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Indian Statistical Institute, New Delhi - 110016.

SANJAY KUMAR

LEAD-AUDITOR

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**Six Sigma Green Belt Training Quality
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The totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs. Two Aspects of Quality 1. The External Aspect ⇓ Meaning fitness for use. The Internal Aspect ⇓ Meaning compliance with specifications.

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“Quality then was to satisfy to satisfy customer needs it is in fact to delight customers” External Aspects (Customer’s Voice) ⇓ QFD, FMEA, DOE & TAGUCHI METHODS DESS, BENCH Marking, Tolerance Design ⇓ Internal Aspects ⇒ Specifications ⇓ Compliance with Specifications Quality Guru – Deming, Juran and Shewhart We are in Business to Earn Profile Today Tomorrow All Time to come In an ethical and socially useful way Equation Then: Cost + Profile = Price Equation Now: Profit = Price – Cost

Reduction in cost is essential for survival

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**Bill Smith, Father Of Six Sigma
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Smith introduced his statistical approach aimed at increasing profitability by reducing defects. His approach was, “ if you want to improve something, involve the people who are doing the job.” He always wanted to make it simple so people would use it. The origin of six sigma can be traced to the 1970s when Motorola faced with serious quality – related problems, embarked on ambitious journey to achieve “ Zero defects” in its products. This project was named “ Six Sigma” by Mikel Harry, then a senior staff engineer with Motorola’s Government Electronic group. Six Sigma is a highly disciplined approached used to reduced the process variations to the extent that the level of defects are drastically reduced to less than 3.4 per million process, product or service opportunities (DPMO). This is termed as 3.4 defects Per Million opportunities (3.4×10⎯6 DPMO) Sigma (σ) is Greek letter that is used in statistic to describe variability of a process. This means “standard deviation”. Most of us may be familiar with the normal distribution and its properties. We are aware of the properties of normal distributions. 99.73% of the area lies within means µ ±3σ 95.73% of the area lies within means µ ±2σ 68.26% of the area lies within means µ ±σ PPM ( Part Per Million ) : How many out of million (10,00,000 = 106) Percentage (%) How many out of 100 0.01% = 0.01 x 10,00,000 = 100 PPM 100 SIX SIGMA PROCESS CAPABILITY Sigma Defects per million opportunities 6 Sigma 3.4 (World Class) 5 Sigma 230 4 Sigma 6,200 (Average) 3 Sigma 67,000 (Non-competitive) 2 Sigma 310,000 1 Sigma 7,00,000

**Sigma Quality Level:
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0.8406 + 29.37 – 2.221× ℓn (ppm) The sigma quality level can be approximately determined using the (Schmidt and Launsby1997) equation: 0.8406 + 29.37 – 2.221× ℓn (ppm) ⇒ this is called Sigma Scale

Six Sigma

• • • A top Driven, Disciplined Step By Step Approach (DMAIC) for Continual Improvement of Quality for Benefit to all concerned. A system of practices to improve processor by eliminating defects. A disciplined data driven approach and methodology for eliminating defects in any process. 3

Voice of Customer: An organization going in for Six Sigma must listen to the customer. Call Quality rating is at least 0. Ensures all aspects of customer needs are identified.in -Class. Six Sigma: Problem-by-Problem Approach. Customers requirements may be in the form of LINGALOR SPECIFICATIONS. The Six Sigma method allows us to draw comparisons to other similar or dissimilar products. four-sigma process is average. Hence customers requirements have to be translated into criteria’s to be incorporated in the development of a process leading to product or service. Critical to Satisfaction (CTS): Critical to satisfaction of Customer. services and process and help us in bench marking and plan for improvement. For example: Critical bugs will be fixed within a stipulated time. What is Critical To Quality Characteristics (CTQ): • The requirements of the output of the process and measures of Critical process issue are called a CTQ. Usually external customer specifies product / service CTQ. economics. regulations and process / product FMEAs. It is a statistical measurement.The other measures are cost (CTC) and Delivery (CTD). CTQ Tree is a tool that aids in translating customer Language into Quantified requirements for products or services.90. A Six Sigma process is process is Best . It tells us how good our product. services and process.What is Six Sigma Six Sigma means several thing. risks. This helps in translating Broad Customer requirement in specifics. He may be external or internal. Critical to Quality (CTQ): It is a parametric Representation of the voice of the customer. In this sense. The aspects which will give him sufficient confidence on the party. the sigma scale of measure provides us with a “goodness micrometer” for gauging the adequacy of our products. Medical productivity in terms of Number of Transactions per unit time is at least0. For example call center application the maximum time for waiting for response is 60 seconds. On the other hand. Critical Business Issue To Critical Process To Critical To Quality Characteristics To Defining The Problem Terminologies in Six Sigma Customer: Anybody who is Recipient of a product of service is called a customer.85. services and process really are. 4 . • CTQs have to be derived from customers requirements.

Appraisal Cost: The appraisal cost is the assurance that the product or service is acceptable as delivered to customers. Note: I. II.Quality: It is the totality of features and characteristics of a product or services that satisfy the customers stated and implied needs: ISO Definition. It is a WIN –WIN approach for all Cost of poor Quality: The cost of poor quality is defined as those costs associated with the non-achievement of product or service quality as defined by the requirements established by the organization and its contracts with customers and society. reworking on effort estimation. External failures like Delayed submission of developed modules. III. Each category contains elements and sub elements. which influences the output of a process. All these costs are called components of cost of it is the hidden cost of failing quality to meet customer requirement. appraisal. Internal failures like re-design of modules.e. Process: Process is the requires of activities which result in a product or service. Quality in Six Sigma: A state in which value entitlement is realized for the customer as well as for the provider in every aspect of the business relationship covering the entire supply chain. A process is said to be not capable if it fails to meet customer requirement. dispose of. Higher process capability indices increase Six Sigma rating and reduce DPU. External failure cost: The External failure cost includes all costs incurred due to nonconforming or suspected nonconforming product or service after delivery to the customer. and either correct or replace non confirming products or services prior to delivery to the customer and also to correct or replace incorrect or incomplete product or service description. Prevention cost like planning and training. customers dissatisfaction etc. internal failure and external failure. Lower DPU reduces COPQ and decreased manufacturing cost per unit. Appraisal cost like inspection and testing. which influences the performance of Critical to Quality (CTQ). The time and Temperate are key input variables for Heat Treatment process. loss on productivity etc. Internal failure costs: Internal failure costs is defined to include basically all costs required to evaluate. Defects: A feature in a product / service that causes dissatisfaction to a customer is called a Defect. 5 . ANYTHING THAT DISSATISFIES YOUR CUSTOMER Process capability: Process capability is defined as the ability of your process to satisfy customer requirement. Prevention: The prevention is defined as the experience gained from the identification and elimination of specific causes of failure cost to prevent the recurrence of the same or similar failure in other product and services. Lower DPU increase customer satisfaction and decreased warranty cost. Cost of poor Quality categories and Elements: There are four categories – prevention. Key process in input variable (KPIV): The input variable. i. Key process output variables (KPOV): The output variables.

95)4 = 0.7183(-0. 3.Unit: It may be a product or process. The rolled throughput yield (RY) = (0. Opportunity: A unit may have more than one type of defect. address.81. Calculation of DPU. a line of software. Defects per opportunity: DPO = DPU / No. III. Let us assume that a part goes through ten operations. Defects per unit: Total Number of defect in a sample divided by Total number of unit in the sample. II. At each stage 99% parts are good and 1% are reject.0045 Yield = e (-DPU) = 2. A “ Unit” may be as diverse as a: • Piece of equipment • Lien of softare • Order • Technical Manual • Medical claim • Wire transfer • Hour of labour • Billable dollar • Customer contact.6% DPMO = DPO × 106 = 4500 Sigma Level = 2. Rolled throughput yield: Rolled throughput yielded is the product of yields of all sub process. 0. For other examples: i. I.956 = 95. In a letter of credit (L. Metric: Metric is a representative indicator of performance of a process.95 If there are four process and each process is having 95% YIELD. ii. 5. Yield & Sigma level.611 6 . of opportunity × unit IV. DPO. Unit = 750.43%.C. We do not know our status. Opportunities per unit = 10 1. DPMO.93⇒ 0. shipping instructions. product or services. the RTY of the process is 90.43% parts at the end of the tenth stage. Throughput Yield: Output divided by Input VI. If we start with a batch of 1000 parts we get 904 good parts and scarp or rework 96 parts. DPU = D/U= 34/750 = 0. we get good 90.) opportunities are name. If we do not measure. DPO = D /(U × O) = 34 / 750 × 10 = 0. Each is an opportunity. A watchcase may have pits.045) = 0. 4.95⇒ 0.045 2. of opportunity per unit V. currency etc. Burr etc. are different opportunities for getting a defect. so we cannot improve. a transaction etc.95⇒ 0. Defects per Million opportunities (DPMO): DPMO = DPU × 10⎯6 No. Defect = 34.

