philosophy of art is discussed. things material opposed to things thinkable or immaterial. Baumgarten1 in his doctorate thesis in 1750 states ‘Aesthetic’ is ‘a science of sensitive cognition only2’. holds that art is absolute as conceived by them. Kant recognizes distinction between ‘beautiful’ and ‘sublime’. Discussing various general principles of aesthetics and philosophers who contributed much to the study is within the scope of my research work. it seems to mean a theory of beauty in general. Some wellknown theories of beauty are (a) Hedonistic (b) Rigorist or Moralistic or 97 .

in works of music and architecture. But gradually in Rg Veda songs. dawn and earth. Bharatamuni4. is thesis. He emphasizes that there is no such love. storms. Theories of (a) Imitation. music. All these things of nature were worshipped and prayed to. spiritual discipline. which a particular work of art aroused in spectator. as they are not used in some occasion or other in dramatic presentation. wind. and means of knowledge employed by him in the enjoying of that experience. (b) Illusion (c) Idealized reproduction has been propounded from the point of view of artist showing what the artist does in artistically dealing with object that inspires and enlightens him. Hegel supports the view that religion and art are closely related. poetry and drama. Human characteristics of walking on two legs. art. experience. Art. to which greater part of human progress is attributed. talking could not develop in them due to lack of human association. phenomena of nature artistically conceived as gods. religion is antithesis and philosophy is synthesis. science. craft and object. water of rivers and fruits of earth. author of Natya Sastra2 gives all other arts only a subordinate position to dramatic art. showing nature of experience. sky. sculpture. But Croce differs on the relation between art and religion as thesis and antithesis. From the point of view of spectator. storms. In the West.Pedagogic depicting the problem from the point of view of art or aim of products of art. gleaming moon. which exist from the beginning of creation. 98 . Earlier hymns of Rg Veda are addressed to shining sun. Hegel says. moon. We find in Vedas. We can certainly attribute this to religions grown on Indian soil. lightning sky. The wolf’s children brought up by wolves had nothing to imitate but the wolves. Imitative faculty is inherent in humanity. burning fire. painting. They are considered as objects of worship. these theories have been studied on basis of architecture. theories of art put forth are (a) confused cognition (b) inference and (c) mysticism. Influence of Bharata is traceable in the treatment of emotive aspect of art. Art logically precedes religion in triune manifestation of the absolute. fire. But religious gods appear to be artistic conceptions of natural phenomena. similar theories progressed primarily and mainly in relation to products of dramatic art. evolved mythological gods and goddesses such as sun. But in India. waters.

Since time immemorial.But with the progress of humanity from savage state to early form of culture. But the earliest products of art are imitative. They depict assemblies of believers before the master. nature and fellowship of all beings. This shows religion and art were linked to each other like two sides of an icon. Sacred memories of Buddha found itself most effective way of traditional Buddhist art at the hands of his disciples. there is a symbolic6 representation of Buddha’s person. to show of whom they were in favor and whom they were furious against. continuity of man’s life. Religion and art are two important factors in early history of man. In the same manner. gods of fear. Let us have a look at the Indus valley civilization. Sankuka related imitation to logical inference. we have icons7 showing mother goddess. love and worship. Until today aesthetics and art critics use Greek word Mimesis meaning imitation. though with slight variation. earlier Aestheticians conceived “Anukrti” (imitation) to mean a copy of an external fact. It’s then Aristotle who gives the final touch to this Aesthetic term. It was only a copy of what could be directly perceived by media of clay or stone. Buddha preached ideal of realizing through spiritual experience and moral acts. in gods. artists followed principle of imitation in the world known then. In Archeological excavations of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro. in India too. sacred wheel symbolizing eternal truth revealed by him or a vacant seat on which he used to sit. it began to believe in higher powers. Phallus and a male god probably Sivalingam. To Sophist Gorgias. Homer and Hesiod5 seemed to have drawn such gods and determined forms as attributes of gods for Hellenistic belief according to Herodotus. imitation implies illusion. It’s Abhinavagupta who gave it the true implication in the 99 . they had definite forms and attributes believed to live on earth in temples or on hills to show themselves in all gracefulness to naked eyes. Socrates took it to mean his selective imitation. Earliest sculptures are palings of Bharahat and carved palings of Buddha Gaya and Sanchi. or Bodhi tree under which he attained Nirvana. In Hellenistic faith. Bhatta Lollata interpreted it as illusion. At the center. such religious faith found expression in art that emerged from religion. Such instances in India are of sculptural art. Bharata too used ‘Anukrti’ in aesthetics meaning imitation though his followers put in their mile-varied interpretations. They were visible natural phenomena.

is not confined to copying of the sensible. imitation of art does not comprise pure and simple copying of the exterior of external objects of nature. Bharata calls such representation of mental states in terms of expressions thereof in physical changes i. Anubhavas. of him who deceives and of him who is deceived.e. good and lovely characters are exhibited? ii. who is beautifully formed for wrestling is unlike another who is beautifully formed for running.C. which turns out to the honor of both. A man. excite certain pleasure in the spectators? He questioned Cleito. is not beautiful for saving oneself from dart of the enemy. Cleito a statutory and Pistias a corslet-maker. He improved it by calling the theory as solstice imitation. what is this selective imitation? It is the combination of beautiful aspects in different objects of various perceptions. For him. Socrates discovered first the symbolic element in the works of art of his period. It is shameful not to know how to deceive oneself and not to let oneself be deceived”. Imitation. He held that “tragic8 representation is a deception. But their very nature. according to Socrates. ‘Do you think that people look with more pleasure at paintings in which beautiful. a painter. friendliness and joy. engaged in any act. Aesthetics of Socrates Socrates (469-399B.) fully realized that various arts had developed on the stage creating illusions. According to Socrates. He emphasized that production of beautiful works of art depends on selective imitation. Does not the representation of passions of men.. its success does not lie in the creation of illusion. i. a statutory “How do you put into your statues that which most wins? 100 .C. they do not direct representation.course of this discussion on it. This is precisely what he spells in the course of his talk with Parrhasius a painter.) accepted the theory of imitation. but can be indirect. in terms of physical expressions thereof. the states of mind such as sorrow. Now. beauty is not absolute but relative to purpose “An arrow9 which is beautiful for shooting. He applied it to the arts of painting and sculpture. It extends to supersensible. Sophist Gorgias (about 470B. Therefore we may very well say that Socrates believed in aesthetic hedonism from questions he put to Parrhasius.” The end of art. he says. is pleasure.

As far as end of every art is concerned. Plato (427-347B. Plato improved on it. exists independently of each other according to Plato. This view of Plato is very much like that which is attributed to Sankuka of his theory of art. They exist prior to things absolutely independent of them. The former (world of ideas) is real and latter is ‘unreal’. eternal. Reflection is the guiding principle of any imitative artist. Ideas exist in and for themselves. Plato’s view on Reflection Owing to his theory of Reflection in context of both metaphysics and aesthetics. A product of art is nothing but a reflection of natural object. He also introduced concept of relative beauty. they have substantiality. Plato depicts art to be a shadow of a shadow. Upon this. Plato maintains a world of nature 101 . transcendent archetypes of things. a reflection of a reflection. indefinable and imperceptible. Theories of reflection and imitation of art are closely related.The minds of the beholders…. He sticks to dualistic metaphysics in the context of his theory of art. art remained hedonistic. The theory of illusion in art that Plato inherited from Sophist Gorgias marked similarity with the one attributed to Bhatta Lollata.” Moreover. the early theory of imitation was a mere representation in a material medium of perceptible aspects of an external object of nature. Matter for Plato is substratum of the world of sense and nature.) is very important for an effective comparative study. They are not influenced by changes or mutations to which things are subjected. original. It is for purpose of our common experience. We are clear not that Plato is only using ‘Imitation’ for ‘Reflection’. The world of ideas and what Aristotle called Platonic matter. They are real universal forms. world of idea impresses its forms. Plato’s condemnation of imitative art is much on the same lines as Abhinavagupta’s criticism of imitative theory of Sankuka. Socrates applied the concept of imitation to supersensuous state of mind. He had replaced the theory of imitation by selective imitation. The objective world is nothing but ‘reflection’ of the world of ideas on ‘matter’. matter is devoid of all qualities. It is formless.C. He presents in his work much of an object of nature as is perceptibly reflected on a smooth surface like that of water or mirror. Unimpressed by the ideas. He put art on the way to symbolism.

These are subsumed under one universal.C. We may therefore call Plato’s view on art as ‘Rigorist Hedonism’ because he insists upon strictest and severest enforcement of exhibition-law and enjoyment of art. They are present in a thing as their formative principles. and both are essentially different. All reality which things possess is due to influence of ideas. When each idea splits up into many particulars. It is just responsible for recognition of a thing as belonging to a particular class and for use of word for which it stands for universal. They are universal. Idea of universal is innately present in particular. Thus entire world of nature is due to influence of ideas on external matter. it immediately breaks up into many particulars. come and go. It does not fix direction of growth and development of matter that it inheres. Continuity of form on matter is due to continuous repletion of impression of the same form. world of nature is ‘fleeting. His theory is mainly called ‘Pedagogism’ in context of tragedy. Thus world of nature is due to contact with world of ideas with “matter”. changing and irrational’. Like ray of sun into many rays of different colors. we have multiplicity of objects.) is quite consistent from point of view of comparative study. Aristotle (384-322B. Universal of Vaisesika is not a formative principle. This is the view maintained by Vaisesika philosophy. it passes through prism. According to Aristotle. Objects owe their seeds to the presence of ideas. In contrast to the world of ideas. ‘Universal of Vaisesika is epistemic’ and not a metaphysical concept as it is in Aristotelian philosophy.besides world of ideas. Aristotle’s View on Poetics Aristotle emphasizes that the end of art is to improve its lover morally. Impressions of forms do not change essential character of matter. it remains basically the same under all forms much as clay under forms of various pot items. ideas are not transcendent but inherent. When an idea comes into contact with matter. correlating to our ‘transient mental states’ of Bharatamuni. He holds that tragedy brings moral improvement of spectator through Catharsis of 102 . Plato further goes on to explain ‘the world of matter’ as ‘undifferentiated mass’. ‘a receptacle’ of forms with unlimited potentiality for taking on all possible forms. Aristotle’s Metaphysics and Aesthetics Because of his metaphysics and aesthetics. So impressions of forms on matter are momentary.

Greeks regarded this as a type of poetry.emotions. the plot is the soul of a tragedy. It is through bringing about a purgation or discharge of excessive element of ensuants. The scene presented on the boards excited only pity and fear. there are two views on the moral end of art. he has marked a similarity with Sri Sankuka. diction. complete and of great gravity. As it is. through pity and fear effecting the proper purgation of these emotions. These two combined with strange stage conditions and chorus element an integral 103 . Conflict was present in them. The word tragedy comes from Greece. Because everything was subservient to plot. Moreover through freeing emotions from unwanted. The other dramaturgists assert that drama improves spectator morally bringing about identification. character. Aristotle while analyzing above definition gives us six artistic ornaments viz. Sting of fate was obvious everywhere though tragic error in character bringing about his doom is also to be traced back to experiences of sufferers on screen. there is a kind of inference on both these aspects. one put forth by poeticians whose poetry improves her lover morally. The plot is thus the first principle. the principal one. in form of action and not of narrative. spectacle and song. in language embellished with each kind of artistic ornaments. The Plot is given the meaning as ‘the imitation of the action’. Pity was due to helplessness of its victims and fear due to relentlessness of ancestral fate. Every other aspect is made subservient to the plot. mythology of great heroes supplied stories of great dimensions. These indeed make plot. this produces harmony among them. Aristotle defined tragedy as ‘an imitation of an action that is serious. Such importance of plot made it necessary to be serious. several of them are found in separate parts of the play. plot. He admits that in the experience of a work of art. In India too. He discovers that art brings about elimination of certain elements of personality. thought. Aristotle is an exponent of precognitive nature of aesthetic experience in context of the ugly. He seems to pave way for the Plotinic conception of Catharsis as complete ‘de-individualisation’. This indeed makes the spectator experience virtue and wickedness.. complete and of certain magnitude. It is seen controlling actions and activities of scions. it was lowered to a minor status. mostly innocent and harmless people.

exile. Influences of other tendencies were also seen at work. These were direct and immediate ancestors of Elizabethan tragedy. morality. This restricted itself to only two emotions. kings or great leaders. outer sometimes working in direct contrast to inner. and Mystery Plays In England. Marlow tried to establish tragic type in England. Senecan plays’ influences were there too. they only paved the way for plays of Shakespeare who achieved a complete success. and the Christian idea of punishment (Antonio). tragedy and comedy ceased to be connected with dramatic works. miracle and mystery plays sprang from religious observations. Plays of Marlow however were not greatly successful. Shakespeare’s Concept of Tragedy His conception of tragedy therefore deserves attention. Instead they could be used for all forms of narrative. there is an outer and an inner tragedy. But rich source of Greeks was lost during medieval ages. dealing with murder and torture and bloodshed. gave English tragedy a theme of greatness and strength which before was wanting in it’. medieval idea of fall from happiness into unhappiness. inner tragedy is quieter and more poignant that involves usually a struggle between emotion and intellect. impotency and horrible deeds with high ranking and important persons. Outer tragedy lies on lines of utmost sensationalism. with great preference to most sensational and bloody stories of adultery.part of Greek tragedy account for strait canvas of Greek tragedy. pity and fear. Tragedy dealt with history. Miracle. Such isolation of medieval and classical periods. murders. University wits too tried their skills at various dramatic forms. For instance. in nature of experiments. or between emotion and traits of character 104 . Of these writers. Themes borrowed from Greek mythology. For instance. Morality. murder of parents by their children or of children by their parents. His efforts were greatly in demand. All his major tragedies. This was probably the context of a tragedy in the minds of people in the sixteenth century. whether dialogue or not. ‘That concepts of Renascence virtue-battling onward to success and then falling unconquered before fate. pagan idea of fortune (Shylock). incest. have characteristics that are common. Such plays began with pomp and glory but indeed miserably and horribly. So various tendencies from which Elizabethan drama arose can be put together as Aristotelian idea of magnitude.

close imitations of contemporary French romances or dramas. a restricted action. This particular aspect makes it a separate and unique type. the latter restricted to struggle between emotions of love and intellect narrowed down to duty. an imitation of French practice. which revolve around conflicts of various nature and form. Transition brought about by Restoration tragedy. themes and situations that were confined to slight variations of stereotyped love story. French influence is to be noticed in many ways. conception of honor. Writers tried to excite admiration even with exaggeration and bombast. came to be known as Heroic tragedy. Moreover themes and their treatment. Use of heroic couplet was its distinguishing mark. Plots too were direct borrowings. Many ways of imitating them followed but the standard ones attained could not be reached again. What is imitated is outer and inner conflicts. Shaw Sees Life as it Exists in His Own Age 105 . supernatural element etc. Inner struggle may end disastrously but figures only secondarily. Excesses of worst nature. Unities were attended to. Moreover peculiar relationship the hero bears to his surrounding as all heroes are set in position where they cannot battle with fate. Of Sentimental type. So here again. are all on the line of French ideas. persons and scenes greatly reduced in number. This transition led to horror tragedy. importance given to love etc. in comparison with Elizabethan practice. The outcome was origin of Sentimental tragedy. In addition others borrowed from French dramas. majority observed unities. Almost everyone had regard for poetic justice. Then we come across supernatural forces operating unseen.which arise out of habit and custom. Gradually center of attraction shifted towards incidents that became the main point of interest and excitement. drew first notice.. So much importance is attached to characters. They formulated rules of propriety in characterization and language to be observed all in French manner. What is absent from Elizabethan tragedy is fatal relationship of hero with his surroundings. are to be seen. the characters do not assume importance but incidents and situations they are placed in. conventions of most undesirable ones and excellences of Elizabethan bloom all amounted to sowing on desert soil. This type is another form of Heroic tragedy. These two influences were working. few reveled horrors and bloodshed. This had some traits of Elizabethan tragedy. incidents. nearly all had few persons.

As in case of tragedy. the two types of literature which Greece had in his time developed finely and hardly at all with comedy’. a new statement of problems of man and universe is needed because no age is exactly like any other age. In England Medieval drama in its miracles and moralities benefited in merging sublime and ridiculous as this juxtaposition was found very effective. Elements gradually got combined and formed one group 106 . ‘the date at which he lived prevented him from realizing completely the worth and the possibilities of the comic spirit of his land. It consists in some defect or ugliness which is not painful or destructive’. where new ideas reign. what Greek scholar Aristotle has said on the point is that comedy has a slow growth. Or men and women living in one age are exactly like those of other age. His contention is that in every age. Song. He ridicules prevailing fashions of the day. He concerns himself with life as is seen in his own age. These miracle. transition is made to a different period. So much importance was not attached to comedy as given to tragedy. and incident became prevailing characteristics in it. tragedy in whatever form was available was lost during Middle Ages. Comic muse of Greece had developed fully but after Aristotle. show. As a consequence poetics deals largely with tragedy and with epic. in the full sense of the word had the ludicrous being merely a subdivision of the ugly. He depicts various phases of life. As Nicoll puts it. This was the conception of melodrama as evolved in the 18th century. an imitation of characters of a lower type not however. As Thorn Dike says “They were devoted to serious purpose and were often didactic in tone but very soon found a little comic business helpful in holding the attention of their audiences”. mystery and morality plays were religious and didactic. We see a turning point from this aspect to secular one is to be seen in France in 15thc. Greek scholars ‘conception of laughter was an outlet for scorn and derision of something inferior which however caused no point’. He tries to exaggerate society of its affectations and false associations. Nicoll defines comedy as follows ‘comedy is. Here melodrama is only type of tragedy that is ‘increasingly more sensational neglecting characterization and true tragic spirit for sake of mere effect’. In considering comedy. as it exists in his own time. as we have said.With Bernard Shaw (1856-1950). Shaw’s attitude in his drama is to see life.

recovery of long lost children or parents is a frequent conclusion. Many writers produced a number of works of art. Characters represent manners and types of Elizabethan age. Sentimental comedy came about in last years of 107 . wit is not so predominant. Slaves are the gobetweens and manipulators. mystery and morality plays together with farce provided edification and amusement. but it is Shakespeare who attained mastery. Laughter is also subdued by keeping it subordinate to plot. tragiccomedy of Beaumont and Fletcher etc. In England during Renaissance. relief and intensification running on parallel lines with main element or being placed largely independent of it. which have got realistic and romantic coloring made more pleasing because of humor in character. Twins are numerous. set aside. Characters could be fittingly placed and emotions could be suitably depicted. Mistaken identity is very common. Miracle. misunderstandings and disguises make up intrigue. Mistakes. Old men. Such imitation combined with elements as farce. Situation reaches a happy complication when trickster is tricked. Comic used in tragic plays served three purposes viz.through farce in an integrated form was also to be seen in England. it is subdued and chastened. In his later plays. tragic element comes that is stressed. Evil is present in plot. But the course of tricks runs no smoother than that of true love. jealous husbands. romantic chronicle and court-show gave birth to comedy of romance. His comedies have many noticeable elements. Renaissance comedy had its birth. proud soldiers and parasites whose pompous civilities are open to easy ridicule. Main point of importance is character placed in midst of situations. Persons engaged in these entanglements conform to rather fixed types. love sick youths. moralities. Intrigue element also finds scope in them. Gems of tragic-comedy can be traced back to Greek days when satiric drama existed as species distinct from tragic and comic expressions. models provided by plays of Terence. contrast. Humor appears in most of these plays. In his earlier plays. misers. Intrigue is met by counter intrigue. where it desires to be uppermost. Plot is usually a conflict of tricks. A pair of young lovers is engaged in deceiving their elders. which is later. It is fruitful in such dramatic forms as comedy of romance. scenes are set in natural surroundings. A well-planned device normally meets unexpected obstacles. the tendency to mix two species found full scope. Such type of comedy is a compromise between idealism and realism. Still later came Sentimental comedy wherein laughter was replaced with moral reflections and sympathetic pathos.

Some historical plays come under tragedies whereas others under comedies. He holds that aesthetic pleasure depends on certain proportion of object to the sense. There is no thrill or awe from the scene presented. moral aims are inculcated. A play like Twelfth Night is a comedy in its entire dimension. Instead.. As Soares puts it.e. “It is beyond belief that any man should follow right reason that constitutes a man in order that he may cling to faith through which he is a Christian! Thus nature of human mind was beyond all doubt because scriptural view has support of reason too”. Descartes asserted. Unhappy ending is missing in this type of drama. historical play in which story is taken from history or biography or chronicles. Aristotle held that a proportion subsists between sense and object. Christian Influence on Philosophical Principles Let us now review what Christian influence has on conception of philosophical principles of scriptures of the Holy Bible. The changes subsequently occurred in character are dawning of repentance or becoming a penitent and turning to a new life. There are again others in which historical interest may be subordinated to comic: for example. Those objects are most pleasant which are neither so easy nor difficult to apprehend. presentation of characters and incidents in main plot is adequate enough. There is another kind of dramatic form i. Out of this Sentimental drama. Harmony means proportion of stimulus and response. Julius Caesar and Macbeth. i. some of the historical plays have a tragic interest and are properly called tragedies. It then merged with other forms. originated later problems of drama. But a play like Henry V can neither be regarded as a tragedy nor as a comedy and more properly comes under head of historical plays. Sentimental drama was distinct from comedy as it depicted to emphasize virtue and duties of man. for instance. Being a rationalist.the 17th century and extended successfully to the Victorian Era. first part of Henry IV.e. But one act. Descartes accepted this Aristotelian conception to explain how pleasure and beauty are related. for instance. a proper drama of sentiment emerged that might or might not include comic matter. 108 . In the 18th century. Sentimental comedy at first was comedy of manners unto the last. Every detail here need not be true to historical facts. Thus it assumed several forms. depicting some sudden revulsion of character or some surface changes in conduct of plot. last act.

Pope said: “first follow nature and your judgment frame by such just standard which is still same”. very much as Bharata divides external signs of emotions of heart. According to Locke. causes delight in the beholder. intellect and will. primary and secondary and genus and species. Instead he emphasizes that physical states involved in emotions are correlates of states of soul. giving imagination the position of a messenger between memory and understanding. Creative imagination of artist distorts nature. a creation of free imagination or by presentation of it on stage. He divides emotions into primitive and derived. He asserts that emotions are not simply states of human organizations. Aesthetic experience is an intellectual joy accompanied by ‘a passion’ or emotion that may be aroused by reading a strange adventure. according to Locke (1632-1704) is a complex idea that admits of being brought under a mixed mode. 109 . as a necessary accompaniment of intellectual joy that aesthetic experience consists of. he followed the path pointed out by Aristotle. Aesthetic experience at one level is an emotive experience according to eminent Indian aestheticians. Beauty to him is not a relation. He changed his opinion later on. Because it is a combination of figures and colors. He also showed way to evolution of Kantian theory in itself as he divided qualities into primary and secondary. Why is Descartes so important to our present comparative study? In “The passions of the soul”.In his mechanical explanation of passion and action too. Aesthetic experience is a pleasant deception. Locke too was. Descartes accounts for poetic production in terms of faculties of soul such as imagination. Bacon. Founder of Empiricism Bacon (1561-1626) founder of Empiricism seemed to regard imagination as important as memory and understanding. Beauty. In opposition to Bacon’s concept of imagination. It is not real. an empiricist. he deals with emotions in a manner very much like that was followed by Bharata in his Natya Sastra. we have no innate ideas or innate knowledge of principles. Emotion is admitted by Descartes. Mind is an unfurnished dark room with no marks or lines on it. He held that starting point of any scientific investigation is not general truth of reason but particular psychological fact.

We receive them through inner sense but pleasure. external senses and internal senses. are creations of mathematicians only but not of poets according to Locke. are never received so united. It is made up of a certain combination of colors and figures that causes delight or pleasure in beholder. touch etc. taste. extension. All such ideas are made up of simple ones. simple and mixed. They are creations of mind. however. taste. Thus according to Locke. Thus secondary qualities are not mere subjective ideas. Mind has power to repeat. There are three complex ideas namely (a) Modes. Locke and Real Ideas Is beauty a real idea? According to Locke real ideas are those that conform to real being and existence of things. in simple ideas received through two windows. Primary qualities such as solidity and extension belong to things in themselves. which is not originally got through senses. Ideas are of two types namely simple and complex. But complex ideas neither conform to external things nor do they to any reality independently of mind. Objects themselves have certain powers to produce sensation of color. beauty is a complex idea that can be brought under mode in so far as it is a construct of ideas of difficult kinds. which mind constructs by putting together ideas it has. We should keep in mind two aspects in order to understand Locke’s philosophy (I) function of mind (ii) types of idea. Color. Simple modes are combination of simple ideas of various forms. Modes are also of two types viz. are simple ideas. compare and write in various ways. There can be no extent in a complex formation. Such archetypal constructs. (c) Relations. are obtained through external senses and perception.Secondary qualities are not in objects themselves. Beauty is such a mixed mode. comparing etc. which get through both. pain etc. motion etc. It is a product merely of custom and manner. Simple ideas are thus real. Some such mental constructs themselves are archetypes and as such are real. in us by their primary qualities. Simple ideas are those that the mind receives through external sources of inner senses. Beauty 110 . These new complex ideas are due to unifying power in mind. not because they are copies of things existing outside but because they are effects of powers of things without. This will become clear through a reference to Locke’s Real Ideas. (b) Substances. He also holds that beauty has no foundation in our mind. Complex ideas. space. retention.

such a deception is pleasant. connoisseur (appreciative reader/viewer) becomes spiritually identical with artist. It diverts unwary spectators from truth. 111 . It is like a court-dresser who gives false appearance and deceives unwary. He then continues to be one with the artist spiritually if he is to reproduce artistic vision in himself. The effort of art is pleasure rather than information and moral improvement. free from even predicative relation. Is it ‘intuition’ without intellectual element? It is therefore fitting that we dwell upon Croce’s Aesthetic theory in some details. not sensible certainly as presented by Hegel. He holds that in aesthetic experience. mislead judgement and therefore are perfect cheats. It is ‘intuition’ without intellectual element that a poem communicates. that connoisseur has to rise to the level of artist. are to court-dresser. aesthetics is first theoretic form. Croce’s aesthetic experience becomes spiritually identified with the artist that makes comparative aesthetics quite relevant at this point. And the figurative and other artificial applications of words are to poets and dramatists what color is etc. It is genuine as we have in aesthetic contemplation. Croce and Comparative Aesthetics Croce (1866-1952) is important from point of view of comparative aesthetics. according to Locke is a pleasant deception caused by artistic presentation of false creations of imaginations. Aesthetic experience therefore. move passions. But human nature is such that it likes to be deceived by such presentation of creative imagination: for. He found complete agreement between Hegel and Abhinavagupta when he says that aesthetic experience does not involve comparison of one thing with another or any spatial or temporal relations. It does not involve comparison of one thing with another or any spatial or temporal relation. It is marked by total absence of distinction between subject and object. To Croce. Hence beauty is not real. divert mind from truth. that reproductive activity presupposes identity of psychological conditions of connoisseur with those who have admitted identity in the experience of the connoisseur with that of artist. appearances and resemblances of what it presents. Locke holds fancy or imagination of the artist who gives false colors. Such words indirectly arouse wrong ideas. It is subjective experience.in art does not conform to an external of mathematical mind.

we become clear. This is not yet aesthetically elaborate. Intellectual knowledge alone is not knowledge. Intuition is also knowledge though it is free from concepts. But art is more exalted. In aesthetic fact. Croce’s special contribution to aesthetics is his definition of intuition. It is distinct from intellectual knowledge as well as perception of the real. May we ask Croce what demarcation line is between them? Croce with no hesitation would reply that it is impossible to draw such a line. if by form we understand a formative spiritual activity”. intuition or impression is the starting point for spiritual activity of expression. we understand is pure spiritual affection due to internal or external causes. expressive activity is not added to the fact of impression but impressions are elaborated by expressive activity. “How are two related in an artistic fact?” Croce would answer this thus: “matter and form. If we put his idea of ‘intuition’ in proper perspective. Let us then briefly survey his system and see what place intuition occupies in it. Croce attempts the problem of aesthetics like Hegel from three points of view (i) of art (ii) of artist and (iii) of connoisseur. there is no passage from qualities of content to those of form. There is no distinct consciousness of impression apart from that of expression. What then is the relation between content and form in Art? The characteristic feature of intuition is expression of impression. This is the basis of practical life. It is an expression that is complicated and made difficult. It has its own independent territory. art is intuition.Croce holds that art is intuition. According to Croce. Impressions reappear the same and yet different on other side”. Art experience is intuitive experience. Art is pure intuition. Impression or content. Difference between ordinary intuition and poetic intuition is only quantitative and so non-essential. What does he mean by intuition? He gives a detailed account of his meaning of intuition at beginning of his ‘aesthetics’. Content of aesthetic fact has no determinate quality until it has been 112 . It is simpler than perception of the real. in terms of which he presents his views on all topics allied to aesthetics. Therefore it is hardly achieved because it is expression of a complex state of soul. In aesthetic fact. or to that of concepts. Therefore art does not belong to sphere of feeling or psychic matter. impression and expression are not two distinct aspects. more extensive and richer than ordinary intuition.

nothing but form that takes us to Art as Intuition. stimulant of reproduction. Thus content and form. The relation between them is purely external. as an aid. They draw a distinction between image of physical. But a work of art is a physical fact that serves as an instrument. because aesthetic experience is experience of perfect unity and not of any duality. The error of Associationists is due to the fact that they take physical and aesthetic facts separately. have to be brought to the level of impressions Artistic intuition is an aesthetic fact. in order to embody them into new. in reproduction of artistic vision. Similarly old expressions. however that distinct images do not rise (ii) that physical fact does not enter the spirit as an image. matter and expression are not two distinct things. Art as Intuition Expression is an indivisible organic whole. but simply causes reproduction of artistic intuition. the aesthetic fact. Croce. Associationistic theory of art identifies aesthetic fact with association of two images namely (i) One which represents a work of art and (ii) the other. each with a distinct quality. in the course of its meaning. Art as expression does not embody other expressions. It is a fusion of expressions into a unity but not a pure or abstract unity but unity in multiplicity. The question of relation between them in an artistic fact has no meaning. he holds that aesthetic fact is form. however. It is not expression of expressions. with help of a work of art makes possible the reproduction of original intuition of an artist in a connoisseur. 113 . has to be melted out of its present form. stimulus and that of its meaning.formed or expressed. They may be synthesized into a new expression. It is a synthesis of multiples into one. The spiritual energy of memory. is not sound. and (iii) that a work of art is merely physical. It has to be converted into pure formless matter. For. Just as an old statue in order that it may become an element in a new statue. The past expressions must descend to the level of impression. It is a synthesis of impressions only. it is against the fact of experience. It is artistic vision. form within the mind by law of association. Therefore. of which it is a stimulant. They treat them as two images. holds (i) that. It is not a compound of past and present expressions.

because selection is possible only from distinct content. it is serenity that enables him to subdue this material into a form. A true artist finds himself with a theme. that he had to present in his work. The artist has maximum of both sensibility and insensibility. He has great sensibility in so far as he absorbs rich material into his psychic frame. may be stated as follows: (i) (ii) (iii) Stimulation of aesthetic senses by a work of art Reproduction of artistic intuition Hedonistic accompaniment Ordinary intuition. choice of either end or content implies that impressions have already found expression. differs only quantitatively. a basis of practical life of humanity and intuition. a more frequent inclination to express fully certain complex states of soul. Art is certain of free inspiration. The process through which aesthetic experience arises in a work of art. Distinction is conferred upon impression by expression only. What is Croce’s externalization of artistic vision? Production of a work of art that serves as stimulus to reproduction of aesthetic intuition in connoisseur presupposes an equipment in the artist that can be stated as: (i) vigilant will is the volitional power of artist that does not allow certain 114 . He cannot will it or otherwise. A true artist does not select an end. nor does he choose a content. Some people have a greater aptitude. For.The process of aesthetic production is completed in four stages (i) impressions (ii) expressions or spiritual aesthetic synthesis of impressions (iii) hedonistic accompaniment or pleasure of beautiful or aesthetic pleasure and (iv) translation of aesthetic fact into physical phenomenon of sound or tone etc. For. These men are called artists. A poet or painter who lacks this power is called an artist. It is not a product of will. He has also equally great insensibility or serenity. and a work of art is born spontaneously when the moment comes. to which he gives a form. Such is the difference between ordinary man and artist. The power of expression and power to give definite form to intuition is the chief characteristic of an artist.

Aesthetic aspect is nothing but reproduction. that creates artistic vision. The reproductive activity presupposes also identity of psychological conditions of the connoisseur with those of the artist. (iii) Contemplation: Artist feels impression. It is economic or useful activity. suddenly the sought expression comes to him. Croce holds that all forms of spiritual activity are closely related to one another. recognized by him. Taste and genius are essentially identical.artistic visions. Every one of them subsequently 115 . He tries various words and phrases to express impressions. That activity of artist that leads to successful expression is contemplation. It cannot be identified with intuition. intuitions. Connoisseur has to rise to level of the artist. consisting of apparition and volition. In aesthetic experience connoisseur and artist are spiritually identified. He has to become one with the artist spiritually if he wishes to reproduce artistic vision in himself. This gives him aesthetic pleasure. For. (iv)Genius: Artist should have imagination that is capable of creating artistic vision. To do so. pleasure is not identical with aesthetic experience. But feeling though it is not identical with aesthetic activity or intuition. It is one of the four forms of activity of spirit. is called genius. Connoisseur seeking aesthetic experience from a work of art must place himself at the artist’s point of view and reproduce artistic vision in him with help of stimulus. laziness. The creativity of productive imagination. before practical activity of producing a work of art. because feeling belongs to practical activity. For instance. It is an elementary practical activity. is a necessary accompaniment of it. It acts as if it were instinctive (ii) knowledge. He should concentrate free from distractions and devote himself to contemplation. He attempts to express it. to slip out of mind. but finds them as unsuitable. Externalization of artistic vision is possible only if artist possesses knowledge of various aspects. he must be free from haste. Feeling means a special spiritual activity of non-cognitive nature. theoretic prejudices and personal sympathies and animosities. According to Croce. while intuition is original form of theoretic activity. just like the activity that produces such a vision is called genius. passion. Activity that reproduces aesthetic vision is called taste. it is essential that artist should know different means of products and manner of utilizing them. It is of two opposite kinds (i) pleasure and (ii) pain. After a few vain attempts.

