SUBARU@

Subaru of America, Inc. Brand Identification Manual
Third Edition
3.21,07

THIS MANUAL IS TO BE USED FOR ALL SUBARU PRINT COMMUNICATIONS
Corporate Employees

Subaru employees or consultants directly involved with Subaru print materials are encouraged to use the Subaru Guidelines for assistance in achieving an overall consistent Subaru Brand Identity message. These key persons have been carefully selected by the Subaru Marketing Department to act as a representative for their specific department or area of expertise. Employees are encouraged to share the information in this manual with their creative agencies/vendors, copywriters and anyone that directly affects all print materials. This manual establishes specific guidelines with the intent to create brand communication continuity.

To Vendors
Any internal or external vendor employed by Subaru is required to adhere to the strict rules in this manual. These guidelines were developed in order to provide concise logo requirements, creative reference, and strategic direction for all agencies involved with Subaru print for an overall consistent Subaru brand message. This manual establishes specific guidelines with the intent to create brand communication continuity.

REGARDING THE 'PROOF BOOK'
Key employees and internal and external vendors will also receive a set of color accurate logo print proofs in a variety of mediums to proof against. Any person(s) or agency entrusted with this 'Proof Book' must commit to using it as a reference tool for Subaru logo compliancy, reproduction and must accept full responsibility to return the 'Proof Book' to the Subaru Marketing Department if/when the relationship with Subaru is discontinued. 'Proof Book' must be returned within 30 days or risk being invoiced for the full cost of the book.

UPDATES
If you received a draft version of the Subaru of America, Inc. Brand Identity Manual please destroy the draft and replace the copy with the First Edition (updated 10/4/06). Future updates will be posted on the Corporate Intranet site. Each department representative is responsible for sharing any updates their respective agency.

THANK YOU
Thank you for helping to further promote and unify the brand image for Subaru of America, Inc. As our brand continues to develop, we will be updating these guidelines with additional information. Stay tuned for the future updates.

Table of Contents
Manual Explanation The Subaru Brand .
.

.
11 III

Star Cluster Explanation General Logo Rules Section A - Subaru Logo
• • • • • Acceptable Logos Isolation Area Rule Sizes / PlacemenL.. Common Logo Errors Available Logo Sizes .. .

....... IV

A1-2 A3 A4 A5-6 A7-8

Section B - Sub-Logos
• Region and Department Logos • Program Logos .. ...... • Affiliate ................................................. B1 ..... 2-4 B B5-8

Section C - Typography
• Subaru Approved Fonts ... . C1-3

Section D - Style Overview
• • • • • • • The Subaru Campaign , ,... D1 Campaign Definition ,.,., " , ,'.,.,., D1 , Photographic Style ,.. ." '''' ' ,................. 1-2 D Color Palette ,. ..,,.......... .. , D2 Tone of Voice ,... . , D2 Campaign Slogan ..... , , D3-6 Subaru Band Graphic..................................... D7-13
.mm. .., ••.• ,., m ... ".".,', •••••• " •• ,'," •

Section E - Technical Glossary
• Terrninoloqy, • Automotive Definitions ', , , ............",. ,.. , ,.. , ....E1-8 E11-27

Table of Contents

. The brand makes a promise to customers and key stakeholders that must be delivered at every touch point. products and services you offer. A brand is a leadership tool. The consistent presentation of the brand and its related promise."What Makes a Subaru. confidence and control. Along the way. literature. Brand identity is key to communicating the brand promise and is often the biggest investment into the success of a company. adventure. A brand defines your business. This is executed in many ways. presentations and websites. we create passion and excitement that translates into lasting customer relationships and positions the Subaru brand for long-term success. It is a unique identity of your company and your business perspective. when applied to advertising. Your brand helps your business establish a relationship with customers and define your position in the market. especially through the presentation of corporate logos and the use of a recognizable creative style. The Subaru Philosophy is to create customer excitement for what makes Subaru a smart and distinctive automotive brand . corporate collateral.The Subaru Brand What makes a Subaru. helps to connect our brand to our consumers. The goal is to provide consistency to enable our audiences to easily and clearly recognize who we are and what we stand for. a Subaru?" Our communications should reflect our brand image of fun. freedom. It is a guarantee of quality. a Subaru? A company's brand is its most important asset.

) nteredthe automobile industry in 1958. "Subaru" is the Japanese name for Pleiades. (F. indicating that it is just one part of the cluster. The SUBARU logo type expresses the brand name and is used in combination with the Star Cluster graphic (excluding certain exceptions approved by F. As a result. Pleiades has served as a trusty guide for ancient travelers around the world throughout the ages. the Six Stars Symbol and SUBARU logo have supported several generations of Subaru cars. Since then. a prominent cluster of stars in the constellation Taurus.I). The Star Cluster graphic is the symbol of the Subaru brand and when used in combination with the SUBARU logo type. The design symbolizes the six brightest "Subaru stars" of the Pleiades cluster enclosed in an ellipse.H.I.H. The easily-recognized Pleiades cluster can be seen clearly in Japan's winter skies to the right of Orion. it is the most important brand identity symbol. III . it estabe lished Subaru as its exclusive automobile brand.Explanation of the Subaru Star Cluster Logo When Fuji Heavy Industries Ltd.

• The logo must never be placed directly on a score. • Do not insert the logo or portion of the logo into text. grayscale and 'flat' logo rules to comply with Subaru Brand Identity standards. IV . • The size and spacing between logo components may not be changed. located in the lower right corner of the word "SUBARU". 2 color. The logo must not be distorted in any way and "Isolation Area Rules" must be applied. emboss. • When reproducing on a three-dimensional surface.com resource site or on the Subaru Corporate Intranet.com) in the Subaru Marketing Department to address your needs. the integrity of the logo must be maintained. fold or cut on any print materials. The logo should never be altered. • The logo must stand clear of any other elements. • Always be sure that the logo reproduces clearly and not blurry or pixilated. • Always use the original logo artwork provided by Subaru of America. • Do not use filters or special effects such as a glow. • The logo may not be screened back or used as a watermark. These logos and their various file formats can be found on the subarumarketing. Please refer to the "Available Logos Sizes" pages for reduction and enlargement restrictions. • The logo is not a typeface. • When selecting colors for the worldwide web. • Do not rotate or use the logo on an angle. • The electronic versions may be reduced or enlarged proportionately. Please refer to the "Isolation Area Rules" page of this manual.GENERAL LOGO RULES: This manual explains the regulations concerning 3D four color. blur. All photography and current national print campaigns can also be accessed on this resource site. must always be visible. great care has been taken to provide as many digital file formats and size options as are required for various printing and online mediums. Please match colors closest to PMS colors noted throughout these guidelines. Inc. Please follow a few simple rules: • The Registration Mark ®. Should a logo be required that has not been provided please contact Kathleen Walker (kwalker@subaru. do not match it to an existing typeface. sketch or any special filter or effect graphics programs may offer.

-s-

-

_-

-_.

--~-

Primary Subaru Logos 3D Subaru logo
Four-Color Process Logo

{CMYK}
The four color vertical and horizontal versions of the Subaru logo are the primary logo forms. Use this logo on National Advertising, brochures, point of sale, banners and consumer facing materials where possible. Small, medium, large, and extra large electronic variations are available.
(Please refer to the Isolation Area Rule page for logo independence and pages 8-9 for maximum and minimum size constraints.)

SUBARU., SUBARU.,

3D Subaru logo
One-Color Process Logo {Grayscale}
The one-color vertical and horizontal versions of the Subaru logo are acceptable logo treatments. These logos options should be used when twocolor printing may not be cost effective such as on newspaper ads, inter-office communications, faxes, and other Tier 3 materials. Small, medium, large, and extra large electronic variations are available.
(Please refer to the Isolation Area Rule page for logo independence and pages 8-9 for maximum and minimum size constraints.)

SUBARU.,

Please note that the 2-color (PMS 280 + Black) logo and all 3D Reverse Logo options, seen in the previous version of this manual, are no longer approved logo options.

A-1

--

---

Primary Subaru Logos
(Silkscreen/embroidery)

SUBARU,

Gtta

Flat positive logo
Flat Positive Logo-Black
Flat positive one-color vertical and horizontal versions of the Subaru logo are the primary flat logo forms for placement on light-colored backgrounds. These logos are best used for silkscreen printing on premium items such as pens, mugs, water bottles, and t-shirts. They are not recommended for use on Tier 1 consumer facing materials.

ctij) SUBARU,

@
SUBARU.

Flat Reverse/white

logo
White

Flat Negative Logo-Reverse,

@SUBARU.

Flat one color reverse vertical and horizontal versions of the Subaru logo are the secondary flat logo forms for placement on dark-colored backgrounds. These logos are best used for silkscreen printing on premium items such as, pens, mugs, water bottles, and t-shirts. They are not recommended for use on Tier 1 consumer facing materials.

Subaru Blue Flat logo

SUBARU,

etta

Flat Positive Logo-Subaru (PMS 280)

Blue

ct4D SUBARU.

Flat one-color Subaru Blue vertical and horizontal versions are acceptable flat logo forms for placement on light-colored backgrounds. Subaru Blue (PMS 280) is the only color allowance; no other colors may be used. These logos are best used for silkscreen printing on premium items such as, pens, mugs, water bottles, and t-shirts. They are not recommended for use on Tier 1 consumer facing materials.

@
SUBARU.

Flat Two Color logo
EMBROIDERY ONLY EXCEPTION

Flat Two-Color Logo(Subaru Blue PMS 280 + White)
Flat two-color vertical and horizontal versions are acceptable flat logo forms for placement on embroidered premium items such as t-shirts. Stars, outermost oval, and word "SUBARU" must appear in white. Modification of this logo is prohibited.

@SUBARU
A-2

..

or text within that isolation space.) Vertical Logo Isolation Area 1/2 or more of A 1/2 or more of A 1/2 or more of A . Also. figures. from all sides of logo). such as in the case of outlet signs and novelty items. exceptions to the isolation area rule may be approved by SOA. A white box may be placed behind the Subaru logo to ensure logo compliance at all times. 1/2 or more of A I Horizontal Logo Isolation Area 1/2 or more of A 1/2 or more of A 1/2 or more of A A = height/depth of star cluster graphic 1/2 or more of A SUBARU . When reducing or enlarging the logo. (For example: The 1/2 rule does not apply for Regional. Departmental. be sure to proportionally reduce/enlarge isolation space as well. Where there are severe restrictions on the display area. lines. make sure that the layout provides for the minimum space permitted by the isolation area rule between the edge of the paper or display area and the logo. A·3 ! . however. Be sure to maintain the minimum permissible empty space around the logo (1/2 the height/depth of the star cluster graphic. Do not place any other design elements such as photographs. A = height/depth of star cluster graphic SUBARU. illustrations.Rule Applies to All Variations of the Subaru Logo Isolation Area Rule Isolation refers to a protected area intended to maintain the independence of the Subaru Brand Identity and to preserve the logo's visibility. or logos specifically developed by SOA. or more..

When using actual logos. or create a white window somewhere on the page and place a 3D full-color or positive logo inside. the condition for the background color is not met and therefore the logo cannot be used.(1/2 or . bottom. 3D Vertical Logos.25 inches) Flat Horizontal Logos. If a smaller logo is required.5" wide I '-----1 '@SUBAAU i Flat Vertical Logos. A-4 . In this case.5" wide 1 1/2 " or 1. and Example C: Create a strip of white on the top or bottom of the layout and use a horizontal Subaru logo. 1/4" or .(1 1/2 or 1. create a strip of white at least the size specified by the isolation area rule on the top. be sure to comply strictly with the isolation area rule. the 'Flat' one-color logo options are recommended. be sure to adhere to the rules concerning minimum permissible sizes. Example B: Create a white window in the photograph place a Subaru vertical logo. such as pens.These small logos are mostly used on promotional items. In such cases.(1/4 or . left. In the case of a full-page photograph or a single background color.5 inches) 1/2" or .~ Sizes/Placement --~~- Minimum Permissible Sizes The minimum permissible sizes for both full-color and grayscale versions are the same. at l Example A: Create a strip of white on the left or right side of the layout and use a Subaru vertical logo.5 inches) Examples of Improper Logo Placement and Corrective Measures o SUSARU.25" wide 1/2" or .5" wide ~SUBARU.(1/2 or . 'Note: The figures shown are reproduced smaller than actual size for reference only. or right of the page.5 inches) 3D Horizontal Logos.

- Common Logo Errors _- - -_ SUBARU~ o o o o o Unacceptable Logos The word "SUBARU" should not be in any other color than black or white.FlLJ.-." A-5 .. Unacceptable Logos The gradient within the star cluster graphic must be a smooth transition. or logo used as a duo-tone or tri-tons is strictly prohibited. Unacceptable Logos SUBARU.. Should banding occur please replace with a flat logo or contact Subaru Marketing Department for guidance.. The dimensions of the logo and isolation area surrounding the logo must always remain proportional. SUBARU® Unacceptable Logos Narrowing or elongating the logo in any direction is strictly prohibited. !:3LJ I3A. Use of any other color for use in monochromatic logo. Monochromatic use of 3D logo.

A-6 . If the inner oval fills with black or white. white or Subaru Blue (PMS 280) is strictly prohibited. C...::::=... or other effect on the Subaru logos are strictly prohibited. Adding another color to the flat design is strictly prohibited.U" Unacceptable Logos Using the star cluster graphic as a single representation of the Subaru brand logo is strictly prohibited...- _. Using the star cluster graphic as a solo design element is strictly prohibited. o o o o Unacceptable Logos Changing the logo mark to any other color than black. This is especially common on t-shirts and promotional items. - ~ o o (t+j) SUBAR... Unacceptable Logos Use of Photoshop or Illustrator filters or effects such as a drop shadow... Screening logo is also unacceptable. The innermost oval is intended to show through the color on which it is placed...=:::. the logo becomes unacceptable. Common Logo Errors -~. glow.SUBARU.. emboss.

eps format.eps format._* TO MAINTAIN LOGO INTEGRITY NOT ALL LOGO VARIATIONS WHEN REDUCING HERE. LARGE SIZES AVAILABLE.Four-Color Process Logo (CMYK) Size constraints: 4" wide to 16" wide Reduces down to 50% Enlarges up to 200% Photoshop . 300 dpi A-7 . BOOK' WHEN PRINTING. 300 dpi Medium .eps format. ARE SHOWN BUT ALL VARIATIONS Available Sizes/File Formats PLEASE REFER TO 'PROOF HAVE SMALL. MEDIUM. OR ENLARGING. Small . Size constraints: .25" wide to 1" wide Reduces down to 50% Enlarges up to 200% Photoshop . 300 dpi Large .Four-Color Process Logo (CMYK) SUBARU.Four-Color Process Logo (CMYK) Size constraints: 1" wide to 4" wide Reduces down to 50% Enlarges up to 200% Photoshop .

PLEASE REFER TO 'PROOF BOOK' WHEN PRINTING.-~.SUBARU.eps format. BUT ALL VARIATIONS HAVE SMALL.Four-Color Process Logo (CMYK) SUBARU.eps format.25" wide to 1" wide Reduces down to 50% Enlarges up to 200% Photoshop .Four-Color Process Logo (CMYK) SUBARU. Size constraints: 4" wide to 16" wide Reduces down to 50% Enlarges up to 200% Photoshop . 300 dpi Large . MEDIUM. LARGE SIZES AVAILABLE. 300 dpi A-8 .eps format._Availa6Te-Slzes/File Formats _ * TO - __ -_- MAINTAIN LOGO INTEGRITY WHEN REDUCING OR ENLARGING. Size constraints: 1" wide to 4" wide Reduces down to 50% Enlarges up to 200% Photoshop . NOT ALL LOGO VARIATIONS ARE SHOWN HERE. Size constraints: .Four-Color Process Logo (CMYK) . 300 dpi Medium . Small .

