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Is Future Given - Prigogine

Is Future Given - Prigogine

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IS FUTURE GIVEN? ILYA PRIGOGINE Nobel Laureate in Chemistry. 1977 V f e World Scientific ™b New Jersey • London • Singapore • Hong Kong Sit .

Covent Garden. Pte. without written permission from the Publisher. This book. In this case permission to photocopy is not required from the publisher. including photocopying. Inc. or parts thereof. 5 Toh Tuck Link. River Edge. Singapore 596224 USA office: Suite 202. USA. IS FUTURE GIVEN? Copyright © 2003 by World Scientific Publishing Co. All rights reserved. 1060 Main Street. . may not be reproduced in any form or by any means.Published by World Scientific Publishing Co. please pay a copying fee through the Copyright Clearance Center. Ltd. recording or any information storage and retrieval system now known or to be invented. MA 01923. Danvers. London WC2H 9HE British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. Ltd. 222 Rosewood Drive.. Pte. For photocopying of material in this volume. electronic or mechanical. ISBN 981-238-507-X ISBN 981-238-508-8 (pbk) Printed in Singapore. NJ 07661 UK office: 57 Shelton Street.

Ilya Prigogine .

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initiated by Heraclitus and Parmenides and continued by Zeno. from atoms and nuclei to our everyday life up to the cosmological scale. His work is a continuation of the dialogue about Time and Change in Nature. Lucretius. Electrical and Computer Engineering and Applied Mathematics and Physical Sciences of the National Technical University of Athens. biologists. but also beyond a meaningless random game.uu Preface This book about the Future is a souvenir of Professor Ilya Prigogine's visit to Athens to receive Honorary Doctorates from the Departments of Chemical Engineering. emergence of structures and creativity are the keynotes of natural processes at all levels. Evolution. sociologists. Einstein and other eminent thinkers over the centuries. These distinctions to Professor Ilya Prigogine were given for his achievements in Non-Equilibrium Physics and Chemistry. Kant. Thanks to Ilya Prigogine we have now a view of Nature which goes beyond the mechanical timeless automaton which we i n h e r i t e d from classical physics. which were not only appreciated and used by physicists and mathematicians. supported by strong scientific results. Hegel. philosophers. and even artists. terminated the separation between physical sciences on one side and . but also by engineers. Begson. Epicurus. This view. Ilya Prigogine showed that Self-Organization appears in Nature far from equilibrium and that Irreversibility and Probability are intrinsic properties of Nature at all levels.

1).biological sciences and humanities on the other side. 7). his uneasy creative spirit dominated together with his vivid interest on the role of Science in Society today. on the evolution of ideas in Non-equilibrium Physics (p. In his exciting talk at the National Technical University of Athens on 26 May 2000. on the role of time in the epistemology of Complexity (p. The understanding of complexity and the use of the creativity of nature. 49). the continuation of the work of nature are the grand challenges for the scientists of the 21 sl century. Ilya Prigogine expressed his thoughts about Becoming and concluded with optimistic messages to the new generation (p. (p. 33) and on Life and the Internet (p. Professor loannis Antoniou. adding significant value to their role in the Physics and Chemistry of the 20th century [75]. means creativity and active participation in the society. His remarks on the character and role of fundamental science deserve wide attention. Human existence. Ilya Prigogine had further discussions with Theodore Christidis. as well as the foreseeable active role of Science in future. for Ilya Prigogine. a close collaborator of Ilya Prigogine and Deputy Director of the International Solvay Institutes for Physics and Chemistry. Ilya Prigogine's perspective offers the necessary concepts and tools to face the challenges ahead with optimism and is expected to lead to pioneering results in Science and Technology. During our personal discussions. professor at the University of Thessaly. During his visit to the National Technical University of Athens we had the opportunity for constructive discussions. was the main lever for the . His evaluation that science today is at a "pre-historic" stage of development was particularly impressive. The scientific path of Ilya Prigogine during the last 40 years has been linked with the significant work of the International Solvay Institutes for Physics and Chemistry which he transformed into an Advanced Study Institute for the study of Complexity. 21). and the journalists loannis Zisis and Maria Adamidou.

Anne De Naeyer and Mrs. Pavlos Akritas. Professor Themistoklis Xanthopoulos Rector of the National Technical University of Athens Athens. especially Professor George Metakides who. Finally I would like to thank George-Alexander Dimakis. managed to find the time and undertook this initiative. September 2001 . He accepted with enthusiasm my invitation to compile the high quality "shots" of the lecture into a structured text of messages for the general public. researcher at the International Solvay Institutes for Physics and Chemistry for his contibution to the translation and the compilation.Mt realization of this book. despite enormous pressure of his important work as coordinator of the European Research in the Science and Technology of Information. Margaret Kontari for technical support. I would like to thank all those who contributed to the nomination of Ilya Prigogine as Honorary Doctor of the National Technical University of Athens. Dr. knowing himself their meaning in depth and he concluded with an inspired epilogue on the opening to the future. as well as for his contribution to the translations. student of the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department for the artistic design of the cover. as well as Mrs.

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M Contents Preface mi Themistoklis Xanthopoulos Ilya Prigogine and the International Solvay Institutes for Physics a n d Chemistry / Ioannis Antoniou Is F u t u r e Given? Changes in O u r Description of Nature Ilya Prigogine's Lecture at the National Technical University of Athens Laws of Nature and Time Symmetry Breaking I. Antoniou 2f 7 Time in Non-equilibrium Physics 43 Discussion of Ilya Prigogine with Theodore Christidis Time in the Epistemology of Complexity 55 Discussion of Ilya Prigogine with Ioannis Zisis Internet a n d Life 7/ Discussion of Ilya Prigogine with Maria Epilogue 77 Ioannis Antoniou Adamidou . Prigogine and I.

References 85 9/ In Memorium: Farewell to Ilya Prigogine Ioannis Antoniou Curriculum Vitae of Ilya Prigogine 97 .

and Professor of Mathematics at the Aristoteles University of Thessaloniki .Ilya Prigogine and the International Solvay Institutes for Physics and Chemistry loannis Antoniou Deputy Director of the International Solvay Institutes for Physics and Chemistry.

2 Professor Ilya Prigogine is the Director of the International Solvay Institutes for Physics and Chemistry and Director of the Ilya Prigogine Center for Studies in Statistical Mechanics and Complex Systems of the University of Texas at Austin, USA. In 1977 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his contributions to thermodynamics and non-equilibrium structures, more specifically for the theory of dissipative structures. Ilya Prigogine's interest in the world of learning has always had a broad basis. At a very early stage, for instance, he sought to apply his findings in thermodynamics to other areas of practicality and is regarded as one of the foremost architects of the new system theory of complexity. Ilya Prigogine studied at the Universite Libre de Bruxelles where he was the disciple of Professor Theophile De Donder, one of the pioneers in the non-equilibrium field. The relation of Ilya Prigogine with De Donder is mentioned in the discussion with Theodore Christidis (p. 21). Classical science insisted on stability and equilibrium, while today we see everywhere instabilities, fluctuations, evolution. This change of perspective is mainly due to the work of Ilya Prigogine and his collaborators. This new view of Nature is contrary to the deterministic and static image we inherited from classical physics. That is why, during these last years, Ilya Prigogine, and his collaborators devoted their work to find the roots of the flow of time in a new formulation of the fundamental laws of physics. Instead of "certitudes" like in the classical laws, these extended laws are dealing with "possibilities" in conformity with the evolutionary universe we observe around us. Professor Ilya Prigogine can look back on an exceptional academic and scientific career. He has held numerous chairs at foreign universities and has repeatedly been invited as visiting professor. Ilya Prigogine is the only Belgian Nobel Prize winner in Physical and Chemical Sciences. He is a member of over 60


national and international academies, and holder of 47 Honorary Degrees. In Greece, Ilya Prigogine was honored not only by the National Technical University of Athens but also by the University of Thrace and the Aristoteles University of Thessaloniki. Ilya Prigogine has obtained an impressive number of prizes and distinctions in the field of science in the USA, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Sweden, Italy, Japan, Canada, Belgium, Latin America and many other countries and has been made an honorary citizen of major cities in all continents. Five International Centers have been created in his honor: the Ilya Prigogine Center for Studies in Statistical Mechanics and Complex Systems at the University of Texas at Austin, where he is Director; the Centro Latinoamericano Ilya Prigogine at the National University of San Luis (Argentina); the Ilya Prigogine Center for the Mathematical Study of Complex Systems at Moscow State University, where he is Honorary Director; "Istituto di Documentazione e Ricerca Sull'Opera di Ilya Prigogine, Centro Internazionale Di Storia dello Spazio e del Tempo", Brugine-Padoa, Italy; in Brussels the "Haute Ecole Ilya Prigogine". Activities with Ilya Prigogine's name include the "Prigogine's lectures" at Universita dell'Insubria (Como, Italy), the "International Hall and Scientific Permanent Exhibition Ilya Prigogine" and the "International Scientific Award Ilya Prigogine" at the Universidad del Salvador (Buenos Aires, Argentina) and the "Prix Ilya Prigogine de Thermodynamique", CERET, France. In addition to scientific books and numerous articles in the leading international reviews, membership of over sixty national and international academies, Ilya Prigogine always wanted to keep contact with the public through the publications of books such as Order Out of Chaos (1984) [4] and From Being to Becoming: Time and Complexity in the Physical Sciences (1980) [3], translated into about 20 languages, The End of Certainty, 'Time, Chaos and the New Laws of Naure (1997) [18] and Modern Thermodynamics: From Heat Engines to Dissipative Structures (1998) [5].

4 In 1989, King Baudouin awarded him the personal title of Viscount. For several years, he was a special advisor to the European Commission. Ilya Prigogine was appointed director of the International Solvay Institutes for Physics and Chemistry in 1958. Since then the Institutes have become an Advanced Study Institute in Nonequilibrium Physics and Complexity [http://solvayins.ulb.ac.be]. The research performed at the Institutes has demonstrated that far from equilibrium matter acquires new properties, which are the basis of a new coherence. This coherence makes possible the emergence of new complex structures and in particular biological structures. These results have led to the ideas of selforganisation which have been applied to a large number of fields including economic and social sciences. Although Ilya Prigogine obtained the Nobel Prize for his fundamental work in non-equilibrium Physics, he is also considered to be "among the most influential traffic theorists since the '60s" [85], because "his way of looking at nature and sociotechnical systems certainly shaped our thinking" [86]. The present Research activities of the Solvay Institutes involve both Fundamental and Applied Problems. The Solvay Institutes coordinate an International Research Network including European, Russian, American, Japanese, Chinese, Indian research institutes. Fundamental Research is focussed on the Probabilistic Description of different classes of Unstable/Non-Integrable Systems as well as on the Dynamical F o u n d a t i o n of Thermodynamical Systems. For Unstable/Non-Integrable Systems there exist new solutions corresponding to the probabilistic extensions of the evolution equations. These extensions are constructed through the generalised spectral decompositions of the evolution operators, which provide actually a probabilistic Integration of the equation of Dynamics. The Results illustrate the deep connection between Irreversibility, Probability and NonTntegrability/Chaos. The Solvay Institutes have been recognised as the Belgian scientific institution with the most universal representation.

As Werner Heisenberg. founder of quantum mechanics. Ernest Rutherford. The 21st Solvay Conference in Physics took place in Kansai. It is not an exaggeration to state that the Physics and Chemistry of the 20th century have been shaped in Brussels during these conferences [75]. .. wrote: "there can be no doubt that in these years the Solvay Conferences played an essential role in the history of physics .5 Founded in 1910 by Ernest Solvay. In November 1995. prediction and control of complex systems. but also provide new probabilistic tools for the analysis. Since their creation. the 20th Solvay Conference in Chemistry was about Femtochemistry. the historical influence of the Solvay Conferences was connected with the special style introduced by their founder: a small group of the most competent specialists from various countries discussing the unsolved problems of their field and thereby finding a basis for their solutions. some years after the f o u n d a t i o n of the Nobel Prizes by Alfred Nobel. where chemical reactions are studied on a time scale intrinsic to the movements of the atoms in molecules. Albert Einstein. Japan in 1998 and was devoted to the probabilistic description of classical and quantum dynamics. These new extended formulations of the dynamics of complex systems not only establish the bridge between microscopic dynamics and thermodynamics. the International Institutes for Physics and Chemistry aim at organising regular conferences on Physics and Chemistry and encouraging research which could extend our knowledge of the natural phenomena.. the Institutes have organised twenty-one conferences on Physics and twenty conferences on Chemistry." This activity is still going on. they are assisted by two Scientific Commissions whose members are chosen among the most famous scientists. Louis De Broglie and other legendary personalities of modern science participated in these meetings (see photos). The Solvay Conferences had an extraordinary success. Marie Curie. In organising the conferences.

.6 The first Solvay Conference in Physics of the 21st Century (22nd Conference) took place in Delphi. Greece in November 2001 and was dedicated to "The Physics of Communication".

after the Honorary Doctorates Ceremony. National Technical University of Athens. 26 May 2000 'Here I give an improved v e n k n taking into account the progress reached in the last two \. .Is Future Given? Changes in Our Description of Nature llya Prigogine's Lecture1.

T h a t is t h e main result of m o d e r n cosmology with the Big Bang. It is this model. evolution everywhere. T h e universe is evolving. today we discover instabilities. it is true for living systems and. n a t u r e leads to unexpected complexity. of course.s According to the classical point of view. We have shown that when we leave this model and consider a class of non-integrable systems. bifurcations. Dear Deans. However. the difficulties are overcome. This demands a different formulation of the laws of nature to include probability and time symmetry breaking. This is true o n all levels. We have shown that the difficulties in the classical formulation come from a too narrow point of view concerning the fundamental laws of dynamics (classical or quantum). I r e m e m b e r that some years ago a Japanese journalist asked a g r o u p of visitors why they are interested in science. Everywhere we see narrative stages. nature would be an automaton. I d o n ' t know if I deserve so many honors. for o u r brain. T h e second difficulty is that the classical view does n o t c o r r e s p o n d to the historical time-oriented evolution. The classical model has been a model of integrable systems (in the sense of Poincare). First of all. I I feel very moved by the kindness shown to me. thermodynamics and probability theory. My answer was that I feel that science is a n i m p o r t a n t way to u n d e r s t a n d the nature in which we are living a n d therefore also our position in this nature. which we see everywhere a r o u n d us. Friends. which leads to determinism and time reversibility. I would q u o t e three features. Colleagues. I always felt that there are some difficulties in the descriptions of n a t u r e you find currently. Dear Rector. We show that our approach unifies dynamics. It is t r u e in the case of the elementary particles. .

the so-called thermal death. everything occurs in a predetermined way. since Hegel. Time is our existential dimension. An event is something. Bergson. that everything was there and will be ever there. Both points of view are not able to describe the features. But the forces don't explain the high degree of organization that we find in organisms. From the thermo-dynamic point of view. This statement is paradoxical because the situation changed before and after he wrote his famous poem.9 They are events in nature. which may or not happen. Matter was generally considered as a kind of ensemble of dust particles moving in disordered way. philosophers were divided. it seemed that Parmenides was right. Heraclitus insisted on change. I want to show you that the dilemma between Heraclitus and Parmenides can now be put on an exact mathematical framework. because Newton's theory is a deterministic theory and time is reversible. . Parmenides insisted that there is nothing new. philosophy took a different point of view. mechanics and the worldview of thermodynamics. everything goes to death. As you know. On the other hand. Of course. From the dynamical point of view. Heidegger. In a sense after Newton's dynamics. It is indeed difficult to imagine that the necessary information existed already in some way in the early stages of the universe. Many great philosophers shared the views of Parmenides. the position of the moon in one million years is not an event as you can predict it. Therefore nothing new can appear. For example. we have inherited from the 19th century two different worldviews. but the existence of millions of insects we observe is an evidence of what we could call creativity of nature. On the other hand. These difficulties have led me to look for a different formulation. The worldview of dynamics. which I have mentioned before. This problem is a continuation of the famous controversy between Parmenides and Heraclitus. we knew that there are forces. Both views are pessimistic. But since the 19th century.

the concentrations become uniform.fO For classical physics and also for quantum physics. Future and past play the same role. you see a difference of concentrations. For example. . We have to introduce a more general starting point. and you heat it from one side and cool it from the other. Of course. But I could not stop at this point because thermodynamics is macroscopic physics. selforganization [3-8]. Much later. there is no privileged direction of time. Indeed. when you consider the box in thermal equilibrium. For example. in 1945 [1]. The traditional description is deterministic. everywhere one speaks about non-equilibrium structures. classical or quantum. which I made at the beginning of my PhD. has to be put on a more general frame. was to show that these descriptions are based on a too restricted form of dynamics. if you consider a box containing two components. say N2 and O s . N2 may be more concentrated at the hot side. These concepts have been applied to many fields including even social sciences or economic sciences. Glansdorff [2]. Since we see an evolutionary universe on all levels of observation. I liked the statement by Bergson: time is "invention". we can predict it for arbitrary future or past. These new structures have become quite popular. The first step in this direction was an observation. once we know the wave function for one time. so perhaps it is the fact that these systems are large and that we have no exact knowledge of their time evolution and that would give us the illusion of irreversibility. This I felt always to be very difficult to accept. my main interest was to show that the difficulty comes from the fact that dynamics. the path which I followed over my whole life. However. But the results obtained by classical or quantum mechanics or classical thermodynamics contain certainly a large part of truth. Therefore. even in quantum theory. that nonequilibrium leads to structure. thanks to the collaboration with Prof. That is the point of view adopted by most people even today. we found that far from equilibrium there appears what we called dissipative structures.

For a long time it was considered that it was always possible to find such "privileged" canonical variables. We have then H = H{p) and p = 0. Momenta are constant. therefore the time derivative of the momenta vanishes. Now. p are called the "canonical variables". The Hamiltonian then depends only on the momenta p. The Hamiltonian is simply the expression of the energy in terms of the observables p and q. q{t). but limit the discussion to classical systems.p). p. It is therefore natural to try to choose them in such a way that we eliminate the potential energy. so that the solution of the canonical equations of motion are as simple as possible. It is natural to choose the variables q. such as the pendulum. To describe our nature. the planetary motion or the motion of particles in a gas. p0. _dH dq . Once we have the Hamiltonian. He found that this elimination was only possible for a class of dynamical systems. H = H(q. We could always eliminate the coordinates in the Hamiltonian. we need two kinds of variables: coordinates q and momenta p. made a fundamental discovery. we need observables such as space and time. But Poincare. For . This is studied in the basic chapters of classical physics. the observables are the initial positions and momenta q0. . they change into p(t). at the end of the 19th century._ dH dq At the initial time t = 0. As time goes on. we can predict the motion through the so-called canonical equations (the dot means derivative). In classical theory [9]. a very important point is that there are various choices of canonical variables q and p. To describe classical systems of this type.// Let me make here a short excursion on theoretical physics. which he called "integrable systems". But here I do not want to consider relativity. You know that Einstein's great idea was to relate space and time to the properties of matter. a dynamical system is described by the socalled Hamiltonian function H. The observables q.

