This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
English as a crucial language.
ECL ENGLISH COURSE
Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary – Electronic Edition. Version 1.1. Courtney, Rosemary - Longman Dictionary of Phrasal Verbs. Fisk English Course – Books – Basic one / two, Book four, Book five, Book six, Advanced two, Free Conversation. Longman Dictionary of English Idioms. Swan, Michael and Walter, Catherine – How English Works – A Grammar Practice Book With Answers. Oxford.
Planned and Prepared by Ricardo Fernandes Marques
Copyright RICARDO FERNANDES MARQUES Rua Antônio Gonçalves 109 Porto Velho São Gonçalo, R.J Brasil
ECL ENGLISH COURSE
ECL ENGLISH COURSE
LESSON ELEVEN •
SHORT ANSWERS == ALL THE TENSES PRESENTED UP TO NOW.
MODAL VERBS == MAY, MIGHT,CAN,COULD,SHOULD,OUGHT, MUST AND MUSTN`T PHRASAL VERBS ( IN/ OUT )
TAG QUESTIONS == ALL THE TENSES PRESENTED UP TO NOW. PHRASAL VERBS ( OUT )
• • •
PERFECT TENSES == PART I, AND THEIR USAGES. HOW LONG PHRASAL VERBS ( ON / OFF )
PERFECT TENSES == PART II, AND THEIR USAGES . PHRASAL VERBS ( ON / OFF )
LESSON SIXTEEN • • •
HOW MUCH AND HOW MANY SOME / ANY / NO AND DERIVATES PHRASAL VERBS ( UP / DOWN )
ECL ENGLISH COURSE
AND THEIR USAGES.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON SEVENTEEN 4 • • IF CLAUSES == ALL OF THEM. PHRASAL VERBS GENERAL SEQUENCE OF ADJECTIVES ECL ENGLISH COURSE 4 . AND THEIR USAGES. AND THEIR USAGES. PHRASAL VERBS ( BACK /AWAY ) LESSON NINETEEN • • • RELATIVE PRONOUNS == ALL OF THEM. PHRASAL VERBS ( UP / DOWN ) LESSON EIGHTTEEN • • DIRECT AND INDERECT == USING ALL OF THE TENSES PRESENTED. TOO AND SO=ALSO (AFF) EITHER AND NEITHER=ALSO (NEG) PHRASAL VERBS ( OVER ) LESSON TWENTY • • • REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS== ALL OF THEM.
ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 11 5 Verb Tenses Do Does Did Will Would Are Were Is Was Are Were Is Are Will Would Is Was I he she you they you you she he they you there there there there there there study speak travel to have need English German England to work to study happy tired every day? every other day? last night? tonight? every day? today? yesterday? at the moment? last night? later? last week? now? this afternoon? tonight? playing doing going to going to anybody many tasks be be going to be going to be chess with him his homework buy some food sell those CDs at your house to do a party at the club an answer for this question? an important game a meeting here tonight? this evening? ECL ENGLISH COURSE 5 .
/were. wouldn’t. No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No you he she I/we they I I she he they I/we there there there there there there don’t. aren’t. was . won’t. does. is. am not. won’t. aren’t. are. wouldn’t.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 11 6 Short Answers Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes you he she I/we they I/we I/we she he they I/we there there there there there there do. wasn’t. are./weren’t./aren’t. isn’t. will. would. is. didn’t. will. wasn’t. isn’t. was ./weren’t. doesn’t. would. was ./are. wasn’t. 6 ECL ENGLISH COURSE . wasn’t. is. did. was ./were. isn’t. am.
the meaning of which is different from the meaning of its separate parts: 'Look after'. Do you__________ ____ _____________ every day? 2. Will I ____________ ___________ _____________? 4. 'work out' and 'make up for' are all phrasal verbs. Important Note Phrasal Verb A phrase which consists of a verb in combination with a preposition or adverb or both. Would _____ ________ to __________ with ______? 5. CAMBRIDGE ADVANCED LEARNER’S DICTIONARY ECL ENGLISH COURSE 7 . Do ____ always_________ to _________ the ______? Expressions and Useful Phrases I’m damn right / I’m fucking right What the hell are you doing there? Whoever/Wherever/Whenever/Whatever What good would it do? Keep track of # Lose track of To make certain that you know what is happening or has happened to someone or something Take into account = To consider or remember when judging a situation. Will _______ __________ ___ ________ tomorrow? 3.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 11 7 Substitution Drills 1.
At what time __________________________________________________________________? b.. Make questions for the answers and answers for the questions in the following dialogue. b. No.. After going to _________________________________________________________________ a. I wouldn’t.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 11 8 Exercise 1. _________________________________________________________________________________ a. See you! b. ______________________________________________________ _____ _______________ ______ a. How about ____________________________________________________________________? a. a. _______________________________________________________________ _________________ ___ ECL ENGLISH COURSE 8 . Cool! That’s a very nice idea . Where _______________________________________________________________________ _? b. ________________________________________________________________________________? b. a. _______________________________ __________________________________________________ b.
For questions we use the expression to be + likely Are you likely to travel? It can be a good idea.Informal Permission .affirmatives and negatives Possibility -affirmatives. negatives and interrogatives (informal) Slight or uncertain possibility.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 12 9 Modal Verbs May Can Could Can Could I I I you you open the window? open the window? open the window? drive speak English drive less finish and walk more? all his homework It is too hot here! It is too hot here! It is too hot here! well? three months ago? Permission . Can she come here tomorrow? Do you think she can win? It could be a good idea.Formal Permission .Polite Ability Present or Future Ability Past or Conditional Recommendation today? Obligation Should Must she he Expressing the same idea: Should Must Ought to Have to Expressing Possibility May Might Strong possibility . Can Could ECL ENGLISH COURSE 9 .affirmatives and negatives Weak possibility.
________ ________ ___________ _______ __________ ? ECL ENGLISH COURSE 10 . Asking Favors Can Could Informal Formal Can you help me with the homework? Could I trouble you to open the window? Prohibition Mustn`t You mustn`t park your car here! Substitution Drills 1.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 12 10 Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No you you you I/we I/we she he may/may not can/can’t could/couldn’t can/can’t could/couldn’t should/shouldn’t must/ doesn’t have to(need to) open the window. drive speak English drive less finish well. ________ ______ help her (to) ________ ____ _______? 4. three months ago. _______ he__________ _______ __________ every day? 2. open the window. Could she ________ ________ ________ every _______? 3. open the window. and walk more. ________ _____ ________ to ________ ______ _______? 5. all his homework today.
emphasizes closeness in time or space Instead of = in substitution According to = as stated or in conformity In spite of = in defiance of.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 12 Expressions Along with / together with = accompany. At home. Not at home. To enter To leave ECL ENGLISH COURSE 11 . To fall out / To choose to leave school. notwithstanding Due to / On account of / Because of = idea of cause 11 How to use them? Too High degree . Not at home. inside. etc. outside . inside. outside . outside . inside. To visit. At home. To order to enter.intolerable Very High degree but tolerable Phrasal Verbs Call in Call out Send in Send out Drop in Drop out (of) Push in Push out Stay in Stay out Eat in Eat out Be in Be out Get in Get o ut To invite to enter. Not at home. To shout something loudly. To cause (someone) to go outside. To penetrate or cause penetration To make (something or someone) move outwards by pushing it. At home.
