INTERVIEW

3G Atunu Gorai

WCDMA Frequency and Spectrum • Uplink=1920MHz -1980 MHz • Downlink= 2110MHz -2170MHz • Bandwidth=60 MHz Actual B.W assign to operator is 5MHz And out of that 3.84 MHZ is utilize. In WCDMA frequency reuse factor =1 because time and frequency remains constant.
 

• Eb /NO

Bit energy/Noise energy • Ec/No = Chip Energy /Noise Energy.

=

• Ec/No= Eb/No - process gain • As per Eb/No is fixed for each service for Ex: voice =2 and video=4 • Ec/N0= 2- 10= -8 for voice(for voice -8 is good limit) • Ec/N0= 4-18= -14 for video(for video -14 is good limit)

• Process gain(voice) = chip rate/bit rate= 10dB • Process gain (video) = chip rate /bit rate= 18dB • Chip rate = 3.84Mchips in WCDMA. •

The error-protected signal is then multiplied by a particular channelization code to provide the necessary channel separation. This is necessary since all the channels will be added together, which will produce a composite data stream. Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) is used to detect if there are any uncorrected errors left after error correction The next part in the transmitter is Forward Error Correction (FEC). The function of this block is to help the receiver correct bit errors caused by the air interface.

Channelization codes
In the downlink, the channelization codes are used to separate the different data channels coming from each cell. For the dedicated channels, this represents the different users since only one scrambling code is used for all downlink transmission from the cell. In the uplink, the channelization codes are used to separate the different data channels sent from the UE to the each cell. The separation of the different UEs will here be done with different scrambling codes. The number of codes used in the downlink is restricted to 8192 in total. This is done to speed up the process for the UE to find the correct scrambling code. 512 of these are primary codes (the rest are secondary codes, 15 codes per primary) divided into 64 code groups each group containing 8 different codes. The UE can determine which scrambling code group a cell is using by the synchronization procedure (see chapter 5). Note that there are no restrictions for the number of codes generated by the 24 bits start key in the uplink case

64QAM. • Application throughput is always 85% of physical layer data rate throughput because at application level IP inclusion and overhead information will be there. • Retransmission of HS. • For high through put 16QAM and 64QAM should have high Utilization • So.DSCH( High-Speed Downlink Shared Channel) packet is high than also throughput is decreases.2 Kbits speed can be achieved. • Latency time is round trip time from server and for 3G it .2Mbits speed can be achieved • In case of moving Vehicle – 800kbits to 1.Data Drive • There is 3 modulation technique QPSK. if There is less Utilization of QPSK in downlink than data throughput is also high • CQI is like SQI in speech which ensure good channel quality for data transfer. • In case of stationary Data Test.16QAM.

QPSK typically offers up to 1. With 5 Code allocation.8 Mbit/s peak data rates. 15) can also be used to improve these data rates or extend the network capacity throughput significantly. The initial scheme is Quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK).Channel quality indication may include carrier level received signal strength indication (RSSI) and bit error rate (BER). while 16QAM offers up to 3.• The modulation scheme and coding is changed on a per-user basis depending on signal quality and cell usage.6 Mbit/s.10 and 15 codes resp. • Data Throughput will be also depend on MS class which support 5.g. I • Channel quality indicators are messages that are sent on a communication system (such as a mobile communication system) that provide the remote . but in good radio conditions 16QAM and 64QAM can significantly increase data throughput rates. • CQI. Additional codes (e. 10.

N o te s o n q u a n titie s d e n o tin g sig n a l p o w e r .

video etc). data. in GSM you may have a slight interference margin but not normally related to traffic.quality Integrity-throughput      What is the major difference in link budgets between UMTS and GSM/TDMA?   In UMTS you generally have a link budget for each service (voice. In UMTS you usually have to consider that all users use the same power from the BTS therefore the more number of users the lower the maximumpower available per user (maximum power per connection) which is a starting point in the link budget.KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS  Accessability (Call set-up success rate) Retainability (Dropped calls) Mobility (Handover success rate) Integrity (BLER and throughput) Integrity. In UMTS some services (like voice) will show up as uplink limited but other services (like HSDPA. . In UMTS you have to consider the target traffic load you will have and add a noise-rise margin. 384kbps service) will show as downlink limited. in GSM you usually only use 1 for voice. Each service has a different Eb/No target.