5% and the yields from the third step (Y3) is 89. Example of CTQ are the mean and range of the waiting times in a physician. Unit: A unit is the item (e. Y= 1 – DPU. If there are 150 spelling errors. service or service step or time period to be studies with a Six Sigma project). II. If each component part contains three opportunities for a defect. a service has four component parts. that is. For example. If 25 units are served to customers and 20 are good. The number of car accidents per month on a particular stretch of highway.80. For example.00 pm.897) 7 . office for forum patients selected each at 10. Yield: Yield is the proportion of units within specification divided by the total number of units. Defect Opportunity: A defect opportunity in each circumstance in which a CTQ can fail be met. DPU is 150/50 = 30.997 × 0. the total number of defects for units divided by the total number of opportunities. Rolled Throughput Yield (RTY): Rolled Throughput Yield is the product of the yields forms each step in a process. that is. Each yield Y for each step or component must be calculated to compute the RTY.98% (0. DPO = DPU / Total number of opportunities. if a process has three independent steps and the yields from the first step (Y1) is 99.995 × 0. Defective: A non-conforming unit is a defective unit. the total number of defects for n units divided by n.g. then the service has 12 defect opportunities in which a CTQ can fail to be met. Defects Per Million Opportunities (DPMO): DPMO equals DPO multiplied by one million. RTY is the probability of a unit passing through each of K independent steps of a process the first time without incurring one or more defects an each of the K Steps. I.00 am. RTY = Y1 × Y2 × ………… Yk where K = number of steps in a process or the number of component parts or steps in a product or service. Defects per Opportunity (DPO): Defects per opportunity refers to the average of all the defects for a given number of unit. 2. product or component. III. the number of units. Six Sigma projects are designed to improve CTQs.00 pm.Technical terminology of Six Sigma Management CTQ: A CTQ is a measure or proxy of what is important to a customer. If you are producing 50-page documents the units is a page. then the yield is 20/25 = 0. There may be many opportunities for defects within a defined unit. For those steps in which the number of opportunities is equal to the number of units. The percentage of error in ATM transactions for bank’s customers per month. Defects per unit (DPU): Defects per unit refers to the average of all the defects for a given number of unit.7% the yield from the second step is (Y2) is 99. Defect: A defect is a non-conformance on one of many possible quality characteristics of a unit that causes customer dissatisfaction.7% then the RTY is 88. Where Y = e-DPU. 4.

user satisfaction is not proportional to the performance to the feature.expensive version of existing products. but high performance creates feelings to indifference to features. • Must –Be (M): User satisfaction is not proportional to the performance of the feature. the more user satisfaction. Customer satisfied Completive Pressure Expected Quality One-Dimensional Attractive Product (Exciting Quality) Dysfunctional Must-Be (Basic Quality) Dissatisfaction Region Satisfaction Region Product Fully Functional (Quality) Customer Dissatisfied Kano Features categories of Quality 8 . However. services or processes or to create less. services. the less user satisfaction to the feature. or processes is called Level C surveys. and the more performance. • Questionable (Q): There is contradiction to user’s response to the feature. • To create major new features for existing products.KANO MODEL: Kano surveys embrace a set of market research tools used for three purposes: • To improve existing products. the less user satisfaction. KANO CATEGORIES: There are six KANO category classifications for cognitive images. services. in this case. the less performance. • Alterative (A): Again. services. or processes called Level A surveys. • To invent and innovate an entirely new product. • Indifferent (I): The user is indifferent to the presence and absence of the feature. • One Dimensional (O): User satisfaction is proportional to the performance of the feature. but high levels of performance create feelings of delight to the features. low level of performance creates feelings of indifference to the features. or processes called Level B surveys. the less performance. • Reverse (R): The researcher’s a prior judgment about the user’s view of the feature is the opposite of the user’s view.

focus the improvement record by gathering the current information.The Six Sigma Methodology: The Six Sigma methodology also uses a modified Shewhart cycle PDCA (Plan-Do-Check-Act) Deming’s PDSA (Plan. Define the process and CTQs. Cpk FMEA. C&E. Develop team charter. Define process Map. Control Plan Six Sigma Approach: A five phase approached called DMAIC is followed: D: Define project’s purpose and scope and get background on the process and customer. Define Project All possible Xs Measure Analyze Improve Few ‘x’s Control Process map. M: Measure. which is called the DMAIC (Define. Identify project CTQs. fail-safing. Define phase: A. This is something called the breakthrough strategy.Measure –Analysis –Improve –Control) The variation is getting reduced as it passes through a funnel of the six methodology. Choose Critical Business and process Issue. Develop. and try out and implement solutions that address the root cause. 6. 3. A: Analyses. C: Control.Study. 4. 9 . Evaluate the solutions and maintain the gains by setting up controls. MSA. 2. 1. B. C. Multi-vari Design of SPC. I: Improve. 7. Map the process. Understand the voice of the customers. standardizing and documenting work methods. Define the team and training needs. Define scope and opportunities of the project. anticipating future improvements.Do. Develop the charter. 5. identify the root cause and confirm them with Data.Act). and process.

3. 3. Select & measure performance variable carry out MSA. 5. Define – validate – Implement. Evaluate the control system. 2. Establish performance capabilities.Measure Phase: A. Analysis Phase: A. Fix owner ship. Select the key product. Benchmark performance metrics. 10 . Select & diagnose the performance variable. 4. 4. B. Summarize and communicate results. Select CTQs (Customer. Establish the optimum solution. 2. B. Establish the tolerance on X’s. Process) Establish and validate measurement system. Create detailed process map. 6. 3. 5. Monitor performance metrics. Bench marking & Goal setting. Establish control system. 1. C. Select the variable for establishing controls. 2. Determine Data type and create check sheets. Verify performance improvement and evaluate benefits. Select solution – Reduction of process variations. 3. Create product tree. 1. Identify success factors. 5. Control Phase: A. 1. C. Propose and confirm casual variables. Define performance goal. C. Create possible solutions for root cause. Discover Best in class performance. Identify sources of variations. Recommend future plan. Improve Phase: A. B. Establish process capabilities. Gap analysis & Root cause analysis C. Define performance variables and measurement process. 4. 6. Product. B.Monitor control system. Train teams. Conduct Gap Analysis. Create and implement plans. 2. 5. 6. 4. 1.

• Presenting data.Statistical methods in Six Sigma: • Planning and collection of Data. Process ⇒ Variations ⇒ Data Expanding world of statistics. What is statistical thinking? Statistical thinking is a philosophy of learning and action based on the following fundamental principles: • All work occurs in a system of interconnected process. A complete improvement approach includes alls elements of satisfied thinking. Process → Variation → Data → Statistical Tools Statistical Thinking Statistical Methods Benefits of statistical thinking: • Provides a theory and methodology for improvement. • Provides a general approach to take. • Variation exits in all process and • Understanding and reducing variation are keys to success. Deming Once Said “ If I had to reduce my message for management to just a few words I had say it all had to do with reducing variation. • Suggests tools to use. • Helps identify where improvements is needed. which are usually subject to variation. • Analysis of data and • Drawing valid inference from data. The way we think Organizational Impact Organizational Improvement Product process Improvement Problem Solving Time 11 .” Relationship: Between satisfaction thinking and statistical methods. • Summarization of data.

Examples of Managerial process: • • • • • • • • • • Employee Selection Training and Development Performance Management Recognition and Reward Budgeting Setting objectives and goals Project Management Communication Management Reporting Planning • • 12 . not blaming employees.Use of statistical thinking Depends on level of activity and job responsibility Where we’re Headed Managerial process to guide us Where the work Gets done Strategic Executives Managers Managerial Operational Workers Examples of operational processes • • • • • • • Manufacturing Order Entry Delivery Distribution Billing Collection Service Examples of Strategically thinking at the operational level Work process are mapped and documented Key measurement are identified . and Data • Improvement activities focus on the process.Time plots displayed • Process management and improvement utility Knowledge of variation.

Employee. Ensure meeting effectiveness is not dependent on facilities. equipment. Experimentation is encouraged. Core processes have been flow charged. • • • • 13 . Process variation is considered when setting goals. A variety of communication media are used. Enable personnel to adopt to changing business needs. customer. Measurement system is place. Examples of Strategic Processes • • • • • • • Strategic plan development Strategic plan development Acquisitions Corporate Budget development Communications – Internal and External Succession planning and Deployment Organizational Improvement Examples of Statistical Thinking at the Strategic Level • • • • • • Executives use system approach.Examples of Strategically thinking at the Managerial level • • • • • • • Managers use meeting management techniques. The number of suppliers is reduced. Standardized project management systems are place. Design a project system that is insensitive to o Personal Changes o Changes in project scope o Variations in business conditions. Both project process and results are reviewed. and benchmarking studies are used to derive improvement. Robustness in Management • • Develop strategies that are insensitive to economic trends and cycles. Responds to differing employee needs Adopt flexible work hours. Measurement is viewed as a process. or participants. Strategic direction defined and deployed.

Anticipate variation Design Robust Process and Products Process Robustness Analysis • Identify those uncontrolled factors the affect process performance o Weather o Customer use of products o Employee knowledge. • People vary – they are different. learning and thinking. Quality Improvement 14 .Understanding Human Behaviour • Different people have different methods and styles of working. experience work habits. Improve the system Reduce common Case Variation. • Different people take in process and communicate information in different ways. skills. o Age of Equipment • Design the process to be insensitive to the uncontrollable variants in the factors. Day to day Person to person Group to group Organization to organization Three ways to reduce variations and improve quality: Control the process Eliminate special Case variation.

• Objective of statistics is to drawl conclusion about the population using sample data. 15 . Types Sample Random Sample: Each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected. • • Assign a number to each member of population number table. Software program or a calculate Data from members of the population that correspond to these numbers become members of the sample. Generally each has one or more characteristics (attributes) of interest when a particular characteristic is measure we obtain a value. • A sample is part of population. Sample: A subject of the element selected from a population with a view to draw inference about the population characteristics. Simple Random Sample: All samples of the same size are equally likely.Population: Collection of all elements under consideration and about which we are trying to draw conclusions. Population Sample A portion or subset of the population Sample data should be • Relevant • Representative • Adequate • Reliable Advantages of sample • Sampling is less costly (cost effectiveness). which varies from case to case – hence each characteristics is termed as variable. sampling is the only way. Population elements may be: • Objects • Entities • Units • People ……… etc. Recording the value of a variable for each case amounts to collecting data. • Sampling inspection may have relatively less inspection error and sampling error can be estimated. • Total enumeration may not also be free from errors (Inspection Fatigue). • When inspection is destructive.

For example Sample Cluster Samples: Divide the population into individual units or groups and randomly select one or more units. Strata could be raw material.Simple Random sample: • Each pollution element has an equal change of being selected. X. Tables and graphs • Characterize data e.Drawing conclusions and / or marking decisions concerning a population based only on sample data.g. Estimate the population mean weight using the sample mean weight • Hypothesis testing (Assumption) e. X. X. X.g. survey • Present data e. Cluster samples Systematic Samples: Choose a starting value of random. • Inferential statistics .g. The sample consists of all members from selected units (s).g. X. vendors or process. lottery. Statistical Methods • Descriptive statistics . Stratified Random Samples: Divide the population into groups (strata) (layers) and select a random sample from each group. X. every 5th member of the population selected. X. X. X. Test the claim that the population mean weight is Drawing conclusions and / or marking decisions concerning a population based on sample results. Convenience Sample: Choose readily available members of the population for your sample. X.Collecting and describing data. • May use random number table. X. and then choose sample members at regular intervals. 16 . sample mean Inferential statistics (Conclusion) • Estimation e. X. X. X. X. X. • Selecting 1 subject does not effect selecting others.g. Descriptive statistics • Collect Data e. in this example K=5. X We say we choose every Kth member. X. X.

e. • Improve future performance. • No identifiable universe or frame.DATA SOURCES Primary Data Collection Secondary Data Compilation Observation Experimentation Survey Print or Electronic Statistical Studies: Statistical Studies Enumerating Study Analytical Study Enumerating Study • Involve decision making about a population 1.g. production process Types of Data Data Categorical (Qualitative) Numerical (Qualitative) Discret Continuous 17 . Frame is listing of all population units Examples: Name in telephone book Example: Political Poll Analytical Study • Involves action on a process.