______________________________________________________ __________________________? She drops him in every other week . Is he usually in on the weekends? _____________________________________________________________________________________ ECL ENGLISH COURSE 12 . Make questions for these answers below. a. D oes she eat out every weekend? _____________________________________________________________________________________ b. because of his health problem. _____________________________________________________________________ ___________? He wouldn’t like to eat a lot at the restaurant. Give long answers for these questions below. a. d. How often do you eat out? ______________________________ _______________________________________________________ e. Is you r mother out? _________________________ ____________________________________________________________ c.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 12 12 Exercises 1. ________________________________________________________________________________? Mark changed his mind and won’t drop out of school anymore 2. ___________________________________________________________ _____________________? He will travel instead of staying in next summer. c. Why don’t you call her out so that she can help you out? ______________________________ _______________________________________________________ f. b. Does she like to stay out now and then? _____________________________________________________________________________________ d.
last night. wasn’t there? ECL ENGLISH COURSE 13 . don’t I? doesn’t he? didn’t she? won’t you? would they? aren’t you? were you? isn’t she? wasn’t he? aren’t they? weren’t you? isn’t there? aren’t there? won’t there? wouldn’t there? tonight. at the moment. this afternoon. an important game a meeting here every day. tonight. last week. last night. later. now. every other day.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 13 13 Tag Questions I He She You They You You She He They You There There There There will wouldn’t are weren’t is was are were is are will would playing doing going to going to somebody many tasks be be study speaks traveled have need Spanish French to Australia to work to study busy tired chess with him his homework buy some food sell those CDs at your house to do a party at the club an answer for this question. today. tonight. isn’t there? There is going to be There was going to be this evening. yesterday. every day.
every other day. today. tonight. last night.weren’t is / isn’t are / aren’t will / won’t would / wouldn’t study / don’t study speaks / doesn’t speak traveled / didn’t travel have need Spanish French to Australia to work to study busy tired every day. Yes/No there was / wasn’t going to be this evening. every day. an important game a meeting here Yes/No there is / isn’t going to be tonight. tonight. this afternoon.aren’t was . later. at the moment. 14 ECL ENGLISH COURSE . last week.are / am not .were / wasn’t .ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 13 14 Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No you he she I/we they I/we I/we she he they I/we there th ere there there will / won’t would / wouldn’t am . yesterday. last night. playing doing going to going to somebody/anybody many tasks be be chess with him his homework buy some food sell those CDs at my house to do a party at the club an answer for this question.were / wasn’t . now.weren’t is / isn’t was / wasn’t are / aren’t was .
To understand (something or someone). ______ ________ to England ________ _______. To produce. To escape from. To cast out. To choose. To be careful (usually in the imperative form). She ___________ ______________. To succeed. To find a solution. to examine something or get more information about it in order to be certain that it is true. To calculate. ___________ ___________? 2. To experiment.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 13 15 Substitution Drills 1. To put (something or someone) outside. To reach a result. To understand. To extinguish fire . ________________ ______________? 4. To result. To discover. safe or suitable ECL ENGLISH COURSE 15 . To help. To come outside . ___________ _____________? 3. To select. To result. To understand. To get rid of (something or someone). To be published. To exercise. You ______________ meat. He________ ___________ yesterday. To turn off lights. _______ _____? Phrasal Verbs Figure out Find out Pick out Put out Throw out Turn out Work out Help out Try out Make out Come out Look out Run out of Break out of Check out To calculate . To test. To lack something. To be expressed in speech. To decipher. To leave a place by running.
Let’s have a party. On purpose = Intentionally # By chance = not intentionally. somebody and everybody (and no one etc.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 13 Special Tag Questions I am right. NO. You can’t lend me some money. we can use WON`T YOU? to invite people to do things. long skirts are coming in again Come in = Become fashionable / seasonable ECL ENGLISH COURSE 16 . NOBODY. We use IT in question tags to refer to NOTHING. Don’t forget. E.” Half a loaf is better than no bread.” Idiomatic Expressions and Useful Phrases Look out you don’t get robbed. have talent for E.” “Money is the root of all evil. can you? After imperatives. One’s cup of tea = What one likes. Sit down. I prefer something lighter. Old and Useful Sayings “All is well that ends well. LITTLE.G. aren’t I? will you? will you? won’t you? shall we? 16 Informal questions / requests often use negative sentence + question tag. and WILL / WOULD / CAN / CAN`T /COULD YOU ? (Informal) to tell or ask people to do things.G. On the tip of one’s tongue.G. love flies out the window. = Be carefull not to get robbed. By the looks of things… = According to what I can see… E.” “A good example is better than a sermon.” “There’s no smoke without fire. HARDLY. SCARCELY. E. After negative imperative we use WILL YOU ? After Let’s we use SHALL WE? We use THEY to refer to nobody. Wait! I have got his name on the tip of my tongue. I’m not cut out for this kind of work. By the looks of things.” “Many hands make light work.” “All that glitters is not gold.).” “When poverty comes in the door. Soccer is not my cup of tea. E. Do y ou think he did that on purpose? Be cut out (for) = To be suited for.G.G.” “Don’t bite the hand that feeds you. We use non -negative tags after NEVER. Close the door. Wait.” “Birds of a feather flock together. = To be about to say s omething.
a. Make sentences with tag questions for these answers below. ____________________________________________________________ _? l. Joanne doesn’t like to work here. _______________________________ ____________________? ECL ENGLISH COURSE 17 . a. ______________________________________ __________ ___? d. Complete the sentences below with the right tag questions. _______________________________? No. ________________________________________? c.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 13 17 Exercises 1. _____________________________________ ________ ___. Everybody’s here. ____________________________________________________________? i. I am cooking tonight. ____________ _________________________? He would enjoy going out with us. b. ______________________________________________________________? h. ___________________________________________________ ___________? k. The teacher broke his leg last weekend. She likes to play with you. f. You’re never happy. ______________________________? Yes . _________________________ ______________________ _. _________________________________________________. _______________________________? Yes. _______________________________________________________________? j. Nothing matters. _____________________________________________ ___. ______________________________________? b. There’s scarcely enough time. She hardly spoke. The policeman came to school yesterday. He will ask her out next time he sees her. ________________________________________ ___? g. d. ______________________________? Of course! 2. she didn’t work hard last night. he is a lovely little boy. ____________________ __________________________? e. You never wrote her a letter. ___________ ______________________________________? m. c. There’s no milk.
Cont. 3rd person singular. Perf. 3rd person singular. Used with periods of time not finished at the moment of speaking. Past Perf. Pres. 3 rd person singular. Had she been ECL ENGLISH COURSE 18 . Cont. 3rd person singular. Pres. Indefinite Past Time. It is also used to give emphasis. Perf. Perf.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 14 Don’t be so worried about these little things. # 2. Past Perf. Has Have he you moved? eaten a lot today? # 3. 18 The Perfect Tenses Part I Have you worked hard lately? # 1. 3 rd person singular. Pres. Pres. Pres. 3rd person singular. Something that started in th e past and comes up to now. Pres. Perf. Has she been Had they already painted left Past Perf. Perf. Used when we want to refer to a past action that happened before another one. Had she home Had you been working out trying to hide this secret when she arrived? when you found out the truth? Past Perf. Perf. Perf. Perf. It is also used to give emphasis. You’ll see they are not so difficult. # 3. Used when we want to refer to a past action that was completed or interrupted before another one. The action may repeat or continue. Cont. Cont. # 1. # 2. Pres. Something that started in the past and comes up to the present. Has Have he you gotten sold good grades your car? recently? Has he traveled this month? studying hard doing her homework? the house when you arrived? when you arrived? this semester? Have you been Pres.
lately. Yes/No I/we have / haven’t sold Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No he I/we he I/we has / hasn’t have / haven’t has / hasn’t have / haven’t moved . this month. the house when I/we arrived.ECL ENGLISH COURSE Be happy! Give it a Try. a lot today. when she arrived. eaten traveled been studying hard doing her homework . when I/w e arrived. this semester . when I/we found out the truth . recently. Don’t be so pessimistic! LESSON 14 19 Yes/No Yes/No I/we he have / haven’t has / hasn’t worked gotten hard good grades my/our car. Yes/No she has / hasn’t been Yes/No they had / hadn’t already painted left Yes/No she had / hadn’t home Yes/No I/we had / hadn’t been Yes/No she had / hadn’t been working out trying to hide this secret ECL ENGLISH COURSE 19 .