11]. for HQ. X is a parameter measuring the intensity of the perturbation. I have to be a little more specific. this transformation would correspond to going to a representation in which each particle moves independently. in a gas with many particles. An important property is the distributivity of U.12 example. which would depend analytically on the old ones. The basic . the momenta p are called also the action variables / and the coordinates q. U plays an essential role both in classical and quantum mechanics. / . but there is also a perturbation XV depending on both / and a.. It is remarkable that orthodox quantum mechanics used classical integrable dynamical systems as a model. as interactions are eliminated or better to say i n c l u d e d in the definition of these objects.. The analog of U in quantum mechanics is the so-called unitary operator which preserves the form of the Schroedinger equation. That means U acting on a product is equal to the product of the transformed entities: U~l(AB) = (U'1 A)(U"1 B). We can in general introduce new momenta and new coordinates related to p and q by where U is a so-called canonical transformation which preserves the form of the Hamiltonian equations. we know the action variables. This transformation theory has been intensively studied in the 19th and 20th centuries. Consider a system in which the Hamiltonian has two parts H(J. a) = Ho(J) + W(J. a) We have then one part. What is the meaning of action variables? They represent independent objects. When this is possible. but there is no place here to go further into this [10. There are other remarkable properties of unitary transformations. we ask if we can construct new action variables. By definition. This means that the Hamiltonian H can be written as H(J) with J = J + XJW + X2J{2) + . the angle variables a. Then for H including XV. HQt which depends only on momenta (the action variables).

in the representation in which q is a number. p is the differentiation . There are of course many classes of non-integrable systems. These are two very different situations.d o p e r a t o r !— and we have the c o m m u t a t i o n relation qp — pq-—. that is of systems for which we cannot construct a unitary transformation. the situation. II After this short introduction to integrable systems. according to every book on quantum mechanics. 0 . There are again various representations of the operators related by unitary transformations. o) cop 0 field frequencies co .f3 difference is that the observables are now no more numbers but operators. . For non-integrable systems. either the frequency of the oscillator COp is below all the frequencies of the field or the frequency of the oscillator is somewhere in the domain of the frequencies of the field. This is the basis of the Heisenberg's uncertainty relations [10. cop (o Then there are two situations. in a field like in electromagnetism. as we shall see now. Let us only remind that. Suppose that the particle frequency is cop while the field forms a continuous set of frequencies starting from 0. What is a resonance? Consider a particle. is quite different. We shall consider a specific class of non-integrable systems. like a harmonic oscillator. That is the class where there exist resonances. which eliminates the interactions. 1 . 11]. we shall now discuss non-integrable systems. If the frequency of the oscillator is outside the field.

w nothing special happens. There exists of course also an excitation process when the photon falls on the ground state. But if it is inside. that means that one has to put small quantities in the denominator to avoid the infinities. coL is the frequency of the field. This difficulty was already known to Laplace. How to overcome this difficulty? We have shown that the resonances can be avoided by suitable "analytic continuation". emitted photon This is the well known Einstein and Bohr mechanism for the description of spectral lines. we have a so-called excited state and this excited state decays by emitting a photon to a ground state. The fundamental result of Poincare was to show that such resonances lead to difficulties through the appearance of divergent terms due to small denominators. Of course. It is generally expressed by saying that the particle is dissolved in the continuum. there are some specific . An example is the term: 1 (Ok ~ Mi cok is the frequency of the particle. We have a desexcitation process. absorbed photon The interactions between the field and the oscillators are described by resonances.

you can come to expressions of motions. reactions rates. p = U~lp. that means independent motions and then you can define the basic frequencies (normal modes). We have the appearance of new fluctuations and new uncertainty relations. it is a non-local transformation. Instead of the formula we have already written for unitary transformation. We cannot make a physics of points anymore. In other words. The unitary operator U has been replaced by the operator A. More precisely we have _1 _1 A _1 AJB i= A A • A £. but here we have to speak in terms of ensembles. Now the A transformation. the A operator acting on a product of coordinates is not the product . For example. has very interesting new properties. Similarly here by using the new representation. you can always find a representation in which you have normal coordinates. This opens a whole new domain of classical and q u a n t u m physics. but they can be studied in the original papers [3. which replaces U. a p p r o a c h to e q u i l i b r i u m . In short. 12-21]. if you consider a crystal with vibrating atoms. collections of points. This also means that we have to give up classical determinism. classically people were thinking in terms of points. For example. classical or quantum. but that doesn't matter here. p = AT1 p. our key idea was to eliminate the Poincare divergences by extending the idea of unitary transformations. This means that we have a statistical description. we have now a new representation of observables and an extension of the dynamical theory. First of all. we now have: q = Krlq. in which there appear quantities such as transport coefficients. which is a star-unitary operator. The second fundamental property of A is that we have no more distributivity. Even in classical theory. q = U~lq. it is very important to choose the right representation.f5 mathematical problems to be overcome here. T h e main point is that we have an extension of canonical transformations. we have to make a physics of distributions. In other words.

which were used as a model for classical and quantum physics. In other words. noise and stochasticity are directly derived from a m o r e general formulation of dynamics. There is an uncertainty in position. The Langevin equation corresponds to a system in which resonances between the Brownian particle and the thermal medium play an essential role. you derive exactly the Langevin equations and therefore also the basic properties studied in statistical mechanics. an important role is played by the so-called Langevin equation.nuoi2Xi(t) + B{t) + A(t) = -7x1(0 + pi(t)/m These equations describe the damped harmonic oscillator with random momentum. being classical or quantum. We have also obtained the quantum Langevin equation using the quantum analogues of A transforms. Now recently S./6 of the transformed coordinates. In statistical physics. We are living in a nature in which the rule is non-integrability. kinetic equations were considered as coming from ap­ proximations introduced into dynamics. These are fundamental results. Let me give an example. dfaW/dt dxi(t)/dt = -ypi(t) . noise. What we show now is that these properties. Ordonez have shown [87] that using our new transformation A. for example. The Langevin equation has a broken time symmetry. Dynamics and probability theory were always considered as separate domains. And in non-integrable systems we have quite new properties. to the motion of a heavy particle in a thermal medium and it is one of the most important results of statistical physics. the . Uncertainty relation can now be established for x and p separately. This corresponds. refer in fact only to exceptional ideal cases. These are consequences of nonintegrability while integrable systems. The whole space-time structure is altered. The new properties are: First of all. where 7 is the friction. This is not due to approximation but expresses that x(t) and p(t) are A transforms. and noise. statistical theory. Kim and G.

nondistributivity leading to new uncertainty relations. photons are only observable because they interact and participate in irreversible processes. In the classical point of view. The basic idea of unitary transformation of integrable systems is that you could. Secondly.n appearance of new fluctuations. in the examples of the interaction between the oscillators and the field. were obtained from approximations ("coarse graining"). In a sense. 23]. you would not be able to observe the quantum transitions from one level to the others. the appearance of a privileged direction of time. This aspect is related to a different description of elementary processes. leading to stochasticity and probability. in one way or another. which goes back to Boltzmann (1872) [22. Electrons. that is due to the analytic continuation and third. as we have already mentioned. therefore no more determinism. the Liouville equation is transformed into a kinetic equation. As a result the analytic continuation of a product is not the product of the analytic continuations. The ensembles p o i n t of view is a c o n s e q u e n c e of the A transformation. unstable particles or quantum transitions. the coordinate % and the momentum p have to be understood as non-unitary transforms of the original variables. we may either start from an individual description or with ensembles. More precisely. This is no more so. closes a controversy. When we observe the Langevin equation. If you could. I believe. apply a unitary transformation. . Gibbs and Einstein have shown that thermodynamics is based on the theory of ensembles. The new transformed variables are random. These new properties originate from the fact that we use analytic continuation of the evolution operators. it is very nice that these systems are non-integrable. Ill Now we want to go to a different aspect. A transforms a phase point into an ensemble. These ensembles. even in classical physics. for our class of non-integrable systems. This.

even if it is at equilibrium. There were always two points of view. The point of view of Boltzmann. This led to a lot of controversies. stating that the second law is probabilistic and comes ultimately from our ignorance and the point of view of Planck that for the second law. Think about a gas. collisions continue to occur and interactions are never eliminated. Boltzmann had the ambition to become the Darwin of physics. interactions cannot be eliminated. in non-integrable systems. all momenta would be invariants of motion. the entropy production is a consequence of . which would prevent the system to approach equilibrium. Indeed. to use classical mechanics. In a gas. together with Tomio Petrosky. We have applied our method to a number of problems such as unstable particles or radiation damping (details can be found in the original publications) [19-21. For example. There are limits to reductionism. So we need non-integrable systems. then Boltzmann's equations are exact consequences of the extended dynamics. IV Once we have irreversibility it is clear that we have also some form of the second law of thermodynamics.fS eliminate interactions. on the other hand. because then they would never go to equilibrium. 24-26]. Boltzmann tried to apply classical mechanics to non-integrable systems. Gonzalo Ordonez. that means entropy increase. we have shown. He studied the collisions in dilute systems and showed that you can find a function. And once we have non-integrable systems. Gases cannot be integrable systems. But interactions are a fundamental part of nature which we observe and. which plays the role of entropy. Evgueni Karpov and others. that we can formulate the second law in terms of dynamical processes. Collisions give rise to thermal motion. We can now understand what was the reason. Poincare wrote that there was a basic contradiction: on one hand. to come out with entropy which is time oriented.

which I have tried to describe in my lecture. to describe our evolutionary universe. we don't know what determines the families of particles. dissolve into a continuum. We have massive particles floating in a bath of zero mass objects like the photons. Consider the problem of resonances. The future is . in a sense. and we have photons. Events are associated with bifurcations. with mass. Spinoza said that we are all machines but we don't know it. Particles with mass should. Laplace and Einstein believed that man is a machine within the cosmic machine. We have shown that the inverse process is also possible. On the contrary. our whole vision of the universe around us is an example of non-equilibrium systems. without proper mass. from the thermodynamical point of view. This supplementary energy can then be distributed on all degrees of freedom of the field. where we have shown that the decay of the excited state with the emission of the photon is an irreversible process leading to entropy production. I think that the various concepts. Probably the main event in the history of our universe. This does not seem very satisfactory. However. Non-equilibrium physics has given us a better understanding of the mechanism of the emergence of events. We don't know what exactly corresponded to the Big Bang.19 dynamics. an excited state contains "more energy" than the ground state. which is then used to excite it. we don't know how the biological evolution is evolving. Science and physics are far from being completed. that to bring an atom into an excited state. we have only taken very preliminary steps. This is not astonishing because. in the Big Bang is this differentiation. We have particles. which I described a little earlier. as some theoretical physicists wants us to believe. In a sense. Conclusions We come to a different concept of reality. show that we are only at the beginning. May I finish my lecture by some general remarks. we need a process which brings negative entropy to the atom.

The results described in this paper show that the conflict between Parmenides and Heraclite can be taken out from its metaphysical context and formulated in terms of modern theory of dynamical systems. Dr. which has led to the formulation of the extension of canonical transformations. the National Lottery of Belgium. HPHA-CT-2000-00015 and HPHA-CT-2001-40002. A famous saying of Einstein is that time is an "illusion". I shall not thank individually each member of this group but I want to make an exception for Prof. Thank you very much. and the Communaute Francaise de Belgique. Ioannis Aritoniou. Einstein was right for integrable systems but the world around us is basically formed by non-integrable systems. Just as few particles can alter the macroscopic organization in nature to show the appearance of different dissipative structures.20 n o t determined. It is their work. behavior at the individual level is the key factor in shaping the evolution of the entire human species. F-0365. Grant No. Gonzalo Ordonez and Prof. Especially in this time of globalization and the network revolution. This leads us to believe that some of our conclusions remain valid in human societies. I acknowledge the European Commission Grant Nos. T h e role of individuals is more important than ever. Acknowledgements T h e results described in this paper are the fruit of the work of the Brussels-Austin group. Tomio Petrosky. Time is our existential dimension. . the Engineering Research Program of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences at the US Department of Energy.

June JO.S7<) of the Auiwh «l tlu. Antoniou Reprinted from Tempos in Science and Nature: Structures.Mm York Academy of Sciences.Laws of Nature and Time Symmetry Breaking llya Prigogine and I. Relations. and Complexity. Volume . I .

and quantum physics.U. or a seemingly erratic motion character­ ized by unpredictability often referred to as deterministic chaos.E. Belgium INTRODUCTION: IRREVERSIBLE PROCESSES IN NATURE In recent years. How then can we introduce unidirectional time without destroying these amazing achievements of the human mind? How then to make the bridge with dynamics? We shall describe two popular pro­ cedures. when we change the distance from equilibrium. a radical change of perspective has been witnessed in science since the realization that large classes of systems may exhibit abrupt transitions.1'2 Concepts such as "dissipative struc­ tures" and "self-organization" have become quite popular. USA c TheoretischeNatuurkunde (T. PRIGOGINE"'* AND I. How can these findings be interpreted from the point of view of the basic laws of physics? Newtonian dynamics. Newton's laws were considered final in their domain of application. the observed behavior is even more varied. As they imply the equivalence between past and future. now we see instabilities. any attempt to confer on the arrow of time a fundamental significance was resisted as a threat to the ideal of objective knowledge. fluctuations. This puzzle has led to an unending series of controversies. Texas 78712. Boulevard du Triomphe. and biology to large scale systems of relevance in environmental and economic sciences. we have the . 1050 Brussels.N. This may be called the time paradox. Classical science emphasized stability and equilibrium. we have various states of matter in succession. Time is simply a bookkeeping parameter without any direc­ tion. and evolutionary trends in a variety of areas ranging from atomic and molecular physics through fluid mechanics. But at that time. Campus Plaine VLB—C 231. It is interesting that the time paradox was only identified in the sec­ ond half of the 19th century. Austin. and therefore the arrow of time. coherent structures. plays an essential role in these processes.). Belgium Center for Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics.B). chemistry. somewhat as quantum mechanics is today considered to befinalby many physicists. the laws of Newtonian physics had been accepted as expressing the ideal of objective knowledge. ANTONIOUac international Solvay Institutes for Physics and Chemistry. The distance from equi­ librium. 1050 Brussels. somewhat like temperature in equilibrium physics.A. The University of Texas at Austin. It has been well known ever since the pioneering work of Gibbs and Einstein that we can describe dynamics from two points of view. When we lower the temperature. make no distinction between past and future.22 Laws of Nature and Time Symmetry Breaking I. a multiplicity of states. Robert Lee Moore Hall. It was then that the Viennese physicist Ludwig Boltzmann tried to emulate what Charles Darwin had done in biology and to formulate an evolutionary approach to physics. Vrije Universiteit Brussels (V. relativity. On the one hand. In nonequilibrium physics and chem­ istry.

On the other hand.23 individual description in terms of trajectories in classical dynamics. a coarse-grained distribution. For example. which is the starting point of statistical physics and which we shall study in the subsequent sections of this paper. This is the Liouville equation. we observe today both reversible. time-symmetric processes as well as irreversible processes. we have the collective statistical descrip­ tion in terms of ensembles represented by a probability distribution p (a probability density in classical mechanics or a density operator in quantum theory). we ourselves assume the responsibility for the appearance of the arrow of time. for ex­ ample (discrete spectrum). therefore. In our opinion. Adopting this point of view. co (1) In quantum mechanics the situation is different. co: co i-» 5. every conclusion obtained from p c „ for the future t > 0 would be valid for the past t < 0. the universe at one time had a very low entropy . There is also the "cosmological" argument. in his Lectures on Physics. is to understand the origin of the difference between reversible and irreversible processes that exist at present whatever the assumptions on cosmology. Our task.." LAWS OF CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS As is well known. The probability p satisfies a well-defined equation both in classical and quantum theory.-< V m The time change is determined by the action of the Hamiltonian operator on the wavefunction V|/. in addition to p (called the "fine-grained" distribution).. which results from averaging p over the micro­ scopic states. It is straightforward to see that this coarse-grained distribution leads to equilibrium in the future t > 0 as well as in the past / < 0.. the determination of its eigenfunctions and eigenvalues. we need the spectral analysis of the op­ erator Hop. In order to see this action. Therefore. Whatever the past history of our universe. As is well known the basic equation is the Schrodinger equation: If . A point co in phase space is transformed after a time t into the point S. let us first consider in more detail what we may call a "law of nature. The Ehrenfests have introduced. that is. pcg. the laws of classical mechanics describe evolution in terms of point transformations. that is the origin of all irreversibility . Moreover." This argument is somewhat strange.. or of wavefunctions in quantum theory.. because as the laws of dynamics are time reversible. the only possibility is a formulation of the laws of nature which explicitly includes time symmetry breaking and a characterization of the systems that lead to irreversible processes. the introduction of p c „ introduces ar­ bitrary approximations and a loss of information. Feyman 4 wrote: "For some reason. H oP = 5 > < » J n (3) .

to which we shall come back several times. 5 quantum theory was associated with Hilbert space.p(0) (7) In classsical dynamics L is the differential operator acting on the Hilbert space of square integrable density functions. That leads to eigenfunctions e±mt which are time symmetric as they are also eigenfunc­ tions of the unitary group U. Ut is a unitary group.fj. 1): £/. The Hamiltonian oper­ ator is "Hermitian" and has therefore only real eigenvalues in the Hilbert space. In a famous article B. Traditionally. however.O. Lp = dp dq dq dp .8 As is well known.: U. when we extend the evolution beyond the Hil­ bert space and consider a wider class of functions (often called generalized functions 6 ' 7 ). Koopman9 showed that the evolution of probability den­ sities of classical systems is described by a unitary group Ut implemented by the point transformation S. \un) = e±a°k\un). Therefore.24 where the \un) (and the conjugates (un\) are the eigenfunctions and GO„ the corre­ sponding energy levels. is that the spectral decomposition. An essential point. 10 But this is usually no longer so when we go outside the Hilbert space. we have jdxf(x)Hx) = /(0) (5) Spectral analysis of operators is the natural tool for the statistical problems asso­ ciated with the time evolution of the statistical distribution p in classical systems as well as for the ones discussed in the Introduction. This symmetry breaks. with functions that are square integrable: +°° Jdx|/(x)|2<- (4) The solution *F >-» Ut ¥ of the Schrodinger Equation (2) preserves the scalar product: (fiJ) = jdxf*. (Eq. p satisfies the Liouville-von Neumann equation (L-N equation) | 2 = _jLp at or p(t) = U. depends on the function space. In both classical and quantum mechanics. Equation (3). Ex­ amples will be given in the sections that follow.p(oo) = p(5. A simple example is the 8-function.p(0) = e~iL.1co) (6) for all functions p in the Hilbert space of square-integrable phase densities. that is. The two descriptions in terms of trajectories and in terms of ensembles involving p are equiv­ alent.

On the Baker map. The Baker transformation. There is no directed flow of time. DETERMINISTIC CHAOS: THE BAKER TRANSFORMATION For the first example we will consider deterministic chaos. y/2) for 0 < x < 1/2 and (2x . we only have to permute x and y. The horizontal coor­ dinate x is the expanding coordinate. For the Baker map. we see that after one iter­ ation of this process (or mapping).p] The L-N operator L is Hermitian and e~'L' unitary. At each step. in which two trajec­ tories. The inverse transformation. y) become {2x. which first reshapes the square into a rectangle with length Vi and height 2. The simplest example that captures the essential characteristics of classical systems is the well-known Baker transformation of the unit square. The area of the square is preserved. 1). the two coordinates play different roles. the equations of motion are very simple. the points draw closer together while the square is being flattened into a rectangle.25 whereas in quantum mechanics L is the commutator with the Hamiltonian operator Hop acting on the Hilbert-Schmidt space of density operators: Lp = [Hop. As long as we stay in the Hilbert space. then. because we have the contracting coordinate y. Because the distance between two points along the hori­ zontal coordinate x doubles with each transformation. as it is multiplied by 2 (mod 1) at each iteration. In the transverse direction. GO (b) FIGURE 1. set as closely as we choose at time t = 0. (y + l)/2 for 1/2 < x < 1. diverge exponentially as time goes on (the Lyapounov exponents). (c) . the L-N equation gives nothing new with respect to the classical (1) or quan­ tum mechanical (2) descriptions. To obtain the inverse Baker transformation. the transformation is reversible. the coordinates (x. because the number n of transforma­ tions measures time. new dynamical laws that provide the microscopic basis for irreversible processes. then we cut it in half and build a new square. We obtain. but when we go outside the Hilbert space we find spectral decompositions of L that include time symmetry breaking. we see that the Lyapunov exponent is log2. 1 Let us begin with a square with sides of length 1. returns each point to its initial position.1. it splits into two bands (see FIG. If we examine the lower part of the square. The L-N equations lead then to new solutions that can no more be implemented by trajectories or wavefunctions. it will be multiplied by 2" after n transformations. Moreover. If we rewrite 2" as en]og2.

We have Pn+i = Upn (8) U is called the "Perron-Frobenius" operator. The initial condition has to be a region of finite dimension (as small as we want). n e Z. d l/2" = e " l g 2 . p — peq. > > There is also a spectral decomposition in which p — peq for t — -«>. Note that Equation (10) leads to ^p = X ' F« > A< ^« i p> 11 = 0 2 for >>° (ID {Fn\ being a distribution. We have two different semigroups corresponding to different test functions for the distributions. The eigenvalues 1/2" are expressing the rates of approach to equilibrium. The first one is in Hilbert space and can be written If = jdkeikn\fk)(fk\ (9) Because the eigenvalues are e'kn. 1). Let us consider the successive probability distributions. such as \dxF(x)p(x).26 There is also a second Lyapunov exponent with the negative value -log2. Successive iterations of the Baker transformation lead to fragmentation of the shaded and unshaded areas. Equilibrium > > would be reached in the past. Irreversibility is asso­ ciated with semigroups. {F\ p) is the scalar product of F with p. which corresponds to the contracting direction y (see FIG. there is no time symmetry breaking. see Ap­ pendix. The probability distribution p tends toward equilibrium for t —> °°. But it has been recently established12'13 that there is a second spectral decompo­ sition outside the Hilbert space: "= £l^>i<^i «=o l do) (We simplify somewhat the actual situation.) The main point is that the eigenfunctions Fn and Fn are distributions. t — °°.'' Here we have a formulation of dynamics that includes the arrow of time. Using Equation (11). and we have seen in the section on laws of classical and quantum mechanics that products of dis­ tributions may lead to divergence. this formula is only meaningful when p is not a distribu­ tion. (More details are given in the APPEN­ DIX. pro­ ducing an increasing number of disconnected regions.11 It has been recently shown that there exist two spectral representations for the evolution U". 11) that leads to equilibrium in the future. which involves Jordan blocks. The fundamental quantity is now the probability distribution. . This excludes trajectories that are 8-functions. by comparison with Equation (9) this corresponds to k imaginary. we choose the semigroup (Eq.) In accordance with our observations. This solution is equivalent to the solution of the equation of motion.

and irreversibility. The simplest example would be free.27 These conclusions can be extended to an important class of dynamic systems. noninteracting particles for which there is no potential ener­ gy and the calculation of trajectories is trivial. Poincare then asked the questions. but also identified the reason for it: the existence of resonances between the degrees of freedom. he proved that dynamic systems were generally nonintegrable. In the following section. a dynamical system is characterized in terms of the kinetic en­ ergy of its particles plus the potential energy due to their interactions. THERMODYNAMIC SYSTEMS Thermodynamic systems are characterized by a large. Both formulations (Eq. Are all systems integrable? Can we choose suitable variables to eliminate potential energy? By showing that this was generally impossible. (Using light as an example. Poincare resonances are associated with frequen­ cies corresponding to various modes of motion. all radiation processes are related to resonances. 11) of dy­ namics are rigorous. A frequency ro^ depends on the wavelength k. we shall concern ourselves primarily with nonintegra­ ble. We shall now consider more closely the dynam­ ics of these systems. Thermodynamics and entropy are also usually associated with large systems con­ taining a large number of particles. This is why we call these systems large Poincare systems.) When we consider nonintegrable systems in which the frequency varies continuously with the wavelength. large Poincare systems (LPS). Equation (11) gives us the first example of a classical dynamical law that is not reducible to trajectories and contains the arrow of time. We shall come back to this problem in the section on particles. the so-called K flows (K for Kolmogorov). fields.14 We want to consider the effect of the thermodynamic limit for dynamic systems.oo0 separating the excited state |1) from the ground state |0). We shall show that the in- . Think about atoms where excited states occur when we introduce radiation with frequency (% which coincides with the frequency ©i . Equation (11) applies to the realistic initial condition which corresponds to a finite area. Note that it is only in the so-called thermodynamic limit Af->oo y->oo ^=C: finite (12) that we obtain a correct formulation of phase transitions. Poincare not only demonstrated nonintegrability. we arrive at the very definition of LPS. lOandEq. We are all more or less familiar with the concept of resonance from elementary acoustics. practically infinite number of degrees of freedom. The sig­ nificant fact is that most dynamic systems are not integrable. Such systems are by definition integrable. ultraviolet has a higher frequency co and shorter wavelength k than infrared light. This condition is met when the volume in which the system is located is large enough for surface effects to be ignored. POINCARE INTEGRABILITY As is well known. Also.

