English as a crucial language.



Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary – Electronic Edition. Version 1.1. Courtney, Rosemary - Longman Dictionary of Phrasal Verbs. Fisk English Course – Books – Basic one / two, Book four, Book five, Book six, Advanced two, Free Conversation. Longman Dictionary of English Idioms. Swan, Michael and Walter, Catherine – How English Works – A Grammar Practice Book With Answers. Oxford.

Planned and Prepared by Ricardo Fernandes Marques

Copyright RICARDO FERNANDES MARQUES Rua Antônio Gonçalves 109 Porto Velho São Gonçalo, R.J Brasil








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ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 11 5 Verb Tenses Do Does Did Will Would Are Were Is Was Are Were Is Are Will Would Is Was I he she you they you you she he they you there there there there there there study speak travel to have need English German England to work to study happy tired every day? every other day? last night? tonight? every day? today? yesterday? at the moment? last night? later? last week? now? this afternoon? tonight? playing doing going to going to anybody many tasks be be going to be going to be chess with him his homework buy some food sell those CDs at your house to do a party at the club an answer for this question? an important game a meeting here tonight? this evening? ECL ENGLISH COURSE 5 .

won’t. doesn’t. will. was . would. 6 ECL ENGLISH COURSE . No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No you he she I/we they I I she he they I/we there there there there there there don’t. wasn’t. will. isn’t. won’t. would. didn’t. aren’t. was . wasn’t. aren’t. wasn’t./were. am not. wasn’t. does. wouldn’t. am. are. is. isn’t. wouldn’t. isn’t./aren’t./are. did./were./weren’t. are. was ./weren’t. is. is. was .ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 11 6 Short Answers Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes you he she I/we they I/we I/we she he they I/we there there there there there there do.

the meaning of which is different from the meaning of its separate parts: 'Look after'. 'work out' and 'make up for' are all phrasal verbs. Do you__________ ____ _____________ every day? 2. Will I ____________ ___________ _____________? 4. Will _______ __________ ___ ________ tomorrow? 3. Do ____ always_________ to _________ the ______? Expressions and Useful Phrases I’m damn right / I’m fucking right What the hell are you doing there? Whoever/Wherever/Whenever/Whatever What good would it do? Keep track of # Lose track of To make certain that you know what is happening or has happened to someone or something Take into account = To consider or remember when judging a situation. CAMBRIDGE ADVANCED LEARNER’S DICTIONARY ECL ENGLISH COURSE 7 .ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 11 7 Substitution Drills 1. Important Note Phrasal Verb A phrase which consists of a verb in combination with a preposition or adverb or both. Would _____ ________ to __________ with ______? 5.

b. After going to _________________________________________________________________ a.. Cool! That’s a very nice idea . Make questions for the answers and answers for the questions in the following dialogue. No. How about ____________________________________________________________________? a. Where _______________________________________________________________________ _? b. a. See you! b. At what time __________________________________________________________________? b. ________________________________________________________________________________? b. _______________________________________________________________ _________________ ___ ECL ENGLISH COURSE 8 .ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 11 8 Exercise 1. _________________________________________________________________________________ a. _______________________________ __________________________________________________ b. I wouldn’t. a. ______________________________________________________ _____ _______________ ______ a..

Can Could ECL ENGLISH COURSE 9 .affirmatives and negatives Possibility -affirmatives.Formal Permission .affirmatives and negatives Weak possibility.Polite Ability Present or Future Ability Past or Conditional Recommendation today? Obligation Should Must she he Expressing the same idea: Should Must Ought to Have to Expressing Possibility May Might Strong possibility . For questions we use the expression to be + likely Are you likely to travel? It can be a good idea.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 12 9 Modal Verbs May Can Could Can Could I I I you you open the window? open the window? open the window? drive speak English drive less finish and walk more? all his homework It is too hot here! It is too hot here! It is too hot here! well? three months ago? Permission . Can she come here tomorrow? Do you think she can win? It could be a good idea. negatives and interrogatives (informal) Slight or uncertain possibility.Informal Permission .

drive speak English drive less finish well.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 12 10 Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No you you you I/we I/we she he may/may not can/can’t could/couldn’t can/can’t could/couldn’t should/shouldn’t must/ doesn’t have to(need to) open the window. and walk more. three months ago. ________ ______ help her (to) ________ ____ _______? 4. ________ ________ ___________ _______ __________ ? ECL ENGLISH COURSE 10 . all his homework today. Asking Favors Can Could Informal Formal Can you help me with the homework? Could I trouble you to open the window? Prohibition Mustn`t You mustn`t park your car here! Substitution Drills 1. Could she ________ ________ ________ every _______? 3. ________ _____ ________ to ________ ______ _______? 5. open the window. _______ he__________ _______ __________ every day? 2. open the window.

outside . outside . At home. Not at home.intolerable Very High degree but tolerable Phrasal Verbs Call in Call out Send in Send out Drop in Drop out (of) Push in Push out Stay in Stay out Eat in Eat out Be in Be out Get in Get o ut To invite to enter. To shout something loudly. To cause (someone) to go outside. emphasizes closeness in time or space Instead of = in substitution According to = as stated or in conformity In spite of = in defiance of. To enter To leave ECL ENGLISH COURSE 11 . inside. etc. To penetrate or cause penetration To make (something or someone) move outwards by pushing it. At home. Not at home.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 12 Expressions Along with / together with = accompany. At home. inside. inside. outside . To fall out / To choose to leave school. To visit. Not at home. notwithstanding Due to / On account of / Because of = idea of cause 11 How to use them? Too High degree . To order to enter.

Why don’t you call her out so that she can help you out? ______________________________ _______________________________________________________ f. a. Is he usually in on the weekends? _____________________________________________________________________________________ ECL ENGLISH COURSE 12 . c. Is you r mother out? _________________________ ____________________________________________________________ c. ________________________________________________________________________________? Mark changed his mind and won’t drop out of school anymore 2. b.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 12 12 Exercises 1. ______________________________________________________ __________________________? She drops him in every other week . because of his health problem. Does she like to stay out now and then? _____________________________________________________________________________________ d. ___________________________________________________________ _____________________? He will travel instead of staying in next summer. a. D oes she eat out every weekend? _____________________________________________________________________________________ b. Make questions for these answers below. Give long answers for these questions below. _____________________________________________________________________ ___________? He wouldn’t like to eat a lot at the restaurant. How often do you eat out? ______________________________ _______________________________________________________ e. d.

every other day. tonight.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 13 13 Tag Questions I He She You They You You She He They You There There There There will wouldn’t are weren’t is was are were is are will would playing doing going to going to somebody many tasks be be study speaks traveled have need Spanish French to Australia to work to study busy tired chess with him his homework buy some food sell those CDs at your house to do a party at the club an answer for this question. today. later. an important game a meeting here every day. last night. tonight. every day. yesterday. last night. don’t I? doesn’t he? didn’t she? won’t you? would they? aren’t you? were you? isn’t she? wasn’t he? aren’t they? weren’t you? isn’t there? aren’t there? won’t there? wouldn’t there? tonight. at the moment. isn’t there? There is going to be There was going to be this evening. last week. now. wasn’t there? ECL ENGLISH COURSE 13 . this afternoon.

today. every other day. this afternoon.aren’t was . now. later.were / wasn’t .ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 13 14 Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No you he she I/we they I/we I/we she he they I/we there th ere there there will / won’t would / wouldn’t am .weren’t is / isn’t are / aren’t will / won’t would / wouldn’t study / don’t study speaks / doesn’t speak traveled / didn’t travel have need Spanish French to Australia to work to study busy tired every day. an important game a meeting here Yes/No there is / isn’t going to be tonight. every day. last night.weren’t is / isn’t was / wasn’t are / aren’t was . Yes/No there was / wasn’t going to be this evening. last week. 14 ECL ENGLISH COURSE .are / am not . at the moment. last night. yesterday. tonight. playing doing going to going to somebody/anybody many tasks be be chess with him his homework buy some food sell those CDs at my house to do a party at the club an answer for this question.were / wasn’t . tonight.