__________ _______? 5.” “Beauty lies in lover’s Eyes. or being pretentious.” “Don’t bite off more than you can chew.” “Beauty is in the eye of the beholder.” “Like father like son. Build castles in the air = To p lan things which will probably no succeed. break off a habit.” “Handsome Is as handsome does. be a great bargain. haven’t _______? How long have you worked here? How long have you worked here? I’ve worked here for three months. I’ve worked here since January.” “First come.” Idiomatic Expressions and Useful Phrases For good = Forever . _______ you ___________ _____________ books ___________? 4.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 14 20 Substitution Drills 1. Had _______ ______ ________ before _________ ____ ______? 2.” “Money doesn’t grow on trees. first served.” “Where there’s a will there’s a way. Old and Useful Sayings “Water dripping day by day wears the hardest rock away. joking.” “Don’t put the cart before the horse. daydream. Has _________ ______________ ____________________ lately? 3. Waste one’s breath = To speak without result. Put one’s foot into it = To say something stupid and embarrassing. Come off it! = Stop lying. They _______ had ___________ ___________. Be a steal = Something sold very cheaply. ECL ENGLISH COURSE 20 . We ________ ___________ a__________. Kick (a) habit = To stop. Be Greek to = To b e incomprehensible.
To continue doing something without stopping. or to stop someone else from doing this. (something such as school). especially work. bus or aircraft. job or school after the other people who were with you have left. or very recently 21 Phrasal Verbs Send on To send something from someone's old address to their new one (to / for)To write to an organization or place to ask them to send you something: I've sent off for a catalogue. Used in affirmative answers to confirm an “ever” question or to emphasize. To stop something touching or harming someone or something. train. Yes I have already fallen in love.to not eat. or to do it repeatedly. To leave a place or something with a springing movement. drink or use something that can harm you. or to stop someone or something going onto an area. To go onto a bus. To criticize someone as soon as they have done something wrong or said something that you disagree with. to leave a place. Used when the answer is negative but there is intention of doing. To not go onto an area. To continue to be at a distance from something. To leave a train. We had to send off to Ireland for a replacement part. Yes I have just fallen in love Used in questions – Uncommon things or in affirmatives to emphasize. To continue to be in a place. To not eat. usually in order to start a journey. No I have never fallen in love. To continue doing something.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 14 Present Perfect Usage Have you ever fallen in love? This is the best food I have ever eaten. To start ( military) Send off/away Keep on Keep off Stay on Stay off Get on Get off Jump on Jump off ECL ENGLISH COURSE 21 . Used to say that something happened now. No I haven’t fallen in love yet. Used when the answer is negative and there’s no intention of doing. very soon. To continue no t to attend. aircraft or boat. drink or use something that can harm you. = To keep off .
a. ECL ENGLISH COURSE 22 . ____________________________________________________________________________ ____? No. e. ________________________________________________________________________________? I have never tried to do something illegal. he hasn’t been there yet. ________________________________________________________________________________? They have read that book because of the paper they are preparing . i. f.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 14 22 Exercises 1. __________________________________________________________________________ ______? He had already come back from London when you decided to ask him to bring some books for you. __________________________________________________________________________ ______? He has brought those new tapes for you . g. ________________________________________________________________ ____________ ____? She has been reading that book for more than three months. b. h. d. Make questions for these answers below. ________________________________________________________________________________? I had been running for thirty minutes when you called me out. ________________________________________________________________ ________________? They have been trying to fix the bus since morning. ________________________________________________________________________________? She has been there lots of times this month. c. ________________________________________________________________________________? Traveling abroad is what I have ever wanted . j.
a. Where have you been lately? _____________________________________________________________________________________ c. Give long answers for these questions below. Have you ever had to do something you really hated? What? Why? _____________________________________________________________________________________ f. How long have you been talking over with that girl on the phone? _____________________________________________________________________________________ e. Where have you been running these days ? _____________________________________________________________________________________ h. Why had she sold the furniture before phoning you? _____________________________________________________________________________________ d.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 14 23 2. Have you ever thought about living abroad? Where? _____________________________________________________________________________________ ECL ENGLISH COURSE 23 . What has she just done? _________________________________________________________________________________ ____ b. What had she done before you told her the truth? __________________ ___________________________________________________________________ i. Have you ever had an affair? ____________________________________________________________________ ________________ j. Have you already had lunch ? _____________________________________________________________________________________ g.
Many powerful and wise knights _______________ already ___ ___________ to _____________ the Beast before him.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 14 24 3. A long time ago. Once he ______________ to_______________ with an old and powerful dragon. He ____________ never ____________ a creature as dangerous and wicked as the sevenhead dragon. Be prepared for both of them. He _________________ the great wizard book . We must try to face the truth. After some moons the Day finally ____ ____________. For those who _________________ the winner____________ the wizard. believing that it could be helpful. Complete the text below with the appropriate verb tense. The dragon ____________ ______________ to ________________ his head and ______________ his viscera. To manage To have To read To swallow To be To feel To face To pay To smash To take To try To live To come To hide To stand To reveal To claim To give away To be To believe To fight To prepare To defeat To promise ECL ENGLISH COURSE 24 . Life is not a fairy tale. in his soul. He ______________ to be the wisest wizard in that old world. It _______________ almost a week and after storms. He ______________ himself for the great battle. himself. thunders and groans the victor _____________ ________________ tall in the middle of the battlefield. but none ______ _____________. That’s a real ending. We must bear in mind life is made of victories and defeats. ___________ ________ him a visit in order ___________ ______________ his sorceries ______________. I’m so sorry __________ _________________ the winner was the seven-head dragon. on a distant land there _____________ a man who _____________ beyond the woods. He could not _______________ what he ________________ inside his heart. Merlin.
ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 15 25 The Perfect Tenses Part II Fut. What might if he had jumped out of the window? if you hadn’t turned down that proposal? What could Whom Where should must you she Cond. Unreal past situation or Criticism (You might have told me about that!). at some time in the future. Perf. Cond. Possibility in the past weaker than MUST HAVE. will be past or completed. Perf. Criticism (You could have helped me!) Recommendation (past action) Strong p robability or Conclusion of a past action. Slight or uncertain possibility in the past. Perf. Unreal past situation . Cond. Possibility in the past weaker than MUST HAVE. Perf. ECL ENGLISH COURSE 25 . Unreal past situation What will you have done Whom would you What may have gone with have happened to the book? have happened to him have happened have talked to? have left her purse? by the end of the year? if they had invited you for the party? it is not here on the desk. Used to describe an action which.
broken his leg lots of money Jaime’s sister. if they had invited me / us for the party.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 15 26 I / We I / We It will would may have have gone with have fallen have graduated Martha behind the d esk. inside my car. He might I / We could have lost I / We should She must have talked to have left her purse ECL ENGLISH COURSE 26 . by the end of the year. if I / we hadn’t turned down that proposal. Have you already checked it out? if he had jumped out of the window.