18 Let us summarize our results for one-di­ mensional anharmonic lattices. lj.. a) = £p { „ } (V Z " t < X i The Hilbert norm is therefore n ii 2 (16) PI|P(«)W| 2 (17) To obtain afiniteHilbert norm for N — °°.17.. V » Harmonic lattices correspond to integrable systems. In the thermodynamic limit. Equation (12) reduces to the limit y — « (as V= aN). the norm (Eq. The potential energy U is given by the quadratic form UU ' 0=kjJAnn'unun' (15) where un is the displacement of therathatom from its equilibrium position (we im­ pose cyclic boundary conditions un+N= un). 2k.28 teraction between the degrees of freedom leads indeed beyond the Hilbert space structure. as there is no coupling be­ tween the normal modes... We may solve the dynamical problem either by point transformations using angle-action variables a and J or by the Liouville equation introducing the Hilbert space structure. With obvious notations p(7. well-defined conditions have to be sat­ > isfied.. The equilibrium distance a between two neighboring lattice sites being given. 17) contains terms with nk = .vl + - (is) which have to converge for N —> <> This implies *. . = M +IhJ k P0==0(1) as well as + 2>M. 0.| kk' + kk'k" XKi.. we require in addition that there are extensive vari­ ables such as the average potential energy U: lim . ' 9h"j^'' _2 Pl Pl _ 1 < *- N (19) (20) . —lk.^ = finite /v->°° N and intensive variables such as the pressure p lim p = finite (-\A\ (13) We have recently considered the examples of anharmonic lattices16 as well as of large systems of interacting particles. Indeed.

We may calculate the value of the average potential energy. This leads to new processes taking place at the statistical level. the extension of the functional space outside the Hilbert space alone does not imply time symmetry breaking. we need stron­ ger correlations Pl ^-j* (6 2) but then the Hilbert space norm diverges. we need in addition nonintegrability in the sense of Poincare. We have called these collision processes. The potential energy is. (V>« ^jdJVkkT. For this. However. as applied to large thermodynamic systems (LPS).phh. Our conclusion applies as well to systems of interacting particles in the thermo­ dynamic limit and even to interacting fields (see the section on particles.h„ kk'k" (23) (24) Using the value (Eq. As is well known. 20) we obtain (V)~jN (25) which is incompatible with Equation (13). We may also have processes creating correlations (FIG. 4).. Poincare's nonintegrability is associated with resonances. and N for the components not on the reciprocal lattice. p 0 to p 0 ) (see FIG. We refer to the original papers for the de­ scription how p is "ejected" from the Hilbert space as the result of the interactions. at the lowest order. However. and irreversibility). Consider then anharmonic lattices. the Hilbert norm diverges. . we may have in addition processes relating states corresponding to the same degree of correlation (i. fields. As the result of Poincare resonances. U U ~ 0 = ^LA»n'unUn' + \ £ B nn'n"U „Un"n" nn' nn'n" (22) Higher order terms in the displacement would not introduce any change. such as N~112 instead of UN. if P i ^ \k« is too large. 3). 24) of the three-mode correlations (Eq. We may have processes "destroying" correlations as represented graphically in FIGURE 2. To obtain Equation (13).e.29 for the components with k + k' + k" = 0 or a vector on the reciprocal lattice. The Hamiltonian H becomes H=H0 + XV where we have introduced the parameter X for the coupling constant.

each vertex contains derivative operators d/dJ.] . In FIGURES 2-4.. as they appear. . in the Fokker-Planck equation for classical dynamics and in the Pauli's master equation for quantum me­ chanics. „ to the vacuum of correlation pn- k " f?ikik'ik" po k" FIGURE 3. We may qualitatively describe the situation by imagining each observable corresponding to a finite number of degrees of freedom "swimming" in the infinite sea associated with the thermodynamics limit. Destruction of correlations leading from a three-mode correlation P[. for example. The main result is that the dynamics of large Poincare's systems (LPS) are ruled by "Langevin-type" interactions. FIGURE 4 leads therefore to processes con­ taining second-order operators d2ldJ2 characteristic of diffusive processes.30 k k' e° k" ^-ikik-ik- FIGURE 2. Creation of correlations leading from p 0 to Puu-U" The collision processes destroy the trajectory description.

3f FIGURE 4. (This is in contrast with Boltzmann's molecular chaos. Boltzmann's "molecular chaos" already introduces a privileged direction of time). we obtain a formulation of dynamics in terms of probabilities that breaks the time symmetry.18 We then obtain a formulation of quantum mechanics outside the Hilbert space in which the funda­ mental quantities are density operators and are no longer wave amplitudes. All these results can easily be extended to quantum mechanics. Collision processes relating to p0 to p0. DYNAMICS OF LARGE POINCARE SYSTEMS We have recently solved the eigenvalue problem for the L-N operator extended outside the Hilbert space. 20) and is de­ scribed in detail in recent publications. Let's briefly summarize some of the main results.16-18 We shall now describe briefly the spectral representation of the L-N operator when extended outside the Hilbert space. indeed. For a system of interacting particles L is given by L = L0 + XLY (27) using obvious notations. but at the level of probabil­ ities. not on the level of trajectories or wavefunctions. = e'^and a complete set of eigen-projection operators P where L0P=PL0 (28) . (pj. In classical mechanics L0 admits eigenfunctions of the form L0 (pk = kp/m (f>£. This class has to include the equilibrium distribution and should not be invariant un­ der time inversion. This is an important novel aspect we shall briefly describe in the next section. A class of distributions satisfying these criteria has already been introduced in the monograph "Nonequilibrium Statistical Mechanics"19 (see also Ref. As in the case of deterministic chaos. LPS can therefore be inte­ grated. To go further we have to introduce a class of functions p outside the Hilbert space. We see that LPS involve new effects not considered in Newtonian or quantum me­ chanics.

This formula includes memory effects ("non-Markovian" behavior). The classical kinetic theories (Fokker.21 = 'if \dt'V(t']^ o P(f-'') + ^ CP(0)) (30) \f(t) is the time-dependent collision operator leading from P to P (see FIG. The diagonalization has been ob­ tained on the level of distribution functions outside the Hilbert space. This represen­ tation is nonreducible in the sense that it involves probabilities and cannot be reduced to trajectories or wavefunctions. 22 The experimental discovery of long-tail effects by Alder 23 in the sixties has led to a deep change in the kinetic theory of fluids. A similar classification was in­ troduced earlier for unstable particles. 21 We shall come back to this question at the end of this section. The spectral decomposition leads to the basic intertwining relation ALA"1 = 0 (32) . Of course. We will only quote the result here. 19. we shall use the notation Pa where a denotes the particles associated with nonvanishing wavevectors and v the value of the wavevectors. There is. and the long-tail time.32 v is the number of nonvanishing k vectors. We also introduce the projection operators Qa : V V V V V V . ^ 0). Boltzman) do not contain long tails. The spectral decomposition of the Liouville operator can be written in the form ^ = Xl^»4«4| vex (3D Therefore. PaQa = QaPa = V <29> In particular Pp is the velocity distribution that is factorized in a product of individ­ ual velocity distribution functions. which can be found in many books. the exponential time period. 4) and the "destruction fragment" leading from p -> p (u. one could also obtain a spectral decomposition with Im za > 0 which leads to equilibrium in the past. Planck. In a recent paper 18 we obtained the spectral decomposition of L when applied to the class of functions of the section on Poincare integrability. time symmetry breaking. the evolution is non-Markovian for thermodynamic systems.^ . They satisfy the usual completeness and orthonormality relations. and they have different domains. This is the subject of the mode-mode coupling theory. therefore. The main point is that the two spectral decomposi­ tions are distinct. 21 As a result we have three time periods: the Zenon time. As is well known. This formula was established by Resibois and Prigogine in 1961.« <2«= 1 . We have the so-called master equation for P. which is still in a rather early stage. nonintegrable systems (in the sense of Poincare) can be integrated on the Liouville level. More explicitly. The eigenvalues za are complex and satisfy the inequality Im za < 0.

Indeed. The collision operator 0 is diagonal in the Pa representation 0 = 5>V0PV= 1 0 V V (33) Also. H = ft// = H0 2 (39) v Causality requires. Petrosky. which show the evolution of the binary distribution functions g\2(r< 0Therefore. we can obtain a complete set of projectors n for the Liouville operator L. 0 v V . we obtain a superposition of Mark­ ovian processes.33 The operator L is nonunitary (L+ / L ' ) . 0 r v. There are additional points that are important. Our approach permits us to introduce causality into kinetic theory.)3 (38) o Also. Indeed. that we take into account n (and if necessary n for V > 2) for nonequilibrium processes. n leads to correlations over ar­ bitrary distances.. At equilibrium. private communication). To retain fl is only correct for local properties far from the propagating edge. the questions left open by the mode-mode coupling ap­ proach can be solved (T.-e7nP (36) There is an infinite number of Markovian processes because each distribution func­ tion. t = 0) = 0 The results are represented in FIGURES 5 through 7. all classical kinetic equations lie in n as well as all invariants of motions such as the Hamiltonian H. . always violate causality in the propagation of irreversible processes. it is not astonishing that the equilibrium distribution lies in the ft . Therefore. the classical kinetic theories that retain only n . Causality is obtained by including the effect of n (therefore. however. LYl = TIL fi = A" 1 P A V V (34) (35) It is quite remarkable that each projection P U leads to a Markovian process that we can write in the following form: 4^ at = -. n is the only part of the dis­ tribution function p that contains vanishing eigenvalues. such as P p can be written as a superposition of the projection operators n . z a = 0.. ^p = I p n p (37) o o We want to emphasize the special role of n . P0q=ftpeq=((?+/. t) with gi2(r. To illustrate this statement consider the time evolution of the binary correlation g12(>". In this way. Instead of the non-Markovian Equation (30). u p + ftp ).

(Complete compensation between n and n . The time evolution of thermodynamic systems is given by the L-N equation applied to a class of generalized functions p outside the Hilbert space. t) for t = 0. In contrast with the Baker transformation studied in the section on de­ terministic chaos. il < t2 < (3 ■ Let us summarize this section. ) !=> 0 0 2 FIGURE 6. we have for LPS only a formulation of dynamics in which the . g2 (r.34 3i %. where we had both a time-reversible and a time-irreversible for­ mulation of dynamics. Time evolution of g2 (r. (Partial compensation between II and II. t) for t = 0. b—0 - ~5> 0 2 FIGURE 5. g2 (r. /).) * t FIGURE 7.

Ordonez. They occur when the unperturbed system (of scatterer plus particle) has stationary states that are closed. AND IRREVERSIBILITY* Atomic.1 The Hamiltonian operator is ff = ff0 + A. -fe O) FIGURE 8.V=|l>a>1<l| + ]r|*><!(>A<*| +Jl£v t (|*XH +UX*I) k k (40) The states 11) and \k) are eigenfunctions of H0. and I. 8). These objects cannot be eigenfunctions of the Hamiltonian (in contrast with the ground-state or with stable-state particles). PARTICLES. Prigogine that will appear soon in Physica A. T h i s section is a summary of a paper by T. We want now to demonstrate briefly that our approach has fundamental conse­ quences for basic aspects of modern physics. FIELDS. (a) Bound state. (b) resonance. _* j ^ (<L) -.8 The fact that we had to use the word "approximately" in stating the conditions required for the phenomena of emission and absorption to be able to occur shows that these con­ ditions are not expressible in exact mathematical language.35 central quantity is the probability and which has a broken time symmetry. according to whether u)| is less than or greater than zero (FIG. One can give meaning to these phenomena only with reference to a perturbation method. Petrosky. In this model we have a discrete state 11) representing a bare particle coupled to continuous states \k) corresponding to field modes. we can construct this entropy on a microscopic basis. . and high energy physics deal with excited states. but we cannot present this within the framework of this article. or unstable particles. Dirac has recognized this situa­ tion very well. G. The introduction of the perturbation spoils the stationary property of these states and gives rise to spontaneous emission and its converse absorption. We have achieved in this way a microscopic formulation of the arrow of time. There are two situations. Let us describe in detail this difficulty using the well-known Friedrichs model. which describes the interaction of a two-level atom with radiation. nuclear. The effect of the perturbation is to lead to the emission or the absorption of a photon (this model neglects virtual tran­ sitions). Once this is done.

Now let us consider the case of resonance (see FIG. The two smaller peaks traveling away from the particle are superpositions of dressed photons. (For the numerical simulation attributed to G..1 Vj. Ordonez. for (Oj > 0 the state 11) will decay. a k-mt \k) (42) where A^ is a normalization constant. Formula (42) clearly shows the photon cloud \k) surrounding 11). FIGURE 9 gives an example of the photon distribution around the stable particle. = L~l/2. we use X = 0. 8). The case coj < 0 can be treated easily.> The exact expression for |<pj) can be shown to be24: lq>i> = # . 1/2 (41) n)-X k XV. Similarly we have the dressed photon. Friedrichs has shown that then we have the spectral decomposition24 H 5>*I«P*X<P*I (43) -150 -100 -50 0 50 100 150 FIGURE 9. These photons are created because the energy of the bare particle is greater than the energy of the dressed particle <»i > <a. the photons carry away the excess energy. Photon distribution around a stable particle (t= 150). emitting a photon. L = 400. . As the dressed particle emerges. The interaction transfonns 11) into | cpj} which is an eigenstate of H: //|<p1)=(b1 |(p.36 For coj < 0 we have a bound state. One clearly sees the cloud surrounding 11). The state 11) evolves time going on to Jcp1).

018 0. Note the asymmetry between the formation period and the decay.014 0. It is obvious that the photon distributions are very similar. The central quantity is again probability. we have a wave packet approaching the atom in the ground state. the transition from bound state to reso­ nance takes place at C0j = 0. Case (a) we have already considered.01 ■wl=+0. Let us close this section with some remarks on the relationship between fields and particles. After the contact the atom is excited and then decays exponentially. We may visualize the transition through the computer plots shown in FIGURE 10. The main point is that the reso­ nances are described by density operators (and not wavefunctions) that evolve irre­ versibly.1 . The resonance also has a photon cloud. Photon distribution near the transition point.012 0. It is given here for reference.37 0. Resonances and excited states are closely related to unstable particles. This clearly in­ dicates the irreversible character of the process. The question is.01 0.006 0. At t = 0. This example shows that our theory is an extension of quantum theory. we plot the photon space distribution for three cases: (a) tOj = . In FIGURE 10. (b) ©j = -0. . Cases (b) and (c) are close to the branching point coj = 0. What is the nature of the "decaying state" (which appears for f= 500 iij FIGURE 11)? We can apply the Liouville formulation and show that this state is in Et subdynamics. It is also interesting to notice that irreversibility appears on the microscopic level. Case (b) corresponds to the stable particle and (c) to the unstable particle. As mentioned previously (see FIG.002 - ■wl=-l" ■wl=-0.01. but this state (which is the continuation of |<pj)) is not an eigenfunction of H.016 0. 8). It is therefore a combination of eigenfunctions of the L-N operator. It is interesting how this state is formed.01 j -150 -100 -50 0 x 50 100 150 FIGURE 10. where the \<pk) are outgoing waves satisfying completeness and orthonormality.01. The excited state does not appear explicitly in Equation (43).004 0.008 0. and (c) ©j = +0. which avoids the difficulty stated by Dirac.

this introduces time symmetry breaking. EQ/V = finite. and the occupation number nk are invariants. Of course. . per­ haps nearly all of them. we have to go outside the Hilbert space. For the electrodynamic field. it is true that many experimental situations. There is therefore a strong analogy with thermodynamic sys­ tems.38 0 . A free quantum field is a superposition of oscillators. field theory is deeply changed. We can now overcome this difficulty and obtain an evolution equation valid for fi­ nite times. Free quantum fields are integrable systems. According to G. Exactly as for thermodynamic systems. This is the central problem of second quantization. can conveniently be described in terms of scattering processes. However. we can integrate the equations of mo­ tion on the Liouville level of probabilities. (In our presentation we avoid ultraviolet divergencies by means of suitable form factors. A fundamental problem of modern physics is the relationship between particles and fields.1 \ - tl 0 100 / 1 i t2 i 200 300 t 400 FIGURE 11. Formation decay of a bare particle. Nonintegrable fields are systems of an infinite number of degrees of freedom with persistent interactions. interactions lead to nonintegrable systems where the occupation numbers vary in time.2 \ 0 . (The condition {V)INfinite is replaced here by the condition that the zero point energy EQ of interesting fields E0 satisfies the condition V—> °°. We have H = E^%(H^ + Vz).) In this way. as there are no free fields in nature. which explains the fact that most elementary particles are unstable. a pure S-matrix theory goes further and assumes that everything can be de­ scribed as a scattering during an infinite time interval. However.) Exactly as for thermodynamic sys­ tems. the corresponding par­ ticles are the photons. Moreover. Kallen: It appears to me that one basic feature of a pure S-matrix theory and also of some of the more extreme versions of the axiomatic approach is just that one completely forgets the development in time.

Now the particles themselves are the outcome of a time symmetry broken formulation except for the ground state. New York. 1989. Moravesik for Cornell University Press. New York. R. We are led from a world of "being" to a world of "becoming. IV." Nevertheless. Exploring Complexity. . Note also that the conventional approach associated irreversibility and entropy with ensembles of particles. and the National Lottery of Belgium for their financial support. The Feynamn Lectures on Physics. English translation by M. R. Enzyklopddie der Mathernatischen Wissenschaften No. There­ fore. I. Our world is a world of continuous "construction" ruled by probabilistic laws and no longer a kind of automaton. 4. the basic laws of physics for large systems are radically different from the clas­ sical and quantum mechanics of integrable systems." the Belgian Interuniversity Attraction Poles. each of which if taken in isolation would satisfy the deter­ ministic laws of classical or quantum mechanics. Here the laws of classical physics or quantum physics are replaced by the probabilistic Liouville equation associated with the extended Liouville operator beyond the Hilbert space: F — ma „ 3p r ext -=r = -'£ P a -. the "Communaute francaise de Belgique. EHRENFEST. Tornio Petrosky and Dr.39 FROM BEING TO BECOMING The results summarized in this paper show that irreversibility plays a much more important role than had been previously anticipated. LEIGHTON & M. Gonzalo Ordonez for their contri­ bution to this work as well as the European Commission ESPRIT Project CTIAC 21042/DGIII. 1959. Vol. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We acknowledge Dr. 2. why nature has a broken time symmetry is a difficult question. Our results can be extended to relativity where the Poincare group splits into two semigroups. The most striking result con­ cerns the dynamics of large systems. Freeman. SANDS. The inclusion of irreversibility changes our view of nature.. P. NICOLIS. 6. Reading. 26 ' 27 The main entity is probability. thermodynamic systems and fields. Ith­ aca. & PRIGOGINE. REFERENCES 1. 1965.^ -i iH > Here Le*' is the extension of the Liouville operator outside the Hilbert Space. I. From Being to Becoming. & T. Freeman. Leipzig 1912. 1980. EHRENFEST. Addison Wesley. PRIGOGINE. But at this point we are at the frontiers of present science. G. It may be due to the inter­ action between gravitation and the other fundamental forces. Nature evolves as a semigroup. The Conceptual Foundations of Statistical Mechanics. MA. and the time symmetry is broken. New York 3. FEYNMAN. The future is no long­ er given.