$25. O = off–campus. • Numerical Indices. Graphical Methods: Graphic displays provide better in sight that often is not possible with words or members. • Used widely in marketing. Example. Contingency table • Shows # observations jointly in two categorical variables.000 & over) Use categories: Y = use credit cards. You want to analyze data on credit card users annual income Income: 12 20 32 45 72 46 18 55 Use: Y N N Y Y Y N Y (Income categories: US $25.Data summarization methods: • Graphical Methods. M = Male.000. N = don’t use Income Under $25 K Total No 2 (67) 3 (38) Yes 1 (33) 5 (62) Total 3 (100) 8 (100) Residence On – campus Graphical Tools • • • • • • • Bar Chart Pie Chart Histogram Frequency Curve Scatter Diagram Control Charts Box Plots 18 . Residence: C C O O C C O O C O Gender: M F F M M M F M MF Where C = on campus. 1. You are a marketing research analysis for visa.Male employee Gender variable and major variable • May include raw. • Tabular summarization. F = Female Male Female Total 4 1 5 (80) (20) (100) Off – campus 2 3 5 (40) (60) (100) Total 6 4 10 (60) (40) (100) 2. column or total % • Helps find relationship.

24.24. Equal Bar width Zero point Pie Charge: • • • Shoes breakdown of total quantity into categories.38.27.27. Data: 21.26. Data: 21. – Stem value defines class . Numerical value is located by a dot on horizontal axis. ο οο οοο ο ο 20 25 30 35 35 40 45 Stem -and leaf display: 1.38.32.32. Mgm t. Mkt. 3. Share (%) Lotus 15 Microsoft 60 Word perfect 10 Others 15 Dot plot: 1.27.41 2 144677 3 028 4 1 19 . Divide each observation into step value and leaf value. you want to show the market shares held by windows program manufactures in 1992.30.42.Leaf value defines frequency 2. Useful for showing relative difference.26.24.24.27.30. 2. Angle size – (360° x percent) = 360° x 10% = 36° Econ Mgmt Acct Example: You are on analyst for IRI. Condenses data by grouping the same values together. Construct a BAR graph & PIE chart to describe the data. Mfg. Econ.Bar Chart: Bar length Frequency 150 100 50 0 Acct.

20 . The Histogram described the variation in the variant in the process. Compare with specification. 2. Mean. Mode. The graph of figure use smooth curves rather than the rectangular shapes associated with the Histogram. Median. 3. whereas the Histogram represents a sample frequency distribution. A smooth curve represents a population frequency distribution. 3. The simplicity of construction and interpretation of the histogram makes it an effective tool in the elementary analysis of data. It is used to 1. A measure of central tendency of a distribution is a numerical value than described the central position other data or how the data tend to buildup in the center. Suggest the shape of the population. Determine the process capabilities. 4. It highlights the center and amount of variation in the sample of data. LSL Tolerance USL Capability Frequency A typical histogram show in the above fig. There are three measures to common use 1. Indicate discrepancies in data such as gaps. Many problems in quality control have been solved with this one elementary tool alone. Solved problems. and 5. 2.Histogram: It is bar chart of frequency distribution.

Xi = Cell midpoint or an observed value. Xk Frequency f1 f2 …………. which is representative of the set up of data as most of the data is centered around the value. k = number of cell or numbers of observed values. • Measure of dispersion. 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 6 Mean = 5 5 7 8 8 9 9 10 10 12 14 _ n 6 7 Mean = 6 Temp..°C (X) No.Xn = ∑ Xi i=1 n Where X = Average n = number of observed value. Important measures of central tendency Mean (Arithmetic Mean). fk Where n = sum of the frequencies. Ungroup data: Mean (X) = X1+X2……………….07 Xf 50 72 128 406 21 . It is the most common measure of central tendency. Numerical Indices: Data can be summarized using • Measure of central tendency. • The most common measure of central tendency • Affected by extreme value (outliners) Measure of central tendency: A value.Mean: The mean is the sum of the observation divided by the number of observations. fi = frequency in a cell or frequency of an observed value. of days (f) 25 2 26 3 27 4 28 3 29 1 30 2 Total 15 _ Average Temp (X) = 406/15 = 27. Group data: X X1 X2 …………..

We first arrange the data from the smallest to largest value e. Ungrouped data: I. If n or N is even no. 450. e. • In an ordered array. • Robust measure of central tendency.88.108 the median is the average of the 4th and 5th value i. 400. 22 . If the number of values (n) is odd. The location of median is obtained by counting (n+1) observations from the bottom of the list. If the observation is even. Arrange all valued in order of size from smallest to largest 2. 430. 2 Consider the data set: 490. Lm = lower boundary of the cell in the median.e. That is the mean is much more sensitive to outliner value as compared to the median. Cfm = cumulative frequency of all cell below Lm fm = frequency of median cell. 2 II. which divides a series of ordered observation so that the number of items above it is equal to the number below it. 420 and 430 to find the median of this data. 420. n+1) 2 2 1. 400. i = cell interval The median of grouped data is not used to frequently.g 70.77.82.g. 75. n = total number of observations. 490 The median is in the position (n+1) = (5+1) = 3 2 2 a. the median is the “middle” number. the median is center value in the ordered list.105.Medium (M) The median is defined as the value.100. If n or N is odd. the median M is given by the average of the two center observations in the ordered list. the median is the average of the two middle numbers (n. 450. Group data: n _ Cfm M = Lm + 2________ × i fm Where M = Median. • Not affected by extreme values. the median is middle number (n+1). (82 + 88) = 85 2 The median has several advantages over the mean the most important is that extreme value do not affect median as strongly as they do the mean.

12.11 Describe the stock prices in terms of central tendency.3 Q3 Position = 3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Mode = 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 No Mode The empirical relationship among the mean. • There may bee no mode • There may be several modes.21.5 6 Median (M) Raw Data: 16 16 21 18 13 16 Ordered: 11 12 13 16 16 17 Position 1 2 3 4 5 6 Position Point: ( n and n+1 ) 2 2 Median (M) = 16+16 = 16 2 Mode Mid range = X smallest + X largest = 11+21 = 16 2 2 Q1 Position = 1.75 = 7 4 4 Q3 = 18 23 _ n 12 18 7 11 21 8 .18. (n+1) = 3.Mode: The mode of set of numbers is the value that occurs with the greatest frequency.(8+1) = 6.(8+1) = 2. You have collected the following closing stock prices of new stock issues: 17. median and mode are Mean – Mode = 3 [mean – median] Percentile: The pth percentile of data is the value such the P percent of the observations fall at or below it. • Used for either numerical or categorical data.13.5 4 4 Q1 = 12. Example: You are a financial analyst for a Bank. • Value that occurs most often • No affect by extreme values. • A measure of central tendency. 16. The median is the 50th percentile the first quartile is 25th percentile and the third quartile is the75th percentile. Mean (X) = ∑Xi /n = X1+X2……………+X6 i=1 6 17+16+21+16+13+16+12+11 = 15. (n+1) = 1.16.

the variability in the values is often an important feature of interest. No two items produced by same process are exactly the same. This is true whether the test equipment involved is automatic or manually operated.Dispersion: Variation is a fact of nature and in industrial life too. variation in test environment conditions or due to difference in the skill of chemists or testing variation in the test result adds to the uncertainty of decisions and hence it is important to measure variation and control. Variation can be because of lack of complete homogeneity of chemicals used in test. That is range (R) = Largest value – Smallest value Range is • Measure of variation • Difference between the largest and the smallest observations. 24 . Measure of variation: Variation Range Variance Population Variance Sample Variance Standard and Deviation Population standard Deviation Sample Standard Deviation Interquartile Range In summarizing data. Ignore the way which data are distributed. Used for small samples. Range = X largest – X smallest 7 8 9 10 11 12. Range = 12-7 = 5 • • 7 8 9 10 11 Range = 12-7 = 5 12. Test done on the same samples may vary from chemist to chemist or from laboratory to laboratory. major measures of dispersion are: Range (R): The range is the difference between the largest and smallest value in a data set.

Xi = Observed value. The standard deviation is a numerical value in the units of the observed values that measure the spreading tendency of the data.µ)2 i=1 N Where σ = Population standard deviation. µ is the population mean. X2. It takes into account all the values in set of data. …………………. Standard Deviation • Most important measure of variation • Shows variations about the mean.…………………. X3. N = Number of observe value. X3.Standard deviation and Variance: The most commonly used measure of dispersion is called the standard deviation. Sample standard deviation (S): If the sample results values are X1. Xn It is given by Ungroup data: _ n S = ∑ (Xi − X)2 i=1 n Group data: σ = ∑ (fiXi2 ) −∑ (fiXi)2 i=1 i=1 h h n(n−1) Variance: Population variance (σ2) σ2 = i=1 ∑ (Xi − µ)2 N n Sample variance (S ) S = n _ ∑ (Xi − X)2 i=1 2 n-1 25 . Population standard deviation: It is denoted by the Greek symbol σ and given by root means squared deviation from the mean µ Suppose the best result values are X1. A large standard deviation shows greater variability of the data than does a small standard deviation. X3. XN N σ = ∑ (Xi . • Has the same unit.