Switch the TV on. To make a device operate. To take someone's attention away from what they want to be doing or should be doing . especially sexually: Short girls really turn me on. make-up or something similar. Turn the TV on. To stop giving your attention to someone or something. Switch on Switch off Turn on Turn off Put on Put off ECL ENGLISH COURSE 27 . To use a switch to change a device from one state or type of operation to another. If someone switches on a particular emotion or behavior. especially sexually. until a later time . To cover part of the body with clothes. such as a CD or video. To tell someone that you cannot see them or do something for them. or sto p them from doing something. by pressing a switch.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 15 27 Phrasal Verbs To use a switch to change a device from one state or type of operation to another. To interest or excite you. they suddenly start to feel or behave in that way. or to cause a device to play something. To pretend to have a particular feeling or way of behaving which is not real or natural to you: Why are you putting on that silly voice? If people or animals put weight on. Turn the TV off. To decide or arrange to delay an event or activity until a later time or date. shoes. but usually not sincerely. To stop someone feeling interested or excited. they become heavier. Switch the TV off. To change a device from one state or type of operation to another. To change a device from one state or type of operation to another.
To visit someone for a short time . it explodes. UK If food or drink goes off. If a bomb goes off. Used when encouraging or asking someone to do something. or sometimes a person. in order to achieve something. will not happen. husband or partner in order to have a sexual or romantic relationship with someone else. If a warning device goes off. it starts to ring loudly or make a loud noise . To leave a wife. ECL ENGLISH COURSE 28 . it fires. especially a sports event. INFORMAL something that you say to encourage someone to say or do something.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 15 28 Phrasal Verbs Go on Go off Call on Call off To start operating. or to end an activity because it is no longer useful or possible . To become worse in quality. To order a dog. If a gun goes off. If a light or a machin e goes off. to stop attacking someone or something. To happen in a particular way: The protest march went off peacefully with only two arrests. it stops working. To start talking again after a pause. To talk in an annoying way about something for a long time . (sth off) To decide that a planned event. it is not good to eat or drink any more because it is too old. but just a small one. To continue or pass. Something that you say in order to agree to do or allow something that you did not want to do or to allow before: "Are you sure you don't want another slice of cake?" "Oh go on then. To use something. To continue or move to the next thing . especially a quality that you have.
” “You can lead a horse to water.” “All is fair in love and war. Could he________________________ if he hadn’t broken his leg? 2. What should ______________________________ last night before going to bed? ECL ENGLISH COURSE 29 .” Complete the following questions with the suitable clauses. Would _________________________________if I had called you? 3.” “The road to hell is paved with good intentions.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 15 Position of Prepositions We generally place the preposition directly before its object.” “It's no use crying over spilt milk. but you can't make him drink. Take a look at the examples: What do you want it for? I don’t know what he needs it for.” “Better late than never.” “Never look a gift horse in the mouth. Will _______________________________________ by December? 4. however. What will I write about? Which house did you go to? Whom is the girl Mark is talking to? 29 Old and Useful Sayings “Never put off until tomorrow what you can do today. sometimes it may be placed at the end of the sentence.” “It never rains but it pours. 1.
I can’t believe! You have __________________________ ________________________ a lot! f. Why did she refuse to ________________________ ___________________ her cigarette? c. How long have you_________________________ ________________________ doing this ? l. I can’t believe we have just _______________ ___________ __________ gasoline again! d. How often do you _____________________________ ________________________________? j. Don’t forget to _____________________ _ ___________ ___ the car before you buy it! g. e. Hey! Jane has just finished preparing something in the kitchen.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 15 30 Exercises 1. Have you been __________________________ ________________________ this summer? h. When was the last time you _____________________________ __________ somebody? k. Complete the sentences below with the right phrasal verb in the right verb tense. Where did you ______________________________ __________ these beautiful flowers? m. ECL ENGLISH COURSE 30 . She told me she had already _____________ ___ _______ what happened that night. a. Come on! Why don’t you just ____________ _____ __________________ the meeting? b. It’s better to ____________________ i t ___________________. i. Well at least it ________________ _________ to be a good solution for that problem.
ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 15 31 2. RUN _________________________________________ ________________________________ __ ON OFF OUT IN OUT OF ECL ENGLISH COURSE 31 . Combine the following verbs with the particles in the box and then create sentences. a. STAY_____________________________________________ __________ ____________________ g. MAKE ___________________________ _______________________________________________ f. TURN __________________________________________________________________________ e. PUT ____________________________________________________________________________ d. PUT ___________________________________________________________________________ b. TRY ____________________________________________________________________________ h. GO _____________________________________________________________________________ i. CALL ________________________________________________ __________________________ c. SEND __________________________________________________________________________ j.
ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 16 32 The Countable and Uncountable nouns How many How much How many books beer brothers or sisters money do you do you do you read usually drink have? a month? on the weekends? How much does she have in her pocket? go to the beach? spend when you go to the beach? a month? a day? How many times How much a month do you do you How many How long CDs do you do you usually buy work out ECL ENGLISH COURSE 32 .
for two hours a month. two CDs. on the weekends. Much is mainly used in negatives and questions. I / We work out a day. Many is mainly used in negatives and questions. few CDs. ECL ENGLISH COURSE 33 . I / We go to the beach a month . none.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 16 33 I / We read I / We usually drink lots of books a lot of books a few books few books two books a lot (just) a little little two cans of beer a few. I / We have don’t have She has doesn’t have in her pocket. brothers or sisters. I / We spend don’t spend when I / we go to the beach. many. I / We usually buy don’t buy (a month) In this case it’s more common to omit the time expression. a lot of CDs. few. lots of money a lot of money (just) a little little two bucks much money once twice three times lots of money a lot of money (just) a little little two bucks much money lots of CDs. many CDs. a few CDs.
Do you have any plans for tonight? No I don’t have any plans for tonight. General questions. (Not all of them. No I have no plans for tonight. Negative sentences.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 16 34 Complete the following questions. ___________ ___________ times _______________________? 4. with verbs in the affirmative form. I like no Italian restaurant.* Negative sentences. I like some Italian restaurant. Would you like some help? Could you bring me some water? Oh! I’d love to. with verbs in the negative form.) ECL ENGLISH COURSE 34 . 1. ___________ ___________ time ________________________? 3. when we expect a positive answer. (All of them.) NOT ANY. I like any Italian restaurant. Any Anything Anywhere No Nobody or No one Nothing Nowhere Yes I have some plans for tonight. (I don’t like Italian food / cuisine. Affirmative sentences. How much _________________________________________? How many _________________________________________? Indefinite Pronouns Some Somebody or Someone Anybody or Anyone Something Somewhere • • • • • • • Affirmative sentences. Sure! Some Any * No A PART OF SOMETHIN G. Questions. 5.) NOT IMPORTANT WHICH. ___________ ___________ cars ________________________? 2. Offers.