Decay Theory of unstable quantum systems.A. B. A Modern Course in Statistical Physics. TASAKI. 1995. Stoops. Berlin. & M . U R I . Math. T. Princeton. 1991. 7. I. Phys. 12. 19. 1992. In La Theorie Quantique des champs. Wiley. 4 1 : 587-631. Physica A 173: 175-242. 1977. PETROSKY. In Gravity. Hamiltonian systems and transformations in Hilbert spaces. and Noise.E. BEN-YAACOV. A.. & S. 1969. MACKEY. 14. Equilibrium and Non-equilibrium Statistical Mechanics. REICHL. DIRAC. Generalized spectral decomposition of the |3-adic Baker's transformation and intrinsic irreversibility. London. BALESCU. 26. PETROSKY. PRIGOGINE & G. PRIGOGINE. P. New York. Physica 102A: 379-388 LASOTA. Physica A 222: 307-329.: 253. ANTONIOU.w 5. 13. Foundations and Applications. Classical Kinetic Theory of Fluids. 6. Proc. ANTONIOU.. Particles and Space-Time. 1931. Wiley. The Principles of Quantum Mechanics. J. Lorentz Symmetry of Subdynamics in Relativistic Sys­ tems. & W. 1955. M. & S. SAPHIR. BOKM. New York. GOODRICH. 1994. Chaos. 27. & I. 1962. Nonequilibrium statistical mechanics of the Baker map: Ruelle resonances and subdynamics. KOOPMAN. 1993. ALDER. APPENDIX Time-Asymmetric Spectral Decomposition of the B a k e r Transformation The Brussels-Austin groups have s h o w n 1 2 ' 1 3 that there is also a new spectral de­ composition of the Frobenius-Perron operator U of the Baker transformation involv­ ing Jordan blocks: . Quantum Chem. Phys. 18. 39: 2995-3018. 16. PETROSKY. 1980. Appl. P. 1992. 3rd edit. 21. 8. New York. PRIGOGINE. T. Lett. 17. NJ. Press. 22. lemma. Phys. New York. Proceedings of the 12th Solvay Physics Conference. MISRA. GHIRARDI & A. 23. PRIGOGINE. Sci. Princeton Univ. Poincare resonances and the extension of classi­ cal dynamics. Rep. Springer. Pronin & G. 24. G. PETROSKY. G. PRIGOGINE. 1980. World Scientific. T. KALLEN. 1993. R. FONDA. Non-Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics. L. 1997. HASEGAWA. Interscience. I PRIGOGINE & S. Generalized spectral decomposition of mixing dynamical systems. Phys. PRIGOGINE. Natl. The case of anharmonic lattices. 25. 99: 1-120. On a converse to Koopman's 11. Lett 18: 988. Singapore/New Jersey. The Liouville space extension of quantum mechanics. B. H. Acad. Chem. I. Quantum theory of non-integrable systems. Oxford University Press. & T. USA 17: 315-318. A. K. Extension of classical dynamics. 39: 1-44. Eds. Math. ANTONIOU. Ed. Physica A 190: 303-329. & I. London. RESIBOIS. Relativistic Gamow Vectors. 15. 1975. 46: 425-474. R. I. WAINRIGHT. 1978. 1998. The extension of classical mechanics for unsta­ ble Hamiltonian systems. VON NEUMANN.. J. Adv. 9. 1958. & I. DELEENER.LA. Int. Chaos Solitons and Fractals 7: 441-497.H. Springer-Verlag. 1996. Sardanashvily. I. & M. 1996. Quantum Mechanics. & I. Phys. J. Wiley. RIMINI. I. Comp. 1997. New York.M. 20. Prog. Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics. Fractals. Arnold. A 161: 477-482. GUSTAFSON & B. T. T. 1962. 10. Rev. PETROSKY. L. GADEI. TASAKI. PRONKO.. K. P. TASAKI.C.

1) J_ f p ov l ) + |f )) r = 1. only the positive powers If1. . Apart from the intrinsic irreversibility and the natural decomposition of the evolution in terms of the decay­ ing contribution associated with resonances. can be extended to the same space. .I C/v.3 . r • " ' VUVrH — IF ).. A. ±2. As a result. y) because the expectation value.. .. Here. -2.(*>')) a r e excluded from the domain of the spectral decompo­ sition (Eq. The computation of au­ tocorrelation functions using the spectral decomposition (Eq. we can also prove13 that the trajectories &(xy)(x'>y') ~ §((*'<y') .1 . . the spectral decomposition (Eq. r = 0 .)(^v. V . that is.. . .l) gives rise to polynomial contributions to the exponentially decaying components associated with the resonances 2~n. I Il^.rl = / v = 0i=0 The principal vectors F v j and Fv. are linear functionals over the spaces Lx x Pv and PxxLy. n = 1. V.. when extended. . Therefore the original unitary group If1. and Py is the space of polynomials in the y.variable. The negative powers If1. Lx is the space of square integrable functions in the *-variable. 2. respectively.l) defines an extension of the Frobenius-Perron operator to the space of functionals over the test functions LxxP . we cannot compute the deterministic evolution associated with the initial condition localized at the point (x. A. n = ±1. . r = 0. n = ..' r =V (A. splits13 into two distinct semigroups cor­ responding to the forward and backward direction of time.41 v=l V = l^ooX^ool + £ X -vFv. r ' I V.rlV = 7v ' F v.r\ }. A. r | +(Fv. can be extended to the space of linear functionals over the test functions: PxxL .. However.l).r)^v.. as a result of the Jordan blocks structure. r+l ></y r | r=0 J V = l lr= 0 2 The vectors | Fvr) and (fvr\ form a Jordan basis f1 ^ { ^ v . ..rl £ IF v ..

42 I I S((JC. (U" 8|/) = jdxjdy o o y) . Therefore. It allows only for predictions associated with probabilities. the irreversible extension of Baker's dynamics is moreover in­ trinsically probabilistic. y'))f{x'y') diverges.B-"{x'. This is also another generic characteristic of the extended spectral decompositions of unstable or nonintegrable systems. .

3 Time in Non-equilibrium Physics Discussion of llya Prigogine with Theodore Christidis .T.

This started about 1949 a n d . However. Either time is i n t r o d u c e d by us. We c o n t i n u e d actually his work. were to m a k e irreversibility a property of nature and n o t a property that you have to add to n a t u r e . I m e t Pauli in the Solvay Conference of 1954. because I introduced entropy p r o d u c t i o n [ 2 . Of course h a r m o n i c oscillator models can be solved at the level of interacting n o r m a l modes. or it is an objective property of nature. All we can know a b o u t radioactivity is the m e a n life-time. b u t they never expressed their o p i n i o n about my work. You see. my own ideas were still not very clear. H e was quite impressed. However. q u a n t u m mechanics has rightly b e e n said to mark the demise of determinism. I wanted to be sure that entropy production can be calculated from kinetic theory. where I presented the work with Klein on H a r m o n i c oscillators [27]. is the calculation of entropy production in the framework of kinetic theory. T h e history of the p r o b l e m is as follows: I was always interested in statistical mechanics.5 ] which also appears already in Boltzmann's description. see for example my book with Isabelle Stengers [4]. Did you ever discuss your views on time with physicists. B o h r seemed to be very interested. when we discussed it in the 60's. We calculate only averages. Nobody can calculate how many atoms will disintegrate in a given interval. a n d it is psychological. T h e r e was always a difference between gravitation a n d irreversibility. For gravitation n o b o d y doubts that it is part of n a t u r e a n d n o t introduced by us i n t o n a t u r e . we have to speak a b o u t the reaction of Pauli. like Bohr or Heisenberg? IP: Yes. If we discuss about the famous C o p e n h a g e n School. W h e n we s p e a k a b o u t irreversibility a n d p r o b a b i l i t y . But I could not see very strong reaction. My first work on the statistical theory of irreversibility.w TC: T h e distinction of earlier a n d later is very mysterious. Therefore. we m e a n t h a t t h e y a r e c o n c e p t s t h a t w e r e traditionally introduced by us into nature. even this was n o l o n g e r possible since q u a n t u m mechanics. It was S c h r o e d i n g e r who started working o n this problem [28]. T h e successive stages of my work.

45 studying it further. because time was not involved? IP: I was mainly interested in time. I wrote a book. TC: It is amazing that at that time everybody was jumping into applications of quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. I looked at how entropy production is modified because of the non-equilibrium conditions due to the non-linear character of the chemical reactions. TC: That was equilibrium physics. This is a very important result. because thermo­ dynamics is the science in which the arrow of time plays the key role. including the quantum mechanical result on the zero point energy of mixtures. TC: So. But you were also working at that time in non-equilibrium processes. you did not care about these applications of quantum mechanics and all these new possibilities. Why had you chosen to deal with thermodynamics? IP: I was interested in thermodynamics. which is still used. as in the case of the mixture of helium 3 and helium 4 or the mixture of hydrogen and neon. includes the principle of entropy production. still quoted. My two directions of research at that time were: non-equilibrium statistical mechanics and thermodynamics. My These d'Agregation defended in 1945 [1]. The results were in very good agreement with experiments and even led to industrial applications. 'Molecular Theory of Solutions' [29]. among many results. What is important . I presented this result obtained together with Jeener and Bellemans [29] at a seminar in Yale in 1953. which leads to phase separation. IP: My main interest was always non-equilibrium physics. which appeared in 1957. Many predictions have been verified. but I was also interested in molecular processes.

That was very interesting for me. Non-equilibrium situations did not appear. When you study stability. I published a small paper with the biologist JeanMarie Wiame [30] on the biological implications of minimum entropy production. there is structure created by irreversibility. the problem of emergence of structures in relation to irreversibility is a problem. Therefore. Stability for Gibbs was studied in terms of the fluctuations. for example. and to recover equilibrium. He considered that you cannot understand thermodynamics if you look only on equilibrium. Therefore. He introduced the affinity. you introduce a perturbation. I was influenced by biological analogies and by the very good school of Biology in Brussels. So. and when you have .46 in the principle of entropy production. which is different from the chemical potential. TC: What was the influence of Th. which was not an equilibrium formalism. is that the nonequilibrium steady state is characterized still by a variation principle. So the next step was to put the affinity equal to zero. The simplest example close to equilibrium is the emergence of minimum entropy production. Fluctuations from equilibrium are simply damped out. which is not equivalent to maximum entropy. stability. The key question was how these non-equilibrium structures appear in physical theories. which was in my mind since 1945. De Donder on your early work? IP: De Donder introduced a formalism [31]. But he did not go far towards the non-equilibrium case. which you introduce into the equilibrium state. because these structures do not appear at random. A very good argument for this is. That structure created by irreversibility was really a very important problem for me. De Donder was very opposed to the idea that equilibrium was the only field where you can apply thermodynamics. Note that these fluctuations obviously did not lead to nonequilibrium situations.

So chemists. you can say that the gradient of temperature is a cause for the heat flow. TC: Then. after 1953 you work to develop in parallel the nonequilibrium thermodynamics and non-equilibrium statistical mechanics? . De Donder's formalism is a formalism. to my knowledge. TC: So. not at all. in which. One of his main contributions is the definition of affinity. and if the affinity is zero. the reaction goes to one direction. you have equilibrium. for many many years. the instability of the thermodynamic branch? IP: No. it goes to the opposite direction. which is p r o p o r t i o n a l to the gradient of temperature. he put affinity equal to zero. But. I don't want to decrease his importance. tried to introduce also thermodynamics in terms of a chemical force which would drive chemical reactions.47 a perturbation. he did not anticipate. That chemical force is the affinity of De Donder. I emphasized the role of affinity. if it is negative. I only want to say that the specificities of non-equilibrium was not his field. This really is very important. for example. in the sense that if the affinity is positive. He had also not anticipated the theorem of minimum entropy production. When you have heat c o n d u c t i o n . which is a kind of overall review of thermodynamics from the beginning till now. Thus. his contributions were rather a preparation for the Non-equilibrium Physics. I always emphasized how grateful I am to De Donder [5]. after having formulated things in non-equilibrium terms using local equilibrium conditions. essentially. he has not obtained any really new application far from equilibrium. and he is back to the usual equilibrium formulation. De Donder contributed of course to the general formalism of non-equilibrium systems. you go out of equilibrium. In the recent book I have written with Kondepudi [5].

We studied the lattice of harmonic oscillators [27]. TC: That was the first hint in the right direction? . Green. Not in Boltzmann's way. which brings the system as close as you want to equilibrium as the number of oscillators increases. we were trying to have consistent results. but in the general statistical mechanics of Yvon. The flow of normal modes at the particle level corresponds as we have shown to the flow of correlations at the probability level. to some extent. 12].48 IP: Yes. more on the traditional way. However. There. I was very impressed by this result which. In the limit of infinite oscillators. TC: You mean that all these ideas were already in this paper with Klein [27]? IP: Yes. to justify the entropy production. Born. In this situation of course. which claimed that we can make a general statistical mechanics. So. After the war. My first work in this direction was to try to apply Born's and Green's theory to one-dimensional systems for which we can calculate exactly the partition function. Statistical Mechanics [12] that essentially. I came to non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. Then. I came to the problem of how chemical reactions modified development. they were in this paper [27]. which I was to develop in my book Non-equilibrium. irreversibility is a flow of correlations. Kirkwood and Bogolubov [32-34. And we showed that Born's and Green's theory does not give any consistent results. So. So. various theories appeared. information disappears at infinity and in this sense you have approach to equilibrium [35]. So. we applied it. there is a flow of information. we have no irreversibility. I became interested in this problem. I had my first contact with non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. continues the work of Schrodinger [28] and gave me one of the basic ideas.

TC: What about the A2i-approximat. Then I started to work on anharmonic lattices [12]. The physical . in a conference devoted to Van Hove. TC: What was the main outcome of your book [12]? IP: We gave a very simple pictorial r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of irreversibility as a flow of correlations. is in contradiction with Quantum Mechanics. That was also Pauli's opinion. Van Hove introduced the 7?t approximation in statistical mechanics [37]. 39]. saying 'what do you expect? There is no dissipation'.ion in Classical Mechanics? IP: It is very similar. He was very enthusiastic about the work of Van Hove. 40] in terms of action-angle variables. But afterwards he changed his mind. The anharmonic solution to all orders in the coupling parameter A could only be studied much later [36]. Then we have significant development in this direction [12. TC: What was the reaction of Pauli? IP: When I first spoke to Pauli about the lattice of harmonic oscillators. But still. then to fourth order and so on. he was rather negative.49 IP: Yes. there remained a mystery which was also underlined by Hugenholtz recently. in the anharmonic solution. Van Hove came to me one day to say that he obtained a good result by retaining. because if you add the omitted terms you will recover the time symmetric Quantum Mechanical solution. We developed this with Brout in 1956 [12. The mystery lies in the fact that the semigroup evolution obtained by the A 2 /!-approximation of Van Hove. He derived essentially the Pauli Master Equation [38]. Correlations evolve from second to third. At that time I was in contact with Leon Van Hove who considered himself to be my student. only the term with A2£.

the distribution of m o m e n t a b e c o m e s m o r e r a n d o m a n d correlations increase. c o r r e s p o n d i n g to the evolution of t h e i n d e p e n d e n t modes. 42. For non-integrable systems however. W h e n you inverse time. T h e choice of o n e of the two temporal directions is a fact of observation. although this theory gave Boltzmann's equation. T h e main point is that the two directions of time can be distinguished. we have two p h e n o m e n a which are coupled: to create correlations and destroy o r d e r in m o m e n t u m space a p p r o a c h i n g the Maxwell-Bolzmann equilibrium distribution in the simple cases. You see. T C : Were you satisfied with the A 2 /-approximation theory? IP: No. T C : How did you address the difficulty c o n c e r n i n g the Xztapproximation? IP: T h e q u a n t u m systems for which the A 2 £-approximation applied are Large Non-integrable Poincare Systems in which the invariants of motion are destroyed. We arrive at a description which shows both the unity a n d the .i n t e g r a b l e systems have a probabilistic description of the evolution which may be d e c o m p o s e d into subdynamics. [12]. Why /L2/? Why n o t to go to higher order of approximation? T h a t was the work. each subdynamics corresponds to an irreversible Markov process [41. W h e n particles collide. It is presented in my book Non-equilibrium Statistical Mechanic?.50 direction of time is the direction in which the correlations increase. which I did with Balescu. m o r e a n d m o r e particles b e c o m e correlated. Resibois a n d H e n i n mainly. or to destroy correlations a n d create o r d e r in m o m e n t u m space. C h . 3 ] . Both i n t e g r a b l e a n d n o n . we felt it was only a starting point. For integrable systems the subdynamics are rather trivial. 1 4 ] . This destruction makes the a p p r o a c h to e q u i l i b r i u m possible [12. the Fokker-Planck equation a n d the Pauli Master equation. correlations are destroyed a n d o r d e r in m o m e n t a is p r o d u c e d . As time goes on.

44-46]. 47] and to discuss quantum decay [48]. the 3-body problem [56] and interacting bosons [57]. However we have to go beyond the Hilbert space formulation. TC: How does subdynamics explain Irreversibility? IP: The relation between dynamics and dissipation was for the first time clearly explained by Misra and coworkers [43. The mathematical tools are spectral theory of operators in Rigged Hilbert spaces. The Time Operator moreover allows to explain the Time-Energy uncertainty relation in Quantum Mechanics [3. Then we applied subdynamics to chaotic maps [50-55] and we realized that we do not have to apply the non-unitary intertwining transform to obtain Irreversibility as the extended spectral decomposition is time asymmetric [52-55].5f difference between the reversible.3]. integrable systems and the intrinsically irreversible systems which are non-integrable. 15]. In addition. without losing information. Then came the extension to the thermodynamic limit for classical [16] and quantum systems [17]. which applies to both integrable and non-integrable systems. This development followed our discussion of the Poincare theorem with Tomio Petrosky [49]. Now. We introduced the Time and Entropy operators. And is still useful as we can expand the probabilistic evolution in terms of age eigenfunctions [3. TC: What was lying behind subdynamics? IP: Subdynamics is a decomposition of the evolution. For nonintegrable systems we obtain spectral decompositions at the probabilistic level. Misra's work is very interesting. First we studied scattering resonances [13. because it shows how to go from the dynamical evolution to a stochastic evolution by non-unitary trans­ formations. the Time Operator is an intrinsic property of all chaotic systems. we are involved in the extension of field theory and the .

essentially. TC: So. O n c e you have b i f u r c a t i o n s . evolution c a n n o t be localized to points. TC: At first you had the motivation to u n d e r s t a n d life through thermodynamics. to make probability part of n a t u r e . then you wanted to put irreversibility a n d probability into dynamics. to p u t irreversibility a n d probability in their proper place as intrinsic properties of nature. there was a clear objective in your mind. T h e first step is that e n t r o p y p r o d u c t i o n far from equilibrium leads to bifurcations. a n d n o t of our consciousness or ignorance. Schrodinger) are two different mathematical theories. We have to consider density matrices which. F i g u r e 2. lead to description beyond the Hilbert space. In classical systems. O n c e this was d o n e . we c o m e always to the problem of the relation between irreversibility a n d non-locality. I P : Yes.5 ] . TC: How is Irreversibility related to non-locality? I P : T h e e x t e n d e d evolution is intrinsically probabilistic. H e r e . y o u have probability. T h e r e f o r e . T h a t was always in my m i n d from the very beginning. . as I mentioned. as probability theory (Kolmogorov) and mechanics (Newton. All your work has b e e n guided by this objective? IP: Yes. In concluding. from the very beginning. since you obtained your PhD. Irreversibility leads to complex structures [ 2 . Figure 1. This essentially involves revision of physics. I would say that the whole point is to make irreversibility part of n a t u r e . irreversibility leads to probability.52 Fock space. In q u a n t u m systems the e x t e n d e d evolution cannot be associated to p u r e wavefunctions. for example.

2... i = 1. at the critical points A. . The selection for the dynamical paths A„ B. B appear which correspond to the appearance of new order.53 Figure 1: Bifurcations and order. or /... Bi. are chosen by probability in an irreversible manner. Different dynamical paths like /. is not deterministic because it depends on fluctuations. B$.. At the critical point Xc the initial solution (I) becomes unstable (I) and two new stable solutions A. A2. A\... Figure 2: The Irreversible order through Fluctuations.. . .

This means the persistent interactions between all things are the unique reason for any change happening in the world. or you can say that probability appears through bifurcations. IP: Yes. It was my intention to make explicit that Time has meaning only in a Probabilistic World. concerning your thinking. essentially this is a characteristic feature of nature. which is of great importance. 23] probability is introduced ad hoc. I started with the idea of the origin of complexity. through fluctuations. because trajectories are not relevant. You see. You see. And the role of time can only be understood if there is probability. in which it is embedded. in Boltzmann's Stosszahlansatz [22. individualities emerge from the global. Irreversibility means the role of semi-groups. We have "life" interacting with "no-life" all the time. Life needs air and water all the time. at bifurcation points far from equilibrium. TC: I would like to add something from Heraclitus. There is fragment.54 TC: Irreversibility and probability a p p e a r through the emergence of order. the role of time. The origin of complexity can only be understood by irreversibility. That is the main point. Heraclitus says: 'The wise is to know how that all things are governed through all things'. If not. the role of time is rather meaningless. IP: This is a very good remark. Then you realized that you have to put irreversibility and probability as intrinsic properties of nature at the fundamental level of description. because you don't know which branch the system will follow. A town emerges from the countryside. The issue is to use probability. This is against the idea that evolution is independent of the environment. .