It relates the standard deviation and the mean and expresses standard deviation a percentage of mean. Sample standard deviation (S) = 4. 26 . for theoretical reasons we divide by n-1.5. Coefficient of variation: The standard deviation is an absolute measure of dispersion that expresses variation in the some units as the original data.4% Laboratory 2 has less relative variation. In such cases. The formula for coefficient of variations Coefficient of variation (CV) = Standard deviation (σ) ×100 Mean (µ) Example: laboratory one can complete on an average 40 analyses per day with a standard deviation of 5.5% Lab 2: Coefficient of variation 15 / 40 x 100 = 9. _ • The second column (Xi – X) is the deviation of the individual observed values from the average. they will all be positive and this sum will be greater then zero. which gives an answer that has the units squared. we use coefficient of variation. It is colleted the variance and is given the symbol S2.062. Where as laboratory second can complete 160 analyses per day with a standard deviation of 15. Same facts about standard deviation formula The above table will be used to explain the standard deviation concept.Standard deviation of the sample test values: Xi Xi – X (Xi-X) 2 15 -5 25 18 -2 4 20 0 0 21 1 1 26 6 36 X=10 ∑ 0 ∑66 _ X = 100/5 = 20. It is a relative measure of variations. • However. thus. This result is not acceptable as a measure of the dispersion but is valuable as a measure of variability for advanced statistics. if the deviations are squared.062 and Sample variance 66/ 4 = 16. but it will not lead to the measure of dispersion. Which laboratory shows more consistency? Lab 1: Coefficient of variation 5 / 40 x 100 = 12. It cannot be sole basis for comparing two distributions especially if the data are measured on different scales or if larger mean has larger variation. S = _ ∑ (Xi − X)2 n-1 S = √ 66/4 = 4. • The first column (Xi) gives five observed value and from these value the average X = 10 is obtained. however. If we sum the deviation (0). which is always the case. • The average of the squared deviations can be found by dividing by n.

11.13.34 Coefficient of variation (cv) = (S/X)×100 = 3.5)2 +(16-15. The first quartile in the median of the observation below the location of the median.2118.14 8-1 S = √11.4×100 = 21.15.(11-15.2118. 16. S = n _ ∑ (Xi − X)2 i=1 n-1 Mean (X) = ∑Xi /n = X1+X2……………+X8 = 15.34/15. Inter quartile Range (IQR): It is the difference between the third and the first quartiles of a set of values. Describe the volatility of the stock price. Each part contains 25% of the values Q1 is called the first or lower quartile and Q3 is called the third quartile higher quartile Q2 is the median.14 = 3.5 i=1 8 S2 = (17-15.11. Inter quartile range ¼ of values Min value Q1 Ist Quartil Calculation of quartile: • • • Arrange the data in the increasing order and locate the median. Data 17. The third quartile in the median of the observations above the median of the observations.15.12.Example: You are a financial analyst for a bank you have collected the following closing stock prices of new stock issue 17. Q2 IInd Quartil ¼ of values Q3 IIIrd Quartil Max value _ n 27 .5)2 = 11. 16.12. It reflects the variability of the middle 50 per cent of the data.5% Quartile: Quartiles divide the data into four equal parts. That is Inter quartile range IQR = Q3 – Q2 Inter quartile range is a simple measure of speed that gives the range covered by the middle half of the data. The quartiles and the IQR are unaffected by extreme values.5)2 +…………….13.

7 23. It is used when the distribution in symmetrical. median. When a distribution has extreme values. It is used when an exact midpoint of a distribution is desired.7 28.skewed Mean Median Mode Mode Mean Median Mean Mode Median 28 . 16.4 17.8 Q2 = Median = 17.3 11. Q1= 13. Symmetrical Right.9 24.2 13. median and mode are shown in the above figure.1 17.8 17. 26.3-13.skewed Left.9. when the distribution is skewed the values are different.e. The median is the most commonly used measure of central tendency.8 16.9 18.9 Inter quartile range (IQR) = Q3 – Q1 = 23.8.8 22. X smallest Q1 Median Q3 X Largest 4 6 8 10 12 Relationship among the measures of central tendency.8.5 23.9 24. The mode is used when a quick and approximate measure of the central tendency is desired.2 12. The median becomes an effective measure of the central tendency when the distribution is to the right or left skewed.8 7.3 26.1 22.4 Box and whisker plot Graphical display of data suing 5 – number summary. 7.5 Determine the quartile and Inter quartile range Arrange the data in increasing order i.9 23.2 13.2 11. and mode are identical.5 15. Difference among mean.2 17.5 = 10. the mean will be adversely affected while the median will remain unchanged.2 23.4 28. When the distribution is symmetrical.Example: Data below given the daily emission of Sulphur oxide of an industrial plant 15. the values for the mean.5 18.5 and Q3 = 23.

mean and standard deviation.14159 Z = 1 e¯ 2 = 0. the histogram will take on the appearance of a smooth polygon or a curve representing the population is called Normal curve or Gaussian distribution. 3. The normal curve is a symmetrical. the cell interval is very small. The curve represents a population of infinite size. Z = Xi − µ σ The formula for the standardize normal curve is: Z2 Z2 where = 3. It is a bell shaped curve.3989 e¯ 2 e = 2. It is defined by two parameters i.e. unimodal. 29 . Mean. The curve starts from –∞ to +∞ 5. bell-shaped distribution with the mean.THE NORMAL CURVE: A population curve or distribution is developed from a frequency histogram as the sample size of a histogram gets larger and larger. f(z) 00 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 Z All normal distributions of continuous variables can be converted to the standardized normal distribution by using the standardized normal value Z. Median and More are identical 2.71828 2π² Z = Xi − µ σ Properties of Normal distribution 1. median and mode having the same value. Symmetric about the mean 4.

e. Limits µ ±1σ µ ±2σ µ ±3σ µ±∞ % Area covered 68.26% 95.46% 99. and the smaller the standard deviation.5 X Above figure show three normal curves with the same mean but different standard deviations.73% 100% -3σ -2σ -1σ µ 1σ 68. larger the standard deviation. all valued are identical to the mean and there is no curve. If the standard deviation is zero. the more peaked the curve data are normally dispersed.26% 95. greater than particular value and between the two specified limits. 30 . there is definite relationship among the mean. i.0 σ = 4.73% 2σ 3σ Application: 1.5 σ =3. It is base for control charts.46% 99. A relationship exists between the standard deviation and the area under the normal curves shown in figure. It is possible to find out the percentage of the data. 3.Relationship to the Mean and Standard Deviation we have seen by the formula for the standardized normal curve. The main application is 99. which are less than the particular value.73% of the area covered between – 3 to + 3 limits. 2. the standard deviation and the normal curve σ =1. the flatter the curve data are widely dispersed.

135% Mean 99.00135 x 106 = 1350 DPMO thus the sigma level is = 4. if the USL for process is 16. and the process average and standard deviation are calculated as 10.99865.865% of the process distribution is less them than the X value that is there sigma units above the mean.µ σ The Z value indicates how many sigma (σ) units the X value id from the mean (µ). meeting that 99. That implies that Measured process 1-0.135% of the process exceeds this X value i.00135 or 0.Sigma Level: Calculate normal value Z Where Z = Xi .0 respectively then the Z value corresponding to the upper specification is Z = (16 –10) =3.e.865% 31 . a Z value of 3 equals a probability of 0. 0.0 and 2.999865 = 0.5 Z= ±3 0.0 2 Using the normal tables. For example.

Sources of variation: There is variation in all parts produced by manufacturing process. 2. Chance Causes.Statistical process control: A collection of strategic. Natural variation Chance causes present management system. Variation: Types of variation: Variation Cause Process Normal or Chance Common or Natural In control Unusual or Abnormal Special or Assignable Out of control Cause of variation in Quality: In a manufacturing process the quality of any product will vary from product to due to various causes. also classed special cause. Assignable causes. Chance variation is random in nature and cannot be entirely eliminated. 1. • Establish state of statistical control. • Monitor a process and signal when it goes out of control. Subgroup average Unnatural variation Assignable causes present operations. • SPC relies on control charts. UCL _ X LCL Subgroup Unnatural variation Assignable causes present operations. • A methodology for monitoring a process to identify special causes of variation and signal the need to take corrective action when appropriate. • Determine process capability. Assignable variation is not random in nature and can be reduced or eliminated by investigating the problem and finding the cause. also called random or common cause. Chance cases: A course variation that is small is magnitude and difficult to identify. techniques and actions taken by an organization to ensure they are producing a quality product or providing a quality service. Assignable cause: A cause of variation that is large in magnitude and easily identified. 32 .

timeliness of claims processing. The process does not need to be adjusted. procedures and guild lines established by an organization to achieve and maintain quality. customer satisfaction. • If the variation in the quality of the production output is due to assignable cause the process should be adjusted or corrected as soon as possible. cleanliness. Catalog-order companies Order accuracy. both a Type I error (adjusting an in – control process) and a Type II error (allowing an out of control to continue) are possible.Quality terminology: Quality Assurance refers to the entire system of policies.testing methodology. agent availability and responses time. • SPC procedures are based on hypothesis . phone order waiting time. employee courtesy. • The null hypotheses Ho is formulated in terms of production process being in control. • Monitor times. • The alternative hypothesis H1 is formulated in terms of the process being out of control. stocking. packaging. operator knowledge and courtesy. • SPC uses graphical displays known as control chart to monitor a production process. accuracy of lab tests Grocery stores Checkout time. 33 . • Quality control consists of making a series of inspections and measurements to determine whether quality standards are being met. • Control charts provide a basis for deciding whether the variation in the output is due to common cause (in control) or assignable causes (out of control). Insurance companies Billing accuracy. food quality. waiting times. The objective of Quality Engineering is to include quality in the design of products and process and to identify potential quality problems prior to production. • As with other hypothesis – testing procedure. • The goal of SPC is to determine whether the process can be continued or whether it should be adjusted to archive a desire quality level. SPC applied to services • Nature of defect is different in service. cleanliness Airlines Luggage handling. courtesy Fast food restaurants Waiting times. • Service defect is a failure to meet customer’s requirements. • IF the variation in output is due to common cause which the manager cannot control. responsiveness. Service quality examples: Hospitals Timeliness. delivery time.