How many times have the policemen come here this week? _____________________________________________________________________________________ b. ________________________________________________________________________________? Hugh spent ten dollars buying new pencils. How much has she spent lately? _____________________________________________________________________________________ c. _________________________________________________________ _______________________? He doesn’t have much money. ________________________________________________________________________________? I’ve spen t lots of time d oing the exercises . c. ________________________________ ________________________________________________? Mark likes just a little sugar in his coffee. Make questions using how much our how many for these answers below. How much is it? _____________________________________________________________________________________ e. b. a. Give long answers for these questions below. d. a. e. _______________________________________________ _________________________________? He sold lots of old books last week.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 16 35 Exercises 1. 2. How many hours do you usually spend to come here by train? ____________________________ _____________________________________________________ ____ d. How much did it cost? _____________________________________________________________________________________ ECL ENGLISH COURSE 35 .
it happens. to reach or go as far as: Its roots can go down three metres. it happens or becomes available unexpectedly or in a way that was not planned. quality. often giving it particular beliefs. To reduce the level of something. it stops working.(with) = come down with To arrive or appear somewhere. (on)SLANG To use the tongue and lips to touch someone's sexual organs in order to give pleasure . you find it unexpectedly. To reach as far as something: The path going up to the back door is very muddy. To care for a child until it is an adult. Go up Go down Turn up Turn do wn Bring up Bring down ECL ENGLISH COURSE 36 . To be reduced in price. level or size. When the sun goes down. To move down to a lower level or place. If something that you have been looking for turns up. To start to talk about a particular subject.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 16 36 Phrasal Verbs To move higher. rise or increase. usually unexpectedly or in a way that was not planned. If a computer system goes down. Turn sth/sb down to refuse an offer or request. If an event such as a crime or a deal goes down. If a better situation or an opportunity to do something turns up. amount. To cause someone in a position of power to lose their job. it moves down in the sky until it cannot be seen any more. value.
it appears there. When the sun or moon comes up. (on) To punish or criticize a person or activity very strongly. To swallow. it makes you feel unhappy and dissatisfied. (with) To suggest or think of an idea or plan. If a job or opportunity comes up. To happen. it rises. usually unexpectedly. To be unable to control your feelings and to start to cry. INFORMAL to feel less excited after a very enjoyable experience. If a price or a level comes down. To divide something into many pieces. (against) To have to deal with a problem. To stand up.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 16 37 Phrasal Verbs To wake up and get out of bed. it stops working. (to) To reach the usual or necessary standard. To fall and land on the ground. they stop feeling its effects. relationship or discussion breaks down. it becomes available. To write something. or to tell or help someone to do this. (with) If a marriage breaks up or two people in a romantic relationship break up. it becomes lower. their voice can not fully be heard. especially one that is not serious. If information comes up on a computer screen. especially something that someone has said. it fails because there is a problem or disagreement. (with) To start to suffer from an illness. If the wind gets up. If someone who is talking on a mobile phone is breaking up. their marriage or their relationship ends. To move towards someone. If something gets you down. If a person comes down from a drug. Get up Get down Come up Come down B reak up Break down ECL ENGLISH COURSE 37 . To organize a group of people to do something. To be mentioned or talked about in conversation. If a machine or vehicle breaks down. (to) To start to direct your efforts and attention towards something. If a system. it starts to grow stronger.
ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 16 38 Exercises 1. Could you please ___________________ ___ it __________________ for me? k. I can’t believe we have just _____________________ _______________. I’m still sleepy! d. Do you know why the boss is upset with you? Yeah! I haven’t________________ ________________ ____________ good results lately. Hey asshole! ____________________ ____________ ___ ____________what you’re doing! e. ECL ENGLISH COURSE 38 . who will _________________ him ______________? b. The food didn't ________________________ ____________ __________ my expectations l. h. Now that Andrew’s parents died. Can you hear what he is speaking? Yeah! Oh I can’t. Some people didn’t like my book. a. Why did she ____________________________ _ _______________________ that proposal? c. When was the last time this washing machine __________________ _____________? i. I can’t believe! You _______________________ __________________ _______________ her ! f. Don’t forget to get a coat or you may ______________ ___________ _________ a cold! g. When was the last time you _________________ ____________ __________ somebody? j. Complete the sentences below with the right p hrasal verb in the right verb tense. Well at least they didn’t ____________________ _____________ _____________ me.
GET ____ __________________________________________________________ ______________ f. Combine the following verbs with the particles in the box and then create sentences. BREAK ________________________________________________________________________ j. GET_____________________________________________________________________________ g. BRING_________________________________________________________________________ h. BREAK ________________________________________________________________________ UP UP WITH DOWN DOWN WITH / ON / TO ECL ENGLISH COURSE 39 . COME ______________________________________________ ___________________________ b. COME __________________________________________________________________________ c. a.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 16 39 2. TURN ___________________________________________________________________ _______ e. TURN _________________________________________________________ __________ _______ d. GO _____________________________________________________________________________ i.
What are you going to do Where can we go Do you think she may get worse What will you do? What can we do? Where can we go? if he calls you tonight? if we don’t have any money? if she doesn’t take the medicines? Present Unreal If you had lots of money If you received a strange phone call If they studied hard Where would you take her to How late would you wake up Do you think they might work there What would you do? What would you do? What could happen to them? if you could ask her out? if you didn’t have to work the following day? if they spoke good English? Past Unreal If you hadn’t missed the party If she hadn’t broken up with you If he hadn’t stopped drinking What would she have done Where could you have gone Do you think he might have won Whom would you have flirted with? Where could you have taken her to? What could have happened to us? if she had seen you with that girl? if you hadn’t woken up so late? if he had bet? ECL ENGLISH COURSE 40 .ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 17 40 Future Possible If you meet him tomorrow . If she is late. If it rains.
if I / we could ask her out. if they spoke good English. if he had bet. They could / might get better grades. I / We could call the police. I’m going to make things clear We / You can go nowhere I think she may / can die I / We will invite him for the party. We could / might have died. Past Unreal If I /we hadn’t missed the party If she hadn’t broken up with me If he hadn’t stopped drinking She would have slapp ed me I / We could have gone to the zoo Oh! I think he might / could have won I /we Would have flirted with everything in a skirt. If it rains.M Oh! I think they might / could work there I / We would travel around the world. if I / we didn’t have to work the following day. if she had seen me with that girl. if I / we hadn’t woken up so late. if we / you don’t have any money. if she doesn’t take the medicines Present Unreal If I / we had lots of money If I / we received a strange phone call If they studied hard I / We would take her to heaven I/ We would wake up at about 9:00 A. If she is late. We / You can do nothing.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 17 41 Future Possible If I / we meet him tomorrow. if he calls me tonight. I could have taken her to Paradise. ECL ENGLISH COURSE 41 . We / You can / may go to the movies.
e. they could have gone there. If____________________________________________________. If she is here. If________________________ ________________________.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 17 42 Exercises 1. he won’t trouble you anymore. If_______________________________________________. l. If I worked out more often. ___________________________ ________________________________________. If they had finished the project. she would give him a chance. we would have helped her. j. f. __________________________________________________. Complete the sentences below with the right clause. If they came here more often . k. _ ____________________________________________________. ECL ENGLISH COURSE 42 . If you are feeling lonely. If he had paid attention to her. If__________________________________________________. i. h. ______________________________________________________. I would tell you everything. If____________ ___________________________________________. c. b. If___________________________________________________. d. _________________________________________________. g. I will buy new clothes. _ __________ _______ ______________________________. a.