Sthayin. with which elementary volitional form is concomitant.is accompanied by elementary volitional form. for its concomitant pleasure the pain. conceptual. that basic or persistent emotion. Such artistic feeling is. In spite of the accompanying elementary volitional form. secondary and contextual powers of language. which is in relation to matter. the first exponent of the theory of Dhvani. sorrow etc. The latter suggested meaning. We laugh. Aesthetic feeling. economic and ethical pleasures are different from one another. because concomitant elementary and volitional activity are differently colored by different spiritual forms. is not so deep as an object of nature causes it. Pleasure that accompanies one is different from those that accompany the other. the one that is aroused by a real object of external world. a feeling that is aroused by a work of art is different from real feeling. feeling objectified. it is the same in the case of every spiritual activity. Aesthetic. different forms of spirit. the central and the most important content of poetic art. But they are not different essentially or qualitatively but only quantitatively. It’s here we have a unique stand that has been established by Emmanuel Kant regarding aesthetic experience. but due to what it accompanies. But our feeling of joy. asserting that the content of poetic art does not admit adequate presentation in language much as does Anandavardhana. Pleasure is due to attainment of the aim of a spiritual activity. Emmanuel Kant (1724-1804): Kant admits (a) that aesthetic experience is disinterested and free from individuality in its subjective aspects and from the relation to matter in its 116 . Hence it is less intense than real feeling. weep. Therefore it has. The differences of one pleasure from another are not of substance. He declared that problems in art form are subject matter of a separate science. He calls ‘aesthetic’. fear and rejoice with heroes of dramas. whether it is theoretical or practical. We cannot talk of temporal or casual order in respect of spiritual activity and pleasure. It may therefore be called ‘apparent feeling’ as distinct from real feeling. Because spirit is unity and its different forms are not related either casually or temporally. intuited and expressed. Baumgarten (1714-1762) Recognizes art as an independent value. cannot be presented by conventional. It is a mere form.

117 . He speaks of works of art as aesthetic idea that genius alone can supply. it is subjective purposive-ness as opposed to objective purposive-ness. that of the actor. It is distinct from faculties that operate in practical and theoretical spheres. It feels the harmony between imagination and understanding. He looks upon genius as sufficient in itself for producing works of fine art but recognizes importance of knowledge or rules that give appropriate form to ideas. (c) That it is subjective. it can in no way be influenced by reason or argument. It is called taste because coming to judgment about product either of nature or of art. of dramatist. that is. purposive. He admits identity of experience of the artist. because he is not concerned with dramatic art in particular. For it is admitted by Indian aestheticians from Bhatta Nayaka that aesthetic experience involves that de-individualization of both subject and object.objective aspects. though not definite than can be grasped in any definite concept. purpose that we assume as cause of the artistic activity has reference to feeling that is subjective but to nothing that is objective and (d) that it is universally valid. he definitely admits that an object of nature that is looked upon as a source of fear is simply a medium of sublime. Taste is the most important factor in forming judgment about beautiful. However great may be the authority on which it is based. a product. is not constitutive but only reflective. Bharata and his commentators attempt it from all three points of view viz. (b) That there is freedom of imagination and understanding from restraint of a priori and empirical concepts. i. Taste is a special faculty of human mind that judges beautiful. Kant attempts: (i) a judge. In the context of dynamically sublime. actor and spectator. who produces a work of art. can affect our faculty of aesthetic judgment (taste).e. Abhinavagupta has shown that a work of art is only a medium to it. Kant attempts the problem of aesthetics from two points of view and ignores the third. Thus principle however. On both these points he seems to agree with Bharata. a work of art and (ii) a producer of a work of art (artist). and aesthete that judges it. Two approaches to the problems of aesthetics. It has its own a priori principle. The purpose of artist from Bharata has been recognized to be nothing but to give rise to aesthetic experience that is essentially subjective. It is that representation of free imagination that gives rise to more thought.

We demand taste and feeling in the case of aesthetic judgment about the beautiful.Judgments therefore are universally valid and necessary. This element. that can be grasped as concept. yet this does not mean that it is an original product of culture. Aesthetic idea is that ‘representation of free imagination that gives rise to more thought though not definite’. It is this suggestive element in art that puts mental powers of the connoisseur purposively into swing. For. But we demand everybody’s agreement on the judgment about sublime on assumption of existence of moral feeling in everybody. The judgments that are formed by this faculty of mind (taste) are not concerned with material aspect of the presented. We demand agreement of every judge as a matter of course. It strives to present however inadequately. the absence of which prevents us from judging an otherwise perfect work of art to be beautiful is the spirit. Middle Ages and Renaissance as they are closely linked with Kantian Theory of Aesthetics. This demands us to center on the Aesthetic development in early Christian era. 118 . How can aesthetic judgment be disinterested and emotive? How can it be universal and subjective? The object is not important. we do not judge it beautiful. The receiving mind should be passively receiving and not actively be organizing. Kant’s view is that although culture is necessary for making a judgment of taste. In a work of art. what lies beyond the limits of ordinary experience. into a harmonious way as it maintains itself and strengthens them (mental powers) in their exercises. we may still miss something in it. Such a creation of free imagination that constitutes the soul of art cannot therefore be adequately presented in language. Taste or sensitiveness to beauty is not conventional but it is inborn and natural. When we find him indifferent to what we judge to be sublime. They do not involve any category of understanding. This element is nothing but material. They are not conceptual. linguistic expressions have definite concepts. They are related only to form. we say that he lacks taste. It strives ‘to approximate to a presentation of concepts or reasons’ this is what Indian Aestheticians call Dhvani. though we find no defect on the score of observance of rules concerning its formal aspect. a soul or beauty of art. we say that he has no feeling. In consequence. Representation of object is the one that is important. It puts cognition of connoisseur in a condition identical with that of artist at the time of inspiration. When we find a person not sensitive to taste.

Thus poets.) Defended ‘Lying’ in poetry and illusion of theatre on conventional ground. Admission of Pratibha by Anandvardhana in India is very much like that of genius during Renaissance. love and hate.Augustine (353-430A. and false sighs and tears. St. Augustine and St. sex and age.Aesthetic Development in Early Christian era. St Thomas Aquinas is important because of his views on aesthetic senses and quintessence that deserves an aesthetic experience. Thomas Aquinas.D. it was pointed out by Śri Śankuka that artistic presentation cannot be called true or false. This was a period that generally echoed Plato’s two main objections to art. He divides falsehood into (a) practical and deliberate deceptions. According to him. It’s recognized in India as one of the causes of poetic production by poeticians such as Mammata. 119 . In early Christian era and Middle ages we find only two writers of interest to us. are not liars because they do not intend to deceive. to make a show false. it is that which pretends and tends to be what it is not. false. In India too. dream or reflection in the conventional sense. (i) ‘Is artistic presentation true or false?’ St. he puts under last head. St. He found in poetic fiction a kind of truth. St. according to him. (ii) ‘What is the principle of unity? Emotion was recognized to be unifying principle in a work of art. Actor was disapproved. their free handling of historical matter does not detract merit from it. (b) Deceptions only to amuse. Augustine is important from the comparative point of view because of his peculiar conception of artistic falsehood and giving a place to the ugly in art. (iv) Later Renaissance thinkers emphasized importance of intellectual background of the artist. It was admitted that artistic genius is a gift: learning and experiencing but not replacing. Dramatic presentation was admitted to demoralize the spectators. (iii) The third problem was essential nature of genius. The poetic or artistic deception.’ Bharata admitted the basic and persisting emotion to be such a principle in India. Augustine attempted to distinguish artistic falsehood from the practical. Middle Ages and Renaissance During these periods. some new problems of art and old problems in new settings were attempted. Convention recognized that an actor must be true or must be fictitious person. because he was supposed to counterfeit voice.

St. St. This revelation of beauty seems to have been due to influence of Plotinus. (i) Both Hegel and Abhinavagupta agree to aesthetic experience. He holds like Plotinus that affinity revealed in ‘symmetry’ between ‘percipient and perceived’. is the ground of attractions in art. Artistic and other symbols are merely representation of such creations of intellectual imagination. The former are better capable of apprehending the structural whole than the latter. According to St. it will be considered Truth.Thomas Aquinas (1227-1274) was greatly influenced by Plotinus in his conception on ground of attraction in art. Sight and hearing are aesthetic senses because they are greater instruments of reason and are more perceptive than taste and smell. Symmetrical and well-proportioned objects charm the senses. St. He holds that intellectual imagination in union with intellectual love creates images.Thomas holds that desire is quieted in aesthetic experience but he seems to mean that quintessence is due to satisfaction of senses and cognitive power. like that of eloquence is to melt and arouse. If lying does not cause any harm but causes economies. Beauty is addressed to senses of sight and having in particular and cognitive power in general. The aim of poetry. that is the soul. beauty is revelation of reason in sensuous form. Hegel (1770-1831) Hegel is of great importance to our comparative study. He recognized ugly as subordinate element in beautiful and contributes to effectiveness of beauty. Poetic presentation is intended to awake the idle and to stimulate the dull. They are reflection of reason in her most exalted mood. He indeed dwells on many aspects of the problem of aesthetics. (ii) They talk of work of art and hold that external of a work of art is only a medium of revelation of purely subjective. Thomas and according to aesthetics of middle Ages.This alludes to ancient Tamil Literature Thirukurral on telling10 lies. if it is put in right and proper relation to it. His views seem to have worked similarity with those of Indian Aestheticians like Abhinavagupta. (iii) Emotion. Augustine gives a place to ugly in art. its 120 . Hearing and sight recognize artistic presentation as distinct from reality that arouses desire more clearly than smell and taste. He makes the senses direct bearers of this affinity.

But re-cognition according to Sri-Sankuka does not refer to the Absolute according to Hegel but to the original. (k) Both do admit that in aesthetic experience. (h) Selfforgetfulness and merging in subject. Exponents of theory of Dhvani seem to maintain same view. Drama requires complete man to be present (a) progress of action to its end in corporal existence. under garb of external form. In India. (b) Physiognomical expressions of emotion and passion and (c) these too are specific situations. (g) Hegel holds that a work of art points to something beyond itself. This indeed is in consonance with Upanishadic idea. absolute. It is concretized by its selfexpression or self-manifestation in its actions and emotions in the midst of external natural environment. Bhatta Nayaka first propounded the views that subjective and objective aspects involved in aesthetic experience universalized. Sri Sankuka admitted re-cognitive aspect of aesthetic experience. Thus aesthetic experience from a dramatic presentation is said to be re-cognitive. ‘Rasa Vai Sah’. This seems to be simply an echo of what Indian aestheticians say about various aspects of Rasa in the words of Bharata ‘Vibhavanubhava Vyabhicari Samyogad Rasa Nispatti. (e) Actor is admitted to identify himself with the hero of poet’s imagination by both Hegel and Abhinavagupta. concretized in one of those forces in humanity that carry in themselves 121 .situation or environment are important aspects of a work of dramatic art according to Hegel. of which the artistic presentation is an imitation. not in its abstract universality. expressed in oftenquoted sentence. But he explained it by assuming two powers of poetic language. The spectator thus recognizes the original historical character in imitating actor. subjects and objects are universalized. The mind that knows itself in its universality subjectively recognizes itself again in works of art. Genius of Abhinavagupta explained it (universalisation) psychologically. (j) Both admit artistic relation to be different from both theoretical and practical relations. (d) Poetry to Hegel presents universal or rational principle. The world of nature enters into content of drama in so far as it is regarded as environment of man. Both Hegel and Abhinavagupta agree that the highest function of art is to present divine through its modes or forms. specific content. (f) Hegel admits that aesthetic experience is re-cognitive experience. Hegel seems to maintain that subjective aspect involved in contemplation of art. the spirits in its freedom and independence.

We find a good similarity between metaphysical theories of Hegel and Abhinavgupta. Hegel in his logic openly says: “In the history of philosophy. Hegel holds that a work of art occupies midway between directly perceived objective world on one hand.” Similarly with regard to second category “not being” or “nothing” he says: The nothing which the Buddhists make is the universal principle. involved in scientific contemplation. Both give definite places to different important schools of thought in conceptions of categories in their comprehensive systems. Their solutions to various problems are based on these theories of aesthetics. ideality of pure thought on the other.” Logic begins where the proper history of philosophy begins. each based on a particular definition of the absolute…. he holds that most important task of poetry is to bring before the vision of the reader the energies of life of spirit. Philosophy began with the Eleatic school especially with Parmenides who conceived the absolute as “Being. Why is it so? Because they are universal and therefore they are manifestations of the Absolute. This concept of a work of art seems to be asserted by Indian aestheticians when they mention it as non-worldly (Alaukika). This scientific contemplation is rational intelligence. According to Hegel. reached by the Vedantis. the third category 122 . This seems to be in complete accord with the view of Indian aestheticians that emphasize importance of eight emotions at a great length in Abhinava Bharati. called Brahman. For. These expressions are essentials of artistic inspiration according to Hegel and Abhinavagupta.” Abhinavagupta also holds that the highest spiritual principle. only universal emotion of our common humanity can be permanent subject of art. all that surges in heart. Sensuous material in a work of art is entitled to be delivered from a framework of purely material substance. in passion or emotion or appears before mind in tranquility. is nothing but Sadasiva. as contrasted with that. different stages in the logical idea assume the shape of successive systems.their own justification such as love. Hegel seems to recognize Śanta Rasa. It may be called pure intelligence.

It is 123 . Natural things and individual minds are explicable in terms of a single ultimate principle. all that is. All that. we can still explore some significant contributions to Modern Poetics to see how Rasa is allpervasive. embraces total modes of existence of human knowledge and intellect. of different nations on the globe. all that is within reach of limited individual mind and even beyond it. the Sanskrit Literary Theory is all-pervasive embracing all humanistic values. Modern Structuralism with its binary oppositions. Hegel calls this principle Absolute. It is like a stream running through modern poetics. as nature of Rasa is all-pervasive. He expresses definite opinion on it. according to Hegel. it’s fitting to note certain aspects of modern poetics and visualize how Rasa. we may still relish Rasa. They explain everything in terms of a single principle. A brief discussion of Kantian theory of Aesthetic Judgment and taste brings us closer to Rasa Theory. Further striking an alliance between the groups of ‘Structuralists’ and ‘Post-Structuralist’ stand with Rasa Theory will certainly widen and broaden the scope of the latter. Is it something like substratum in every essence? Or does it necessarily follow every form and matter? Can we then view Rasa as important property of poetics? With no reference to Marx. including subject. He assigns a definite position to it in the world of art that is constituted by products of art. ideas and objective. Similarly the Sunya if the Nihilistsic Buddhas. Abhinavagupta gives it the name “Anuttara”. According to Abhinavagupta. is nothing by the Sunya Pramata of his system. Certain Aspects of Modern Poetics Without going into distant past of Modern Poetics. demonstrating inadequacy of sentence-based grammar. object. Having taken a detailed survey of the most important exponents of aesthetics. Freud.of his system. in regard to which any languages in any form can be used. They hold entire field of experience. and Lukacs for typology. as the contemporaries and predecessors knew it. Above all. The universe flows from first reason as much as conclusion flows from reason in logic. and means of knowledge and knowledge itself or in Hegelian terms. In their metaphysics both are concerned with explanation of entire range of experience from the highest to the lowest. Hegel is first Western Aesthetic thinker whose works contain references to Indian Art. all that is thought to have being in any way and even the not being.

system or rules of that language that shows how an indefinitely large number of sentences may be constructed from a finite number of basic element of language. It is the object as experienced that exhibits beauty. Jacques Lacan. In his ‘Critique of Aesthetic Judgment’ Kant dwells in experience of natural beauty. it results in an un-designed harmony of imagination and understanding. performed and vice versa. rejecting experimental and behaviorist psychology favored by the American School. advocates a return to Freud. enables the reader or audience enjoy and experience Rasa. drama. i. etc.. Kant asserts that representation of an object exhibits order and design by itself. This puts the artistic creator in a trance of writing poetry. has been ‘objectified’. discovery of the laws governing relationship between competence and performance.therefore justified to state that the scope of Structuralism and PostStructuralism falls within the purview of Rasa Theory. only in so far as. Kant makes it clear that we are concerned with an object as perceived entity that produces the feeling of beauty. which is Rasa. In order to secure experience of natural beauty. words or morphemes recognizing two kinds of rules assembling primitive elements into deep structures which are mapped onto surface structures by transformational rules.e. But competence is meaningless or nonexistent unless it can be translated into action i. In Aesthetic Judgment. an experience of noumenal world as it filters through phenomenal world. This ‘return’ is a return to language: return to the function of speech and of the signifier in 124 . human mind must act passively in receiving its contacts and not actively organize them. whether or not. in a spontaneous manner that in return. When one perceives sunrise. Noam Chomsky began the movement in Linguistics called Transformational Generative Grammar. Kant asserts that judgment of taste is purely aesthetical by which we understand that those determining grounds can be none other than subjective. an object in so far as. Mapping of event emerges from the unconscious to the conscious level or in the language of Modern Generative Grammar of Chomsky. In such a reproduction. its reproduction gives birth to taste. aesthetic interest is awakened by visual impression made upon the mind. prose. The Aesthetic Judgment therefore concerns subjective effect of object on consciousness.e.. The acting physical object is not directly important but it is the peculiar visual sensation and patterns that strike the mind that results in Aesthetic feeling.

‘Structuralism’ the term was invented by F. for he thought that there were many signs other than linguistic ones. the ‘letter’ in the unconscious is nothing else. The Structurlist Approach. social theory (particularly Marxian). to extend it form 125 .the subject. literary criticism. which began in Moscow and St. everything done under the banner of semiotics or semiology has been structuralist or deeply influenced by structuralism. Structuralist ideas are also to be found in the movement known as ‘Russian Formalism’. metaphors. Petersburg during World War I. philosophy. For most purposes. As Lacan puts it. as semiotic universe governed by a network of signifiers and signified. The Structuralists influence remains transformational grammar. The principle of linguistic organization would transform the unconscious into a system of cultural symbols. Seen in terms of this linguistic analogy. The American philosopher C. he found appropriate in linguistics was to be projected in human culture in general. and metonymies. which is language. the three terms can be treated as equivalents: the science of signs has been Structuralist or deeply influenced by home of the Structuralist Approach. Ferdinand de Saussure’s Linguistics is the way into ‘structuralism’. and second. started with Edward Sapir and was made prominent by Leonard Bloomfield’s Language (1933). Pierce has introduced ‘Semiology’and’Semiotics’. Key figures in this movement have been Claude L’evi Straus. and Jacques Derrida. who introduced the idea of deconstruction. constituted by its internal relations. Structuralism has been taken to span anthropology. first of the metonymic structure as the connection between signifier and signified. but the ‘word’.de Saussure the Swiss linguist and is preferred in Europe. Lacan proceeds further on his dual interpretations. ‘condensation’ becomes the metaphor while ‘displacement’ may be decoded as metonymy. a landmark in American linguistics. Saussure saw linguistics as only part of his concerns.S. The central idea of Structuralism has been to extend this approach to defining phonemes to all categories of linguistic theory. sociology and semiotics both have their roots in the Greek word for a sign and refer to the ‘science of signs’. A different but related movement known also as Structuralism arose independently in America. Louis Althusser. psychology (particularly Freudian). of the metaphoric structure as the substitution of signifier for signified. the history of ideas and much else besides structuralizing everything.

Greimas developed theories of the Russian Formalist Vladimir Propp.’ (Saussure 1966-88). hardly showed any concern for synchronic relationships emphasized by Ferdinand de Saussure. It clarified that structure is interpreted as a dynamic totality rather than static. Jakobson and others. which include six rules. upon the very characteristics of the totality. fitting them more closely to the linguistic model. The basis of syntactical functions of subject and predicate has their equivalent functions in Narrative: Actor and Action in the morphology of Folk tales (1968).J. Structure in its general form exists when elements are united within a totality presenting certain properties as such. also that aesthetic function is subject to the laws of diachrony with a systematic evolution in history rather than those of synchrony. a belief which even the 19th century poets in the height of Romanticism recognized as absolute (cf. ’Beauty is truth.Greimas are the key Structuralist Narratology Theorists. An item is defined and noted by what it is in itself not by its essential properties but by its relationship in a structure. Subject/Object III. serious linguistic classification of Asia and Africa did not begin until after World War II. These properties depend entirely or partially. In Greimas ‘Universal Grammar’ for narrative proposes there are three binary oppositions. truth beauty’15) Although the study of the Indo-European family of languages goes back to the end of the eighteenth century. syntactic and semantic levels. Their methods although inspired by Bloomfieldian standards of descriptive linguistics. This linguistic contribution of each item is given by its differences from other items in the languages. This exemplifies the structuralist Approach. Sender/Receiver 126 . He requires: I. Mukarovsky in the meeting of Prague Circle has stressed the relationship between Formalism and Structuralism on the basis that they are both concerned with the study of ‘structure’.the phonetic and phonological to the morphological. Herein then may lie the type of ‘naïve’ positivism which formalism has also been characterized as Mukarovsky’s text suggests that the laws of beauty are not a temporal. Tzvetan Todorov. Outside linear time. Even then it continued to be dominated by Western scholars and representatives of various colonial scholars of thought. Gerard Genette and A. ‘each linguistic term derives its value from its apposition to all other terms.

(ii) communicating. Jonathan Culler. argued for a reader-oriented structurlist poetics which sought the rules governing the reader’s construction of a text’s meaning. adjectival and verbal functions. Boudon observes that the ‘Structuralistic’ perspective has no virtue in itself. (i) aiming at something. from the nation to the tribe/clan and so on. Its success depends to a great extent on the object to which it is applied. Genette divided narrative into three levels: story discourse and narration. What if objects could not be considered in any possible way as effectively forming system but as scattered in a huge. David Lodge has applied the theory to develop a complete study of Modern Literature. which is typified in the opposition between metaphor and metonymy. Underlying every Structuralistic enterprise is a certain phenomenological attitude to the world of object-systems.III. The movement of human intellect in a descriptive contemplation of an object seems to fluctuate from the complex to the simple. Metaphorical code The relations form a kind of triad. discovering the rules of Agency. Todorov outlined a comprehensive application of the linguistic model. moods aspects and so on. related to one another through three aspects derived from three verbal qualities. 127 . Helper/Opponent The pairs allow a description of all the fundamental patterns governing narrative. Mood and Voice. then sits down to write a poem about it. or a triangle whose apex can be anywhere. using the mentalistic linguistic of Noam Chomsky. Roman Jakobson develops a theory of binary structure of language. sometimes best expressed in the form of the theories. amorphous and chaotic mass? What would happen if there were no structures at all. now associated with the structural analysis. (iii) and helping or hindering. in form if not in nature as we see that of a poet who beholds a rainbow in the sky. the three relations involved in this creative event are: poet? Rainbow Poet? Poem and Visual Code Linguistic code Poem? Rainbow. defined either intentionally or effectively? In the domain of literary creativity. from the whole to its parts. Every classificatory reductionism has one objective: the attainment of an exhaustive description of the object. Tense.

both poetics and linguistics. visions and dreams even in translations. is Anubhavas of the feeling of love.e. giving expression in his work to the sentiments to be expressed. Anozie who exemplifies the need for a synthesis of poetics from different areas of Literature. 128 . palpitation of the heart or drying of the mouth due to the feeling of fear is Anubhava. The tasks of an artist are to depict the particular Rasa i. eye not so much in the mechanics of the language but around it. Rasa. is a comprehensive term for an aggregate resultant emotion that is experienced in all time literature. the dramatic shorthand of myths. which means taste or sentiment. critical appreciation. Professor Anoize has with great dexterity related some of those models to the African contemporary situation and environment and the African literary texts. And if we are not able to recreate that aroma. the logic of the imageries. Rasa. the vibrant symbols and river like continuing themes are among many others. Text Grammar and General Pragmatics. The Sanskrit Literary Theory and Modern Poetics What is the place of Rasa. the Sanskrit Literary Theory in Modern Poetics? Can we apply Rasa Theory to World Literature in general and to Modern Poetics in particular? What are the types of sentimental implications in some parts of the body? The symptoms which indicate the feeling outwardly are called Anubhava. ideals. flower. we will be denying ourselves a splendid opportunity to live beautifully. The pleasure expressed on the face of the lovers when they meet and the sadness when they long to meet but cannot. The Linguistic Structure. He had surveyed some tendencies of Post-Structuralism which include the theoretical orientations found in the latest writings of Structuralists like Derrida and Barthes and also some exciting new methodological discoveries and insight taking shape in modern linguistics such as Speech Act Analysis. The choice of my topic of research is justified in unfolding the aroma or Rasa that can be experienced by the generations to come in the synthesis of poetics from different areas. The dynamics of Structuralism is a modern intellectual movement. An ideal model is professor Sunday O. trans-creation. The Theory of Construction or modeling is an integrated part of the Structuralist enterprise with the types of models found within various schools of structuralism.Rasa.

Roland Barthes (1915-1980) French Literary Critic and Theorist asserted that Language is a system of signs that reflects the society and time in which it is used. His inspirations derived from Bachelard q. dreams and poetry. The signifier refuses to be single signified. In it he discusses writers from the 17th to 20th century and their search for a language of “Zero degree” that is language free from the associations of the past. he understands one of the reasons why writers are guilty. structuralism. This theory of signification is expressed in a number of Post Structuralists’ positions: 1.There is no objective ‘scientific discoveries’. But in his own cold manner. Post Structuralism Modern critical theory begins by asserting the unstable relationship between signifier and signified. Barthes illuminates texts but he is a bad critic of authors because he traps them in abstract ‘structures’ of his own making. 3. modern linguistics and Marxism proceeds to state: The point of his complex criticism in so far as it concerns literature. Imagination is the chief instrument of perception. the critic’s function is to study and decipher the signs used for expression. he seeks to determine not the meaning of a text. For Barthes. Barthes s/z (1970) examined a Balzac short story by cutting it into fragments (lexis) and dispersing them in the infinite sea of the ‘already 129 . Best Known and most controversial theoretical work was (Le Degree Zero de l’ecriture 1953-tr writing Degree Zero 1967). For Barthes.The Author should not be regarded as the origin of his text or the authority for its meaning. (Roland Barthes’ ‘The Death of the Author’) 2. rather than to analyze the meaning of the work or to assess its value.v. but the nature of the underlying aspect in it. Our Meta languages are always capable of being subjected to other Meta linguistic operations ad infinitum. as is evident in jokes.Literature cannot be isolated as a separate discourse but is always contaminated with the entire universe of discourses. they seek some new Adonic world where language would no longer be alienated.

examined the historical construction of knowledge. ‘symbolic’ ‘proairtic’ and ‘cultural’.g. What is considered rational and scholarly is determined not by absolute standards of reason but by unspoken rules. Claude Levi-Straus developed phonemic analyses of kinship relations. Literary critics. narrative. ‘semic’. Barthes names five codes: ‘her meneotic’.. philosophy. Roland Barthes (1915-1980) examined haute cuisine. Michael Foucault (1976). which resembles the writers. Even though ‘readerly’ texts try to limit the possibilities of meaning. Structuralists have applied the patterns of ‘binary oppositions’ derived from phonemic syntax or grammar to human sign-systems of various kinds. He argued that linguistics should study the ‘synchronic’ dimension of language (the system of relations within language operating at a given movement) rather than its ‘diachrony’ (temporal). rites and so on. myths. (s) And an unvoiced (z) sibilant. The ‘writerly’ text actually celebrates its openness and encourages the reader’s productive activity. discourse. history and literary criticism. he argues. He attacks the structuralists’ attempt to find the structure of narrative arguing that narrative draws upon ‘codes’ that form a grid of possible meanings that permit no ultimate ‘closure’. we distinguish between ‘bus’ and ‘buzz’ on the basis of difference a voiced. in its deployment of the codes. Speakers are able to use the system by registering the differences between possible elements within it. 130 . Structuralism Movement of thought affecting a number of intellectual aspects including anthropology. For e. they can always be read against the gain for a certain plurality. garments and all kinds of social artifacts. Under the influence of Nietzshe who believed that all knowledge is the ‘will to power’. institutional constraints and the power of particular discursive practices. can grasp a past-text only within the discursive archive of the present. at the level of the phoneme. the common element derives from linguistics and especially the writings of Ferdinand de Saussure (semiotics). Edward takes Foucault’s historical kind of the post structuralism and emphasizes the pressures of reality that constrain the possibilities of knowledge.written’.

‘It is easy for us to realize why it would be unreasonable to recognize any sort of divorce between criticism and creation. David Lodge has applied the theory to develop a complete structural study of modern literature. Structuralist narratology is especially well advanced. Greimas’ ‘Universal Grammar’ of narrative proposes. Gerard Genette and A J Greimas are the key theorists. Let us recall what Croce has to comment with reference to the fundamental doctrine of which criticism has been based. The latter develops a theory of binary structure of language. Propp found 35 functions (basic narrative actions and seven ‘spheres of action’. Mood. (a) Aiming at something (b) communicating (c) helping or hindering. and Voice. which gives the myth it’s meaning. discourse and narration. Levi-Straus developed a phonemic analysis of the Oedipus story. These levels are related to one another through three aspects derived from three verbal qualities. moods. Todorov outlined a comprehensive application of the linguistic model. The most influential theorist on modern criticism is probably Roman Jacobson whose essays. Tzvetan Tadorov. ‘Linguistics and Poetics’ and ‘Two Aspects of language’ are especially important. aspect and so on. fitting them more closely to the linguistic model. Greimas developed theories of the Russian formalist Vladimir Prop. which is typified in the opposition between metaphor and metonymy.’11 “We should dethrone the concept that 131 . discovering the rules of agency. The basic syntactical functions of subject and predicate have their equivalent functions in Narrative: actor and action in the morphology of Foucault (1968). there are three binary oppositions which include the six rules (ACTANTS) he requires: (1) Subject/object (2) sender/receiver (3) helper/opponent The pairs allow a description of all the fundamental patterns governing narrative. Culler has subsequently adopted and developed the deconstructive theories of Jacques Derrida.The underlying idea is that all human performances presuppose a system of differential relations. Genette divided narrative into three levels: story. Jonathan Culler using the Mentalistic linguistic of Noam Chomsky argued for a reader-oriented structuralist poetics that sought the rules governing the reader’s construction of a text’s meaning.) in the Russian Folk Tale. adjectival and verbal functions. he aimed at establishing the structural pattern. Tense.

impressionistic school endeavors to re-dream the poet’s dreams. his own personality. from pure fountain of their hearts. Valmiki is regarded as the first genuine poet. more than necessary upon the view of the readers. we should come to the conclusion that all expression is art”12. He seeks to substitute himself in place of the poet and the work of art. The oldest phase of literary appreciation may be traced back to Rg Veda. we are told that Valmiki is the Adikavi. At least the neo-critic. but the poet that praised the critic. But a critic of the impressionistic school thrusts himself. Rg Vedic bard was not conscious of his position as a critic. He indicated to the world how to appreciate Indian poetry and to understand the fundamentals of Indian poetry.Skuppuswami Sastri asserts that genius and taste are inseparable phases of the same art. the main doctrine. criticism is art too. and upon the view of those who would like to appreciate the work of art. Taking a long leap to the Epics.all art is expression. They are different phases of same. Poets often have such an attitude towards their productions. This is the corner stone of neo-criticism. as is very similar to that of parents towards their children. 132 . Some of them suggest certain ideas about critics almost in the same vein. If creation is one aspect of art. this is the fundamental doctrine on which neo-criticism is based. Prof. criticism is another aspect of art. it was he who first indicated to the world the line on which Indian poesy should proceed. the one being the inner phase. Poesy reveals herself only to him who understands her. re-live his life and strive to replace one work of art by another. other the outer. The central idea in neo-criticism: is that “art can find its alter-ego (other self) only in art”13. In a god-filled state of mind. If creation is art. his own ego. Rg Veda bards flowed. Exponents of neo-criticism in the west are described as impressionistic critics. the main text of the sermons of the neo-critics. it may be more correct to say that poetic genius and taste are related to each other as woman and man. Rippe poets are ripe critics. It is not the critic that praised the poet here. yet it’s quite possible that they were critics too without being conscious of it.

What may be regarded as the ego and the alter ego of the same art was synthesized in a beautiful way. creation and criticism. it has formed a source of inspiration to the poets and authors of the Dhvani School of criticism. The very same equation attracted the attention of Kalidasa too.Valmiki is the creative artist and the art-critic rolled up and harmoniously blended into one. his pathos-filled heart blooms into sweet poetry. The Soka-Sloka equation has played a very great part in the history of Alankara literature and in the theory of literary criticism in Sanskrit. it will be found that Indian poets and critics too have achieved great synthesis between poesy and criticism. Kavi and Sahrdaya. When we read14 Ramayana 1. its full truth. Sahrdayas are critics whose hearts have attained the work of art. Yet it has a clear lesson to convey to the world. Dandin. Anandavardhana and Abhinavagupta. Kalidasa. The secret of genius. He proceeds to bestow some thought upon the verse. He played the role of a critic. The spontaneous emanation of. It is clear that the great poet was responsible for advocating a wholesome and harmonious unification of the two phases of art namely creation and criticism. 133 . consists in at once being a poet and a critic. A synthesis of such nature has been achieved between the two phases of poetic art. Ahbinava indicates in the opening verse of his Dhvanyaloklocana. Bhamaha. a beautiful poem emanates from the fountain of his pathos-filled heart.2-18 in a spontaneous way. The closing part of the chapter sounds prosaic. achieved and established a synthesis between these two phases. This attainment is the result of a certain kind of discipline. The creative side of his genius did its work side by side with the critical side. From all that has been said so far. Such discipline involves constant study and constant appreciation or criticism and constantly moving in an atmosphere favorable for the growth of genuine literature. This synthesis was clearly envisaged both in theory and practice by several Indian poets and critics like Valmiki. He pauses and appreciates the verse. It is the crowning glory of Indian poets and critics who have realized. A fruitful doctrine of literary criticism came to be enunciated as the result of the inspiration derived from this Soka-Sloka equation. in the synthesis of the creative art and critical art. Let us note here that Soka is itself Sloka.

Such a synthesis forms key to the proper understanding of the course of the Indian poetry and criticism. Prof. Kuppuswmi Sastri asserts that Sanskrit Literature and Literary Criticism contain very valuable information about what he would like to characterize as the Highways of Highways of literary criticism. This indeed makes it necessary to enter into the tracing of Western Literary Criticism that will certainly make this study quite appropriate to the context.