_______ _____? Phrasal Verbs Figure out Find out Pick out Put out Throw out Turn out Work out Help out Try out Make out Come out Look out Run out of Break out of Check out To calculate . To produce. ________________ ______________? 4. You ______________ meat. To succeed. To get rid of (something or someone). To decipher. To lack something. to examine something or get more information about it in order to be certain that it is true. safe or suitable ECL ENGLISH COURSE 15 . To turn off lights. To be published. To understand. To exercise. To result. To be careful (usually in the imperative form). To find a solution. ___________ ___________? 2. To leave a place by running. To discover. To extinguish fire . To help. ___________ _____________? 3. To understand (something or someone). To select. To cast out. She ___________ ______________. To test. To choose. To come outside . To reach a result.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 13 15 Substitution Drills 1. To calculate. To understand. To put (something or someone) outside. ______ ________ to England ________ _______. To be expressed in speech. To experiment. To escape from. He________ ___________ yesterday. To result.

I prefer something lighter. SCARCELY. We use IT in question tags to refer to NOTHING. Old and Useful Sayings “All is well that ends well. NO. On the tip of one’s tongue. I’m not cut out for this kind of work. and WILL / WOULD / CAN / CAN`T /COULD YOU ? (Informal) to tell or ask people to do things. can you? After imperatives. We use non -negative tags after NEVER. somebody and everybody (and no one etc. Wait.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 13 Special Tag Questions I am right. After negative imperative we use WILL YOU ? After Let’s we use SHALL WE? We use THEY to refer to nobody. You can’t lend me some money.).G. = To be about to say s omething. Wait! I have got his name on the tip of my tongue.” “A good example is better than a sermon.” “Birds of a feather flock together.” Half a loaf is better than no bread. Soccer is not my cup of tea. Let’s have a party. E.G. By the looks of things. One’s cup of tea = What one likes.” “Don’t bite the hand that feeds you. By the looks of things… = According to what I can see… E.” “All that glitters is not gold. LITTLE. love flies out the window. have talent for E. Do y ou think he did that on purpose? Be cut out (for) = To be suited for.” “Money is the root of all evil. Sit down.G. = Be carefull not to get robbed. NOBODY. Close the door. E.” Idiomatic Expressions and Useful Phrases Look out you don’t get robbed. Don’t forget. long skirts are coming in again Come in = Become fashionable / seasonable ECL ENGLISH COURSE 16 . aren’t I? will you? will you? won’t you? shall we? 16 Informal questions / requests often use negative sentence + question tag.G.” “When poverty comes in the door. HARDLY.G.” “Many hands make light work.” “There’s no smoke without fire. we can use WON`T YOU? to invite people to do things. E. On purpose = Intentionally # By chance = not intentionally.

____________________ __________________________? e.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 13 17 Exercises 1. ______________________________? Of course! 2. She likes to play with you. ___________ ______________________________________? m. ______________________________________? b. He will ask her out next time he sees her. The teacher broke his leg last weekend. The policeman came to school yesterday. he is a lovely little boy. ___________________________________________________ ___________? k. I am cooking tonight. Nothing matters. b. ____________________________________________________________ _? l. _______________________________? No. _____________________________________________ ___. You never wrote her a letter. a. You’re never happy. ____________ _________________________? He would enjoy going out with us. _______________________________? Yes. There’s scarcely enough time. ____________________________________________________________? i. ________________________________________? c. ______________________________________ __________ ___? d. a. _________________________ ______________________ _. Complete the sentences below with the right tag questions. ______________________________________________________________? h. There’s no milk. f. she didn’t work hard last night. _______________________________ ____________________? ECL ENGLISH COURSE 17 . Everybody’s here. c. d. She hardly spoke. _______________________________________________________________? j. Make sentences with tag questions for these answers below. ________________________________________ ___? g. _____________________________________ ________ ___. _________________________________________________. ______________________________? Yes . Joanne doesn’t like to work here.

Cont. Used when we want to refer to a past action that happened before another one. 3rd person singular.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 14 Don’t be so worried about these little things. Indefinite Past Time. Perf. Pres. Pres. Pres. Used with periods of time not finished at the moment of speaking. It is also used to give emphasis. Used when we want to refer to a past action that was completed or interrupted before another one. Pres. Perf. Had she home Had you been working out trying to hide this secret when she arrived? when you found out the truth? Past Perf. 3rd person singular. Something that started in the past and comes up to the present. Perf. Cont. Has Have he you gotten sold good grades your car? recently? Has he traveled this month? studying hard doing her homework? the house when you arrived? when you arrived? this semester? Have you been Pres. Pres. # 3. Past Perf. Has Have he you moved? eaten a lot today? # 3. The action may repeat or continue. It is also used to give emphasis. Perf. # 2. Pres. Something that started in th e past and comes up to now. 3 rd person singular. Perf. 3 rd person singular. Cont. 3rd person singular. # 1. Pres. # 2. Has she been Had they already painted left Past Perf. Perf. Perf. Had she been ECL ENGLISH COURSE 18 . 18 The Perfect Tenses Part I Have you worked hard lately? # 1. Cont. Perf. 3rd person singular. Past Perf. You’ll see they are not so difficult.

Yes/No I/we have / haven’t sold Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No he I/we he I/we has / hasn’t have / haven’t has / hasn’t have / haven’t moved . when I/w e arrived. when she arrived.ECL ENGLISH COURSE Be happy! Give it a Try. the house when I/we arrived. eaten traveled been studying hard doing her homework . Don’t be so pessimistic! LESSON 14 19 Yes/No Yes/No I/we he have / haven’t has / hasn’t worked gotten hard good grades my/our car. when I/we found out the truth . a lot today. this semester . Yes/No she has / hasn’t been Yes/No they had / hadn’t already painted left Yes/No she had / hadn’t home Yes/No I/we had / hadn’t been Yes/No she had / hadn’t been working out trying to hide this secret ECL ENGLISH COURSE 19 . lately. this month. recently.

ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 14 20 Substitution Drills 1. Be Greek to = To b e incomprehensible. We ________ ___________ a__________.” “Handsome Is as handsome does.” “Beauty is in the eye of the beholder. daydream. Come off it! = Stop lying. break off a habit. ECL ENGLISH COURSE 20 . joking. or being pretentious. first served. Put one’s foot into it = To say something stupid and embarrassing. _______ you ___________ _____________ books ___________? 4.” “Beauty lies in lover’s Eyes. haven’t _______? How long have you worked here? How long have you worked here? I’ve worked here for three months. Had _______ ______ ________ before _________ ____ ______? 2. Old and Useful Sayings “Water dripping day by day wears the hardest rock away. Waste one’s breath = To speak without result. Be a steal = Something sold very cheaply.” “Don’t bite off more than you can chew.” Idiomatic Expressions and Useful Phrases For good = Forever .” “Like father like son. Kick (a) habit = To stop. They _______ had ___________ ___________. Has _________ ______________ ____________________ lately? 3.” “Money doesn’t grow on trees.” “Where there’s a will there’s a way. I’ve worked here since January.” “First come. __________ _______? 5. be a great bargain. Build castles in the air = To p lan things which will probably no succeed.” “Don’t put the cart before the horse.

No I haven’t fallen in love yet. To not go onto an area. very soon. or to do it repeatedly. To not eat. drink or use something that can harm you. To leave a place or something with a springing movement. drink or use something that can harm you. or to stop someone else from doing this. Used when the answer is negative and there’s no intention of doing. = To keep off . To continue to be in a place. To leave a train. usually in order to start a journey. We had to send off to Ireland for a replacement part. Yes I have just fallen in love Used in questions – Uncommon things or in affirmatives to emphasize. especially work. Used when the answer is negative but there is intention of doing. train. Used in affirmative answers to confirm an “ever” question or to emphasize. No I have never fallen in love. To start ( military) Send off/away Keep on Keep off Stay on Stay off Get on Get off Jump on Jump off ECL ENGLISH COURSE 21 . To go onto a bus. to leave a place. To criticize someone as soon as they have done something wrong or said something that you disagree with. (something such as school). job or school after the other people who were with you have left. or to stop someone or something going onto an area. To continue no t to attend. Yes I have already fallen in love. aircraft or boat. bus or aircraft. or very recently 21 Phrasal Verbs Send on To send something from someone's old address to their new one (to / for)To write to an organization or place to ask them to send you something: I've sent off for a not eat.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 14 Present Perfect Usage Have you ever fallen in love? This is the best food I have ever eaten. To continue to be at a distance from something. To stop something touching or harming someone or something. Used to say that something happened now. To continue doing something without stopping. To continue doing something.

________________________________________________________________ ____________ ____? She has been reading that book for more than three months. ECL ENGLISH COURSE 22 . Make questions for these answers below. g. __________________________________________________________________________ ______? He has brought those new tapes for you . ____________________________________________________________________________ ____? No. a. he hasn’t been there yet. f. c. ________________________________________________________________ ________________? They have been trying to fix the bus since morning. d. __________________________________________________________________________ ______? He had already come back from London when you decided to ask him to bring some books for you. ________________________________________________________________________________? They have read that book because of the paper they are preparing . ________________________________________________________________________________? Traveling abroad is what I have ever wanted . b. j. ________________________________________________________________________________? I have never tried to do something illegal. ________________________________________________________________________________? I had been running for thirty minutes when you called me out. e. i.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 14 22 Exercises 1. h. ________________________________________________________________________________? She has been there lots of times this month.

Why had she sold the furniture before phoning you? _____________________________________________________________________________________ d. Where have you been lately? _____________________________________________________________________________________ c. How long have you been talking over with that girl on the phone? _____________________________________________________________________________________ e. Give long answers for these questions below. Have you ever had an affair? ____________________________________________________________________ ________________ j.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 14 23 2. a. What had she done before you told her the truth? __________________ ___________________________________________________________________ i. Have you already had lunch ? _____________________________________________________________________________________ g. What has she just done? _________________________________________________________________________________ ____ b. Have you ever thought about living abroad? Where? _____________________________________________________________________________________ ECL ENGLISH COURSE 23 . Have you ever had to do something you really hated? What? Why? _____________________________________________________________________________________ f. Where have you been running these days ? _____________________________________________________________________________________ h.

He ______________ to be the wisest wizard in that old world. We must try to face the truth. Many powerful and wise knights _______________ already ___ ___________ to _____________ the Beast before him. Complete the text below with the appropriate verb tense. Merlin. I’m so sorry __________ _________________ the winner was the seven-head dragon. We must bear in mind life is made of victories and defeats. A long time ago. in his soul. He could not _______________ what he ________________ inside his heart. That’s a real ending. ___________ ________ him a visit in order ___________ ______________ his sorceries ______________. It _______________ almost a week and after storms. After some moons the Day finally ____ ____________. He ____________ never ____________ a creature as dangerous and wicked as the sevenhead dragon. believing that it could be helpful. himself. He _________________ the great wizard book . He ______________ himself for the great battle. but none ______ _____________. Once he ______________ to_______________ with an old and powerful dragon. on a distant land there _____________ a man who _____________ beyond the woods. Be prepared for both of them. thunders and groans the victor _____________ ________________ tall in the middle of the battlefield. For those who _________________ the winner____________ the wizard. Life is not a fairy tale. To manage To have To read To swallow To be To feel To face To pay To smash To take To try To live To come To hide To stand To reveal To claim To give away To be To believe To fight To prepare To defeat To promise ECL ENGLISH COURSE 24 .ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 14 24 3. The dragon ____________ ______________ to ________________ his head and ______________ his viscera.

ECL ENGLISH COURSE 25 . Used to describe an action which. Possibility in the past weaker than MUST HAVE. Perf. Unreal past situation . will be past or completed. Unreal past situation What will you have done Whom would you What may have gone with have happened to the book? have happened to him have happened have talked to? have left her purse? by the end of the year? if they had invited you for the party? it is not here on the desk. Unreal past situation or Criticism (You might have told me about that!). Criticism (You could have helped me!) Recommendation (past action) Strong p robability or Conclusion of a past action. Perf. Perf. Cond. at some time in the future. Slight or uncertain possibility in the past. Cond. Perf.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 15 25 The Perfect Tenses Part II Fut. What might if he had jumped out of the window? if you hadn’t turned down that proposal? What could Whom Where should must you she Cond. Possibility in the past weaker than MUST HAVE.

if I / we hadn’t turned down that proposal.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 15 26 I / We I / We It will would may have have gone with have fallen have graduated Martha behind the d esk. He might I / We could have lost I / We should She must have talked to have left her purse ECL ENGLISH COURSE 26 . inside my car. broken his leg lots of money Jaime’s sister. by the end of the year. Have you already checked it out? if he had jumped out of the window. if they had invited me / us for the party.

To interest or excite you. To make a device operate. shoes. or to cause a device to play something. Turn the TV off. To stop someone feeling interested or excited. Switch on Switch off Turn on Turn off Put on Put off ECL ENGLISH COURSE 27 . such as a CD or video.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 15 27 Phrasal Verbs To use a switch to change a device from one state or type of operation to another. they become heavier. To tell someone that you cannot see them or do something for them. especially sexually. To change a device from one state or type of operation to another. To use a switch to change a device from one state or type of operation to another. they suddenly start to feel or behave in that way. by pressing a switch. If someone switches on a particular emotion or behavior. Switch the TV on. To take someone's attention away from what they want to be doing or should be doing . or sto p them from doing something. Turn the TV on. To decide or arrange to delay an event or activity until a later time or date. To stop giving your attention to someone or something. until a later time . make-up or something similar. To cover part of the body with clothes. To change a device from one state or type of operation to another. but usually not sincerely. Switch the TV off. especially sexually: Short girls really turn me on. To pretend to have a particular feeling or way of behaving which is not real or natural to you: Why are you putting on that silly voice? If people or animals put weight on.