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set in Helvetica Neue 55 Roman typeface.-SUSARU.. extend the box to the left by 1/2 the width of the original isolation area. Allow white space on all sides of the names. Set the region name in Helvetica Neue 75 Bold. Customer Relations and Loyalty Department . the box to the left by 1/2 the width of the original isolation area.--- --------1--------1 I ! A = height/depth of star cluster graphic Department only centered on X height of star cluster Multiple lines. Do not extend the rule to the full depth of the isolation box. Do not extend rule to the full depth of the isolation box. -"i" A = height/depth of star cluster graphic Northwest Region Customer Relations and Loyalty Department I A = height/depth of star cluster graphic 8-1 . Allow equal white space on the left and right sides of the names. Align the names flush left and center them on the x height of the Subaru Logo (see B). In order to create a more consistent Subaru brand image. Place a vertical rule where the original isolation area would have been and set rule to . The department name follows below the region name.) Place a vertical rule where the original isolation area would have been and set rule to . Horizontal Format Using the width of the horizontal Subaru logo isolation area box extend. Allow equal white space on the left and right sides of the names.5 thickness in 30% of black. Align the names tlush left and center them on the x height of the Subaru star cluster graphic (see A). ~ .-------. Set the region name in Helvetica Neue 75 Bold. set the department name below the region name in Helvetica Neue 55 Roman typeface in the same point size as the region name. allow an equal amount of space above and below the rule. in the same point size as the region name.- - R-EGION & DEPARTMENT We recognize that there are special situations for Regional and Department logos on consumer facing materials. centered on X height of star cluster. - A = height/depth of star cluster graphic Region and Department aligned top and bottom of star cluster Northwest Region Marketing Department A = height/depth of star cluster graphic Region only centered on X height of star cluster Mid-Atlantic Region _SUBARU ---. Vertical Format Using the width of the Subaru logo isolation area box. (See illustration above.5 thickness in 30% of black. 112 of the original isolation area width Northwest Marketing Region Department i Original isolation area width B = top of star cluster to bottom of word "SUBARU" SUBARU. ---------. If necessary. allow an equal amount of space above and below the rule. we have developed a logo lock-up in order to create an internal logo hierarchy. Region and Department base aligned with the bottom of the star cluster Northwest Region Marketing Department i .-.

) Isolation area rule must be applied for logo compliancy. The type treatment should be consistent throughout the logo.PROGRAM LOGOS -- Each Region or Department within Subaru may require a custom logo for the respective programs. Please contact Kathleen Walker at kwalker@subaru. ----~--- ACCEPTABLE SUB-LOGOS CUSTOMER ACQUISlllON & RI:TENTION EXCFLLENCF SUBARU CARE A separate and unique program or product logo or specific type treatment is required. B-2 . Any new logos must be reviewed by the Subaru Creative Services Department for logo compliancy and overall brand continuity. (Logo Update PencJing) ACCEPTABLE SUB-LOGOS Using the Subaru name and similar type treatment is acceptable. products. and to help guide the logo production process.com for assistance. as long as it is not intended to replace the Subaru brand logo. t SUBARU PERFORMANCE TUNING IiIIi! ACCEPTABLE SUB-LOGOS Using the name Subaru within the program or product name is acceptable. or services the department offers. . See the typography section of this manual for a recommended font list to more closely brand a product or program to the Subaru family. If a department would like to develop a logo a questionnaire has been developed to establish the purpose of the logo. Each department is responsible to update their existing programs logos based on the logo rules in this manual. See the typography section of this manual for a recommended font list to more closely brand a product or program to the Subaru family. (L090 Update Pending) SUBARU ADVANTAGE INSURANCE I e SUBAAU Using the Subaru logo next to the program name is acceptable. (Prefer logo placement to the right of the program name. ACCEPTABLE SUB-LOGOS A separate and unique program or product logo or specific type treatment is required.

frsachleye.q r< '" - ".hlgh measurable resulls inth. PERFORMER' (Logo Update Ponding) Stellar~ SUGGESTED SUB-LOGO USAGE B = top of star cluster to bottom of word "SUBARU" A logo hierarchy or balance should be kept in mind when combining a sub-logo with the brand logo.ls a new. SUGGESTED REGION AND DEPARTMENT AND SUB-LOGO USAGE A logo hierarchy or balance should be kept in mind when positioning a sub-logo with the brand logo.' ".Dealershi~sfnus.I..o. " • 11) .ro\iided. visit 'a Slellar Performer Qertiliog dealership" you can 'D~. The brand logo is placed in a dominate size and position on the printed piece.The"gqal is an exceptional dealE¥.'-~ 'i?leUar rerlor'1l~r Certified Dealership .~tandardJn Cosjomer.' I 1 I SUBARU..~Stellar perlBrhier'beale.. . The depth of the sub-logo when positioned in close proximity to the brand logo should not exceed the full depth of the Subaru logo.-- ---- -- PROGRAM LOGOS SUB-LOGO USAGE SUGGESTED Subaru Added Security® SUBARU.ensures_t~at the!ieai.: 'PrOc"ss Ne~ O~U$ed. wh~i\yi.! thl} b9S~:. '!'- J '" .."'OI. eyes '1f thelr'~u~!omer$.Service. ~!C~ p.1 '~ ~ 8-3 .r<Certifi~-aJion .:q1§tinction:''This .with.. See the typography section of this manual for a recommended font list to more closely brand a product or program to the Subaru family.~ ~ recelVi..blish9d s. ' . experience.. I r. '.< '. .-~u.g Dcp:01""'~' ' '.: ..". ljdtjere to ~ rigoroUs reVi~Vlof Iheirpperati~nSby~h lmpartial third parlyand fulfill our esta.c" leasing._". paT1~~rs~rvice. The Subaru brand logo must always be equal to the program logo or should be the predominate logo. buylnll. .st~~e(care possible! \_ '11 '.' "-'_":.eveQl' visit '~~d custo'!1er'who·ls's~tisfiedwith the serv.'' ' '.tand"rds to qualify f9r thjS. A separate and unique program or product type treatment combined with the Subaru logo is acceptable as long the isolation area rule is applied. This example illustrates the region and department logo lock-up followed by the program and/or product logo to create a visual hierarchy.asS'l'!ld you'll _-_ 'ti.

) UNACCEPTABLE SUB-LOGOS . Using a program name as part of the Subaru brand logo is prohibited. (Logos developed prior to September 2006 are excluded from this rule due to cost and contract implications. The isolation area rule must be applied when designing a new program logo. a lock-up is recommended. A separate and unique program or product logo identity is recommended.) 8-4 . region or department logo is required. (Logos developed prior to September 2006 are excluded from this rule due to cost and contract implications.- PROGRAM LOGOS -- - UNACCEPTABLE SUB-LOGOS o SUBARU ADD ED SEC URI o Using the Subaru brand logo within a program logo is strictly prohibited. A separate and unique program or product logo identity is recommended. See the isolation area rule and typography section of this manual for Subaru font family suggestions (Logos developed prior to September 2006 are excluded from this rule due to cost and contract implications. See suggested sub-logo usage. A separate and unique program logo or type treatment is recommended. CUSTOMER ACQUISITION & RETENTION EXCELLENCE CARE Combining the Subaru brand logo as part of the program logo is prohibited. (Logos developed prior to September 2006 are excluded from this rule due to cost and contract implications.) UNACCEPTABLE SUB-LOGOS ~·ltiol!lWiiiJn' SUBARU. If a combined Subaru logo. Combining the Subaru brand logo as part of the program logo is prohibited.) UNACCEPTABLE SUB-LOGOS o o o T Y.SUBARU. A separate and unique program or product logo identity is recommended.

If using multiple affiliate logos. drag racing. should not exceed the full depth of the Subaru logo. Subaru Gear by Ll. veterinary. where possible. These special affiliations also require consideration of size and placement when used on consumer facing materials to better support our branding efforts. Others reflect our professional affiliations such as horticulture. winter resorts. aI/ow equal isolation space between logos. Certain exceptions apply based on sponsorship contracts. and sports car rallies as well as our ever expanding diversity programs. The depth is defined by the space from the top of the star cluster graphic to the bottom of the word "SUBARU" and does not include the isolation space surrounding the logo. These sponsorships range from outdoor spring and summer sports such as biking. and specialized film groups. Subaru Motorsports teams such as Subaru World Rally Team. geologicall. Each affiliate logo must have an isolation area surrounding the logo and each one must be shown in it's entirety. snowboard. VERTICAL FORMAT A vertical affiliate logo may be combined with a vertical Subaru logo. Rule should be applied where possible. the Subaru brand logo must always be at least equal to the affiliate logo or positioned in a predominate area on the printed piece. A list of affiliate logos can be found on the Subaru corporate intranet. when positioned in close proximity to the brand logo. kayaking.Bean" is the premier sponsor for apparel and accessories. B = top of star cluster to bottom of word "SUBARU" QUEST . SUGGESTED AFFILIATE LOGO USAGE VERTICAL FORMAT A logo hierarchy or balance should be kept in mind when combining an affiliate logo with a Subaru logo. and science interests. w o rn o rr " r. hiking to outdoor fall and winter groups such as ski. SUBAFlU. A logo lock-up as illustrated here is also an acceptable format. Refer to the General Logo Rules at the beginning of this manual for additional restrictions. _ B = top of star cluster to bottom of word "SUBARU" 8-5 . canoeing. Modifications to any affiliate logos are strictly prohibited.- AFFILIATE LOGOS Subaru is proud to sponsor a large number of affiliations. The suggested depth. As a rule. The affiliate logo may be the same size or smaller than the full depth of the Subaru logo (see B). See examples below. road racing. Many different file formats and any original color variations supplied by the sponsor are available to meet your needs.

the Subaru brand logo must always be either equal to or larger than the affiliate logo or positioned in a predominate space on the page..L. professional.AFFILIATE LOGOS HORIZONTAL FORMAT . Choose the best solution for the application in which the logo has been applied. Other considerations for groupings may be made such as. --- I-I i'·---- • SUBARU< A= height/depth of star cluster graphic --j I -- __ _------------------_---_-------.- - A horizontal affiliate logo may be combined with a horizontal Subaru logo. SUGGESTED AFFILIATE LOGO USAGE COMBINED HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL FORMATS A logo balance should be kept in mind when combining several affiliate logos with the Subaru logo. The Subaru brand logo must always be either equal to or larger than the affiliate logo or positioned in a predominate area on the printed piece. The depth is defined by the space from the top to the bottom of the star cluster graphic and does not include the isolation space surrounding the logo. Each affiliate logo must have an isolation area surrounding the logo and each one must be shown in it's entirety. where possible.. See examples below. The affiliate logo should be 3/4 the size or smaller than the full depth of the Subaru star cluster (See A). L. motorsports. 8-6 .etc . group by category (winter sports.Bearl ---3/4 of A Nb~I<74. As a rule.. The affiliate logo should be 3/4 the size or smaller than the depth of the Subaru star cluster (See A). SUBARU.) or by vertical or horizontal positioning. SUGGESTED AFFILIATE LOGO USAGE HORIZONTAL FORMAT A logo hierarchy or balance should be kept in mind when placing an affiliate logo along with a Subaru logo. 3/4 of A A~ height/depth of star cluster graphic . A logo lock-up as illustrated here is also an acceptable solution. SUBARU. The depth is defined by the space from the top to the bottom of the star cluster graphic and does not include the isolation space surrounding the logo.

A similar type treatment of the word "SUBARU" to compliment the sponsorship is recommended.- - AFFILIATE SUPPORT TEAM LOGOS SUGGESTED AFFILIATE LOGOS SUlIX TECHNSC. • Using the Subaru logo within an affiliate logo is strictly prohibited._----------------_-- SUGGESTED AFFILIATE LOGOS Using the Subaru logo within an affiliate logo is strictly prohibited.O\lO Update Fending) UNACCEPTABLE AFFILIATE LOGOS SUlIX 0 ·SUBARU.AL TEAM (Luyu Update r>cndingl SUBARU • Using the Subaru logo within an affiliate logo is strictly prohibited.) -------_------------- __ .) (L. A similar type treatment of the word "SUBARU" to compliment the sponsorship is recommended. (Logos developed prior to September 2006 are excluded from this rule due to cost and contract implications.) B·7 . (Logos developed prior to September 2006 are excluded from this rule due to cost and contract implications. A similar type treatment of the word "SUBARU" to compliment the sponsorship is recommended.) o UNACCEPTABLE AFFILIATE LOGOS Using the Subaru logo within an affiliate logo is strictly prohibited. (Logos developed prior to September 2006 are excluded from this rule due to cost and contract implications. A similar type treatment of the word "SUBARU" to compliment the sponsorship is recommended. (Logos developed prior to September 2006 are excluded from this rule due to cost and contract implications.

the Subaru brand logo must always be at least equal to the event or team logo or positioned in a predominate area on the printed piece.- _--- ------._---_._---------. or co-sponsor logo with a Subaru logo. A similar type treatment of the word "SUBARU" to compliment the event or team is recommended. (Logos developed prior to September 2006 are excluded from this rule due to cost and contract lrnpllcatlons. (Logos developed prior to September 2006 are excluded from this rule due to cost and contract lrnpllcations.) UNACCEPTABLE AFFILIATE LOGOS . Using the Subaru logo within an event or team logo is strictly prohibited. -_. ---- . U. should not exceed the full depth of the Subaru logo. As a rule._-- A logo hierarchy or balance should be kept in mind when combining an event.SUBARU TEAM I EVENT LOGOS -- - ~ LOGOS SUGGESTED TEAM/EVENT SUBARU MOUNTAIN MASTER THE A similar type treatment of the word "SUBARU" to compliment the event or team is recommended. A logo lock-up as illustrated here is also an acceptable format._--.SUBARU. SUBARU. The suggested depth.) SUGGESTED AFFILIATE LOGOS SUBARU MA8TE:1t THE MOUNTAIN SUBARU.) 8-8 . WOMEN'S TRIATHLON SERIES Using the Subaru logo within an event or team logo is strictly prohibited. (Logos developed prior to September 2006 are excluded from this rule due to cost and contract implications. (Logos developed prior to September 2006 are excluded from this rule due to cost and contract implications. team logo..S. MASTER MOUNTAIN THE o o UNACCEPTABLE AFFILIATE LOGOS Using theSubaru logo within an event or team logo is strictly prohibited.) .---- SUBARU. A similar type treatment of the word "SUBARU" to compliment the event or team is recommended. when positioned in close proximity to the brand logo. where possible.

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and envelopes. letterhead. Adhering to the fonts listed here will inherently develop a cohesive brand look and feel to all print materials. Font Samples Helvetica Neue: This is the preferred font from Fuji Heavy industries. We recommend using this for all corporate communications such as stationary.-- -- TYPEFACES _--- I FONTS The fonts provided in this manual are strongly recommended for a consistent Subaru brand look and feel. This font has a large font family with many weights and options. billboards. copyrights and trademarks rules apply as on any software. We recognize every agency's creative needs differ depending on how they are applying the fonts to their place of expertise such as national print ads. Subaru is not responsible to provide vendors with the font digital files listed below. there are no constraints as to how the fonts are applied. our parent company. licensing. business cards. to online purposes. It is also acceptable for all levels of consumer facing materials. Helvetica Neue 45 Light ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXZY abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxzy 123456789 Helvetica Neue 55 Roman ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXZY abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxzy 123456789 Helvetica Neue 65 Medium ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXZY abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxzy 123456789 Helvetica Neue 75 Bold ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXZY abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxzy 123456789 Helvetica Neue 47 Light Condensed ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXZY abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxzy 123456789 Helvetica Neue 57 Condensed Roman ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPORSTUVWXZY abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxzy 123456789 Helvetica Neue 67 Condensed Medium ABCOEFGHIJKlMNOPORSTUVWXZY abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxzy 123456789 Helvetica Neue 77 Condensed Bold ABCDEFGHIJKlMNOPQRSTUVWXZY abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxzy 123456789 C-1 . It is a clean and straight forward font family. to point of sale dealership materials. At this time. and outdoor advertising. standard font permissions.