Time in the Epistemology of Complexity Discussion of Ilya Prigogine with loannis Zisis .

as everybody knows. in 1977. to discuss with a historic personality of t h e 20th century. it is the irreversible succession of events. while Heraclitus claimed. a personality who o p e n e d pathways for the 21st century. I have always considered Parmenides paradoxical because his own book was itself something new. director of the International Solvay Institutes for Physics a n d Chemistry. you h a d two views: t h e basic laws. if the view of Parmenides was true. Parmenides said that everything was there. that all things are in progress a n d nothing remains still. T h e arrow of time exists. especially because the problems I was interested always. in science. this is very unlikely. an inspiring fear I would say. This is Professor Ilya Prigogine. IZ: Can you say a few words about the arrow of time that you i n t r o d u c e d in fundamental science? What are the innovations introduced by the arrow of time? What are the next bifurcations that you envision? I P : Classically. with very wide interdisciplinary contributions. To claim that n o t h i n g is new a n d write a book that by itself is something new is contradictory. research. which were time reversible a n d deterministic a n d entropy increase (second law of thermodynamics) which was c o n s i d e r e d an approximation.56 YL: It is a special pleasure. Professor Prigogine. that you can never step twice in the same river. But all a r o u n d earth we see the arrow of time: be it in biology. be it in cosmology. then essentially o u r discussion would be an illusion because it would be already prescribed since the Big Bang. Welcome to a place we believe you h o n o r with your contribution. . had been formulated for the first time by G r e e k s . civilization a n d intellectual life. welcome to Greece. For example. Nobel laureate in chemistry. I P : I consider it a privilege to be here. I t h i n k a b o u t t h e conflict b e t w e e n Parmenides a n d Heraclitus. Therefore I have always considered this as a kind of paradox. n o t h i n g new can appear. be it in o u r own life.

where this reduction cannot be achieved. like the Euclidean space of 3-dimensional vectors studied in high school. Figures 1. 54. . are there events in physics? Many people have shown and I have also shown [2-5] forty years ago or so. But in more general situations it is not reducible. Then population dynamics becomes generally non-reducible to individual descriptions. because he was one of those who contributed to its resolution [51. You can introduce an individual description in terms of wavefunctions or trajectories or you can define a population description as in thermodynamics. Functions are like infinite dimensional vectors. the question is to decide when the population dynamics become non-reducible and time-oriented and when they do not. Therefore from the phenomenological point of view there is no doubt about the arrow of time. The key question is can we reduce the population dynamics to individual behavior? Just as in sociology can we reduce the behavior of a society from the collective level to the level of individual behavior? We know the answer: the population dynamics described by a probability distribution is reducible when the probability distribution is in the Hilbert space formulation. 58]. The Hilbert space is a space of functions. Then the probabilistic collective description becomes fundamental. or the pendulum. Therefore. Therefore you arrive at a view of the universe which is probabilistic and time-oriented and is in my opinion much more satisfactory. I am very glad that loannis Antoniou is with us. In Greek universities there are many studies of non-equilibrium structures.57 The question is. I think this question has been solved in the last years. 2. 15. 55. 14. and that is the majority. Outside the Hilbert space there can be situations. It appears that essentially population dynamics is reducible in simple situations like planetary motion. that when you go far from equilibrium you have bifurcations and something new appears. The question is therefore how to introduce non-equilibrium physics into the microscopic level of description.

In quantvim mechanics observables are operators transforming the wavefunctions. I am simply saying that whatever we had before the Big Bang.58 YL: You mentioned Hilbert spaces. The eigenfunctions of every integrable system. the appearance of the universe is an . IZ: Can we speak about the arrow of time before the Big Bang? IP: That is a very speculative question. In irreversible processes there are no periodicities. otherwise the whole existence of kinetic theory would be a paradox. three known examples that give rise to eigenfunctions outside the Hilbert space. in the Hilbert space or outside the Hilbert space. considered resolved [58]. For example when you take water and you cool it at some point. but phenomena like exponential decay. Therefore the question is whether the operator describing the evolution of the population has eigenfunctions. called eigenfunctions. Do you see mathematics as an essential element in the new description of nature? IP: Without any doubt. you have in mind the relation between mathematics and physics. every simple system. This question can be. partly at least. The operator acts on them as a multiplication by a number called the eigenvalue associated with the eigenfunction. It is therefore clear that you have to change something fundamentally. perhaps -10 degrees Celsius. My simplified view is based on phase transitions. namely: chaotic systems. cannot be described in Hilbert space where the eigenfunctions are usually periodic. are typically in Hilbert space. Irreversible processes like viscosity and diffusion in kinetic theory. thermodynamical systems and unstable particles or excited quantum states. it becomes an ice crystal. Is the Big Bang an irreversible transition from some quantum vacuum to matter? It is not clear what we had before the Big Bang. For each operator we have wavefunctions that do not change. however. Without any mathematics you can't understand irreversibility. I always had this analogy in mind with the Big Bang. There are.

Biology is an evolutionary science. it is very simple because we have the solar radiation which is responsible for the appearance of life. In our case.59 irreversible process. I think that in order to understand even qualitatively the universe around us. The main question is therefore how it happens that the universe is far from equilibrium. We have now at least a qualitative understanding of the variety of things that we see around. Of course that is a very difficult problem. we need a theory which incorporates irreversibility. In both cases you have billions of particles. here on Earth. which follow each other to form complex non-equilibrium structures. because new structures appear at bifurcation points triggered by fluctuations [3-5]. If the basic principles of physics were time reversible that would be very strange. IP: The physical universe comes closer now to the biological universe. IZ: Would you agree with Leon Brillouin that the laws of life and biology are more general and should include the laws of physics? Of course Brillouin said this before the emergence of complexity. an entropy fluctuation. Therefore. However. Therefore we see non-equilibrium related to the complexity on earth. we don't know what keeps the universe as a whole far from equilibrium. But you have always non-equilibrium structure formation when a significant part of dissipation is transformed to structures. Cosmology is an evolutionary science. The . the time arrow. The existence of what we see around us is a mystery if we don't have the arrow of time. How it happens that the universe is time-oriented and out of equilibrium? That must mean that at the moment of the Big Bang there was already an arrow of time. The emergence and evolution of stars and galaxies are non-equilibrium processes like self-organization in biology. I think we see a different universe when we see a universe that is time oriented and far from equilibrium. We see that plants transform light into life through dissipation.

following the scientific path with Occam's razor. Bergson noticed that this . for example. after all. then we are outside nature. Therefore if you accept the anthropic principle. the evolutionary product of nature. you have also accepted Bergson and Teilhard de Chardin. Our internal world is temporal. in the sense of complexity. IZ: Although you are always careful when you speak about the relation between science and philosophy. How do you combine them? IP: Bergson was innovative in his period because he said that we could understand the outside world by observing our internal world. What we want is a concept of the universe that comprises thinking and biology without any contradiction with physics. closer to biology. If you add the anthropic principle you destroy the unity of the universe. We are. our creativity and our artistic expression. Physics on one hand as the study of Space. That is essentially the same message as the anthropic principle. We want to have a universe that is not divided into two separate fields. But then in order to introduce human life (human complexity) you need the anthropic principle. Take. It is very difficult for me to admit that. Motion and Matter.60 question of how complex structures arise from the underlying interactions of particles is to some extent solved in principle once the arrow of time is included in dynamics. IZ: Is there some relation between the anthropic principle and complexity? IP: The anthropic principle [59] is one of the biggest mistakes I have seen in my life because it re-introduces a duality. Intelligence on the other hand as the study of Thinking. Take the book by Stephen Hawking [60]: the world is explained by geometrical arguments as a medium with no boundaries. Therefore we are at the same situation as Descartes who said that the universe could only be understood by a duality. Physics has come.

I believe that Bergson was right. not so clear because although his criticism with regard to relativity was not correct. But then our life is an illusion. The main difference between Bergson. However. Therefore. As a believer. the regularities of the sun and so on. The problem has been around. That gives a view of the universe which is periodical. Teilhard de Chardin and our school is that we a p p r o a c h e d this problem in terms of physics and mathematics. 18]. He had a famous discussion with Einstein and everybody said that he was defeated. That is very strange because how can a life which is an illusion pretend to lead to an exact science? The very existence of science is opposed to the idea that our life is an illusion. Teilhard de Chardin was aspiring for a better and better world. Teilhard de Chardin. It is a characteristic of our school that we deal with philosophical questions from a scientific point of view. since Heraclitus and Parmenides and has been discussed by all great philosophers like Kant.61 is opposed to the physics of his time because dynamics has no time direction. You have pointed out the incompleteness of Quantum Mechanics with respect to measurement and decay [3 4. although not a scientist. That is why Bergson called his famous book "Evolutionary Creation" [61]. That was. a Catholic priest. Einstein also did not understand what Bergson meant with his priviledged direction of time. the evolutionary view and especially our own internal world is not periodic. as I said. was also rightly insisting on evolution. Hegel and Heidegger. However these discussions were at the philosophical level. IZ: You have emphasized the limitations of Relativity because it cannot include the arrow of time. however. to some extent. Physics was formulated from the patterns of regularity of the celestial sphere. Now that you introduce a new theory do you see any limitations or future challenges? . Einstein maintained throughout his life that time as evolution is an illusion. Creation is a key element. Bergson was not so naive as he is presented now.

I mention just the Velocity Inversion argument of Loschmidt and the Recurrence argument of Poincare and Zermelo [3. like the problem of measurement. It is paradoxical to say that thermodynamics arises from ignorance or approximation of dynamics because then. The first paradox was pointed out by Boltzmann who had a correct idea about the evolution of the universe. because he demonstrated the non-integrability of the 3-body problem [9]. for example. This connection was established later [18]. Gibbs says on one hand that we need statistical . Although this idea was the basis of statistical mechanics [33. Gibbs maintained that statistical ensembles arise from our lack of knowledge or from approximations to the dynamical evolution. I want to say that there are two great paradoxes. The thermodynamic limit condition specifies the type of statistical ensembles needed to describe irreversibility. The second tragedy is Gibbs who introduced the interpretation of equilibrium thermodynamics in terms of statistical ensembles or populations [32]. Extension is a better word. Another tragic fact is that while Poincare knew these differences. which are not integrable in the conventional Hamiltonian description of trajectories. the problem of unstable particles. limitation is not the right word. 4]. However. the problem of approach to thermodynamic equilibrium [18]. which could not be solved in the conventional von Neumann formulation [10]. In Classical Mechanics. We can now also solve some problems of quantum mechanics. strong objections were raised because classical dynamics was in conflict with Boltzmann's conclusions.62 IP: First of all. Thermodynamics is not based just on statistical estimations on ensembles but on the limit of ensembles for an infinite number of particles. The tragedy of Boltzmann is that he was not aware that dynamical systems may have different qualitative properties. he did not realize the connection between irreversibility and non-integrability. by extending the dynamical formulation to the Liouville space [18]. we can now integrate systems. 34]. macroscopic physics would be either a subjective illusion or would depend on our approximation scheme.

I think we are only at the beginning of science. And now we see. small people. Although we understand a lot about the gene. because the genetic content of a mouse and a man are very similar. a new quark or to somebody who found a new astrophysical object or to a biophysicist. In addition I would say there is no fundamental science. we need science to preserve our culture. The aim of traditional science was to preserve science against the society. The classical universe was a simple. We are at the beginning of studying the complexity of Nature. our vegetation. Yet I don't think that once we understand the structure of the gene we shall see the meaning of man. Every scientific work may be as fundamental as the other. genes are only a small part of the individual. which are very close to society. we only conceive the extraordinary complexity of nature. like for example the complexity of the gene expression. That is very strange. A Nobel prize may be given to somebody who has found a new particle. But we know little about it. History is full of this kind of misunderstanding. The same genes produce large people. on the other hand that statistical ensembles are an approximation of dynamics. Now it is very different. Modern science has developed molecular biology and information science. Today. beautiful people and ugly people. In this way the above-mentioned problems and paradoxes are to some extent eliminated [18].63 ensembles in order to describe thermodynamics. Therefore the non-genetic part of biology is very important. IZ: Do you see a conflict between fundamental research and technology? IP: Traditional science was an elitistic occupation. We still don't understand completely the structure of the gene. to protect Nature. Spectral theory outside the Hilbert space is an example of extension of the dynamical formulation which allows to include probability and the arrow of time in the theories of dynamics. It is very difficult to say which discovery is more . quiet universe.

Many scientists are interested in the energy level in which we live. that is a very low energy level. we know that everything ages in the same direction: you age. In the old days it was very clear: atomic theory was t h e fundamental theory. Therefore it is certainly a problem of probability for which we d o n ' t have the slightest idea. Now we add a narrative element. We have now the discovery of dissipative structures [ 2 .64 fundamental. b u t we d o n ' t know how. is not very convincing. In traditional science the universe was c o n s i d e r e d to be a geometrical entity. IZ: W h a t will be the frontline scientific issues of the 21st century? H o w d o you see t h e i m p r o v e m e n t of o u r k n o w l e d g e in connection with these issues? IP: I think that we have to understand the historical universe. not all fish came to earth. We have very little u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the events after the Big Bang. The influence of quarks on systems of low energy is negligible. In my view gravitation maintains the universe o u t of equilibrium. it may be a big deal for the high-energy physics community. Nobody knows how to unify gravitation with the o t h e r forces and with q u a n t u m m e c h a n i c s . We do not know how life evolves.5 ] . High-energy physics is of course very interesting. but that is a very simple situation. Obviously when fish came to earth. the rocks age. But the mechanism of ageing a n d the mechanism of discovery are n o t known. I want to e m p h a s i z e that the d i r e c t i o n of time is the most fundamental property of the universe. Therefore I think there is n o reason to establish a kind of hierarchy of scientific work. But now it is n o t so clear. When monkeys b e c a m e h u m a n . I age. If you discover a new quark it is not such a big deal. It is still very surprising because our universe seems to evolve m o r e rapidly with acceleration as predicted by Einstein's simple cosmological model. but to say that high energy is the only fundamental science. O u r . T h e universe acts as a whole a n d is evolving. not all monkeys became h u m a n . T h e structures of life are formed in low energy.

a dead universe. We had in the past the movements of Russel and Schweitzer towards the peaceful use of technology to prevent a destructive nuclear war. there will be as much matter as antimatter. IZ: A critical issue for science in the 21st century is the issue of morality with respect to the applications of knowledge. As science has become closer to humanity. Scientists have no ethical privilege. The new problems are very complex.65 universe is far from equilibrium. the issue of privacy in the Networked Society. We see stars being born. in the other we have the converse. In the absence of gravitation the universe would go to thermal death. For example. but we d o not understand how the universe remains far from equilibrium. nonlinear and full of irreversible processes. an equilibrium universe. you can show that for a large class of processes. For example. Are you against cloning or are you for cloning? There are arguments supporting both sides. I would like to . cloning. The scientists have the right to give their opinions like other people. There is a moral issue on cloning. In one there is a very large amount of matter and very little antimatter. but that is not at all what we see. What will be the moral issues in the next century? IP: That is impossible to say because the moral issues change as science evolves. the use of genetic information. But far from equilibrium you can show that there are only two non-equivalent solutions. IZ: Do you see a validation of your view of the arrow of time in the fact that the quantum vacuum seems to prefer the creation of matter versus antimatter? IP: That is a very good point because close to equilibrium situations. other stars die and all kinds of non-equilibrium structures. Therefore the matter-antimatter example is a very nice demonstration of the fact that the universe is out of equilibrium. ethics and science come nearer.

There has been a partial unification. What are the main gaps in this unification? How do you view this quest of unification? IP: I don't believe in this unification because I think that gravitation plays a more complementary role than a unifying role. it may be a non-equilibrium world which can follow its own plans. in a sense. understood as a result of non-equilibrium. gravitation disturbs equilibrium. But if it is self-organized. because we cannot predict where an electron is. has some relevance to theological problems. in my view. IZ: Are you concerned about the emergence of a sort of cult around irreversibility and the arrow of time or a sort of religion? Do you see the emergence of a sort of global plan? IP: No. That comes from the long range character of the gravitational forces. at least in simple cases. Some unity is brought . But the fact that we have a probabilistic world means that we have not such a transparent world as Newton's world. In thermodynamics. there is no need for an outside force or plan. because science has come closer to society. This was already known in Quantum Mechanics. In other words gravitation keeps things going. but since then not much progress has been achieved.66 emphasize that ethics and science have come closer than ever. you cannot speak about equilibrium including gravitational forces. as I already mentioned. Therefore the probabilistic view. If the universe is a deterministic machine. I think we go more towards. You see. a historical universe. IZ: The Holy Grail of physics is claimed to be the unification of fundamental forces. We can only calculate the probability that the electron is in a region of space. then you need some outside spirit or God to make it work. the universe is evolving and the creation of structures can be. There is no mystical element coming to it. Therefore in a sense you have two possibilities. What choice you take is not my problem.

I was always very impressed by the idea of Democracy which introduces the value of the individual in society. Obviously in our own life we have followed important events which lead to bifurcations. Bifurcations appear in human life. Why do we have so many elementary particles? What is the difference between leptons and baryons? Nobody knows. because the Chinese produced many magnificent things but then to some extent they stopped. For example history. European civilization is very flexible and creative.. I would say that European civilization is characterized by a large number of bifurcations. But of course you cannot say that the bifurcations of human beings have the same underlying mechanism as bifurcations of matter/ antimatter. in Europe. That is characteristic for Greece and to some extent for Western Europe in general. . You have an enormous change. biology. as I mentioned before. and psychology? IP: What is common of course is the direction of time and the study of processes. has bifurcations and Nature with its particles and antiparticles also has bifurcations. IZ: Do you see any direction of unification between physics. Consider.67 by the historical point of view. Of course we don't have yet the final picture in particle physics. the transition from the Archaic civilization to the Hellenistic civilization from 750 to 350 BC. a marriage is an irreversible event. European music is changing every 100 years while Chinese music has remained much more traditional. for example.. while. for example. In this sense I would say that Greek civilization has been a model. there is not much change. which may be the outcome of a bifurcation: you may be attracted to and love two girls and then you select one. There are at present many speculations (string theory/multiple dimensions). things have been going on and on. but the language and the details are different. Look what happened during the same period in China or in Egypt. I would not like to exaggerate. bifurcations appear in civilization..

The only thing is to establish a non-contradictory view. a universe in which Biology is not in contradiction with Physics. The solution becomes blue and red periodically. Near equilibrium you have a stable solution which minimizes the free energy. Biology is an evolutionary science while Classical as well as Quantum Physics are deterministic and time reversible sciences. This collective effect indicates the presence of correlations between the molecules. they remain mixed until as a result of bifurcations. But the main issue is the way of thinking: you seem to be very persistent and very innovative. What do you call complexity? Complexity is a property of systems that for given boundary conditions have more than one possible solutions. Many have spoken about the interdisciplinarity or transdisciplinarity of your work. You can say that this is because the universe is not unified. Far from equilibrium. you have collective oscillations of the concentration. How do you see the synthesis of different disciplines? IP: I don't think we should make a synthesis because Psychology will always be different from Physics. But I don't want to identify Physics with Biology. Also in complex systems long range correlations appear between components with very short-range local interactions. you have a new oscillating solution. however. Because complexity is generally related also to the arrow of time. Therefore there is a gap. IZ: On the other hand complexity has enormously contributed in interdisciplinary research. Take for example the famous Belousov-Zhabotinski reaction [2-5]. After the bifurcation the oscillatory solution . On the other hand you reject a quick and easy synthesis. You may even say that the universe is contradictory.68 YL: Your work has opened many directions in different disciplines. IP: Yes but that is part of the problem. My point of view was to show that there is no contradiction. You have a homogenous solution in which you mix two substances.

In this context they proposed to host the first Solvay conference of the 21st century. The main point here is that nature always tries to create and eventually selects the stable/sustainable solution. But Egyptian and Chinese geometry were mainly observational. I think it is very appropriate that the first Solvay conference of the 21st century will be held in Greece and especially in this place. only it becomes unstable.69 becomes stable and the equilibrium solution becomes unstable. IP: As Director of the Solvay Institutes I am very grateful and I think this is very appropriate as western science was born in Greece. becoming one planet. For example. Bifurcations only appear far from equilibrium and therefore complexity is a phenomenon (that occurs only) far from equilibium. Of course the Egyptians and Chinese knew many things before. The equilibrium solution is still there. I can only be very grateful. IZ: There is a trend towards becoming one world. the prefecture of Fthiotis would like to restore Amphiktionies on a planetary level. They did not develop any theory or proof as Greeks had introduced. .

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Life and the Internet Discussion of llya Prigogine with Maria Adamidou .

That is why I always thought that irreversibility is the basis of the structures that we see in the universe. You cannot observe these effects at equilibrium where you have uniform mixture of the red and blue molecules. When I was young I was very impressed with the so-called thermal diffusion [5]. say blue and red molecules. Therefore non-equilibrium leads to order. you observe diffusive motion towards the odier side. Similarly. a layer of liquid and you heat it from below you observe a thermal disorder. the structure of the earth. Certainly it leads to more interactions and . described by the Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics. which is chaotic. for example. But when you heat it more and more. We see the structure of the sun. Can you highlight some implications of this new situation? IP: The Internet gives us a lot of information and it leads probably to a new form of society but we don't know what kind of society it will be. For example. 4] in which billions of molecules follow billions of molecules to form the vortices. when the layer is not very thick you observe that there comes a point when vortices are built. if you heat a liquid from one side. you may have more blue molecules on one side and more red molecules on the other side. i.72 MA: How can there be order out of chaos? IP: When you take a system that is in equilibrium. We see all kinds of structures. a sort of structure formation. The main point is that structure formation and complexity are non-equilibrium phenomena and that non-equilibrium is related to irreversibility. Vortices give rise to organized situations known as Benard cells [3. in an irreversible way [2-5]. then molecules run in all directions in a disorderly way. And that can be seen in many situations. MA: The Internet provides these days the mechanism for communication and correlation of events on a planetary scale.e. the geological structures formed in non-equilibrium conditions. in a gaseous mixture of two non-interacting molecules. When you take.