34 . • You need to know how to compute limits for the different types of process charts. • You must understand the generic process for implementing process charts. The event may be a shift in a process mean or some unexpected occurrence. • The type of variation cannot be controlled. Attribute: An attribute is the result of a bionomical process that results in an either -or situation. • Non-random or “special causes” variation results from some event. CL Centerline LCL Lower Control Limit Variables: A variables is a continuous measurement such as weight. • You need to know when different process charts are used. It has an upper limit. • You must know how to interpret process charts. Hence.Process charts: Tools for monitoring process variation. a centerline. The figure on the following slide shows a process control chart. Understanding process variation: • Random variation is centered around a mean and occurs with a consistent amount of dispersion. Central requirements for property using process charts. we refer to it as “uncontrolled variation”. • The statistical tools discussed in this talk are not designed to detect random variation. Control chart (Shewahrt control chart-3σ) Upper Control limit Each point represents data UCL from a sample that are plotted Sequentially. height or volume. The most common types of variable and attributes charts . and a lower limit.

if the operation is performed improperly. the product will be negatively affected. • Identify critical product characteristics. This decision process and types of chart available are discussed later. To randomize means to sample is such a way that every piece of product has an equal chance of being selected for inspection. .Process stability: Means that the variation we observe in the process is random variation. Systematic sample: Systematic samples have some of the benefits of random samples without the difficulty of randomizing. 35 . • Establish the control limits and use the chart to continually improve. These are operations in which. Sampling by Rational subgroup: A rational subgroup is a group of data that is logically homogenous. data are gathered in sample. these are the attributes of the product that will result in either good or poor function the product. Sampling Methods: To ensure that processes are stable. • Update the limits when changes have been made to the process. To determine process stability we use process charts. • Select the appropriate process control chart from among the many types of control charts. • Determine whether the critical product characteristic is a variable an attribute. A generalized procedure for developing process charts • Identify critical operations in the process where inspection might be needed. variation within the data can provide a yardstick for setting limits on the standard variation between subgroups. Random samples: Randomization is useful because it ensure independence among observation.

is not acceptable or does not meet specifications.X-bar and R Charts: The X-bar chart is a process chart used to monitoring the average of the characteristics being measured.A defective is a unit that.A defect is an irregularity or problem with a larger unit. It is used in conjunction with X-bar chart when the process characteristic is variable. _ k Where R = ∑ Ri i=1 Mean LCL Sample II. .X-bar charts track process means. collect samples from the process and organize them in to subgroups. To set up an X-bar chart select samples from the process for the characteristic being measured. . LCLR = D3R X. R by taking the difference of the high value on the subgroup minus the low value.We will now be thinking in terms of defects and defectives rather than diameter or widths. as a whole. Then from the samples into rational subgroups. Control charts for variables: . I. compute the range. _ X chart control limits = _ = k UCLX = X + A2R Where X = ∑ Xi i=1 = _ LCLX = X − A2R R chart control limits _ UCLR = D4R k Where K is not sub group.We now shift to charts for attributes. Next. . These charts deal with binomial and poison processes that are not measurements. The R Chart is used to monitor the variability or dispersion of the process. Then plot the R values on the R-Charts. usually of three to six items. next.chart UCL LCL . 36 . .Bar chart UCL R. To develop on R chart. Control charts for Attributes: Sample Rang _ k Where K is not sub group. find the average value of each sample by dividing the sums of the measurements by the sample size and plot the value on the process control X-bar chart.Range charts track process variation.

.P-charts are effectively used to determine when there has been a shift in the proportion defective for a particular product or service. and clerical errors on written forms. p-Chart. Z= 3 d _ = ∑d P = n .P) UCL n CL LCL Sample Number np-Charts: . . incomplete orders.When subgroup sizes are equal. .The np-chart is graph of the number of defective (or non confirming units) is a subgroup. The np-chart requires that the samplings of each subgroup be the same each time a sampling drawn. _ Centerline (CL) = n p _ _ _ UCLnp = np + 3 np(1 . They are essentially the same chart.The P-chart is a process chart that issued to graph the proportion of items in a sample that are defective (Non confirming to specifications). p = np . .p) _ _ _ _ n p = ∑ np ._ LCLP = P − 3 _ _ P(1 . P = Total defectives_______ Total sample observation ∑n _ _ _ UCLP = P + 3 P(1 . The uses for the np-chart are essentially the same as the uses for the p-chart. CL = np N n 37 . n = sample size.Typical applications of the P-chart include things like late deliveries.P) n Proportional Defective p-Charts for proportion Defectives: .p) _ _ _ LCLnp = np − 3 np(1 .Some people find the np-chart easier to use because it reflects integer number rather than proportions. either the p or np-chart can be used. _ UCLP = P + Z σP _ LCLP = P − Z σP _ _ ∑ P(P − P) σP = n _ P = average % defective in sample.

and allows for different numbers of units in each sample space. The units must be of the same sample space. which shows the actual number of defects per standardized unit. heights and so on. This is contrasted with the c-chart. the c-chart is used to defect nonrandom events in the life of a production process. area. Number of defective 38 . of sample _ Sample standard deviation σc = c CL _ _ _ UCLc = c + Zσc = c + 3 c _ _ _ LCL LCLc = c + Zσc = c − 3 c Sample Number u-charts: .Charts: . length. Typical applications of the c-chart include number of flows in an auto finish. The uses for the u chart are the same as the c-chart. . height. and number of incorrect responses on a standardized test. number of flaws in a standard typed letter. this includes size. of defects UCL Total no.The u-chart allows for the units sampled to be different sizes. volume and so on. These charts are commonly used in semiconductor production when process dispersion is watched very closely.The u-chart is a graph of the average number of defects per unit. _ UCL Process average c = Total no. . This means that the “area of opportunity” for finding defects must be the same for each unit several individual units can be grouped as if they are one unit of a larger size.Like other process charts. s-chart The s (standardized deviation) chart is used in place of the R-chart when a more sensitive chart is desired.The c chart is graph of the number of defects (Nonconformities) per unit.c.

603 10.1 Obs.79 10.689 10.701 10.812 10.738 10.55 7.732 2 10.713 10.749 10.681 10.728 10.601 10.894 39 .727 10.70 2. You want to analyze the time it takes to deliver room service food orders to room.779 10.601 R chart control limits _ UCLR = D4R = (2.893 10.116 0.667 10.60 5.119 0.776 10.92 5.764 10.745 10. 2.06 5.27 3.62 5.30 Average Mean 5.85 10.671 10.98 7.2204) =10.802 10.644 10. 7.728 − 0.624 9 10.103 0.60 4.79 Range 3. Sample Obs.132 0.728 _ X chart control limits = _ UCLX = X + A2R = 10. and mean of ranges.544 10.822 10.2204) = 0 Range 0.735 8 10.79 10.158 0.50 1.658 10.773 10.838 10.50 5.10 5.5 Avg. 1 10.30 4.70 4.79 10. For 7 days.21 4.77 10.62 10.758 10.10 3.733 14 10.20 5.94 9.669 0. 5.10 4.78 10. mean of means.671 10.72 10.19 6.74 10.59 4. 3.708 10.46504 _ LCLR = D3R = (0) (0.783 15 10.171 0.737 10.90 6.75 10. sample ranges.04 4.606 10.856 = _ LCLX = X − A2R = 10.11)(0.46 6.20 4.727 10.723 10.732 11 10.79 10.719 10.143 0.708 10.20 8. 4.66 10.775 10.61 5.07 7.34 6.77 4.Example X-Bar R chart # Calculate sample means.20 4.80 5.81 10. 7.69 10.768 13 10.4 Obs.73 10.821 10.785 10.28 2.259 0.872 10.00 10.3 Obs.692 Averages 10.714 10.43 6.349 0.727 5 10.2204 # You’re manager of a 500-room hotel.714 10.99 3.250 0.66 10.705 7 10.75 10.59 10.10 4.10 6.153 0. 6.2204) = 0.747 10.85 4.22 3.725 10.724 6 10.89 6.2204) =10.2 Obs. you collect data on 5 deliveries per day.88 5.759 4 10.710 10 10.712 10.08 Delivery Time 6.179 0.86 10.75 10.58(0.90 5.45 7.818 10.32 6.50 8.798 10.641 10.644 10.274 0.779 10.748 12 10.728 + 0.708 10.68 10.859 10.221 0.801 10.11 10.755 3 10.877 10.689 10.58(0. Is the process in control? Day 1.

575)(3.35 5.5 _ X chart control limits UCLX = 27. Hour # mm.5) = 30.282) (0) = 0 # A restaurant is interested in detecting changes in the number of minutes from a party’s sitting down to getting the bill.3 3 Average 26.7 4 3. 26 24 30 27 26.02(3. 24 28 31 26 27. 23 24 28 25. Given are the diameters (in mm. 33 29 30 30.1 3. Mean Range 1. 23 24 26 28 25.0 2 4. 25 24 25 27 25. Sample Quality Variable Mean Range 1. 29 28 28 28.3 1 6.58 LCLX = 26. 23 28 21 24.3 7 5.35 − 0.53 R chart control limits UCLR = (2.8) =22. 24 32 26 27 27.# A manufacturer of chair wheels wishes to maintain the quality of the manufacturing process. for a five-hour period.5) = 23.24 LCLR = (2.3 5 2.3 8 4.0125 LCLR = (3.67 LCLX = 27.729(5.) of the wheels.1 − 1.02(3.8 6 3.8) = 13.0 1 5. 28 30 29 29. Every 15 minutes. a wheel is selected and the diameter measured.282)(5.0 7 2.1 + 1.5) = 9.8 _ X chart control limits UCLX = 26.12 R chart control limits UCLR = (2.729(5.0 5 Average 27. 25 27 25 25.5) (0) = 0 40 .8) =30.35 + 0.