Chapter.4 Notes 1. Gilbert & Kuhn: a History of Aesthetics. ii.229. (New York: Macmillan Company, 1939) 2. Croce. 212. 3. Memorabilia of Socrates: iii.ch.x. Xenophone. (London: George Bell Sons, 1887.) 4. Author of Natya Sastra 2.Earliest available source of dramaturgy. 5. Bosanquet: History of Aesthetic. 6. Buddhist.Art.ii. 7. Cultural Heritage. 1.6. Cultural Heritage of India. (Shri Rama Krishna Centenary Memorial.) 8. Croce, 158. 9. Memorabilia of Socrates: iii. ch.x Xenophone. (London: George Bell and Sons, 1887.) 10.Kural: On Truthfulness 11.Mahamahopadhyaya Prof, S.Kuppuswami Sastri’s ‘Highways and Byways’ of Literary Criticism in Sanskrit. p.7 12.Springarn.’the New Criticism’, p.19 13.Springarn, the New Criticism’, p.6. 134

14.Valmiki’s Ramayana.1: 2-18 15. Leavis on Keats p321 line: 366

Chapter 5 Western Literary Criticism The standard literary works of literature commonly read and studied has been, until very recently mainly a white, upper class and European phenomena with some American influence. Often, readers have a preconceived notion about the quality and understanding of good literature now known as “classics”1represent a series of choices about literary work made over a long period of time. During the past few years, due to many challenges to the traditional belief, it is important to understand history of Western Literary Criticism in the right perspective. Beginning: The Greeks and Romans (c.450 B.C – A.D. 400) The Western literary tradition begins with the Greeks. In the ‘Republic,’3 Plato (427-347 B.C.) describes the ideal state and the role of the poets and

philosophers. His pupil, Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) has been the most important classical influence during the middle Ages and the Renaissance. Even today students of drama give a lot of importance to the theories presented in Aristotle’s poetics. They probe into how literature imitates life, how an audience responds with pity and fear to a tragedy, and how a play is constructed. On the contrary, the Romans contributed works on what would now be called “loftiness of style”2 and a treatise on the art of poetry (Ars Poetica4 Horace, 65-8 B.C.). These writers were more interested in craft of poetry; how one might construct a poem that would have a pleasing effect on the reader than in the power of the poet. In contrast to Greek philosophical approach, Roman literary criticism was more like a practical guide indeed. The Middle Ages (.A.D.400-1500) After the fall of the Roman Empire in the fifth century A.D., Christianity became a unifying force of Western culture. The literature of the middle Ages was for the most part didactic. The purpose was for teaching the readers certain morals. Literature of this period took the form of morality and mystery plays. Both of them had religious departure from moralistic literature appeared in the French romance that had shown adventures in love. In Canterbury Tales, Chaucer drew on English, French, and Italian sources. However, literary criticism was not a priority of the intellectual life of the period. The Renaissance (c.1500-1600) During the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, Europe emerged from grips of the church centered on Middle Ages with a rebirth (Renaissance is a French word for “rebirth”) of new learning. The Renaissance humanists, with their reading of Greek and Roman writers, developed a broad interest in intellectual activities. Sir Philip Sidney’s (1554-1586) The Defense of Poesy is considered to be the most important work of literary criticism of that period. Here, Sidney argues that poetry must serve not simply to give pleasure, but also should make a positive contribution to the society. In spite of Sidney’s important contributions, Aristotle still remained the literary dictator of the age, though his role was complicated by the emergence of William Shakespeare (1564-1616) as a world-renowned playwright. The latter often disregarded Aristotle’s principles regarding the construction of a good play.


The Enlightenment (1600-1798) In England the term, ‘Enlightenment’ is sometimes referred to as ‘the Age of Reason’. The period was marked by a profound faith in the powers of human reason and a devotion to clarity of thought, harmony, proportion and balance. Samuel Johnson (1709-1784), who wrote in the preface of his edition of Shakespeare’s plays about the playwright’s departure from Aristotle’s dictum, was a major literary figure of the Enlightenment. It was considered to be a period of neo-classicism with a renewed interest in the values and ideals of the classical world, particularly of the Romans. Poets like John Dryden, Alexander Pope, and philosophers like Edmund Burke lived during this age. They compared contemporary literary practice with the ideals of their Roman counterparts. Burke, for example, took on the subject of Longinus’ On the Sublime in his own essay on ‘The Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and the Beautiful’ (1757). They stressed the value of reason, which they called “common sense”. Their architectural style, familiar to us in buildings, provides a visual example of what they sought in literature: ‘clarity, symmetry, discipline’. They emphasized on the rigid construction of a poem or drama. They favored heroic couplet (two lines of rhymed iambic pentameter)) in poetry, like Alexander Pope’s famous ‘Essay on Criticism’5, that is a severe critical statement on neoclassical literary principles.

The Romantic Period (1798-1837) This period was marked by a rejection of the ideals and rules of classicism and neo-classicism. It was indeed an affirmation of the need for a freer, more subjective expression of passion, pathos and personal feelings. The influence of the period was to be felt throughout the nineteenth century, not only in England, but in France and Germany as well. Many of its ideas and attitudes are still part of the assumptions on which contemporary Western culture is based. Romantic poet William Blake (1757-1827) illustrated conflict between romanticism and neo-classicism through his dislike of the criticism of Enlightenment by artist Joshua Reynolds. In his notes on Reynolds’s views, Blake observed that the emphasis on empiricism6 impoverishes art. Blake believed that the neoclassical writers denied both imagination and subjective experience in the creative process. He believed that a writer must begin from the most concrete and minute sensory experience in order to reach the truth. Unlike the 18th century


The difference in attitude between Neoclassicists and Romantics can also be seen through a comparison of the Shakespearean criticism of Samuel Johnson and Samuel Taylor Coldridge. Keats added that evidence in the tragedies. in his preface to the second edition of Lyrical Ballads7 (1800). Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834) and William Wordsworth (1770-1850) stressed the mysteries and the importance of personal experience. while Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862) 138 . supported Coleridge’s defense of Shakespeare. Coleridge sees in the tragic character of Hamlet. He lets the characters in the tragedies talk too much without advancing the action. defiant and haunted by secret guilt. Wordsworth in particular emphasized the importance of concrete. simple rustic language. The Romantics10 in general. according to Wordsworth. A poem. Blake and his contemporaries believed in the importance of the individual rather than the general principle. created in his poetry. moved his work to another level altogether. should originate in “the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings” whose energy comes from “emotions recollected in tranquility”. Romantic hero. he observes that often virtue is not rewarded. On the contrary. George Gordon.B. John Keats (1795-1821) another Romantic Poet. P. nor wickedness suitably punished. he argues in his lecture “Shakespeare’s Judgment equals his Genius (1836) that Shakespeare knew exactly what he was doing in describing how people actually behave rather than how they ought to behave”. The American philosopher Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882) thought nature offered to the poet a mystical symbolism. Like Blake. Such opinion become irrelevant and the work itself takes on life through its relationship with “beauty and truth” rather than teaching proper patterns of behavior.writers.Shelly (1792-1822) perhaps makes the greatest claims for the poet’s power and obligation to society in “A Defense of Poetry”8 (1821) when he argues that the “great instrument of moral good is the imagination”. and offered. both in Britain and America made claims for the poet as particularly close to God and nature. In his ‘Preface to Shakespeare’9 (1765) Johnson argues that Shakespeare’s faults include being much more concerned with pleasing an audience than teaching morals. Lord Byron (1788-1824) who himself lived a flamboyant life. He also notes that Shakespeare’s diction is too elevated. publicly expressed powerful emotions. the melancholy. a definition of poetry that has become famous.

His responsibility was to minister to a modern society that had lost its faith in other things especially religious belief. for instance. should be a “disinterested endeavor”11. It is during this period that Charles Darwin (1809-1882) popularized a biological selection in his famous ‘Origin of Species’12 (1859) and his theories influenced novels and poetry of the latter part of the century. American writers of the late nineteenth century.extolled the view that man should live close to nature and follow his personal conscience. melancholy and mysteries. as an occupation. With Darwin‘s new ideology that human kind was the center of the universe was undermined. rather than the dictates of the society. The Victorian Period (1837-1901) This era of Queen Victoria’s reign was a period of intense and prolific activity in literature. In England writers like Mathew Arnold (1822-1888) argued that literature could help another people to their world and that literary criticism. Others like Frank Norris and Theodore Dreiser explored the idea of individuals were at the mercy of their instinctual drives and of external sociological forces. he too believed in the ability of poetry to help us live productive and satisfying lives. 139 . Great Britain in 1776. the effects of the industrial revolution. Much of the writing was concerned with contemporary social problems. as was the conviction that the universe had been intelligently planned for a good and noble purpose. including William Dean Howells and Henry James were important realists. American Literature established its own identity and achieved something of a golden period in the years immediately prior to the war. Mary Shelly (1797-1851) and Edgar Allen Poe (1809-1849) were influential in another sense: the macabre. Though Arnold differed in many ways from the Romantics. and movements of political and social reform. The period gave a general feeling that the world was changing rapidly in various spheres. Between then and the outbreak of the civil war in 1861. Growth of American Culture The United States of America declared independence from their colonial master. American Literature can quite logically be set on English Literature course as it is written in English but the cultural background is wholly different from that of Europe.

Man was close to nature where success or failure. Puritanism was repressive. excitable and highly emotional. held by science and rational thought as the path to a new Utopia. lost adherents as time went on in America. The Pilgrim Fathers who settled in New England in the Seventeenth century were Calvinistic Puritans. This generated a new optimism that whatever a man wanted to achieve could be achieved by hard work. But it left its mark on the society it had helped to create. excess and frivolity. men and women included. Puritanism in its bleak and basic form. Evangelism and Rationality were at war with each other. The Frontier and the American Dream: Out of these primary ingredients two further appendages grew namely the concept of the Frontier and the so-called ‘American Dream’.There were various major influences on American culture in the early days. Religious refugees founded America in its modern form. were answerable to reason. 140 .Later developments indeed stand witness to what Barthes had stated. wealth or social standing of one’s family. one’s courage and ones determination. greatly distrustful of sexuality. Europe scriptable (susceptible to being written)’13. flourishing in Europe and attractive to the embryonic American culture through its insistence on primary individual. in American history the frontier was a potent symbol. An additional influence was Romanticism. The frontier was the new land. The Enlightenment taught that all things. These were the early of days of American Literature. Men had come to the New World to find freedom from oppression. The second was the reaction against the first. in sharp contrast to the original Puritan ethics. The declining interest in the Puritan Church also helped the series of evangelical religious revivals that took place in the years after the break with Britain. A Disjunction popularized by Roland Barthes (1970) ‘America was lisible (can only be read). This input was fervent. and capable of engendering brooding guilt and an obsession with orthodoxy within a culture. Basic human values ruled. Only a chosen few would achieve salvation. These could be explained perfectly well by means of reason and humanism. For long. To this rather uneasy combination was added a strong influence from what was known in Europe as the Enlightenment or the Age of Reason. not on office politics. and the last tended to denounce religion as superstition. the land where basics of human values ruled. They believed that man was inherently evil. It was said to be an unnecessary ritual in a world. depended on one’s skill. All three of these influences: Puritanism.

The Indians were banished to reservations. They perceived in American society a frantic race towards materialism. The realization of the office boy or the bank clerk in New York realized that he could go west if he so wished. “The Masque of the Red Death” and ‘The Pit and Pendulum’ (1843). pomp and show and fickle-mindedness that they believed. it encouraged questioning of the consequences and direction of that progress. He is a writer of macabre stories that he has achieved his greatest fame. Wild west-shows were really no substitute. the railway lines joined the whole continent. From this and from a host of other features came the twentieth-century concept of the American dream. At the same time.It was probably never true but it was marveling century when east and west met. and William Faulkner and John Stein Beck may have been influenced by it. The American Novel commences from Edger Allan Poe (1809-49). dominated it. It helped to give rise to a triumph of individuality and an overwhelming belief in progress. They were disgusted of materialism. satirical and rebellious. extravagance and narrow-mindedness. The dream is a complex one. Because the land of the clan started and new horizons beckoned. 141 . These were the artists and intellectuals who were embittered by American involvement in the First World War. and is seen influencing. Large number of American writers and artists went to Paris and formed an expatriate colony there. In particular they hated what they saw as the smugness and unquestioning obedience to outdated codes of behavior that seemed to typify much of American society. If there was a belief in progress in American culture there was also the story of the ‘Lost Generation’. while the latter inject an intellectual sharpness into the genre. Ernest Hemingway was deemed a member of this group. the frontier was always there. The lost generation writers were hostile to American society. The former in particular are powerful expressions of a morbid imagination capable of powerful symbolism. That culture breathed a rather sad collective sigh when the frontier finally became civilized. many different literary works. was a strong factor in American Culture. Lost Generation American economic expansion was restless and powerful. His main works are: “The Fall of the House of Usher” (1839). He wrote horror stories and detective stories. basically a vision of a world where the individual could reign and reap his just reward.

This confusing and difficult problem in itself acts as a symbol for part at least of the human condition. His meeting suddenly circumscribes freedom obtained in this way with Jim. In his later life. ‘Moby Dick’ is quite clearly a novel about good and evil. the middle ground between them becoming thinner and thinner. His novel ‘Tom Sawyer’ is a boy’s adventure-novel but in it he fails to hide his admiration for the free spirit of the boy and all it represents. a friend but also a runaway slave. A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court (1889). After various adventures in life. with his friend Jim. son of a jailbird and wastrel father. is the search for the universal truth and self-discovery. Freedom can only be obtained if moral and personal obligations are ditched. ‘Huckleberry Finn’ was planned simply as ‘a kind of companion’ to Tom Sawyer. Journey 142 . partly bludgeoned out of it by the fact that it brings his father’s rapacious attention onto him. The search for the great white whale. Of his other works. merchant vessels and the American navy. he became a writer.Herman Melville (1819-1891): Melville was son of a bankrupt who died young. and Pudd’n head Wilson (1894)’ are some of his best works. an entity that longs for freedom. marked the end of his period of popularity. ‘Moby Dick’ (1851). His act is an emblem for humanity. His capacity was to write as a child but somehow at the same time to create an adult perspective in that vision is a major force in his work. which earned him great success. Huck is about twelve years old. Ahab and Ishmael are emblems of tragedy and survival. Though his novel ‘Tom Sawyer’ (1876) is immensely popular as a boys’ story. It is far more than that. it is the novel of ‘Huckleberry Finn’14 (1884) for which Twain is best remembered. Mark Twain’s (1835-1910) real name was Samuel Clemens. But it may at the same time lock itself in a dungeon and throw away the key for the sake of another human. an escaped Negro slave. ‘Life on the Mississippi (1883). In that fact. ‘Huckleberry Finn’ is the story of a white boy and his journey down the Mississippi. lays both tragedy and reward of human existence: few have stated more succinctly. He was in dire need of Huck’s help. he came to see mankind as hypocrites and victims. Melville took himself off to the sea. He used this experience as the basis for his early novels. ‘Moby Dick’. We respect Huck Finn for the fact that he chooses Jim. serving in whalers. though with many highly symbolic works. Partly cheated out of his inheritance of significant wealth. Huck Finn consciously rejects money and all the virtues of civilized life. His most famous novel by far.

The love is not for women. It is love of the river. the great Mississippi. who hardly appears in the real except as irritates or objects of pity. It is conventional to divide James’ career into three sections. In them. The novel is about slavery. Henry James saw himself as a detached observer of life. Huck and Jim emerge unscathed but much wiser. conversation and the refinements of civilized life. The Ambassadors (1903). he knows he will never find all the answers. There is an optimism in the book that does not conflict with its ability to show the real world. Jim moored raft tucked away out of sight. His best-known books are Washington Square (1881) Portrait of a Lady (1881). His novels are set against a background of affluence. He finds enough to make. Tom Sawyer reappears and the style and content of the novel revert to rather silly game play of Tom Sawyer. the cooking on the campfire and the two people snugly secure in the warmth of companionship. The last chapters of the novel usually seemed a failure. and The Golden Bowl (1904). they study manners. The Aspern Papers (1888). Huckleberry Finn is a great book indeed. but somehow from it. friendship and clever plan. coming increasingly to live in Europe. If 143 . increasingly interested in the differences between American and European culture. manipulation and human greed. One of Huckleberry Finn’s great triumph is neither the reader nor Huck Finn ever becomes soured by what is revealed. James does not express a preference for European or American culture. The world is partly world of magic river. is typified by psychological reality. It is only fitting that the novel should end back with rather superficial tone of that novel. But soon he concentrated on writing. Partly it is the world of small-town in America and partly a love story. a wealthy background and went to law school. love of the outdoors and love of boyhood. examination of the growth of an individual’s moral consciousness and the interplay between two civilizations and cultures. others see it as a wasted opportunity. in his case the river. free self-sufficiency. the great outdoors. culminating with publication of ‘The Portrait of a Lady’. The first. That love is summed up by the image of Huck. Twain has the strength of wine of the great Romantic writers: dwarfed by nature. reality for what it is. boyhood as a symbol of a simple. Henry James (1843-1916): There cannot be greater contrast than that between Mark Twain and Henry James. It is also part of wider tradition whereby life described through a child’s eyes is shown in start.down the river is an education in hypocrisy.

in one sense that was the way it was written. He experimented with drama. inability to write a dialogue (all James’ characters seem to speak with the same voice) has not seriously challenged his position as a great novelist. Its failure averts its love and this inability dooms in their potential for love (and hence salvation) is stopped not by their own weakness but by prejudice and malformed thought of the (Southern) society around them. ‘Intruder is the Dust’ (1948) and ‘Requiem for a Nun’ (1951). renamed for prose fiction proposes Yokaapatawpha: Country Faulkner has been criticized as merely a regional novelist. his subjects became more especially English. The third period is the one that has aroused the most critical disagreement. His first novel to achieve lasting fame was ‘The Sound and the Fury’ (1929). In his second period. Supporters argue that. A different slant on his work could be given when it is heard or read aloud. he recreates with such vividness. It is sometimes overlooked that James in his later period wrote his novels by dictation. It is argued that in this period James’ work became over-refined and too highly stylized.there is anything. from the mid-1880s to the mid 1890s. non-idealistic human who cannot conceive of finer emotions. Faulkner is equally opposed to the quest for self-indulgence. or that his books have a relevance far beyond physical confines of the country. Novels such as ‘the Ambassador’ and ‘The Golden Bowl’ can be of intense reading. It has also exerted significant influence on the development of modern novel. Love and racial prejudice 144 . his emphasis on intricate psychological portrayal and his objective distanced observation of the clash of two cultures. this is merely the ultimate refinement in James’ subtle portrayal of every aspect of personality. Much of Faulkner’s best work recreates life in north Mississippi. but few doubt the wide-ranging nature of his symbolism. His insistence on the importance of form. James’ criticism was very influential. William Faulkner (1897-1962) was a prolific poet. But the world-weariness that typified this group is only a small element in his work a very great idealism about the external accepting the Nobel Prize and a tragic sense of unfulfilled perfectibility of men (something he expressed succinctly) when potential. Later novels included ‘As I Lay Dying’ (1930). His weakness of overelaboration and refinement. short writer and novelist. the hope is that something stronger than either will emerge from the strain and stress of cross-fertilization. This latter theme is associated in much of his work with the south in the United States. Faulkner has been seen as one of the ‘Lost Generation’.

At the age of twenty-four. His best books form a kind of spiritual history of the “Lost Generation” (a phrase first used by Gertrude Stein). Fitzgerald’s life was like the plot of his novels. Many young people in the Post – World War I period have “Lost” their American ideals. Faulkner’s technique. America’s economy collapsed15 with widely spread depression. Deliberately confused narrative lines. gaudiest spree in history’. critics have sought to justify this experimentation. His fiction was extremely popular in the twenties because it was modern and easy to read. all wars fought. These were the words of F. E. he describes this period of troubles. he wrote an enormous amount of fiction. Flappers and philosophers (1920) and tales of the Jazz Age (1922) are collections of the best of Fitzgerald’s short stories about the early twenties. At the same time America “Lost” many fine young writers like E. he became a fashionable army lieutenant. In some areas. This made him a part of the best society. and stream of consciousness. (The term “Flapper” refers to the modern young ladies of that period who 145 . The twenties were strange and wonderful years in America. he was a famous novelist. Time and chronology are rarely straightforward in a Faulkner novel. and do not exist in neat and separate compartment. sometimes aggressively modernist. From the beginning. and intricate and elaborate style are common in his work. Instead. he wrote ‘This side of Paradise’. both for himself and for America. This provided the money for many of Fitzgerald’s own “sprees”: all right parties and wild trips to Europe. numerous narrators. In 1929. But it has been said that this merely reflects flow into each other. Fitzgerald’s first novel. after his death). but he was never sent to fight in Europe. Fitzgerald had a feeling that the twenties would end badly. This happened at a time when Fitzgerald himself began to have serious mental and physical health problems. ‘This side of Paradise’ (1920). Cummings and Hemingway because they had moved to Paris. all faiths in man shaken’. He was born of rich parents in the mid west and educated at Princeton University. “The uncertainties of 1919 were over. “All the stories that came into my head had a touch of disaster in them”. Two concerns now filled their lives: “the fear of poverty and the worship of success”. There seemed little doubt about what was going to happen. In the Crack-up (published in 1945. Throughout the twenties. Therefore. describes this new generation. ‘America was going on the greatest. has also attracted attention. Scott Fitzgerald (1896-1940).are the two main themes in Faulkner’s greatest work. In 1917. They had ‘grown up to find all gods dead.

But Gatsby is also a true romantic. ‘The Great Gatsby’ is “ a symbolist tragedy”. According to one critic. The novel combines symbolism with psychological realism. expensive parties at his home. there is something heroic about Gatsby. the parties. He gives large. who stood on the porch. breathing dreams like air drifted about…. ‘The Diamond as Big as the Ritz’ is the best known of these stories.smoked. his hand up in a formal gesture of farewell. At the end of the story. He believed in: ‘orgia’16 future that year by year 146 . His guests have just gone home: A wafer of a moon was shining over Gatsby’s house… surviving the laughter and the sound of his still glowing garden. endowed with complete isolation the figure of the host. His world. Nick’s neighbor is Gatsby. He has spent his whole life dreaming of his childhood sweetheart. Great wealth caused an evil family to become crazy. drank whisky and lived dangerously free lives). The following scene symbolically describes the emptiness of his hopes and dreams.” Still. the narrator. The hero tries and fails to change the world of hard material objects (and of hard. They seem to be part of an unreal world. a rich and successful man (possibly a criminal). Through the eyes of Nick Caraway. He is offering a bribe to God. The descriptions of the house. like the world of many of his fellow Americans is “material without being real. the hero of ‘The Great Gatsby’ (1925). Washington is convinced that even “God has his price. there is a big earthquake and the family diamond mine begins to collapse. A sudden emptiness seemed to flow now from the windows and the great doors. of course”. He hopes that she will go and fall in love with him again. “Men and girls came and went like moths among the whisperings and the champagne and the stars”. The novel is considered by many critics to be one of the great twentieth century novels. The novel is famous for its unusual and interesting use of colors: “The lights grow brighter and now the orchestra is playing yellow cocktail music”. you up there!” Behind him two slaves are holding a huge diamond. materialistic people) into the ideal world of his fantasy. His failure makes him a rather tragic figure. Gatsby symbolizes the American belief that money can buy love and happiness. where poor ghosts. we see both the glamour and the moral ugliness of the twenties. He stands on a mountaintop and shouts up at the sky: “OK. the music and the guests give them a “symbolic glow”. To the end of his life he continued to believe and hope. has a similar belief in the absolute power and “natural goodness” of money. Jay Gatsby.

their despair is similar to the despair of T. “It is how to live it. Fake17European standards have ruined you. the narrator of the novel was wounded in the war. You become obsessed by sex. ‘The Sun also Rises’ (1926) is a portrait of young adults in the Post War year. All they wanted to know was how to live with. dismal drinking bowls. The woman. bartenders. But then they became completely useless in peacetime. stretch our arms out farther… and one fine morning. Only this way we can see the real meaning of colors and other details (Babylon Revisited) 1931. He moves from bar to bar. Then he became sexually impotent. Brett and Jake suffer but without talking about it. Jake reports. In the long run this sequence of nights in hotels. Jake Burner. You are an expatriate. prostitute and bedroom scenes. Hemingway’s Novels: Ernest Hemingway (1898-1961) also spoke for the Lost Generation. Eliot’s ‘Waste Land’18. Others in the novel are simply ‘expatriates’. Jake Burners.S. He drove an ambulance in World War I. You drink yourself to death. You spend all. a newspapers man was hurt by a shell and was incapacitated in the center of the story. not working. they are all ‘impotent’. Without hope or ambition.’ The rich symbolic nature of Fitzgerald’s best novels and short stories often makes us stop to re-read passages. It symbolizes how all the characters have been damaged by the war. sleeps with a boxer and with a matador. Spiritually. people without a homeland: ‘you’re expatriate. Then he decided to stay in Paris and became a writer. they try to enjoy each day as it comes. The hero and his wife had lived memorably his experiences with his wife’s mental illness. but that’s no matter-tomorrow we will run faster. The word impotent has a wider meaning in the novel. The characters are young Americans living in Paris. they fail the “test of reality”. you’re talking. Some had fought bravely for their country. The characters are tragic because like Gatsby. from France to Spain in search of love. All they wanted to know was how to live in the emptiness of the world. who loves. It educed us then. 147 . one of his best late short stories describes the Lost Generation after its moral and economic collapse. see? You hang around cafes’. His first novel. Describing his own real impotence. You’ve lost touch with the soil. “I did not care what it was all about dealing with their symbolic impotence in the same way. from shabby hotel to another shabby hotel.” The other characters live with their symbolic impotence in the same way.recedes before us.

or even an easy death like that of the boy in his short essay “A Day’s Wait’21. On the surface. the hero-narrator of many other stories is back home from the terrible war. Gertrude Stein often advised him to “Begin over again. Hemingway perfected his writing method by experimenting with the short story.g. When it was first published. As in all of Hemingway’s works. and fights off the feeling of Nada.achieve a peculiar stage effect. Nick travels through a countryside destroyed by a fire. He needs to find the “balance” of his life again.” As we can see in the passage quoted above. This same stoicism is often the main theme in Hemingway’s stories. In later writings. But they are not without hope. Brett and Jake hope to live together. At other times. and as closely. It holds them in. Sometimes we see this Nada as the loss of hope or the inability to become active in the real world. Like most of his novels. His early short story collections ‘In Our Time’ (1924) and ‘Men without Women’ (1927) carefully mix psychological realism with symbolism. Everything seems pointless. He must never give up trying to live life as fully as possible. The language is rarely emotional. Therefore. nature is a metaphor for the spiritual world of the character. concentrate (condense)”. as much awareness. The characters are ‘Waste Landers’ in a huge wasteland. because nothing happens. The simple style and careful structuring of Hemingway’s fiction is popular. as one would read a good modern poem”. some critics complained that it was boring. it controls emotions.’ But the main characters are not lost. “Many of his stories deserve to be read with. Rather. The typical Hemingway hero must always fight against the Nada of the world. “you’re an expatriate”22) to emphasize his theme. The aim of this language is to suggest a kind of stoicism. The aim of his style was to “get the most out of the least. Hemingway develops this emptiness into the important concept of “Nada”20. At the end of the novel. The following description has both a “real Life” level and a symbolic level. The “fire-scarred” land that the hero 148 . the outer world. He at times repeats a key phrase (e. ‘Big TwoHearted River’ (1925) is just a simple description of a fishing trip. This is a metaphor for his life after the war. Only rarely does he use adjectives. it is the desire for sleep. Nick Adams. (Carlos Baker). Hemingway’s sentences are usually short and simple. they are very easy to read. the careless reader often misses the deeper meanings. Some people called it ‘ a book about going to hell19. In his early Paris days.

In Switzerland. In ‘A Farewell to Arms’ (1929). During this terrible retreat. Finally they make their own separate peace by escaping to Switzerland. He felt that he had left everything behind. The story revolves round these two characters and the war. Then he turned off around a hill with a high. His beloved Catherine was a nurse there. This ceremony slowly brings him back to spiritual health. As the novel advances into action. there is no war. Frederic and Catherine are lovers during the war. Bitterly Frederic compares human beings to ants caught in a fire. It condemned him to death. Their attack was more violent and compelled Italian armies to retreat. his famous anti-war love story. leaving the burned town behind in the heat. Fredric however escaped through the river on a log of wood. They are completely ignored by God. need for thinking. He walked along the road that paralleled the railway track. His muscles ached and the day was hot. The mountain symbolizes life and hope. Hemingway again uses nature symbolically. But Nick felt happy. Frederic was spotted by the enemy officers and tried by a summary court martial. fire-scarred hill on either side onto a road that went back into the country…. a military court. after he had been admitted in the hospital.walks away from. the plain is the image of war and death. his troubles and memories of it. We soon learn to see rain as another symbol of death. the hero of the novel is a young American soldier attached to an ambulance unit on the Italian Front. Lieutenant Frederic Henry. each action has special symbolic meaning. Clearly. a British nurse. the Germans reinforced them. and then jumped aboard a goods train and reached Milan hospital. It was all back of him. probably symbolizes war. 149 . alone against the others”. Their love is a special world in the middle of war: “We could feel alone when we were together. The hero makes fishing into a kind of ceremony. After a heavy gunfire in which the Austrians suffered many casualties. The story carefully describes each of the hero’s actions as he fishes. the need to write and other needs. we find him in love with Catherine Berkley. There he learnt that the British nurses had left for Stressa. But their happiness is destroyed when Catherine dies at childbirth. “A Farewell to Arms” is about the Italian campaign in which Hemingway had taken part as an ambulance driver for the Red Cross Society. He crossed the great plain on foot.

There is austere realism and brutal details of its tragic end have a peculiar poignancy rarely seen in other novels. She had difficult time and the doctors used anesthesia. At the same time. but later on released. however. In ‘Across the River’ and ‘Into the Trees’ (1950) we see later development of the Hemingway hero. Henry told the police that he was a sportsman and loved to row. Everything he does. as he lies dying. By the thirties. he discovers a similar “union” with nature and the earth. Jordan has learned about the power of love. “No matter how. she delivered a dead child. In his ‘Death in the Afternoon’ (first published in 1932) Hemingway’s heroes also began to lose their freshness. Like the hero of “Big Two-Hearted River” he is a man of many personal ceremonies. He stops writing about the individual alone. Henry had no one to talk to and quietly walked into the dark. In ‘To Have and Have not’ (1937). On landing they were arrested. Hemingway’s special concentrate-style began to lose its freshness. After lot of pain. he is ageing and has been deeply wounded by life. Each individual is a part of a whole: mankind. Henry who bade farewell to arms was on the list of deserters. ‘For Whom the Bell Tolls’ (1940) relies on this idea into a moral system. She in fact died in his arms. Part of the problem was that many other writers were copying this style in their stories. Harry Morgan is this kind of hero. Love becomes a wonderful mysterious union: “one and one is one”. 150 . Both of them had valid passports. The hero Robert Jordan is fighting against fascism in the Spanish Civil war. His experiences teach him to believe in the value of sacrifice. Like the author himself. he learns this through love for a woman. After sometime Catherine also died of brain hemorrhage. He shows courage and stoicism in a collapsing world. He was then interested in the relationship between people. One of his old friends.” Harry Morgan says. At first. The events in novel are described with sincerity and integrity. But at the end. They were soon released. Catherine had become pregnant. a bartends suggested that they both could escape to a neutral country Switzerland. Near the delivery time Catherine was admitted to a hospital. they were “tough-guy” heroes. a man alone ain’t got no bloody chance. Any time he could be arrested. there is a change in Hemingway’s moral themes.During all these events of love and separation. a new theme for Hemingway. Like many other characters in the literature of the thirties.

Pieces of popular songs are mixed with newspaper headlines and phrased from advertisements. In the twenties indeed.S. Trilogy”. His three soldiers (1921) are less personal and have a broader. But sharks come and eat it down to the bones. Dos Passos saw the modern. which destroys individuals. To Dos Passos. As it was written immediately after the war.. Dos Passos’ literature changed its direction. Again the themes are heroism. It tells several different stories at the same time. In 1930. This short. But he does not complain.A. is a strong work. city filled with energy. Covering the period from 1900 to World War I. The old man then returns with just a skeleton when tourists laugh at him. as in the writings of James Joyce. he felt his powers as an artistic failing. John Dos Passos (1896-1970) drove and an ambulance during World War I. simple novel is a beautiful allegory of human life.loading his hunting rifle or even pouring a glass of champagne is done in a special way. In 1954 Hemingway was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature. Dos Passos shows the relationship between individuals and large historical events in exactly the same way. Some critics felt that his great themes were not as well developed in this story. ‘The Old Man and the Sea’ received the Pulitzer Prize in 1952. excitement and the modern “strangeness” of the twenties. patient fight. more historical view. the real character is New York City itself. Dos Passo’s published the first volume of his great “U. stoicism and ceremony. it is rather emotional and is filled with hatred for all war. Like other members of the Lost Generation. The Old Man and the Sea (1952) however. An old Cuban fisherman catches a huge Marlin after a long. only art and invention of new artistic styles (modernism) could save the world. His ‘One Man’s Imitation’ (1920) was the first American novel about the war. Like Hemingway. The old man showed courage in the fight and stoicism in defeat. he shot himself with his favorite hunting gun. The reader sees this as a sign of true heroism. Dos Passos's first successful “Modernist” novel was ‘Manhattan Transfer’ (1925). Although the book has many characters. ‘Manhattan Transfer’ tried to show the purposelessness of history. It is way of protecting his self-respect. In 1961. As he entered his old age. it describes the daily life of a large number of New Yorkers. post-war world as ugly and dirty. This was the last great message from Ernest Hemingway. the 42nd parallel. The trilogy tries to show how individuals are 151 . The people often talk in a special poetic style. It shows war as a huge machine.

part of the history of the age they live in. When ‘The 42nd Parallel’ first came out, there was a great excitement in Europe as well as in America. The great French philosopher Jean Paul Sartre said, “I regard Dos Passos’s as the greatest writer of our time”. Although it is an interesting story, the techniques (such as montage techniques of film directors like Griffith and Dissentient) are even more interesting. He is more symbolic than real. He appears wherever the “action”23 is. More than anything else, Dos Passos wanted to ‘catch the echo of what people were actually saying, in the style anyone might have said it.’ Dos Passos used large number of characters to represent an entire nation. William Faulkner (1897-1962), on the other hand, used a rather small number of characters. These represent the various levels of a single region: the south. They often reappear in later novels. Faulkner shared two things with the Lost Generation: its strong dislike for the post-war world and its belief in the value of art. His first novel, ‘Soldiers’ Day’ (1926) is about a wounded solider who returns home to the ‘Wasteland’ of post-war society. The sound and the Fury (1926) is one of Faulkner’s “Modernist” masterpieces. It tells the tragic story of the Comp son family from four different points of view: Benjy, the idiot; Quentin, his brother, who kills himself at Harvard’ Jason, the evil money-hungry brother; and Dilsey, the black servant who keeps the family together with love. One feature is the use of limited point of view each in his/her way. Each lives in his/her own reality completely separate. Objects, places and people have a strange dreamlike quality when he talks. Faulkner’s special technique of narration is another feature. The reader is put into the center of the story without any preparation. In almost all of Faulkner’s stories, time is treated in a special way. He uses the “continuous present” style of writing, which was invented by Gertrude Stein (perhaps Faulkner learned this from Sherwood Anderson) who was greatly influenced by Stein). Past, present and future events are mixed: “yesterday and tomorrow are indivisible one”. Everything including event from a century before are seen to happen at the same time. Everything is part of the “now”24 of the novel. Because of these techniques it is usually hard to read a Faulkner novel. But the rewards work the effort. As Radcliff, a character in The Hamlet, Says: “…if it ain’t complicated up enough, it ain’t right” Faulkner’s descriptions of human goodness are as powerful as his descriptions of human evil. Often his “good” people are black. Black or

white, these people show their goodness in their relationship with nature and their ability to love. When he was given the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1950, Faulkner gave a short speech in which he described man as a spiritual being. The world of this spiritual being is based upon moral truths. The Bear (1942) speaks for the author: Truth is one. It doesn’t change. It covers all things, which touch the heart and pride and pity and justice and courage and love. Courage and love are central themes in the poetry of E.E.Cummings (1894-1962; he always wrote his name as ‘e.e’cummings’). He was the most joyful of the Lost Generation, like the others, his first work was a novel about the war, ‘The Enormous Room’ (1922). The book attacks both war and government. The French army had made a big mistake: they had put Cummings in Prison as a spy. After the war, he joined the Lost Generation in Paris. There, he studied both writing and painting. In his poetry we can see the clear influence of both Gertrude Stein and the Cubist painters. The Cubists broke their paintings up into many different angles or “facets”. Similarly, Cummings loved to break the traditional poem into unusual bits and pieces. “So far as I am concerned,” he says in his six lectures (1952), “poetry” and every other art was and is and forever will be strictly and distinctly a question of individuality”. Cummings made every part of a poem express his own individuality. Some of his book titles are not even real words, such as the title of his book of poetry, (1925). He rarely capitalized the words we usually capitalize (like his name). He sometimes uses capital letters in the middle (“slowly”) or at the end of words (“stops”). He wanted us to look carefully at the individual word (and even the letters in the word). Therefore, his poems look very strange on the printed page: Why Don’t Be sill . Lee , O no in Deed; Money Can’t do (never Did & Never will) any

Damn Thing : Far From it. You ‘re wrong, my friend.


