Analyze of 3 different energy systems and explain their contribution to different sports and activities Dom Hughes 12 jl

All movements require energy by which the body generates energy and are determined by the intensity and duration of the activity being undertaken. Such activities that only require short bursts of effort with such activities as sprinting and jumping, which only require the body produce large amounts of energy over a short period, whereas activities like marathon running or endurance cycling require continued energy production over a longer period and at a lower rate. The energy systems are required in order to make the muscle fibres in the body contract. This is obtained from the oxidation of foods in the diet which is particularly carbohydrate and fat. When these oxidates are burned in the muscle cells ATP IS FORMED which is very rich in energy. When this substance known as ATP is formed it gives energy for muscle contraction. This is the only molecule that can supply the energy used in the contraction of muscle fibres and can be made in three ways: y y y Creatine phosphate energy systems Lactic acid energy system Aerobic energy system and Anaerobic system

Creatine phosphate energy system

ATP and creatine phosphate make up the ATP ±PCr system. This is the immediate energy system. Creatine phosphate is considered a high energy compound. When in sport the exercise intensifies creatine which is stored in the muscles is broken down to provide energy to make the substance. When PCr is broken the energy which is releases is used to revive ATP.

Once these stages are completed ATP is made without the presence of oxygen. Such work as explosive work can be achieved with this but only for short periods of time and also at maximum intensity which is the supply of PCr which is very limited.

This is a simple diagram of the creatine phosphate system.

Lactic acid energy system

The lactic system is a short term energy system. When the energy meets the requirements of higher intensity over a longer period, the result is ATP can be made by partial breakdown glucose and glycogen. The process is considered anaerobic process which suggests that it isn¶t sustainable over a long duration. The amount of maximal work which is possible in the system includes such figures as around 60 to 90 seconds.

Aerobic system This is the long term energy system. This system is used in everyday movements and light exercise. Such substances as glycogen, that with fatty acids breaks down to yield large amounts of ATP. This then produces carbon dioxide and water which do not affect the muscles ability to contract. This energy production occurs in the mitochondria. These are responsible for converting the food ingested by the cells into energy. This process is slow to engage due to it taking a few minutes for the heart to deliver oxygenated blood to working muscles. There are special formulas to explain the 3 systems :

y

Creatine phosphate energy system

ADP + CREATINE PHOSPHATE ± ATP +CREATINE y Lactic acid energy system

GLUCOUSE ± 2 ATP + 2 LACTIC ACID + HEAT GLUCOUSE ± 3 ATP + 2 LACTIC ACID +HEAT y Aerobic energy system

Glucose + oxygen ± 38 ATP + CARBON DIOXIDE +WATER +HEAT FATTY ACIDS + OXYGEN ± 129 ATP + CARBON DIOXIDE +WATER +HEAT

Anaerobic glycolysis Once the ATP- PCr starts to fade away this process which is known as anaerobic glycolysis begins to occur in the system. The Anaerobic system breaks down liver and, muscle glycogen stores without the presence of oxygen which produces the substance lactic acid. This however limits the energy production. There are different energy requirements for different sports and exercise activities. All three systems are in constant use during exercise.

This table shows the types of sport and the relative contributions made by the different energy systems. There is a certain process which happens when exercise occurs. The ATP is burned away after only 3 seconds of exercise. The creatine phosphate occurs which supplies energy for about 8 to 10 seconds. Such examples which need this amount of energy include 100m sprinters or a weightlifter. During exercise if it is for a long period of time the lactic acid energy system kicks in. However in this system this would only be true for short distance exercises such as 200 ± 400 metre run or a 100 metre swim. Also the aerobic energy system kicks where it looks after endurance events such as the 800 metrerun , a marathon run etc.