T(first_RRC_connection_request)] (nbr_of_voice_call_setup_time≤9s)/ (nbr_of_successful_voice_call_setup) voice_call_setup_time =[T(CC_alerting) .KPI calculation KPI CPICH RSCP CPICH Ec/Io Voice call setup success rate Voice call setup time (Mobile to 1764440) Requirements ≥-95dBm ≥-12dB Min % ≤10s ≤9s N/A N/A ≥98% ≥99% ≥95% ≤2% ≥99% ≥99% 280kbps 280kbps 4.1Mbps Formula (nbr_of_samples_RSCP>=-95dBm)/ (tot_nbr_of_samples_RSCP) (nbr_of_samples_EcIo>=-12dB)/ (tot_nbr_of_samples_EcIo) (nbr_of_successful_voice_call_setup)/ (nbr_of_voice_call_attemp) (nbr_of_voice_call_setup_time≤10s)/ (nbr_of_successful_voice_call_setup) voice_call_setup_time =[T(CC_alerting) .T(first_RRC_connection_request)] (nbr_of_voice_call_drop)/ [(call_duration_time)/90sec] (nbr_of_PDP_context_activation_accept)/ (nbr_of_PDP_context_activation_request) (nbr_of_PDP_activation_delay≤2s)/ (nbr_of_PDP_context_activation_accept) (downloaded_data_kbit)/ PDP_activation_delay= [T(PDP_context_activation_accept)(data_session_duration) T(PDP_context_activation_request)] (uploaded_data_kbit)/ (data_session_duration) (downloaded_data_kbit)/ (data_session_duration) (uploaded_data_kbit)/ (data_session_duration) Voice call drop rate PDP activation successful rate PDP activation delay PS 384k FTP DL PS 384k FTP UL HSDPA FTP HSUPA FTP Max % Min % ≤2s Avg Throughput Avg Throughput Avg Throughput Avg Throughput .5Mbps 1.

call will be released    2. a n C h e ck th e n e i h b o r ce l l st o f th i m e a su re m e n t co n tro l g l i s m e ssa g e )  3. I th e U E re co n n e cts to th e n e tw o rk i m e d i te l a fte r ca l d ro p a n d f m a y l th e scra m b l o f th e ce l th a t U E ca m p s o n i d i re n t fro m th a t e l s ffe u p o n ca l d ro p . C o n fi l ssi g l s e rm i b y t m e a su re m e n t co n tro l ( se a rch th e m e ssa g e s b a ck fro m ca l d ro p l fo r th e l te st i tra -fre q u e n cy m e a su re m e n t co n tro l m e ssa g e . ssi g l  . m i n g n e i h b o r ce l i p ro b a b l . th e ca u se m u st b e m i n g n e i h b o r ce l . I co rre sp o n d i g g n o f n scra m b l i g co d e ln i fo rm a ti n i i th e m o n i r se t b e fo re ca l n o s n to l d ro p . U E s m i h t re p o rt d e te cte d se t i fo rm a ti n .Case 1: Drop due to missing neighbor  Problem: Detected Nighbor (DN) UE sends a Measurement Report that contains an event1a means adding a new RL (cell) to Active Set If the reported cell is not in the current neighbor cell list and the reported Ec/No is better than the best serving cell Ec/No in AS by some dBs (set by a RNC parameter) If for any reason the new cell can not be added to AS.

the uplink BLER is weak .5 Suburban and 3 in Urban.W e a k C o v e ra g e  W e a k co ve ra g e u su a l y re fe rs to w e a k R S C P l U p l n k o r d o w n l n k D C H p o w e r h e l s to co n fi th e w e a k co ve ra g e i i u p l n k o r i i p rm s n i d o w n l n k b y th e fo l o w i g m e th o d s. the call drop is probably due to weak downlink coverage  High downlink RSSI received by UE is an indication of weak coverage during that time UE tries to increase its target SIR to listen to the network. 0. Typical values of time delays (μs) are 0.the call drop is probably due to weak uplink coverage. When coded data rates of services are incompatible. Out of Uplink coverage may be caused by not only by low CPICH_RSCP But also by high UL_RSSI If the downlink transmission power reaches the maximum before call drop and the downlink BLER is weak. “Rate Matching” is used to equalize the data rates. Multipath propagation yields signal paths of different lengths with different times of arrival at the receiver. i l n   If the uplink transmission power reaches the maximum before call drop. – Rate Matching may be performed by: Padding with extra bits Puncturing of bits using a pseudo-random algorithm .2 in Open environment.