If a light or a machin e goes off. To become worse in quality. To happen in a particular way: The protest march went off peacefully with only two arrests. will not happen. or to end an activity because it is no longer useful or possible . INFORMAL something that you say to encourage someone to say or do something. If a bomb goes off.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 15 28 Phrasal Verbs Go on Go off Call on Call off To start operating. especially a quality that you have. To use something. it fires. it is not good to eat or drink any more because it is too old. Used when encouraging or asking someone to do something. it stops working. it explodes. (sth off) To decide that a planned event. To leave a wife. husband or partner in order to have a sexual or romantic relationship with someone else. To start talking again after a pause. To talk in an annoying way about something for a long time . If a warning device goes off. To visit someone for a short time . to stop attacking someone or something. If a gun goes off. or sometimes a person. in order to achieve something. but just a small one. Something that you say in order to agree to do or allow something that you did not want to do or to allow before: "Are you sure you don't want another slice of cake?" "Oh go on then. To continue or pass. To order a dog. To continue or move to the next thing . ECL ENGLISH COURSE 28 . it starts to ring loudly or make a loud noise . especially a sports event. UK If food or drink goes off.

” “The road to hell is paved with good intentions.” “It never rains but it pours. Would _________________________________if I had called you? 3.” “It's no use crying over spilt milk.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 15 Position of Prepositions We generally place the preposition directly before its object.” “Never look a gift horse in the mouth. What should ______________________________ last night before going to bed? ECL ENGLISH COURSE 29 . What will I write about? Which house did you go to? Whom is the girl Mark is talking to? 29 Old and Useful Sayings “Never put off until tomorrow what you can do today. 1.” “Better late than never. sometimes it may be placed at the end of the sentence. however.” “You can lead a horse to water. Will _______________________________________ by December? 4.” “All is fair in love and war. but you can't make him drink. Take a look at the examples: What do you want it for? I don’t know what he needs it for.” Complete the following questions with the suitable clauses. Could he________________________ if he hadn’t broken his leg? 2.

It’s better to ____________________ i t ___________________. i. How often do you _____________________________ ________________________________? j. When was the last time you _____________________________ __________ somebody? k. I can’t believe! You have __________________________ ________________________ a lot! f. Have you been __________________________ ________________________ this summer? h. She told me she had already _____________ ___ _______ what happened that night. How long have you_________________________ ________________________ doing this ? l. Come on! Why don’t you just ____________ _____ __________________ the meeting? b. Hey! Jane has just finished preparing something in the kitchen. a. e.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 15 30 Exercises 1. Why did she refuse to ________________________ ___________________ her cigarette? c. Where did you ______________________________ __________ these beautiful flowers? m. Don’t forget to _____________________ _ ___________ ___ the car before you buy it! g. Well at least it ________________ _________ to be a good solution for that problem. I can’t believe we have just _______________ ___________ __________ gasoline again! d. ECL ENGLISH COURSE 30 . Complete the sentences below with the right phrasal verb in the right verb tense.

GO _____________________________________________________________________________ i. MAKE ___________________________ _______________________________________________ f. PUT ____________________________________________________________________________ d. RUN _________________________________________ ________________________________ __ ON OFF OUT IN OUT OF ECL ENGLISH COURSE 31 . CALL ________________________________________________ __________________________ c.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 15 31 2. SEND __________________________________________________________________________ j. Combine the following verbs with the particles in the box and then create sentences. a. STAY_____________________________________________ __________ ____________________ g. TRY ____________________________________________________________________________ h. TURN __________________________________________________________________________ e. PUT ___________________________________________________________________________ b.

ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 16 32 The Countable and Uncountable nouns How many How much How many books beer brothers or sisters money do you do you do you read usually drink have? a month? on the weekends? How much does she have in her pocket? go to the beach? spend when you go to the beach? a month? a day? How many times How much a month do you do you How many How long CDs do you do you usually buy work out ECL ENGLISH COURSE 32 .

I / We go to the beach a month . many. none. I / We spend don’t spend when I / we go to the beach. few. I / We work out a day. for two hours a month. many CDs. few CDs. lots of money a lot of money (just) a little little two bucks much money once twice three times lots of money a lot of money (just) a little little two bucks much money lots of CDs. Much is mainly used in negatives and questions. I / We have don’t have She has doesn’t have in her pocket. a few CDs. ECL ENGLISH COURSE 33 .ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 16 33 I / We read I / We usually drink lots of books a lot of books a few books few books two books a lot (just) a little little two cans of beer a few. I / We usually buy don’t buy (a month) In this case it’s more common to omit the time expression. Many is mainly used in negatives and questions. two CDs. on the weekends. a lot of CDs. brothers or sisters.

Offers. Affirmative sentences. (Not all of them. when we expect a positive answer. Do you have any plans for tonight? No I don’t have any plans for tonight. I like no Italian restaurant.) NOT IMPORTANT WHICH.) ECL ENGLISH COURSE 34 . No I have no plans for tonight. Questions. 1. General questions. Negative sentences. Any Anything Anywhere No Nobody or No one Nothing Nowhere Yes I have some plans for tonight. Sure! Some Any * No A PART OF SOMETHIN G. (I don’t like Italian food / cuisine. (All of them. How much _________________________________________? How many _________________________________________? Indefinite Pronouns Some Somebody or Someone Anybody or Anyone Something Somewhere • • • • • • • Affirmative sentences.) NOT ANY. Would you like some help? Could you bring me some water? Oh! I’d love to.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 16 34 Complete the following questions. ___________ ___________ time ________________________? 3. with verbs in the negative form.* Negative sentences. ___________ ___________ cars ________________________? 2. ___________ ___________ times _______________________? 4. with verbs in the affirmative form. I like any Italian restaurant. I like some Italian restaurant. 5.

Make questions using how much our how many for these answers below. ________________________________________________________________________________? Hugh spent ten dollars buying new pencils. e. How many hours do you usually spend to come here by train? ____________________________ _____________________________________________________ ____ d. _______________________________________________ _________________________________? He sold lots of old books last week. ________________________________________________________________________________? I’ve spen t lots of time d oing the exercises . How much did it cost? _____________________________________________________________________________________ ECL ENGLISH COURSE 35 . How much has she spent lately? _____________________________________________________________________________________ c. 2. How much is it? _____________________________________________________________________________________ e. ________________________________ ________________________________________________? Mark likes just a little sugar in his coffee. Give long answers for these questions below. _________________________________________________________ _______________________? He doesn’t have much money. d. c.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 16 35 Exercises 1. b. a. How many times have the policemen come here this week? _____________________________________________________________________________________ b. a.