Interstate Regular ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXZY abcdefg h ij kim nopq rstuvwxzy 123456789 Interstate Bold ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXZY abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxzy 123456789 Interstate Black ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXZY abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxzy 123456789 Interstate Condensed Regular ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXZY abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxzy 123456789 Interstate Condensed Bold ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXZY abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxzy 123456789 Interstate Condensed Black ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXZY abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxzy 123456789 Interstate Compressed Regular . ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPORSTUVWXZY abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxzy 123456789 Interstate Compressed Bold ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPORSTUVWXZY abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxzy 123456789 Interstate Compressed Black ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPORSTUVWXZY abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxzy 123456789 C·2 .TYPEFACES I FONTS Interstate Regular: - - - ~ - This font is commonly used in national print advertising body copy and online.

and point of sale dealer showrooms material. We recommend this for use in all other materials as well.TO BE USED FOR NUMBERS ONLY 123456789 C-3 . friendly and commonly used in the annual showroom brochures. It works on both PC and Mac. It is not recommended to use the numbers in each of the fonts listed below . TheSans SemiLight ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXZY abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxzy TheSans ExtraLight ABC DEFGH IJ I(LM NOPQRSTUVWXZY abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxzy TheSans Plain ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXZY abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxzy TheSans SemiBold ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXZY abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxzy TheSans Bold ABCDEFGH IJ KlMNOPQRSTUVWXZY abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxzy TheSans ExtraBold ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXZY abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxzy THESANS CAPS. It is also a good option for online use.as noted use TheSansCaps font specifically for numbers. It is clean. auto show brochures. ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPORSTUVWXZY abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxzy 123456789 TheSans: This font has a large family of type weights and is very versatile. easy to read. ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPORSTUVWXZY abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxzy 123456789 Arial: This font is acceptable for online use.TYPEFACES I FONTS Helvetica: This is a standard font that is easily found on both Mac and PCs. This font is considered basic and has been used in older Subaru print ads.

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"It's what makes a Subaru. background is too cold / monolithic / cement. graphic. The Legacy is a smart and sexy sedan that is ready for performance-a coastal road that looks fun to drive on may be a typical setting for this model. background is too descriptive / tells too much of a story. non-distorted lensing. shot appropriately propped. The Forester has a metro-suburbanite target-an urban or sub-urban setting is appropriate for this model. What works for daytime static shots: The car is the focus. and the campaign slogan. Photographic Style The photographic style changed slightly from previous years from rather dark images to much lighter and brighter images. It is imperative that each of these areas are incorporated together and not as individual pieces so as to not dilute the impact of the campaign. typography and tone of voice. or on individual accessories such as floor mats. Inc. and model-appropriate. car blends into environment too much. Please note that this marketing campaign does not need to be incorporated on to such things as company letterhead. limited color palette. parts and/or accessories print marketing materials such as service mailers. if blurred. What works for action shots: The car is the focus. The updated photographic style. or wholesale print marketing materials. background. a Subaru". Whether it be internal materials such as posters and presentation templates. simple. therefore.. dealer facing marketing materials such as direct mailers. In order to control costs. palette of overall shot is limited in color. consumer facing marketing materials such as print ads. is still recognizable. artful graphic composition. reflections on car are not distracting they are dynamic. We simply ask that you implement these changes at a time when these items were to either be redesigned or re-printed. or memos. We are committed to this look and feel for the next three to five years and encourage all departments to follow the campaign standards as outlined in this manual to create a consistent brand message across all marketing materials. The Impreza WRX targets a more playful and thrill-seeking target market a race course or winding challenging road may be suitable. dynamic. if your department has an inventory of previous or recently printed materials. fax sheets. is simple and graphic. background. The pages that follow explain the specifications of how each component of the campaign works. open lighting. the Outback is positioned as a rugged and adventurous versatile crossover SU'\!. location is model-appropriate. open lighting. The backgrounds should reflect the personality or target demographics for each model and the car should always be the hero. car color separates from background. if static. background is simple. D-1 . angles / heights are model-appropriate. the Subaru Band Graphic. the Subaru Marketing Department has created a marketing campaign launching in MY08 to define the new look and feel of the Subaru brand and the products it offers. do not reprint. the setting may be one that reflects a camping or all-terrain environment. desaturated photography. please adhere to the Subaru logo standards and isolation area rule as outlined at the beginning of this manual. The Tribeca targets families who would aspire to travel and who want more out of the vehicle-a daily living image may be appropriate. and a more strategic messaging structure all work together to create a consistent marketing campaign. The campaign encompasses many components that work together to make up the overall campaign look and feel. reflections that are distracting. What does NOT work for static shots: The car is overpowered by the environment. In cases _ such as these.SUBARU CAMPAIGN Campaign Definition Working together with all the major creative agencies employed by Subaru of America. For example. non-distorted lensing angles / heights are model-appropriate.

Subaru should sound inherently SMART. Thus.com. reflections on car are not distracting but dynamic. angles / heights are model-appropriate. White. Adventure. background is simple. Confidence. The Subaru Brand Personality: Fun.-- SUBARU CAMPAIGN What does NOT work for action shots: Over-processed / unnatural coloration. graphic. distorted lensing. The overall brand promise and personality should be conveyed in all marketing communications. A major vendor may submit early alternate brochure photo requests to Sondra Shiffer for alternate brochure photos. car is too dark. Alternate Photography Any current brochure. As you will see in the next section. and knowledgeable. Color Palette The Subaru color palette is limited in order to maintain a consistent brand image. the Subaru Band Graphic is only allowed in 100% white or up to a 20% screen of black. Overall. distracting background. It knows that it is not one of the major automotive competitors. What does NOT work for nighttime shots: Distracting background. such as varying angles or background settings prior to a photoshoot. or to have photo permissions upgraded or extended. with a recognition that Subaru buyers are intelligent . Please contact DeLu Jackson at djac@subaru. shot appropriately propped. car color separates from background. Contact Kathleen Walker at kwalker@subaru. palette of overall shot is limited in color. Control. or parts related photography will be made accessible through the Subaru Marketing Resource Center. and does not have a universal appeal.com for more details. Most important. which are: The Subaru Brand Promise: A unique combination of active driving and active safety. black. and model-appropriate. highlighting advantages and benefits that appeal to those who understand the difference. distorted lensing. the advertising should produce a bit of a smile. open lighting. must be budgeted and approved by the requester. The responsibility of any additional costs incurred to make alternate photos product correct. vehicle. non-distorted lensing. grounded.com or Mary Alicia Devine at mdev@subaru. distracting or busy reflections. color correct. Freedom. Subaru Tone of Voice (as applied to copy and voiceovers) . What works for night-time shots: The car is the focus. It celebrates its uniqueness with enthusiasm. The Subaru voice is confident. Model specific messaging architecture is available upon request.both about cars and in life. coloration that is desaturated. gray and Subaru Blue (PMS 280) are the only recommended marketing colors. the tone or voice should convey a sense of insightfulness but should draw on humor and wit (with no trace of sarcasm or irony) to engage the educated Subaru buyer. 0-2 . distracting lighting style.

the main criteria for whether or not it works is if it still makes sense when you substitute the phrase with "This is what makes (a) Subaru unique. It is the promise of delivering a smart and distinctive driving experience. also referred to as the brand drivers or Subaru core attributes. and AWD at a price that is less expensive than the competition if comparably equipped.a. Value is included here to allow IWMAS. For Example: The combination of safety.k. IWMAS. Thus. adventure. reliability. are listed below: • Exhilarating Driving Performance Road-gripping AWD Turbocharged Boxer engine (for applicable vehicles) Rally-proven performance Exceptional handling • Uncompromising Safety Active safety Passive safety Leading crash test ratings Control of road-gripping AWD Control and balance of the Boxer engine • Engineering Excellence Intelligent design / dynamic styling Smart solutions Environmental responsibility Proven dependability Proven reliability AWD always • Go-Anywhere Capability Fun Freedom Ready for adventure "Best of Both" versatility A legend of the great outdoors Other Key Messages: • Value The idea of getting more for your money. A SUBARU a. the final thought becomes a reflection of the brand promise. These key ideas.AS to be used in conjunction with retail advertising. The repetition of the Subaru name in this phrase will help etch the brand name in the consumers mind. which should refer to the unique combination of active driving and active safety as well as the brand personality reflecting the concepts of fun.----- - -- IT'S WHAT MAKES A SUBARU. These phrases should also be a natural summary of the communication before it.AS CAMPAIGN SLOGAN The point of "what makes a Subaru. In using this phrase." The phrase can be utilized when the subject speaks to a bigger Subaru thought or philosophy. D-3 . a Subaru" is to tell the consumer that there is something unique or compelling about Subaru that is different from other manufacturers. This example does not infer that the Subaru is 'inexpensive'. freedom. confidence and control. Special care must be taken to avoid being interpreted as inexpensive. It delivers a reiterating punch of why these unique attributes would benefit the consumer in choosing a Subaru over a competitive vehicle.

All-Wheel Drive saves air bags. This will allow model-or feature-specific headlines to be presented in the context of a core brand strength or philosophy and will allow maximum flexibility in copywriting headlines that are immediate and compelling. When the statement is used too frequently. always. The control of AWD makes a summary statement of the communication and calls out a Subaru brand driver.4S. When it does NOT work: Accordingly. a Subaru. yet still prominently featured are below. Use it paired with a word or thought that provides a bridge between the headline and a Subaru brand driver.AS should be used sparingly. a Subaru. a Subaru. For example: Air bags save lives. When it works: Example 1: All-Wheel Drive. Solutions that allow IWM. It's what makes a Subaru. Limit the number of Subaru-defining qualities. Not just surviving one.AS when used as a summary: Example: Air bags save lives. when discussing a particular non-core feature or a concept that is not a brand strength. . Limit number of uses in a single piece of communication. It's what makes a Subaru. It's what makes a Subaru. The IWMAS. 3. The control of All-Wheel Drive. It's what makes a Subaru. Specify and use consistently. Even in a long format medium such as a brochure. Example 2: Subaru announces the $249 lease. It's what makes a Subaru. a Subaru. a Subaru. a Subaru.AS campaign standard. IWMAS.AS to be separated from the headline.- - - CAMPAIGN SLOGAN Brand IWMAS. the impact becomes diluted. Use IWMAS. Example 1: Outperforming "The Ultimate Driving Machine".AS Statements IWMAS. Refer to the Subaru Brand Driver/Core Attributes list at the beginning of this section. All-Wheel Drive saves air bags. 1. Example 2: Avoiding an accident. it would not work when it is talking about a model-specific attribute.AS as a thought to summarize the communication. 2. It's what makes a Subaru. The control of All-Wheel Drive.

Street credo Ready for action. The new Forester.IWMAS. and again. It's what makes a Subaru. Ready for smarter performance. target need. Giving you peace of mind. The new Impreza WRX STI. Road-gripping All-Wheel Drive so you can take the long way home. These concepts become a formula always ending with "Ready for. and again. Low awareness. a Subaru. a Subaru.. 0-5 . Tribeca For people who appreciate their art on a slightly larger scale. Again. and challenges. IWMAS. a Subaru.0 (women) Full and in control Rocks hard. It's what makes a Subaru.AS: Challenges: Polished maverick A multi-dimensional life Sexy. Ready to move.AS: Challenges: Life 2. Ready to move.AS: Challenges: Family on the move Well rounded life More of what you love Ready for more. It's what makes a Subaru. Maintain sales in the last year of the cycle Model Specific Examples: Outback Answering the call of the wild. The messaging architecture for each model is broken into five concepts: target market. theme. Low awareness confusion with WRX Man-child Thrill Rally bred.AS. Smart sedan. It's what makes a Subaru.AS: Challenges: TRIBECA Target: Target need: Theme: IMAS. Forester Voted "Best Small SUV"1 three years in a row. a Subaru. Legacy Style and substance. Seating up to seven and Symmetrical All-Wheel Drive gives you the confidence to go exactly where you want to go.AS summary. Impreza The most fun you can have being safe. The traction of Subaru Symmetrical All-Wheel Drive keeps you in control. WRX Racing is in our blood.5i Lt:GACY Target: Target need: Theme: IMAS. Rally bred. poorly differentiated FORESTER Target: Target need: Theme: IMAS. Lost muscle image-wise Target: Target need: Theme: IMAS. Ready for more. Ready for adventure. Low awareness that Subaru makes a sedan WRX Target: Target need: Theme: IMAS. It's what makes a Subaru. Being the best again. The new Tribeca. The new Outback. and again. Winning is part of our DNA.-- - - CAMPAIGN SLOGAN Model Specific Drivers: Copy for each Subaru model must be written to meet specific messaging architecture in order to address the core elements of communication for that model. The stability of the Subaru Boxer Engine gives you the confidence to set your own course. a Subaru.AS: Challenges: Metro-suburbanite Safe adventurers Being the best. Street credo Ready for action. Ready for your life. The newly refined Legacy. and again. Low awareness. confusion with Impreza 2.. Plays safe. Ready for smarter performance.AS: Challenges: Constant adventurer Rugged adventurers Authentic outdoor adventures Ready for adventure. Target: Target need: Theme: IMAS. a Subaru. Ready for your life. It's what makes a Subaru." Use the table below to target your copy.

It can be used when defining a specific Subaru model and/or the Subaru brand overall as in the examples below: 1. Please refer to the previous page for more model specific examples. a Subaru. Integration into body copy: Example: AWD gives you the control that makes a Subaru.AS sums up the thought. 2. a Subaru. 4. 5. It's what makes a Subaru. 0-6 . This example refers to the model specific features of the Subaru Impreza in the Rally racing arena and street credibility then ties the model to a brand driver or core attribute of 'always ready' to reinforce Subaru as a brand.' the rest of the sentence defines the vehicle by associating a core brand attribute after it. This example features the active safety message of the air bags. a Subaru is the control of Symmetrical AWD and the balance of the Subaru Boxer Engine. a Subaru.. 3. In the beginning of a paragraph: Example: What makes Subaru. The control of Symmetrical AWD. This example uses the emotion of the image in place of a text statement of 'excitement' and 'fun to drive' and IWMAS. or as a final thought. It's what makes a Subaru. a Subaru. As the headline to an exceptionally emotional shot: Example: (Fans rising up in excitement as Subaru comes around the corner to take the championship.- ~ - ---- ---- CAMPAIGN SLOGAN Recommended Slogan Uses The IWMAS. When tied to a specific Subaru vehicle model: Example (Impreza WRX STI): Rally bred.AS slogan can be used in body copy as a beginning to a paragraph. When communicating ~bout the Subaru brand: Example: Air bags save lives.) It's what makes a Subaru. All-Wheel Drive saves airbags..AS as the final thought. a Subaru . 'What makes a Subaru. Street credo Always ready. and the control of All-Wheel Drive which are both core attributes of all Subaru vehicles. This example illustrates a simple core brand driver statement with the IWMAS.

com message should align flush right immediately below the vehicle. Example: 1 page advertisement. The model call-out and subaru. The Subaru model featured in the image should be positioned flush right on the page to create an asymmetrical and dynamic layout. if the page is 9 inches long the band will be 1 inch or less in height as illustrated below. The white band is broken into two pieces-the left piece is the copy block and the right piece contains a Subaru approved logo. The Subaru logo is centered and positioned in the right portion of the band. (major shot) The small lines illustrate the 1/9" modular grid. Therefore. A 1/16" (or . The minimum isolation area rule applies to the Subaru logo. The band may be free floating. The white band depth/height is equal to or less than 1/9" of the entire page.SUBARU BAND GRAPHIC The Subaru Band Graphic National Print Campaign The white band graphic is used to establish a consistent look and feel across all print mediums. In this example the Subaru band is positioned at the top of the page.0625) gap is required between the copy block and logo portions. 0-7 . Any legal disclaimer(s) should be positioned at the most bottom part of the page. but never positioned in the top or bottom 1/9" of the page to allow the image behind the band to bleed above and below the band. Please refer to the modular 9 grid system as illustrated below. If a double page spread is required the Subaru band must cross both sides of the spread as one continuous band. The vehicle should always be the hero in the image.