Where will you go on your next vacation if you have money ? _____________________________________________________________________________________ d.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 17 43 2. d. Give long answers for these questions below . ________________________________________________________________________________? I will do my bes t. Make If-Clause questions for these answers below. Where could you have gone if your friends had called you ? ______ _______________________________________________________________________________ ECL ENGLISH COURSE 43 . ________________________________________________________________________________? I would never hurt you . _________________________ _______________________________________________________? She would help me with this . b. What would you do if your girlfriend/boyfriend cheated on you? _____________________________________________________________________________________ b. 3. a. c. e. What would you do if you lost your job? _________________________________________________________________________________ ____ e. ________________________________ ________________________________________________? He would have tried to call off the meeting . a. What would you have done if you had had money 10 years ago? _____________________________________________________________________________________ c. ________________________________________________________________________________? They can help people.
Let (sb) down (DISAPPOINT). but I fall down on the written work. (Person)To gradually become an adult. at a low level. (City) If a town or city grows up in a particular place or way. Hold sth down to keep something. To produce a new idea or plan. especially costs. To happen or move faster. To move your body so that the lower part of it is resting on a seat or on the ground. To fall to the ground. Add up to sth (AMOUNT) to become a particular amount. To invent. Fall down Let down ECL ENGLISH COURSE 44 . To have a particular result or effect: It all added up to a lot of hard work for all of us. Add (sth) up to calculate the total of two or more numbers. To change your opinion or admit that you were wrong (over). hurry (sb/sth) up To move or do things more quickly than normal or to make someone do this. To sit with a straight back. it develops there or in that way. To not be good at something in comparison with another thing: I'm quite good at speaking Chinese. or to make something happen or move faster. To fail.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 17 44 Phrasal Verbs Climb up Climb down Sit up Sit down Add up Grow up Hurry up Speed up Think up Hold down To go up. To show interest or surprise: The news that he was getting married really made her sit up. To stay awake and not go to bed although it is late. Hold sb/sth down to keep someone or something in a particular place or position and to stop them from moving.
to formally establish a new company. To become slower. or to make someone or something become slower. especially by putting the different parts of it together. (for) To compensate for. (with) To reach someone in front of you by going faster than them. To reach the same quality or standard as someone or something else. To arrange for an event or activity to happen. (on) To reduce. or if someone starts one up. etc. To make a tree or other plant fall to the ground by cutting it near the bottom. If a business or other organization starts up. To prepare. To start living in a place where you intend to stay for a long time. (in) To become familiar with a place and to feel happy and confident in it. To prepare something for use. it stops so that the passenger can get out. To be less active and relax more.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 17 45 Phrasal Verbs Make up Cut down Slow down Set up Set down Start up Catch up Settle down Look down on To invent. consider someone inferior. To establish someone or yourself in a business or position: After he left college. it starts to work. To become quiet and calm. ECL ENGLISH COURSE 45 . it is created and starts to operate. system. If a vehicle sets down a passenger. organization. or someone starts it up. To despise. or to make someone become quiet and calm. To write or print something. especially to record it in a formal document. If a vehicle or engine starts up. his father set him up in the family business. way of working. To Complete. usually with your partner. To replace.
Why doesn’t she ____________ _________ ________ her expenses ? c. Now that Andrew passed the exams and I flunked. a. h. j. I think I won’t___________ _______________ __________ him. g. She is the kind of girl who likes to _______ _______ _____ _____ _________ poor boys. I’ll never __________________________________ you ________________________________! ECL ENGLISH COURSE 46 . I’ve got to ___________ ____ ________ __ something really good to increase the sales. Lea needs money. I can’t believe she _____________________________ ______________________ that story! d. I went to the doctor and he told me ________________ ______________ _____________. The car didn’t _ ________ ___________________ __ ____________________ this morning! f. Hey ! ______________________________ _______________________ or we’ll miss the bus! i. Have you finished _______________________________ _______________ the numbers? k.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 17 46 Exercises 1. e. Mr. Smith asked us to ______________________ _________ _____________ production. Complete the sentences below with the right p hrasal verb in the right verb tense. b.
CLIMB _________________________________________________________________________ UP DOWN ECL ENGLISH COURSE 47 . SIT _____________________________________________________________________________ f. THINK _____________________________________________________________ ____________ d. CATCH _________________________________________________________________________ e. a. Combine the following verbs with the particles in the box and then create sentences. CUT ____________________________________________________________________________ g. GROW ________________________________________________________________________ b.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 17 47 2. SLOW_________________________________________________________________ _________ i. BRING_________________________________________________________________________ h. LET ________________________________________________________________ ____________ j. MAKE _________________________________________________________________________ c.
” He said: “I must study hard. He said he was studying that moment. She said she wasn’t going to travel that night. She told me she wouldn’t travel the following day .” She said: “I wasn’t going to buy a car.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 18 48 Direct and Indirect Speech Direct Speech He said: “I work hard every day.” He said: “I can drive. ECL ENGLISH COURSE 48 . She said she wasn’t going to buy a car.” He said: “I’ve studied a lot. He told me not to close the door. She told me she would travel the following day. He s aid he wasn’t studying that moment. He said he had studied a lot.” He said: “I don’t have (need) to study hard. He said he didn’t have (need) to study hard. He said he didn’t work hard every day. He asked to close the door. He said he hadn’t studied a lot.” She said: “I’ll have finished it by afternoon. He said he had been studying .” She said: “I’m going to travel tonight. He said he (hadn’t) didn’t play (ed) soccer the day before. He said he hadn’t been studying.” He said: “I didn’t play soccer yesterday. She said she’d have finished it by afternoon.” She said to me: “I won’t travel tomorrow.” She said to me: “I will travel tomorrow. He said It might be a good idea! He asked me if I would come that night. He said he (had) played soccer the day before.” He said: “I’m studying now.” He said: “I don’t work hard every day.” He said: “I’m not studying now .” He said: “I haven’t studied a lot.” She said: “I’m not going to travel tonight.” He said: “I played soccer yesterday.” He said: “I can’t drive. He said he couldn’t drive. She said she was going to buy a car. He asked what I was doing. He said he could drive.” She said: “I was going to buy a car.” He said: “I was studying.” He said: “I wasn’t studying.” He said: “It may be a good idea!” He asked me: “will you come tonight?” He asked me: “what are you doing?” He asked: “Close the door!” He said to me: “Don’t close the door!” Indirect Speech He said he worked hard every day. He said he had (needed) to study hard. She said she was going to travel that night.
If or Whether + an Aff. according to the previous question. I’ll tell her your idea is great. especially in a formal style. Tenses don’t change after present. or Neg. or Neg.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 18 49 Tense Changes Simple Present Simple Past Future Immediate Future Future in the Past Present Continuous Past Continuous Present Perfect Future Perfect Can Must Don’t have to(need to) May Questions (with a question word) Questions (with no question word) Affirmative imperative Negative imperative Might Could Should/ought to Would Past Perfect Simple Past Simple Past or Past Perfect Conditional Future in the Past Future in the Past Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Conditional Perfect Could Had to / Needed to Didn’t have to (need to) Might The Question word + an Aff. future or present perfect reporting verbs. I enquired whether she was coming by road or by air. because there’s no important change of time. It’s preferable to use whether before or. The driver asked if/whether I wanted to go downtown. structure. To + verb( Infinitive ) not to+ verb( Negative infinitive ) Might Could Shou ld/ought to Would Past Perfect Yes/no questions are reported with if or whether. The government has announced that taxes will be raised ECL ENGLISH COURSE 49 . He says he doesn’t like flowers. structure. according to the previous question.
ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 18
Last week Next week Now This morning This afternoon This evening Today Tonight Yesterday Tomorrow LAST … NEXT… Ago This/these Here The week before The following week/The next week/The week after Then / That day/right away/At that moment That morning That afternoon That evening That day That night The day before The following/next day THE… BEFORE THE NEXT/FOLLOWING… Before That/those There
Verbs that imply a certain direction may also have to be changed. Examples: come go bring take No and Yes are eliminated in indirect speech.