To care for a child until it is an adult.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 16 36 Phrasal Verbs To move higher. value. usually unexpectedly or in a way that was not planned. To reduce the level of something. To start to talk about a particular subject. it moves down in the sky until it cannot be seen any more. rise or increase. you find it unexpectedly. often giving it particular beliefs. Go up Go down Turn up Turn do wn Bring up Bring down ECL ENGLISH COURSE 36 . If an event such as a crime or a deal goes down. it happens or becomes available unexpectedly or in a way that was not planned. To cause someone in a position of power to lose their job. If a better situation or an opportunity to do something turns up. To be reduced in price. To reach as far as something: The path going up to the back door is very muddy. If a computer system goes down. To move down to a lower level or place. it happens. When the sun goes down.(with) = come down with To arrive or appear somewhere. Turn sth/sb down to refuse an offer or request. quality. level or size. amount. (on)SLANG To use the tongue and lips to touch someone's sexual organs in order to give pleasure . If something that you have been looking for turns up. it stops working. to reach or go as far as: Its roots can go down three metres.

If a system. especially something that someone has said. they stop feeling its effects. To stand up. Get up Get down Come up Come down B reak up Break down ECL ENGLISH COURSE 37 . INFORMAL to feel less excited after a very enjoyable experience. (to) To start to direct your efforts and attention towards something. If a price or a level comes down. it fails because there is a problem or disagreement. it starts to grow stronger. or to tell or help someone to do this. it rises. To be unable to control your feelings and to start to cry. their marriage or their relationship ends. (on) To punish or criticize a person or activity very strongly. it becomes available. If a machine or vehicle breaks down. their voice can not fully be heard. (against) To have to deal with a problem. it stops working. To divide something into many pieces. If something gets you down. To organize a group of people to do something. If information comes up on a computer screen. If the wind gets up. (with) To start to suffer from an illness. To be mentioned or talked about in conversation.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 16 37 Phrasal Verbs To wake up and get out of bed. especially one that is not serious. To write something. it becomes lower. (with) If a marriage breaks up or two people in a romantic relationship break up. it makes you feel unhappy and dissatisfied. (to) To reach the usual or necessary standard. To move towards someone. If a person comes down from a drug. To swallow. it appears there. relationship or discussion breaks down. If a job or opportunity comes up. When the sun or moon comes up. usually unexpectedly. To happen. (with) To suggest or think of an idea or plan. If someone who is talking on a mobile phone is breaking up. To fall and land on the ground.

ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 16 38 Exercises 1. I can’t believe we have just _____________________ _______________. a. I’m still sleepy! d. The food didn't ________________________ ____________ __________ my expectations l. Don’t forget to get a coat or you may ______________ ___________ _________ a cold! g. Could you please ___________________ ___ it __________________ for me? k. Hey asshole! ____________________ ____________ ___ ____________what you’re doing! e. When was the last time you _________________ ____________ __________ somebody? j. I can’t believe! You _______________________ __________________ _______________ her ! f. Now that Andrew’s parents died. Complete the sentences below with the right p hrasal verb in the right verb tense. h. Do you know why the boss is upset with you? Yeah! I haven’t________________ ________________ ____________ good results lately. When was the last time this washing machine __________________ _____________? i. who will _________________ him ______________? b. Can you hear what he is speaking? Yeah! Oh I can’t. Some people didn’t like my book. ECL ENGLISH COURSE 38 . Why did she ____________________________ _ _______________________ that proposal? c. Well at least they didn’t ____________________ _____________ _____________ me.

GO _____________________________________________________________________________ i. BREAK ________________________________________________________________________ UP UP WITH DOWN DOWN WITH / ON / TO ECL ENGLISH COURSE 39 . TURN ___________________________________________________________________ _______ e.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 16 39 2. GET ____ __________________________________________________________ ______________ f. BRING_________________________________________________________________________ h. TURN _________________________________________________________ __________ _______ d. GET_____________________________________________________________________________ g. a. BREAK ________________________________________________________________________ j. COME __________________________________________________________________________ c. Combine the following verbs with the particles in the box and then create sentences. COME ______________________________________________ ___________________________ b.

If it rains. What are you going to do Where can we go Do you think she may get worse What will you do? What can we do? Where can we go? if he calls you tonight? if we don’t have any money? if she doesn’t take the medicines? Present Unreal If you had lots of money If you received a strange phone call If they studied hard Where would you take her to How late would you wake up Do you think they might work there What would you do? What would you do? What could happen to them? if you could ask her out? if you didn’t have to work the following day? if they spoke good English? Past Unreal If you hadn’t missed the party If she hadn’t broken up with you If he hadn’t stopped drinking What would she have done Where could you have gone Do you think he might have won Whom would you have flirted with? Where could you have taken her to? What could have happened to us? if she had seen you with that girl? if you hadn’t woken up so late? if he had bet? ECL ENGLISH COURSE 40 .ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 17 40 Future Possible If you meet him tomorrow . If she is late.

ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 17 41 Future Possible If I / we meet him tomorrow. We could / might have died. if she doesn’t take the medicines Present Unreal If I / we had lots of money If I / we received a strange phone call If they studied hard I / We would take her to heaven I/ We would wake up at about 9:00 A. if I / we hadn’t woken up so late.M Oh! I think they might / could work there I / We would travel around the world. if he had bet. They could / might get better grades. I could have taken her to Paradise. I’m going to make things clear We / You can go nowhere I think she may / can die I / We will invite him for the party. We / You can do nothing. We / You can / may go to the movies. If it rains. if I / we could ask her out. Past Unreal If I /we hadn’t missed the party If she hadn’t broken up with me If he hadn’t stopped drinking She would have slapp ed me I / We could have gone to the zoo Oh! I think he might / could have won I /we Would have flirted with everything in a skirt. ECL ENGLISH COURSE 41 . If she is late. if she had seen me with that girl. if they spoke good English. if I / we didn’t have to work the following day. if he calls me tonight. I / We could call the police. if we / you don’t have any money.

he won’t trouble you anymore. If they had finished the project. c. If I worked out more often. they could have gone there. we would have helped her. __________________________________________________. _ ____________________________________________________. If she is here. I will buy new clothes. she would give him a chance. ___________________________ ________________________________________. g. h. f. _ __________ _______ ______________________________. If____________ ___________________________________________. b. I would tell you everything. If___________________________________________________. If__________________________________________________. If____________________________________________________. If_______________________________________________. j. ______________________________________________________. e. k. Complete the sentences below with the right clause. d. _________________________________________________. If you are feeling lonely. If________________________ ________________________. a.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 17 42 Exercises 1. i. If they came here more often . ECL ENGLISH COURSE 42 . l. If he had paid attention to her.

_________________________ _______________________________________________________? She would help me with this . 3. c. b. ________________________________________________________________________________? I would never hurt you . e. What would you do if you lost your job? _________________________________________________________________________________ ____ e. ________________________________________________________________________________? I will do my bes t. d. What would you have done if you had had money 10 years ago? _____________________________________________________________________________________ c. Where will you go on your next vacation if you have money ? _____________________________________________________________________________________ d. a. ________________________________ ________________________________________________? He would have tried to call off the meeting . Make If-Clause questions for these answers below.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 17 43 2. Where could you have gone if your friends had called you ? ______ _______________________________________________________________________________ ECL ENGLISH COURSE 43 . ________________________________________________________________________________? They can help people. Give long answers for these questions below . a. What would you do if your girlfriend/boyfriend cheated on you? _____________________________________________________________________________________ b.