σP = 12 6(40) 0. 2 no.05 2.0 4.04 18 _ P = Total defectives_______ = 200 = 0.00 0. 40 yes 0.08) = 0. 2 no.190 = 0. Sample Result of Inspection p 1..121 n 400 _ _ _ P(1 ..P) = 0.08(1 − 0.05 × 0.039 UCLP = P + 3 n 400 # A restaurant is interested in detecting changes in the percentage of parties leaving less than a 10% tip. 38 yes 0.10 + 3 0.08) = 0.08 − 3 0.10) n 100 _ LCLP = P − 3 _ _ P(1 .10(1 − 0...025 3.P) = 0. 4 no.08(1 − 0.Example p.38 yes 0.05 _ P = = 0. 1 no. Defective 6 0 4 18 200 Proportion Defective 0.0%..10 Total sample observation 20(100) _ _ _ UCLP = P + 3 P(1 .P) = 0.06 0.39 yes 0.10) 100 = 0. 2. Ten samples of 400 shoes revealed the mean percent defective was 8.10(1 − 0. 37 yes 0.P) n = 0. 3 no.010 # A manufacturer of running shoes wants to establish control limits for the percent defective.chart # 20 samples of 100 pairs of jeans Sample 1. Where should the manufacturer set the control limit? _ _ _ UCLP = P + 3 P(1 .95 = 0.10 − 3 0. 36 yes 0.075 6.034 40 41 . 20. 0 no.05 ..10 5. 3.08 + 3 0.

of defects = 190 = 12.99 # A manufacturer of computer circuit boards tested 10 after they were manufactured. of sample 15 _ Sample standard deviation σc = c _ _ _ = 12. 1 4 2 2 3 5 4 3 5 4 6 5 _ Process average c = 23/6 = 3.67 = 1.66 LCLc = c + Zσc = c − 3 c # A restaurant is interested in detecting changes in the number of parties per day that are larger than 6 people.67 − 3 √ 12. 4.35 UCLc = c + Zσc = c + 3 c _ _ _ LCLc = c + Zσc = c − 3 c = 12.83 − 3 √ 3.08 > 0 42 .68 LCLc = 3.83 = 9. The number of defects obtained per circuit board were 5. 3. 0. _ Process average c = 26 = 2.6 = 7.83 = -2.67 = 23. 2.6 = -2.6 + 3 √ 2.6 10 _ = √ 2.83 + 3 √ 3. 2. 2.Example c-chart # Count of defects in 15 rolls of Denim fabric Sample 1. 1.83 . UCLc = 3.6 Sample standard deviation σc = c _ _ _ UCLc = c + Zσc = c + 3 c = 2. 15 Defects 12 8 16 15 190 _ Process average c = Total no. 3. Day No.67 + 3 √ 12.67 Total no. 3 and 2. 4.44 _ _ _ = 2. Construct the appropriate control limits.6 − 3 √ 2.

_ σ = R/d2 5. If the capability index is 1.00 6σ 6σ 6σ USL 43 . It is equal to six-standard deviation when the process is in a sate of statistical control. It is equal to six standard deviations when the process is in a state of statistical control. Calculate the average range R = ∑ R/25 4. Procedure for process capability: 1. Process capacity ratio Cp = Tolerance range Process range = Upper specification – lower specification 6σ Where Cp = Capability index. 2. Process capacity will equal 6σ ratios.Process capability: Control limits: -The limits on a control chart used to evaluate the variations in quality from subgroup to subgroup (Non be confused with speciation limits). Process capability: The spread of the process. Calculate the range. _ 3. R for each subgroup. Case-I. Take 25 subgroups of size 5 for a total of 100 measurements. 6σ0 = Process capability.00 which is desirable 6σ LSL CP = USL − LSL = 6σ = 1. Calculate the estimated of the population S. Tolerance: – The permissible variation in the size of quality characteristic.D. The different between specifications is called the tolerance. Process capability: The spread of the process.

Case-III.33 6σ 6σ USL Case-III. then the natural control limits and customer specification are exactly equal.e. = = = Min {(upper specification limit −X) or ( X−lower specification limit)} _ _ 3σ or X − USL Min USL − X 3σ 3σ Interpretation of index values: Case-I. If the capability index is greater than 1.If the process is not under control. If the capability index is less than 1. The process is just capable.Case-II. If CPK >1. 44 . If CPK <1. the process is not capable. then CPK has no meaning. Note: . the process is highly capable of meeting customer specification. Case-II. If CPK =1.00 which is desirable 6σ LSL Process capability index: CPK = 4σ USL i.00 which is desirable 6σ LSL 8σ CP = USL − LSL = 8σ = 1.

X15 = R3 X1. X3. i. X3. X25 3. 2. …………………. This formula typically produces the same value for CPK as with normally distributed characteristic with the same fraction of nonconforming units (single-side). X25 = R5 5. 45 . Upper CPK = (Upper specification limit −X) = 3σ Lower CPK = ( X−lower specification limit) 3σ 9. Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) III. X3. Take a lot size of 25 pcs. Scatter diagram. …………………. X3. II. Statistical process Control (SPC): Seven tools ⇒ Pareto diagram. Calculate R as per following formula. _ R = R1 + R2 + R3 + R4 + R5 _ 5 6.326 for rang of 5 pcs. X3. Measure dimensions of all the pcs. X3. 7. X1. Measurement System Analysis. X10 = R2 X1. X3. X3. Histogram and control charges stratification.e. σ = R . process flow diagram. 4. X20 = R4 _ X1. d2 = 2.Calculation of process capability (CPK): 1. X3. X3. Process capability (CPK) = Lower of upper Lower CPK Process capability for Qualitative (CPK) = u (1 − p) 3 Where p is the estimated share of nonconforming units and u is the quantile function of the normal distribution. d2 Tolerance d2 = 8. check sheets. Quality Function development (QFD) IV. X5 = R1 X1. …………………. …………………. Find Rang of each sample. Says X1. …………………. X3. X3. Cp = Tools and Techniques: I. Calculate. Take a sample of 5 pcs. cause and effect diagram. ………………….

• Decide of dollars (belt).Statistical process control (SPC): SPC is comprised of seven tools. 80% of total results from 20% of the items. • Ranks data classification in descending order from left to right. Scatter diagram. • Summarize the data and rank order categories from largest to smallest. Pareto diagram. 46 Percent . type of non-conformity. Pareto Diagram: Alfredo Pareto (1848-1923) conducted extensive studies of the distribution of wealth in Europe. • Compute the cumulative percentage if it is to be used. Types of field failure Construction of a Parato diagram is every simple There are steps: • Determine the method of classifying the data. He coined the phrases “vital few and useful many”. It is applicable to problem identification and measurement of progress. He found that there were a few people with a lot of money and many people with little money. The Pareto diagram is a powerful quality-improvement tool.Joseph Juran recognized this concept as a universal that could be applied to may filed. and so forth. Cause and effect diagram. Histogram & control charts and Stratification. cause. Frequency 0 F C A E B D Types of Field Failures O Pareto diagram are used to identify the most important problems. 1. The unequal distributions of wealth become an integral part of economy theory. Dr. weighted frequency or frequency is to be used to rank the characteristics. Usually. Check sheets. • Construct the diagram and find the vital few. Process flow diagram. • Collect data for an appropriate time intervals. by problem.

The figure shoes the C&E diagram with the effect on the right and causes on the left. Cause and effect diagram (Why – Why Analyze): A cause and effect (C&E) diagram is a picture composed of lines and symbols designed to represent a meaningful relationship between an effect and it causes. work method and environment. Management and maintenance are also sometimes used for major cause is further subdivided into numerous minor cause.Kaoru Ishikawa in 1943 and also called as on Ishikwara diagram.suited to the C&E diagram. For example. Determining all the minor causes requires transforming by the project team. Brainstorming is an idea . C&E diagram are used to investigate either a “bad” effect and to take action to correct the caused for “good” effect and to learn those cause responsible. physical characteristic. we might have training. “Fish bone diagrams” because of their shape of the complete structure. knowledge.generating a technique that is well . and so forth. under work methods. It was developed by Dr. Man Machine Material Quality characteristic Environment Work Methods Cause Measurement Effect The first step in the construction of a C&E diagram is for the project team to identify the effect or quality problem. 47 . The effects the quality characteristics that need improvement. It is placed on the right side of a large piece of paper by the team leader. ability. machine.2. C&E diagram also called. material. It uses the creative thinking capacity of the team. measurement. Next. the major causes are identified and placed on the diagram. Causes are usually broken down into the major causes of man.

3. Check sheets:

The main purpose of check sheet is to ensure that the data is collected carefully and accurately by operation personnel or process control and problem soling. Data should be presented in such a form that it can be quickly and easily used and analyzed. Product: XYZ Date: Jan. 21 Stage: Final inspection Id: Paint Number inspected: xxx Inspector / operator: ABC Nonconforming Type Check Total 21 Blister 38 Light spray 29 Drips 11 Over spray 08 Splatter 47 Run 12 Others Total 159 Number Nonconforming 113

Check sheet for paint nonconformities. The figure shows a check sheet for paint non-confirming for bicycles.

Hot Tub Chemical Test (Add if needed) PH/Chlorine Temperature Add water (if needed) Clean Deck around hot tub Pool Chemical Test (Add if needed) Add water (If needed) Check Temperature Vacuum pool (if needed) Filter back wash (20lb.) Lint Filter Sweep and Hose off Deck General Cleaning Vacuum Carpets Vacuum and sweep building B Clean Tables Sweep and mop wooden deck Clean outside deck, bring in chair Take out trash Empty building B Trash cons. Wash windows Bathrooms Scrub sinks, toilets and showers Sweep and mop floors Empty trash and check lockers Cover Hot Tub (at end of the night) Check pool fitters – be sure it is on

D D D D D D D A A D D D D D D D D D D D D D D

Mon 7.4 810° √ 7.6 300 780 √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √

Tue

Wed

Thu

Fri

Sat

Sun

D=daily, A = As needed List any and all deviation from this work schedule on observes side, date it and initial it.

Check sheet for swimming pool. 48

4. Process flow diagram: It is a schematic diagram that shows the flow of the product or service as it moves through the various processing operations. The diagram makes it easy to visualize the entire system, identify potential trouble sport, and locate control activity. Many standard symbols are used by Engineers and Scientifics. The common symbols and their significance given below: An ellipse A rectangle A diamond Arrow Start or the end of the process. A step or a task in the process A decision point. To shows the direction of flow from one activity to the next one in a sequence.

The diagram shows who is the next customer in the process¸ thereby increasing the understanding of the process. Flow diagrams are best constructed by a team, because it is rare for one individual to understand the entire process. Improvements to the process can be accomplished by eliminating steps, combining steps, or making frequently occurring steps more efficient.

49

Recruitments of supervisor Start

Sort applications and short-list for interview First interview to select The best five candidate Second interview to select Final interview and medical check-up

Call the next Candidate

No

Candidate approved?

Yes Negotiable terms and Prepare offer letters.

Make offer after receiving approval.

End.