Underneath this experimented surface, however, the themes of Cummings’ poetry are surprisingly traditional. Emerson and Whitman have clearly influenced his message in this beautiful hymn to God and nature: i thank you God for most this amazing day: for the leaping greenly spirits of trees And a blue true dream of sky; and for everything Which is natural which is infinite which is yes (1950) Cummings hated the large, powerful forces in modern life: politics, the church, and big Business. He also disliked the coldness of science. Here, he uses warm, human images to attack science: While you and I have lips and voices which Are for kissing and to sing with Who cares if some one eyed son of a bitch (nasty fellow) Invents an instrument to measure spring with? Occasionally, his love poetry becomes rather obscene. But to him, real love can only happen in complete freedom: “I value freedom; and have never expected freedom to be anything less than indecent,” just as Whitman liberated American poetry of the twentieth century. “By the very act of becoming its improbably gigantic self”, Cummings once wrote, “New York has reduced mankind to a tribe of pygmies”. The city had quite a different meaning to Hart Crane (1899-1932) the other important Lost Generation poet. Crane is talking about feeling, which cannot be understood intellectually. His poetry uses words for their musical qualities more than for their meaning. His real subject is modern city life, and the feelings that life creates in all of us. Hart Crane uses New York as a “symbolic landscape” in his long famous poem ‘The Bridge’ (1930). The poem is an epic of American life. The glories of the past are contrasted with the “Wasteland” of the post-world war-I era. Crane got the idea for the poem when he was very poor and living in a cheap little apartment in New York. ‘The Brooklyn Bridge’

becomes a symbol of the relationship between man and God. At the same time, it is the bridge, which unites the American nation. “Vaulting, the sea, the prairies’ dreaming sod…”clearly Crane wanted his long poem to “sing of America,” like Whitman’s leaves of Grass. He openly calls to the spirit of Whitman: Not soon, nor suddenly, - No never to let go My hand In yours, Walt WhitmanSoAlthough he tries to share Whitman’s joyous spirit, Crane’s view of life is far darker and more tragic. He is much closer to Poe. In a later part of the Bridge, Crane meets Poe in a crowded subway: And why do I often meet your visage here, Your eyes like agate lanterns-on and on Below the toothpaste and the dandruff ads? … And Death, afloat, - gigantically down Probing through you-toward me, O evermore! Death quickly found the tragic Crane. At the Age of thirty-two, he killed himself. T.S. Eliot (1888-1965) plays a unique role in the field of modern literary criticism. In his essay on ‘Tradition and Individual Talent’25 he gives us a very clear picture of the poet, his work of art and emotions. Poetry is an escape from emotion; an escape from personality. Emotion has its life in the poem and not in the history of the poet. The emotion of art is impersonal. The poet can reach this impersonality only if he surrenders himself wholly to the work to be done. He is likely to know what is to be done only when he lives in what is not merely the present but the present moment of the past. He ought to be conscious of what is already living. T.S. Eliot here echoes nothing but Indian aesthetics26 with Bhavas that lead to experiencing Rasa. It will be quite appropriate here to dwell on the development of Literary Criticism of the twentieth Century in a special way as a number of schools of criticism have come onto prominence. Here we learn of how Novel ReOpened in the late twentieth century.


Longinus.5 Notes 1.C. Mark Twain: Classic is as a book. Ars Poetica (Poetic Art by Horace) 156 . 2. which people praise and never read. World Classic 4. on the sublime.Chapter. 3. 65-8 B.

Physical Evidence 7.S. World Classic severely criticizing statements of neoclassical literary Principles 6. Critics of Shakespeare on pleasing an audience than teaching morals 10.Very popular novel of Mark Twain 15.Opposition between the two continents 14.Poets closer to god and nature 11.Eliot’s famous poem on spiritual dryness 19.T. Revolutions.Widely exciting 17. Claim of poet’s power and obligation to society – moral good is the Imagination 9.Present moment 25.Famous essay on nothingness 22.5.Strikes.Nothingess in Spanish 21.Poetry helps us live productive and contented life 12World Classic 13.A state of eternal life of punishment 20. World Classic of William Wordsworth emphasizing concrete and Simple Language 8. the Sanskrit Literary Theory Chapter 6 Development of Literary Criticism of The Twentieth Century 157 .Falsely copied 18.Beginning of the great depression 16.Unique essay on Individual’s particular artistic disposition 26. Uprising etc 24.Homeless person during the particular period 23.Refers to the unique all pervasive Rasa.

It refuses to abide by the belief that a work of art should have a particular kind of ‘content’. looking back on developments of Criticism in 1970. the critics must respect in order to appreciate it. Three of its leading features are: the primacy of Language. there has been the Modernist Revolution (19181945). may have any subject matter. we have the major tradition of Anglo-American critical argument from Eliot in the 1920s to W. A. On this powerful Formalist Tradition and de-familiarization of Russian Formalists. The first and foremost one is Formalism. for it cannot be valued according to what it is deemed to ‘contain’. and the dissolution of ‘unity’. the dethronement of the ‘subject’. The period between the two world wars experienced a triumph of New Criticism. with internal structure of repetitions and parallels. Distinctive and valuable about a work of literature is 158 . referred to ‘New Criticism’.The twentieth century has a number of schools of the intellectual tendency in the field of Literary Criticism. Beyond the New Criticism. A work of literature says the formalist. ‘Criticism is so essential to enjoy any work of art just as breathing is important to live’. Critics during this period were divided into three kinds namely poet-critic. Poetry is an autonomous world of its own whose special laws. This arises from attempts of dissatisfied artists and their champions to elude the demands placed upon them to express moral truths or to reflect accepted versions of reality through their art. post wars period. avoiding application of external standards. We have then a period since 1968. Bradley is a highly convincing exponent of taste by knowledge. The knowledge he speaks of is the knowledge of the chosen text in its entirety. He adopts an ideal of sympathetic understanding of the works from within. Formalism Greatly influential intellectual tendency in Anglophone Criticism since the 1890 is ‘Formalism’. all three of them can be put under Academic Criticism (1945-1965). Malcolm Bradbury puts the situation in a close phrase: ‘minor articles in minor journals about minor symbols and their minor function in a minor work by a minor writer’. man of letters and academic critic.C. characterized by a Literary ‘Theory’ and Textual Politics. This enables us rediscover unexpected echoes and challenges when criticism was quickened by its belief in itself as a central and decisive cultural force. Poetry for Bradley is ‘an end in itself’ with its own intrinsic value. It emphasizes on form.K Wimsatt in the 1950s. or even none at all. But all three are not in watertight compartments but one overlapping between the other.

Formalism might be defined as the Theory of which the modernist movements provide the practice. Eliot’s poem ‘The Waste Land’ or Virginia Woolf’s novel ‘The Waves’. It is precisely this distance from the normal world that should be cherished in a work of art. Formalism feeds upon dissatisfaction with the ‘realist’ principle in the arts. It repeatedly rebukes an uninterested public for seeking a ‘content’. A somewhat different case is the adaptation since the 1960s of the principles (‘de-familiarization’ and others) of the Russian Formalists. custom and habitual ‘stock response’ of the narrow mind as greater dangers than any alleged indecency or ugliness in subjectmatter of plays or novels. In between these examples. For the formalist. which had become deeply established in the second half of the nineteenth century. In a modernist work such as T. the formal disjunctions are the meaning. thus taking us out of our habitual world into the freshly created and autonomous ‘world’ of the artwork. a ‘message’. stands the 159 . Formalism endorses new techniques and strategies of modernist writers by identifying clichés.S. This separates it from relative formlessness of the rest of reality. the implications of modernist practice. It would be more preferable to say that formalism universalizes as Theory. Critical theorist and poetic practitioners agreed that the new ‘mass’. a beginning. Formalism is a recurrent negation of what it assumes to be the dominant public expectations regarding literature and its meaning. and mocks the naiveté and passivity underlying such demands. not any approximation of the work to reality or to a prescribed ideal. an end. and internal structure of repetitions and parallels. middle. the test of a genuine work of Literature is the degree to which it resists giving up a meaning of the kind that could be summarized in terms other than those presented by the work itself. The rise of formalism in English-speaking criticism accompanies and justifies the emergence of the kinds of artistic experiment that we place under the general label of ‘modernism’.that it has a form. even a ‘meaning’ in literary works. in joint rebellion against the inherited Victorian norms. One will miss if one goes looking for a moral message. reading public had to be jolted out of its imaginative dull and slowness by new kinds of literary shock-tactics to awaken its powers of perception and sensitivity. Anglophone Criticism The formalist idea has asserted itself in Anglophone Criticism in various different shapes: Oscar Wilde’s repudiation of ‘morality’ as a criterion for the judgment of books is one early instance.

A similar charge was leveled at its successor. Opposing schools accused it of abstracting literary works too drastically from their social. Formalism has occupied the high ground of criticism and theory throughout this period. Eliot in the 1920s to W. richer than any abstracted summary or paraphrase it as its ‘message’.major tradition of Anglo-American critical argument from T. a mixed array. The aim of this powerful formalist tradition was to emphasize the specific literary nature of the texts it examined. or side-post for instance. The New Criticism The New Criticism dominant in the second quarter of the twentieth century then gave way to a second wave of formalist criticism in the 1970s.K. The New Criticism eventually fell into disfavor as it repeatedly discovered the same ‘universal’ literary properties (irony. usually referred to as the ‘New Criticism’. Its protagonists represented the rise of formalism as a battle on behalf of literary criticism. differently than from ordinary nonliterary communications. ambiguity. again including both Marxists and romantic conservatives were determined to retain the notion of a literary work’s ‘content’ and to show that it referred not just to itself but to a known world. paradox) in works widely different kinds from diverse historical periods. Wimsatt in the 1950s. Certain formal features such as the use of omniscient thirdperson narrative voice were inherently conservative. cultural or historical contexts. or rhythmic patterns. while other literary devices were just ‘subversive’. The practitioner of the New Criticism would attempt to show how their various combined effects is a unique complex of sounds and meanings. This sometimes claimed that literary works were not ‘about’ anything other than their own fiction’s status and sometimes in its attempted political versions. with its focus on the ‘internal’ properties of literary works themselves. That is to see it not as the ‘expression’ of an author’s personality or of the spirit of the age but as an object of analysis in itself. The detractors of formalism. with observable properties of its own: structural devices of opposition. or uses of symbolism or rhetorical features ranging from onomatopoeia to irony. Literary history could be dismissed as the equivalent of 160 . the school of ‘deconstruction’. regardless of the work’s ‘content’.S. its usual method was to detach the poem or other literary work from its biographical or historical occasions.

Arnold does not directly belong to this period (died in 1888).Victorian butterfly collecting a meaningless accumulation of samples. D. Notable critics in the English Language are dominated by this type: Sir Philip Sidney. No introductory history of modern criticism could account satisfactorily for the remarkable changes in criticism’s nature and status. Eliot. but he certainly dominates much of its literary criticism from beyond the grave. or periodical essayist who may also be a practitioner of the same art. plays and prose fiction. And the key to an understanding of his question lies in the work of Matthew Arnold. Percy Bysshe Shelly. editor. William Wordsworth. form the 1920s to the 1960s was marked by the subordination of literary-historical and literary-biographical study to the ascendant discourses of critical analysis and evaluation. and speculative ‘influences’. a reviewer. It should first examine its changing function or ‘mission’ in the world. Henry James. Lawrence and Allen Tate. this entailed a new practice of ‘close reading’ attending to the specific formal features of texts rather than to the general world-views of their authors. T. S. Nothing distinguished twentieth century literary criticism more sharply from that of previous ages than this close attention to textual detail.and more obviously (the latter part of nineteenth) could safely be said to belong to the ‘Arnoldian age’ in English literary 161 . In terms of method. There is first the poet-critic. Poe.S. Cole ridge. Edgar A. It led to knowledge of literature rather than merely knowledge about it. Academic Criticism (1945-1965) The institutional context and basis of literary criticism and theory in the period after 1890 is characterized above all by the spectacular development of professional academic criticism.H. dry facts. who is usually concerned to justify his or her own artistic practice against rivals or against hostile reception. It is commonly accepted that critics can be divided into three kinds. Alexander Pope. the English poet and critic. John Dryden. The heroic phase of modern Anglo-American Criticism. Walt Whitman. The second kind is the ‘man of letters’. although one individual may occupy two or even three of these roles successively or simultaneously. arbitrary labels. Ezra Pound. But his first responsibility is to the reading public or to that section of it. But Criticism puts us into direct contact with poems.T. Matthew Arnold. Most part of 20thc.

Hutton. John Middleton Murray. in claiming that poetry is the organizing ‘soul’ to which fact. because in poetry.criticism. Indian universities too followed the same path but produced a tremendous amount of works of art in the field of literary criticism. to console us. John Hazlitt. As the relevant problems are the larger ones of Literature as a whole and of its value let’s not go exploring in detail Arnold’s particular literary judgments or arguments. it has attached its emotion to the fact. Edmund Wilson. Our religion has materialized itself in the fact. of divine illusion…. He continues: More and more mankind will discover that we have to turn to poetry to interpret life for us. Leslie Stephen. our race. Arnold draws inspiration from his Romantic predecessors. which is not shaken. the rest is a world of illusion. Ralph Waldo Emerson. our science will appear incomplete. poetry etc.S. Thomas Carlyle. in the supposed fact.H. But for poetry the idea is everything.H. and now the fact is failing it. Writing in the context of increasing social complexity and diminishing religious belief.. As he asserted in his essay ‘The Study of Poetry’ (1980). Virginia Woolf. to sustain us. novels. George Eliot. Since poetry does not rely upon the veracity of its statements. will find an ever surer and surer stay. The future of poetry is immense. This type originates in Scottish Universities of the late 18th c. as time goes on. Matthew Arnold (again). The third kind is the ‘academic critic’ tied professionally to a university or similar institution. science and reasoning are the corruptible body. Stuart Mill. not a received tradition that does not threaten to dissolve. Without poetry. T. when courses in ‘Rhetoric and Belles-lettres’ were established. as Arnold sees. R. as he usually put it) would soon take the place of religion as our principal means of understanding our lives and of consoling us for its sorrows. 162 . G. followed by William Thomas De Quincey. The strongest part of our religion today is its unconscious poetry. not an accredited dogma that is not shown to be questionable. William Dean Howells. Samuel Johnson is the first great type here. Wordsworth and Shelly. and most of what now passes with us for religion and philosophy will be replaced by poetry1. Paul Elmer More. Lewes. it cannot be refuted as the dogma of a church may be. There is not a creed. Arnold made the astonishing claim that Literature (or ‘poetry’. Eliot (again). where it is worthy of its high destinies.

David Masson. nor a copy of it. Its starting point is less the text in itself than our overall impression of its effect upon us. Northrop Frye.R. and their successors.Bradley. Poetry is neither a part of the outer world. then. between competing claims to critical authority of scholarly and scientific objectivism on the one side. but an autonomous world of its own. a general accumulated knowledge of literature as a whole. A. Bradley distinguishes himself from the aesthetes only in disclaiming the notion that art is the supreme goal of human life and in disputing the concept of pure form isolated from expression. George Saints bury. Erwing Babbitt. Secondly the problems of defending liberty and integrity of literary art against an increasingly in hospitable philistine world and its puritanical moralism. Cleanth Brooks. and aesthetic or ‘impressionistic’ subjectivism on the other. this resistance is bound up with the vexed question of relationship of art to morality. with a scientific respect for evidence. I. Poetry is for Bradley ‘an end in itself’ with its own intrinsic value.But it makes no serious impression upon criticism until the latter part of the Victorian period. He tempers the impression of aesthetic appreciation. G. Its special laws the critic must respect in order to appreciate it. not as with Saintsbury. Professor of English at Glasgow and subsequently Professor of Poetry at Oxford. we can identify a search for some settlement whether by conquest or by compromise. nor specialist knowledge of language. Adopting the Paterian principle of the indivisibility of form and 163 . Thirdly. After Eliot. Bradley has another claim to importance as a mediator between aestheticism and academic criticism.Wilson Knights. His celebrated Shakespearean Tragedy (1904) adopts a recognizably Paterian2 ideal of sympathetic understanding of the novels from within. The first prestigious literary academics were Edward Dowden. Frank Kermode.Bradley. Woolf and Lawrence hardly any leading critic in the 20th century has also been leader in poetry or fiction.C. history. F. The knowledge that he calls upon is knowledge of the chosen text in its entirety.C. and Herald Bloom. Descents from Decadence (1890-1918) We find an intellectual digestion and critical assessment of important and disturbingly ‘modern’ cultural forces movement and figures chiefly from European continent. or theatre. eschewing the application of external standards.A.Richards.Leavis. But this impression accounts for all of its facts. The most convincing exponent thought of responsible correction of taste by knowledge was A.

The legacy of this period in criticism is normally defined in terms of the triumph of New Criticism. criticism was quickened by its belief in itself as a ‘central’ and decisive cultural force. So a prose paraphrase will always fail to embody the poem’s ‘content’. Poetic value resides in the poem as a whole that contains neither of these abstractions. have attracted a great deal more attention as founding documents of modern literary feminism. some scholars have gone back to particular figures in the inter-war period with a new sympathy: the critical writings of Virginia Woolf. In our own recent times. Malcolm 164 . William Empson is being re-read as something like the first post-structuralist critic. All animate and add a unique dimension to this heroic phase of modern criticism. Literary Criticism found itself enjoying mixed fortunes. the revolution in Shakespearean interpretation. This Modernist Revolution of the period enables us to rediscover unexpected echoes and challenges in the work of these decades. in particular. Indeed. Worldly success in the form of established positions in an expanding university system and the flourishing of the academic literary journals came along with a gnawing self-doubt and loss of conviction about the purpose of the critical enterprise. The Modernist Revolution (1918-1945) The interval between the two world wars in literary criticism was a period of revolution during the historical phoney war. the poem simply ‘means itself’3. Bradley uses an argument that was forty years later to become central to the doctrine of the New Critics that. Looking back on post-war development of criticism in 1970. There is a remarkable range of new thinking and of exciting redirection in this period’s work: the invention of American Literature. one cannot change the words of a poem without changing the meaning. Beyond the New Criticism (1945-1965) During the decades following the Second World War. The incorporation of criticism into a large educational bureaucracy threatened to replace the formerly independent critical vitality of the pre-war little magazine tradition with the routine functions of a corporate machine. the emergence of the scrutiny group and sometimes that of the New York intellectuals. the theorizing of the novel. the discovery of Marxism and psychoanalysis and the battle between classical and aromatic principles. he dismisses on the one hand the formalist heresy of form detached from substance and the more common error of conceiving a substance prior to form.content in poetry.

who had written on Arnold before the war. Kermode and Williams. published in 1950 his most influential collection of essays.R. But there was a further wealth of critical work on individual novelists.Bradbury4 of the proliferation of ‘minor articles in minor journals about minor symbols and their minor function in a minor work by a minor writer’. This contained several important studies in the novel. The Victorian novelists. Harvey’s ‘The Art of George Eliot’ (1961). and paradox gave way to plot. and W. Kermode and Frye agreed on two significant points namely those 165 . ambiguity.Booth’s ‘The Rhetoric of Fiction’ (1961). The notion of the ‘committed’ writer. all seemed to encourage a shift from novelist. the impact of neo-realist cinema from Italy. and the sudden celebrity of George Orwell. The cultural configuration of the post-war years was in many ways favorable to such a recuperation of the writer into the collective structures of language and culture. irony. Crane. structure.Leavis who published books on poetry before the war. the writer appears in this humbler role. Whether in Northrop Frye’s myth criticism or in the quasi-Marxist literary history of Raymond Williams. Within a few years a new critical industry had revived and aroused fiction. Wayne C. notably J. The new attention to the novel. benefited particularly from this flourishing novel-criticism and made up in the 1960s. Ian Watt’s ‘The Rise of the Novel’ (1957). myth and fiction as the new terminologies of Frye. Dorothy Van Ghent’s ‘The English Novel: Form and Function’ (1953) and David Lodge’s ‘Language of Fiction’ (1966). in fact. Hillis Miller’s Charles Dickens (1958). but only one essay on poetry. This period produced a remarkable body of writings on the novel. a pronounced lurch towards prose fiction is evident in post-war criticism. and books on the novel after the war is not exactly typical. George Eliot’s ‘Middlemarch’ was being spoken of as the summit of achievement in English fiction. But it is still symptomatic. important enough in itself was also a symptom of a general shift from the intensive to the extensive or from the smaller to larger scale in literary studies: typically from the scrutiny of local ambiguities in short lyrics to the comparison of thematic structures among groups of novels or plays. emerging from French existentialism. Other leading criticism in the post-war years shows the same kind of bias: Lionel Trilling. ‘Liberal Imagination’. Their reputations had lost in the 1920s. took hold. The career of F.J. As central critical terms. In any case. including Leavis’ ‘The Great Tradition’. as a scribe to social ideology or to the collective mythic dream.

and the dissolution of ‘unity’. For the psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan. Literary Theory and Textual Politics Since 1968 After the turmoil of the year 1968. A generalization of Saussure’s claim is that language is a system of differences. the dethronement of the ‘subject’. In the structuralist tradition inaugurated by the Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure in his Cours de linguistique generale (1916). The main issue was whether literature ‘reflected’ a pre-existing reality outside it. language is disconnected from the things outside itself that it talks about (its’referents’). and the Chicago School. and that the Bible was the model and source book for all later Western narratives. in the work of the New Critics. locked together in those authoritative ‘discourses’ that permitted us to speak and think only in certain recognized ways. The arrival of ‘Theory’. presented itself as a loss of innocence. It’s considered purely as a system of distinctions between and among its own elements (‘signs’). was quickly overwhelmed by the growth of what is known simply as ‘Theory’. This Theory enjoyed an important resurgence in North America in the 1940s and 50s. (defeat of General strike and student revolt in France) criticism in its then usual sense of appreciation and evaluation of poems. ‘Theory’ had shared various tributaries of what in the 1970s appeared to be a common cause shared an agenda and a set of central preoccupations. the meaning of a text was not something found through and beyond language. It is indeed as old as Aristotle. Three of its leading items may be introduced here namely the primacy of language. In this new discourse. It implied that the aesthetic theory and practice of realism in literature was inherently reactionary. But it is something produced entirely by language.historical and scientific narratives were myths or ‘fiction’. The empiricist habits of thought prevalent in Anglo-Saxon culture were torn aside in order to expose the complicity of traditional humanistic study with oppressive ideologies and dominant systems of power. power was language and language was power. Frye. or whether it ‘constructed’ new linguistic construction of reality. In the context of literary criticism. This is why literary critical consequences took the form of continuing assaults upon the principle of mimesis or the imitation of life in literature. For the historian Michael Foucault. plays or novels. it was our entry as infants into the ‘Symbolic Order’ of language that formed our entire psyche. ‘reality’ appeared to have 166 .

An important benefit of the critical encounter with European structuralism in the 1960s and 1970s was the learning of important lessons from the new science of ‘narratology’. The mind must give way to the text. as revision. By the early 1980s. In Roland Barthes’ essay in 1968. ‘The Death of the Author’. In addition to their technical adjustments. In particular they benefited from crucial distinction made by the Russian Formalists between fibula (story-events) and sjuzet (arranged plot). if the author is dethroned from his godlike position as guarantor of stable meanings then the consequence should be the liberation of the reader. But once we deny the sovereignty of consciousness.R. Culler5 defines the difference that structuralist principle could 167 . If literary works were to be seen as referring to anything at all. and literature by ‘textuality’. and against which all others had to measure themselves. they reflect a deeper cultural shift within criticism. surrendering its powers to language. whether as parody. Critical engagement and novels change their directions sharply from defining their thematic unity to exposing their heterogeneity or plurality. Leavis believed. it must be to language and the work’s own linguistic status. Texts fed upon themselves or upon other texts. Barthes declared that. Both Henry James and F. and thus all writing was a kind of re-writing. Novel Re-Opened The Theory of ‘the Novel’ in this period since 1968 tends to give way to a more extensive theory of ‘narrative’ in general. as pastiche. deconstruction had established itself as the critical school to which all others had to define a response. the author’s quality of mind is reflected in the quality of the literary work. or as allusion. to a web of signs with no organizing center. so literature gives way to ‘writing’ (Ecriture). And Gerard Genette and other structuralist narratologists developed the numerous analytic distinctions from such foundations.been swallowed up entirely by language. to speak of the maturity or integrity in the quality of the literary work. away from evaluative commentary and towards a ‘scientific’ account of the basic codes of intelligibility used by novels and the readers in particular. that is. then just as surely as the individual gives way to the ‘subject’. as antiphony. At the end of this chain lies the destruction of one of the most sacred principles of modern criticism and aesthetics: the organic unity of artwork. to speak of maturity or integrity of one is to commend the other. coloring the attitudes and language even of those critics who disputed its principles.

To infer from the artwork. Eliot reminds us at the start of his most important essay: ‘Criticism is as inevitable as breathing’. art gallery. the aesthete is to generate this unique configuration. as it regularly does outside every theatre.H. still pursues sensitive ‘close reading’ of modern poetry according to New Critical traditions.Matthew Arnold.6 Notes 1. a slice of life. while most others have let Theory pass them by as an irrelevant one to their essential literary interests. we might be able to see. Some of them like M. super (Ann arbor. By replacing our common notion of a novel as direct imitation of the world. how it actually uses language and linguistic conventions. repudiated by a triumphant critical formalism in mid-century. English and Irish Poetics Ed. It is important to remember that the same pluralism that harbors Queer Theory. The aim of an aesthetic criticism is to describe the artwork in such a way that it cannot be confused with any other artwork (not an easy task). 168 . performances. mi. Her collection of essays.make our view of the novel and its workings: ‘In place of the novel as mimesis we have the novel as a structure which plays with different modes of ordering and enables the reader to understand how he makes sense of the world’. Wherever any culture produces texts. The American critic Helen Vendler6. a professor at Harvard who has also written regularly as poetry critic for the New Yorker Magazine.H. the tradition of literary history. But within Literary Studies. itself not just in the form of the ‘new historicism’. R. She sees little in the glamour of recent decades to distract her from this task.S. that is. but also in various unaffiliated versions. Chapter. Criticism will again break out spontaneously. or events that allow for diverse responses and disagreements. The model of Literary Criticism that reigned as New Criticism or in the form of the Leavism has indeed an end either to Criticism or to its specifically literary applications.Abrams have engaged in direct debate with the practitioners of Theory. T. has asserted. concert hall or cinema. deconstruction and cultural materialism tolerates the unfashionable survival of older humanist and formalist versions of criticism. ‘The Music of What Happens’ (1988) opens with a reaffirmation of Vendler’s commitment to a distinctively ‘aesthetic criticism’: The aim of proper aesthetic criticism… is not primarily to reveal the meaning of an artwork or disclose (or argue for or against) the ideological values of an artwork.

pp. M. 1993).30-5) also comments on the process. xxix.cit.C.Eliot. critics (Cambridge. pp.24. 6. Oxford Lectures on Poetry (1909).Helen Vendler. 4. the music of what happens: poems. Chapter 7 169 . 1986).2 7. on Bradley’s Specification of Literary studies’ ‘object’. p. Ed.A. politics and value in English Studies (Cambridge. the renaissance: studies in art and poetry.A. p. guy and Ian small.161-2.162-4.Culler – Structuralist poetics.1988) P. Bradley. Sacred Wood. 5. p.Walter peter.pp.Bradbury (op.48. p.238. 3. see Josephine m. 2. Adam Philips (Oxford. poets.1973). (‘Tradition and the Individual Talent’).

If the mother wished some career for the child.Clarance. but he was rejected due to his bad sight. an upper class suburb of Chicago. Dr. But school life convinced him that only a “tough skinned” person sustains and survives the struggle. Ernest Hemingway’s boyhood and youth were actively spent in hunting and fishing in the Michigan north woods. He completed his school education in Oak Park. Ernest’s mother wanted him to learn music. He served them 170 . As a result. Their husband-wife relation seemed to have been far from cordial and homely. 1898. He thus exposed himself completely to the ‘adventurous heats’ of life. but the father wanted him to become a real fisherman and a hunter. it is said ‘put a fishing rod in his hand at the age of three. He felt greatly disappointed. She kept a strict watch over his activities. and a riffle at ten’. Although World War I had started in 1914. the father chose entirely a different one. Differences. Dr. He earned to meet both his ends doing odd and menial jobs. She was habituated to read the Bible and was a member of the church choir. he did it ferociously. Illinois. Hemingway offered himself for service as a soldier. he started to learn boxing. misunderstandings and doubts between them adversely had affected the children. especially church hymns. Clarence was a practicing doctor and had earned good reputation for his “skill at hunting and fishing”. It is learnt that she was suspicious of the “spiritual” life of her husband.Ernest Hemingway’s Life and Works Ernest (Miller) Hemingway was born on July 21. He could then become a reporter on Kansas City Star. Clarence Edmonds Hemingway. As it is normal. the United States entered the war. Whenever he fought. He roamed on the roads experiencing violence and suffering. It is on record that his classmates admired his talents though they did not like him as a person. a very big newspaper then in the States. He was second son of the six children of Dr. He had not seen or experienced love. it remained a European war. Ernest’s mother was a fervent catholic. The First World War and Hemingway’s Experiences New developments in International situations had altered the course of his wandering life. It was an act of ‘revolt’. He ran away from home twice. He excelled in literature and became student editor of the school paper. at Oak Park. But in 1917. even love of his parents. M. He had his nose flattened and one eye severely injured. Ernest had already become aware of a hard and difficult life daily seeing his parents.D. finally the male asserts and the boy took to the games that his father enjoyed.

He was sent to the battlefront filled with blood and violence on the roads. Immediately after marriage both of them left for Middle East to cover Greco-Turkish war. bombings and ruthless cold-blooded murders.for more than six months. Soon he married her in 1921. a great French writer describes Gertrude Stein. he succeeded getting job of an ambulance driver for Red Cross Society. His Italian soldier was killed and he himself was near death. 171 . Hemingway’s friendship with Gertrude Stein was of immense artistic value. the power of repetition. This period of his life was filled with nerve-shaking experience. His main interest was war and violence. more so in his writings too. But he went back to Chicago where he got associated with good writers like Sherwood Anderson. His dedication to task assigned was admired much. He was severely wounded during the Italian war. thrill and fright could not be erased from his mind. The effect of battlefield. a number of metal pieces were taken out of his leg. Andre Maurios. he attempted to save the life of an Italian soldier. It is after this. honored him with Italian at Valor Military. Ernest Hemingway learnt the use of colloquial in fiction. She was then attracting the attention of the readers and critics. he came into close contact with Gertrude Stein1. During his effort. a writer with good sense who understood the virtue of everyday words. This very term violence and suffering figured as major theme in his writings. for it was this style that Ernest Hemingway later mastered. After. We learn that during one of the major operations during his posting at the warfront. During operation. He indeed experienced killings. This became permanent on his face. a prize for his courage shown during war. he came under enemy machine-gunfire and was wounded in leg. ‘Baker’ estimates them to be more than a hundred. as “a massive monolith of a person who had voluntarily expatriated herself from the United States. and the rhythm of spoken language”. He covered crimes and accidents. She liked the style that Ernest Hemingway was cultivating fast. due to his interest and aptitude that he had cultivated at childhood. There he fell in love with Hadley Richardson a correspondent. This incident is vividly pictured in his fiction “A Farewell to Arms’. he had gone to Paris.