(Person)To gradually become an adult. To produce a new idea or plan. To fail. To show interest or surprise: The news that he was getting married really made her sit up. To invent. To sit with a straight back. Hold sth down to keep something. but I fall down on the written work. To stay awake and not go to bed although it is late. it develops there or in that way. To have a particular result or effect: It all added up to a lot of hard work for all of us. hurry (sb/sth) up To move or do things more quickly than normal or to make someone do this. (City) If a town or city grows up in a particular place or way. To not be good at something in comparison with another thing: I'm quite good at speaking Chinese.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 17 44 Phrasal Verbs Climb up Climb down Sit up Sit down Add up Grow up Hurry up Speed up Think up Hold down To go up. at a low level. To move your body so that the lower part of it is resting on a seat or on the ground. Add up to sth (AMOUNT) to become a particular amount. To fall to the ground. Add (sth) up to calculate the total of two or more numbers. especially costs. Hold sb/sth down to keep someone or something in a particular place or position and to stop them from moving. To change your opinion or admit that you were wrong (over). or to make something happen or move faster. To happen or move faster. Fall down Let down ECL ENGLISH COURSE 44 . Let (sb) down (DISAPPOINT).

or if someone starts one up.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 17 45 Phrasal Verbs Make up Cut down Slow down Set up Set down Start up Catch up Settle down Look down on To invent. If a business or other organization starts up. To prepare. To write or print something. usually with your partner. To prepare something for use. (with) To reach someone in front of you by going faster than them. especially to record it in a formal document. or someone starts it up. To become slower. or to make someone or something become slower. consider someone inferior. To start living in a place where you intend to stay for a long time. organization. way of working. etc. system. (in) To become familiar with a place and to feel happy and confident in it. To despise. To become quiet and calm. it is created and starts to operate. To arrange for an event or activity to happen. If a vehicle or engine starts up. To reach the same quality or standard as someone or something else. it starts to work. (on) To reduce. If a vehicle sets down a passenger. especially by putting the different parts of it together. or to make someone become quiet and calm. To establish someone or yourself in a business or position: After he left college. to formally establish a new company. To make a tree or other plant fall to the ground by cutting it near the bottom. his father set him up in the family business. (for) To compensate for. ECL ENGLISH COURSE 45 . To Complete. To replace. To be less active and relax more. it stops so that the passenger can get out.

Mr. I went to the doctor and he told me ________________ ______________ _____________. I’ll never __________________________________ you ________________________________! ECL ENGLISH COURSE 46 . I can’t believe she _____________________________ ______________________ that story! d. The car didn’t _ ________ ___________________ __ ____________________ this morning! f. Lea needs money. She is the kind of girl who likes to _______ _______ _____ _____ _________ poor boys. h. Complete the sentences below with the right p hrasal verb in the right verb tense.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 17 46 Exercises 1. I’ve got to ___________ ____ ________ __ something really good to increase the sales. Smith asked us to ______________________ _________ _____________ production. Have you finished _______________________________ _______________ the numbers? k. j. Hey ! ______________________________ _______________________ or we’ll miss the bus! i. Now that Andrew passed the exams and I flunked. g. b. a. e. I think I won’t___________ _______________ __________ him. Why doesn’t she ____________ _________ ________ her expenses ? c.

BRING_________________________________________________________________________ h. CLIMB _________________________________________________________________________ UP DOWN ECL ENGLISH COURSE 47 . Combine the following verbs with the particles in the box and then create sentences. LET ________________________________________________________________ ____________ j. SLOW_________________________________________________________________ _________ i. THINK _____________________________________________________________ ____________ d. GROW ________________________________________________________________________ b.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 17 47 2. a. CATCH _________________________________________________________________________ e. SIT _____________________________________________________________________________ f. MAKE _________________________________________________________________________ c. CUT ____________________________________________________________________________ g.

ECL ENGLISH COURSE 48 . She said she was going to travel that night. He s aid he wasn’t studying that moment.” He said: “I can’t drive.” He said: “I don’t have (need) to study hard.” He said: “It may be a good idea!” He asked me: “will you come tonight?” He asked me: “what are you doing?” He asked: “Close the door!” He said to me: “Don’t close the door!” Indirect Speech He said he worked hard every day.” She said to me: “I will travel tomorrow. He said he had been studying .” He said: “I’m studying now.” He said: “I’ve studied a lot. He said he (had) played soccer the day before.” He said: “I’m not studying now .” He said: “I didn’t play soccer yesterday.” He said: “I haven’t studied a lot. She said she was going to buy a car. He said he hadn’t studied a lot. He said he didn’t work hard every day. She said she’d have finished it by afternoon.” She said: “I was going to buy a car. He said he had (needed) to study hard.” She said: “I’m not going to travel tonight. He said It might be a good idea! He asked me if I would come that night. She said she wasn’t going to buy a car.” She said: “I’ll have finished it by afternoon.” He said: “I wasn’t studying.” He said: “I played soccer yesterday. He said he could drive.” He said: “I don’t work hard every day. He said he hadn’t been studying.” He said: “I must study hard. She told me she wouldn’t travel the following day . She said she wasn’t going to travel that night. She told me she would travel the following day.” She said: “I wasn’t going to buy a car. He asked what I was doing. He said he couldn’t drive. He asked to close the door. He said he was studying that moment. He said he didn’t have (need) to study hard. He said he had studied a lot. He said he (hadn’t) didn’t play (ed) soccer the day before. He told me not to close the door.” He said: “I can drive.” She said to me: “I won’t travel tomorrow.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 18 48 Direct and Indirect Speech Direct Speech He said: “I work hard every day.” He said: “I was studying.” She said: “I’m going to travel tonight.

He says he doesn’t like flowers. or Neg. according to the previous question. I enquired whether she was coming by road or by air. future or present perfect reporting verbs. especially in a formal style. If or Whether + an Aff. I’ll tell her your idea is great. or Neg. Tenses don’t change after present. because there’s no important change of time. To + verb( Infinitive ) not to+ verb( Negative infinitive ) Might Could Shou ld/ought to Would Past Perfect Yes/no questions are reported with if or whether. The driver asked if/whether I wanted to go downtown. It’s preferable to use whether before or.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 18 49 Tense Changes Simple Present Simple Past Future Immediate Future Future in the Past Present Continuous Past Continuous Present Perfect Future Perfect Can Must Don’t have to(need to) May Questions (with a question word) Questions (with no question word) Affirmative imperative Negative imperative Might Could Should/ought to Would Past Perfect Simple Past Simple Past or Past Perfect Conditional Future in the Past Future in the Past Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Conditional Perfect Could Had to / Needed to Didn’t have to (need to) Might The Question word + an Aff. structure. The government has announced that taxes will be raised ECL ENGLISH COURSE 49 . according to the previous question. structure.



Word Changes
Last week Next week Now This morning This afternoon This evening Today Tonight Yesterday Tomorrow LAST … NEXT… Ago This/these Here The week before The following week/The next week/The week after Then / That day/right away/At that moment That morning That afternoon That evening That day That night The day before The following/next day THE… BEFORE THE NEXT/FOLLOWING… Before That/those There

Verbs that imply a certain direction may also have to be changed. Examples: come go bring take No and Yes are eliminated in indirect speech.

Idiomatic Expressions and Useful Phrases How do you like…? = What’s you r impression of…? E.G. How do you like our weather? I think it’s very hot or I find it really hot.

Old and Useful Sayings “Speak of the devil and he appears.” “He put his foot in his mouth.” “A word to the wise is enough.” “Out of sight, out of mind.”