--- SUBARU BAND GRAPHIC Example: 1 page advertisement (minor shots or feature photos) The vehicle is positioned to the right of the page and the Subaru band is positioned across the page. Example: Double page spread or poster The vehicle is positioned to the right of the page and the Subaru band is positioned across both pages. 0-8 . The interior feature photos are anchored below the white band to create a natural division from the exterior image.

. 85 Heavy rBody Copy: Font: Helvetica Neue Lt. The gap between the copy band and the logo band must be equal to 1/16" or (. but not from the white or Subaru _..) Font: Helvetica Neue Lt.Getting there is significantly more than half the fun...... a Subaru. This is acceptable ONLY when a light background image is used. The Band Graphic is made up of a copy band and a logo band but is intended to work as a single unit.0625) size: 12pt Leading: 14pt Color: 100% Black size: 9pt Leading: 16pt Color: 75% Black size: 12pt Leading: 14pt Color: 75% Black Web site: (positioned below vehicle... size: 6pt Leading: 7pt Color: 100% Black or White IIHS has awarded SU9ARU more TOP SAFETY PICKS' than any other brand._. In this example.. Std.. Gray Band Example: The Subaru gray band may fill with a screen of black. the band is 'floating' towards the bottom of the page.~f _I.com Legal Disclaimer: • Font: Helvetica Neue Lt. ~+--------------~------------------------------------~u l-Maln Copy: Font: Helvetica Neue Lt.~_._~ __ . Do not place the logo in a gray band and the copy in a white band-only one background band color is permitted... Std. 85 Heavy I SUBARU Gap= 1/16" (or . Building the most fuel-efficient AII-Wheel Drive line up in Arnerica.. Std._ &J.0625) and should scale proportionally to fit the piece. The logo and copy bands must be aligned.. 85 Heavy Example: size: 11pt Leading: 14pt Color: 100% Black or White The new Tribeca at subaru.. MII"'!~'_. 55 Roman Example: 'Government star ratings are pan of the National Highway Traffic Safely Administration (NHTSA) . greater than 20% of black in order to allow distinction background image. Std._ _ I. . Std. It's what makes a Subaru..'''''-'''! D-9 .. Copy Band Logo Band ..SUBARU BAND GRAPHIC Band Elements The Subaru band must be filled with 100% white or up to a 20% screen of black..t"I.AS Line: Font: Helvetica Neue Lt. .r . 45 Light ~IWMAS.

6pt size. It's what makes a Subaru.sWaru.·' CAR AND DRIVER'S 8E8T·8". 55 Roman. upper case MPG: Helvetica Neue Lt. a Subaru. align flush left 29 mpg1 HIGHWAY ***** 5-STAR HIGHEST GOVERNMENT CRASH TEST RATING2 0% APR FINANCING" AND $2.SUBARU APR~" .0. 29.i'lCK 732·34&4200 \WM. . Like overpaying.GOVERNMENTj)~' tEST RATING' .2O WolldSubaru T1oton Falls www.~y eAtK. B TOP 8AfETT GOLD RATING' PICK .com Freehold Subaru Freehold HlOO·256-2Ir.'. 75 Bold.subanJ..oom PIO" Beh Subaru WNw.500 CASH .eK""'" APA"t:1WICING'" O~o011"'10$2. Std. 100% Black or White. 75 Bold.subaru. align flush left and separate with horizontal line in 100% black CAR AND DRIVER'S BEST SMALL SUV THREE YEARS RUNNING4 30 mpg1 IIIHS TOP SAFETY PICK HIGHWAY GOLD RATING' 'Based on IIHS ratinqs. title and registration fees due at lease signing. Std. .%"" $2~OOO c. Std.. 7pt leading. The Lease Price: Helvetica Neue Lt. qOLD. 55 Roman. centered MPG: Helvetica Neue Lt. -:.i/.lroehold. 29 '. lower case Math: Helvetica Neue Lt. 40-mph frontal.- SUBARU BAND GRAPHIC Retail Ad Avoid accidents. u. 8WTHREE VEW RUNNING' .pI_. lower case. Disclaimer: Helvetica Neue Lt. Std. 65 Medium. .worId. Std. Std. all caps Accolade: Helvetica Neue Lt. align flush left D-10 . 55 Roman.OOf1l Lester Gteo" Subaru TomsRtver Lakewood 732·901·3600 l. Top Safely Picks include the 2007 Legacy® 2. 55 Roman. Std. Std.I. all caps $0 Cash Back: Helvetica Neue Lt._ "***** mpg'l6-8TAR HIGHEST. align flush right Accolades: Helvetica Neue Lt.RATlNO' T!)P 8AFETY.subaru. 65 Medium.WM'. align flush right Accolades: Helvetica Neue Lt. lower case mpg. all caps. 55 Roman. pg'lllIS. Std.294 TOTAL DUE AT LEASE SIGNING Excludes tax. right align numbers and left align text Exclusion Text: Helvetica Neue Lt."1. Std. 75 Bold.oom 732·741-6200 Typesetting Specifications for Ad Components: A MONTHI 48 MONTHS** 10. 65 medium.5 GT and 2007 Forester ® Sports Xl models equipped wilh available VDC and the 2007 TribecaTM (11/21/06).. upper case Highway. and 20-mph rear impact testa (12/4/05). all caps Mileage: Helvetica Neue Lt.bster. Std. Std.000 CASH BACK'" % APR Financing: Helvetica Neue Lt.000 miles per year $169 $699 $0 $595 : $0 DOWN PAYMENT SECURITY DEPOSIT ACQUISITION FEE FIRST MONTH'S PAYMENT $1. 75 bold.m. Std. . 30 _ mpg'I IIH.. 31-mph side. 75 Bold Time Offered: Helvetica Neue Lt.

-~ SUBARU BAND GRAPHIC Billboard Advertisement Example: The vehicle is positioned to the right of the page and the Subaru band is positioned across the page. D·11 . rules set 100% cool gray 8c. The copy block can contain a Subaru core message or a dealer name and address.) Niche Marketing Example: The vehicle is positioned to the right of the page and the Subaru band is positioned across the page. Any interior feature photos or affiliated logos are anchored below the white band to create a natural division from the exterior image. test to the right of the rule sets in TheSans SemiBold plain (as shown above and in Auto Show Brochure covers to the right. For one line use in copy block: Left of the rule sets in Helvetica Neue 45 Light.

Auto Show Brochure Showroom Brochure Cover FPO (Actual MY08 brochure cover to come) Point of Sale Poster D-12 .SUBARU BAND GRAPHIC Point of Sale Example: Auto Show Brochure. Pylon. The copy block can contain a Subaru core message. Poster The vehicle is the hero and the Subaru band is positioned across the page. Showroom Brochure.

I Sample Title Sample First Level Header Sample second level header Sample third level Sample Fourth level Sample Fifth level 2008 Subaru Models Marketing Campaign D-13 . the Subaru band graphic is positioned at the top section of the page.-- -- SUBARU BAND GRAPHIC Online Communications Subaru. These templates are hosted on the Corporate Intranet under the Corporate Communications department tab. Internal Communications PowerPoint Presentations: The templates shown here illustrate the gray Subaru band placed on white background and the typeface used is the Arial font family which is available cross-platform.com and Microsites: Due to the limitations of a horizontal format on the internet. A final online Style Guide to come from RIGA.

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capitalization and hyphenation." "side-impact airbags (SRS) in both front seats" airbag Supplemental Restraint System (SRS) -for disclaimer copy airbags (SRS) (airbag[s] air filtration system air/fuel (as in air/fuel ratio) (hyphenate "air-intake") is always one word) (air conditioning is never hyphenated) aluminum-alloy hood aluminum front door sill-plate covers AM/FM stereo with logic control cassette.g. and Alcantara" is produced by Toray Group) Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) anti-slip mat armrest auto-dimming compass mirror auto-down automatic climate control system Automatic Locking Retractor (ALR) Automatic Locking Retractor/Emergency Locking Retractor (ALR/ELR) auto-off auxiliary audio jack all-road.p. six-disc (spell out number) number) in-dash CD changer and x (spell out speakers speakers (spell out number) AM/FM stereo with single-disc CD player and x (spell out number) AM/FM stereo with six-disc changer and x number) number) (or auto-changer) in-dash CD speakers and x (spell out number) AM/FMlWeatherband stereo with single-disc CD player (spell out number) speakers (spell out (spell out AM/FMlWeatherband stereo with six-disc speakers and in-glass antenna (spell out number) in-dash CD changer. IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER A Active All-Wheel Drive or Active AWD active driving Active Driving/Active Safety active front-seat head restraints active power split active safety Active Valve Control System (AVCS) variable valve timing Active Valve Lift System adaptive shift control system advanced full-time All-Wheel Drive airbag(s) is always one word airbag or airbags (SRS) e.. This glossary contains approved product-specific terminology and wording as well as general automotive terms by showing the correct titling. subwoofer and x AM/FMlWeatherband stereo with logic control cassette. all-weather driving capability all-season radials all-season radials with raised black letters all-season radials with raised white letters all-speed All-Weather Package all-weather traction All-Wheel Drive (AWD) AII-Wheel-Drive system aluminum alloy (not hyphenated unless it's a modifier) E-1 ..~ _--- - - ----------- . "intelligent airbag (SRS) system. six-disc in-dash CD changer and x (spell out number) speakers analog gauges answer-back confirmation anti-dive (front suspension) air conditioning system anti-knock anti-knock capabilities Anti-Knock Index (AKI) anti-lift (rear suspension) air-intake system Alcantara" (needs disclaimer footnote: Alcantara" is a registered trademark of Alcantara S.A.--- TERMINOLOGY ------------ - Purpose: The information in this glossary is designed to be used to provide a consistent message throughout all departments publishing internal and external product and consumer facing materials.

fold-away. electrically operated moon roofs dual. even though a modifier) (Igloo) dual-spray fuel injectors dual storage pockets E Ecsaine" seat fabric cruise control E-2 . fold-away. power mirrors dual front airbags (SRS) dual-link strut layout dual-illuminated dual-mode (as modifier) (as modifier) seating surfaces dual-piston fixed position caliper dual-piston floating caliper dual-plane dual-stage (as modifier) Continuous All-Wheel Drive continuously variable transfer clutch cooler/warmer cross bars cross bar set. large-type. fold-away power heated mirrors dual."'iI B9Tribeca'" Baja'" Baja'" Sport Baja'" Turbo belt-driven camshafts with automatic tensioner belt line bhp (two words) (designation for "brake" horsepower in specs section) cupllolder (one word) cut-pile carpeting D Daytime Running Lights (DRL) defogger de-icer delayed-off dome light de-powered diecast modifier) (one word) (hyphenate aluminum-alloy only as a bi-Ievel vents body color body roll body sheet metal body side (two words) (not "body color painted") diecast aluminum-alloy direct-ignition system body-side cladding body-side molding Boxer 4 Boxer 6 (use numeral in place of four cylinder) (use numeral in place of six cylinder) ("8" is always upper case) dog guard/compartment divider double-cone (as modifier) Double or Dual Overhead Camshafts (DOHC) double-sided galvanized driveline driver and front-passenger airbags (SRS) Driver Controlled Center Differential (DCCD) driver's seat height and lumbar adjustments driver's side drivetrain drum brakes (can use "drums" in specs only) (not driver's-side or driver side) Boxer engine Brake Assist Brernbo" C carbon-fiber patterned trim cargo area cargo-area light cargo bed cargo cover cargo tie-downs cargo tie-down hooks cargo tray Cargo Volume Rear Seat Down Cargo Volume Rear Seat Up car-like chrome single-outlet tailpipe chrome sport bars cloth (not "fabric") (specs) (specs) dry-road benefits dry-road handling benefits dual-diagonal hydraulic circuits dual. power mirrors dual. square crossmember cross rail (2 words) (not hyphenated.

second and third row seating (one word) F final-drive ratio fine-tune (verb) front subframe front wheel front-to-rear balance (no hyphen unless it is used as a modifier) five-speed manual transmission fixed-intermittent rear window wiper with washer fixed position flat-woven upholstery flexible flywheel floor frame rails floor mats flywheel fog lights fold-away fold-down footrest force limiters Forester® Forester®2. full and hood front floor mat retention hook front-passenger dual-stage-deployment Always accompanied by this disclaimer: airbag (SRS)* .L.BeaO®Edition Forest.• Premium Packij. front-seat side-impact airbags (SRS)* front-seat three-point seatbelts front seatback net pockets front (not first).5XL.5 XTLimited anti-lock brakes four-channellfour-sensor (ABS) four-cylinder (not fog lamps) Front-Wheel Drive (FWD) Front-Wheel-Drive system front windshield wiper de-icer wipers) (never omit "wiper") (not frontal-offset collisions full-size spare full-time All-Wheel Drive full-time AWD G gated-style shifter gauge pack gear position indicator Genuine Subaru Accessories" Global Positioning System (GPS) (Use GPS Navigation System) with: Touch Screen glovebox gray grille (one word) (no quotes) grade-logic control four-channel/four-sensor Anti-lock Braking System (Note: Spell out number of cylinders) (not grey) E·3 .eight-way power driver's seat electrically triggered pre-tensioners and force limiters electroluminescent (one word) (two words) four-piston caliper (no hyphen between piston and caliper) four-piston fixed position caliper four-speed electronic automatic transmission four-speed electronic direct-control automatic transmission four-wheel disc brakes Four-Wheel Drive (4WD) four-wheel fully independent suspension front and rear crumple zones front (not first) Electronic Brake-force Distribution (EBD) electronic direct-control automatic transmission electronic stability control Electronic Throttle Control (ETC) electronic traction control electronically controlled hydraulic transfer clutch electronically managed continuously variable transfer clutch Emergency Locking Retractor (ELR) end-cap mounts on the roof rails energy-absorbing energy-absorbing front and rear crumple zones engine block heater Engine Control Module (ECM) engine-speed-sensing evasive-action handling performance exhaust back pressure and second row seating front disc brakes/rear drum brakes front door tweeters front-end cover.ge X Forester®2. • Always wear your seat belts.5.er®2. Children should be properly restrained in the rear seat.