For example. Therefore the I n t e r n e t creates links between p e o p l e who have b e e n isolated. together with television and radio. it leads to interactions between black people of Brazil a n d black people in the USA. My son in Brazil saw in the houses of black people in Brazil pictures of Martin Luther King and Nelson Mandela. The Internet produces indeed mass culture but we should n o t overlook that it may also decrease creativity because many people look for information and they have n o time to think by themselves. In my opinion the whole m e a n i n g of civilization since the Greeks. Therefore it has p r o p a g a t e d more rapidly . T h e behavior is different. Pharaohs a n d Slaves. We are only at the verge of a new transition in which more people are expected to be involved in culture. t h r o u g h the Internet. In many of these societies the ants are blind. division of work introduces Kings.73 produces mass culture. W h e n you go from the Paleolithic to the Neolithic age which means to go from the Aztecs to Egypt. enables people to participate in culture. T h e r e are small ant societies. MA: What is the role of the individual today? How can the individual sustain all these rapid changes in the global society and the networked economy? IP: T h e role of the individual r e m a i n very i m p o r t a n t . a few individuals worked o n the physics that was necessary to create the information society. Now society is completely different. Forty years ago there were only a few h u n d r e d s . is the production of more communication between people. Now there are probably millions of p e o p l e w o r k i n g in o n e way o r a n o t h e r to c o n t r i b u t e to information society. For example. it is i n d e p e n d e n t a n d finds food for itself. a few h u n d r e d s as well as large ant societies that n u m b e r in millions. In large a n t societies there are collective processes. You have a theocratic or selective society. Babylon. the individual is less important. T h e information explosion. There are very interesting analogies with ants which indicate some dangers. In small ant societies each individual ant has an essential role. Rome.

A small society can moreover be much more conservative. The world is changing so fast. But the fluctuations that led to life are not very well known. Therefore the non-genetic aspect is very important. Therefore the main point is education. that we need to update continuously our knowledge in order to adapt. Figures 1. For example. Now. You can say that we are in a large society that is an open non-linear system and that what you are doing influences what I do and vice versa. 2. A large society has much more possible instabilities than a small society. That is a very reductionist point of view. that is probably not true. the role of Alan Turing in computation. in large societies.74 compared to Christianity or Buddhism. also permanent education. the role of Henry Ford in automatization and management. as well as a lot of irreversible processes going on after birth. As I see it in . Some people think that once we know about the genes we shall know the life forms and the human being. curiously. For example. The main danger today is to create a difference between people who know and people who do not. MA: How far do you think we have deciphered the secret of life and what are the next targets in this direction? IP: The biological structures that we see around are the result of fluctuations acting on bifurcations far from equilibrium [2-5]. There is some part which is genetic. We have to develop non-genetic biology based on the theory of Complexity. On the other hand there are differences between chimpanzees and humans. It is very remarkable that the genetic code is the same everywhere. the natives of New Guinea are small societies that are very conservative. Education is very important. A large society doesn't necessarily make the individuals powerless. the role of the individual has increased because individual initiatives lead to changes which lead to social fluctuations. Because individuals develop very much after birth. Therefore if you think that cloning will give you two identical individuals. We see a lot of irreversible processes involved in the transcription of genetic information to create the embryo.

that is possible for very simple systems. The theory of the Big Bang is the most widely accepted theory.75 general. I think it is much more likely that matter and life appeared as an irreversible succession of non-equilibrium processes. but what is the Big Bang? Is it a transition from the primordial quantum vacuum to matter? Many people believe that it is an ignition. Nobody can doubt Michelangelo was an innovator. We are at the beginning. A lot of people believe that life comes from another planet. the stars age. I always say that we are at the beginning of a new science. but we do not know yet the origin of life. . Ageing involves progress and novelty. The Universe is far too complicated. far more rich and fascinating than our classical theories anticipated. we have very simple examples of structure formations. initiated by a fluctuation of the quantum vacuum that created entropy. That is very unlikely. You age. MA: Why did you join science? IP: Some join science because they like to solve puzzles. in biology and even in human societies. I age. not at the end of science. The models we first studied give a picture of the Universe as a deterministic eternal automaton. we are surprised because we do not see a clear relation between science and the Universe. Reducibility. which cannot be reduced to individual trajectories or wavefunctions corresponding to Newtonian or Quantum mechanics. a creator. the trees age. To understand reality we have to study the mechanisms of fluctuations in astrophysics. is not possible for complex thermodynamic systems and is not likely to be possible for the universe. I think the arrow of time is a common element for every entity in our universe. This is also true for scientists. that the Big Bang has a special function. We see that the universe is changing. but we do not age in the same way. but we still don't know the origin of the Universe. Irreversibility leads to collective probabilistic descriptions. including our discussion. it is growing with acceleration. My reason is the same as Einstein's. We do science because we are astonished. that it contains all information.

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77 Epilogue .

because the Irreversible emergence of Order . The principle of "order through fluctuations" describes how patterns emerge far from equilibrium. experiencing critical transitions as the order parameters c h a n g e . 18]. The remarkable progress of Ilya Prigogine's school. where there is no global extremum principle. namely: (I) The paradox of Life (II) The paradox of Dynamics (I) How can Living Forms appear and self-organize by reducing their Entropy. Probability. At the critical non-equilibrium transitions. (II) How can Entropy increase irreversibly in a System of Atoms interacting with reversible and conservative forces? Although the problem was posed scientifically by Boltzmann in the previous century [22. Prigogine could not accept any extra-dynamical a r g u m e n t (ignorance. Instability These are the three keywords Ilya Prigogine likes to use in order to summarize the essence on Non-Equilibrium Physics. 4. In fact the non-linear equations describing non-equilibrium systems. as Prigogine showed. driven by fluctuations. was based on persistent effort to cope with 2 paradoxes which resulted after the formulation of the Second Law of Thermodynamics. give rise to structural instabilities associated with bifurcations.78 Irreversibility. defying the universality of the Second Law of Thermodynamics? It was Schrodinger [62] among others who emphasized the need to extend Thermodynamics far from equilibrium in order to find possible ways to avoid the apparent contradiction between the self organization of Living Forms and the entropy increasing approach to equilibrium. The system "finds its way" through attractors and repellers. 23]. approximation). the extra-dynamical ideas go back to Epicurus and Lucretius [3. achieved mainly in the second half of the 20th century. long range correlations appear and fluctuations play the dominant role. As a result we have pattern formation and Self-organization [1-5].

As probability (fluctuations) is also involved in non-equilibrium transitions (Fig.79 far from equilibrium is achieved through the Entropy Flow. In other words rather sophisticated mathematics.e. This is not so unexpected. but also to the Universe as a whole. As Ilya Prigogine emphasized in his discussion with Theodore Christidis (p. several observable consequences have been predicted in cosmological models with instabilities due to negative curvature [63-65]. Prigogine could not imagine Irreversibility without Probability. provide the Foundations of Non-Equilibrium Physics. chaotic character [66]. Probabilistic extensions of dynamics are constructed through the spectral decomposition of the evolution operators and acquire meaning in suitable spaces of generalized functions [58]. but they are always reversible and nonprobabilistic. Unstable a n d / o r Non-Integrable systems admit extensions of the Dynamical Evolution which are both intrinsically Irreversible and intrinsically Probabilistic [18]. Therefore Irreversibility should be an objective property of Nature. supported by the internal Entropy production as prescribed by the Second Law [2-5]. 21). Therefore the classification of Dynamics in terms of stability and integrability is very crucial. The analysis of recent observations suggests strongly that our universe has negative curvature. namely spectral theory of operators in Topological Vector spaces. For example. This is in fact the case. Probability and . Extensions of Dynamics can of course be constructed also for stable and integrable systems. even at the fundamental level of dynamical description. i. 2) producing the diverse forms of nature. Probabilistic Analysis of Complexity. This classification applies not only to microscopic and macroscopic processes. E x t e n d e d Spectral D e c o m p o s i t i o n s and Time Operator The Irreversible. His strategic remark was that Irreversibility and Probability should be objective properties of Unstable a n d / o r Non-Integrable Dynamics.

The problems of Statistical Physics were originally formulated in the frame of Hilbert Spaces [72. 73] intensively studied in the 30's as they provided the foundation of Quantum Mechanics [10]. In fact Birkhoff and Koopman pointed out in 1932 [71] that "Caratheodory's paper [69] was the first entrance into the realm of dynamics of the modern theory of real variables"." On the other hand.so Mechanics are two different mathematical theories. by reformulating it as follows: The volume preserving dynamical transformations of the phase space have the property that almost all points (except possibly a subset of zero volume) in any region of positive volume. Hilbert also mentions Boltzmann's work and he even contributed himself later (1912) to Kinetic theory [68]. the spectral theory of Operators in Topological Vector spaces is not as developed as the Hilbert . The need to use function spaces beyond Hilbert spaces has been stated not only by Dirac [11] but even by von Neumann himself. Birkhoff quoted [74] the following remarkable statement of von Neumann: "I would like to make a confession which may seem immoral: I do not believe in Hilbert space any more. that Measure theory is the natural language to formulate and discuss the problems of Statistical Mechanics. In Problem 6 "Mathematical Treatment of the Axioms of Physics". Caratheodory was the first to see. the questions of Statistical Mechanics could not be posed adequately in terms of the mathematics of Differential Equations and Topological Dynamics. The understanding of the relation between probability and mechanics has been stated by Hilbert to be "a problem in the first rank" when he delivered the famous address on the 26 Mathematical Problems in 1900 [67]. This strategic remark of Caratheodory opened the way for the proper mathematical treatment of Statistical Mechanics in terms of Measure theory and Functional Analysis [70]. will return back into the region after some finite time. in 1919. However. when he completed [69] the Proof of Poincare's Recurrence theorem.

there is no innovation.p r e d i c t a b l e processes in t e r m s of successive stages of Innovation [44]. is just the canonical d e c o m p o s i t i o n of N o n . For predictable processes.8/ space theory. T h e Spectral Decomposition and the Time O p e r a t o r are the two main mathematical tools developed by the BrusselsAustin Groups for the statistical analysis of complex systems. The Algebra of Observables is constant in time a n d the Time O p e r a t o r is trivially zero. related by a g e n e r a l i z e d F o u r i e r Transform a n a l o g o u s to the M o m e n t u m a n d Position r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s in Q u a n t u m Mechanics. a real parameter Q}j/(x) = xy/(x) QYa = VaQ + aVa T h e decomposition of the statistical evolution in terms of the eigenfunctions of the Time Operator. For example. the Algebra of Observables increases in time as new information is produced [44]. In other words the relation between the Time O p e r a t o r T a n d the evolution o p e r a t o r Vb is like the relation between the Position O p e r a t o r a n d the spatial translations Va in Q u a n t u m Mechanics. T h e resulting spectral expansions for Complex Systems d e m a n d further elaboration of the extension theory of Operators [58]. Innovation is just this new information p r o d u c e d at each stage of evolution. stand for the K o o p m a n O p e r a t o r s in classical dynamics or the Heisenberg Operators in q u a n t u m dynamics.a).T + tVt H e r e V. for complex systems. like the motion of the p e n d u l u m . . in the simple one-dimensional case: Va\j/(x) = y/(x . T h e Time O p e r a t o r m e n t i o n e d by Ilya Prigogine d u r i n g the discussion with T h e o d o r e Christidis is canonically conjugate to the evolution operators Vt [3] TVi = V. However.

622]. in addition to Immune Networks. Biology is not only the great challenge of the 21st century (Non Genetic Biology mentioned by Ilya Prigogine) but also provides a lot of ideas for Complexity Theory and Information Technology. These Algorithms may be transferred from one discipline to another for mutual cross fertilization. p. the Evolutionary Automata. It is paved by our effort and our ability to capture critical fluctuations and transform them to innovations. 81]. Natural Complexity gives rise to problems with computational complexity [76]. the Neural Networks. Let us only mention. The main outcomes of Ilya Prigogine's work are: 1) The clarification of the general physical conditions for the e m e r g e n c e of Complexity at the macroscopic and microscopic level.82 C o m p l e x i t y — R e s u l t s and P e r s p e c t i v e s In the recent Review of'20th Century Physics the ideas developed in Ilya Prigogine's school on Non-Equilibrium Physics. Probability is an assessment of the uncertainty inherent in Complex Systems. For example. even the structure of scientific collaborations [83]. Mathematical Models for the Immune System [78. have been characterized as "certainly unconventional and thoughtprovoking. epidemics. We are living in a most exciting era. Within the physics community they produce a mixture of scepticism. Information Society itself may be viewed as a Complex System [84]. elation and concern: an ideal mixture for further progress" [75. The Future is not determined. The work of Ilya Prigogine is a . full of challenges and possibilities. the Swarm Intelligence [81]. The recently proposed Social Networks [82] are useful for the Internet. I. Complex Systems demand the development of unconventional Algorithms [77]. Vol. important for Network Security [80. 2) The development of the probabilistic analysis of Complex Systems. 79] provide new computational platforms or even an Immune System for Computer Networks.

the professors and students of the National Technical University of Athens for their warm participation.S3 c o n t i n u a t i o n of the dialogue between Heraclitus and Parmenides. as the Rector mentioned in the Preface. The Rector Professor Themistoklis Xanthopoulos embraced the idea with enthusiasm and supported it throughout. I would like to thank those who contributed to the realization of this distinctive event. Dimitrios Koutsouris and Dimitrios Krawaritis. On behalf of the International Solvay Institutes for Physics and Chemistry. Professor George Metakides conceived the idea. International Solvay Institutes for Physics and Chemistry . Professor Ioannis Antoniou Deputy Director. I would also like to thank the Council. Professors DimitriosMarinos Kouris. as well as personally. The Vice Rectors Professors Efstratios Galanis and Eleftherios Papagiannakis and the Presidents of the three departments. This dialogue is open and will continue most creatively in Greece where it started. all contributed and gave their support.

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and Pippard B. (ed.90 Mathematical Society (1961). Kim S. Natl. and Dinneen M. Springer-Verlag. 98. European Information Society Technologies Programme.) Unconventional Models of Computation. Sci. Genetics in Europe Sommet Europeen. Claude C." Rev. Newman M.. 1971. The New York Times. Prigogine I. 21-36. and Smale S. Lombardo. C o o r d i n a t e d by the International Solvay Institutes for Physics and Chemistry. "Information Society as a Complex System.) Twentieth century Physics Vols I. 056117 (2003). and Ordonez G.. "Immunology for Physicists. (eds. Artificial Immune Systems and Applications. New York (1995).. Pais A. New York (1998). Antoniou I. ed. E67. Prigogine I. and Antoniou I. II. Comp. Perelson A. The structure of scientific collaboration networks. and Weisbuch G. Marchetti and C. Evolution and Complexity. "Star-Unitary Transformation: From Dynamics to Irreversibility and Stochastic Behaviour. Small Worlds: The Dynamics of Networks between Order and Randomness. New Jersey (1999). B11-B12. 404-409 (2001). Cucker E." pp.E. IST-2000-26016.). Springer-Verlag.."/. 6. Reeve M. M. "Science. Watts D. New York." Phys. Blum L. 25 November 1997. Bohm. Brown L. and Herman R. This information has been supplied by Prof. Institute of Physics. 69. A.. 1219-1267 (1997). D e c e m b e r 2 0 0 0 .. 2 (2001). Shub M. Kinetic Theory of Vehicular Traffic. Long Term Research. III. London (2001). (eds. Dasgupta D. Princeton University Press. Quaderni Europei No. Univ.. Berlin (1999). Rev. Antoniou I.D e c e m b e r 2003. and Stenning V.. 272-288 (2000). [75] [76] [77] [78] [79] [80] [81] [82] [83] [84] [85] [86] [87] . Acad. Phy. Elsevier.. Complexity and Real Computation. Mod. London and American Institute of Physics. Immunocomputing Project.J. Springer-Verlag... Sci. C. Proc. pp. Travagliati. Ambasciato dTtalia. Bruxelles.

91 In Memorium .

Outside the mainstream you may get something really interesting. Mainstream research is safe. But there is a high risk to be lost and . loannis Antoniou. 21 years ago. deliberately ignoring the irrelevant and the destructive. never losing the vision and the goal. but you should not expect to get results of great significance. You always tried to get the best from people. I was desperate. you have a little time for creative thinking. colleague and friend. Those who actively engaged themselves in the issue were the authors of the papers. I was advised by other senior scientists to stay away from your group because it could be too risky for the career a young researcher to deal with exotic unclear subjects. The Memorial address by his student. so I decided to get your reaction. Moreover. This moment was certain.92 Farewell to Ilya Prigogine Ilya Prigogine passed away on 28 May 2003 shortly before the publication of this volume. Professor Prigogine. Quite unexpectedly you told me: "They are right. at the Royal Academy of Belgium on 6 June 2003 is added to this last booh of Ilya Prigogine. but not predictable when I joined your group. Just like atomic transitions that excited you so much. Every week you gathered us in your office to discuss different problems. far from the mainstream. After my PhD. Self Organized Delegation.

because this shows that my work attracts attention. As you like to say. in which we participate. After a hot discussion. "Universe is a construction in progress. even applications appreciated by the present scientific community. interesting return is with the outsiders. I always believed that the objective character of Self Organization and Irreversibility should be based on some qualitative properties of Dynamics. Your response was another surprise: "I am most happy. subjective evaluations or loss of information. because nature is anyway reversible at the microscopic fundamental level". No reaction means that your work is perceived as insignificant." Indeed. another Nobel prizewinner attacked me violently. "I like your work on the Time Operator. but there is high risk to lose everything. but why do you lose your time with the strange ideas of Prigogine?" Quite upset. should imply a unified description of nature as well.93 isolated." When I presented our work 10 years ago at a Conference in Italy. The unity of nature. I asked you: "How did you find the strength to persist and go on?" You said: "If they are right then Nature must be schizophrenic. Wigner advised you "not to lose your time in such strange research. When you propose something original you should expect to have good friends and good enemies. Your vision is now reality. new Mathematics. an optimistic vision for our universe. as well." You always emphasized that science is a social activity. during dinner he approached me saying. thanks to you. Thanks also to your efforts in the '80's. We have new results in Physics. you found that Non-Integrability and Chaos are the key properties of Dynamics which give rise to Irreversibility without any approximations. Those of us in Brussels and Austin who helped you a little are most happy and proud. Ioannis. But on top of that we have. When you tried to find the dynamical basis of Self Organization and Irreversibility. ." Indeed. Research is like horse betting. I decided again to report it to you. the European Research Area is now reality. your work in the early stages was outside the mainstream.

Professor Sadovnichy. Strong personal links were established. The honours offered to you by Hellenic Universities and Authorities are simply expressions of the appreciation and love of Greek scientists and intellectuals. You have quoted many times the dialogue between Parmenides and Heraclitus. about 500. Rector Antonopoulos from the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. Petersburg State University on behalf of your beloved friends and collaborators. the Rector of Lomonosov Moscow State University and Professor Verbitskaya. Many talented Russian scientists came to Brussels. Being and Becoming. if I was a young . Mother Russia helped us a lot. Although you never had any particular opinion about religious matters. you always appreciated what you like to call "the mystery of experience of transcendence". We all believe that your thoughts will mark the science of the 21st century. commit themselves to continue the fruitful collaboration in our international network. will continue to work inspired by your refreshing vision and innovative ideas. to develop your ideas further. Your groups in Brussels and Austin. Your friends. the Rector of St. I was astonished to hear you say: "loannis. thanks to your inspiration.94 Under your direction. the Director of the International Institute for Nuclear Research at Dubna. A lot of new results were obtained. Professor Kadyshevsky. Rector Xanthopoulos from the National Technical University of Athens and Vice-Rector Tsalidis from Democritus University of Thrace will support the further development of your ideas in Greece. In the early '90's you initiated the Euro-Russia Collaboration on complexity. When I asked you a few months ago: "What are the future challenges of science as now the issue of Irreversibihty and Self-Organization is more or less clear?". You considered this mysterious experience to be the source of creative innovative activity in science and art. the International Solvay Institutes have been transformed into an Advanced Research Center for Non-Equilibrium Physics and Complexity.

in this great bifurcation. . This is the great challenge of the 21st century. I would study the Mind/Body problem.95 researcher now." Bon voyage Professor Prigogine.

in La Cordeille d'OUioules. Ilya Prigogine and loannis Antoniou at the Aristoteles University of Thessaloniki (1998). . near Toulon. in February 1987.Ilya Prigogine at a physics course given to 12-year-old children at the "College des Maristes". France.

Solvay. February 6. since 1967 . 1945 Activities: Director. The University of Texas at Austin. 21 July 1989 Nobel Prize for Chemistry. 1961 Yves Prigogine. International Institutes of Physics and Chemistry founded by E. 1939 Docteur en Sciences Chimiques. 1945 Pascal Prigogine. July 5. 1970 Hereditary nobility and the personal title of Viscount. awarded by His Majesty. the King of Belgium. 1939 Licencie en Sciences Physiques.Curriculum Vitae of Ilya Prigogine Born: January 25. February 25. 1917. Ilya Prigogine Center for Studies in Statistical Mechanics and Complex Systems. Moscow. 1977 Awarded: Education: (Universite Libre de Bruxelles) Licencie en Sciences Chimiques. 1941 Agrege de l'Enseignement Superieur en Chimie Physique. since 1959 Director. Russia Nationality: Belgian Married: Children: Title: Marina Prokopowicz.