Phrasal Verbs
To avoid. To keep away. To not go somewhere or near something, or to prevent someone from going somewhere or near something. Turn s b away: to not allow someone to enter a place. To move your face so you are not looking at something. To leave or escape from a person or place, often when it is difficult to do this. To go somewhere to have a holiday, often because you need to rest. (with) To succeed in avoiding punishment for something : If I thought I could get away with it, I wouldn't pay any tax at all. Take sth away: to remove something. To subtract a number. Throw sth away/out:to get rid of something that you do not want any more. Throw sth away: to waste a skill or opportunity. To give sth free of charge. To tell people something secret, often without intending to. To show someone's secret feelings. To leave a place or per secretly and son suddenly. (from) To avoid dealing with a problem or difficult situat ion. Run away (with) sb (FEELING).If a feeling or idea runs away with you, you cannot control it and it makes you behave stupidly:Sometimes my imagination runs away with me and I convince myself that they are having an affair. To escape from someone, free oneself of. To remove things from a table after a meal. (of sound, light, wind) To diminish gradually until it ceases. To put things back in their place.

Stay away

Turn away

Get away

Take away Throw away

Give away

Run away

Break away Clear away Die away Put away





Phrasal Verbs
Answer back Fall back (on) Hold back Keep back Think back Look back (on) Take back Turn back To reply to someone rudely. To make use of sth in an emergency = to turn to someone for help. To control (feelings) To have sth as a secret. To remember. To think about the past. To retract sth said or written. (To begin to) return. To return to a place after you have been somewhere else. get sth back (BE GIVEN) To be given something again that you had before. Get sb back . (ALSO get back at sb) INFORMAL : to do something unpleasant to someone because they have done something unpleasant to you. Ge t back (to)sth : to start doing or talking about something again. Get back (to) sb: to talk to someone again, usually on the telephone, in order to give them some information or because you were not able to speak to them before. Send sth back : to return something to the person who sent it to you, espe cially because it is damaged or not suitable . Give sth back: to return something to the person who gave it to you. Call back (RETURN): to return to a place in order to see someone or collect something. Call sb back (TELEPHONE): to telephone someone again, or to telephone someone who called you earlier. Put sth back (REPLACE): to return an object to where it was before it was moved. Bring sth back (RETURN): to return from somewhere with something. (REMEMBER): to make someone think about something from the past. (DO AGAIN): to start to do or use something that was done or used in the past.

Get back

Send back Give back

Call back

Put back

Bring back



She asked me: “Have you studied a lot lately?” _________________________________________________________________________________ 2. a. He said he had already painted the house.” _________________________________________________________________________________ d. _________________________________________________________ ________________________ b. She asked them: “What are you going to do this afternoon?” ________________________________________________________________________ _________ c. a. _________________________________________________________________________________ ECL ENGLISH COURSE 53 . She told me she wouldn’t miss this class. She asked them if they were able to finish the project. _________________________________________________________________________________ d.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 18 53 Exercises 1. Change into direct speech. They told me to calm down. He said: “I like music. Change into indirect (Reported) speech.” ______________________________________________________________ ___________________ b. They said to me: “We must study hard. _________________________________________________________________________________ c.

a. e. Hey just a second. Combine the following verbs with the particles in the box and then create sentences . THROW _______________________________ ________________________________________ b. I’ve been trying to _________ ___________________ ___ _______________ _____ my tears.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 18 54 3. PUT ____ ________________________________________________________________________ BACK AWAY ECL ENGLISH COURSE 54 . When you finish reading this book. _____________________________ i t ___________! 4. ANSWER______________________________________________________________________ d. a. I can’t believe that! Why don’t you __________ __________ ______ your childhood? d. I’ve gotta hang up but in a few minutes I’ll ________________ _________ _________you. RUN _____ __________________________________________________________ ____________ c. CALL __________________________________________________________________________ e. c. Complete the sentences below with the right phrasal verb in the right verb tense. Now that I’m alone I don’t know who I will _________________ __________ _________ b.

WHICH – Things and animals. Where. whom I talked to yesterday. I talked to her yesterday. She loves cooking. The cat which I’ve taken care of since it was born is yellow. Joe. We use to join sentences replacing the subject or the object. The dog which doesn’t like to play is mine. WHOSE – People. I’ve taken care of him since it was born. WHOM – People. His mother won the lottery. WHICH – Things and animals. Joe needs to travel. The cat is yellow . needs to travel. The city where I was brought up is far from here He’ll never forget the day when he got his first job. When. Jane. We use to join sentences replacing the object. In this case subject. things and animals. We use to join sentences replacing the subject or the object. I can’t understand why she did that. ECL ENGLISH COURSE 55 . Jane. who loves cooking. always helps her mother.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 19 55 RELATIVE PRONOUNS Jane always helps her mother. WHO – People We use to join sentences replacing the subject. Jane is sad. is sad. whose mother won the lottery. We use to join sentences replacing the possessive adjective or any other word that indicates ownership. The dog is mine. I couldn’t notice what she did at the party. It doesn’t like to play. What and Why can also be used as relative pronouns. In this case object.

ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 19 Defining and non-defining relative clauses Relative Clause Defining Nondefinig Use provides essential information about the subject or object.. The girl I love is cute. (or)So will I. SENTENCES = “ALSO” She doesn’t like him. WHOSE can never be omitted. (or) Neither do I. I will too. (an old model is irrelevant to the identification of the car. How to use them? “TOO” AND “SO” USED IN SHORT AFF. The girl who loves me is cute. which is an old model. SENTENCES = “ALSO” She will travel. In this case it cannot be omitted.” “A burnt child dreads the fire. Punctuation 56 Example The drivers who were drunk were arrested. The green racing car. “EITHER” AND “NEITHER” USED IN SHORT NEG. Omission of relative pronouns Relative pronouns can be omitted when they are the object of the relative clause. because who is the subject of the relative clause.) without commas between commas THAT cannot be used in non-defining relative clauses. crashed into the wall.” “Don’t wash the family’s dirty linen in public. (not all.” “Make do with what you have. I don’t either. Old and Useful Sayings “It takes two to make a fight.” ECL ENGLISH COURSE 56 . can’t be omitted povides additional information about the subject or object. can be omitted withou distorting the meaning. The girl who(m) / that I love is cute. but only the ones who were drunk).

To discuss a problem or situation with someone. they fall to the ground:She tripped and fell over. Fall over sth/sb (COVER) LITERARY: to cover something or someone: A shadow fell over her work and she looked up to see who was there .ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 19 57 Phrasal Verbs Go over Talk over To examine. On time = at exactly the right time. To come to a place. To flow over the side. to hurt someone`s feelings Otherwise = if not. Do sth over (DO AGAIN). For the time being = for now. To jump from one side to another. the vehicle hits and drives over them. or else ECL ENGLISH COURSE 57 . move from one place to another. If someone falls over. or move towards someone. To make fall by pushing or hitting. temporarily Step on one`s toes = To offend someone. often to find out their opinion or to get advice before making a decision about it. If a vehicle or its driver runs over someone or something. To consider carefully. To quickly examine something or someone. To recover from. Look over Think over Run over Jump over Do over Come over Get over Knock over Boil over Fall over Expressions In time = early enough. To seem to be a particular type of person: I watched the interview and felt he came over as quite arrogant. To redecorate.