5 i Legacy®2. and B) Edition Hornel. low-friction suspension illuminated ignition switch ring illuminated visor vanity mirrors impact-absorbing lmpreza" Impre?a®2.) (never use periods with abbreviation) (Should always be spelled out as "pound-feet" in text. Do not use Heating.Bean® (no spaces) laser-welding LATCH system: Lower Anchors and Tethesr for CHildren lb-ft of torque foot-pounds.5 i Limited Legacy®2.B (no space between. shoulder room. Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system heavy-duty raised suspension height-adjustable (as modifier before a noun) (front seats only) height-adjustable head restraints height-adjustable outboard seatbelt belt anchors height-adjustable seatbelt belt anchors height-adjustable three-point front seatbelts with pre-tensioners and force limiters high-boost turbocharger high-end power High Intensity Discharge (HID) headlights high-performance high-power (modifier) (modifier) leather-trimmed leather-trimmed upholstery leather-wrapped leg room (two words) high-rpm horsepower high-strength high torque Hill Holder" clutch Hill Holder" system hitch-mounted bicycle attachment trailer hitch) (requires accessory (modifier) Legacy® 2.5 i Irnpreza®Outback.grocery bag hooks H halogen headlights head restraints head room headlights headrests (front seats only) (two words.5 GTLimited with NaVigation System Legacy®2. etc.5iSpecial Legacy® 2.5 GTspec.) (not head lamps) (rear seats only) 1mpreza®WAX lrnpreza" WRX Limited lmpreza" WRX STI Impreza®WRX TR inch (16-inch) inline (one word) (do not abbreviate in text. like leg room.ink" (needs disclaimer footline: HomeLink is a registered limited-slip limited-slip rear differential limp-home mode liquid-filled rear bushings and stabilizer bar load-floor length lock-out system lockup long-travel (as modifier) trademark of Johnson Controls) horizontally opposed engine it's redundant) (do not use with Boxer engine - hp (horsepower) hydraulic clutch hydraulic clutch with Hill Holder" system (manual transmission) long-travel. Sport Impreza®OutbackSport E-4 low-and mid-range speeds low-beam (use hyphen only when used as a modifier) (modifier) Low Emission Vehicle (LEV) low-end torque low-friction low-fuel light Special Edition low-maintenance distributorless electronic ignition . do not use inch mark) (Sedah and Sport Wagon) (Sedan) (Sedah) lrnpreza" WRX STI Limited in-glass antenna internal rebound springs iridium spark plugs or iridium-tipped spark plugs L L.L.5 GT Limited Legacy® 2.

Bean®Edition with rear gate lock cylinder E-5 .0 R L.5 i Limited Outback" 2. except for Baja) (no hyphens) Outback" 2.Bean® Edition Outback" 3. but not always) Moquette" upholstery multimulti-link rear suspension system multi-mode heated driver and front-passenger seats multi-phase valves multi-reflector halogen fog lights multi-reflector halqgen headlights N new-design splash guards Noise Vibration and Harshness (NVH) nonwoven (one word) power tilt-and-slide moon roof powertrain pre-tensioners prewired projector-beam fog lights projector-beam headlights pull-ring Q quick-ratio rack-and-pinion steering fabric sun visors o off-highway trails one-touch Outback" 2.5 i R rack-and-pinion with engine-speed-sensing variable power assist raised black letter tires rear bumper step pad rear door child safety locks rear floor frame rails rear gate (not tailgate.5 i Basic Outback" 2.5 XT with Navigation System· Outback" 3.L.5 XT Limited Outback" 2. which should be p parallel links and stabilizer bar parking brake handle Partial Zero Emission Vehicle (PZEV) pass-through Passenger Occupant Detection System (PODS) Passenger Volume passive safety perforated leather-trimmed perforated leather-wrapped planetary gear-type center differential plate-type beam platform (no quote marks) (basic chassis and suspension design) (specs) mechanical limited-slip rear differential Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) midrange midsize Model Line Guide MOMO® MOMO steering wheel wheel) (one word) platinum-tipped spark plugs power assist (do not use "MOMO brand" steering power-assisted (modifier) power moon roof power moon roof with auto open-and-close feature also delete "feature") (can (usually with a hyphen after this prefix.tower center of gravity lower L-arrns M M+S (for "mud-and-snow" spelled out in text) MacPherson-type coil-over struts mahogany wood and leather-wrapped MOMO® steering wheel mahogany wood and leather-wrapped steering wheel designed by MOMO® manual-controlled only) (modifier) (WRX STI model Navigation System outside-temperature display overdrive tire.0 R L.L.

(SOA.) Subaru Roadside Assistance Program (not sales people) Sales Consultants seat cushions seatback seatbelt(s) E-6 Subaru Symmetrical All-Wheel Drive Subaru Symmetrical AWD subfloor subframe (not "safety belts") . Inc.) standard equipment list starter interlock system step-roof design STI®(all upper case) Ring-Shaped Reinforcement Body Frame design with roof cross-rail support beams preceded with "Subaru") (always singular) (Can be road surface roof cross-rail support beams roof rails STI steering wheel stone-guard coating strut Subaru Core Technology (not Subaru DNA) s Safety Brake Pedal System brake pedals) (not safety brake pedal or safety Subaru Intelligent Drive (SI-DRIVE) Subaru of America. usually at the end of the chapter. footnote. Inc. Inc. SRS and (.) symbol are trademarks of SRS SRS WOW Labs.) disclaimer footnote.) ryvOW.rear gate sill covers rear gate spoiler rear parallel links rear seat rear seat center armrest rear seat down Rear Seat DVD Entertainment System rear seat headrests rear seatback cargo net rear subwoofer rear vision camera rear wheel arch Rear Wheel Drive (RWD) rear window defogger with timer rear window wiper de-icer rear window wiper/washer with wiper de-icer rear window wiper with washer: fixed intermittent rear window wiper with washer: single-speed rear window wiper with washer: single-speed and fixed intermittent rear vision camera rearview mirror remote engine starter remote keyless entry system remote-release fuel door retractable cargo-area cover re-tuned reverse assist sensors Ring-Shaped Reinforcem~nt Body Frame design (always singular) (Can be preceded with "Subaru") self-diagnostic(s) semi-automatic sequential multi-port fuel injection system (MFI) short-throw shifter shoulder room side impact side-impact collision side-impact door beams silver metallic-finished interior trim Single Overhead Camshaft (SOHC) single-piston floating caliper SIRIUS®satellite radio SIRIUS®satellite radio capable six-cylinder (Note: Spell out number of cylinders) six-speed manual transmission six-way power driver's seat six-way power driver's seat with memory function sport-design instrumentation sport-design reclining front bucket seats Sport mode sport-tuned suspension Sport-Utility Vehicle (SUV) SPORTSHIFT® SPORTSHIFT®manual control (SRS)* (Must claimer and a always be accompanied by the appropriate dis(All mentions of (SRS) must carry an asterisk.

(NOTE: Disclaimer may differ per model) Switchback" system T tachometer tailgate taillights tailored-blank welded B-pillars side sills tailpipe test drive (noun) test-drive (verb) (test-driven. etc. additional protection in Limited Tribeca" 7-passenger Limited with Navigation System Tribeca'" 7-passengerLimited With Navigation System and Rear Seat DVD Entertainment Tricot ("T" is always upper case) (specs) cloth seating surfaces frontal and side-impact collisions. noun or adjective. never hyphenated) Touch Screen GPS Navigation System Traction Control System (TCS) trailer-hitch mounting hardware Transmission Control Module (TCM) Tribeca'" Tribeca'" 5-Passenger W viscous limited-slip rear differential VTD All-Wheel Drive wheelbase E-7 . and the front and rear outboard moderate-to-severe passengers. and to provide the best combined protection in a serious accident. Inc.) touch screen (two words.) 'The airbag Supplemental Restraint System (SRS) affords the driver.subwoofer sun visors (two words) (WRX STI model only) Tnbeca'" 5-Passenger Limited Tribaca" 5-Passenger Limited with Navigation System Tribeca'" 7-Passenger Tribeca'"7-passenger always be Super Sport ABS Super Ultra Low Emission Vehicle (SULEV) Supplemental Restraint System (SRS)* (must accompanied by the following footnote.) (hyphenated) (Baja exclusive) see rear gate u ULEV (Ultra and Low Emission Vehicle) ultra high-performance summer-rated tires underfloor storage understeer uniform child restraint anchorage system unitized unitized construction UV green-tinted glass UV green-tinted glass in the moonroof(s) (spell out numeral) textured gray body-side cladding three-dial electronic control panel three-point front (0. test-driving. In specs. can use "3-point" if v valvetrain variable-intermittent windshield wipers variable ratio rack-and-pinion steering with enginespeed-sensing power assist Variable Torque Distribution (VTD) variable valve timing Vehicle Dynamics Control (VDC) system viscous-coupling locking center differential (not . Children should always be properly restrained in one of the rear seats.viscous-type locking center differential) trademark of JTEKT three-spoke steering wheel tilt-adjustable steering column Tire Pressure Monitoring System (TPMS) TORSEN LSD®(TORS EN is a registered TORSEN North America. This Trunk Volume system provides supplemental protection only. rear) seatbelts for x seating positions three-point seatbelts tight on space) (In copy. intercooled Boxer engine turbocharger turning circle. curb-to-curb tweeter kit twin-piston caliper two-tone (no hyphen between piston and caliper) upon airbag deployment. and seatbelts must be worn in order to avoid injuries to out-of-position occupants Tumble Generator Valves (TGV) turbocharged and intercooled turbocharged.

7-passenger unless it begins a sentence) (for Subaru Tribeca.) xx-inch steel with full-wheel covers xx-inch styled steel with center cap xx.x inch discs xx-inch drums ("drums" in specs only.wheelspin wide-screen display windshield wiper de-icer wiper de-icer (not wipers) (not wipers) woodgrain patterned interior trim World Rally Championship (WRC) competition X XM®satellite radio XM®satellite radio capability Numerals xxx/xxRxx modifier) (tire size) (hyphenate "aluminum alloy" only if xx-inch aluminum-alloy xx-inch aluminum-alloy five-spoke design xx-inch aluminum-alloy multi-spoke design xx-inch aluminum alloy with gold-color accents xx. use drum brakes.x-inch ventilated discs x X Ib-ft (not with periods) (modifier) liters or x-liter x-spoke design x watts of x-watt (modifier) 2. use numerals 5MT 6MT (five-speed manual transmission) (specs) (six-speed manual transmission) (specs) 12-volt 12-volt cargo power outlet 12-volt power outlet 16-inch aluminum-alloy 24-hour Subaru Roadside Assistance Program 60/40-split fold-down rear seatback (not 60:40) E-8 .5-mph or 5-mph impact-absorbing bumpers 4-speed electronic direct-control automatic transmission 5-passenger. In text.

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of gasoline fuel. An air dam limits the amount of airflow under the vehicle reducing air turbulence. and air conditioning (HVAC)functions of the system.. This system does not decrease the stopping distance of a vehicle. Air Pump Diverter Valve A valve which interrupts the delivery of air to the exhaust ports during vehicle deceleration in order to prevent engine backfires. or anti-knock properties. Alignment may also refer to the appropriate positioning of the frame or unit body when repairing damage that has occurred. Most brands contain rust inhibitors and other additives that help prolong the life of the radiator and cooling system. Air scoops direct outside air to a certain component. using ambient-temperature air.AUTOMOTIVE DEFINITIONS A A-Pillar The forward upright structural member that supports the doors. and ride height. All-Wheel Drive (AWD) A drivetrain system that sends engine power to all four wheels of a vehicle. Alignment This term refers to the complex geometry of the relationship of the wheels/tires with the pavement. and also helps enhance fuel economy and reduce emissions. esters of these acids. Other measurement scales include Research Octane Number (RON) and Motor Octane Number (MON). Aerodynamic Drag Force Air drag or force against an object in the opposite direction of travel. Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) A braking system that automatically controls the slip ratio of one or more wheels of the vehicle during braking. Air Dam Aerodynamically shaped transverse extension or spoiler located below the front bumper which reduces air drag created by the vehicle underbody. The air dam also creates an area of low pressure immediately under and below the radiator to promote better airflow through the radiator. This is the main component of the vehicle's charging system that maintains the electrical charge in the battery. ventilation. Anti-Knock Index (AKI) A scale of measurement of the octane. camber. brakes. Air/Fuel Ratio The mixture ratio of air to fuel measured by mass (or weight). such as the engine air-intake. The purpose of this device is either to help cool the component.and it is the number displayed on service station qasollne pumps in USA. rnethacryllc acid.7 to 1 is ideal for complete combustion in an internal combustion engine. Anti-Dive Suspension geometry that reduces or prevents nose-down pitching of a vehicle's front end during braking. as for example a seatbelt or seat. AKI is the average of RON and MON [AKI = (RON + MON) . Air Scoop Normally forward-facing raised aperture on the vehicle bodywork to act as an intake for outer ram air. Most alloy wheels are made of aluminum-alloy and are noted for their lightweight and stylish desiqns. ABS helps maintain vehicle straight line stability. By changing the timing of intake valve opening. roof. this is measured as Coefficient of Drag CD. Alloy Wheels A term usually used to describe any non-steel road wheel. turbocharger intercooler.. or radiator. On a vehicle. Automatic Climate Control System A climate system that automatically maintains a preset temperature set by the occupant by controlling the heating. E-13 . AC and transforms it into Direct Current. Active Valve Control System (AVCS) A Subaru variable valve timing system that varies intake camshaft timing based on a number of factors. A Stoichiometric ratio of approximately 14. The lower the CD or wind resistance increases the aerodynamics of the vehicle. toe-in. or acrylonitrile. and windshield. Anchorage Point on a vehicle where a non-structural component is mechanically attached. AVCS helps eliminate the traditional compromise between low-end torque and high-rpm horsepower. or to help force more air into the engine intake for increased power. Alternator A rotating electrical generating device driven by the vehicle's engine that produces alternating current. Anti-lift Suspension geometry that reduces or prevents lifting of a vehicle's rear end during braking. such as aluminum-alloy. DC. Alloy Two or more metals combined to form unique characteristics. Acrylic A resin polymerized from acrylic acid. AVCS also changes the relationship between the timing of the opening and closing of the intake and exhaust valves.2J. It is expressed as caster. Antifreeze An ethylene glycol based chemical that is mixed with water (usually in a 50/50 or 60/40 ratio) and added to the engine's cooling system to help prevent freezing in cold weather and boiling in hot weather.

E-14 . pressure or electrical charge. the motion of the pistons resembles a boxer throwing punches.Automatic Locking Retractor (ALR) A seatbelt function that is designed to help secure a child safety seat. Boost (1)To increase. Such systems are usually referred to as power-assisted brakes or power brakes. The auxiliary mode of the audio system on Subaru vehicles has a volume memory function that regulates the sound levels between the different modes. Axle or Axle Shaft Horizontal transverse shaft or beam with spindles on which road wheels are mounted. as of flow rate. When braking. above atmospheric pressure. Bolt Circle The normal diameter of the bolt pattern on wheel hub. determine the engine displacement. Brake Fade Reduction of braking force or effectiveness on a wheel resulting from overheating of the brake friction surfaces. Brake Assist helps the driver by monitoring the depression speed applied to the brake pedal. applying braking force to the vehicle's wheel. Brake Shoe (Drum Brake System) An arched metal frame with friction-generating material that is forced hydraulically by the wheel cylinder against a drum. applying braking force to the vehicle's wheel. This shaft transfers engine power from the differential to the road wheel. These two measurements. (3) The additional pressure. Auxiliary Audio Jack Auxiliary audio jack allows electronic devices to be connected to the vehicles audio system and use the speakers as an output for the device. This type of joint is used on suspension and steering linkages. Bead Part of a tire that seats onto a wheel rim." brake horsepower. as for example in boost charging a battery. Brake Horsepower Power developed by an engine as measured at the crankshaft by a dynamometer. Ball Joint Mechanical joint in which a spherical end moves freely within a recessed socket. B B-Pillar The side center upright structural member. Boxer engines are generally compact and feature low vibration and a low center of gravity. the system senses the rapid depression of the brake pedal and simultaneously boosts the driver's braking force to the brake system for maximum braking performance. Brake Assist In an emergency stopping situation. Brake Pad (Disc Brake System) A metal framed pad with friction-generating material that is forced hydraulically by the caliper against the rotor disc. They are called Boxer engines because when they are running. In an emergency stopping situation. Balance Shaft A rotating shaft located in the crankcase of an engine with counter weights that counteract and cancel out engine vibration. Stroke is the distance that the piston travels in the bore. Brake Booster A device mounted between the brake pedal and brake master cylinder of a vehicle that uses hydraulic pressure or engine vacuum to increase the force applied to the brake hydraulic system. usually woven from steel or a man-made fiber. a driver has the natural tendency not to brake hard enough and soon enough. ALR is engaged by fully extending the shoulder portion of the seatbelt until an audible click is heard. When released. Belt (Engine) A V or multi-V section of reinforced band rubber material that is used to drive engine accessory components from the crankshaft. amplify or add to. provided by a supercharger or turbocharger. Belt (Tire) Continuous reinforcing around the periphery of a radial ply tire. also measured in millimeters or inches. Brake Proportioning Valve A valve that adjusts the braking force to the rear wheels based on rear-to-front weight transfer. Boxer Engine Engine configuration with cylinders positioned across from each other at a 180-degree angle (also called horizontally opposed). also known as "bhp. (2)A measurable additional quantity. Bore and Stroke Bore is the diameter of each engine cylinder. strengthened with an embedded hoop of wire and wrapped or reinforced by the plies. put into the proper calculation (half the bore times pi times the stroke times the number of cylinders). which supports the doors and roof. the seatbelt will continue to maintain tension on the child safety seat rather than allowing any seatbelt slack. measured in millimeters or inches. This additional force helps maximizes brake system performance during emergency braking situations. particularly at a more vigorous rate than normal. Brake Assist maintains braking force until the driver releases the brake pedal. it is designed to help prevent unwanted rear wheel lockup by controlling the amount of hydraulic force going to the rear brake system.