Idiomatic Expressions and Useful Phrases How do you like…? = What’s you r impression of…? E.G. How do you like our weather? I think it’s very hot or I find it really hot.
Old and Useful Sayings “Speak of the devil and he appears.” “He put his foot in his mouth.” “A word to the wise is enough.” “Out of sight, out of mind.”
ECL ENGLISH COURSE
ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 18
To avoid. To keep away. To not go somewhere or near something, or to prevent someone from going somewhere or near something. Turn s b away: to not allow someone to enter a place. To move your face so you are not looking at something. To leave or escape from a person or place, often when it is difficult to do this. To go somewhere to have a holiday, often because you need to rest. (with) To succeed in avoiding punishment for something : If I thought I could get away with it, I wouldn't pay any tax at all. Take sth away: to remove something. To subtract a number. Throw sth away/out:to get rid of something that you do not want any more. Throw sth away: to waste a skill or opportunity. To give sth free of charge. To tell people something secret, often without intending to. To show someone's secret feelings. To leave a place or per secretly and son suddenly. (from) To avoid dealing with a problem or difficult situat ion. Run away (with) sb (FEELING).If a feeling or idea runs away with you, you cannot control it and it makes you behave stupidly:Sometimes my imagination runs away with me and I convince myself that they are having an affair. To escape from someone, free oneself of. To remove things from a table after a meal. (of sound, light, wind) To diminish gradually until it ceases. To put things back in their place.
Take away Throw away
Break away Clear away Die away Put away
ECL ENGLISH COURSE
ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 18
Answer back Fall back (on) Hold back Keep back Think back Look back (on) Take back Turn back To reply to someone rudely. To make use of sth in an emergency = to turn to someone for help. To control (feelings) To have sth as a secret. To remember. To think about the past. To retract sth said or written. (To begin to) return. To return to a place after you have been somewhere else. get sth back (BE GIVEN) To be given something again that you had before. Get sb back . (ALSO get back at sb) INFORMAL : to do something unpleasant to someone because they have done something unpleasant to you. Ge t back (to)sth : to start doing or talking about something again. Get back (to) sb: to talk to someone again, usually on the telephone, in order to give them some information or because you were not able to speak to them before. Send sth back : to return something to the person who sent it to you, espe cially because it is damaged or not suitable . Give sth back: to return something to the person who gave it to you. Call back (RETURN): to return to a place in order to see someone or collect something. Call sb back (TELEPHONE): to telephone someone again, or to telephone someone who called you earlier. Put sth back (REPLACE): to return an object to where it was before it was moved. Bring sth back (RETURN): to return from somewhere with something. (REMEMBER): to make someone think about something from the past. (DO AGAIN): to start to do or use something that was done or used in the past.
Send back Give back
ECL ENGLISH COURSE
They told me to calm down. She asked them if they were able to finish the project. _________________________________________________________________________________ c.” _________________________________________________________________________________ d. _________________________________________________________________________________ ECL ENGLISH COURSE 53 . He said: “I like music. She asked me: “Have you studied a lot lately?” _________________________________________________________________________________ 2. a. Change into direct speech. He said he had already painted the house. a.” ______________________________________________________________ ___________________ b. _________________________________________________________ ________________________ b. _________________________________________________________________________________ d. Change into indirect (Reported) speech. She asked them: “What are you going to do this afternoon?” ________________________________________________________________________ _________ c.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 18 53 Exercises 1. They said to me: “We must study hard. She told me she wouldn’t miss this class.
Now that I’m alone I don’t know who I will _________________ __________ _________ b. I’ve been trying to _________ ___________________ ___ _______________ _____ my tears. ANSWER______________________________________________________________________ d. When you finish reading this book. a. I’ve gotta hang up but in a few minutes I’ll ________________ _________ _________you. RUN _____ __________________________________________________________ ____________ c. CALL __________________________________________________________________________ e. _____________________________ i t ___________! 4.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 18 54 3. Combine the following verbs with the particles in the box and then create sentences . a. e. THROW _______________________________ ________________________________________ b. PUT ____ ________________________________________________________________________ BACK AWAY ECL ENGLISH COURSE 54 . c. I can’t believe that! Why don’t you __________ __________ ______ your childhood? d. Complete the sentences below with the right phrasal verb in the right verb tense. Hey just a second.
Jane. I’ve taken care of him since it was born. always helps her mother. WHICH – Things and animals. WHO – People We use to join sentences replacing the subject. I couldn’t notice what she did at the party. I talked to her yesterday. The city where I was brought up is far from here He’ll never forget the day when he got his first job. I can’t understand why she did that. It doesn’t like to play. ECL ENGLISH COURSE 55 . who loves cooking. Joe needs to travel.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 19 55 RELATIVE PRONOUNS Jane always helps her mother. In this case object. Where. Jane is sad. Jane. The cat is yellow . The cat which I’ve taken care of since it was born is yellow. We use to join sentences replacing the subject or the object. whom I talked to yesterday. whose mother won the lottery. things and animals. We use to join sentences replacing the subject or the object. We use to join sentences replacing the possessive adjective or any other word that indicates ownership. is sad. We use to join sentences replacing the object. WHICH – Things and animals. She loves cooking. needs to travel. His mother won the lottery. When. The dog which doesn’t like to play is mine. What and Why can also be used as relative pronouns. WHOSE – People. Joe. In this case subject. WHOM – People. The dog is mine.
WHOSE can never be omitted.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 19 Defining and non-defining relative clauses Relative Clause Defining Nondefinig Use provides essential information about the subject or object. can’t be omitted povides additional information about the subject or object.” “A burnt child dreads the fire. The girl I love is cute. Omission of relative pronouns Relative pronouns can be omitted when they are the object of the relative clause. The green racing car. which is an old model. The girl who(m) / that I love is cute. In this case it cannot be omitted. can be omitted withou distorting the meaning. The girl who loves me is cute. (not all. Old and Useful Sayings “It takes two to make a fight. SENTENCES = “ALSO” She will travel..” “Don’t wash the family’s dirty linen in public. crashed into the wall. SENTENCES = “ALSO” She doesn’t like him. I don’t either. (an old model is irrelevant to the identification of the car.” ECL ENGLISH COURSE 56 .) without commas between commas THAT cannot be used in non-defining relative clauses.” “Make do with what you have. Punctuation 56 Example The drivers who were drunk were arrested. because who is the subject of the relative clause. (or) Neither do I. I will too. (or)So will I. How to use them? “TOO” AND “SO” USED IN SHORT AFF. but only the ones who were drunk). “EITHER” AND “NEITHER” USED IN SHORT NEG.
often to find out their opinion or to get advice before making a decision about it. To discuss a problem or situation with someone. To redecorate. move from one place to another. To jump from one side to another. temporarily Step on one`s toes = To offend someone. To recover from. On time = at exactly the right time. or else ECL ENGLISH COURSE 57 . For the time being = for now. If someone falls over. Look over Think over Run over Jump over Do over Come over Get over Knock over Boil over Fall over Expressions In time = early enough. the vehicle hits and drives over them. To make fall by pushing or hitting. Do sth over (DO AGAIN). To seem to be a particular type of person: I watched the interview and felt he came over as quite arrogant.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 19 57 Phrasal Verbs Go over Talk over To examine. to hurt someone`s feelings Otherwise = if not. If a vehicle or its driver runs over someone or something. To consider carefully. To come to a place. Fall over sth/sb (COVER) LITERARY: to cover something or someone: A shadow fell over her work and she looked up to see who was there . they fall to the ground:She tripped and fell over. To quickly examine something or someone. To flow over the side. or move towards someone.