se n n n      . H o w i th e a cco u n te d fo r i an l n s n th e l n kB u d g e t? i   A n s: I o r N o ( th e i te rfe re n ce p a rt o f E c / I a n d E b / N o ) i cre a se a s o n o n th e tra ffi o n th e n e tw o rk i cre a se s si ce e ve ryo n e i u si g th e c n n s n sa m e fre q u e n cy. U se rs a t th e ce l d g e a re l o le u su a l y th e fi to l se se rvi . h e n ce th e se rvi a re a o f a ce l l rst o ce ce l sh ri ks. E xp l i th e co n ce p t o f C e l B re a th i g . finally the call drops. n n o W h e n th e p o w e r re q u i d i m o re th a n th e m a xi u m  p o w e r re s m a l o w e d .Case 2: Drop due to Poor Coverage (low RSCP)  Problem: Poor DL coverage When UE gets to an area with low RSCP ( < -105 dBm) regardless Ec/No values there is high risk for drop.  th e co n n e cti n  ca n n o t b e m a d e . T h e y sh o u l sa y th a t i i a cco u n te d fo r i th e N o i n d t s n se R i M a rg i fo u n d  i th e Li k B u d g e t. A s tra ffi d e cre a se s th e re ve rse h a p p e n s a n d th e se rvi n c ce a re a i cre a se s. T h e re fo re a s I o r N o i cre a se s th e U E o r B T S o n n e e d s to u se  m o re p o w e r to m a i ta i th e sa m e E b / N o o r E c / I . UE will likely ramp up the transmitted power and reach its max power. The UL BLER will probably increase and SIR target cannot maintain anymore.

Noise raise due to load (50% load in Uplink 4. the call drop is probably due to downlink interference Downlink interference usually refers to pilot pollution Ø Interference in Uplink is detected when the Uplink RTWP exceeds a certain configurable Threshold.Node B noise figure (Typically 1. there is too much interference => the mobile cannot understand the pilot channel HOW TO REDUCE THE PILOT POLLUTION PROBLEM ? Maximise the signal inside the best server .Compensation for inaccuracies in Radio N/W equipment) corresponds to 3 db) algoriths (2dB) WHAT IS THE PILOT POLLUTION ? Area where the SIR (Signal interference ratio) is too low and below the expected value (Ec/Io >= -12 dB).In te rfe re n ce Ø In downlink.8 dB for our 3.132dBm) 2. 1.Thermal noise floor (KTB =-108. when the active set CPICH RSCP is greater than –85 dBmand the active set Ec/Io is >= –12 dB. In general Expected level of RTWP is formed by sum of the the following components.

but no one is strong enough to be primary pilot. A cell that meets thecriteria for addition into the Active Set but can not enter because the active set is full. 1.Pilot Pollution Excessive strong pilots exist at a point. Definition of Excessive (CPICH_RSCP > ThRSCP ) CPICH_Number > ThN 3. Many definitions: A cell that has a high signal strength at a location but is not part of the active set. adjust engineering parameters of other antennas so that signals from other antennas becomes weaker and the number of pilots drops For this case reduce antenna height of site SGI. < ThRSCP_Relative . For handover problems caused by pilot pollution. Definition of strong pilot 2. Definition of "no best server strong enough” CPICH_RSCP1st -CPICH_RSCP (ThN1)th + Following is the case from cluster Mongkok West Probable Solution : adjust engineering parameters of an antenna so that a best server forms around the antenna.