The pilot bearing absorbs the rotational difference between the input shaft and flywheel. Carbon Monoxide (CO) Colorless. Incorrect caster will not produce premature tire wear. AWD vehicle and transfers the engine power to the front and rear driveshafts.c C-Pillar The rear upright structural member that supports the doors. The flywheel and pressure plate spins freely of the disc and the transmission input shaft is at idle. Catalytic Converter A canister fitted in series with the exhaust system that uses platinum. odorless toxic gas and the product of incomplete combustion of hydrocarbon fuel with air. Caster is considered negative when the steering axis and vehicle load is inclined forward of the point of wheel contact with the road. A lower center of gravity will tend to promote better vehicle stability. This is one of the principal toxic pollutants of incomplete combustion in exhaust gases. Camber Angle The angle between the plane of a wheel and the vertical axis of a vehicle as viewed from the front of the vehicle." The camshaft rotates at half the crankshaft speed. The flywheel is attached to the engine and the transmission input shaft is keyed to the disc. The clutch system. Charcoal/Carbon Canister for Evaporative Emissions Cam Profile Geometric shape of the camshaft lobes. The profile determines the lift and duration of the intake and exhaust valves. Engine power is transferred to the transmission. Caliper A clamping mechanism that is hydraulically operated by brake fluid. Carbon Monoxide (CO). and rapid disengagement for gear selection. palladium and/or rhodium as a catalyst to reduce the toxicity of products of combustion by producing a catalytic recombustion in the exhaust. Center Differential A mechanical device that is in a transfer case integrated or bolted onto the transmission on an All-Wheel Drive E-15 . Camber is considered positive if the wheel leans outwards from the vehicle side and negative if it leans inward. Normally used in suspension systems to support the weight of the vehicle and provide a smooth ride. Clutch disengaged / pedal depressed • The release bearing applies force on the center of the pressure plate releasing the clamping pressure of the disc. Caster Angle The angle between the steering axis and the vertical as viewed from the side of the vehicle. Components consist of: • Flywheel • Pressure Plate or Clutch Cover • Disc • Release bearing • Pilot Bearing Clutch engaged / pedal released: • The pressure plate clamps the disc to the flywheel. Incorrect camber will produce premature tire wear. allows smooth and progressive engagement of engine power to the transmission for taking up initial drive. Collapsible Steering Column A steering column engineered to collapse during a frontal impact in a vehicle accident. Center of Gravity The vertical center point of a vehicle's mass. Check Engine Light / Malfunction Indicator Light (MIL) Warning light located in the instrument cluster that alerts the driver of a vehicle that the engine or drivetrain system is operating outside the normal parameters. known as "lift. Camshaft A shaft that has a series of eccentric lobes that operate the opening and closing of intake and exhaust valves in an engine. The differential also allows the driveshafts to turn at different speeds allowing the vehicle to turn a corner without axle torque binding. located between the engine and manual transmission. This light will illuminate indicating a malfunction with one of the controlling components of the drivetrain system. This component clamps the brake pads to the rotor disc. It reduces Hydrocarbons (HC). The profile of each lobe determines the time or "duration" that the valve is open as well as the amount the valve moves. and Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx). Caster Considered positive when the steering axis and vehicle load is rearward of the point of wheel contact with the road. A component of an evaporative control system which is used to collect and store evaporative hydrocarbon fuel emissions from the fuel tank or fuel system. roof and the rear window on sedan models. Coil Spring Spiral-wound resilient steel rod that can be compressed or extended without permanent deformation. applying braking force to the vehicle's wheel. Clutch A mechanism to engage and disengage the manual transmission from the engine and used to regulate engine power to the drivetrain. Chassis Structural lower part of a vehicle to which the drivetrain and vehicle body are attached.

Crankshaft The main power shaft of a reciprocating engine comprising the crank throws that impart reciprocating motion to the pistons by way of their offset from the shaft axis. with all standard and commonly-installed optional equipment. Coolant A fluid mixture of ethylene glycol and water used in a cooling system for an engine. This joint is typically located on the outer part of the axle shaft closest to the wheel. Defuser A unique design flat panel placed on the undercarriage of the vehicle to smooth out air turbulence. The compressor is normally located on the engine and driven by the engine via the accessory drive belt. Cooling System A system designed to absorb and transfer excess engine heat. Constant Velocity Joint (CVJ) A constant velocity universal joint radially self supported which consists internally of an outer and inner race connected with ball bearings located in a cage. while the vehicle is executing its sharpest practicable turn. normally the volume of the cylinder between the top of the piston. thermostat. water pump. at the moment of least cylinder volume. Cowl Front part of a vehicle cab or body directly below the base of the windshield and between the bulkhead panel and the hood. divided by the volume at the top of the stroke. and the camshafts in overhead-cam engines. Crush Zones (Crumple Zones) Areas of the vehicle that are designed to crush upon impact and absorb the energy of a collision while maintaining the structural integrity of the passenger compartment. lowering the pressure and turning the gas back into a liquid. Damper Device for reducing and dissipating energy of vibration.Combustion Chamber Part of the engine in which combustion takes place. Curb Weight / CW The weight of the vehicle in operational status. . Curb To Curb Turning Diameter The diameter of the smallest circle within which the vehicle will clear a curb 150mm high. This component acts as a platform to provide added strength for suspension and drivetrain components connected to the body. and the weight of fuel with the tank filled to normal capacity. E-16 Crankcase Part of the structure of an engine that contains and supports the crankshaft. not including any passengers or cargo. a mileage figure determined by an average of fuel consumption for all models produced by a given manufacturer with taking into account the actual sales in each EPA category. Contact Patch The area of contact on a loaded tire with the road surface. It also contains the spark plugs and valve train components in most engines. hoses and engine cylinder water jackets. Compressor (Air Conditioning) The air conditioning compressor takes a low pressure refrigerant gas from the evaporator and compresses it into a high pressure gas and sends it to the condenser. The minimum requirement is the government standard. The condenser is normally located in front of the engine radiator. Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE). this part of the engine seals the upper ends of the cylinders and contains the combustion chambers. at the moment of greatest cylinder volume. connecting rods and main bearings. Crossmember A lateral sub-frame member connected to the vehicle body longitudinal frame members. and the cylinder head. The block is usually a casting to which all other engine parts are attached. Compression Ratio The ratio of an engine cylinder plus the combustion chamber volume at the bottom of the stroke. This panel reduces air resistance to increase handling performance and fuel economy. fan. side quarter window and rear tailgate on wagon models. and the journals whereby it is located and supported by the crankcase main bearings. Cylinder Block The main engine component that contains the pistons. it includes the coolant radiator. D D-Pillar The rear upright structural member that supports the roof. Condenser (Air Conditioning) A fined radiator type component which high pressure hot refrigerant gas is pumped into from the air conditioning compressor. The joint permits angular movement of the axle shaft allowing the vehicle's suspension to travel and the front wheels to turn left or right. it is the core of the engine. cylinders and crankcase. Compression ratio A volumetric ratio and not a pressure ratio. the crown. Cylinder Head Bolted to the cylinder block. as for example in an engine or suspension system. The condenser thermally removes the heat from the high pressure hot refrigerant gas. A manufacturer can be fined for noncompliance.

Drag Coefficient (CD or CX) A number used in calculating the aerodynamic value of a vehicle. The lower the number. Direct Control Automatic Transmission Subaru Direct Control Automatic Transmission features an advanced computer control of all shift functions. Drivetrain The totaling of components making up the power transmission system of a motor vehicle. Driving Force The longitudinal force on a vehicle from the driving torque applied to the wheels. Displacement The primary measure of an engine's size. adjusting the DCCD control dial on the center console varies the torque distribution ratio between the front and rear wheels.Detonation Rapid combustion in an engine cylinder of the fuel mixture when heated by the advancing flame front from the spark plug. This eliminates the need for a mechanical driven distributor. load to measure the horsepower and torque of a vehicles engine at the drive wheels. It multiplies the engine power from the driveshaft and transfers the torque at a right angle to the axle shafts and then to the wheels. or with the ignition timing too far advanced. Direct Ignition System (DIS) A distributorless ignition system having individual coil units attached directly to the spark plugs eliminating the secondary ignition wires. chamber changes. DCCD utilizes a planetary center differential in conjunction with an electronically managed continuously variable transfer clutch. The noise made by persistent detonation is called pinging. or braking on irregular surfaces. Drag coefficient is a big factor in fuel efficiency. In the Manual Driver Controlled Mode. The joint permits angular and in and out movement of the axle shaft allowing the vehicle's suspension to travel. the system retains partial brake actuating capability. and vehicle stability. Driveshaft (Propeller Shaft) A shaft linking the transmission to the differential and transferring engine power. displacement is the total volume within the engine's cylinders that is swept by the moving pistons in their stroke. or cubic inches. Dynamometer A device that simulates road. Distributorless Ignition System An ignition system that uses a cam angle sensor. Distributor Engine driven ignition system component consisting of a primary and secondary electrical circuit. The differential is located in the front and/or rear of a vehicle. the torque distribution ratio between the front and rear wheels is automatically adjusted by the Transmission Control Module (rCM) based on driving and road-surface conditions. wind noise. The differential also allows the axle shafts to turn at different speeds allowing the vehicle to turn a corner without axle torque binding. Differential A mechanical gear set that has a pinion shaft and crown gear called a ring gear. downhill or around a corner. the more efficiently the body slips through the air. Directional Stability Ability of a vehicle to maintain its course of travel. Disc Brake Brake type employing external friction pads which are pressed against the faces of a flat rotor or disc by the brake caliper. Left front and right rear wheels and right front and left rear wheels. E Electronic Brake-Force Distribution (EBD) Electronic Brake Force Distribution optimizes the distribution of braking force between the front and rear wheels according to how the vehicle is loaded with passengers E-17 . Double Offset Joint / DOJ A constant velocity universal joint. Detonation can occur in the cylinder of a spark ignition engine when operating on a fuel of inadequate octane rating. Driver Controlled Center Differential (DCCD) WRX STI manual transmission model has a Driver Controlled Center Differential (DCCD) with Automatic Mode. Double or Dual Overhead Camshaft (DOHC) An engine having a separate intake camshaft and exhaust camshaft located in the cylinder head and operating the intake and exhaust valves directly or indirectly. and electronics to control the ignition timing and the delivery of high voltage electrical power to fire each spark plug in the proper sequence. In the Automatic Mode. radically self supported. If either circuit fails. crank angle sensor. The distributor controls the timing and the delivery of high voltage electrical power to fire each spark plug in the proper sequence. or remain under normal steering control while being subjected to directionally disturbing influences such as cross-winds. and also has an adaptive control capability that adjusts how the transmission will shift when going uphill. Dual-Diagonal Hydraulic Circuit Brake System A brake system consisting of two separate diagonal hydraulic circuits. cubic centimeters (cc). The Transmission Control Module (rCM) controls all shifting. This joint is typically located on the inner part of the axle shaft closest to the differential. which consists internally of a slotted outer and inner race connected with ball bearings located in a cage. It is usually expressed in liters.

that directs exhaust gases from the cylinder head exhaust ports and routes them to the exhaust system. Supplemental Restraint System (SRS) Passive vehicle occupant restraint system operates during a moderate to severe frontal impact. switches. Emission controls generally are found in the crankcase. which consists internally of an outer race with three slots and a inner tri-joint with three equally spaced free floating trunnion mounted balls attached to the joint with needle bearings. Ergonomics An applied science concerned with designing and positioning vehicle controls. Front Airbag. Part-time Four-Wheel Drive allows the driver to select either Two-Wheel or Four-Wheel Drive modes. This activates the illumination of the Check Engine or Service Engine Soon warning light located in the instrument cluster and alerts the driver that an engine control component is malfunctioning. FullTime Four-Wheel Drive delivers power to the front and rear axles all the time.and cargo. a highly pollutant gas. gas tank. EPA Fuel Economy A fuel economy rating of a vehicle determined by tests administered by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) performed under laboratory conditions. An airbag mounted to the steering wheel. Free Ring Tripod Joint / FTJ A constant velocity universal joint. The ECM has the ability to learn a. For serious engine electronic failures. The pilot bearing is located in the center of the flywheel to support the transmission input or mainshaft. Electronically Controlled Automatic Transmission Computer-controlled automatic transmission that selects shift characteristics based on data from electronic sensors that measure vehicle speed. Engine Control Module (ECM) A microprocessor that monitors. Electronic Throttle Control (ETC) Provides a non-mechanical connection between the engine throttle body and the accelerator pedal. using simulated weights and drag to create "real" driving conditions. This system helps maintain vehicle stability during moderate to severe braking applications. engine speed. Emission Controls Systems designed to limit harmful gases in an engine's exhaust. High numerical ratios deliver more torque and are preferred for low end power. The ECM sends a signal to the electronic throttle motor on the throttle body to control the throttle valve. Under sudden vehicle deceleration the inertia quick lock mechanism locks and holds the seatbelt and passenger in place. exhaust manifold.hd adapt to the driver's driving style and also compensate for engine component aging from normal wear and tear. Exhaust Manifold An assembly of tubes. chassis components and body. Four-Wheel Drive (4WD) A drive system where both the front and rear wheels can receive power through a transmission transfer case. This joint is typically located on the inner part of the axle shaft closest to the differential. usually cast iron. Low numerical ratios generally offer greater top speed and fuel efficiency. Emergency Locking Retractor (ELR) During normal level driving. 2) Emission control devices designed to destroy or otherwise alter pollutants after cylinder combustion. instruments. Flywheel A round weighted metal plate attached to the rear or the engine crankshaft providing reciprocating momentum for the engine. This lowers internal combustion temperatures. . the ELR permits free movement of the shoulder belt on a 3 point seatbelt system. and exhaust system. the ECM has a pre-programmed default limp-home mode that maintains drivability. E-18 Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) A system that recycles a portion of the exhaust gases to the combustion chamber. air cleaner. intake manifold. operates and manages engine control functions for maximum engine output and fuel economy with minimal exhaust emissions. Also used as the friction surface for the clutch disc and as an attachment surface for the clutch cover or pressure plate assembly. a passenger airbag mounted on the passenger side of the dash rapidly inflates to restrain the body above the torso area to prevent direct contact with the vehicle structure. Grouped in two categories: 1) Emission control devices designed to reduce or eliminate the formation of harmful pollutants in the engine before and during cylinder combustion. Frame Separate structural underpinning of a vehicle which supports the engine. radically self supported. seats. and with a dual airbag system. This design is smoother for less vibration and has less rsclprocatlnq friction for increased fuel economy. The joint permits angular and in and out movement of the axle shaft allowing the vehicle's suspension to travel. pedals and the steering wheel so the interaction between the driver and vehicle controls are the most efficient and safe. reducing the formation of oxides of nitrogen NOx. and engine load. The ECM also has a selfdiagnostic mode that stores trouble codes from engine components that are outside their operating parameters. F Final Drive Ratio Ratio between the transmission output shaft or drives haft and the drive wheel axle shaft. The electronic system consists of a pedal-position sensor that tracks the position of the accelerator pedal and sends this information to the Engine Control Module (ECM).