Clarance committed suicide. is honest with her and in her own fashion is honorable. This story indeed established Ernest’s fame in the literary world. Husband and wife relations became strained. Hemingway’s father Dr. some offered him contracts for regular writing. Every appreciative reader relished the impact. and even the heroine though morally ruined. but he always aspired to be a serious writer. Pauline Pfeiffer who was a beautiful correspondent of a certain magazine. 172 . His First Novels and Family Shocks Relations with his wife reached a breaking point in 1927. Hemingway did not care for making money. ‘The Sun also Rises’ centers on the predicament of the hero made impotent by the unlucky war wound. He joined the bestseller list. Indeed it is a grand story. in his frustrated love for English woman. Before divorce Hemingway had written his first big novel. and self-destructive irresponsibility. Paul Valerie commented about this story: “You can recognize a masterpiece by the fact that nothing in it can be hanged”3. In 1927 he published another work. a collection of short stories entitled ‘Men without Women’. “Homage to Switzerland”. He discussed the whole affair calmly and objectively in his story. Nobody could clear the mystery that had caused the death of his father. yet life at home was not pleasant. The hero’s moral strength allows him to treat her with compassion. As he had already thought of its inevitability. nymphomania. The famous and widely circulated ‘Atlantic Monthly’ immediately accepted his famous story ‘Fifty Grand’2 for publication. There were gems of a great master in it. Time and misfortune have driven him into alcoholism.Short Stories: Fifty Grand Developments meanwhile at home were not quite conducive. His masterpiece was also included in this volume. His first important novel ‘Fiesta’ later came to be called ‘The Sun also Rises’ marked him as an outstanding young writer among the critical circles. In the meantime. Narrated in the first person. Many magazines requested him for short stories. In the meantime Ernest Hemingway started writing short stories. Bestseller was not his aim. Hedley Richardson deserted him. The hero has learnt to accept his plight with honesty and courage. it didn’t shock him much. Although the marriage was quite happy. It was a story of violence. he married the lady.

he dramatized all his novels. Later he came to know that he was suffering from tuberculosis but takes no care of himself. He went on to write two important works of non-fiction that reflect his life-long interest in violent sports: Green Hills of Africa (1935). The hero of the novel Mauro is a professional bullfighter that does not care for money much. Like other novels. In “A Farewell to Arms” (1927). a genre in which he excelled. His fight in the eighth chapter of the book has been beautifully described. Hemingway turned to his war experiences in Italy. this novel essentially centers on the problem of human existence in a complex world. In the end. ‘A Farewell to Arms’ in 1929. on bull fighting. he wrote a number of short stories. slouching and sober. Florida. In this novel too Hemingway tried to communicate directly his own experience of being wounded by trench-mortar-fire. He went to live on the Oceanfront at Key West. in the United States. ‘Death in the Afternoon’ in 1932. he grew beard and earned the nickname: “Papa”4. Against this background. writes Carlos Baker. thin-hipped. It is indeed. his face is blue black even after a close clean shave. 173 . He is ‘tall. he prefers to burn out not because he wanted to show his bravery but more specifically because death has no meaning to him. racy style that promises many things but does not necessarily fulfill any one of those things. It shows considerable technical development. brutal killings and bloodshed. contrasts of profane and sacred love are made both covertly in the evolving relationship between the hero and the innocent tragic heroine. and Death in the Afternoon (1939). Symbols of weather. Hemingway left Europe. It dramatizes Hemingway’s seven years experience as a bull-fighting spectator. It has a hard. During this period too. gaunt-eyed. While staying there. Formally constructed in five acts. and ‘The Green Hills of Africa’ in 1935. In Hemingway’s ‘Green Hill of Africa’ (first published in 1935) he makes the record of true experiences that can compete with works of imagination. dark. It is there he wrote many of his masterpieces. in a passage that supports his view that writing is a kind of self-therapy. a romantic tragedy of love and war. about big game hunting. topography unobtrusively counterpoint the action. he is arrogant. ‘Death in the Afternoon (first published in 1932) has been called the best work on bull fighting in English’. The place and its climate suited him most. All his fiction had one predominant theme: violence and death.In 1928. it is closely knit by complex sub structures beneath the surface of the story. “The end product of the first ten years”. Slowly he gains the stature of best bullfighter of Spain.

“Pursuit Remembered”. blood and death summoned him. Both of them are extremely different from each other. But he did not give up. and the army tolerated him. Morgan is tough. Long contrast of these two characters is rather dull and makes the novel a heavy reading for an ordinary reader.the task that Hemingway undertook in writing. Largely drawn human portraits include the ebullient Sandusky. Andre Maurios describes him: “He was a curious war-correspondent. the brave and laconic white hinder pop: the tensely generous Karl. The book is designed in a manner to point out everything towards the climate “kudu-hunt” in the 12th chapter. The Resistance forces respected him. 174 . Macula5. His plan was to disguise himself to attract the enemy and blow up the enemy submarine and him. There. and “Pursuit and Happiness”. plays technical success in the realm of fiction. he did not confine himself to news-coverage only. ‘The Green Hills of Africa’ was therefore a difficult one. All the soldiers praised his courage and toughness. To meet this difficulty. “Pursuit and Failure”. always way up in front. Gordon is a self-deceiver. His strategies against the enemy were appropriate. and a selfpitier. One is an expert strategist in all that concerns. But the US Navy refused to agree to his plan. After D-Day he managed to use an army of irregulars of which he was the captain. as a man while the other is false even to himself. He volunteered himself as a “one-man suicide squadron”. calling for tanks to protect his flanks. from top to bottom. the novel does not however reach the standards set by the earlier novels. One-Man Suicide Squadron Most of the scholars of Hemingway have considered ‘To Have and Have Not’ (first published 1937) as the least satisfactory. at times threatened with court-martial. carrying guns and field axes. the fine old gun bearer of Hemingway. Violence. He somehow managed to go to England as a war correspondent. a self-apologist. at times praised for his bravery”. firing in violation of the Geneva and other conventions. Hemingway felt disgusted. The chief part of narrative centers on two main figures namely Morgan and Gordon. bitter and honest with him. Hemingway divided the novel into four parts: “Pursuit and Conservations”. this means of livelihood and his life. He was a soldier. Among the nature portraits of the books. However the climate phase of the novel is the doom of both come to the level of creative fiction.

Papa was up Again After ‘Across the River’ and ‘Into the Tree’. He remained in constant worries in spite of the fact that large number of visitors. shoulders and leg. Mary Hemingway sustained two broken ribs and multiple bruises. The public resented and criticized and condemned the book. ‘Papa was up again. Instead of a long novel. the critics had remarked: ‘Papa is finished’6. and Hollywood stars came to meet him till the last tie between the two countries was broken.’ proved to be true. Ernest Hemingway’s injuries included rapture of liver and kidneys and many more: sprains in arms. he settled in Cuba. The bride’s name was Mary Welsh. he had gone to the sea. From there. They were trapped 175 . he went to Italy where he stayed in a hotel. It was a sensation all over the world. there was a unanimous approval. their plane crash-landed while its tail was caught in an old and abandoned telegraph line. Hemingway had fears that his estate might be lost. But they were mistaken. In this novel Hemingway criticized the war strategies and schemes of the British Field Marshall Montgomery. Their twin-engine craft took off just after sunset. the Nobel Prize Jury honored him with the highest literary award. Thus the novel had a colder reception in the continent. And in 1952. again a correspondent. Instead. For sometime. he wrote shorter ones: ‘Across the River’ and ‘Into the Trees’. the best of Hemingway was yet to come. As child and as a young boy. Here the treatment being inadequate. Ernest Hemingway married for the fourth time. they were carried on board a chartered ship to Betide. He loved Cuba for many reasons. In 1953 Hemingway and his wife went to Africa to revive earlier experiences. The plane caught fire. In fact it is comparable to many novels by the contemporaries of Hemingway. Soon they crashed for the second time. During their trip. It ran into a number of editions and reprints the same year. During the following years. With her. he had to give up his plan. the relations between United States and Cuba started deteriorating. This phrase openly stated that his talents were no more. But owing to illness. When in 1954. He had decided to write a long novel on the basis of his experience of world war. They spent the whole night in the jungle infested by tigers and other wild animals whose roars they could easily hear. it was decided that they should be taken to Nairobi. There he felt more at peace. she lay unconscious and almost dead with no pulse beat.After the war. But the novel is not that faulty as the critics described it. the book is filled with bitterness. ‘The Old Man and the Sea’ came with a bang and thud. She was working with Time Magazine.

The newspapers all over the world had published obituaries. and the image of masculinity. who came from a leisurely trip. Hemingway entered Tern’s Nod. He excited the youngsters who saw in him the ideal ‘tough guy’. His wife was in a pool of cerebral fluid that oozed from the wound. the he-man. 176 . His clean prose taught him the harsh art of powerful narration and to explore some of the harsh facts of modern life. His wife and friend. The news of the suicide was splashed soon on the front pages of the world newspapers. After full recovery Hemingway and his wife returned to Cuba. The legend of Hemingway perishes with the passage of time. suddenly heard a shotgun fire. During the month of June 1961. fabulous drinker and an African explorer. both the scalp and the skull were laid open. afterwards to Entebbe. then to Nairobi. a big game hunter. He was a great storyteller. But the news of his recovery brought the world a sign of relief. he revealed the ‘great business of life’. A car drove them to Masendi. Papa was dead on Sunday July 2nd 1961. he gave his verdict on life and human destiny. but his physical condition with loss of memory. People knew him as the bearded war correspondent. He was indeed rightly called a leading figure of “The Lost Generation”. In doing so. It is Papa who cast a wonderful spell on his generation. a thinker and a perfect artist who had a sufficient skill to paint a word-picture (Alankara) with minimum words. we find a superb quality of craftsmanship. At the same time Castro’s socialist policies brought added fears that he would be expelled from Cuba and his estate would go to the State. but Hemingway as a writer will continue to shine like a star. Through his writing. When we read his novels. It is broadly accepted that it was his creative genius that paved a way unknown to other writers. He successfully pictured modern man’s dilemma. Here he hurried himself with writing a story based on his fresh experiences in Kenya and Tanganyika. Hemingway used his head to break open the door. His condition was serious. poetic expression and above all his powerful style-forming mastery of the art of modern narration. Over and above he was invaded by vague shadows. Hemingway Casts a Wonderful Spell on his Generation Hemingway is one of the best American novelists of the twentieth century. Twice he entered the hospital but there was not much progress. His personality was of manifold and all the aspects did fetch him greatness. The way he dealt with the problems of life.inside. did not allow him to accomplish the task. attracted the attention of war–weary world.

People tried to forget emptiness of their life in eating and drinking. which involve noble living and honorable failure. ‘A Farewell to Arms’. the reaction of ‘Hemingway hero’8 to violence and pain. They are gravely wounded during the war. because his approach to life is affirmative and not that which is presented in “A Farewell to Arms”. like Santiago. they grow up in abnormal environments and come across series of struggles. Robert Jordan. lacked religious and moral principles. Such a man of honor and courage is capable of giving a good account of him in the battle of life. The theme is essentially the same in all the novels of Hemingway. is capable of decency. The writer introduces them in their boyhood. It imparts the knowledge that a simple man. The theme of ‘The Old Man and the Sea’ goes a step further and is a fine specimen of courage and endurance. Here in this novel. like the creator. they enter a world of violence and suffering. His characters are bound to endure pain and suffering physically and mentally. dignity. The first can be the “Hemingway hero”. 177 . Such characters appear in most of his novels. His nihilistic attitude becomes weaker in ‘For Whom the Bell Tolls’. It is best exemplified in the character of Santiago of ‘The Old Man and the Sea’. What an irony of life! Society. The hero. Hemingway focuses our attention on the tragic issues of life. too. To Fredric Henry this world is a wasteland and therefore. His heroes. Such characters in Hemingway’s novels possess certain principles of life. in which Hemingway lived. This man struggles nobly and courageously although he loses the great fish. (Roberto) gives a sense of nobility and human striving for a noble cause. The novel is an inspiration to mankind. he bids farewell to the society. And this is the reason that Hemingway has created in him a passionate desire for being alive. He instead enters into a trance dreaming of young lions playing on the beaches of South Africa.Hemingway’s characters can be represented in two ways. Hemingway lost his faith in the established order of traditional things and depicted it well in the novel. He leads a miserable life. and even heroism. witty conversation and women. At times they are vigilant and even extremely nervous. It is testimony to all that is noble and great in man. Finally. His world is world of war where the figure of death rules supreme and a ruthless battle for existence continues. during boyhood or in the battle for existence. Hemingway’s novels bear an impression of the author’s mind and his strange pre-occupation with death. possesses a desire to live each moment skillfully and well. But at the end we find the loss of great fish does not worry him any more. The second type is the “Hemingway code”7. in sports arena.

the reaction of a sensitive man to cruelty and they have been written in simple style.His Philosophy of Life Hemingway’s only philosophy is the philosophy of life. but he does not submit and thus proves true to his life. He knows that a man is not made for defeat. he too followed his colloquial style and played a similar role in the history of American prose fiction. He was the leading figure of his age and became the voice of the ‘Lost Generation’. Like Twain. He himself wrote. This has won for him a place among the Primitivists. This helped him in making his own style. Besides he was greatly indebted to Mark Twain whose favorite book “Huckleberry Finn” had much influence on Hemingway. among his contemporaries he was the only man who had put into his writing the precise feelings. “ Man can be destroyed but not defeated”. to use of sentences. face downward and arms outstretched. This indeed spells his moral triumph. but gains final victory. He accepts his defeat at the hands of ravenous sharks. Again in ‘The Old Man and the Sea’ the old man first begins his ordeal while fighting with the fish. and flowery phrases. marvelous in its simplicity. The result was indeed a prose. Although sharks take away his prize. They may be handled well as the prose fiction will remain a challenge and inspiration for his successors. This indeed is the most capturing and a unique style that attracts many of us. clichés. In ‘Death in the Afternoon’ the raging bull overcomes a bullfighter. He also received hints and suggestions for the colloquial style from Sherwood Anderson and Gertrude Stein. Hemingway first stepped into literature when he took up a job on the ‘Kansas City Star’. a combination of colloquial speech with poetic overtone. emotions 178 . He made the best use of his simple and powerful prose in portraying the mind of his people. cut out adjectives without mercy. He admitted that ‘all Modern American Literature comes from Huckleberry Finn’. He dreams once again about young lions playing like cats on the African beaches. His early apprenticeship period taught him minimum use of words with a maximum effect. Hemingway has always tried to collect some of the basic human facts and give them artistic touch of his poetic tone. and never be negative. avoid bombast. be positive. he still sleeps well in his shack on the newspapers. All his novels and stories carry the same theme. Journalism developed his mental horizon. His hero suggests against all that is evil in life and shows ‘grace under pressure’. In fact.

They were typical of the era in which he lived. The artist vividly paints their bitter despair and screams of horror and terror in word-pictures. While reading his novels. This makes the colloquial speech simple. their exact mouthpiece. The effect it produces. They have found in it the Biblical brevity and simplicity of diction. Perhaps no one of his contemporary has been able to equal him. His Creative Genius Hemingway’s success as a novelist is due to his creative genius and colorful personality. he wrote’. Hemingway’s Narrative Technique His narrative technique highlighted the disillusionments of the warwounded generation in a language that has been imitated. found in him. It has indeed everyday use. But the fact remains that this limitation and primitiveness received 179 . ‘The Sun also rises’. Emotions are held at arm’s length. as if they were pebbles fresh from a brook…”.’ It has paved a way for his successors and guided them how to write in a natural way with a poetic overtone and authenticity. the reader tries to peep deep into the personality of its author and for a moment gets lost in him. With the masterly strokes. His supreme art of presentation lies in the fact that he gives us the detailed account of the incidents with a minimum of strokes. under statements and spare dialogues. His style has become very famous and as such attracted many modern writers and critics. Most of the critics criticize his limited horizon and his conception of heroes. he makes the speech living. Indeed his creative genius is par excellence. is described by Ford thus: “the words strike you each on. ‘Men without Women’ and ‘A Farwell to Arms’ are the very expressions of the grief-stricken people of the postwar period. Winning of the Nobel Prize for literature in 1954 is a right attribute to his powerful style forming mastery of the art of modern narration. People who had survived the First World War. Only Hemingway records the bare realities of human life in a masterly manner. He never tries to follow sidetracks and always avoids structural complexities. reworked and assimilated. It is said: ‘others yelled. His unique prose style is ‘capable of saying at all times exactly what he wants it to say. as most recently revealed in his novel ‘The Old Man and the Sea’.and frustrations. brief and very much living. He maintains purity and simplicity of style by laying emphasis on simple and compound sentences. His prose style has played a very important role in ridding literary embellishment. He creates beauty by introducing clipped sentences.

the persons to a handful. It was not his political conviction that compelled him to go to Spain. The impression. In fact it was only his keen interest to see the bloodshed once again. We cannot help admiring his skill and determination the way in which he strips every falsehood and traditional social evils. Hemingway was one of the many American intellectuals who volunteered to fight on the side of the Spanish Republican Government. To culminate all that. Another mission in Hemingway’s life was to tell the truth.a powerful response from the frustrated people who worshipped the men of strength as their idols. Some critics have commented that Hemingway’s suicide resulted partly from his awareness that he was no longer. often the subject matter of his fiction. This prepared the ground for the onward glory to receive the Nobel Prize for literature in 1954. The novel ‘To Have and Have Not’ (1937) showed the beginning of an interest in social and political issues. a reader may discover one more. This indeed provided him with material for the play. shaped Hemingway’s life. The author. The decades following this novel were one of silence. a unique style. ‘The Fifth Column’ (1960) and the novel ‘For Whom the Bell Tolls’ (1940) commonly regarded as his masterpiece. In ‘A Movable Feast’ (1964). The action is restricting to seventy hours. the location to a single valley. Violent death. This novel is built around twin themes: the dynamiting of a bridge by a guerilla group and the love affair of an American Partisan and a girl in the group. it won him the Pulitzer Prize. When in 1936 Civil War broke out in Spain. in pages of the posthumously published memoir of his early years in Paris. In 1954. 180 . strong trace of Hemingway’s deep sensibility. (His father due to his ill-health committed suicide with a pistol in 1928). Hemingway works beyond these confines to create an ample by a tightly organized novel of epic dimension. Although it is true that some of his late works seemed parodies of himself. by dipping into the stream of the hero’s thoughts about his former life makes the various characters recount their memories. This was confirmed by his experience as an observer in the Spanish Civil War. Hemingway was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature. ‘The Old Man and the Sea’ appeared in 1952. The Champion A measure of critical esteem was regained when his last work of fiction. In 1953. in his favorite term “The Champion”. Hemingway’s inspiration had deserted him was confirmed by his next novel ‘Across the River’ and ‘Into the Trees’ (1950). it triggered his exit with a blast from a shotgun he held in his mouth that blew most of his head off in 1961.

Thereafter. This may be taken literally because his style of writing was very influential. glowing. philistine. Greatly affected by the First World War. Much of his criticism is justified but it obscures the very real contribution that Hemingway made to American Literature in the 1920s and 1930s.and indomitable and undoubting courage. Structurally it is really an extended short story. His ever fresh. At the beginning of the World War II he was accepted as the grand old man of modern American fiction. They felt that some kind of irreversible deterioration had taken place in his talent. This feeling was proved false with the publication of ‘The Old Man and the Sea’ in 1952. uneven ‘Islands in the Stream’ (1970). some critics called his pre-occupation of violence and courage a bombastic pose. The charges were encouraged by Hemingway’s own transformation from a serious writer into a public figure bent on asserting his prowess as sportsman. It deals in irony and understands suffering. ‘The Old Man and the Sea’ won him a Pulitzer in 1952. his emphasis on romantic love reminiscent of Hollywood and his terse literary style. With his simple diction. It was cited too by the Swedish Academy when it awarded him the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1954. flashing memory of war experience. Hemingway embarked on a literary and spiritual pilgrimage. A Farewell to Arms and For Who the Bell Tolls’ won wide critical acclaim. It was the ultimate and perhaps the only reality. dignity and power of endurance. his love of violent sport made death appear all present. unrefined by his skilled hand neither adds to nor detracts from the reputation of a dedicated and sensitive artist. His subjects and themes spoke for his generation. In 1950 many critics who were mainly hostile to Hemingway assumed that the years of his best writing were past. But it has the scope and 181 . his early work is cynical and disillusioned. This phase of thought finally led him to a resigned stoicism. In form it is not a true novel but it is a novelette or novella comparable to Thomas Mann’s ‘Death in Venice’9. drunkard and playboy. Such a wonderful fiction deserves to be set alongside the best work of his pre-war period. Hemingway’s early work. his terse sentences and his vivid colloquialism. one of the greatest and most influential prose writers of the twentieth century. The posthumous publication of the long. short stories and the three novels ‘Fiesta. In his later life. He greatly admired those qualities that help man meet his end: courage. Poet Archibald Mulish commented. “he whittled a style for his time”. he cleansed and invigorated the American language.

The style is comparable to that of ‘For Whom the Bell Tolls’. he had had during the wartimes. This clear vision of the study sequentially leads us to apply Rasa. Without the one. as they are actual experiences. the other is not in existence. the Sanskrit Literary Theory stands at the topmost point of humanism as a whole. In order to enjoy Rasa in Hemingway’s novels. we may rightly use his background of life as well. Describing the work of art is considered as the most important task of a literary critic so as to enable the readers to enjoy aesthetic pleasure. Both are mutually co-existent. of all the literary theories.depth of a major work of fiction. form and content are of the same essence. Rasa. Form of the works of art is indeed important. His life is closely connected to his novels. the Sanskrit Literary Theory to Hemingway’s ‘The Old Man And The Sea’. To me. Essence is of substantial form and primary matter. In spite of modern critics emphasizing on the form of any works of art. 182 . content of the same is equally important too. it has been felt that a minimum required knowledge of the author is necessary to perceive and appreciate his works of art.

2. Thomas Mann’s wonderful novel that can be compared to ‘The Old Man and the Sea’. on living nobly. 8. 183 . Paul Valerie’s comment on ‘Men without Women’ 4. failing with honor. Critics felt that Hemingway’s talents were no more. 3. Hemingway’s portrait as a fine old gun bearer.Chapter. Nick name given to Hemingway during his stay at Key West Florida in this state in the year 1928.Hemingway’s first violence-story published in ‘Atlantic Monthly’. Hemingway’s heroes endure pain and suffering physically and mentally. 6. 9. 7. 5. Hemingway characters have certain principles of life.7 Notes 1 reader and critic of Post World War I who attracted Hemingway and guided him positively.

Pure selves will certainly experience such Rasa in the most sublime form. could turn fishing into an artistic piece. This experience is not a normal mundane world experience. But it’s an experience of an outer world. it is also one of the greatest accounts of man’s epic struggle against odds.’ (Guardian). A superbly constructed novel. ‘A quite wonderful example of narrative art. So. Transcendental self-consciousness overwhelms objects in such a manner that they lose their objectivity. The novel shows that even a simple subject. they would mean many things.Chapter 8 Rasa. They become parts in a totally subjective experience. the Sanskrit Literary Theory Applied to Hemingway’s ‘The Old Man and the Sea’. The hardest thing is to make something really true and sometimes truer than true”. This seems to be the secret of calling even the ‘objective correlatives’1 of an artistic feeling by such a name as Vibhavas2. Hemingway’s novel ‘The Old Man and the Sea’ hit the headlines of world press when the Swedish Nobel Prize Jury announced their decision to honor Hemingway with the highest literary award. It indicates their being mental and pure. the writing is as taut. Rasa experience is abundant in it indeed. ‘Times’ (Pacific edition 13th December 1954) “I knew about a man in that situation with a fish. It makes the reader/viewer transcend the self and takes him to a world of nature. The novel is the high watermark of fiction. It’s because the work of art takes such simple subject like fishing. Rasa Experience Rasa experience is indeed unique one that we enjoy in any works of art. He shows great command in the language. a world of pure form. and at the same time as lithe and cunningly played out. as a man of genius. But if I make them good and true enough. as the line on which the old man plays the fish. I took the man I knew for twenty years and imagined him under those situations and circumstances”. “I tried to make a real old man. a universe of transcendalism. Ernest Hemingway. It most comprehensively represents the novelist’s tragic vision. though in actual life only a physical 184 . a real sea and a real fish and real shark. It is here that Hemingway demonstrates his literary skill.

because the subject enjoying a poetic feeling is an all-pervasive universal.. he will not be able to enjoy the poetic passion that the hero excites. Abhinava’s6 comments primarily mean that in a poem depicting love in separation. its recall rouses a feeling. even unpleasant types of feelings and emotions give a pleasant taste when presented poetically. In Jane Austen’s. The object is a universal feeling and a not a thing of the outside world. Majority of men are fickle-minded and cannot experience it. People differ in taste on account of the predominance of one appetency over the other. They can never appreciate his basic feeling or depth of his character. That poetic creation and 185 . sorrow. Naturally such readers or spectators cannot identify themselves with a lover pining for his beloved. fear. What is favorable to one may be unfavorable to other. the hero should not be a man of low character. i. ‘I’ and not the finite I. laughter. The first requisite qualification of the experience of Rasa is the capacity to stabilize one’s feeling. Yet everybody cannot enjoy every variety of Rasa. everybody cannot have Rasa experience. ‘Mansfield Park’ its Edmond Bertram’s constancy that has meaning and thereby one enjoys the gustation called Rasa. feeling or emotion is pleasant or unpleasant according as the man finds it favorable or unfavorable to himself in actual life.object. Others may dislike what one likes. This is an advice to the poet/novelist who creates. anger. all do not equally enjoy hatred and wonder. Thus men of low character cannot enjoy display of love in separation (Vipralambha Srngara4). if he is unable to identify himself with the hero. But the remark holds good also for the reader who appreciates for. Sambhoga Srngara Rasa5. That is possible only for a man who gives a close attention to the object of his mediation. cannot appreciate a lover’s pining for his beloved when she is present or away. Because of the loss of the physical touch. Again. The same situation. courage. though they are present in different proportions. The finite subject’s constitutional differences persist in the phenomenal state. Such people can at best enjoy the transient emotions of the hero. In poetry/novel the question of its being favorable or unfavorable does not arise. They will always be carried away by one of the memoir3 incidents and will never have the total impression of the action in their grasp. for he cannot have the constancy of love required for the depiction. the objective correlative of the basic feeling.e. Therefore the eight basic feelings of love. People like Henry Crawford who persistently speaks of constancy in love. They have no feeling of constancy.

aggressiveness. valor. Throughout the novel. might influence and other similar ones. With the combination of all the above Vibhavas. and might influence the various Vibhavas. Saurya (heroism) Dhairya (bravery). Anubhavas and the Sancaribhavas. absence of grief. recollection. heroism. perseverance. Garva (pride). good tactics. Mati (intellect). This is an affection caused by one’s true knowledge. The Sancari Bhavas10 such as fortitude. horripilation and the like do come and go. Sāncari Bhavas (Transitory states) are Dhrti (fortitude). (Readiness to sacrifice). When he struggles with the marlin for two days and two nights. humility. Vira Rasa is being relished by the reader/viewer. readiness to sacrifice. power. Santiago is filled with composure and absence of infatuation. good tactics. pride. perseverance. enthusiasm. valor. various Anubhavas such as firmness. of one’s own pure infinite eternal universal self. absence of surprise and freedom from delusion. Santiago. bravery. heroism. power. ferocity. Vira Rasa should be depicted perfectly on the stage through statements scolding and ensuring (the wrong doers). In this connection there are two verses in the Arya meter9 traditionally handed down: What is called Vira Rasa is produced through enthusiasm. aggressiveness. proficiency and the like do spell within him. intellect. impetuosity. and Tyāga.poetic appreciation are two aspects of one and the same power that is a fundamental postulate of Abhinava. display of bravery. Let us see how Rasa theory is applied to Hemingway’s novels of my choice: how the writer/spectator experiences various Rasas. Augrya (ferocity) Amarsa (indignation) Smrti (recollection) Romānca (horripilation) and the other features. aggressiveness and exploits. The basic Vibhavas (determinants) are composure and absence of infatuation. Vira Rasa8 is the exhibition of energy and enthusiasm with persons of high rank. Vega (impetuosity). the basic feeling that has to be stabilized is that of spiritual calm. For the realization of the most fundamental śanta Rasa7. A Means to Enjoyment of Rasa 186 . All works of art would naturally culminate in the realization of the most fundamental śanta Rasa. indignation. Its presentation on the stage is through Anubhava (consequents) such as Sthaiya (firmness). Vaisaradya (proficiency) and the like. perseverance. vigor.

he endured.Santiago was an old fisherman of Cuba. He regarded Santiago as the best fisherman. In his boyhood he had sailed to Africa on board a sailing ship. perspiration. But in spite of exhaustion and weakened physical strength. But he was forced to fight a losing battle against the sharks that attacked the dead marlin. choking of the voice. Its outcome is through Vibhavas such as seeing wonderful being. feet and the like. Manolin had a high opinion about the skill and craft of the old man. yet he was full of courage. attainment of cherished desire. During his struggle with the marlin. Anubhavas. delight. Santiago was himself filled with Adbhuta Rasa when he first saw the marlin off the surface of the deep sea as all Vibhavas. The marlin was the biggest they had ever seen or heard of. ha. sluggishness. One of the fishermen told Manolin that it was eighteen feet from nose to tail. Santiago’s struggle against the marlin and the sharks was very tough. His Major Sources of Strength During the Struggle One of the major sources of strength was dreaming about the lions that he had once seen on the African coast. uttering words of congratulation. great power of endurance. seeing magical tricks and creation of things. Sthyibhavas together were already in potency within him. Anubhavas and Vybhicaribhavas the readers/viewers enjoy the gustation called Adbhuta Rasa. horripilation. sinking down etc. perspiration. Finally he killed the fish. Its Vybhicaribhavas are shedding tears. This opinion is greatly justified when the other fishermen marveled at the size of the skeleton of the marlin. The 187 . movements of hands. But Santiago remained pitted against the fish all the time. “There are many good fishermen and some great ones. Here we have Adbhuta Rasa that has its Sthayi Bhavas11. excitement. Sustained by his pride. Besides. unfailing resolution and indomitable fisherman. Vismaya (Astonishment). horripilation. lashed it to his skiff and sailed home. There he hooked a giant fish that towed his boat for two days and nights. paralysis. But there is only you”. He had an adventurous spirit. Though he was weak and old. the struggle seemed to shatter his confidence and courage. Many a time. which cannot be ever imagined about etc. tears. Its presentation in the sea is through the Anubhavas such as gaping of the eyes. he sought spiritual strength from some inexhaustible sources. The aforementioned Sthyibhavas in conglomeration with the Vibhavas. During his sleep he dreamed of the lions. he ventured far out into the sea in search of a big Marlin. sense of shouts of ha. This sincere compliment of Manolin made the old man happy.

Whenever he went to sleep he dreamed of the lions. he imagined and wondered how his hero would have admired his skill. During his hard struggle against the giant marlin. the first three are based on dreams of lions of African beaches going down like cats and his hero worship of Di Maggio and the Negro in hand wrestling combat. Amen”. DiMaggio was. Of all these above sources. to give himself more confidence. “Holy Mary. Santiago had still another source of spiritual power. Santiago recalled how his hero did all things perfectly. The third source of strength to Santiago was the contests of strength that he had fought in youth. The match had started on a Sunday morning and ended on Monday morning. pray for us sinners now and at the hour of our death. Mother of God. Dreams of the lions filled him with courage and confidence to perform some feats of wonder.sight of the lions on the beaches had become a haunting symbol of strength to the old fisherman. thus. Santiago “almost worshipped DiMaggio”. This remembrance of this victory infused in Santiago fresh courage and confidence. he had killed the marlin. if he caught the fish. Santiago was declared the champion. He wanted to be worthy of the great DiMaggio. Blood had come out from under the fingernails of both Santiago’s and the Negro’s hands. another endless source of spiritual strength for the old fisherman after two days of exhausting struggle. All these sources of strength and courage enabled Santiago to endure the hard struggle and bear his plentiful sufferings. He recited these prayers many times during his struggle with the giant fish.” Though he was not religious yet would say ‘Our Father’ and ‘Hail Mary’ that he should catch the giant fish. The lions had left an everlasting impression in his mind. Again after killing the Mako Shark. He saw the great hero as a symbol of power and resolute. Its Vira Rasa that gives rise to 188 . The second great source of strength for Santiago was the great baseball player called DiMaggio12. He prayed. He was proud of the fact that DiMaggio’s father was a fisherman. Santiago had ultimately defeated his rival by forcing his hand down and down until it rested on the table. It was his “faith in God. he thought Di Maggio would be proud of him. He promised to make a pilgrimage to Virgin de Cobre13. They had gone one day and one night with their elbows on the table and their forearms straight up and their hands gripped tight. in Christ and Virgin Mary. During his struggle against the fish he remembered. They were regular sources of inspiration. the time when he had played the hard game with a Negro who was the strongest man on the docks.

he thought. endures the struggle with indomitable courage and perseverance and not to yield to forces of nature. There are only two characters in the novel. But they are more important as symbols. Such a situation is most appropriate to show how composure and absence of infatuation becomes a prominent Vibhava. pride and ferocity continually come and go so as to actuate the Sthayibhavas in potency within him. Now is the time to think of only one thing. Here is a work of art that is rich in figures of speech and symbolism. And the rich have radios to talk to them in their boats and to bring them the baseball’. Eliot puts it: Criticism is as inevitable as breathing. There might be a big one around that school.S. As individuals. His fortitude. That which I was born for. The boy was grateful to the old man for what he had done to him when he was a little boy of five. His perseverance to the last moment holds him at good stead as Vibhava. the boy. his back with sack covered changing sides at times. Manolin offered to bring baits for him. and sleep and put a bight of line around my toe to wake me. When the old man refused to take him on board the skiff. the Vibhavas (determinants) are Asammoha (composure and absence of infatuation).’ with the line in his hand. In these experiences. I do not care. time and again. As T. ‘If the others heard me talking out loud they would think that I am crazy’. But today is eighty-five days and I should fish the day well. ‘Now is no time to think of baseball. his repeated fall on the skiff. the Marlin down hundreds of fathoms. that we cannot but admire its uniqueness and thereby enjoy the Rasas ourselves. the old man and Manolin. Santiago is a skilful and seasoned fisherman and Manolin is his disciple. The old man is a symbol of frail humanity struggling against a hostile universe while the boy is a symbol of 189 . he said aloud. giving rise to Vira Rasa. he snaps the conversation and offered some help. he thought. Santiago. Such minute descriptive word-pictures indeed make every reader/spectator relish gustation to brim. I could just drift. intellect.Adbhuta Rasa14 (marvelous) which in totem gives him strength and courage in struggle. They are not only individuals representing the community they belong to but also symbols of universal significance. his left hand numb. ‘But since I am not crazy. ‘He rested sitting on the un-stepped mast and sail and tried not to think but only to endure. hooked-with. Manolin’s Gestures of Love and Gratitude Moving on to the great anxiety of the boy Manolin to serve the old man in some way least. till he enters and experiences the ultimate Sānta Rasa. he thought.

the human struggle against nature. the latter did not like in any case that they should be procured by evil means. the old man believed him. He had confidence in himself that whenever he cast bait. Though the boy offered to bring four fresh baits for the old man. ‘There is no such fish if you are still strong as you say’. Vibhavas that give 190 . he did not consider to be contradictory. The above dialogue between the boy and Santiago shows good tactics viz. ‘I may not be as strong as I think’. ‘He was too simple to wonder when he had attained humility. Naya (good tactics) Vibhavas (determinants) ‘Who is the greatest manager. something shameful. ‘No. No bait of his would go a waste. The boy is so filled with admiration to Santiago that he snaps any other kind of discussion that centers not on the old man. The two. his gratitude to one when he had got the baits. in any way. the latter told him to bring only one. This trait of humility in the old man was an acquired one. he used those preserved ones. He did not question him as to from where he had got the money or how he had managed all that. Manolin is in the making. The old man will die and then Manolin will continue the struggle with the spirit of Santiago in him. Butthere is only you’. He believed in what he was told. When Manolin told him that he had bought the baits. Lukque or Mike Gongalvez?’ ‘I think they are equal’. ‘Thank you. He could remain proud and retain this humility at the same time. he was sure to catch a fish. ‘And the best fisherman is you’. And whenever his mind was in that condition of thankfulness. the old man said. Anubahava (consequents) and Sthayi (firmness) but both work in such a way that they give rise to the determinants and Sancari Bhavas to Vira Rasa.” There are many good fishermen and some great ones. He wanted the boy to get those in an honest way. and he himself was aware of it. ‘Que va’. It did not hurt his pride. You make me happy. In case he did not get fresh baits. But he did not consider this humility of his. I hope no fish will come along so great that he will prove us wrong’. He could not then question the truthfulness of the facts. really. The old man showed his humility. it was rendered very simple. But he knew he had attained it and he knew it was not disgraceful and it carried no less of true pride’. If the boy was ready to bring baits for the old man.. The old man kept his baits preserved in salt in a box. the boy said. But I know many tricks and I have resolution’. I know others better’.

all the lines stand straight down even if the current takes away the lines.” “But are you strong enough now for a truly big fish?” “I think so. Santiago-like technocrats alone can hold the lines straight. The old man looked at him with his sunburned confident loving eyes. Can you remember?” “I can remember the tail slapping and banging and the thwart breaking and the noise of the clubbing. “It is strange”. nets/lines do not stay straight down when there’s a strong current. ”the boy said. “Then if you hook something truly big we can come to your aid”. “But you went turtling for years off the Mosquito Coast and your eyes are good”. still his eyes were good. he said. Turtling generally weakened eyesight. Santiago. “Are his eyes that bad?” “He is almost blind”. he applies such tricks as he is fishing. “Where are you going?”. He had his peculiarities. the boy asked. Santiago knows to adjust his skiff at such a technical manner that the lines stand straight down. “But I will see something that he cannot see such as a bird working and get him to come out after dolphin”. “Far out to come in when the wind shifts. “He does not like to work far out”. But in the case of the old man it had had no effect. “Can you really remember everything from when we first went together”. satellite and Echo sounder.” The old man knew his own worth. “Tomorrow is going to be a good day with this current”. an ordinary fisherman boasts of knowing many tricks and more so.such a technique functions as determinant to everyone who sees it on the screen and reads it. Today every fishing vessel is equipped with a radar.way for the Vira Rasa. He was aware of the fact that he was different from ordinary old men. He was certain to handle any big fish that might be hooked. In spite of all these latest equipments. the old man said. “No. The old man was confident not only of his physical strength but also his professional skill. The casual talk between Santiago and Manolin on various topics such as the ones that follow: “He was holding his glass and thinking of many years ago”. “How old was I when you first took me in a boat?” “Five and you nearly were killed when I brought the fish in too green and he nearly tore the boat to pieces. “I’ll try to get him to work far out”. This anecdote shows clearly of the sharp memory of 191 . “I am a strange old man. I want to be out before it is light”. Though he had gone turtling. I can remember you throwing me into the bow where the net coiled lines were and feeling the whole boat shiver and the noise of you clubbing him like chopping a tree down and the sweet blood smell all over me”. And there are many tricks. the boy said.