50

At (c). Gas mileage is on the y-axis and is the dependent. there may or may not be a relationship between the two variables. and this pattern is sometimes referred to as a shotgun pattern. y increase. The relationship or correlation between the two variables can be evaluated. At (a). Figure shows different patterns and their interpretation. One cause is plotted with a small solid circle. There appears to be a negative relationship between x and y. The figure shows the relationship between automotive speed and gas mileage. At (f). Variable. we have a positive correlation between the two variables because as x increases. When the data are separated. Scatter Diagram: A tool to study the cause and effect relationship between two variables is known as scatter diagram. but it is not too strong. At (d). The figure shows that as speed increases gases mileage decreases. Automotive speed is plotted on the x-axis and is the independent. or a response. At (e). we have a curvilinear relationship rather than a linear one. The independent variable is usually controllable. variable. and the other cause is plotted with a solid circle. there is a negative correlation between the two variables because as x increase. At (b). we have stratified the data to represent different causes for the same effect. we see that there is a strong correction.5. and the other cause is plotted with a solid triangle. Further statistical analysis is needed to evaluate this pattern. there is no correlation. y decreases. 51 .

or process and planning for its elimination. Calculate the risk priority figure (RPF). 9. service. Evaluate the probability of the failure detection. etc. service. 8. define sound proposals relative to design. 10. There are two types of FMEA: Design FMEA and process FMEA. deficiencies. unintended influences. 52 . 7. 3. • Identify actions that could eliminate or reduce the chance of the potential failure occurring. systematically. FMEA can be explained as a group of activates indented to. It is calculate based on three factors according to the following formula. FMEA Principle. or process and its effects. etc. 4. • Document the process. Identify causes of the potential failures. 2. Estimate the probability of occurrence of the failure. Risk Priority Figure (RPF): The result of the FMEA is the risk priority figure. FMEA should be applied as early as possible in the design process and definitely before starting the manufacturing process. Evaluate their effects and potential impact on the product. FMEA is a “before-the-event” action requiring a team effort to alleviate most easily and inexpensively changes in design and production. 6. etc. The FMEA is a formal and systematic method to analyze and eliminate potential failure cause in the design and manufacturing phase. targets and completion dates for those changes. Perform an evaluation of the product specification and/ or process monitoring with regard to failure detection and avoidance. omissions. process or customers. Assign the responsibilities. List all reasonably possible failure. • Recognize and evaluate the potential failure of product. RPF = Severity of Failure X Probability of Failure Occurrence X Probability of Failure Detection The value points of those three factors are contained in the following table.FAILURE MODE AND EFFECT ANALYSIS (FMEA): Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) is an analytical techniques (a paper test) that combines the technology and experience of people in identifying foreseeable failure modes of a product. Re-iterate the FMEA based on the changes and calculate the new risk priority figure. manufacturing and/or inspection and testing. Classify the severity or importance of the effect. 5. 11. The FMEA is a relatively simple multi-step process consisting of the following tasks: 1. Based on these results.

Customer is made uncomfortable or their productivity is reduced by the continued degradation of the effect. 3. 10. OCCURRENCE RATINGS KNOWN CAPABILITY: Numerical Ranking 1.000 (CPK < 1. 9.000 (CPK = 1. repair or significant manufacturing or assembly complaint. 6.00) 1 in 500 1 in 100 1 in 50 1 in 20 1 in 10 1 in 2 53 . Customer dissatisfaction due to reduce performance. 2. 10. 8. 7.00) 1 in 2. 8. 9. 4. High degree of customer dissatisfaction due to component failure without complete loss of function. 4.000 (CPK ~ 1.STANDARD SEVERITY RATINGS: RATING 1. Warranty. 2.67) 1 in 20. 6. Customer will experience annoyance due to the slight degradation of performance. OCCURRENCE Likelihood 1 in 106 (CPK > 1. 5. Customer endangered due to the adverse effect on safe system performance without earning before failure or violation of governmental regulation.33) 1 in 5. Very high degree of dissatisfaction due to the loss of function without a negative impact on safety or governmental regulation. DEGREE OF SEVERITY Customer will not notice the adverse effect or it is in significant. 3. Customer will probably experience slight annoyance. Productivity impacted by scrap or rework levels. 5. 7. Customer endangered due to the adverse effect on safe system performance with waiting before failure or violation of government regulation.

Current controls probably will not even detect the potential failure. 3. 1 in 10 50% 10. Almost certain that the potential failure will be found on prevered before reaching the next customer. Are all wants equally important? 3. 2. 7. How does an engineering decision affect customer perception? 6. How can we change the product. The QFD process answers the following questions: 1.67 99% 2. Low likelihood that the potential failure will reach the next customer undetected. 9. 1 in 50 70% 8. Poor likelihood that the potential failure will be detected or prevented before reaching the next customer.33 3. 4. 90% 1 in 2000 CPK < 1. 6. 1 in 500 85% 6. reduced engineering design. Sure that the potential failure will be found or prevented before reaching the next customer. changes and most important. 1 in 100 80% 7. 95% 1 in 5000 CPK ∼1. 1 in 2 < 50% DETECTION RATINGS CAPABILITY UNKNOWN: RATING ABILITY TO DETECT 1. 10 Absolute certainty that the current control will not detected the potential failure. Very poor likelihood that the potential failure will be detected or prevented before reaching the next customer. leads to increased customers satisfaction. Controls may detect or prevent the next customer undetected. 1 in 20000 CPK = 1. service and process improvement opportunities that lead to increase customers satisfaction.00 4. 5. service or process? 5. Controls are unlikely to detect or prevent the potential failure from reaching the next customer. What is the relationship to parts development process planning and production planning? QFD products start-up costs. Will delivering perceived needs yield a competitive advantage? 4. Quality function deployment (QFD): QFD is a system that identifies and sets the priorities for product. What do customers wants? 2.DETECTION RATINGS KNOWN CAPABILITY: Numeric Ranking Occurrence Like hood Detection Certainty 1. Moderate likelihood that the potential failure will reach the next customer. 54 .00 5. It ensures the accurate deployment of the “voice of the customer” throughout the organization from product planning to field service. 100% 1 in 106 CPK > 1. 1 in 20 60% 9. How does an engineering change affect other technical description? 7. 8.

Repeatability EV = k1R Where EV = Equipment variation (repeatability) k1 = 4. Any range value (Ra.56 for 2 appraisers and 3. appraisers. thus Total variation = Product variation + Measurement Measurement variation is divided into repeatability. a observed value. 55 . Rb. 1.− XMin. all data have measurement errors.− XMin. Xb. Thus. 2. 4. Reproducibility: which is due to appraiser (inspector). = XMax. the calculations are performed by part and appraiser. and two three trials are considered optimum. The UCL and LCL for the range are determined. or the readings should be retaken for that appraiser and part and the above calculations repeated where appropriate. Variation: It is called Gage Repeatability (GR) and Reproducibility. Calculations: While the order of taking measurements is random. Determine X for each part.Measurement system analysis (MSA): SPC requires accurate and precise data. Rb or Rc) that is out of control should be discarded and the above calculations repeated where appropriate. Data Collection: The number of parts. = = Rp. The values in step 1 are averaged to obtain: _ _ _ = = = Ra. calculate the range.05 for 3 trials. = XMax. Rc. = 5. and from this information. The value in step 2 are used to obtained: _ = = = = R and XDiff. Analysis of Results = 1. or trails can vary but 10 parts two or three appraiser. however. Xa. Calculations are as follows. Repeatability: which is due to equipment variation. and reproducibility. LCLR = D3R Where D3 and D4 are obtained from table for subgroup sizes of 2 or 3. = = UCLR = D4 R . has two components: Observed value = True value + Measurement error And also variation occurs due to other process and the measurement. The average and range are calculated for each part by an appraiser. Xc 3. Where XDiff.

2. Part j 2 3 4 3.08 6 7 8 1. 4. 3.82 1.70 2. %EV = 100 (EV/TV) %AV = 100 (AV/TV) %R&R = 100 (R&RV/TV) %PV = 100 (PV/TV) Evaluation It repeatability is large compared to reproducibility. The gage should be designed to be more rigid. The gage needs maintenance.62 5. If a negative value occurs under the square root sign. Part variation PV = j Rp Where PV = Part variation. Over 30% error – Gage system is not satisfactory. A fixture may be needed to help the operator use the gage consistently. Calibrations on the gage are not legible. 2.93 1. Guidelines for acceptance GR&R (% R & R) are: Under 10% error – Gage system is satisfactory.65 2. Reproducibility AV = = (k2 XDiff)2 − (EV2/nr) Where AV = Appraiser variation (reproducibility) K2 = 3.70 for 3 appraisers n = number of parts r = number of trial. There is excessive within – part variation. Total variation TV = (R&R)2 + PV2 Where TV = Total variation. 10% to 30% errors – May be acceptable based upon importance of application. Rp = range of the part averages.67 1. 56 . cost of repairs etc. Repeatability and Reproducibility R & R = EV2 + AV2 Where R & R = Repeatability and Reproducibility.74 9 10 1.30 5 2. j = dependent on number of parts. 3. 4.2. the reasons may be 1.65 for 2 appraisers and = 2. the AV value defaults to zero. The operations needs to be better trained are how to use and read the gage. If reproducibility is large compared to repeatability the reasons may be 1. The clamping or location for gauging needs to be improved. The percent of total variation is calculated using the equations below. 3. lost of gage. Identify the causes and take corrective action.

93 0.1 6.1 7.2 7.18 . Trials k1 2 4.2 Where n = number of parts/ sample.2 7.08 .23 0.2 7.61)2 + (0.0 7.65)2 − (0.99 . Range T1 T2 1.03 7.61 × 100 = 12.56 3 3.83 Range 0.0 7.05 = 0.09 _ _ = = RA = 0. 6.09 × 3.9 7. 7.6% Tolerance 5 Equipment variation more than 10% Thus.61 = Appraiser variation (AV) = (k2 XDiff)2 − (EV2/nr) AV = (0.29)2 = 0. 57 .9 _ _ = = = XA = 7. 6.1 7.13 0.9 2.1 6. 7. on basis of R&R we do calibration or replace.3 6.29 × 100 = 5.2 7.03 7.5 is out from bigger logs.22 .9 7.8 6.1 6. r = number of trials.2% 5 = 0.9 Avg. R =0. 7.03 7. XB = 6.612/3×5) = 0.0 + 2. = XMax − XMin = 0.68 × 100 = 13.0 6.17 0.2 7.1 0.002 .93 0.29 = 0. 7. Data collected is as follows: A-Inspector B-Inspector T1 T2 T3 Avg.65 3 2.8 6.1 7.7 6.1 3.03 6. XDiff.51 = Equipment variation (EV) = k1R = 0.29 Sample T3 7.2 7.2 0. RB = 0.2 × 3.0 7.1 4. UCLR = D4R = 0.05 EV2 + AV2 (0.3 7.Example: A log of length specification 7.9 7.8% 5 Observer 2 k2 3.3 7.3 7.0 7.1 7.1 0.70 Total R &R = Total R &R = EV% = EV × 100____ Total tolerance AV% = AV × 100___ Total tolerance EV% = R&R × 100_ = 0.0 5.9 0.2 6.