Brussels. Italy. 1995 Honorary Chairman of the Istituto di Documentazione e Ricerca Sull'Opera di Ilya Prigogine. since 1984 Charge de Cours. 1996 "Ilya Prigogine Chair of the Philosophy of Sciences" (School of Humanities and Social Sciences). Belgium. 1996 Honorary President of the "Centro de Fisica No Lineal y Sistemas Complejos" de Universidad de Santiago. France. since 1967. Universite Libre de Bruxelles. Thrace.98 Professor of Physics and Chemical Engineering. 1951. Argentine. Regental Professor. The University of Texas at Austin. 1996 Creation of the Haute Ecole Libre Ilya Prigogine. Greece. since 1987 Directeur d'Etudes associe a l'Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales. Chili. 1995 Honorary President of the Institute for Mathematical Study of Complex Systems at the Lomonosov Moscow State University. 1996 Honorary Chairman of the Institute of Complex Systems. University of Salvador. Ashbel Smith Professor. Professeur Extraordinaire. Argentina. Brussels. Jenbach in Tirol. Belgium. Austria. 1950. 1996 Honorary President of the International Academy of Science/ Council for Scientific Development. 1987 Special Advisor to the European Community. 1947. 1993 Honorary Member of the World Commission of Culture and Development of UNESCO. Buenos Aires. Universidad de Palermo. Fondo Archivisto "Ferruccio Rossi Landi". CISST Brugine-Padova. 1993 Honorary Chairman of the Centro de Estudios Latinoamericano Ilya Prigogine. since 1977. Professeur Ordinaire. chaired by Perez de Cuellar. Professeur Honoraire. Universidad Nacional de San Luis. 1996 . 1996 Honorary Director of the International Institute of Scientific Investigation.

Komotini. Greece. 1991 Friend of the Democritus University of Thrace. Japan. USA. 1996 Medal of Ibaraki University in Mito. Sweden. France.99 President of the Ilya Prigogine seminar "Penser la Science". Uppsala. 1967 Membre correspondant de la Societe Royale des Sciences de Liege. Buenos Aires. 1960 Membre correspondant de I'Academie de la Republique Populaire de Roumanie. Belgium. Argentina. 1972 Holder of the Grand Cross of the Order of Leopold II. 1977 Commander of the National Order of Merit. ULB. 2002 Memberships: Membre correspondant de la Classe des Sciences de I'Academie Royale des Sciences. 1958 Honorary Foreign Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Belgium. Lettres et Beaux-Arts de Belgique. 1977 Commander of the Order of Arts and Letters. 1989 Member of the Imperial Order of the Rising Sun. France. Belgium. 1997 Norbert Weiner Gold Medal. Belgium Commander of the Order of Leopold II. 1997 (2nd seminar in 1999) Honorary Director. Ukbridge. 1984 Commander of the Legion of Honor. France. Japan. 1999 Distinguished National Awards: Medaille de la Resistance. 1961 Commander of the Order de la Couronne. Universidad del Salvador. "International Institute for Research"." European Academy of Information. 1967 . 2000 Commander of the World Order "Science. honored with the Gold and Silver Medals. 1965 Member of the Royal Society of Sciences. 1999 Medal of Member of the European Academy of Yuste. Education. Belgium. 1968 Medaille Civique de Premiere Classe. 1953 Membre Titulaire de I'Academie Royale de Belgique. Culture.

1967 President de la Classe des Sciences de I'Academie Royale des Sciences. 1982 Membre du Conseil d'Administration de la Fondation Erasme.S. 1971 Honorary Member. 1976 Foreign Fellow of the Indian National Science Academy. 1980 Member and Vice-President. 1980 Foreign Member of the Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR. Chemical Society of Poland.too Foreign Associate of the National Academy of Sciences. Paris. Academie Europeenne des Sciences. 1983 Member. 1968 a 1970 M e m b e r of the Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher Leopoldina Halle. 1971 Member of the International Academy of the Philosophy of Science. Lettres et Beaux-Arts de Belgique. Geneva 1983 . Germany. Berlin. Vienna. Geneva University. Diisseldorf. 1982 Foreign Member of the Academy of Sciences of the U. Brussels. International Council for Scientific Development. Germany. 1970 President. des Arts et des Lettres. Academie Internationale de Prospective Sociale. 1982 Member of the Honorary Committee of Archives of Psychology. USA. Italy. 1973 American Chemical Society Centennial Honorary Foreign Fellow. 1979 M e m b e r of the Rheinische-Westfahliche Akademie der Wissenschaften. 1970 Corresponding Member in Physics and Mathematics of the Academy of Sciences of Gottingen. Munich. 1983 Member of Honor of the Society for Studies on Entropy of Japan. 1970 Member of the Ostereichische Akademie der Wissenschaften.S. 1980 Member of the Accademia Mediterranea delle Scienze..R. Catania.

fOf Member. Paris. 1984 Membre Scientifique Extraordinaire of the Max Planck Foundation of the Federal Republic of Germany.C. 1990 Scientific Adviser of the International Academy for Biomedical Drug Research. Universite Philosophique Europeenne. 1989 Honorary Member. Italy. 1987 Foreign Fellow of the Academia des Ciencias de Lisboa. European Council of Research Libraries. 1989 Member of the National Academy of Engineering. Lausanne. International Society for General Systems Research. Washington. 1985 Honorary Member. People's Republic of China. Kentucky. la scienzia e l'arte. Switzerland. Argentina. Physical Society and Chemical Society of Tunisia. World Academy of Art and Science. 1989 Member of the Academie Europaea. USSR. 1986 Honorary Member. 1985 Founding Member. 1989 Member of the Argentine Academy of Science. Biophysical Society. 1990 Honorary Member of the Natural Sciences Academy of the Federal Republic of Russia. Paris. Portugal 1988 Member of the Consultative Council of the Scientific Section of the Fondazione dell'Istituto Bancario San Paolo di Torino per la cultura. 1988 Honorary Member. 1986 Fellow.. 1988 First Honorary Member of the Washington Evolutionary Systems Society. 1991 . International Academy of the History of Science. 1988 Membre d'Honneur of the Societe Royale de Chimie de Belgique. 1989 Member of the Editorial Board of the Ukrainian Physical Journal. D. 1984 Honorary President. Louisville. Haut Conseil de la Francophonie. Lisbon. Turin. an extension of the Royal Academy of London.

Japan. Germany. Universidad del Salvador. Citizens for Europe. International Scientific Advisory Board (ISAB). Ethics and Education of the University of Delhi. 1997 Member of International Academic Council. Italy.f02 President. July 1995 Member of the Advisory Board. Russia). Romania. Romanian Academy. Belgium. Burcarest. 1996 Member Honorary Editorial Board. Korean Society of Chemistry. 1997 Honorary Foreign Member of Korean Academy of Science and Technology. "Academia Nazionale delle Scienze" de la Republica di San Marino. Seoul. 1991 Honorary Member. Japan. 1996 Honorary President of the Editorial Board of the International Journal of Chaos Theory & Applications. Academia Nazionale di Scienze Lettere e Arti. 1995 Member. and Implusive Systems. Buenos Aires. 1994 Membre de l'Assemble E u r o p e n n e des Sciences et des Technologie. Nuremberg. Kothari Centre for Science. Korea. 1994 Foreign Member of Academy of Sciences of Belarus (Minsk. 1997 . 1994 Senior Advisor of Keihanna Plaza-Kansai Science City. Society for Design and Process Science. 1994 Member of Comite de Patronage of the Special Olympics. Kyoto. Italy. Communaute Europeenne. Belgium. 1994 International Advisor de I'lnternational Institute for Advanced Studies. Austin. India. Modena. 1996 Member. April 1996 Honorary Member. Discrete. Texas. Honorary Board of the International Society for Theoretical Chemical Physics. UNESCO. April 1996 Member. 1992 Honorary Member. 1995 Member. Dynamics of Continous.

Naples. 1972 Cothenius Gold Medal of the Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher Leopoldina. November. 1965 Swante Arrenius Gold Medal of the Royal Academy of Sciences of Sweden. Halle. Solvay Prize of the Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique.f03 Member of the "Conseil du Futur". Royal Academy of Sweden. 1977 Karcher Medal of the American Crystallographic Association. April 2000 Member of the London Diplomatic Academy. Brussels. 2002. 1975 Annual First Prize of the Southwest Science Forum of the New York Academy of Science. 1952 Francqui Prize of the Francqui Foundation. 1949 A. 1955 E. United Kingdom. J. Wetrems Prize of the Academie Royale de Belgique. 2002 Honorary Member of the World Innovation Foundation. Honorary President of the Internataional Comission on Distance Education. Paris. created by the Committee of Non-governmental Organizations of the Economic and Social Council of United Nations. Italian Institute for Philosophic Studies. 2002 Honoray President. 1947 A. Brussels. 1978 . September 1999 Member of the Ukraine National Academy of Sciences. De Potter Prize of the Academie Royale de Belgique. 1976 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Classe des Sciences. 1950 Annual Prize of the Academie Royale de Belgique. Huddersfield. 1976 Rumford Gold Medal of the Royal Society of London. 2003 Prizes: Van Laar Prize of the Societe Chimique de Belgique. created by the UNESCO. 1975 Medal of the Association for the Advancement of Sciences. 1969 Bourke Medal of the Chemical Society of Great Britain. 1976 American Chemical Society Centennial Fellow.

Paris. Texas. Geheniau.104 Descartes medal of the Universite Descartes. scientific and technical category. 1990 Medal of the Imperial Order of the Rising Sun (gold and silver stars). with J. with Isabelle Stengers) Honda Prize of the Honda Foundation. 1981 (for Order Out of Chaos. 1984 Commandeur dans l'Ordre des Arts et des Lettres. for the essay "Thermodynamics and Cosmology". 1979 Prix du Haut Comite de la Langue Francaise. Paris. Paris. 1989 International Foundation for Artificial Intelligence Award for Scientific Achievement. 1994 Gold Medal of l'Ecole Normale Superieure. Italy. 1984 Umberto Biancamano Prize. 1989 Distinguished Service Medal. Italy. 1994 Professeur Kampe de Feriet Medal. Texas. New York University School of Medicine. Italy. Universite Laval. Cite Universitaire. 1991 First Homer Smith Medal. 1995 Medal Piotr Kapitza. 1983 Honorary Citizen of the City of Dallas. Austin. Italy. France. E. the Academy of Natural Science. France. 1993 Gold Medal of the Univeristy of Pavie. 1995 . Paris. Gunzig and P. Tokyo. 1988 Commander of French Legion of Honor. 1991 Medal of the Ville de Milan. 1991 Gold Medal. 1987 Gold Medal of the Ville d'Ostende. Nice. 1988 Awarded the title Viscount by the King of Belgium for outstanding contributions to science. 1983 Citoyen d'Honneur de la Commune d'Uccle. 1993 Medal of the Ville de Trieste. 1987 Award of the Gravity Research Foundation. Nardone. France. 1987 Gold Medal of the Ville de Pavie. Moscow. July 1989 National Science Foundation Distinguished Lecturer. Russia. Quebec. 1988 Medal of the University of Padua. Tokyo. 1983 Citoyen d'Honneur de la Ville de Monpellier. 1993 Summa Prize.

Paris. 1999 First "N.f05 Honorary citizen of the City of Lubbock. presented by President of Russia. Italy. Italy. Athens. 1997 Medaille AMPERE. Como. 1996 Honorary citizen and gold medal. Italy. Greece. 1996 Honorary President of the "Centro de Fisica No Lineal y Sistemas Complejo" de Universidad de Santiago. Honorary citizen of the town of Thessaloniki. 1997 Medal of the President of the Italian Senate awarded by the "Pio Manzu Internaitonal Research Center". "La Fin des Certitudes". Italy. Argentine. 1997 Diamond Prize. Italy. Italy. 1999 Creation of "Prigogine Lectures". Palermo. 1996 Russian Friendship Scientific Prize. Texas. Universita dell'Insubria (Universite Lombarde). 1997 Medal of the University of Messine. Italy. 1996 Honorary Chairman of the Institute of Complex Systems. France. Greece. 1999 Honorary citizen of the city of Pescara. awarded by the CERET (Centre de Recherche sur la Thermodynamique). Universidad de Palermo. 1997 Calabria Prize for the book.N. 1996 "Illya Prigogine Chair of the Philosophy of Sciences" (School of Humanities and Social Sciences). 1995. 1997 Medaille de l'Universite de Reggio di Calabria. 1997 Scientific Prize of the President of the Italian Senate. Chili. 1996 Medal of the Hellenic Parliament. 1996 Medal of the town of Xanthi. Greece. 1999 . Luxembourg. Brussels. Greece. Calabria. 1996 Prize of the International Neural Network Society of Italy. 1998 Medal of the University of Verona. 1999 Prix Ilya Prigogine de Thermodynamique. Bogolyubov Prize". Italy. Italy. Thrace. 1998 Gold Medal "La Rosa Commacina" city of Pescara. Italy. Greece. Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna). 1999 Targa Giuseppe Piazzi. Belgium. 1996 Creation of the Haute Ecole Libre Ilya Prigogine.

Universite de Liege. 1986 .106 Creation of the International Scientific Award Professor Prigogine. 1981 D. Belgium. England. Georgetown University. Honoris Causa. 1986 Honorary Professor. Honoris Causa. Honoris Causa. Honoris Causa. Universite de Bordeaux. 2001 University Peace and Science Gold Medal. 1980 D. Vernadskiy Silver Medal. 1986 D. University of Uppsala. Honoris Causa. 1979 D. Universite de Poitiers. Naples. 1977 D. Honoris Causa. 1986 D. Francois Rabelais Universite de Tours. Honoris Causa. Honoris Causa. Honoris Causa. Poland. I. Stevens Institute of Technology. Honoris Causa. The Academy of Natural Sciences of Russia. 2003 Honorary Degrees: D. Buenos Aires. Honoris Causa. Universidad del Salvador. Ukraine. 1981 D. Nanjing University. Edinburgh. Italian Institute for Philosophic Studies. People's Republic of China. Nanjing University. Albert Schweitzer International University. Honoris Causa. 2000 V. 1966 D. Universite de Droit. Aix-Marseille. University of Rio de Janeiro. Sweden. University of Krakow. 1972 D. France. Heriot-Watt University. Interantional Academy of Information. Honoris Causa. 1969 D. 1977 D. Madrid. d'Economie et des Sciences. Honoris Causa. People's Republic of China. 1981 D. University of Newcastle Upon Tyne. 1985 D. Argentina 1999 Gold Medal of Odessa State Medical University. People's Republic of China. Honoris Causa. Beijing University. Honoris Causa. 1985 D. Universidad Nacional Educacion a Distancia. Russia. 1966 D. 2002 Gold Medal Lomonosov. University of Chicago. 2001 Antonio Roberti International Prize.

Honoris Causa. Nice. 1988 D. Binghamton University. University of Cagliari. 1990 D. Seoul. 1995 D. University of Siena. Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine. Italy. Tucuman. Vrije Universiteit Brussel. Honoris Causa. Brussels. University of Nice-Sophia-Antipolis. Universidad Nacional de San Luis. Honoris Causa. Honoris Causa. October 1994 D. 1995 D. University of Philippines System. Argentina. Brussels. Romania. Urbino. Buenos Aires. 1992 D. University of Buenos Aires. Honoris Causa. Benares Hindu University at Varasani. Honoris Causa. Chile. Honoris Causa. 1989 D. Honoris Causa. 1993 D. 1991 D. I. Binghamton. 1990 D. April 1995 D./07 Honorary Professor. Nancy. 1991 D. October 1994 D. Belgium. Universitatea "Al. Russia. Lomonosov University of Moscow. Honoris Causa. Italy. Argentina. Gustavus Adolphus College of the University of Minnesota. Belgium. Argentina. France. Honoris Causa de "International Association of University Presidents". 1991 D. Republic of Korea. May 1995 D. Russia. 1996 D. Petersburg. Quezon City. Honoris Causa. Iasi. University of St. Honoris Causa. University of Kerala. Honoris Causa. June 1995 D. 1990 D. Universidad de Palermo. Honoris Causa. Cuza". Spain. Italy. Honoris Causa. Honoris Causa. India. 1993 D. Honoris Causa. 1996 . India. Honoris Causa. France. Universidad de Valladolid. Argentina. Philippines. May 1995 D. Universita' degli Studi Istituto Filosofia. Honoris Causa. University of Santiago. New York. Sardinia. 1995 Doyen d'honneur Honoris Causa de I'lnstitut Royal des Elites du Travail de Belgique Albert l er . Honoris Causa.

Thermodynamique Chimique (first edition. 1998 D. Prigogine and R. 2000 Honorary Professor of the International Albert Schweitzer University. Greece. Defay. I. 1944. Honoris Causa. Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Engineering. II. 1998 D. Traite de Thermodynamique Conformement aux Methodes de Gibbs et de Donder. Classe des sciences). Greece. Switzerland. 2002 Monographs: Contribution a I 'etude spectroscopique dans I'infra-rouge proche de la liaison d'hydrogene et la structure des solutions (Academie Royale de Belgique. Honoris Causa. Honoris Causa in Science. 1950). Honoris Causa in Philosopy. Department of Chemical Engineering. Vol. Greece. Wroclaw University of Technology. second edition. Athens. 1996 D. Poland. Honoris Causa. Greece. 2000 D. 1998 D. Greece. National Institute of Astrophyics. Buenos Aires. 1998 D. Department of Applied Mathematics and Physical Sciences. National Polytechnic School. Athens. . Optics and Electronics. Honoris Causa. Memoires 20. Honoris Causa. the Academy of Slovak Republic. Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. Greece. Honoris Causa. Athens. 2000 D. Geneva. Mexico City. Mexico. Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. 2000 D. 1943. Odessa Medical University. Puebla. Honoris Causa. Engineering Faculty (University of Xanthi)./OS D. Vol. National Polytechnic School. Greece. University of Salvador. Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. 1998 D. Honoris Causa in Applied Science. I. Argentina. National Polytechnic School. Ukraine. 1998 D. Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. 1996 D. Honoris Causa. 2001 D. Honoris Causa. Honoris Causa.

Chemical Thermodynamics. Self-Organization in Nonequilibrium Systems: From Dissipalive Structures to Order through Fluctuations (John Wiley [Interscience]: New York. Prigogine. G. From Being to Becoming: Time and Complexity in the Physical Sciences (W. Translations in English. and Japanese. Introduction to Thermodynamics of Irreversible Processes (Charles C. 1979.. Defay. English version: Order Out of Chaos (Bantam: New York. Translations in Russian. Prigogine. Prigogine and R. 1984). German. 1980). Serbo-Croatian. 1954. 1947). Italian and Chinese. Glansdorff and I. Translations in Russian. La Nouvelle Alliance — Les Metamorphoses de la Science (Gallimard: Paris. Stability and Fluctuations (John Wiley & Sons [Interscience]: New York.109 Tension Superficielle et Adsorption (Desoer: Liege. Thesis. Mathot. Second edition: John Wiley & Sons flnterscience Division]: New York. Translations in 18 languages. I. Prigogine. I. Russian and Japanese. I. 1981. Translations in French. 1971). I. Prigogine and I. A. Longmans Green & Co. Prigogine. Translations in 8 languages. P. Japanese. Prigogine and R.. 1983). presented in 1945 (published by Dunod. Herman. Prigogine. 1951). 1957). Kinetic Theory of Vehicular Traffic (Elsevier: New York. French.D. I. Thomas Publisher (American Lecture Series): 1954. Russian. 1962. I. Stengers. H. Ph. Prigogine. Prigogine. The Molecular Theory of Solutions (North-Holland Publishing Co. Freeman & Company: San Francisco. 1962). Thermodynamic Theory of Structure. Tan Solo una Ilusion? Una Exploracion del Caos al Orden (Tusquets Editiones: Madrid. . 1967). 1971). Prigogine. Bellemans and V. 1977). I. idem. 1986). Third edition. Etude Thermodynamique des Phenomenes Irreversibles. Italian and Spanish. Nicolis and I.: Amsterdam. I. Nonequilibrium Statistical Mechanics (John Wiley & Sons [Interscience Division]: New York. I.

Flammarion. Collection "Nouvelle Bibliotheque Scientfiques" (Flammarion. Nicolis. Chinese translation: Tansuo Fuzaxing (Sechuan Education Publishing House. 1987). Prigogine. Prigogine. France. 1992. 1987). (with P. 1999 (French translation). Chaos and the Laws of Chaos (Ed. I. "Steady States and Entropy Production". Entre le Temps et VEternite (Librairie Artheme Fayard: Paris. de Gottal) "Relativistic Effects in Statistical Hydrodynamics". "Thermodynamique — Des moteurs thermiques aux structures dissipatives". 1989). Time. Also translated into Greek. Translations in 6 languages. (with P. Physica 31 (1964) 719724. Accademia delle Scienze di Torino (1964) 1—42. I. The End of Certainty — Time's Flow and the Laws of Nature (The Free Press. German translation: Die Erforschung des Komplexen (R. Physica 30 (1964) 351-374. Publications since 1964: (with P. . New York. Freeman: New York.ffO I. Prigogine. Editions Odile Jacob. Verlag: Miinchen. Chichester. Paris. Glansdorff) "On a General Evolution Criterion in Macroscopic Physics". second edition. Chinese and Japanese. Prigogine and I. Paris. Translations in 5 languages. Physica 31 (1965) 877-887. Modern Thermodynamics. Stengers. I. From Heat Engines to Dissipative Structures (John Wiley & Sons. 1988). 1998). Progress. Translations in 19 languages. Stengers. Paris. Resibois) "Temps et Irreversibilite en Physique Statistique". Prigogine and I. Moscow. Kondepudi and I. France. Les Lois des Chaos. L'homme devant Vincertain (Editions Odile Jacob. D. 1994). I. H. 1997). I. 1994). Exploring Complexity (W. Chengdu. Prigogine and G. Paris. Prigogine. Piper & Co. Russian. 2001). Estratto Dagli Atti del Simposio Lagrangiano.