Front Wheel Drive (FWD) A drive system utilizing a transaxle to direct engine power to the front wheels. Fuel System Combination of a fuel tank. Supplemental Restraint System (SRS) Passive vehicle occupant restraint system operates during a moderate to severe side impact. cle. Fuel Pump An electrical pump that draws fuel from a tank and delivers the fuel supply to the fuel injector(s). Fuel Injection System Fuel system using an electric pump and electronic injector nozzles to meter fuel to the engine's combustion chamber. vapor return lines. uses one injector for each cylinder which injects fuel directly into each intake port. fuel injection components. The evaporated tungsten from the filament combines with the gas to form tungsten halide. 2) Multiport. Head Restraints Front seat head restraints are mandated by the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration (NHTSA) to help prevent whiplash injuries in front and rear collisions by cushioning and limiting rearward movement of the head and neck. fuel vents and evaporative emission control devices. Fuse Replaceable device which disconnects and opens an electrical circuit with irreversible action when the circuit exceeds the specified current draw or load. Three main types include: 1) Sequential multiport. torque converter. Head Restraint. The head restraints become an extension of the seatback. Headrests A pillow device attached or integrated into the upper part of the rear seatback designed to reduce the rearward movement of the head. Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR) The value specified by the manufacture as the loaded vehicle weight and the loaded weight of the towed vehi- .Front Seat Head / Chest Side Impact Airbags. The fuse protects the circuit from overload. Ground Clearance The minimum vertical distance from the ground to the lowest point on the vehicle. The injectors are located in the lower part of the intake manifold above each cylinder. High Intensity Discharge (HID) Headlights HID lights work the same way as streetlights and neon E-19 G Gearbox Component in the drivetrain that contains an encased assembly of gears for multiplying torque and changing the vehicle's direction. Fuel Injector An assembly which receives fuel from the fuel pump at a relatively high pressure and then electrically actuated by the Engine Control Module (ECM) to release a precise amount of fuel to the cylinder. The active system uses a mechanical lever in the seatback activated by the rebound force of the torso to push the head restraint forward. The Gross Vehicle Weight Rating consists of the vehicle curb weight plus payload. A gearbox is used with either a clutch. pump. H Halogen Headlights Halogen lights allow the filament temperature to rise to close to the melting point of the tungsten steel. Head restraints in the rear seats are not required by NHTSA. Gulp Valve A valve that briefly admits a metered flow of air to the engine intake manifold after a sudden closure of the throttle. This domeshaped achieves superior cylinder combustion and is very efficient and is also referred to as "hemi-head". Usually measured from a point on the exhaust system of a vehicle. Hemispherical Combustion Chamber A dome shaped cylinder head combustion chamber with intake and exhaust valves at a 45-degree angle to the piston top and a centrally located spark plug. fuel lines. filter. This helps to counteract the rearward movement of the head. uses one injector for each cylinder which injects fuel at the exact time it is needed into each intake port. or an automatic transmission type gearbox. This is based on the combined Gross Vehicle Weight Rating of both the towing and towed vehicles. Active A pillow device attached to the upper part of the front seatback. and adjustable for height. Headrests are optional for the rear seats of vehicles. either integrated or independent of the seat. An airbag mounted in the side of both the driver's and front passenger seat backs rapidly inflate to restrain the head and upper torso area to prevent direct contact with the vehicle structure. manual transmission type gearbox. The bulb is filled with an iodine or bromine gas. Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR) The value specified by the manufactured as the loaded vehicle weight. The halide is gaseous and conductive for light beams emitting a bright light. uses one injector which meters fuel into the intake manifold upstream from the intake valves. This prevents an over-rich mixture in the intake manifold when high intake vacuum evaporates the liquid fuel in the manifold. Gross Axle Weight Rating (GAWR) The value specified by the vehicle manufacture as the maximum loaded weight on a single axle system measured at the wheel. 3) Single-point throttle body.

capacitor. The ballast contains the DC/AC power converter and a control unit that regulates AC voltage output. Inverted Strut This variation on the MacPherson-type strut essentially functions like a conventional shock absorber set upsidedown and covered by another tube. The gas glows at more than 1650°F (900°C). and getting the current flow started can take up to 30. The control unit also can sense a failed or damaged light and will turn off the power to prevent injury or unwanted ignition of other substances. Horizontally Opposed Engine Engine design having the cylinders and cylinder heads at a 180-degree angle directly horizontally opposed from each other in a horizontal plane. This process is used to make vehicle frame components.000 pounds one foot in one minute. This accelerates the speed of the intake air to promote engine cylinder filling. intake manifold. Unless the tube is tinted. a vehicle climate control system. Intake Manifold Network of passages. cast iron or resin. induction coil. usually when manufacturing engine pistons from aluminum-alloy. Neon emits red light. rather than the internal piston rod. the gas inside determines the color of the light. burn fuel more efficiently. equal to the power necessary to raise 33. low-to-mid engine rpm. The movement and deflection of one wheel has little or no effect on the opposite wheel. a ballast unit and a starter. the piston's stroke remains consistent during hard cornering. such as engine output. so objects illuminated by it appear almost the same color as they do in daylight. and it uses only 35 watts as opposed to the 55 watts of standard H4 halogen bulbs. Independent Suspension A suspension system design with each wheel operating independently of each other. sometimes called the ignition unit. resulting in higher torque. At E-20 . i-Active Valve-Lift System selects high intake valve lift. Ventilating. resulting in higher power output. and intake ports. and Air Conditioning. through which the intake air flows from the throttle valve to the intake ports of the cylinder head. i-Active Valve-Lift System i-Active Valve-Lift System is a dual-stage system that helps optimize both engine torque and horsepower. This includes the air cleaner. Cooling increases the density of the air.000 volts. Horsepower (HP) A unit measure of power. Unburned hydrocarbons or fuel in an internal combustion engine is released as an exhaust emission. fuel injection system. usually cast aluminum.signs. This increases intake airflow into the cylinders. This process eliminates the micro defects in the metal structure increasing the overall strength and rigidity and stabilizing the expansion rate of the metal improving the overall reliability. The lamp itself operates on AC voltage. Intercooler Heat exchanger that removes heat from pressure charged air developed by a supercharger or turbocharger prior to admission to the engine cylinders. ignite leaner air/fuel mixtures. Additional benefits include enhanced durability. At high engine rpm. As a result. spark plugs. Hydrocarbon (HC) Chemical compound that contains only. and the relevant switches and wiring. and deliver higher horsepower and better gas mileage. The Xenon gas used in HID headlights emits virtually full-spectrum white light. a higher melting point than platinum. or principally. It produces more than twice as much illumination as a halogen bulb. mercury emits blue light. provides gradual warm-up of the light after cold-start and an instant restart if needed. When current is passed through the tube. i-Active Valve-Lift System selects low intake valve lift. High Pressure Casting Process A high pressure is applied during the casting process of metal. intake valves. The strength of the outer steel tube. carbon and hydrogen and is the principal constituent of automotive fuel. silver-white metal and one of the densest materials found on earth. Iridium-Tipped Spark Plugs Iridium is a precious. Induction System The components of an internal combustion engine where the fuel and air are mixed and brought into the engine cylinder combustion chamber. Ignition System Electrical system devised to produce an accurately timed spark through the spark plugs to ignite the air-fuel mixture in the combustion chamber of the engine cylinders. HVAC Abbreviation for Heating. increasing performance. and better anti-fouling properties. The system consists of a battery. Hydroforming A manufacturing process that applies extremely highpressure liquid to shape steel tubing inside a mold. helping to maintain the ideal tire-to-road surface contact pattern for increased traction and cornering power. the gas gets hot and emits light. A glass or quartz tube is filled with special inert gas and electrodes are sealed into each end of the tube. distributor or module. reduces deflection under cornering loads resulting in better control of wheel alignment and longer seal life. so each HID headlight assembly includes the lamp. Iridium spark plugs require less voltage to spark. The resulting components provide high strength without adding excess weight.

Research Octane Number (RON). The lower end located by linkages counteracts transverse and fore and aft movement. Longitudinal g The force acting on a vehicle as it accelerates or decelerates measured in g (gravity). The unit sends a Signal to the engine microprocessor to retard ignition timing until the ping or detonation is eliminated. On impact. If certain components fail to respond or if they respond with a signal that is out of M Main Bearing Journal bearings that locate and support the crankshaft in the engine crankcase. Limited Slip Differential Differential in which the rotational speed differential between the two axle shafts is mechanically limited to prevent wheel spin on difficult terrain. The suspension design is known for being efficient and compact. thus minimizing the potential for incorrect seat installation. LED's have an extremely long life and require very low power to operate. These forces include pitch. The MAP sensor sends a signal to the Engine Control Module (ECM) that will adjust the amount of fuel supply to the engine based on engine load. Light-Emitting Diode (LED) A semi-conductor diode that emits light when powered by an electrical current flow. via the brake pedal. Master Cylinder (1) Primary source of pressure in a hydraulic system such as a brake or clutch system. Limp Home Mode The Engine Control Module (ECM) and Transmission Control Module (TCM) monitor component inputs and outputs during self-diagnosis.J Jounce Wheel movement that compresses the vehicle's suspension. Lateral g Sideways acceleratlon. the ECM or TCM will automatically compensate for the error and activate the failsafe function to maintain drivability until the vehicle can be serviced. It may return a lower octane rating for a given fuel than the Research Octane test. the normal operating range. Knock Sensor Device used to sense detonation or ping in an engine. The safety glass also provides resistance of occupant penetration. bounce and weight transfer to the rear on acceleration or the front on deceleration. the higher the "g" force a vehicle can generate on a skid pad. The system is designed to secure the child seat without the use of the vehicle's restraint system. L Laminated Glass Safety glass is comprised of a clear plastic laminate between two pieces of glass. MacPherson Strut Telescopic independently sprung suspension member incorporating a spring. Centrifugal force acts on the vehicle and tries to pull it outward. Multi Plate Transfer (MPT) Clutch An All-Wheel Drive clutch with multiple drive and driven plates specific to the Subaru 4 speed automatic transE-21 . (2) Primary unit for dispensing hydraulic fluid under pressure in a hydraulic system. K Knock 1) Noise resulting from the spontaneous pre-ignition of a portion of the air-fuel mixture in an engine cylinder and occurring ahead of the normal spark initiated advancing flame front. Generally speaking. LATCH System Lower Anchor and Tethers for CHildren (LATCH) is a design standard mandated by the federal government that helps to ensure the proper installation of a compatible aftermarket child safety seat. measured in g (gravity) of a vehicle as it travels through a curve. The Motor Octane test is representative of more severe driving conditions than the Research Octane test. with casing. by the driver and connected to a source of hydraulic fluid. rotates at engine speed. Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) A liquid crystal display is a passive display whose operating principle is the change in light transmission or polarization in a liquid crystal under the influence of an electric field. Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) Sensor Electronic sensor that monitors engine load by measuring engine intake manifold pressure. eliminating fluid friction losses in the converter and increasing fuel efficiency. Motor Octane Number (MON) Fuel octane rating number derived from one of the standard comparative tests using the Cooperative Fuel Research (CFR) engine. Lock Up Torque Converter A type of torque converter in an automatic transmission that has a direct drive mode in which the drive and driven components are mechanically coupled so that the complete unit. containing the piston by which pressure is applied. the splintering of the shattered glass is reduced. The tires acting against the road surface produce an opposite force to keep the vehicle on its intended path. 2) Detonation of the fuel mixture in an engine cylinder or the noise referred to as "ping". the better its cornering performance and the faster it can navigate through curves. shock damper mounted on the same axis and fixed at its upper end to the body shell or chassis.

generally the Cooperative Fuel Research (CFR) engine. Overhead Camshaft (OHC) A camshaft located in the cylinder head(s) in an engine above the combustion chamber. Plies The plies (or layers) of a tire. giving Motor Octane Number (MON). Plenum Chamber A chamber located between the throttle body and runners of the intake manifold used to distribute the intake charge evenly to the cylinders. the Driver can manually select 4WD by pressing a switch or engaging a lever. given Research Octane Number (RON) and the Motor Method. its approximate value is 3. opposite the piston. Ping Rapid combustion in an engine cylinder of the fuel mixture when heated by the advancing flame front from the spark plug. The volumetric percentage of isooctane is taken as the octane rating of the fuel under test. Pistons move up and down in the cylinder. Oversteer Over response and excessive slip angle of the rear wheels from steering input during cornering in which the slip angle of the rear tires is larger than that of the front tires. This design shortens the movement of the valvetrain. under the tire tread. A double (or dual) overhead camshaft. and operated by a mechanism of rockers and push rods from a centrally located camshaft in the engine block. is referred to as DOHC. Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) Chemical compound produced in engines by a combination of high pressure and high heat within the combustion chamber conforming to the general formula NOx. reduces reciprocating mass. Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Plastic used in the automotive field as a body under base to protect prone stone chip areas before the color coat. A single overhead camshaft installed in a head is referred to as SOHC. Oil Pump Pump for distributing lubricating oil under pressure to the bearings and other lubricated surfaces of an engine transmission or other machinery. Oxygen Sensor (02 Sensor) The 02 sensor monitors the oxygen content of the engine's exhaust gases. giving the option of two-wheel or four-wheel drive. . N Noise Vibration and Harshness (NVH) A measurement level of the comfort and refinement characteristics of a vehicle. valvetrain parts and permits more responsive valve action. From this information. With the vehicle stopped. In an engine. The anti-knock properties of the fuel under test are compared with those of a fuel comprising iso-octane. or with the ignition timing too far advanced. used to produce vehicle components. Odometer Instrument incorporated in the vehicle's speedometer for measuring elapsed vehicle mileage. one for the intake valves and one for the exhaust valves. pi times half the bore times the stroke times the number of cylinders equals the engine displacement. the Engine Control Module (ECM) adjusts the air-fuel ratio to maintain maximum efficiency. and heptane rated at zero. though predominantly the Research Method. creating power. Also used as an undercoating rust inhibitor. o Octane Number Measurement of the anti-knock properties of a fuel derived from comparative tests using a standard variable compression engine. Overhead Valve (OHV) Engine having the intake and exhaust valves located at the head of the combustion chamber. Detonation can occur in the cylinder of a spark ignition engine when operating on a fuel of inadequate octane rating. such that the driver needs to reduce steering input E-22 p Part-Time Four-Wheel Drive (4WD) A four-wheel drive (4WD) system that permits disengagement of the engine drive torque from four wheels to two. The ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter. Piston Cylindrical engine component that fits into each cylinder of the engine block and is attached to the crankshaft by a connecting rod. often leading to greater engine power output. given an arbitrary rating of 100. Overdrive The one or two highest gears in some manual and automatic transmissions employed to reduce engine speed and contribute to fuel efficiency. Various test procedures are in use. The noise made by persistent detonation is called pinging. Also.mission equipped with Active All-Wheel Drive. to maintain the same turning radius. An overdrive gear by definition rotates at a higher rpm than the engine crankshaft. running either across the tire (radial plies) or at an angle to the radial plies (steel or nylon reinforcing plies).14. American pump ratings are based on an average of Research Octane Number and Motor Octane Number. Some systems allow 4WD selection while the vehicle is in motion. compressing the air-fuel mixture on the rising stroke and transmitting the force of combustion to the crankshaft on the downward stroke. Pi A mathematical constant that is used to determine the area of a circle.