How had he been sleeping while the fish had been pulling him so steadily? How could he wake up with the jerk of his right fist and the line burning out through his right hand? When he had no feeling of his left hand. memories of hand wrestling with the Negro. enthusiasm. What a wonderful and valuable interaction it is! A very simple way of expression. absence of grief. vigor. There is sense of the journey outward. the moon had been up for a long time. set against the return to shore. he broke all he could and how did the line rush out? To analyze in brief.e. goes to strengthen his courage and fortitude that matures into Vira Rasa.. Carlos Baker. surprise and freedom from delusion should be depicted perfectly though statements scolding and censuring (the wrong doers). has attractively described this 192 . the alternation between recurrent thought of land and a present awareness of the sea. Vira Rasa is experienced through enthusiasm. The line rushed out…the three kinds of different components. The three prominent experiences through recollection and drawing pleasure at the idea of winning over the marlin became the most dominant factor. His recollection of baseball heroes. boat moved into the tunnel of clouds. Manolin loves Santiago as a great friend and a father. His waking by the jerk of the right hand and the line burning his right hand one leading to the other produces the ‘rhythm’ and excitement that is Adbhuta Rasa. originating from Vira Rasa. it shows also the value attached to all his experiences in the company of the old man. display of bravery. perseverance. That is why Manolin could not forget anything that he had experienced in his company. indeed! What we feel within ourselves is nothing but gustation of Rasa experience. heroism. night against day. This gave him courage.the boy. aggressiveness and expertism. cold against heat. three kinds of contrasted movements i. relaxation against exhaustion. fortitude to fight the marlin to the end. He respected the old man and every action of the latter was of great importance to him. Experience of Vira Rasa The complete fiction during the course of the old man’s taut experience. how could there be tunnel of clouds if the moon had been up for a long time? He slept on and the fish pulled on steadily. passivisim against sudden challenge and physical deed. Further. best-known critic of Hemingway. and between the placid surface of the sea and what happens in its depth. the killing and lashing of the marlin to the boat has been wonderfully and tactfully described. lions playing on African beaches. the moon was up for a long time that became conducive for his sleeping while the fish was pulling on steadily and the boat moved into the tunnel of clouds.

the alternation with tension and relaxation. The body can be subjected to any amount of suffering but the spirit can never be shackled. Bunyan’s original idea was not to write an allegory but to set down his thoughts about the way to glory. But for maturereaders. The concrete figures in ‘The Pilgrim’s Progress’ though they are lively and speak the colloquial language and create an interest on their own are meant primarily as symbols of states of mind. and one found particularly in folk-tale and ballad. perseverance. John Bunyan (1628-`688) writes the great Allegory15 “Pilgrim’s Progress” filled with adventures and relaxation. Though it might equally be seen as rhythm. if you draw nearer home. Similarly. power. were they rich or poor. A Search for Santa Rasa in Bunyan’s Pilgrim’s Progress It is quite interesting to search for this kind of effect. by any kingdom. is read and enjoyed both by adults and children. aggression and might influence of Santiago from boyhood to the old age. it is an allegory par excellence. Bunyan says: “I was writing of the way And race of saints in this Gospel-day16 Fell suddenly into an allegory About their journey and the way to glory”. Meanwhile Bunyan’s religious allegory was read. or fear: city and country will entertain him”. 193 . The Pilgrim’s Progress is based on the Bible and popular romances like Arthur of Brittany and the author’s own observation and understanding. But it can create a world of its own. For children the Pilgrim’s Progress is a romantic story of the adventure of knights and their fight with the dragons.rhythm as being like that of the sea itself. Bunyan boastfully said in 1681 after the announcement of his second part of his book: “My Pilgrim’s Book has traveled sea and land yet could I never come to understand that it was slighted. it will appear my pilgrim knows no ground of shame. Allegory in Greek means speaking otherwise. incidents and people are presented through personification or symbolism. An allegory may be may be an extended narrative in prose or verse that carries second meaning along with its surface story and in which objects. valour. characteristic is of all literature of an epic or heroic kind. Action and Drama in ‘The Old Man and the Sea’ will certainly take us a long way to experience his firmness. resolute. or turned out of door. It shows that physical incarceration cannot do anything against the heroic assertion of the inner man.

then a man locked passively in the great tension of the rope. He gets rid of it only after reaching the Hold Sepulchere. The bundle that he has on his back is the bundle of sins. sleeping a little.Drama is partly a matter of rhythm: Pulsation and Movement. Santiago reflects on the past or on the meaning of the present. We experience continuous alterations of different kinds. What will the next sudden event be? When will the marlin surface? That is. regretting. and it gives ‘The Old Man and the Sea’ its unforgettably exciting and recognizable tempo. And within those periods of thought and preparation we become aware of suspense. This is one of the basic rhythms of life. Between sudden bursts of activity and crisis. While good and bad are not only treated psychologically but they take flesh in ‘The Pilgrim’s Progress’. Here is one of the most effective of these moments of dramatic rhythm. He woke with the jerk of his right first coming up against his face and the line burning out through his right hand. The name of the hero is Christian and the heroine is Christina. after bursting upon us. Much of the story consists of thinking and recalling past experiences that fulfils the long periods of agonized waiting. 194 . The book that Christian holds is the Bible. The allegory of ‘The Pilgrim’s Progress’ is based on the Bible and the personal spiritual experience of the author. The moon had been up for a long time but he slept on and the fish pulled on steadily and the boat moved into the tunnel of clouds. testimony to his thorough knowledge of the Bible. After that he began to dream of the long yellow beach and he saw the first of the lions come down into it in the early dark and then the other lions came and he rested his chin on the wood of the bows where the ship lay anchored with the evening off-shore breeze and he waited to see if there would be more lions and he was happy. The terror and soul searching of Christian are only the projections of Bunyan’s own religious awakenings as he describes them in ‘Grace Abounding’. The subject of the allegory in ‘The Pilgrim’s Progress’ is the quest for personal salvation. Bunyan’s book bears the bundle. resolving…. the reflection pause contains tense anticipation of the next action and the action. thinking. We experience a continuous alteration between recollection and the present action. The story is full of distinct rhythms based on alternatives of different kinds. thought event. He had no feeling of his left hand but he broke all he could with his right. A man striking. is then re-absorbed into Santiago’s consciousness and into our meditative evaluation. Event thought.

Santa Rasa. Anubhavas and Sancari Bhavas giving rise to Adbhuta Rasa in both the adventurous fiction is marvelous. Ultimately the pilgrims enter the celestial city through the Gate. she entered the celestial city followed by the elder Pilgrims. wife of Christian too at long last. Adbhuta Rasa originating from Vira Rasa ultimately blossomed into Santa Rasa in Bunyan’s ‘The Pilgrim’s Progress’. they reached the land of Beulah and had a glimpse of the celestial city. and his mouth was as the mouth of a lion”. the ultimate universal Rasa is the subtraction of all the Rasas. The spectators are filled with various emotions ultimately leading them to experience the gustation just to experience Santa Rasa in both ‘The Old Man and the Sea’ and ‘The Pilgrim’s Progress’. Apollyon and Giant Despair are given a native habitation and local color by Bunyan. from his belly came fire and smoke. in the midst of sudden movement and action. Contrast of Hemingway’s Dramatic Rhythm Progressing further. At many points. Recrudescence into objective is an impersonal form of allegory”. are of spiritual despair like Bunyan’s. Christiana. thus Santa Rasa dominates finally above all other Rasas. crossing the river. contrast can be found in his ability. and create a moment of static picture. He does so to literary device: a way of flashing what he judges to be most significant to the mind’s inner eye. For instance. he was clothed with scales like a fish (and they are his pride). Adbhuta Rasa originating from Vira Rasa with all the Vibhavas.“The Pilgrim’s Progress is the book of a great converts who became able. to ‘freeze’ a scene. The slough of Despond corresponds to the first of Bunyan’s temptation to despair. But it is a device that is based upon a natural fact of experience. After an encounter with ignorance. which beset Christian. we are able to establish a correspondence between the major heroic incidents of the story and the spiritual crisis of ‘The Pilgrim’s Progress’ with that of ‘The Old Man and the Sea’. The mind does often work in this way. and sketching it there unforgettably. The temptations. or one moment in an event when persons or things are related in a particular way: an 195 . on Hemingway’s dramatic rhythm. he gives a wonderful description of Apollyon “now the monster was hideous to behold. remembering only one vivid gesture. reached the land of Beulah. in the tranquility of imprisonment not only to recollect the ardors of his conversion but also to permit their literary wealth. Christian experiences a conflict in his mind at that time of his death.

or impose a shape. The creased neck did not show so much when the old man was asleep. superimposed on one another. and the narrator uses this fact to great effect. It is both pictorial and painting of a drama that makes us relish Santa Rasa. And after the last crash of spray and the death. still powerful although very old. an angle of the head. and so hold for our memory what would otherwise be blurred and lost. there was no life in his face. and two kinds of time-scheme. It also contrasts with the talk and the movement that have gone on before and the action that will soon galvanize the old man’s tired body. The newspaper lay across his knees. is the one static picture of the old man. Let me illustrate with a small example Hemingway’s camera like example. They were strange shoulders. the ultimate universal quietitude. imposing stillness on an event. The weight of his arm held it there in the evening breeze. His head had fallen forward. His shirt had been patched so many times that it was like the sail. like its life. while Santiago is at sea. Underlying much of the varying activity of the story.outstretched arm. That is. It arranges an event. with the rope around his shoulders. focusing intently on Santiago sitting asleep in his shack and providing us with an unmoving and permanent picture. and just for a moment seems to have leapt out of time. It is like the moment of the great Marlin’s death. a glimpsed picture of something still and unchanging. set amidst so much that is flurried and unexpected. The mind is at times a camera. It is in itself a vignette of dramatic contrasts in which the shapeless vividness of color. In this way. it adds to the variety and intensity of the narrator’s ability. The neck was still strong too. leaning against the bow of the skiff-being towed eternally. It is one of the things that drama does too. it seems. He was barefooted. the fish’s movement. the mind often has to seize a shape. vague cloud-like spreading of the blood and the immensity of depth are offset by the close presence of the fish as a mere silver object and by the harsh angular–line of the projecting harpoon… he saw the fish was on 196 . a strange grouping of contrasted or similar figures. The old man’s head was very old though and with his eyes closed. With experience flowing past us confusedly. the throbs. when the fish leaps up for the last time. accounted for a perfectly held and composed picture. The patches were faded to many different shades of the sun. ‘He seemed to hang in the air above the old man in the skiff’. outlines it clearly and imprints a scene like an image of our minds. Such a quiet concentration of observation is not simply a vivid piece or recording but a click of the camera. as though there were two planes or reality.

while the worst Are full of passionate intensity”. comment towards an eternal statement. The fish was silvery and still and floated with the waves. the Bible. the center cannot hold. asks a writer: what am I? Who is going to read them? What use is this entire work going to be? 197 . he begins with a deep sense of responsibility of the writer to his community. Though Achebe liked to use the very African themes. he found something unique in Yeats’ poem ‘The Second Coming’.Yeats’ The Second Coming’ Turning and turning in the unending gyre The falcon cannot hear the falconer. Like most contemporary African writers. He with a few sketches achieves a grand success of his wonderful work of art. Then it spread like a cloud.’ Hemingway’s great moments of art in ‘The Old Man and the Sea’ where the perfect inter-play of flow and stillness. The shaft of the harpoon was projecting at an angle from the fish’s shoulder and the sea was discoloring with the red of the blood from his heart. As he once said: Once you realize how the world is organized. Whenever Achebe is asked about his purpose in writing. First it was dark as a shoal in the blue water that was more than a mile deep. Mere anarchy is loosed upon the world. adding so well. finality and continuation act like a dramatic poem and the story shapes itself. He takes the theme from W. creations of his own. the ultimate universal experience of Śanta Rasa. all of them were important in the intensely Christian household in which Chinua Achebe was raised. Things fall apart. you must then. He welds together elements of the Ibo oral culture. to produce ambitions as a writer is deeply moral. he is guided by what Nigerian Nobel Laureate Wole Soyinka has called the ‘Social Vision’17. he had used the literary models available such as Bunyan’s ‘The Pilgrim’s Progress’. Santa Rasa in Achebe’s ‘ Things Fall Apart’ Another classic writing/fiction by Chinua Achebe who had included in his Nobel Prize winning novel ‘Thing Fall Apart’.B. the Hymn Book and the book of the common prayers. It is about an African clan in which Africans were simply part of the scenery. and everywhere The ceremony of innocence drowned.his back with his silver belly up. without allegory and without ostentations. The best lack all conviction. The blood-dimmed tide is loosed.

a moment whose importance is particularly compelling the readers in the post colonial worlds of Africa and Asia. to colonists. Yet all of us wherever we live. Achebe’s audience could be presumed to 198 . In exploring the moment at which European culture and military power began to take over the world of his own ancestors. Achebe is examining a crucial moment in modern human history. The same cycle for Yeats is coming to an end. a ‘widening gyre’ like the rising and unending circles of the falcon’s flight. he manages to convey to all of us. in some way. equally recalling T. Yeats in his second stanza speaks of ‘twenty centuries of stony sleep’.Achebe’s answer to the last question has always been that his writing should serve the purpose of helping his fellow Ibos.S. can share the fascination of matching a culture very different from that of the modern west respond in its local way the global processes through which all human cultures have become increasingly interconnected. Ibo or not. Because he was writing in the late fifties. history came in cycles. Eliot’s words: ‘although it is only too easy for a writer to be local without being universal. Naturally there are ironies and reversals in Achebe’s appropriation of Yeats’ imagery: for the cycle that is ending is. both the tragedy of the loss of what world and the possibilities created by the new situation. an age of autonomy in his Ibo homeland. and to recognize both what was strong and what was weak in the African past’. Not only does Achebe draw a compelling picture of life in one part of Ibo land before the arrival of Christianity and colonialism. in which each great cycle of ages gave birth to another that was. Achebe’s vigorous accounting includes columns both for profit and loss.whatever? …Rough beast. The cycle that will follow will be a Christian cycle. He saw in the terrible destruction of the first decades of the 20th century signs that this Christian cycle was coming to an end. for Achebe. Whatever was to follow. the two millennia of the Christian cycle that had followed the Roman Empire. its hour come round at last Slouches toward Bethlehem to be bornThe principles of the new cycle would be radically at odds with the old Christian principles. its antithesis. his fellow Nigerians and his fellow Africans to come to terms with their history. to escape from those many problems in contemporary African life whose roots can be traced back to the ‘moment when we lost our initiative to other people. I doubt where a poet or novelist can be universal without being local too’. The novel belongs to all of its readers. For Yeats.

Okonkwo despises his father. In the exchange between Unoka and his neighbor Okoye. even while describing a culture that will strike many modern readers as overwhelmingly. above all others regulates life in Umuofia is Ani. We are tempted to say that this is Okonkwo’s tragic flaw: he is a man who lives in a culture that requires a balance between ‘masculine’ and ‘feminine’ that he does not acknowledge (in part because he is ashamed of his father who has failed to be a ‘real man’). All of these ingredients place us in a heroic age: they are the material of epic. Because of this. by using the metaphorical opposition of masculine and feminine. Okonkwo’s father loves not wrestling but music. that each of the disasters that afflict him could be seen as a crime against the earth. Ibo life begins with the patient pace of fable. Yet at the same time. the cycle of the pre-colonial culture of his homeland. twenty years later.have had a sense of the new age that had been brought with Christianity to Ibo land. We learn that the wrestling match that established the reputation of Okonkwo. our protagonist is still remembered now. when he is a matured leader of his village. We learn that his honor brings honor to his village. It is to this end that the novel’s evocation of the late 19th century. an old woman (a person with no title). Achebe in the beginning of the novel locates us in a world. 199 . Thus the god who. It is through this flaw that he is destroyed. we are introduced to the decorous patterns of 160 social lives. He has gone on to take two titles and has distinguished himself in war. who had gone to claim back some money (in the form of cowries) that he had loaned to Unoka. A mark of Achebe’s martyrdom is that he manages to communicate this ideal of balance. not hard work but good times. It is a reflection of Okonkwo’s failure to seek balance between manly virtues and womanly virtues as understood in Umuofia. ‘Okonkwo was well known throughout the nine villages and even beyond’. Soon we learn that Okonkwo’s character strong. His preliminary task therefore was to establish a plausible version of the old cycle. he is an Agbala18. the earth goddess. a metaphor that seems to derive from deep within one’s range of thoughts. Achebe introduces Okonkwo and his family history. starkly masculine. Vira Rasa. One of the central features of ‘Things Fall Apart’ is Achebe’s balancing of principles through metaphor of masculine and feminine. shaped by traditions of oral-tale-telling centrality of wrestling in establishing a man’s honor. defined by strength and aggression and impatience is the opposite of his father’s Unoka. even oppressively dominated by men.

‘Let me pass!’ he ordered ‘what do you want here?’ ‘The white man whose power you know too well has ordered this meeting to stop’ in a flash. The head messenger broke the spell. His stern sense of self seems to place him in opposition both to old and to new cultures that give Achebe’s novel its distinctive character. their communal rejoicing over a betrothal. the other of clay. Okoye’s painting of his toe with chalk to indicate that he is an ozo. their fear of the pronouncements of the Oracle. all of these quickly sketched elements combine to draw us into a world we do not know. It was useless. Moreover. Also tragedy of the impotence of his traditional values against the missionaries who condemn abandonment of twins.we see how formal behavior is even among those who know each other well. and the ogene gong. and the elaborate exchange of proverbs which are the ‘palm-oil with which words are eaten’. one of wood. The messenger crouched to avoid the blow. ‘Things Fall Apart’ is the tragedy of Obi Okonkwo of Umuofia. Okonkwo whipped out his machete. of the twin babies being put out to die. It is this masterly combination of the social narrative of Ibo life and its dissolution and reformation under the impact of colonialism caused the individual tragedy of Okonkwo. ‘Things Fall Apart’ ch. Towards the end of the chapter… ‘The man of Umuofia was merged into the mute backcloth of trees and giant creepers. wanting’. someone who has taken the title that makes him one of the elders of the community. the OZO dance. Okonkwo’s machete descended twice and the man’s head lay beside his uniformed body. 200 . so that the village life as it is lived. their feast of new yam.24. The custom of breaking a Kola-nut is to share. the downfall of a man who was not strong enough to challenge the cruel stupidity of his fellow men and stand for the age-old wisdom of not helping in the slaughter of an innocent boy accepted as a son. there are descriptions of the villagers of Umuofia. of the ekwe and udu drums. possessing more than one wife and beating of wives and who have asserted their god to be the only ‘god on earth’ and Umuofia gods to be ‘wicked heathen idols’. the rain-maker’s weather love and so on. the prayers for protection from the ancestors. the polite disagreement over who shall have the honor of breaking it. the discussion of music. comes alive. the procession of the nine masked Ancestral spirits.

When he has been buried we will then do our duty by him. The commissioner thought that one of the most infuriating habits of these people was their love of superfluous words. He knew that Umuofia would not go to war. Parakrama.The meeting backcloth jumped into tumultuous life and the meeting was stopped. Dhariya (bravery) Tyago (readiness to sacrifice) Vausaradya (proficiency and the like. They had broken into tumult instead of action. turned suddenly to the District Commissioner and said ferociously: “That man was one of the greatest men in Umuofia. and they stopped dead. He heard voices asking: ‘why did he do it?’ He wiped his machete on the sand and went away. He discerned fright in that tumult. and now he will be buried like a dog…. ‘We can take you where he is and perhaps your men will help us’. Obierika. We shall pay your men to do it. The Sancari Bhavas (Transitory states) such as Dhrti (fortitude) Mati (intellect). Okonkwo’s body was dangling.’ He could not say any more. We cannot bury him. and his clan’s men will not bury a man who commits it. one of the men replied: ‘it is against our custom. We shall make sacrifices to cleanse the desecrated land’. Adhyavaya. You drove him to kill himself. Achebe’s ‘Things Fall Apart’ abounds with Vibhavas (determinants) such as Asammoha. The District Commissioner asked them “which among you is called Okonkwo?’ ‘He is not here’. and Prabhava and (consequents) such as Sthairya (firmness). Garva (pride) Vega (impetuosity) Augrya (ferocity) Amarsa (indignation) Smrti (recollection). Romanca (horrification) and other features are abounding so as to relish gustation of Adbhuta Rasa originating from Vira Rasa. When the commissioner questioned them why they could not take him down. because you are strangers. Viraya. Sauryo (heroism). Sakti. who had been gazing steadily at his friend’s dangling body. His voice trembled and choked his words. . Naya. That is why we ask your people to bring him down. Obierika led the commissioner and his men to the tree through the bush behind. Achebe in his final chapter gives us a brief account of the situation and the event that occurred overnight. and only strangers may touch it. Pratapa. It is an offence against the earth. Okonkwo stood looking at the dead man. With Okonkwo’s body being seen dangling and Obierika stating that that man was one of the greatest men in Umuofia. His body is evil. He knew because they had let the other messenger escape. Only strangers can. replied Obierika. Where is he?’ ‘He is not here!’ Obierika spoke again. ‘you drove him to kill 201 .

But that was the thing I was born for. ‘My choice was to go there to find him beyond all people. His thought. for the birds. He respects the sea and the things of the sea though he dislikes ‘false’ things like the Portuguese man of war. focuses first on the practical usefulness of having the boy’s help. for example. Such dramatic quality is abundant in Hemingway’s novels too that enables the spectators to enjoy gustation and ultimately experience Santa Rasa. then to a sense of the ‘world’ and its fate.himself and now he will be buried like a dog…’ Achebe ends his novel with the universal Rasa of a novel i. And none to help either of us. before moving back to a sense of himself and finally to a practical reminder about eating in order to survive.. he is surprisingly powerful. is still full of tricks. Dramatic Quality of the Story In Hemingway’s novel ‘The Old Man and the Sea’. He reminisces and has his dreams like most old men. He held across his shoulders moving steadily toward whatever he had chosen. and being knowledgeable about his craft. he said aloud and settled himself against the rounded planks of the bow. it had been necessary to make a choice. ‘I wish the boy was here’. he is a man who is both active and contemplative. beyond all people in the world. Santa Rasa. patient. he thought.e. I must surely remember to eat the tuna after it gets light’. Perhaps I should not have been a fisherman. physically. for turtles and for the fish that he had hooked. and from time to time he is able to stand outside his practical life and see it in a larger terms. being simple. When once. through my treachery. What do we learn of Santiago? He is old and poor but spiritually undefeated. Now we are joined together and have been since noon…. the dramatic quality of the story is created partly by the way events come to us through the consciousness of the narrator but of the central character. the old man thought. then moves to an imaginative identification with the marlin. 202 . He has feelings of tenderness and pity. This raised the issue of whether and how character matters in ‘The Old Man and the Sea’. He can endure suffering and employ his mind and his hands with practical efficiency. His choice had been to stay in the deep dark water far out beyond all snares and traps and true treacheries. That is. dignified and humble. for the boy. He then felt the strength of the great fish through the line.

Santiago shows a kind of pride that is almost theatrical at times. ‘He rested for what he believed to be two hours. silver 203 . or in a church and his religiousness seems essentially primitive and instinctual. the language seems to imply. Similarly. He spat into the ocean and said. Even the awkwardness of those last phrases. The moon did not rise now until and he had no way of judging the time. He was still bearing the pull of the fish across his shoulders but he placed his left hand on the gunwale of the bow and confided more and more of the resistance to the fish to the skiff itself. but only occasionally. Or again. and started to pass the boat. Equally we might identify it as being characteristically ‘heroic’ in a literary and epic and way. He believes in luck more easily than in God. and that he might identify as being characteristically Latin American. Occasionally. Again at specific moments. Nor was he really resting except comparatively. the style takes on a color and a sonority that are meant to stand out by contrast and to convey the sense of an important turning point or climax. In trying to get at exactly what is happening. we can point out that he seems to be religious to a certain degree. Such figures of speech.’ the resistance to the fish to the skiff itself’ seems to be a guarantee of honesty and accuracy. flattest and least mannered. it does not matter if something inelegant occurs. it looked like the flag of permanent defeat’. though at times he wishes to deny it. you’ve killed a man’. also at the beginning of the story: ‘none of these scars were fresh. he created a very influential and immediately recognizable style that is almost too influential on himself. drawing attention to the author’s intention are unusual and perhaps not fully successful. They were as old as erosions in a fishless desert’. his bill almost touching the planking of the skiff. Here is an example of the language of ‘The Old Man and the Sea’ at its simplest. ‘Eat that. He says prayers. He took all his pain and what was left of his long gone pride and he put it against the fish’s agony and the fish came over on to his side and swam gently on his side. side. Hemingway is famous for his language: perhaps too famous with much care and effort. usually in the form of a simile: ‘The sail was patched with flour sacks and furled. long deep. Galanos19 And make a dream. Hemingway allows himself a very literary turn of phrase. but only when he has to or thinks it might be a way of placating some natural force that opposes him.

deep. ‘You are killing me. ‘Age is my alarm clock’. the boy said. The reader should learn to analyze and respond to its qualities as a narrative rather than an extract and it’s ‘meaning’.’ ‘interminable in the water’. hundred of feet below him in the sea. ‘why do old men wake so early? Is it to have a longer day?’ ‘I don’t know’. The speakers are ‘distanced’ from us at a certain degree.and barred with purple and interminable in the water. Never have I seen a greater or more beautiful or a calmer or more noble thing than you. in a little flash of sudden insight and connection that occurs inside the ordinary. But you have a right to. ‘Strength’ and ‘pride’ are pitted against ‘the fish’s agony’. ‘I’ll waken you in time’. Come on and kill me. The reader arrives at the meaning of a story in the way one comes to ‘know’ a friend.’ the old man said. Santiago’s mind always turns to an image of himself. Even slightly strange exchanges like the following become fairly acceptable. ‘I can remember it. once we grow. stressing how instinctive and natural it is to see oneself in others and other in oneself: Now that he had seen him once. ‘All I know is that young boys sleep late and hard’. the boy said. he could picture the fish swimming in the water with his 204 . In imagining the great fish. I do not care who kills who’. Hemingway articulates the growing recognition of brotherhood. ‘You’re my alarm clock’. fish and the old man thought. The language while taking on a kind of epic dignity does not lose its convincing power. wide’. The human and non-human are indissolubly liked by the mutual process of living and dying and killing in order to live. day-to-day process of living together. brother. ending in the virtually poetic cadence. It makes deliberate and un-colloquial use of emotive abstractions’. The sentence builds up its parts carefully laborious sequence: ‘all his pain and what was left of his strength and his long gone pride’ that emulates the movement of the exhausted marlin and the physical strain of the fisherman. The man–fish relationship. a piece of imagined action rather than an essay. He continues to speak like an oracle. We ‘read’ our friends dramatically from within a total relationship. the old man said. used to the convention that the dialogue comes to us as remote –like seeing people move on the other side of a colored glass. And it mounts to a heavy crescendo in the very un-prosaic inversion of adjectives: ‘long. Most of the ‘speech’ in the story comes from Santiago talking to him at sea and becomes acceptable if highly formalized element of the whole. But it may be that oracles invite less ridiculing when talking to themselves than to an audience. ‘The Old Man and the Sea’ is a dramatic narrative.

I ruined us both. I’ll fight them until I die’. what a weapon! Then we might have fought them together. But there was no hatchet and then there was no knife. Santiago. ‘fish that you were. The fusion of the two. But if I had. old fish? You do not have that spear on your head for nothing’. can see in the dark. His withdrawal into sleep and the dream of lions in the last scene is not a movement into death. Not in the absolute dark but almost as a cat sees. with much less eye. for when Santiago having talked of “I” and “we”. I should have chopped the bill off to fight them with. There is even a significant ambiguity of language at the end of the passage. I wonder how much he sees at that depth. and the perpetual tragic adventure of forging the self’s relationships with an alluring but destructive world can begin again. What will you do now if they come in the night? What can you do? ‘Fight them’. ‘strange’. he said. cheated by the natural world of what he won and almost broken by it. Santiago’s resistance becomes a resistance of two-in-one. and as in its occasional phrases of explicit philosophic utterance. On the contrary. of an acceptance of the finality of isolation. 205 . and could have lashed it to an oar butt. “what can you do?” the ‘you’ could mean whether himself or the marlin or both of them as one. But we have killed many sharks. remains a realist and a man of practicalities. Once I could see quite well in the dark. The solitary man.purple pectoral fins set wide as wings and the great erect tail slicing through the dark. How many did you ever kill. So here we have a story that down to the very details of its language as in its physical setting. that the past can continue to be brought to life in the present. man and fish becomes complete as Santiago’s apology: ‘I am sorry that I went too far out’ passes into the idea of the two of them joining in fighting the sharks. he thought. he said. I am sorry that I went too far out. you and I. it is a moment’s submersion into the deeper springs of the self in order that individuality and strength can be re-born. And in the end when the fish is dead and being attacked and eaten by sharks. He emphasizes that we are at the same time solitaries in an uncertain works and members of that world. then asks. The sharks and the Portuguese-man-of-war20 have their part to play. ‘Half-fish’. as he is. His eye is huge and sores. is at the end planning his next fishing expedition with better weapons and new ‘tricks’. He liked to think of the fish and what he could do to a shark if he were swimming free. and ruined many others. the old man thought.

But although in the novel we find the Adbhuta Rasa giving rise to Vira Rasa that culminated at the killing of the head messenger.D. by Okonkwo. spiritual. Similarly John Bunyan in his famous allegory ‘Pilgrim’s Progress’ has used great ironies of the worldly life. He meant in the first century A. Ernest Hemingway has loaded each word of his fiction. the dominant Rasa throughout Hemingway’s novel. In ‘The Old Man and the Sea’ various Bhavas. But to serious readers both the works of art signify the depth of moral. But ultimately the readers and the spectators are experiencing the Universal ‘Santa Rasa’. Paul says our life on earth is warfare. and the image of old age joined the youth and preparing for a fresh start. Rasa. and metaphysical aspects. The white man was quenched of his fury only at the sight of the dangling body of the protagonist Okonkwo. To this. It ends like the greatest fables. Anubhavas and Vibacari Bhavas combined give rise to various Rasas but the prominent Rasa is the Adbhuta Rasa from which originates the ‘Vira Rasa’. and struggle against material prosperity. Rasa the Sanskrit Literary Theory is the only theory that can be frequenting the varied situations of the novel ‘Things Fall Apart’. the Sanskrit Literary Theory alone is so dynamic that applies to such a masterpiece of a work. ‘The Old Man and the Sea’. ‘Thing Fall Apart’ embraces all humanistic aspects as a whole. waiting to return to the sea. in fish. the inadequacy of words mislead the tourists. but ultimately it is ‘Santa Rasa’ 206 . When St. Meanings are bountifully used with maximum economy. To a layman and to children both ‘The Old Man and the Sea’ and ‘Pilgrim’s Progress’ seem to be struggle against the world. we are all pilgrims on earth. There is no religious or philosophic vision. And the story writing continues and we are its plot. He also implied the varied struggle encountered by Christian and Christiana in an allegorical manner until they reached the celestial city. Chinua Achebe in his famous novel ‘Things Fall Apart’ depicts to the readers and spectators on the screen the change of values from tradition to modernism. struggle against natural forces. that ‘The Old Man and the Sea’ is a diamond mine for experiencing various Rasas. that our life is a struggle like that of struggle that Santiago had with the giant ‘Marlin’ and continued to struggle with the sharks.The story does not end in any large revelation or in any clearly recommended code of conduct. Okonkwo the protagonist struggles hard to uphold the traditional values but the white man with what is called white man’s burden of civilizing the tribal people in the lower Niger was too strong for Okonkwo like elders.