Its owner is worried. __________________________________________________________________________ _______ j.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 19 58 Exercises 1. _______________________________________________________________________________ __ e. _________________________________________________________________________________ i. The ladder is much bigger. Jane is tired. It was imported from Italy. Debby is traveling.I need to talk to him. __________________________________________________________________________ _______ f. His tie cost a lot of money. She bought it last week. The dress is beautiful. a. Her stories are always interesting. They love old things . He was about to travel on vacation. Phil and Joane bought an old house. _________________________________________________________________________________ g. That employee was promoted. _____________________________________________________________________ ____________ c. ___________________________________________________________ ______________________ b. The boy is sick. She works a lot. Janet became very famous. _________________________________________________________________________________ ECL ENGLISH COURSE 58 . Her cat died. The dog underwent surgery. _________________________________________________________________________________ h. Join the sentences using a relative pronoun . It belongs to John. _________________________________________________________________________________ d.

LOOK___________________________________________________________________________ c. c.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 19 59 2. I can’t believe you _____________ _________ _______ your test before handing it in! d. Combine the following verbs with the particles in the box and then create sentences. b. DO _____________________________________________________________________________ OVER ECL ENGLISH COURSE 59 . What were you ______________________ ____________________ on the phone last night? 3. I’ve been ________________ it __________. but up to now I found no solution to this. a. FALL ___________________________________________________________________________ d. a. I think it`s time to ____________________ it ____________. THINK ________________________________________________________________________ b. Complete the sentences below with the right phrasal verb in the right verb tense. Tina hates her bedroom. GO ____________________________________________________________ _________________ e. Hey! be careful ________ __________ ___________ ____________ the glass beside you! e.

ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 20 Stop loving yourself and work. I fixed the car by myself. Preceded by “by” It Means alone or without help He traveled to England by himself. He looked at himself at the mirror They themselves wrote the letter. Emphasis I talked to the director myself. you fool!!! 60 REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS SUBJECT PRONOUNS I YOU HE SHE IT WE YOU THEY REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS MYSELF YOURSELF HIMSELF HERSELF ITSELF OURSELVES YOURSELVES THEMSELVES How to use them? We use the reflexive pronouns in three situations: Subject = Object She hurt herself while cooking. ECL ENGLISH COURSE 60 .

They / us / their / themselves. They painted their houses _____________________________________________________. Complete the following sentences with the suitable reflexive pronouns and cases a. We / our /by ourselves. b. Create sentences using the following pronouns: a. I / my / by myself. _________________________________________________________________________________ d. f. ________________________________________________________________________ _________ c. _________________________________________________________________________________ b. _________________________________________________________________________________ e. He / Her / himself . We ______________________________________________________should talk to the boss. He ________________________________________________ fixes the meals in his house. They need to stay awhile ______________________________________________________.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 20 61 Exercises 1. e. She / them / herself. I don’t like pork ________________________________________________________________. 2. _________________________________________________________________________________ ECL ENGLISH COURSE 61 . d. c. She would like to live ___________________________________________________ ______.

furniture. ECL ENGLISH COURSE 62 Lay down Carry in Look into Look for Do without Take over Get along with Back up Give up Run into Turn in Try on . often that is lost). someone or oneself) down. To stop. To remove by washing.He ran his motorbike into a tree. To investigate. To place (something.To drive a vehicle accidentally into an object or a person in another vehicle:I had to brake suddenly. To study something as your main subject at university: She majored in philosophy at Harvard. although it is not exactly what you want or it is not the best: She never settles for second best. To support or help someone . especially clothes. Take sth off (REMOVE): to remove something. If an aircraft. To manage without having something : I can’t do without your love. To put on a piece of clothing to discover if it fits you or if you like it. place or area . as on the ground. To go to bed ( to sleep ). To be in a vertical state or to put into a vertical state. Take off (FLY) phrasal verb . To transport or take something toward the inside of a container. To assume the responsibility. To meet by chance. Also carry off. bird or insect takes off. To leave secretly. To try to find (something or someone. and the car behind ran into me. etc.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 20 62 Phrasal Verbs Settle for Major in Sneak away Carry away Stand up Wash off Take off To accept or agree to something or to decide to have something.To examine the facts about a problem or situation. it leaves the ground and begins to fly. especially (of a person or animal) by straightening the legs . To take (sth)or (someone) away. To quit. To remove: Trash left on the beach during the day is carried away (= removed) at night by the tide. To be friendly to.

ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 20 63 Exercises 1. DO _____________________________________________________________________________ UP WITHOUT INTO FOR DOWN ECL ENGLISH COURSE 63 . LOOK___________________________________________________________________________ c. Complete the sentences below with the right phrasal verb in the right verb tense. You wouldn’t guess who I __________ _______ ______________ on the bus yesterday. Combine the following verbs with the particles in the box and then create sentences. a. LOOK___ ________________________________________ _______ _________________________ b. What can’t you _________________________________ _ _______________________ _____ ? 2. d. LAY____________________________________________________________________________ d. Wherever you go. c. At what time _______________ you usually _____________________ _______________? e. BACK __________________________________________________________________________ e. I can’t believe you ____________ _____ ______ _____________ ________ your parents! b. a. whatever you do I ____________ always___________ you _______.

Is this __________________________________ neighbor? ( young our very attractive) ECL ENGLISH COURSE 64 . Did _________________dog carry away_____________________meat? (brown big the) (old tough that) d.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 20 GENERAL SEQUENCE OF ADJECTIVES: Determ iner the a this that these those my your Ordinal number first second 27th last Quality word clean attractive handsome nice dirty foolish crazy rich poor delicious unusual tender tough ripe odd large immense modern old dark golden thin fat red tiny slender stout huge fresh ancient white Size big little small tall short Age young old antique middle-aged 6-year-old under-aged 1-month -old green Color brown grey blue 64 Noun horse city ring man boxes couples parrot girlfriend widower cake ship ham steak fruit boys building statue “Very” – Should be placed before the modifier we wish to emphasize: VERY BIG. VERY TALL. VERY OLD. ETC. VERY STOUT. Why doesn’t________________________________ stand up? (little that parrot green) e. Put the words in parentheses in the correct order: a. Where is________________________sneaking away to?(old man that little white) c. When will ____________________________________call back? (young nice that girl) b. Exercise 1.

ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 20 GENERAL SEQUENCE OF ADJECTIVES: Determiner a an this that these those our his her Age or Temperature new cool hot cold warm old Shape odd -shaped square rectangular round broad narrow wide flat Color dark light bluish green yellowish greenish brownish reddish Material steel iron gold silver wool silk synthetic wooden plastic leather nylon German French washing ironing Japanese American Origin Gerund English 65 Noun knife gate watch chain sweater stockings material floor dish coat rug refrigerator salad dressing machine board car egg beater Exercise 1. Put the words in parentheses in the correct order: a. Is she going to put on ______________________________________sweater? (hot that wool yellow) b. Why doesn’t he wash off _______________________________spoon? (old soup that greenish) c. Why is she taking off ___________________________ stockings? (light new silk very those) d. When are they going to lay down______________________ __________________rug? (that brownish new rectangular nylon ) e. They couldn’t carry in ______________________________cloth. (cotton that dark) ECL ENGLISH COURSE 65 .