Phil and Joane bought an old house.I need to talk to him. Her stories are always interesting. The dress is beautiful. _________________________________________________________________________________ i. The boy is sick. They love old things . _______________________________________________________________________________ __ e. It was imported from Italy. _________________________________________________________________________________ g. Its owner is worried. She works a lot. Janet became very famous. _________________________________________________________________________________ ECL ENGLISH COURSE 58 . The dog underwent surgery. He was about to travel on vacation. ___________________________________________________________ ______________________ b. Join the sentences using a relative pronoun . Debby is traveling.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 19 58 Exercises 1. _________________________________________________________________________________ d. _____________________________________________________________________ ____________ c. a. __________________________________________________________________________ _______ j. Jane is tired. It belongs to John. She bought it last week. __________________________________________________________________________ _______ f. His tie cost a lot of money. That employee was promoted. Her cat died. The ladder is much bigger. _________________________________________________________________________________ h.
c. I can’t believe you _____________ _________ _______ your test before handing it in! d. I’ve been ________________ it __________. I think it`s time to ____________________ it ____________. GO ____________________________________________________________ _________________ e. a. What were you ______________________ ____________________ on the phone last night? 3. DO _____________________________________________________________________________ OVER ECL ENGLISH COURSE 59 . a. FALL ___________________________________________________________________________ d.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 19 59 2. Hey! be careful ________ __________ ___________ ____________ the glass beside you! e. Combine the following verbs with the particles in the box and then create sentences. Complete the sentences below with the right phrasal verb in the right verb tense. b. LOOK___________________________________________________________________________ c. THINK ________________________________________________________________________ b. but up to now I found no solution to this. Tina hates her bedroom.
Emphasis I talked to the director myself. you fool!!! 60 REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS SUBJECT PRONOUNS I YOU HE SHE IT WE YOU THEY REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS MYSELF YOURSELF HIMSELF HERSELF ITSELF OURSELVES YOURSELVES THEMSELVES How to use them? We use the reflexive pronouns in three situations: Subject = Object She hurt herself while cooking. Preceded by “by” It Means alone or without help He traveled to England by himself. ECL ENGLISH COURSE 60 . He looked at himself at the mirror They themselves wrote the letter.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 20 Stop loving yourself and work. I fixed the car by myself.
They painted their houses _____________________________________________________. He ________________________________________________ fixes the meals in his house. She would like to live ___________________________________________________ ______.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 20 61 Exercises 1. She / them / herself. d. Create sentences using the following pronouns: a. f. They / us / their / themselves. _________________________________________________________________________________ b. e. _________________________________________________________________________________ d. I don’t like pork ________________________________________________________________. _________________________________________________________________________________ ECL ENGLISH COURSE 61 . 2. b. He / Her / himself . ________________________________________________________________________ _________ c. We ______________________________________________________should talk to the boss. _________________________________________________________________________________ e. They need to stay awhile ______________________________________________________. c. Complete the following sentences with the suitable reflexive pronouns and cases a. I / my / by myself. We / our /by ourselves.
To remove by washing. If an aircraft. Also carry off. To support or help someone . To put on a piece of clothing to discover if it fits you or if you like it. Take off (FLY) phrasal verb .He ran his motorbike into a tree. To investigate. To place (something. To leave secretly.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 20 62 Phrasal Verbs Settle for Major in Sneak away Carry away Stand up Wash off Take off To accept or agree to something or to decide to have something. often that is lost). ECL ENGLISH COURSE 62 Lay down Carry in Look into Look for Do without Take over Get along with Back up Give up Run into Turn in Try on . etc. To meet by chance. To try to find (something or someone. someone or oneself) down. To quit. To assume the responsibility. as on the ground. To manage without having something : I can’t do without your love.To drive a vehicle accidentally into an object or a person in another vehicle:I had to brake suddenly. To stop. especially clothes. To take (sth)or (someone) away. especially (of a person or animal) by straightening the legs . and the car behind ran into me.To examine the facts about a problem or situation. To remove: Trash left on the beach during the day is carried away (= removed) at night by the tide. it leaves the ground and begins to fly. place or area . furniture. although it is not exactly what you want or it is not the best: She never settles for second best. To study something as your main subject at university: She majored in philosophy at Harvard. To be in a vertical state or to put into a vertical state. To be friendly to. bird or insect takes off. To go to bed ( to sleep ). Take sth off (REMOVE): to remove something. To transport or take something toward the inside of a container.
ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 20 63 Exercises 1. You wouldn’t guess who I __________ _______ ______________ on the bus yesterday. whatever you do I ____________ always___________ you _______. DO _____________________________________________________________________________ UP WITHOUT INTO FOR DOWN ECL ENGLISH COURSE 63 . Complete the sentences below with the right phrasal verb in the right verb tense. LAY____________________________________________________________________________ d. c. What can’t you _________________________________ _ _______________________ _____ ? 2. I can’t believe you ____________ _____ ______ _____________ ________ your parents! b. Wherever you go. LOOK___ ________________________________________ _______ _________________________ b. a. BACK __________________________________________________________________________ e. a. At what time _______________ you usually _____________________ _______________? e. d. LOOK___________________________________________________________________________ c. Combine the following verbs with the particles in the box and then create sentences.
Why doesn’t________________________________ stand up? (little that parrot green) e. Did _________________dog carry away_____________________meat? (brown big the) (old tough that) d. VERY OLD. When will ____________________________________call back? (young nice that girl) b. Where is________________________sneaking away to?(old man that little white) c. ETC.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 20 GENERAL SEQUENCE OF ADJECTIVES: Determ iner the a this that these those my your Ordinal number first second 27th last Quality word clean attractive handsome nice dirty foolish crazy rich poor delicious unusual tender tough ripe odd large immense modern old dark golden thin fat red tiny slender stout huge fresh ancient white Size big little small tall short Age young old antique middle-aged 6-year-old under-aged 1-month -old green Color brown grey blue 64 Noun horse city ring man boxes couples parrot girlfriend widower cake ship ham steak fruit boys building statue “Very” – Should be placed before the modifier we wish to emphasize: VERY BIG. Put the words in parentheses in the correct order: a. Exercise 1. Is this __________________________________ neighbor? ( young our very attractive) ECL ENGLISH COURSE 64 . VERY TALL. VERY STOUT.
They couldn’t carry in ______________________________cloth.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 20 GENERAL SEQUENCE OF ADJECTIVES: Determiner a an this that these those our his her Age or Temperature new cool hot cold warm old Shape odd -shaped square rectangular round broad narrow wide flat Color dark light bluish green yellowish greenish brownish reddish Material steel iron gold silver wool silk synthetic wooden plastic leather nylon German French washing ironing Japanese American Origin Gerund English 65 Noun knife gate watch chain sweater stockings material floor dish coat rug refrigerator salad dressing machine board car egg beater Exercise 1. Put the words in parentheses in the correct order: a. When are they going to lay down______________________ __________________rug? (that brownish new rectangular nylon ) e. (cotton that dark) ECL ENGLISH COURSE 65 . Why doesn’t he wash off _______________________________spoon? (old soup that greenish) c. Why is she taking off ___________________________ stockings? (light new silk very those) d. Is she going to put on ______________________________________sweater? (hot that wool yellow) b.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.