One has to die to enter into the celestial city. the Sanskrit Literary Theory. than Rasa. The criticism we have been engrossed upon is art criticism that has used Rasa. ‘Criticism is as inevitable as breathing’. of this society of ‘Umuofia’ and the nine villages instead. we go along the line given by the late Twentieth century literary critics: Wherever any culture produces texts. performances. every reader and spectator on the screen at the sight of Okonkwo’s dangling body on a tree in the bush behind his Obi. Towards the end of the novel at the sight of the dangling body of Okonkwo. Anubhavas. Eliot reminds us at the start of his most important essay. Taking Hemingway’s novels of my choice. ‘The Old Man and the Sea’ and ‘A Farewell to Arms’. Santiago in ‘The Old Man and the Sea’ is found sleeping in his shack. Again here the people of Okonkwo’s village and outside experience ‘Santa Rasa’. the combination of the determinants. the Sanskrit Literary Theory to appreciate such works of art and enjoy gustation? ‘The Old Man and the Sea’ is indeed a unique work of art for research such as the present one. I take great pleasure in describing various situations in Santiago’s life especially his fishing venture that we have just experienced and 207 . his close friend Obierika burst out spontaneously to the district commissioner that. Every reader/viewer will certainly find it a diamondmine if we apply Rasa. Here again the readers and the spectators experience the ‘Santa Rasa’ after so much of their struggle. Sthayibhavas and Sancaribhavas (the transient mental states) to different situations.S. or events that allow for diverse responses and disagreements. as it does outside every theatre. Many scholars in the world are indeed eager to learn more of it. ‘that man was one of the greatest men in Umuofia. T. consequents and a transitory state gives way to ‘Adhbhuta Rasa’ that enables the readers and the spectators to experience ‘Vira Rasa’. concert hall or cinema. the Sanskrit Literary Theory. Can there be a better literary theory. We are able to apply various Vibhavas. Christian and Christiana in ‘Pilgrim’s Progress’ in spite of agitation in the mind before death achieved eternal life finally that makes us relish Santa Rasa. for not trying to uphold the oral tell-tale traditions of his society. art gallery.embracing. which enables the readers and the spectators experiencing ‘Santa Rasa’. Okonkwo in ‘Things Fall Apart’ despised his fellowmen including his father Unoka for being an agbala. critics will again break out spontaneously. Yes indeed. He lived like a great hero but will be buried like a dog’.

19. 13. 14.8 Notes 1.Mental state in potency 12. the ultimate outcome of any works of art. he uttered this cursing term for them. Ancient verse in Natya Sastra 10.Other name for Vyabhicari or transient mental state 11. 18.Story where events and characters represent ideas 16. Gustation of heroism 9. Abhinavagupta. 15. As the old man saw two sharks going together.A.Far reaching forecast of the commentary. 10thc commentator on Natya Sastra 7.An old man without any heroic deed/title in life. originally from Cuba. Famous persons writing an account of their lives and experiences 4.S.A colony of a float much like a transparent bladder.Sentiment of surprise/wonder. from the underside of which hang long slinging tentacles whose poison is dangerous to man 208 . Final Rasa of quietitude 8.An abusive term used for sharks.Puritanic Days. Chapter.A great base ball player in U. Being mental and pure artistic feeling 2. Virgin Mary’s Shrine at Cobre in Havana. Feelings that rouse towards Rasa experience 3. the gustation. Love when the beloved is away 5. 17. 20. Love when the beloved is together 6.experienced the joy of it. the Santa Rasa.

seldom deviating from them in the novel.Chapter 9 Rasa. This theory alone embraces humanism as a whole. In order to substantiate this let’s refer to Frederic Henry. the Sanskrit Literary Theory. During The First World War Hemingway based his narrative closely on the factual history of the war between the Italians and Austrians from 1915 to 1918. Rain is often a prediction of disaster in the life of Frederic Henry. application of Rasa Theory to Hemingway’s ‘A farewell To Arms’ will certainly inspire my readers to enjoy gustation of various Rasas. the V. north of Gorizia. So applying various Bhavas that are in potency to become Rasas will be the most interesting and unique thing to enjoy such a work of art. Italy fought against the Austrians during most of the First World War and had limited successes in 1915 and 1916 in the Alonzo region. and even followed the weather reports for the period. an American lieutenant in the Italian Ambulance Corps during the First World War and Catherine. He studied the geography of the region. Indeed. Ultimately they enter into a state of trance. The Sanskrit Literary Theory Applied to Hemingway’s ‘A Farewell to Arms’ ‘A Farewell To Arms’ is regarded as fictionalized autobiography of Hemingway. Nurse from Scotland in a British hospital in Gorizia. It rains in his narrative at times when it was actually raining in Italy during the period covered by his story. He read military histories and first-hand reports of those who fought in the war. (This is 209 .D1. the most appropriate one to apply to ‘A Farewell To Arms’ is Rasa.A. In August 1917 the Italians captured the Bainzza plateau. Of all the Literary Theories.

Catherine’s death in March 1919 would have coincided with the last major German offensive in France. It flew around and then came back and went in again and I wasn’t dead any more!’ Its Hemingway’s simplicity and straightforward way of putting things that enables us enjoy various Rasas inherent in the expressions such as this. Hemingway based ‘A Farewell to Arms’ on his own experience as a Red Cross Ambulance driver in Italy in 1918. The Germans were far superior to the Austrians. It was only possible because of the collapse of the Russian Front after the Russian Revolution. portrayed in Book III of ‘A Farewell to Arms’.). Catherine’s fiancé’ was killed in the battle of Somme in July 1916. he initially thought of war as a test of strength and bravery. The Italian army feared them. however. The entrance of the United States into the war excited Rinaldi and the major in April 1917. Catherine Barkley. was the lowest point of the war in Italy. he was wounded in his legs. a fact reflected in the conversations in Book III of ‘A Farewell to Arms’.27. they had no more successes and the troops became increasingly demoralized by a military strategy of attrition. Like Frederic. Frederic’s experience and his attitudes reflect those of his creator. It was only because the invaders out-ran their transport that their attack was not more disastrous. and thought he might die. The Caporetto defeat and the demoralized retreat. he fell in love with one of the nurses. the commander of the Italian army left 250. Hemingway was evacuated to a field hospital and later moved to the newly opened American Red Cross Hospital in Milan. The Italians lost nearly 600. After this battle. The entrance of German troops into Italy in October 1917 was a result of an appeal by the Austrians. a battle in which British forces suffered heavy losses. however. Hemingway was interested in military strategy. More and more men were killed for limited gains. in guns and in fighting. he described his own feeling at the moment of the wounding: ‘my soul or something coming right out of my body…. in which the common man was sacrificed to meaningless ideas of 210 . Hemingway refers occasionally to the progress of the war on other fronts. When he saw the actual conditions of modern warfare. The German army began a bombardment in the Tolmino-Caporetto sector on 24 October reached Udine and by 31 October the Tagliamento River.the area Frederic inspects with Gino in ch. Cardona. he came to think of it as an atrocity.000 men. This decision of the United States was of great moral as well as material significance in the outcome of the war. During his convalescence there.000 prisoners to the Germans during the retreat.

in a definitive study of the sources of ‘A Farewell to Arms’. Why did Hemingway choose a different year for the action of his novel from that of his won experience in Italy? Michael Reynolds. immediate sensations. Frederic fought in a different area of Italy and in 1915-17. I think the cup of water on the burning log only steamed the ants’. All that counted was individual experience. Since Hemingway was the first American wounded in Italy. Frederic Henry also shares Hemingway’s love of fishing and hunting.patriotism and glory. is in many ways unlike that of Hemingway. But I did not do anything but threw a cup of water on log. a character such as Frederic Henry could not have existed. then turned back and ran towards the end. his knowledge about sports and about restaurants and hotels. Frederic’s experience. a man in the universe resembles the ants crawling on a log that Frederic describes just before Catherine’s death: ‘I put a log on top of the fire and it was full of ants. a circumstance that may recall Hemingway’s injury while distributing food to men in the trenches. so that I would have the cup empty to put whisky in before I added water to it. in the significance of places rather on geographical detail than on abstract speculation or social ideals. suggests one reason: Hemingway wanted to use the retreat from Caporetto both to illustrate the demoralizing effect of the war and to give a motivation for Frederic’s desertion. but Frederic was not as close as to the line of battle. I remember thinking at the time that it was the end of the world and a splendid chance to be a messiah and lift the log off the fire and throw it out where the ants could get off onto the ground. Frederic as narrator reflects Hemingway’s beliefs in the way he emphasizes what he sees. ‘A Farwell to Arms’ is a reduction or a simplification of Hemingway’s own experience in the First World War. Where there were enough on the end they fell off into the fire…. Frederic was injured because he was eating with his ambulance drivers instead of staying with the officers.Hemingway did not arrive in Italy until July 1918. Frederic does not perform any heroic action. Like Hemingway he has memories of growing up in a rural area of America. Metaphysical Theme To speak of the metaphysical theme of ‘A Farewell to Arms’ to Hemingway. 211 . the ants swarmed out and went first towards the center where the fire was. As it commenced to burn. and personal choices. however. his appreciation of good food and drink.

because he is conscious of what he is doing. As Jake Barnes. and Vyabhicaribhavas with the Sthayibhavas indeed brings Bibhatsa Rasa to the reader/viewer to see Frederic so indifferent towards the ants being killed. man will die. In such a universe what is left except the moral values the individual creates for him and the particular sensations he experiences? Like the ants. Anubhavas. in which death is always the winner. Frederic’s indifference to the whole thing indeed works out to various Vibhavas. With the ants running hither and thither to save themselves and ultimately getting burnt. but his activity is not purposeless. the narrator of Hemingway’s 212 . spitting. Frederic also lives a simple life. grief. A man must play the game of life according to his own rules. views of the mountains. The rules that Frederic Henry lives include a delight in immediate sensation and experience good food. delusion or loss of sense. Such rules are never formulated abstractly. Frederic never denies the existence of God who would give death meaning. trying to endure without too much emotion and self-pity. Death makes a mockery of all values’. anxiety. expressing disgust and the like. Prayers are ineffectual. In another recurring image.Frederic is like an indifferent deity. moments of friendship. watching the ants. only intervening for his won purposes. As a way of countering the ultimate defeat. agitation. since God is as indifferent as Frederic Henry was to the burning ants. Its outcome is from the Vibhavas such as seeing what is unwholesome or displeasing. The Vybhicari Bhavas are loss of memory. hearing. illness. Dignity in facing certain defeat is an essential element of Hemingway’s morality. Its representation on the stage is through the Anubhavas such as squeezing up of all the limbs. death etc. but develop from a clear perception of experience. but the God in whom he believes is one to fear in the night. rolling the eyes. moving the face to and fro. without consideration for the suffering creatures. seeing and discussing what is undesirable and similar things. Description towards Rasa Experience Here we have fulfillment of Bibhatsa Rasa that has Juguptsa (disgust) as its Sthayibhava. heartache. This is ultimately: ‘scrambling along a log to be burnt or to be steamed. Frederic compares life to a game. even if the rules of the universe are unfathomable.

what he felt even what he ate and drank. I did not care what it was all about. listening to sweet voices. seeing beautiful things. etc. you did learn something. except to express his belief that life leads only to defeat”. like a saint. To it she sacrifices herself. what he saw. Nevertheless his pessimistic attitude towards the universe. except the suicide. experiencing pleasures. He seldom speculates about meaning. When two people love each other there can be no happy end to it. Catherine experiences Sambhoga Srngara Rasa. after her death she believes she will come back to Frederic in the night. movement of limbs and eyes etc. In the novel Frederic never denies the existence of 213 . Frederic Henry’s manner of narrating his story shows similar attitude. not a goddess of love. when criticized for the ending of ‘A Farewell to Arms’: “There is no lonelier man in death. as Vibhavas. She even believes in a kind of immortality of love. than that man who has lived many years with a good wife and then outlived her. Consequents such as clever and significant glances of the eyes. what he said. Catherine accepts their love as the sole reason for her existence.” Yes indeed. If two people love each other there can be no happy end to it. is hardly compatible with belief in the immortality of the soul or in God’s love for his creation. What is worth recording is his immediate experience. the Sanskrit Literary Theory in his splendid writing. she places a religious faith in love. Is romantic love between two individuals a possible way of living in a universe governed by death? When she falls in love with Frederic. He was nominally a catholic and retained a fear of God. May be if you found out how to live in it you learned from that what it was all about. Catherine dies. The readers/ viewers too relish the gustation called Srngara Rasa. This is reflected on Frederic’s indifference to the ants being killed. they undergo a transformation of physical change and are re-born. He draws gustation as he makes such a statement towards enjoying Santa Rasa. Ambivalent Religious Attitude In ‘A Farewell to Arms’ Frederic’s attitude towards religion is somewhat ambivalent and is perhaps an expression of Hemingway’s own feelings. she loses any sense of personal identity. Instead. As Hemingway said. Hemingway too reflects and adopts Rasa. Love is always temporary. that always defeats man. however and Frederic continues living. Hemingway brings out all objects of pleasure. are indeed at play. He is left with only a ‘statue’. All I wanted to know was how to live in it.‘The Sun also Rises’ (or Fiesta. 1926) says: “Perhaps as you went along.

his sympathies are on the side of the fighting men. More so it is the belief of Hindu mythology that life is cyclic. ‘a parable of twentieth century man’s disgust and disillusionment at the failure of civilization but achieves the ideals it had been promising throughout the nineteenth century’. But William Butler Yeats is afraid of death and therefore he tries to escape his anguish. a longing. Present in the novel. going to live in Byzantium2. represents a religious longing for a possible peace. however. Other than Rasa Theory hardly any theory is so richly dynamic that can help the readers/viewers enjoy Rasa. Spring returns. Social Issues ‘A Farewell to Arms’ does not discuss social issues directly. with the ambulance drivers for whom there is not enough to eat. drinking together. He does not. But an underlying motif of the novel in the comparative goodness of the common man is seen as opposed to the rulers of society. shown in the comparison of Napoleon’s victories in Italy with the inept prosecution of the 1914 –1918 war and in the analysis of the errors made during the retreat from 214 . however. Hemingway’s novel is. the unique gustation. The paradise that Frederic imagines in Abruzzi. life continues. Several times the soldiers talk about their disgust with the war. Frederic’s story of the attack when he is wounded implicitly contrasts the officers. find any consolation in prayer when Catherine is dying or any sense of divine purpose in his life. Such a feeling may be compatible with a belief in divine order. Ray West has said. There is an interest in military strategy as a kind of game. Nineteenth century thinkers often spoke of the human race evolving towards a higher. Although Frederic does not judge these comments. they’re feeling of being sacrificed to social and political purposes for which they have no sympathy. Tagore rejoices at his old age for the amount of wisdom he had acquired recalling his fine days of youth. but of all theories of human progress. that is never specifically denied. is a feeling of the cyclical renewal of nature. The novel constitutes a criticism not only of the militarism of European nations in 1914. of which Western Europe was thought to be the epitome. Seasons represent this life cycle. the home of the priest. But it lies uneasily beside the pessimism of the narrative. War is treated in several ways in ‘A Farewell to Arms’. purer civilization.God nor the need for a love that will take him beyond the purposeless pleasure seeking of his leave in Italian brothels and bars.

Caporetto. This is the crux of the problem between all other Western Literary Theories and the Sanskrit Literary Theory.. You died’. Division of the Novel ‘A Farewell to Arms’ is divided into five books. and his vague 215 . his threatened arrest and Catherine’s death. These structural parallels reinforce the basic theme of the novel: ‘that was what you did. He describes his first year in the Italian army. But the Sanskrit Literary Theory affirms of peace. his bantering friendship with Rinaldi. Book III develops the war motif. the Swiss officials arguing about the writer sports in Book IV. his return to the front. Book I introduces with themes. low-keyed contrast to the intensity of the tragic action. Frederic also scoffs at patriotism. Although Catherine is more critical of Ettore. As in each act of a play. There is also comic relief: the mess hall conversations in book I. the climax of the war theme occurs at the center in Book III. admired by Frederic for their efficiency. there is one moment of tension: Frederic’s wounding. the super-patriot. the joking of the ambulance drivers at the officers’ quarters in Book III. the satire on the three incompetent physicians in Book II. quietitude and tranquility – a transformation to re-birth/re-in-carnation to any other form. Relationship of the five books establishes parallels between Frederic’s experiences of war and of love. Book I introduces the themes in a fairly low key. his rather detached participation in the officer’s mess. He came to see war as a game without meaning a way in which man co-operates with death. is the uselessness and futility of the military victories. his threatened execution. the tragic denouncement occurs in Book V. Frederic’s initial reactions to love and war are similar. All other critical theories would brand the same as Catharsis (tragedy). Similarly. Book II and IV develop the love motif in a calmer and happier mode. Rasa theory alone has the most appreciative application called Santa Rasa to this situation. The structure of the five books could be compared to the five acts of a play. but rather provide a realistic. there is occasional description of different kind of weapons. In Book I. Opposed to this technical interest of purpose. The inter weaving of the themes of love and war is comparable to the alternation of two musical themes or motifs. In a reminiscent manner of Shakespeare’s tragedies each book contains a number of incidental scenes that do little to advance the plot. Book V leads to the resolution of both the motifs of love and war.

he says. however. in his conversations with Ettore and the British Major. In retrospect. If Hemingway’s own wound in Italy during the war was a central event in his life. Not fully engaged with the men with whom he works.sympathy for the priest. and links Book III to the conclusion of Book II. he is separated from all those he knew in the Italian army and has no more responsibilities. At the bridge. however. in his awareness that he will have to return to the front. is also a kind of game in which he is not emotionally involved. in series of scenes that prepare for the moral and physical disaster of the retreat from Caporetto. he seeks her out and finds he is lonely without her. Book III begins with Frederic’s return to his unit in Gorizia. the first defeat that life presents to him. The theme of war remains present in his thoughts. it is not very significant to Frederic. Book I closes with a series of visits Frederic received in the field hospital. Having withdrawn temporarily from war. The wounding is the climax of Book I. Gradually. and their discussion of sexual and religious love. Book III is also linked to Book I. which ends with Frederic’s conversation with Rinaldi and the priest: Book III opens with more distressing conversations. where even the hotel room in Milan was a ‘home’. ‘a home-coming’ a phrase that contrasts his relationship to his comrades with his love for Catherine. If book II is primarily about love. foreshadow the later developments of the story. Book III is primarily about war. During the retreat Frederic is motivated by the desire to save himself and his men. a necessary step in his isolation from society so that he can devote himself completely to Catherine. In Book II Frederic’s stay in the hospital is set against the development of his relationship with Catherine. it is relegated to minor place in the opening book of ‘A Farewell to Arms’. 216 . Love sustains Frederic. His first meetings with Catherine in Book I. marks his withdrawal from war. Again the difficulties of war and love are intervened and a feeling of doom awaiting Frederic in both areas is introduced. but only in his thoughts. Rinaldi’s and the priest’s discontent with the war. Book II ends with departure shortly after Catherine had conveyed to him of her pregnancy. Similarly he becomes more actively engaged in the war when he takes his ambulances to the attack at Plava and is wounded. Frederic is mainly an observer of the progress of the war. he is free to devote himself to love. It is not. his jump into the river to save him from being summarily executed. The climax of Book III.

Frederic sees newspapers at the café where he waits while Catherine is suffering. he meets her and hoped it would save him from the demoralization of the war. defeat comes with the rains and the descent to Lausanne. The narration is slow and detailed only at a few moment of happiness with Catherine. the months spent in Montreux at the beginning of Book V. Other blocks of time. The war is now present only as a threat of arrest. Again scenes of civilian life are contrasted in intensity with those of war. Book II covers the summer in Milan. When Catherine dies.Book IV. those that confirm his despair about life. Frederic listens to Simmons talk about opera. The action of Book V takes place in the late fall and winter of 1917 and the spring of 1918. Winter in the mountains is peaceful. a year passes. As she is dying Frederic is aware of time passing slowly. primarily those that have contributed to his sense of isolation. each moment is significant and he relieves it in his story with painful precision. are later compressed into single chapters: the summer in Milan. He experiences Santa Rasa and the readers and the viewers too. leaving Switzerland. however. a threat only occasionally suggested in the joyful reunion of the lovers. though not so long. The episodes that Frederic recounts in detail are. In Book III the action is more concentrated and covers a brief period in late October 1917. like Book II. and at the moment Frederic is facing obstacles: the wounding. The war reappears in the background. and especially Catherine’s death. In Book V the action again begins calmly. Most of the action is. Book IV again concludes with obstacle overcome when Frederic and Catherine arrive in neutral Switzerland. he is left in total isolation. therefore. Ironically this threat proves to be less serious than that posed by Catherine’s pregnancy. From chapter 1 to chapter 2. stay in a luxurious hotel and drink Champagne with Count Greffi. set in the spring of 1917. the war is no longer part of his life: ironically. begins with a return to Catherine after the disaster of war. Parallels 217 . however read the papers. He cannot. Time of Events The events in Book I cover a period from the autumn of 1915 to the spring of 1917. at the time of the battle of the Plava.

Each book follows a similar patterns beginning rather calmly with indications of the season and the weather. An essential contrast is developed between Rinaldi and the priest. The detail is. They must descent to the plain where she meets her death. however. The friendly old man who cuts silhouette portraits. only a pursuit of the flesh and the scientific techniques of medicine and war. to find in the cathedral. there is only the ‘dirty trick’ of the game of life. For Frederic and Catherine there is no ‘home’ such as the young lovers in Milan seem. Girls from the brothel are contrasted with the sacred virgins who join the men during the retreat. Its ideal form. is contrasted with the pompous. The ‘plain’ is the area of rain and fog. progressing to a climax. Characters are often set in patterns of parallel and contrast. Hemingway’s Style In ‘A Farewell to Arms’. Hemingway 218 . contrasts with Count Greffi. producing a feeling of home. and incompetent doctors. inhabited by love. ‘A Farewell to Arms’ does present a continual tension between an ideal for which Frederic searches and the reality of a universe based on death. the region inhabited by Rinaldi. the language is deliberately pared down. the cold dry region. where there is no love or faith. then to a resolution. is in Abruzzi. Frederic takes Catherine into the Swiss mountains to establish a home. episode. as in most of Hemingway’s work. Carlos Baker. Although the pattern is not rigid. If Rinaldi might seem vindicated in his nihilism by Catherine’s death. The ambulance drivers are either patriots or anarchists. sober. but the rains come. either reliance on the flesh or reliance on God’s love. Both visions tempt Frederic but he finally accepts neither. character and symbol. that Frederic can only imagine. the distinguished diplomat proud of his accomplishments. Mayor’s trying to forget his criminal past. a competent surgeon who likes to drink and joke. The nurses either help Frederic’s liaison with Catherine or act as overt enemies. contrasts with the barber who threatens to cut Frederic’s throat. which they must lose. the biological trap of the pregnancy in spring. even though he can find no support in divine love. Frederic has known a love close to one that the priest speaks. which he terms ‘the mountain’ and ‘the plain’. Hemingway’s critic has found a set of symbolic parallels throughout the novel. The ‘mountain’ is the country of the priest. Each offers to Frederic an extreme vision of life. Valentini. selective not exhaustive.‘A Farewell to Arms’ is constructed in various series of parallels. Rhetorical expressions and abstractions are avoided.

similar to those of lyric poem. indicative only of the ‘characters’ approval of a particular sensation. Most sentences follow a simple declarative pattern. for example. Thus considerable attention is given to exactly what Frederic saw and did. especially adverbs and adjectives. it is often the rather imprecise ‘fine’ or ‘ lovely’. Hemingway aims rather to communicate a dominant emotion than a realistic story. He avoids the intrusion. Like a poet he often used repetitions of words to give a rhythmic quality to his prose. Hemingway writes. Hemingway’s style has been described as lyric rather than dramatic. If a writer omits something because he does not know it then there is a hole in the story’. Hemingway used many concrete nouns to create a simple. He avoids vague generalizations and poetic adjectives. of the thoughts and feelings of other 219 . not ‘they fought’. Johann Sebastian Bach used a note in music when he was ‘emitting counterpoint’. ‘there was fighting’. to put the reader into a situation where he can feel the underlying emotion. but rather objectively describes the setting and the actions of the characters. There is seven-eights of it under water for every part that shows. Another feature of the style is the avoidance of descriptive words. a Hemingway critic has suggested that many of the verbs do not denote action strongly. He believed that only a part of the novelist’s own experience and knowledge should show: In an interview he said: ‘I always try to write on the principle of the iceberg. but rather are immobilized as gerunds and supines. Besides he creates not a continuity of dramatic action but a series of sharp impressions. for example.does not proceed like a nineteenth century novelist to describe the scene minutely. Anything you know you can eliminate and it only strengthens your iceberg. with clauses linked by ‘and’ instead of by conjunctions denoting causality or consequence (‘because’ or ‘therefore’). He creates into a situation where he can feel the underlying emotion. When he does use an adjective. Harry Levin. He had been quoted as saying ‘in the first paragraphs of Farewell I used the word “and” consciously over and over the way. Such syntax conveys Frederic’s mood as a detached observer and gives a static quality to the narrative. It is the part that doesn’t show. Hemingway said that he tried to ‘write truly’ by stating the ‘sequence of motion and fact which made the motion’. strong effect. Perhaps the most noticeable feature of Hemingway’s style is the avoidance of complicated syntax. a hard and clear image. Often the sentences seem to be unconnected to one another. The style does not communicate emotion directly.

In spite of a certain tough realism on the surface of the story. images of the girls from the brothel and the two frightened young sisters are juxtaposed to show how war treats all women. Passini talks of how every tenth soldier was summarily executed for lack of bravery at a battle. Catherine’s belief that she will return after her death as a spirit to visit Frederic. At the field hospital Frederic watches a soldier whose duty is to make an unending series of crosses for the graves of those who die. The races in Milan are fixed. Another series of images create a feeling of falsity and desolation of life. their creation of their own world to set them apart from society. Hemingway was. primarily communicate the way in which war simplifies man’s emotions. one horse disguised to be entered in a race 220 . the obscene finger games. Many of these incidents do not directly advance the plot. The poetic atmosphere of ‘A Farewell to Arms’ is heightened by literary allusions. Eliot (1888-1915). a man reduced to making himself ill to avoid the obligations of a society bent on military gains at any price.S. and chickens and ducks tied to carts’. all these elements recall particularly the poetry of John Donne (1571/2-1631). The peasants during the retreat carry their most valuable objects: ‘mirrors projecting up between mattresses. Frederic meets an Italian soldier whose discards his truss in order not to have to fight. like T. Images and Symbols In ‘A Farewell to Arms.people. Hemingway uses language poetically to create a mood. Rather it presents a series of sharp. All the incidents. the vulgar baiting of the priest. The conversation in the officers’ mess about sexual exploits. The authorities delay medals given for bravery when the military action has not been successful. concrete incidents to show irrationality. still less of the progress of the Italian forces against Austria. the lack of purpose of life during the war.’ Hemingway creates several series of images that convey Frederic’s emotions. During the retreat from Caporetto. One series shows the desolation of war. The love of Catherine and Frederic. Just before he is killed. all the details are chosen to reinforce Frederic’s emotion. part of the generation of Americans who felt the attraction of the metaphysical poetry of seventeenth century England. The novel does not give a detailed picture of Frederic’s activities in the ambulance corps. Frederic notes the ‘dirty long-sleeved underwear’ of the sergeant that Bonello has shot. A friend of Ezra Pound (1885-1972).

he feels in disguise. The deaths of Catherine and her son leave only a ‘statue’. The barber thinks he is an Austrian. pure and worth looking at. There is no recurring cycle of life. is connected with the sentiment Śringara. the luxurious hotel bar in Stressa. Frederic’s escape into Switzerland is the closing of the season of war. The guards at the bridge think he is a German infiltrator on Italian uniform. The spring rains come. Their love ripens during the summer in Milan. Most of Book V takes place in the winter: a dormant season of peace in which he lives happily with Catherine and tries to ignore the war. withered flowers and coffee grounds (images of the end of love) and of domestic tranquility. Helen Ferguson sees him as really an Italian disguised as an American. and Frederic learns that even the season of rebirth can bring death. wearing a white hospital coat to visit Catherine. He is part of no national group. Śringara originates from the Sthāyi Bhava of Rati (love) a bright dress is its soul. For Frederic such places of shelter are often bars or restaurants: the well-known restaurant in Milan where the headwaiter is a friend. rootless. Book III and IV are set in the autumn. however. The long rooting in the dustbin near the hospital where Catherine dies can only find dust (an image of man’s fate). as it is indicated by the series of images portraying him in ‘masquerade’3. As a bearded boxer Frederic thinks he looks ’funny’. Frederic meets Catherine in the spring. It is so named because it goes 221 . Śringara Rasa stands prominent as the relationship between Henry Frederic and Catherine a VAD develops slowly but matures to fulfillment of their desires. Perhaps the most striking series of images is that linking the story of Frederic’s experience in love and war with the cyclical changes in the weather and seasons.for which it is not eligible. dry snow is equated with peace and contentment. the child is born. too. however. the café in Milan where he was offered help after his desertion. in the Milan hotel room. when Catherine becomes pregnant. The rains often predict disaster. in Switzerland. Indeed in the novel ‘A Farewell to Arms’. without a clear nationality or identity. Whatever is clean. at the hospital. Opposed to these images are those conveying an individual’s temporary creation of a place of shelter. a moment of order in the disordered universe? Catherine tries always to create a ‘home’. Rasa Experiences Application of various Rasas to different situations in the fiction is my scope. Frederic is. the retreat from Caporetto may be seen as a kind of harvest of the war.

experiencing pleasure. The Vyabhicaribhavas in Śringara are all those mentioned before excluding Trasa (fright) Alasya (lethargy). offers no sympathy. Henry’s first meeting with Catherine Barkley and introducing self. Sanka (apprehension).along with an elegant bright dress and make-up pleasant to all. but is deeply impressed by her physical beauty and blonde hair. He therefore begins a game of love with her. Its production in the drama is by means of gestures through Anubhavas (consequents) viz clever and significant glances of the eyes. Unmada (insanity). Henry shows no emotion. nice!’ In their first meeting. Barkley was filled with remorse for the boy she had loved who was killed the previous year in a combat at Somme. Marvana (death) and other conditions. Henry’s interest in Miss Barkely is actuated by his longing to escape the enervating war atmosphere. During their second meeting. play and sports etc. who carries the thin ratting stick like a toy riding crop. garlands. is its Prakrti (source of origin). going to the garden. gets itself manifested through the Vibhavas (determinants) viz the pleasant season. movements of limbs. Augrya (ferocity) and Jugupsa (disgust). bound in leather that was used by her former lover who was killed. Viyadhi (illness). listening (to sweet voices). Bibhoka (feigned anger). To Miss Barkley love was not a romantic game but 222 . The moment Miss Barkley apologizes for having slapped him hard for his romantic advances. sweet Angaharas (major dance figures). Svapna (dream). ornaments. movement of the eyebrows ogling looks. Apasmara (forgetfulness). Nirveda (dejectedness and indifference to worldly joys). That is very clear. Miss Barkley is presented as one who is sentimental. Both male and female characters are behind its outcome. Srama (weariness). (b) Vipralambha (love in separation) is displayed during dramatic performance through the Anubhavas (consequents) viz. An excellent young woman here Catherine Barkley. Śringara has two Adhisthanas (bases) (a) Sambhoga (love in union) (b) Vipralambha (love in separation). Glani (languor). people dear and near. Autsukya (yearning). sensual objects. ‘Miss Barkley prefers you to me. She was getting ready to cut her hair for the dead fiancé’s sake. Rinaldi sacrifices his attachment to Barkley to Henry saying. excellent mansions objects of pleasure. seeing (beautiful things). get them understood. (a) Sambhoga is love in union. Henry understands that she could be easily won. but the little Scottish one is very. Nirdra (drowsiness). Asuya (jealousy). Sputa (sleep). Cinta (anxiety and worry). Jadya (sluggishness).

which Catherine desires to blind with Henry’s loving co-operation. Henry gives expression unconsciously to the idea of ‘home’. Rinaldi at the hospital tells Henry that underneath he resembles him (Rinaldi) but he had also ‘the priest’5 in him. Henry listening to sweet voice of Barkley. Henry Frederic plays the game like the bridge only to overcome the feeling of alienation and isolation that was generated in him. She desires to be under the illusion that Henry is a substitute for her lost lover. In chapter 6 of ‘A Farewell To Arms’ Catherine Barkley is clever enough to see through Henry’s game of seduction. even the sentiments of the dreams and Catherine. Henry’s only interest in Catherine lies in satisfying his carnal necessity. the Abruzzi. Henry is wounded and is under treatment at a field hospital. In spite of all that. In chapter 11 the priest visits Henry in the field hospital. movements of the eyebrows of Barkley. Secondly he insisted in arousing the desire for not taking Miss Barkley lightly instead. she allows Henry to make love to her to fill in the void within her after the killing of her fiancé. In chapter 8. all go to actuate in connivance with the Anubhavas (consequents) such as clever and significant glances.a life of single-minded devotion. That’s why she asks Henry to say that he loves her and has come back to her in the night. goddesses. He therefore calls women like Miss Barkley. the hometown of the priest. She frankly tells him that he is “a very nice boy”. Henry’s question to the priest if he could get real happiness if he loved a woman truly makes this fact evident. Anthony pendent4 shows her love to Henry. together Henry and Barkley strolling out in the garden. The priest emphasized the concept of ‘home’ through the symbol of the mountain. She feels assured that Henry would be good to her and help her making a real “home”. blonde hair. seeing her physical beauty. Catherine’s gold chain with St. He found a good outlet for his “desire” in Catherine. experiencing romantic pleasure. Vibhavas (determinants) are evening pleasantness during off-hours of Barkley. is not a mere passion but a devotion. She perceives that Henry does not love her nor does he have any intention of loving her. But Henry remains uncommitted but infatuated to her physical beauty. she must be loved with all sincerity and must not be treated as a means for ‘desire’6. She makes it clear to him that she dislikes the nurse’s evening-off aspect of love. He is all praise for the English women because of their single-minded devotion. movement of limbs and sweet and 223 . Henry accepted the chain and had worn it to honor. She believes that Henry an English-speaking gentleman would help her fill-up the void.