91 5. A = 0.2 1.8 3.0 10.7 1.5 10.5 8.0 6.7 2.2 7.5 1.1 4.5 10.05 = bias.Linearity: Reference value 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Range 2.9 6.5 3.0 1.9 3.0 10.5 2.0 10.5 7.2 6.48 2.2 7.5 9.5 6.7 10.8 3.2 7.1 4.0 58 Mar 10.0 7.5 9.2 7.5 10.0 10.5 8.0 11.2 6.2 10.1 10.0 7.6 7.7 4.5 3.5 6.5 8.8 10 6.4 & A = 0.0 6.6 Linearity X Avg.0 7.5 11.2 5.5 8.5 Feb 9.2 9.50 May 9.5 10. Range .0 7.0 8.8 10.0 Apr 11.0 6.3 = 10A + 12B 23 = 0.0 11.2 10.5 1.00 2.5 10.5 6.0 Y To fit a straight line Y = A + BX Normal equations are: ∑Y = nA + B∑X ∑XY = A∑X + B∑X2 5.0 7.5 9.0 7.7 5.0 2.07 5.10 2.0 8.8 4.2 8.5 5.0 11.5 5.4 9.00 4.00 4.0 3.05 B = 0.49 2.0 10.8 1.7 10.8 6.5 6.05 2.1 4.00 5.4 = linearity Bias Yi = A + BXi + Error δL = 2 [ ∑ ( Yi−A−BXi)] = 0 i=1 δA ⇒ ∑Yi = nA + B∑Xi () δL = i [ ∑ ( Yi−A−BXi)Xi] = 0 δA ⇒ ∑XiYi = A∑Xi + B∑Xi2 Stability: Jan 7.

41 = 0.38 + 0.70352 These calculations help to comment that the data is not stable with respect to setting of the process.43 0.56 = 0.38 0.28 0.46 0.07 + 0.06 + 0.38 0.30 0.38 + 0.777 ×3.38 0.06 5 0.8 − 0.56 = 7.30 0.07 = 0.08 0.89648 LCL X = 8.44 _ 0.49 X R 0.36 0.03 = R = (0.32 0._ R = 17. This say setting of Machine.56 Trial 3 0.48 _ 0.44 0.50 Trial 2 0.08 UCLR = 2.08 + 0.40 0.43 0.08 = 0.54 Trial 2 0.28 + 0.28)/5 = Xb = (0.44 0.51 X R 0.308 × 3.24 0.08 + 0.08 4 0.08 + 0.31)/5 = Ra = (0.574 × 0.08)/5 = X = 0.38 0.43 0.51 + 0. LCLR = 0 Part Number 3 0.46 0.10 0.60 + 0.31 0.42 0.28 0.08 Appraiser B Trial 1 0.08 59 .43 + 0.56 _ UCL R = D 4R = 1.42 0.32612.8 + 0.04)/5 = Rb = (0.308 × 3.34 0.34 0.08 + 0.21.28 0.49 + 0.223 ×3.43 + 0. Appraiser A 1 2 Trial 1 0.08 0.28 0.10 + 0.08 =0.79388 = X = 8. _ LCL R = D 3R = 0.38 = 0.06 0.56 = 6.48 Trial 3 0.42 0.48 0.04 0.56 = 9.8 = _ UCL X = X + A 2R = 8.10 + 0.10 = Xa = (0.38 0.26 0.43 + 0.41 − 0.40 0.38 = 0.08)/2 = 0.28 0.8 / 5 = 3.

The simplest case of the regression analysis is the one where there are only two variables.51 + 0.09 (0. One may be interested to find out whether they are related and if so.None of the range values are out of control. In scientific research and industrial problem soloing often a situation is encountered where in a number of variables are involve with possible interactions or relationship among themselves. As an example. = X1 = (0.20 = 0.26 PV = 2.30 Rp = 0.28)/2 = 0.03)2 − (0.43)/2 = 0. %R&R = 53%.42)2 = 0. %AV = 18%. %PV = 86% The Gage system is not satisfactory.50 = X3 = (0.41 = X4 = (0.49 %EV = 49%.242/5×3) = 0.31)/2 = 0.43 + 0.42 TV = (0.49)/2 = 0.08 × 0. physical sciences. life and biological sciences.38 + 0. social sciences etc.65 × 0. The equipment variation in (repeatability) is quite large is relation to the appraiser variation (reproducibility). The relationship may be expressed in the form of an equation or model connecting one of the variables known as response or dependant variable with one or more other variables known as the response or the dependant variables with one or more other variable know as explanatory or predictor or independent variables. consider the family income and age at marriage of the girl.43 = X5 = (0.24 AV = R &R = (3.09)2 = 0.20 EV = 3. what is the form of relationship.05 × 0. and the relationship between them is 60 .24)2 + (0.28 + 0.08 = 0. Regression analysis is a statistical technique for investigating and modeling functional relationship among these variables in such situations. Regression analysis Relationship among variables.43 + 0. including engineering. one dependent variable and one independent variable.50 − 30 = 0.33 = X2 = (0.38)/2 = 0. economics management.26)2 + (0. quality control. Applications of regression analysis are numerous and occur almost every filed.

9. Model validation and criticism. region etc. Statement of the problem. Graphics representation of the data (scatter plot) 5. Data collection.35 76. 2. Selection of potentially relevant variables.25 83.No. When there are more than one independent variable and the relationship considered is linear we have what is known as multiple regression. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 X 144 171 164 155 180 167 165 169 150 155 Y 70. 8. 4.84 80. Regression analysis may be carried out for various purpose like (a) summarize / describe data in multiple variable set. Model specifications.linear. Regression analysis include the following steps: 1. This kind of graphical representation of the data will help to from ideas about the appropriate model to be chosen. religion.20 S. age at birth of the first child etc.10 85.00 77.60 82. Using the chosen model (s) for the solution of the posed problem.No. Model fitting and calculation of indices like correlation coefficient etc. multiplicative model etc.00 85. especially about the linearity of the relationship. 6.80 80.90 85.50 72.85 93. This is known as simple linear regression. When the relationship is not liner we may have to consider a nonlinear model like polynomial regression model. Hardness (X) and Tensile strength (Y) of 16 specimens of annealed steel. 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 X 163 150 175 166 158 168 160 188 171 179 Y 81. tensile strength. Examples of qualitative variables are good / bad.60 79. Examples of the quantitative variables are measurable variable like hardness. Choice of fitting method.40 78.15 83. The variables can be either quantitative or qualitative.60 81. defective / non-defective.25 76.65 61 .10 71. height. to determine the levels of the process parameters which optimizes the yield or any other response of interest. 3.15 79. 7. Graphical Representation of the data: If there is only one predictor variable then the data can be plotted as a scatter diagram to get an idea about the type of relationship. sex. for prediction and estimation purposes etc Steps in Regression Analysis. S.

Often the actual relationship may be non – linear for the wider range of the predictor variables but it can be considered to be linear in the range of the predictor variables. It is calculated as: SXY r = SXX SYY _ _ n Where SXY = ∑ (yi − y)(Xi − X) = (n. The parameter a is the intercept of the regression line and b is the slope of the line. Simple Linear Regression: In simple linear regression we have only one independent variable and one dependent variable. we usual assume that the errors are uncorrelated. the next task is to estimate the parameter estimation or model fitting.1) times variance of X i=1 n SXY _ = ∑ (yi − y)2 = (n. the relationship here can be expressed as a linear equation of the form. measures the degree of linear association ship between two variables. There is no relationship between X and Y.linear. There is a linear relationship between X and Y. Others are the maximum likelihood method. We are interested. Let these be denoted by X and Y respectively. 3. Method of fittings: After the model has been defined and the data have been collected.The scatter plot can indicate that 1. 4. while the response Y is a random variable. There is a linear relationship between X and Y. It is convenient to view the regressor X as controlled by the data analyst and measured with negligible error. A regression equation containing only on predictor variable is called a simple regression equation where as if there are more than one predictor variable the equation is known as a multiple regression equation. Thus.1) times variance of Y i=1 62 . 2. the ridge method and the principal component method. where Y decreases with X. The errors are assumed to have mean zero and unknown variance σ2. That is there is probability distribution (usually normal) for Y at each possible value of X.1) times covariance between X and Y i=1 _ n SXX = ∑ (Xi − X)2 = (n. y = a + bx + ε Where a and b are unknown constants and ε is a random error component. Correlation coefficient: Correlation coefficient denoted by r (or rXY). The most commonly used method of estimation is called the least squares method. The parameter a and b are usually called regression coefficients. where Y increases with X. X and Y are related but the relationship between them is non. This means that the value of one error does not depend on the value of any other error. Further the relationship is assumed to be linear. Additionally.

2125 − 165.Fitting the best line: Least squares For fitting the best line through the points (x1.388 = 15. y1). y2)………………………(xn. We can use the some data to fit a regression of x on y. can be used for predicting y for giving values of x. is know as regression of y on x. When r = ±1.2041 b = Sxy = 1054. yn) least squares method is adopted where in the squared deviations of the points from the fitted line is minimized. Minimise S = ∑ εi2 = i=1 n i=1 ∑ (yi − a − bxi)2 n To minimize the above. Sxx = 2717. the values of a and b are obtained as: _ _ a = y − b X and b = Sxy /Sxx where. Example For the data given in the above table find out the least square estimates of the regression parameters a and b.0197 ∧ _ a = y − β1X =80. Sxy = 1054.9 × 0. That is.2125 Syy = 554.71 Multiple Regressions: There are situations when one dependent variable may be related with more than one independent variable.0197. _ _ We have. On solving these two equations. known as Normal Equations. which can be used for prediction of x for given values y. x2 and x3 be the independent variable then the linear regression equation fitted may be of the form.4744. we try to develop a model /equation relating the dependent variable with the independent variable. Sxy . If y be the dependent variable and x1. However. The equation so established. the regression of y on x can also be used for prediction of x for given values of y.388 Sxx 2717. this equation can’t be used for prediction for x forgiven value of y. In such cases. X = 165. y = a + b1x1 + b2x3 + e 63 . Such regression models are known as multiple regression analysis. Sxx are as defined earlier. (x2.obtaining two equations.2041 = 0. we differentiate with respect to x and y and equate to 0.90 y = 80.

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