and air turbulence resistance around the wheels. Power Assisted Steering Steering system that aids the driver's steering effort by mechanical. normallyat right angles. Side Curtain Airbags. This unit is sealed and contains a refrigerant gas that is used to remove heat from the air. Radiator Part of an engine cooling system through which excess engine combustion heat is transferred to the atmosphere by means of forced convection. Rear Wheel Drive (RWD) A system utilizing a longitudinal drivetrain to direct engine power to therear wheels. Motor Octane Number (MON). An airbag mounted in the side headliner area for both the front and rear occupants rapidly inflates to restrain the head and upper torso area to prevent direct contact with the vehicle structure. Rear Auxiliary Air Conditioning An AlC unit mounted in the rear of vehicle that provides additional cooling. from bead to bead. while retaining some degree of road interaction feedback. roof crossmembers. Ring Shaped Reinforcement Frame Structure The Ring Shape Reinforcement frame structure is designed to transfer the force of a collision around the passenger compartment of a vehicle to maximize occu-_ pant protection. As the signals reflect off objects in the detection field. deformation of the road surface. The system reduces overall emissions. Research Octane Number (RON) Research Octane test is one of the standard methods for determining the octane value of a fuel. hydraulic or other power. improving ride and wear characteristics over bias-ply designs. Power Brakes Brakes using a vacuum or hydraulic booster to multiply the driver's effort on the brake pedal. Secondary Air Injection System An auxiliary secondary emissions system that pumps air into the exhaust system. The cooling system uses a circulating liquid to effect heat transfer. Rolling Resistance Several resistances to motion that may be classified as friction in the wheel bearings. Proportioning Valve A mechanical device regulating and limiting brake force on the rear wheels to help prevent wheel lock-up and maintain vehicle stability during moderate to severe braking applications. Sodium Filled Exhaust Valve An exhaust valve having a hollow stem filled with sodium in powder form. Resonator An auxiliary pre-muffler used with the main muffler to further reduce exhaust noise and "tune" the sound. Shock Absorber A hydraulic tube device used to control suspension oscillations and maintain vehicle control. across the tread. Supplemental Restraint System (SRS) Passive vehicle occupant restraint system operates during a moderate to severe side impact. an audible warning tone will be heard inside the vehicle warning the driver to obstacles in the vehicle's path. The frame structure is designed by linking the vertical pillars. Usually indicated by a red area on a tachometer.Pound Feet (Ib-ft) The unit measurement of torque. It is representative of less severe driving conditions than the Motor Octane test. and body frame and floor structural members together. rocker sills. 5 Safety Brake Pedal System The Safety Brake Pedal System is designed to yield during a serious frontal impact in order to help reduce injuries to the driver's lower limbs. impact resistance due to irregularities of the road surface. Under high temperatures (over 2800 F). One pound-foot is equal to the twisting force produced when a one-pound force is applied to the end of a foot-long lever. expressed in revolutions per minute (rpm) for an engine. Radial Ply Tires Tire design in which the reinforcing layers run radially. The ride height is measured either at Curb Weight or Maximum Load Vehicle Weight (MLVW). . friction in the tire side walls and tread as they flex when rolling along the road surface. R Rack and Pinion Steering A perpendicular steering gear system with a pinion gear on the end of a steering shaft that engages with a horizontal toothed bar gear. This air mixes with the hot exhaust gases and ignites and burns leftover unburned gases from the combustion process. Ride Height A measurement between the ground and a fixed reference point on a vehicle's body. Reverse Assist Sensors The Reverse assist sensor system emits and receives ultrasonic signals that are projected from the sensors mounted in the vehicle's rear bumper. E-23 . Redline Maximum recommended speed. The system will detect objects in three distinct zones judged by distance to the vehicle and omit different audible alerts for each zone.

Used to determine speed of engines. Responsible for development of high-performance and rally vehicles. . Features a fold-down rear seat. steering gear. Timing Belt Flat toothed belt of reinforced rubber for driving the camshaft. steering column. where it is dissipated into the valve guide and cylinder head. In conjunction with Electronic Brake-force Distribution (EBD). and wheels. efficient performance driving • Sport (S): All-around performance driving • Sport Sharp (S#): Maximum performance driving. Subaru Intelligent Drive (SI-DRIVE) SI-DRIVE enables three distinctively different modes of engine power characteristics by regulating the Engine Control Module (ECM) and by fine-tuning the Electronic Throttle Control (ETC) as well as the Transmission Control Module (rCM) on models with an automatic transmission. to meet a variety of needs when transporting people and cargo. helping to reduce understeer and stopping distance. T Tachometer Instrument that measures speed of rotation of the engine crankshaft.the sodium melts and splashes up and down in the stem. as of an engine. The system has a torque command manual control dial with 3 settings: • Intelligent (I): Smooth. as with ABS. resilient type of Polyvinyl Coating (PVC) applied E-24 under paint in areas exposed to constant impact from road debris. Used in high-performance applications. creating a spark that ignites the air-fuel mixture. SPORTSHIFT® Allows manual shift control of an automatic transmission. Speed Sensor Device that converts the speed of an object into electrical signals for processing by an on-board computer. shafts. especially during simultaneous hard cornering and braking maneuvers. Steering Ratio The ratio of gearing within a steering system relating the number of turns of the steering wheel to the change in angle of the road wheels. Subframe A lateral frame member mounted to the body of a unitbody-constructed vehicle and connected to the vehicle body longitudinal frame members. Timing Scheduling of events related to an operating cycle. absorbing heat from the valve head and transferring it to the cooler stem. Spoiler A transverse aerodynamic device attached to or built onto a vehicle to modify air flow. STI® Abbreviation for Subaru Tecnica International. the plug has a gap across the electrodes which high voltage jumps. including the Impreza World Rally Championship (WRC) racecars and the WRX STI production version. linkages. the synchronized action of valves opening and closing or of the ignition system firing the spark plugs. Stone Guard Coating A heavy. as well as the cargo bed. The system includes a steering wheel. Rotation speed is measured in revolutions per minute (rpm). this system provides more precise control of ABS at each wheel. plus a Switchback door panel between the bed and interior that folds flat onto the folded seat back to create a load floor for carrying longer items. water pump and oil pump of an overhead cam engine. and any power assists. hydraulic or electric pumps.vehicle body used to minimize body roll in a turn and improve overall handling characteristics. Spark Plug Ignition component with a porcelain insulator and a metal positive and negative electrode. Steering System System of components that permits a driver to guide a vehicle. Subwoofer An audio system speaker or speaker/enclosure system deslqned to reproduce only bass frequencies. This substructure acts as a platform to provide added strength for suspension and drivetrain components connected to the vehicle body. Super Sport Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) A type of Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) on the Impreza WRX STI. at the extreme lower edges of fenders and sill areas and on the leading edge of the hood. There are 3 modes to the system: • Normal Mode The transmission gear shifting is controlled according to driving conditions by using the normal shift pattern mapping • Sport Mode The transmission up shifting and down shifting points utilize higher engine speed ranges using sport shift pattern mapping • Sport Shift Mode Moving the shift level forward and backward controls manual up shifting and down shifting respectively Stabilizer Bar Torsion bar coupling both sides of an independent suspension system and the. Switchback System A body design in the Subaru Baja model that provides the ability to reconfigure the rear seating area. front wheel supports. Generally used only below 80 Hz. Normal application areas are under the front bumper. Installed in each combustion chamber of gasoline powered engines. the highperformance and racing division of Subaru.

Transaxle A drivetrain component in which the clutch. The TCM has the ability to learn and adapt the shift pattern to the driver's driving style. The turbine is connected to the turbine driveshaft of the automatic transmission. toward one another. Track The transverse difference between left and right side wheels on the same axle. gearbox. This valve mechanically operates when overboost conditions occur and redirects the compressed intake air back into the intake system before the turbocharger. The system redirects the engine power to the drive wheel with the best traction. Transverse Mounted Engine An engine mounted in the front of a vehicle perpendicular to the vehicle chassis to allow room for packaging of front wheel drive drivetrain components. Torque Steer Imbalance of engine torque between the different-length front axle shafts in a front-wheel-drive vehicle. Torsion Bar A type of spring used in a vehicle suspension system that is normally a long straight bar anchored to the frame at one end and to a suspension component at the other and offering resilience through a twisting motion. an overboost pressure regulator valve is installed in the intake system. final drive. Transmission Control Module (rCM) A microprocessor that monitors. The turbocharger impeller is driven by the exhaust system gases and spins the compressor turbine to compress or boost the intake air into the engine for increased performance. The TCM also has a self diagnostic mode that stores trouble codes from transmission components that are outside their operating parameters. The valves are closed during engine warm up and idling to increase the tumble effect and atomization of the air/fuel mixture into to the engine cylinders for increased combustion efficiency and reduced emissions. Tweeter An audio system speaker designed to reproduce only high frequencies. Tongue Weight Amount of trailer weight pressuring down on and supported by the trailer hitch ball of the tow vehicle. u Understeer Under response and excessive slip angle of the front wheels from steering input during cornering in which the slip angle of the front tires is larger than that of the rear tires. E-25 . The impeller is driven by engine output torque and drives the turbine using automatic transmission fluid. such that the driver needs to increase steering input to maintain the same turning radius. The turbocharger has a waste gate control valve to regulate boost pressure and control maximum boost to the engine. To prevent major engine failure from turbo overboost conditions under rapid engine deceleration. The system detects when a drive wheel loses traction and then applies brake force to the spinning wheel and/or reduces engine power to help regain traction in extreme conditions. Transfer Case Gear system that apportions the engine drive torque between the front and rear axles of a four-wheel drive system. Most vehicles specify a slight amount of toe-in to keep the front wheels parallel when offsetting forces or suspension movement tend to force them apart. The tongue weight is 10% of the vehicle towing capacity. For serious electronic transmission failures. To increase turbo durability.Toe-In Setting of paired wheels on an axle so that the leading edge of each wheel is inclined slightly inwards. stator. and turbine. the turbocharger is cooled by the engine cooling system and lubricated by the engine oil system. such as the rotating force generated by the crankshaft or applied to a bolt while tightening it. The unequal-length front axle shafts cause the vehicle to steer or pull to either side under moderate to heavy acceleration. Tumble Generator Valves (rGV) The Tumble Generator Valves (TGV)are located above the fuel injectors in the lower part of the intake manifold. Turbocharger The turbocharger is mounted in series with the exhaust system. such as the centers of tire contact. transaxles are used in many front-wheel-drive vehicles. Torque Term used to describe a twisting or rotating force measured in pound feet (lb-tt). The stator is in the center of the torque converter and multiplies engine torque by redirecting the fluid from the impeller to the turbine. Due to their compactness. This activates the illumination of a warning light located in the instrument cluster and alerts the driver that a transmission control component is malfunctioning. Torque Converter An automatic transmission hydraulic component consisting of an impeller. Traction Control System (rCS) An electronic control system that helps improve vehicle traction by preventing wheel spin. measured between specified points. the TCM has a pre-programmed default limp-home mode that maintains drivability. and differential are all combined into one transmission-axle unit that connects directly to the driveshafts. operates and manages automatic transmission control functions and provides a shift pattern map based on vehicle load and road conditions. This valve is linear controlled by the Engine Control Module (ECM).

This is normally the weight of components such as brakes. The VDC system monitors vehicle stability and reacts to minimize understeer. Unsprung Weight All weight in a vehicle that is not supported by the suspension system. control arms. the smaller the change of viscosity with temperature. This causes the coupling to lock the two shafts together and turn them at the same speed. oversteer. Variable valve timing helps eliminate the traditional compromise between low-end torque and highrpm horsepower and also helps enhance fuel economy and reduce emissions. Variable Valve Timing A system that adjusts intake and in some cases. When there is a rotational difference between the front and rear drives hafts or left and right axle shafts. hubs. pipe or other part. known as its thickness. Vapor Lock Interruption of flow in a pipe fluid system such as a fuel line resulting from vaporization of the fluid or entrapment of air. Each anchor position is marked with a child insignia label on the lower portion of the rear seatback. (2) A poppet valve or mushroom for controlling the flow of gases into or out of an engine cylinder. and tires. This system. wheels. along with the upper tether anchor. such as 60/40. exhaust camshaft timing to employ the ideal intake and exhaust valve overlap and timing under all engine operating conditions. rather than requiring a full-length frame to provide structural strength or support for mechanical components. Weight Distribution Percentages of total vehicle weight distributed over the front and rear axles vehicle. restricting or interrupting the flow of a fluid or gas through a tube. Water Pump Cooling system component consisting of an impeller. Variable Torque Distribution (VTD) A rear wheel bias All-Wheel Drive system that uses an electronically controlled hydraulic transfer clutch working in conjunction with a planetary gear type center differential to control the distribution of engine power between the front and rear wheels. E-26 . the viscous fluid in the coupling rapidly heats up from the friction caused by the difference in shaft speeds. Wheelbase The longitudinal distance between the center point of the front and rear wheels. Universal Joint Rotating shaft coupling that permits angular change of the drives haft. and drift conditions helping to maintain the directional stability of the vehicle on all road surfaces. 3 weatherband frequencies are incorporated into the audio system. Viscous couplings are used in All-Wheel Drive systems and differentials. In addition. Unitized Body Construction (Unit Body) Body construction that incorporates the chassis floor pan and body structure as one unit. The advantage of this system is to reduce the risk of the child seat being installed incorrectly. v Valve (1) Any device for controlling. Proper distribution of vehicle components and equipment weight is essential in maximizing vehicle stability and handling. This allows the selection of 3 weather specific channels providing current weather reports. Viscous Coupling A power transfer method employing a series of multiplate clutches incased in a viscous synthetic fluid. The higher the Viscosity Index. some systems can also vary the valve lift. Usually expressed as a percentage ratio front-to-rear. VDC can sense impending loss of control at either the front or rear of the vehicle and momentarily apply the brake on one or more wheels to restore stability. was developed to secure a Uniform Child Restraint approved child seat in the vehicle independently from the vehicle seat belts.Unifonn Child -Restraint Anchorage System FMVSS 225/IS0-FIX Four U-shaped anchors are welded to the floor of the vehicle between the rear seat bottom and seatback. Viscosity Measurement of the resistance of flow of a liquid. Vehic1eDynamics Control (VDC) System The VDC system helps the driver maintain control of the vehicle under driving conditions that might lead to loss of control. w Wastegate A valve used in a turbocharged engine to limit the amount of boost pressure generated by the turbocharger. Weatherband Radio In addition to the standard AM and FM bands. Also known as a pep-off valve. The water pump or circulator pump circulates the engine coolant through the engine's cooling system. There are two anchors located on each rear outboard position to accept the lower child seat anchorage tether. or gears off the front of the crankshaft. The VDC system also incorporates an all-speed Traction Control System (TCS) to help reduce wheelspin. usually mounted at the front of the engine and driven by a pulley via a drive belt.

E-27 . similar to a ship's side-to-side motion in rough water.y Yaw Condition that puts a vehicle at an angle along a vertical axis to its forward line of travel. To move or oscillate about from left to right.