P. Belg. (with F. "Sur la Theorie Mathematique de Traffique Vehiculaire". Physica 32 (1966) 1828-1872. Journal of Chemical Physics 43 (1965) 4516-4521. Henin and Cl. George and F. Henin. Properties of Solid Interactions (Elsevier: 1965) 142-151. Structure et Entropie". "Evolution Criteria. Sc. Henin. des Sc. Memoires Academie Roy ale Belg. Structure. Liquids. Severne) "On the Statistical Mechanics of Gravitational Plasmas". Correlation Functions and Reciprocity Relations in Dense Media". Misguich) "Local Equilibrium Approach to Transport Processes in Dense Media". Mayne) "Kinetic Equations and Quasi-particle Description". Roy. "Transport Processes. 53 (1967) 273-287. (with F. (with F. Bull. Physics Letters 16 (1965) 253-254. Physica 31 (1965) 1242-1256.. Physical (1966) 18731900. Henin) "On the Entropy of Strongly Interacting Systems". de Philosophic 73 (1965) 74. "Entropy and Gravitation". 35 (1965) 7. Realbeig and M. Acad. 1 (1966) 42-44. Glansdorff) "Variational Properties and Fluctuations". Nicolis and J. Henin) "On a Reformulation of Classical Electron Theory". (with F. Cahiers du Centre d'Etudes de Recherche Operationnelle 7 (1965) 3-4. Physica 32 (1966) 1376-1396. (with G. Mayne) "On the Application of Non-Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics to Quantum Field Theory"./// (with P. Watabe) "Kinetic Equations. Int. Rev. "Quelques Remarques sur la Structure de la Physique". 3 (1966) 255-257. . Variational Properties and Fluctuation". "Temps. George) "Entropy and Quasiparticle Description of Anharmonic Lattices". Physics Letters 21. Cl. Nature 209 (1966) 602-603. Physics Letters 20. and Kinetic Theory". (with G. (with F. in Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics: Variational Techniques and Fluctuations (Chicago University Press: 1966) 3-16. Cl. Cl. Quasi-Particle Renormalization. (with F.

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Encyclopedia of Applied Physics. R. Noneqilibrium". InternationalJournal of Bifuraction and Chaos. D. Complexity. W. 9 (1997) 1917-1926. Connecticut. IMPACT: How IC2 Research Affects Public Policy and Business Practice. Center 10: Architecture and Design in America on Value. Vol. 79-94. S. Phillips (Quorum Books. Kondepudi) "Thermodynamics. 1-120. Petrosky) "The Liouville Space Extension of Quanutm Mechanics". Michael Benedikt (The University of Texas Press. 5/6. 334B. eds. and Bounded Rationality in Economic Change". "Cas K Stavani" (K historii casu). Westport. 206-223. eds. 7 No. (with Petrosky) "The Extension of Classical Dynamics for Unstable Hamiltonian Systems". J. "The Rediscovery of Value and the Opening of Economics". "From Poincares Divergences to Quantum Mechanics with Broken Time Symmetry". Franklin Institute. (with D. I. eds E. Rice (John Wiley & Sons. Thore. ed. fur Natursforschung 52a (1997) 37-45. (with T. 34. W. 1997). No. "Nonlinear Science and the Laws of Nature". Gibson and F. Infeld. Advances in Chemical Physics. Z. Chen and K. "Nonlinear Science and the Laws of Nature". Cambridge. . Driebe) "Time. 209-218. KLP Praha (1997) 5-44. Wen) "Instability. Zelazny and A. (with D. Cooper. "Einstein and Magritte"./. VUB. (1997) 745-758. New York 1997). 21 (1997) 311-337. (with P. 1997). 1997). Darmstadt. Austin. Computers Math. May 1995. Galkowski (Cambridge University Press. Nonlinear Dynamics Chaotic and Complex Systems. 2-4 (1997) 1-44. Prigogine and S. Center Leo Apostel-CLEA (Kluwer Academic Publishers. Chaos and the Laws of Nature". Applic. Einstein meets Magritte Conference. 99. 1997) 1-7. No. 1997).f37 Zimmerli (Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.

Telema. C o n f e r e n c e "Sciences et Valeurs". Italy. Sozial. P e t r o s k y ) "Le v i d e Q u a n t i q u e e t le d i l e m m e hamiltonien". Balescu). "Science et C u l t u r e " . 1998). Paris. Band 8. Lisbon. 1998). (with T. "The Best of the Network. Petrosky) "Semigroup Representation of the Vlasov Evolution". Le vide. eds. "Sciences et Valeurs".P Pronko) "Relativistic Gamov Vectors". T h e Chaos Network". Argonne National Laboratory. 15th Symposium on Energy Engineering Sciences Proceedings. N u m b e r 6 ( J u n e 1998). . Selbstorganisation. Iniciativa Socialista 46 (1997) 4 8 . "Is the Future Given?". Diner (1997). "Zeit. Lisbon. 1997 (Duncker & Humblot.5 0 . (Autonno 1998).und Geislesiuissenschaften. School of Economics a n d M a n a g e m e n t (Lund University. (with T. 8 (3). C o n f e r e n c e ( F o n d a t i o n C a l o u s t e Gulbenkian. Chaos u n d die Zwei Kulturen". Verona. Vol. 21sl Century Dialogues (UNESCO. Interview. (Association Descartes. Gadella and G. Antoniou. Primavera (1998) 11. "Pluralite des futurs et fin des certitudes"./38 "El Desorden creador". 1998). Gunzig a n d S. May 1998). Portugal (May 1998). France. (with T. Atlantic (Internacional Revista d e las Artes) Expo 1998 — L i s b o n F u n d a c i o n B a n q u e t e — N u m e r o 20. Berlin. E. 1997. Journal of Plasma Physics (in h o n o r of R. (with I. M. Fondazione Ugo Bordoni. " S c i e n c e et C u l t u r e " . Vol. Petrosky) "Kinetic theory a n d long range correlations in m o d e r a t e l y d e n s e gases". A n n o IV. Vol. part 4 (1998) 611-618. "Nell'Universo delle Probability D o b b i a m o Affrontare l'lncertezza" ("Facing the Uncertain"). 59. Journal of Mathematical Physics. 39. 1998). Jahrbuch fur Komplexildl in den Natur-. Crafoord Memorial Symposium: The Logic of Growth L u n d Institute of Economic Research. (Jan. F o n d a t i o n Calouste G u l b e n k i a n Conference. 1998). "Agua y Cielo".

139 (with T. Petrosky) "Laws of N a t u r e , Probability a n d T i m e Symmetry Breaking", Generalized functions, operator theory, and dynamical systems, eds. I. Antoniou a n d G. L u m e r (Chapman & H a l l / C R C , London, 1999). (with T. Petrosky) "Laws of N a t u r e , Probability a n d T i m e Symmetry Breaking", Physica A263 (1999) 528-539. (with T Petrosky) "Extension of classical dynamics: Emergence of i r r e v e r s i b i l i t y a n d stochasticity", Fundamental and Applications of Complex Systems, ed. G. Zgrablich (Nueva Editorial Universitaria, San Luis, 1999) 427. (with I. A n t o n i o u ) "Laws of N a t u r e a n d T i m e Symmetry Breaking", T e m p o s in Science a n d N a t u r e : Structures, Relations a n d Complexity, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 879, J u n e 30, 1999. "Einstein a n d Magrite — A Study of Creativity", (Kluwer Academic Publishers, T h e Netherlands, 1999), 12-18. "Time a n d Laws of Nature", Etratto da "Visione del Mondo Nella Sloria delta Scienza. (IP, Naples, 1999). "The dye is n o t cast (Les j e u x ne sont pas fait)", LeUre aux geneneralions futures (Editions UNESCO, Cultures de la Paix, 1999), 133. "Message of Ilya Prigogine" — Actes du Colloque: "La, Culture-de la paix, reflexion et mise en oeuvre", (Actes 'Colloque, UNESCO, O c t o b e r 2, 1999). "La R i s c o p e r t a d e l Valore e Lo S v i l u p p o d e l l a Scienza Economica", Italian translation of "The Rediscovery of Value and the O p e n i n g of Economics", Lecture at University of Texas at Austin, Oct. 1995 (Intersezioni n u m e r o special, 1999). "Nonlocality a n d superluminosity" Bogolyubov Conference in Moscow in September 1999 (Publishing D e p a r t m e n t of JINR, D u b n a , 1999). (with T Petrosky) "Irreversibility a n d t h e Laws of Nature", Fronteiras da Cieca Proceedings, Coimbra Portugal, eds. R. Fausto, C. Fiolhais and J. Quiro (Gravida, Lisbon, 2000). "The Networked Society", Festshrift Honoring I. Wallerstein, Journal of World Systems ResearchVL, published u n d e r the sponsorship

f40 of the Center for Global, International and Regional Studies and the Division of Social Sciences at the University of California, Santa Cruz (2000). (with T. Petrosky) "Non-equilibrium Statistical Mechanics", The Legacy of Leon Van Hove, World Scientific Series in 20th Century Physics, Vol. 28, ed. A. Giovannini (Theoretical Physics Department), Torino University, 2000, 135. (with R. Balescu) "Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics", The Legacy of Leon Van Hove, World Scientific Series in 20th Century Physics, Vol. 28, ed. A. Giovannini (Theoretical Physics Department), Torino University, 2000, 119. (with T. Petrosky) "Thermodynamic limit, Hilbert space and breaking of time symmetry", Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 11 (2000) 373. (with E. Karpov, T Petrosky and G. Pronko) "Friedrichs model with virtual transitions. Exact solution and indirect spectroscopy". /. Mathematical Physics 41 No. 1 (2000) 118. (with I. Antoniou, V Sadovnichii and S.A. Shkarin) "Time operator for diffusion " Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 11 (2000) 465. "Carta para as futuras generacoes", Folha de S. Paulo — Mais!, Brasil, domingo 30 de Janeiro 2000, 5. "Message for Peace and Children", Declaration of Delphi for Peace, 2000. (with E. Karpov, G. Ordonez, T. Petrosky and G. Pronko) "Causality, delocalization and positivity of energy", Physical Review A 62 (2000) 12103. (with T. Petrosky and G. Ordonez) "Quantum transitions and nonlocality", Physical Review A62 (2000) 42106. "Norbert Wiener and the Idea of Contingence", International Journal of Systems & Cyberntics 29 (2000) 825. "The Arrow of Time", The Chaotic Universe, eds. V. G. Gurzadyan & R. Ruffini (World Scientific, Singapore 2000). (with G. Dewel and Dilip Kondepudi) "Chemistry Far from Equilibrium: Thermodynamics, Order and Chaos", The New

fUf Chemistry, ed. N. Hall (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2000). "Creativite de la nature — Creativite humaine", L'homme qui Marche, Jardins du Palais Royal, Paris, ed. Regard (2000) 11. "La Thermodynamique de la Vie", La Recherche special edition: 30 ans de science et de recherche, 331 (2000) 38. "Mosaique, fragments du tout", in honor of Andre Jaumotte a l'Academie des Sciences, des Arts et des Lettres (mai 2000), in La Revue Generale 8-9 (2000) 75. "A letter to young Chinese scientists — Ilya Prigogine 1917", Nobel prizes, book written to celebrate the centenary of the Nobel Prize (2000-2001) as commemorated by the Chinese Chemical Society, 106. "L'enseignant qui m'a le plus marque — Victor Larock", L'Ecole des annees 2000 (Revue pedagogique de l'enseignant du maternel et du primaire ordinaire 8c special), Bruxelles, (2000), 37. "Le futur est-il donne?", L'Incertain de la globalisation: role de VEurope, Mondialisation et Societes Multiculturelles, eds. S. Urban and M. Ricciardelli (Presses Universitaires France, Paris, 2000). (with I. Antoniou) "Science, Evolution and Complexity", text written for the Sommet europeen: Genetics in Europe Open days 2000, Brussels, November 16, 2000, eds. G. Lomardo, M. Merchetti, C. Travagliati, Ambasciato d'ltalia, Brussels Quaderni Europei 2 (2001) 21. "Time and the laws of nature", The Physical Nature of Consciousness 19, Advances in Consciousness Research, ed. John Benjamins (2001), 219. "A new page?", Introduction for the EXPO International Forum 2000 in Hanover (2001). "L'humanisation de l'homme, creativite de la nature, creativite de l'homme", L'humanite de I'Homme, ed. Jacques Sojcher (Cercle d'Art, Paris, 2001).

Their Applications in Physical and Life Sciences. (with G. Weis (Marcel Dekker. M. Ordonez a n d T. 122. " Q u a n t u m transitions and dressed unstable states". Solitons and Fractals 12 (2001) 2757. 2001 (Wiley.Ilya Prigogine par Edgard de Assis Carvalho et Maria da Conceicao d e Almeida. Rev. Brussels (2001). Leopold III. Gadella. Petrosky a n d E. 405. Petrosky) "Limits to causality and delocalization in classical field t h e o r y " . Rev. O r d o n e z and T. E. May 21-22. O r d o n e z ) "Space time formulation of q u a n t u m transitions". O r d o n e z . Petrosky. Rivista del C e n t r o Internazionale di Storia dello Spatio e del T e m p o . Scienza e Storia. (with T. A 64 (2001) 062101. Dynamical Systems and Irreversibility: Proceedings of the XXI Solvay Conference on Physics. son regard sur les sciences".f4J2 (with D. Advances in Chemical Physics Series Vol. J a p a n e s e edition. P r o n k o ) "Garaow algebras". mon pere. Brugine. Creativite d e la nature. G. 2001). (with I. Petrosky) "Memory effects a n d dressing: Two-level atoms a n d q u a n t u m decoherence". Belem). Petrosky a n d E. Karpov) "Age a n d age fluctuations in an unstable q u a n t u m system". recueil des essais d. Karpov) "Explicit construction of a time s u p e r o p e r a t o r for q u a n t u m unstable systems". (with G. 2001). "Science et c u l t u r e " . J a n u a r y 16. (with T. Creativite de l. Editions Racine. A n t o n i o u . "Invention d e l . T. . "Le Roi Leopld II. Maison (l'edition de FUEPA. h o m m e . ed. Karpov a n d G. T. A r g o n n e National Laboratory. New York. "Ciencia Razao e Paixao". Phys. by SAR Princess Esmeralda of Begium. K o n d e p u d i ) Preface. Ordonez. Chaos. Chaos. Phys. Italy (2001)149. Modern Thermodynamics: From Heat Engines to Dissipative Structures.homme". L u m e r and L. Petrosky a n d G. Solitons and Fractals 12 (2001) 2591. texte destine au Cercle d'Art (Philippe Monsel (2001). 2001. Proceedings of the 19th Symposium on Energy Engineering Sciences. A 63 (2001) 052106. (with G. (with G. Evolution Equations and.

2002) 287. Schmidt-Radefeldt Jiirgen. Prigogine. l'Harmattan. New York. xx-xxii. State Research C e n t e r of Russia. Editions Promoculture..143 ed. Cargese 2001. Prigogine and S. R. a n d Petrosky T. discours d u Prof. I. (with Karpov E. A 360 (2002) 299. Antoniou.. I. Pickering Robert. par Gifford Paul. I. 2001. Rice ( J o h n Wiley & Sons.S. series editors: I. I. Dora Freid Schnitman a n d Jorge Schnitman ( H a m p t o n Press. 4-6. pp. mars 2003. dans Paul Valery a lous les points de vue. Phil Trans. Les l"ms Rencontres de 1'I. "Dynamical roots of time symmetry breaking". "Some reflection on time a n d universe". Massimo Malvetti. in the Proceedings of the Ninth Marcel Grossmann Meeting held at the University of R o m e "La Sapienza" on 2 . "Marcel Grossmann Award Talk". Protvino. Institute for High Energy Physics.. World Scientific.7 July 2001.T. 2001. "Le libre examen dans u n m o n d e en mutation". ed. ed. Prosper Schroeder a n d Roland SimonSchaefer. Prigogine. Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Discrete Simulation of Fluid Dynamics. Advances in Chemical Physics Series Vol. 2 .) " Q u a n t u m transitions in interacting fields". eds. L u x e m b o u r g (2002) 43. 2002). Hommage a Judith Robinson-Valery. Prigogine lors d ' u n e conference sur le t h e m e du libre examen qui s'est tenue a Bruxelles le 16 n o v e m b r e 2002. "Naivete relative de chacun". I. Prigogine. J u n e 27-29. O r d o n e z G.8 July 2000. Prigogine a n d S. " L ' h o m m e devant l..incertain". I. Lond. A. "Dynamics of correlations: A formalism for both integrable and n o n integrable systems". Antoniou. ed. Paris.. New York. A 66 (2002) 012109. pp. Foreword for t h e Proceedings of the XXPV Workshop on High Energy Physics and Field Theory. .. series editors: I. 2002. "The E n d of Science?". Phys Rev. Dynamical Systems and Irreversibilily: Proceedings of the XXI Solvay Conference on Physics. Prigogine. USA. Rice ( J o h n Wiley & Sons. Culture and Subjectivity. 122. Soc. New Paradigms. A. 2002) 261.

J u n e 2 7 . a n d Petrosky. "Time o p e r a t o r in the Friedrichs Model". S. vertiges et promesses». a n d O r d o n e z . 2002. DC o n August 4—8. aux Editions 5 Continents (a paraitre). Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. p a p e r for the Proceedings of the XXTV Workshop on High Energy Physics and Field Theory. Petrosky. T. Prigogine. paper for the Proceedings of the XXTV Workshop on High Energy Physics and Field Theory... Microscopic entropy. Kim. J u n e 2 7 . result of the Sixth Summer Symposium on the Philosophy of Chemistry and Biochemistry.. Institute for High Energy Physics. and O r d o n e z . Karpov.. E. Prigogine. Juillet 2002 (a paraitre). 2001. I. Protvino.. May 2003. in Advances in Chemical Physics (to a p p e a r ) . P r i g o g i n e . p p . Editions Le P o m m i e r (a p a r a i t r e ) . Development. Petrosky. Proceedings of the XXII Solvay Conference of Physics "The physics of communication".. interview p a r Reda Benkirane. P r i g o g i n e . G. Ordonez. "Chemical Kinetics a n d Dynamics"..2 8 1 . T.2 9 .. 2001. in h o n o u r of Prof.. Prigogine. G. Preface. I. T . Protvino.. 2 7 4 . Prigogine. E.14U Prigogine. organized by the International Society for the Philosophy of Chemistry a n d Biochemistry a n d held at G e o r g e t o w n University in W a s h i n g t o n . p a r u dans l'ouvrage «La complexite. Ilya Prigogine on the .. Ordonez. I. G. G. in Chemical Explanation Characteristics. Proceedings du 4e Congres de la Societe Internationale de Physique Chimique Theorique. T . I. "Time symmetry breaking a n d stochasticity in H a m i l t o n i a n physics". State Research Center of Russia. Marly-le-Roi. I. "Stochasticity a n d time symmetry breaking in H a m i l t o n i a n dynamics". p p . State Research Center of Russia. F r a n c e . du livre "Au Cceur d e l ' A m e r i q u e P r e c o l o m b i e n n e " de Gerard Geiger. Proceedings of the workshop "Complexity: microscopic and macroscopic aspects". Institute for High Energy Physics.. Volume 988. I. Petrosky. "La fin des certitudes". 2001. 204-220. "Dynamical Roots of Time Symmetry Breaking".. I.2 9 . Prigogine. Autonomy. 2001. Karpov. I..

Prigogine... Daiseion-Ji (to appear). Foreword of the book "Essays Commemorating the Founding of the International Institute of Integration Research". Prigogine. I. Ordonez. I.145 occasion of his 85 th birthday (Fondation des Treilles. G. France. Nova Science Publishers. Tourtour. 2003 (to appear). article for the first issue of the Journal Chaos and Complexity Letters. "Acceleration and entropy: A macroscopic analogue of the twin paradox". "Surprises in a half of a century". April 10-12. I.. New York (to appear). 8-14 July 2002) published in a special issue of the International Journal of Quantum Chemistry on Complexity: Microscopic and macroscopic aspects. .. Prigogine. paper for the conference "Uncertainty and Surprise". Red McCombs School of Business — The University of Texas at Austin.

n ling upon a decision. Contiaiy to globalisation and the apparent lontcmporary mass culture six utv. which seems to be ever imminent and (unfortunately) irreversible Ihis last hook of llya Prigogine provides a small. bieginning w i t h controversies between lleraclitus and I'armenides. Ibis responsibility is assoi i. iiuliviclu. i m p l i c i t l y or explicitly. and ideologies. externally imposed exa< i l \ contrary to the ideas ol those who wish us to be "perfect consumers" in a w o r l d dominated only by monetary wealth. ( hallcnging this drive towards the e l i m i n a t i o n o f freedom o f thought in the i n d i v i d u a l is now imperative if we are to save man and his planet f r o m catastrophe.Ked w i t h the freedom of thought as well as a critical analysis o f fashions. preconceived ideas. moreover the importance o f the individual's actions implies a reflection o f each person on the responsibilities that each one assumes when taking or . It is a message that challenges existing widespread views. through mass c o m m u n i c a t i o n . customs. but nonetheless valuable <ontribution towards that end. alter dis> ussing the fundamental problems ol i i i r r c n l M iciuc and other p h i l o s o p h i c concepts.I IS FUTURE GIVEN? In this hook. H H World Scientific ISBN 981-238-507-X 1 .il behaviour is beginning to increasingly become the key factor w h i c h governs the evolution o f both the w o r l d anil society . disputable. llya I'rigogine launches i n t o a message o f gnat hope: the future has not been determined.is a whole.

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