The RSCP of the best server is strong. The UE cannot receive active set update message. Ec/Io of original cell decreases sharply and that of the target cell increases greatly (Turnings) 2. The period for each cell to be the best server is short. the Ec/Io of original cell signals decreases sharply.1 . This may be due to. the UE powers off the transmitter due to asynchronization. When the RNC sends active set update message. The best server changes frequently. Probable solution : Lower the triggering time for event 1a adjust antennas to expand the handover area adjust the antenna to form a best server reduce Ping-pong handover by setting the handover parameter of 1B event . Two or more cells alternate to be the best server. UE fails to receive active set update command Handover ) ( Delayed After UE reports measurement message.

C-plane signalling GC Nt DC U-plane information Duplication avoidance GC Nt DC L3 control RRC UuS boundary Radio Interface Protocol Architecture PDCP control control control control PDCP L2/PDCP BMC L2/BMC RLC RLC RLC RLC RLC RLC RLC RLC L2/RLC Logical Channels Logical Channel Transport Channel (SAP) Physical Channels MAC L2/MAC Transport Channels PHY L1 17 .Radio Interface Protocol Architecture P acket Data Convergence Protocol: Is only for PS domain services.

UTRA Protocol Architecture C-plane signalling GC Nt DC RRC U-plane information GC NT DC RRC RLC MAC General Control Notification Dedicated Control Radio Resource Control Radio Link Control Medium Access Control L3 RLC RLC RLC RLC Logical Channels L2/RLC MAC Transport Channels PHY L2/MAC L1 Radio Interface protocol architecture 18 .

Logical Channel Structure Control Channel (CCH) Synchronisation Control Channel (SCCH) (TDD) Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH) Paging Control Channel (PCCH) Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH) Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH) Common Control Channel (CCCH) Shared Channel Control Channel (SHCCH)(TDD) ODMA Dedicated Control Channel (ODCCH) ODMA Common Control Channel (OCCCH) (ODMA) Traffic Channel (TCH) Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH) ODMA Dedicated Traffic Channel (ODTCH)(ODMA) Common Traffic Channel (CTCH) 19 .

UL. 5. 6. 7. CCCH . 20 .70. 5. mapped to CCCH .40.15 and 4. DL . DCCH and DTCH Paging Channel ( PCH ).2.75 kbps.90.95. DL. mapped to PCCH Random Access Channel ( RACH ). DL . This is a single integrated codec with eight source rates: 12. mapped to DCCH and DTCH Downlink Shared Channel ( DSCH ).Channels Transport Channels : Dedicated Transport Channel ( DCH ). DCCH and DTCH Uplink Common Packet Channel ( CPCH ). mapped to DCCH and DTCH Broadcast Channel ( BCH ). 7. CTCH . 10.rate technique. UL / DL . mapped to BCCH Forward Access Channel ( FACH ). DL. UL. mapped to DCCH and DTCH The speech service in UMTS will employ the Adaptive Multi .2. mapped to BCCH . To facilitate interoperability with existing cellular networks some of the modes are the same as in existing networks.

mapped to DSCH Physical Common Packet Channel ( PCPCH ). mapped to DCH Dedicated Physical Control Channel ( DPCCH ). mapped to BCH Secondary Common Control Physical Channel ( SCCPCH ). mapped to DCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel ( PDSCH ). mapped to RACH Dedicated Physical Data Channel ( DPDCH ). mapped to CPCH Synchronisation Channel ( SCH ) Common Pilot Channel ( CPICH ) Acquisition Indicator Channel ( AICH ) Paging Indication Channel ( PICH ) CPCH Status Indication Channel ( CSICH ) Collision Detection / Channel Assignment Indication Channel ( CD / CA ICH ) 21 . mapped to FACH . PCH Physical Random Access Channel ( PRACH ).Channels Physical Channels : Primary Common Control Physical Channel ( PCCPCH ).

The radio network also supports 7. There is no adaptation in the sense that AMR codecs are changed during an ongoing speech connection. In P5. Adaptive multi-rate also contains error concealment. 5. During high loading. such as during busy hours it is possible to use lower AMR bit rates to offer higher capacity while providing slightly lower speech quality. If several frames are lost muting is used to prevent possibly annoying sounds as a result of the frame substitution.95 kbps. Also if the mobile is running out of the cell coverage area and using its maximum transmission power a lower AMR bit rate can be used to extend the cell coverage area.9 kbps and 4. with AMR NB it is possible to use lower speech codec rates than 12. . The purpose of frame substitution is to conceal the effect of lost speech frames.AMR The bit rate of the AMR speech connection is controlled by the radio access network depending on the air interface loading and the quality of the speech connections.75 kbps AMR codecs. rather there is a possibility to adapt the rate at initial selection.2 kbps.