Descriptions of Various Situations towards Rasa Experience Chapter 18 of ‘A Farewell To Arms’ is filled with Sthayibhavas of Rati (love) blonde hair. God I wish I was not”10. But it kept on raining. she would definitely save him from the rain. a typical Hemingway heroine who is monogamous. “I’m not afraid of the rain. Henry. Henry is her religion. Henry enquired of her why she was afraid of the rain. She assured Henry that though she might not succeed in helping herself. spends the night with Miss Barkley.] 8 She needs no formality of marriage. She offers herself wholly to the man on the altar of love. She replied that that was because sometimes she saw herself dead in the rain and sometimes she saw Henry dead. bridge to Home and Love. But God knows he had and he lay on bed in the room of the hospital in Milan. wounded. All sorts of things went through shows the ironic difference between what he has wanted and what is happening to him. Henry himself admits that he had not wanted to fall in love with anyone. Catherine proceeded to tell him that she liked to walk in the rain but she assured him. Henry longs his ‘desires’ to be satisfied through intimate relationship with Catherine and Catherine longing to have a “Home”7. She realizes that her dream of her life could possibly be fulfilled through Henry. Catherine cried. 224 . “I’ll love you in the rain and in the snow and in the hail”9. I’m not afraid of the rain. In chapter 16. Every parting brings forth dejectedness although in the absence. his love towards her undergoes a vast change from a game of chess.elegant appearance all bring out Sambhoga Rasa when they were together in union. Catherine Barkley goes to the hospital in Milan where Henry was to undergo operation. Oh. Henry comforted her and she stopped crying. Her passion is invited with devotion and symbolized concept of “Home”. Catherine asked Henry if he could always love her despite the rain. Her love relationship needs neither civil nor religious sanction. In chapter 19. She told Henry that she was afraid of the rain. Oh. But Henry liked the rain. Henry admires her devotion. I’m you. She feels that she’s already a part of Henry [There isn’t any me. bright and beautiful Barkley. Henry advised her not to indulge in such gloomy thoughts for it was all nonsense.

225 . He wondered if she would be thinking of him. realize that they are not really brave but both are together due to some deep urges/feelings within that give rise to Sringara Rasa enjoyed by the readers. hair standing on ends. He wished to be with Catherine and wished the rain to send Catherine to him. Down below a motorcar honked and Henry said: “And always at my back I hear Times winged chariot hurrying near”. He said lonely. “It ‘s a lovely room. Henry pacified Catherine on talk of her whore-like behavior. puts up a hold front though she too doesn’t talk. Then the sad. silent parting of Henry and Catherine is made touching scene. With a hope expecting of reunion. soon to report for duty on the front. Catherine remarked. pale face. Here again Sthayibhavas of fright and disgust are predominant. The wind blew and the rain fell. feet. we should have stayed here all the time we’ve been in Milan”. anxiety. Anuhbahavas fright. on the war front. spilling. change of voice are the Anubhavas experienced by Catherine. These are only transitory mental states. “Good night. movement of the eyes. Catherine again remarked. Catherine told Henry that those lines were from a poem by Andrew Marwell. “Vice is a wonderful thing.The rain as symbol of disaster is important. Feelings of insecurity. fright and disgust indeed go to bring forth Bhayanaka and Bibhatasa. Henry feels much put out while Catherine is determined not to cause him any worry. The same lines on time recalled by the sound of the falling rain and associated with his thought about the baby to be born produced some “uncomfortable” feeling of disgust. yearning and longing and anxiety include all the Bhavas make the reader enjoy Vipralamba Sringara Rasa. Henry advised Catherine to be a good girl addressing her “My good girl”. Their love when together and their love in absence do indeed make the reader enjoy gusation. The poem is about a girl who wouldn’t live with a man. Henry lay down on a staff board and thought of Catherine lying asleep. The people who go in for it seems to have good taste about it”. which come and go to build up the ultimate Rasa. Both Henry and Catherine. which are dominant throughout the fiction. Sringara Rasa. expressing disgust and also the trembling of hands. It began to rain when Henry has almost recovered. Henry spends a night at a hotel in Milan with Catherine. at the knowing of Catherine’s three months old pregnancy. For some time both were quiet and could hear the pattering of the rain. both its kinds Sambhoga and Vipralambha are the two Rasas. In chapter 28.

very comfortable in the company of each other. life and death are conveyed convincingly through Frederic Henry. Catherine praised Henry for his beard that looked just like the woodcutters. out of the dangers of disastrous retreat. Henry and Catherine. The snow at Monteaux isolates the lovers but gives them a feeling of domestic safety. They used to sit on the logs by roadside when Catherine was tired. The dialects of war and peace. They talked of Chano the hunters who wore gold earrings. The lovers are finally settled into a supremely happy life in the snowy place in winter on the mountainside above Mortreaux. They enjoyed going out in the country. They have been “out of the rain” after their adventurous flight on board an open boat. Henry and Catherine spent the night together at the Grand Hotel des Iles Borromees in Stressa. The escape of the lovers to Switzerland in the dark. So his love for Catherine is a conquest and heroic act. Once on the mountains. So she thinks of a place where the two could go. I’m sorry he makes you so uncomfortable try to go to sleep. rainy night by rousing in a boat presents indeed a real romantic love that is Sringara Rasa with all Vibhavas filled in. This reference to Catherine shows Henry’s desire for the warmth of home and love. show enormous love that was spelt at reunion that goes to add to Sambhoga Srngara Rasa. Henry is now keen to have a sense of achievement in love. I come whenever you want me”. Henry and Catherine walk on the roads. He longs to meet Catherine and have a home with her. Each one questions and the other answers. sweet” Henry seemed to hear Catherine telling him. They would visit an inn at the Bains d’Alliez11 where they would drink red wine with spices and lemon on it. She enjoyed the sight of the fox. the lovers are indulged in the life of domestic life and happiness. In a little while.Catherine. Culmination towards Santa Rasa Catherine’s passion for Henry is absolute and devout.” I’m always here. Vipralambha Sringara is at its peak that can be felt by an appreciative reader/viewer on screen. lie on the other side I’ll get you some cold water. A strong feeling of disillusionment purges in Henry’s consciousness. tranquility and invulnerability. In chapter 39. indulging in sweet nothings of romance are out of the lowlands. In mid January winter. 226 . I hope you sleep well. it will be morning and then it won’t be so bad. covered with snow. If its too uncomfortable.

Srngara Rasa is pre dominant in the novel ‘A Farewell to Arms’. fear of the delivery moments etc. various feelings that lead to the tasting of Rasa. What do you want to do? Ruin me?” She told him that she did not want to ruin him. fear of Henry detected as war criminal. the lovers together.. In accordance to the twentieth century critics. Hemingway describes each feeling so minutely all through the fiction that brings about Sambhoga Sringara and Vipralambha. She also asked him if he wanted to see people. He said that he did not want to be ruined. they were happy. For three weeks. This account of the childbirth is naturalistic one. Catherine bought all baby things. She told him that he would not cut his hair till young Catherine was born. He replied that he didn’t. “Hell! I love you enough now. As they had to stay in Lausanne closer to the hospital they took leave of Mr. sweet Angaharas of Catherine all work as Anubhavas. He also told Catherine that he had quarreled with his family but he would then make up with them. Vyabhicari Bhavas are Trasa. listening to each other all work as Vibhavas (determinants). Guttingen and went to Lausanne from Monteaux. close to people i. significant glances of eyes. Catherine and Henry had a fine life. Henry said a little irritated. She again referred to his beard and asked him if he liked his beard. Henry’s and Catherine’s course of interaction. Catherine told Henry that that place above Montreaux was grand since “nothing makes any difference” in that place. Catherine asked him about money and he assured her that they wouldn’t run short of it. all through we have Sambhoga Srngara Rasa experienced due to the coming together of Rati the Sthayibhava. In that case they would live in a place where they would not feel embarrassed for their tails. 227 . close to the garden. experiencing pleasures. i. They have romantic conversation of admiring each other. Alasya. Then she would be thin again and an entirely new and different girl for him and he would fall in love with her all over again. absence of lust etc.Henry desired both of them to have tails like the fox. This way they passed January and February months. Catherine felt sure that she would like to get associated with his family.e. he achieves a grand perfection by a sketch of his pen. as Anubhavas. laughter as the Sthyayibhava. they stayed at the hotel. Seasons. pleasant season. and Mrs. Asatpracapa (near-obscene utterance) as determinants.e. Longing to have baby and Catherine functions as Vyabhicaribhavas with firmness of mind. Although these were feelings of Kalaha. rains. It is made indeed a touching one. flowers are all Vibhavas.

This gustation of Rasa is made possible in abundance by Rasa. This Theory alone embraces humanism as a whole. Sambhoga and Vipralambha Srngara Rasas. This is the way. We experience Santa Rasa as far as Catherine is concerned because she was longing for a Home throughout the fiction. Henry is nowhere in the army but is left in absolute tranquility. 228 . All the three. he would not depict Santa Rasa to the readers and viewers. So we see him too like a statue going back to the hotel having said Farewell to the arms now of his beloved Catherine. Hemingway broke through the world of fiction by ways of compromising his fiction to Rasa. God or any supernatural being. His heart has reached a state of tranquility characterized by correct perception (of the highest truth. finally culminating in Santa Rasa. But Frederic Henry had never believed in real love. No Literary/Critical theory is static. Frederic Henry. All other literary and critical theories will stand subservient to the Rasa Theory. More so the readers/viewers too experience the same Santa Rasa. every theory is dynamic. Rasa theory alone has the abounding quantity of accepted feelings that freely enable the creator/reader/viewer enjoy the gustation called Rasa. Catherine and their baby are in an absolute quietitude experiencing Santa Rasa.Henry’s mind is pained by the deaths of his beloved Catherine and the baby. the Sanskrit Literary Theory. the Sanskrit literary theory and not by any Western Theory that will brand it as Catharsis etc. its two kinds.) If his mind and heart were still caught in the turmoil of worldly life. It is Rasa the Sanskrit Literary Theory alone that stands unique so as to enjoy gustation. The whole novel is filled with the main Rasa. She is reborn at the Home she had been always longing for.

2. Total devotion and surrender. Eternal love. 10. Formal dance where people wear masks and unusual clothes.Bains D’Aliez – a drinking bar. Settled life 8. 3. Saintly person of celibacy 6. Anthony’s image imprinted. I were not born. 5. Infatuation. 9. A medal with St. 229 . A poetic world of Yeats’ imagination. 4. A volunteer assistant to the doctor. 7. 11.Chapter.9 Notes 1.Biblical quote meaning I wish.

II.Text Vol. 230 . Abhinavagupta: A Historical and Philosophical Study (Chowkhambha. Varanasi) Abraham P. Baroda).. Commentary on Natyasastra (Gaekvad Oriental Sanskrit Series. 1967.Manisha Granthalaya Private Ltd.1. 27. 28Abhinavagupta: Abhinavabharati.A.Ghosh. Vol.Bibliography Abhinavabharati: The Natya Sastra: edited and translated by M. Calcutta.

Bhoja: Srngara-Prakasa.. Bibliotheca Indca. S.Sheth Pub (P) Ltd-Bombay-400004 Bharata: NatyaSastra.V. (Chowkhambha. 1967. 3vols.Manish a-Granthalaya Private Ltd.B.Dhavanikarikas. Calcutta. The Asiatic Society.I. . : Aristotle’s Theory of Poetry and Fine Art with a translation of Aristotle’s Poetics Indian Edition 1974 231 . Varanasi) Anantheshwara Print Packs. Madras.Y.Calcutta.) Bradley A. 1961 Anthony Burges: Hemingway and His World – 1978 Bansiramani G. Calcutta. 196736. 1956. (KarnatakaPublishing House. The Number of Rasas: Second Edition.Ragavan. : Shakespeare Criticism (World Classics) Butcher.A. Vol.Yemen Times Publications 15th May 2000 Anandavardana: Dhvanyaloka Com. edited and analyzed by Dr. II. Adyar Library Research Center.C.Pub.Translation: Vol. Madras-600004. 3vols.H. (Gaekvad Oriental Sanskrit Series.: Ernest Hemingway. Bombay.on.K. Baroda). “A Farewell To Arms for S.

Meuthuen . Culler Jonathan: Structuralist Poetics.London And New York.Hemingway) Pub. Contains many important articles.: Some Problems Of Sanskrit Poetics: Firma K.K.J. 1975 Davis: The Gem Guide to The Old Man and the Sea (E. Ed. By Douglas Ainslie Vision Press. Beneditto: Aesthetic. Enright D.Wylder: Hemingway’s Heroes –1969 De S. London.Chris Baldick: Criticism and Literary Theory 1890 to the Present – Longman –London and New York.Ranjeet Singh Monga Jalandar City –144001-India Delbert E.L Mukhopadhyaya. 1959. Firoze Rangoon Walla: 232 . Peter Owen. 1983. (First published in 1962. Calcutta. London. Seventh impression 1971) Fender Stephen: American Literature in Context I. and Chickera De Ernest: English Critical Texts –Oxford University Press.1996 Croce.1620-1830.

pp-72-85).C. 1968. Chowkhamba Sanskrit Studies Vol. p. (LXIII. 1966 Hemingway: A Collection of Critical Essays ‘edited by Robert P.Cambridge University Press -Britain – Edition-1986 Harry Levin: ‘Observations on the Style of Ernest Hemingway’. in Hemingway: A collection of Critical Essays. Paris review. 1972 Hemingway: Reconsideration by Philip Young. ISMEO Edition) Guthrie W. 5 (spring 1958).1962 233 . Hemingway: The Writer as Artist by Carlos Baker.K. 1956. Frye.84. Varanasi.Weeks. Princeton: Princeton University George Plimton: ‘The Art of Fiction XXX: Ernest Hemingway’. (Second Edition revised Enlarged of the original.: The Aesthetic Experience according to Abhinavagupta. Gnoli R.: History of Greek Philosophy – IV Plato: the man and his dialogue earlier period .Satyajit Ray’s Art -Clarion Books 1980. Northrop: Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays.

Illangoadigal: Syllapadikaram (World Classic-Tamil Epic) Iyengar Srinivasa K.R.: Indian Literature Since Independence: A Symposium: Sahitya Akademi NewDelhi-1, 1973. Joshi Natavarlal: Poetry, Creativity And Aesthetic Experience Eastern Book Linkers Delhi. (1994). Kalidas: Abhinana-Sakuntala Raghuvamsa. Kavi Ramakrishna M.: Edited with the Abhinavabharati of Abhnavagupta: Vol.I, 1-7, Second edition, revised and critically edited by K.S. RamaswamiSastri, G.O.S.X Oriental Institute, Baroda, 1956;Vol.II, 818,G.O.S.LXVII, 1934;VOL, III, 19-27,G.O.S. CXXXIII, 1954;VOL.IV, 28-37,G.O.S.CXLV, 1964.

Keats John: The Poetical Works of John Keats Kuppuswamisastri S.: Highways And Byways Of Literary Criticism In Sanskrit (K.S.R.Institute) –Reprint 1993. Paprinpack (Printers), Madras-600034. Kuppuswami Sastri Research Institute, Madras 600 004. (First Edition, 1988.) Leo Gurko: Hemingway and the Pursuit of Heroism –1968 Mackail:

Coleridge - Literary Criticism Mammata Bhatta: Kavya-Prakasa (Anandasrama Sanskrit Series, Poona) Mardhekar B. S.: ARTS & MAN Lectures & Essays Published by Popular Book Depot, Bombay-400007.Printed by B.G. Dhawale Karnataka Printing Press Bombay-400002 -1960 Mishra Hari Ram: Theory of Rasa in Sanskrit Drama. Pub. M.K. Manav, Vindyachal Prakashan, Chhatarpur, M.P. (India). Om Hari Ram Mishra, 1966. Mishra Shrikrishna: Coleridge And Abhinavagupta - Pub.Shrikrishna Mishra, Mirzapur, Darbhanga-846004. Printed: Pradip Hazra at Sreemudran, Calcutta-700006.

Nandakumar Prema: Indian Literature since Independence Sahitya Akademi. (Edited with an introduction by K.R.Srinivasa Iyengar. (1973) Pandey Kanti Chandra. Comparative Aesthetics Vol. II -Western Aesthetics. The Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office (Publishers and Oriental& Foreign Book-Sellers), Varanasi-1, India.1972. Pandey, K.C.: Comparative Aesthetics, vol. II Indian Aesthetics - The Chowkhamba Sanskrit Studies Vol. IV -1972


Ragavan V.: Some Concepts of the Alankarasastra: Adyar Library and Research Center, Madras, 1942. The Concept of ‘The Beautiful In Sanskrit Literature’ - The Sanskrit Poetics as a Study of Aesthetic (Oxford Univ. Press) Rajagopalachari C: Tiru-Valluvar-Kural- (Selections from Bppl I and II With English Translation and Notes By Bhartiya Vidya Bhavan-Bombay-400007 (1989) Reynolds Michael S.: Hemingway’s first war: the making of ‘A Farewell to Arms’, Princeton University Press, and Princeton, 1976. Richard, I.A: Coleridge on Imagination: Principles of Literary Criticism (Kegan Paul, London) Saintsbury George. A History of English Criticism, 1911. Samson, George: Coleridge’s Biographia Literaria and Wordsworth’s Preface Cambridge University Press.

Stephen Martin: English Literature (A Student Guide) Second Edition. Longman-London and New York. (Fifth Impression 1995) Subdhachandra Mukherjee: Rasadhyaya. On the Sentiments, with Abhinavabharati Calcutta, Pub. Sri Satguru Publications. (A Division of :) Indian Books Center Delhi -110007 Printed in: Kiran Mudran Kendra New Delhi- 110064.1926 Valmiki:


Ramayana (World Classics) Vamana: Kavyalankara-Sutra- Vrtti Willey,Basil: Coleridge on Imagination and Fancy (Warton Lecture) Wordsworth William: Poetic Works of William Wordsworth (Oxford Univ. Press)

Checklist of Research Work
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Cover page Front page with title and author’s name in bigger fonts Second page with title in smallest fonts Third page with title and author’s name in medium size fonts Contents Editors’ Preface Acknowledgement Author’s Preface Nataraja Photo posing on all Bhavas


11. 16. 35. 54 Abhinava.62.65.187 Abhinavabharathi.52. Santiago’s Shack in ‘The Old Man and The Sea’ Covering Letter dated 19 August 2003. 15. Fiesta.Hemingway’s ‘A Farewell to Arms’ his Manuscript.Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8-.43. Index Abhidha.36.56 Abhimana. 17. 10.93.59 238 .66.66. First page of the manuscript of ‘The Doctor and the Doctor’s Wife’.66.115.38.Hemingway’s photographs.83.103. 13. Bibliography 20.104 Abhinavagupta.40. 12. Chapter 9.18. 38. 14.41. 39.68. 65. Index Abhinaya.81.

162 Aristotle.101 Austen Jane. 45.157 Alankaras. 208 Ashoka.182 Ananda.193.30. 114 Adhisthanas. 182 Adigal Ilango.168.146 Arthakriyapeksam.88. 40.48. 167.83.55 Alasya.35.61 Adbhuta Rasa 27.61 Ashokvan.53.43. 149 Adbhuta.52.46. 203 239 .142.H. 39. 202 Adhyavaya.42. 206 Angaharas. 81 Annuttara.147 Arnold Matthew 26.208 Angika. 42 Abrams. 54 Alankara.115 Andre Maurios.51. 167.188 Addison. Autsukya. 45.54.84. 37 Anukrti.202 Augustine Saint.109. 188 Agnipurana. Anandavardhana. 104 Apasmara.168. 42. 107 Amarsa.Abhinayana. 79 Adhikavi.98. 51 Aryappadai Kadanda Nedunchalyan. 202.41. 45 Adi Kavi Bharata. 41. 42 Abhysayas. 50 Augrya. 203 Apollyon.204. 53.176.40. 26.167.208 Alaukika.65.61. 152 Andrew Marwell.120. 170.54.103 Allen Tate. 52. 59 Anubhava.143.101. 176 Archibald Mulish. 67 Abhinayas. 202.114 Agbala. M. 203 Atharva Veda. 55.171 Anubhavas. 34.82. 40.182.208 Anukarya. 142 Althusser Louis. 100.187. 45 Asuya.205.46 Asammoha.81.35.182 Asatpracapa.173. 39.58. Bhatta Tauta.111. 63 Bibhatsa. 45 Boudon. A. 17.55. 56 Bhaya. 119 Bloomfield Leonard. 81 Boom Puhar.68.37.46. 41.18.145 Brahma.Avantivarman.19.73. 41.182.54. 58. 41 Bhamaha. 123 Bhakti.148 Baumgarten.146 Bradley.61 Bhojaka.199 Balarama.34.46. 64 Bachelard q. 38 Bhuj.66. Bhavyabhavakabhava. 79.104 Buddha. 108 Bradbury Malcolm. 63 Bhavas. 38. 17.25.193 Bibhoka.56 Bhojya. 57 Bali.42.55. 110.48. 107 Bodhi.54.61. 91 Baker..56 Bhavana.51.84.115 Bharata.63.76. 52. 20.187 Byron Lord.52.187 240 .39. 58 Bhatta Nayaka.27.98 Beaumont. 56.84 Bharata Natya. 65.51. 20.181. 139.v.196 Chinua Achebe.179. Carlos.57 Barnes Jake. 56 Bhavakatva. 28. 62.100 Bharatamuni. 89 Beck Stein John. 110 Bacon. Bhavabhasa.59 Bharata Natyam.39. 54. 53 Bhavaka.176.53. 64. 193 Barthe Ronald. 71. 18.43. 38 Bhojakatva. 129.51.60 Brahman.58. 203 Blake William.81 Bunyan John. 38.58. 119 Camatkara.60 Bhayanaka. Bhava. 38.74 Catharsis.98.39.70.

S.T.Chukla. 38 Clarence Edmonds Hemingway. 123.182 Dhananjaya. 145 Erwing Babbitt. 107. 119.111 Eliot George.97. 50 Darwin Charles. 118 Edmund Wilson. 36 David Masson. 40.65 Dhvanyaloklocana.140.53.54 Dharma. 151.147 Fitzgerald. 144 Dayavira. 79 Clemens Samuel.56 Dhanavira 142.200 Emerson Ralph Waldo.153 Claude L’evi Straus.. 144 241 .136. 90 Dhairya.146 Eliot. 41 Derrida Jacques. 59 Dana vira. 120.123. 41.64. 200 Dreiser Theodore.96. 120. John.125.146. 128. 52.133. T.143 Empson William.143.142 Croce. 118.94. S.120.112.113 Descartes.179.134. 45 Dhrti. 115 Donne. 120 Dasarupatmakam.147 Frank Kermode. 143 Edward Dowden. 167. 167. Dharama vira.100. 110. 26.93.. 144 Ezra Pound. 41. 80.170. 55.142 Edmund Burke.113 Cummings E.55.Scott.128 Fletcher. 107.142 Edgar Allan Poe.112 Cleanth Brooks. 123 Coleridge. 89 Foucault Michael. 144 Cleito.142.54 Dandin.134 Daitya. 111.127. 121 Dryden John. 39.182 Dhvani.200 Faulkner William. 203 Citra Turaga Nyaya. 65 Cinta.98. 126.143.F. 144 Edward Sapir.115 Darsana.103 Dhvanyaloka. 126.

144 Gertrude Stein. 34 Glani. J.Knights.83 Govalan. 52.110.Frank Norris. 81 Hesiod.60.147 Garva. 80. 41.61 Hazlitt John. 90 Henry David Thoreau. 41 Hastamudra. 119 Gorgias Sophist. 144 Ithihasas. 121. 129 242 . 59 Hastas. 127 Genette Gerard. 106. 105 Frye. 81 Horace. 23 Jadya. Richards. 123 Herodotus. 200 Hart Crane.113 Jacques Lacan. 144. Ernest. Northrop. 44. Wilson.113 Jacqueline Kennedy. of Bilgram.128 Henry James. 123. 107.148 Henry V.112 George Saints Bury.152 Ghulam S. 144 Hanuman. 152. 203 Jake Burners. 126.112 Guna.A. 45 I .105 Hemingway.182 Gatsby. 108. 108. 108.55 G.133. 40 Greimas A.93. 144 Herman Melville. 38 Godot..147 Hasa. 81. 117 Ilango Adigal.147 Jacques Derrida. 202 Gnapaka-hetu. 81 Harry Levin.146. 143 Hedly Richardson. 59 Jacobson. 121 Freud.142. 120 Herald Bloom.124. 167. 58 Hasya. 81 Hindustan. 135. Jay. 21 Gordon George.153 Hegel.45 Harappa. 40 Homer.

40.62 Karya. 38 Karana. 45.45. 143 Jonathan Culler. 51 Kavyamtavad Dasarupatmakam Eva. 129 Janyajanakabhava.57 Kanchipuram. 115 Kavya.105. 56.142 James Joyce.D.R. 59 Lanka.193.63 Leavis. 45.James Henry. 56 Jean Paul Sartre. 41. 43. 57 Kesva Misra.45.55 Kavyam.142. Kerala Kathakali. 36 Kavya Rasa.115 Kamsa.46 Kant. 57.45 Lawerence.61 Karuna Rasa. 47. 59 Kuravanji. 37. 41.148 Lacan. 51. 55 Karuna. 143 Levi Straus. 44.114.46. 59 Kannagi. 51 Keats John. 90 Kalaha.58 Kavi. 147 Leslie Stephen.99. 79.H. 64. 112 Lewes G.H. 29 Karikas. 57 Kathakali.46 Krodha.120 Kermode. 53 Kantian.46 Kovalan. 144 Laya. 52 Kennedy F. 208 Kalidasa.113 Jugupsa 41.61 Karandikar Vrinda.98. 91 Karaka Hetu.60 Kuchupudi.58.44. 144.60. 124.61 Kathak. 108. 34. 144.106 Kanti. 38 243 .44.202 Julius Caesar. John 23.46. F. 133 John Middleton Murray. 143 Locana. 37.146..147 Kopperundevi.Emmanuel.

127 Nicoll. 152 Melville Herman. 171. 46 Manipuri.58 Nātya Sāstra. 57 Naya.47.59 Nirtta Gita.92 Lodge David.182 Nayaka. 107 Mukhavikara.170..80.170 Manu. 123 Miller Hillis. 23. 105 Mati.Locke. 146 Mimesis. 20. 64.18. 41 Manu Vybhicari.47. 56 Maharaja. 41 Mardhekar.62.65.46 Nick Caraway. 143 Mukarovsky.24 Marx. 52 Mahabhasya.83 Lukacs. 40.101 Mangeskar Lata 17 Manikkam. 108. 37.182 Maurios Andre.177. 59 244 . 91.52.46. 203 Mary Hemingway.65 Nedunchalyan Kadanda Aryappadai. 45 Madhurya.81 Mohenjo-daro. 37.26. 57 Mahimabhatta. 65 Nataraja. 57 Manolin.51. 56 Nata Sutras. 104 Nirdra. 105 Macbeth.52. 86 Marvana.90 Natya Veda. 88 Nihilistic.58. 43. 58.38.66. 45.55. J. 56 Natya.53. 39 Narasimhagupta.25. 64 Mammata. 59 Naisargiki.187 Marlow. 167.57.60. 17. 81 More Elmer Paul. 57.113 Lollata Bhatta. 29 Marlin. 90 Madhavi. 203 Nirtta. 57 Natas. 40.

47 Rasa.44.70.142 Pound Ezra.67.68.40 Noam Chomsky. 182 Pratibha. 82 Passos. 101 Pratiharenduraja. 51 Ralph Waldo Emerson. 53 Rassad. 59 Octave.. 187. 104 Parrhasium. 81 Nirveda. 81 Pierce.76 Ramayana.117 Plotinic. 79 Parrhasius. 38. 123 Puranas. Phallus.44. 53 Preyas.61. 83. 38. 55 245 . 79. 143 Paul Saint. 50 Parakrama.71.108. 58 Nirvana. 26 Rajasekara. 72 Pandya. S.53 Pudd’n Head Wilson. 102 Pope Alexander. 37 Raga. 54.72. 56 Parada. 118. 129 Patanjali. 182 Prakriti.74.Nirtya. 146 Oscar Wilde.75. 44 Rangoon Wala. 142 Prabhava. 182 Parmenides.202 Nispatti. 84 Plotinus. 25. 120 Rama. 40 Pusti. 44.62. John Dos. 56 Paul Elmer More. 106. 106 Pistias. 141 Panaka.75 Rasabhasa. 202 Pratapa. 45 Orwell George. 52.113 Nrya. 59 Rahv Philip. 45 Panini.73. 53 Rasadhvani.82 Plato.37. C.

62. 56 Sankuka.167.68.209 Sastra.61 Ravana.45.188 Sangam.103 Santa.58.22.206. 50 Raso Vai Sah. 202 Sankhyas.58 Sastri Kuppuswami S.115 Sahrydayarpana. Hutton.44.52.182 Rudrata. 53. 118.54.209 Sambhoga Srngara.58.195.54 Rudrabhatta. 40. 61 Samahita.69 Samuel Johnson. 36. 41.54.47. 45 Sanka. 38 Sahakarin.103 Rati.80..42. 44. 146 R.20. 167.205 Raudra.Rasa-Nispatti.61 Santa Rasa.176.198.66. 182 Salao. 40 Samyogad Nispatti.202.55 Romanca.115 Satayjit Ray.208 Samkhya.194.176. 56 Rasayanasastra. 39. 36.56 Rasavat.83.56. 102 Saiva darsana.21. 143 Riti. 53 Sambhoga. 41. 50.72 Rasana. 39 Sadharani karana.67.104. 144 Saint Thomas.34 Rasavada.81.27. 31. 61 Sahrdayas.114 R . 37.100. 17. 46 Sama. 63 Saintsbury.g Veda.47 246 . 72 Rasa Prabodha.208. 17. 55. 54 Saddhodani Bhagavan Sutakara. 52. 38 Sadharanya.46.H. 39 Sadhya.55. 50 Sakti. 46.28. 53. 52. 51 Sadhana. 45 Raymond Williams.182.143 Samyogad. 41 Sambhoga Srngara Rasa 27. 37. 43 Sancari bhava.

51 Svapna. 79.34.45. 30.45 Sundaram.54.205.58. 60. 30 Sputa.208 Sthayin.188.36. 203 247 . 44. 203 Srama. 87 Seratkella.51.52 Satyam.147 Schopenhaver. 119.88 Shelly Mary.143 Sherwood Anderson. 59 Shakespeare William. 39. 45 Simpsu. 123 Sthairya.208.168.167 Stuart Mill. 114 Sphotavada. 106. 62 Sivam. Sthayi bhava. 44. 81 Shloka of Sahityadarpana. 35 Smrti.142 Silappadikaram. 38.43. 35 Sunya Pramata. 39 Sattvikabhava.202. 86 Sidney Philip.54.182 Saussure de Ferdinand. 35 Saurya.43. 27. 203 Sringara.45 Sita.112. 19. Senecan. 182 Sthaiya.39.37. 50 Sivaite.182 Socrates.82 Soka. 167.202.118 Shama.51.46. 104 Sutra.40. 39. 41 Shoka.142.36.Sattva. 41 Shaw Bernard.44.193. 34. 87.205. 67 Sutakara Bhavan Sanddhodani. 167 Sthayi.194.53. 120 Shelly Percy Bysshe.41. 41. 60 Sundra Kandam.69 Siva. Steinbeck John. 55 Springarn.152 Shiva.50 Shivalingam.57 Shylock. 41. 86. 143 Sui Generis. 118.114 Soka-Sloka.

52.35. 41 Vausaradya.182 Vendler Helen.50.102 Vibhavanubhavasamyogad. 31. 103 Upanishads.Svabhaviki. 182 Vedas. 167.47. 55 Vatsalya.59.102 Vibhavanubhava Vyabhacaribhava Samyogad Rasa. 39. 53. 40. 108. Tala. 143 Thoreau David Henry.60 Vastus. 53 Vasana. 59 Tanu. 53 Udbhata. 44. 101 Thomas Aquinas.159 Tzvetan Todorov. Rabindaranath. 59 Vaisaradya. 39 Tagore. 88 Trasa. 187 Vibhavanubhavas.37 Vibhavanubhava Vyabhacaribhava Samyogad Nispatti. 37 Upanishadic.115 Vamana. 167 Vaisesika. Vibacari Bhavas. 36. 40. 24.103 Urjasvin. 84 Vakrokti. 37 Utsaha. 101. 40. 59 Vadya. 56 Thirukurral. 36 Vibhava Anubhava Vyabhacarin Bhava.208 Travancore. 52 Valmiki.112 Udara Guna.57. 41.104 Vega. 142 Tatparya Sakti.194 Taittiritya Upanishad.64 Unmada.60 Vachika. 43. 50 Taj Mahal 17.53 Utpatti. 54. 203 Utpadya.182 Twain Mark 22. 41 Tate Allen. 120 Thorn Dike. 167.63 Tanjore.123.80 Vedanta. 57 Tyaga.114. 202. 32. 24 248 .46. 50.43.102 Thomas Carlyle.

8 Vibhavyate. Sringara.47.141 W.143.54 249 . Vyabhacari. 202.193. 203 Vladmir Propp.52.37. 38 Vyanjana Vritti. 46 Viyadhi.Harvey..171. 121.51-56.57. 139.168.168 Vismaya srngara. 56 Vyanjaka.168. Vipralambha. 41.60.209 Vira.43 Vyangya.182.205.Vibhavas.188.204.Booths. 119.W. 169 Virgina Woolf.43.70. 27.41. 41 Vyabhicaribhavas.202. 108. 52 Victoria Queen.34. 182 Virgin de Cobre.51. 125 Yuddhavira.K.202. 146 Yeats W.143 William Thomas De Quincey.142 Wangas.208 Vipralambha Sringara Rasa.46.169. 54 Wayne C.56 Walt Whitman.205. 143 William Wordsworth. 140.206. 146 Wilfred Owen 22. 120 Vipralambha.187 Viraya.35-43. William Dean Howells.144.145 Vismaya. J.61 Vira Rasa 27.194. 41. 55.194 Yokaapatawpha.206.27.112 Vritti. 55.143 Wimsatt . Vyabhacarin. 65 Vyangyavyanjajabhava. 41.58. 37.170.

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