Link Budget •Cell range & cell capacity are limited by the same parameters : Interference in uplink Power in downlink •Cell breathing phenomenon 23 .

“Power” Link Budget Tx power + All Gains – Path Loss – Other losses = Rx power Path loss = Tx Signal + All Gains – Rx power Other losses – Max Path loss = Tx Signal + All Gains – sensitivity Other losses – Rx .

using the primary synchronisation channel. Frame synchronisation and code-group identificationusing the secondary synchronisation channel. 25 .Initial Cell Search nitial Cell Search is carried out in three steps : Step 1: Slot synchronisation . tep 2: p 3: Scrambling-code identification-identified through symbo by-symbol correlation over the primary CCPCH with the scrambling codes within the code group.

P-SCH1 P-SCH2 Slot Synchronization 1 Slot = 667µ s P .SCH2 P .SCH1 S .CCPCH P .CCPCH UE synchronizes on the strongest correlation peak 26 .SCH3 S .CCPCH P-SCH3 P .CCPCH P .CCPCH P .SCH1 P .CCPCH P .CCPCH P .SCH3 P .SCH2 S .

Frame Synchronization S .SCH P-SCH 512 Primary Scrambling Codes divided into 64 groups Scram bling C ode G roup G roup 0 G roup 1 G roup 2 G roup 3 G roup 4 … G roup 61 G roup 62 G roup 63 #0 1 1 1 1 1 9 9 9 #1 1 1 2 2 2 10 11 12 #2 2 5 1 3 16 13 12 10 #3 8 16 15 1 6 10 15 15 #4 9 7 5 8 6 11 12 13 #5 10 3 5 6 11 15 9 14 slot num ber #6 #7 #8 15 14 12 5 15 15 13 9 8 16 16 2 5 9 13 14 10 3 6 5 12 16 11 15 #9 16 10 11 8 1 12 14 11 #10 2 5 2 4 15 14 10 11 #11 7 12 16 4 12 13 16 13 #12 15 14 11 6 16 16 15 12 #13 7 12 15 3 11 14 14 16 #14 16 10 12 7 2 11 16 10 Slot # ? Slot # ? Slot # ? P .13.14 27 .. Group 4 Slot 12.SCH S .SCH acp 16 256 chips 2560 chips acp 11 acp 2 …….

SCH2 S .CCPCH P .CCPCH P .P-SCH1 P-SCH2 Slot Synchronization 1 Slot = 667µ s P .SCH3 S .SCH2 P .CCPCH P-SCH3 P .CCPCH P .CCPCH P .SCH1 P .SCH3 P .SCH1 S .CCPCH UE synchronizes on the strongest correlation peak 28 .CCPCH P .

1 Primary Scrambling Code Transmitted during 9/10th slot 29 .Cell Information P-SCH: Coverage indication. Slot Synchronization S-SCH: Frame Synchronization.256. Group identification P-CPICH: Scrambling Code Identification P-CCPCH: System Information Broadcast Logical Channel BCCH Bit Rate: 12.3 kbps Transport Channel BCH RLC Mode: transparent Mac-B: transparent Physical Channel P-CCPCH OVSF Cch.

s + Qhyst2s Serving Cell Qmean.Quality Intra-Frequency Cell Reselection sample Treselections Serving Cell Qmean.Qoffset2s.n Qqualmin + SIntraSearch Qqualmin Neighboring Cell Neighboring cell criterion S is fulfilled and is ranked UE perform intra-frequency measurements Neighboring Cell Time Neighboring cell UE perform cell better ranking reselection than Serving cell 30 . n .

Pcompensation Pcompensation = max(UE_ TXPWR_MAX_R ACH – P_MAX.Qrxlevmin . 0) 31 .Cell selection and reselection : Cell Selection criteria  The cell selection criterion S is fulfilled when: for FDD cells: for TDD cells: for GSM cells: w h e re Srxlev > 0 AND Squal > 0 Srxlev > 0 Srxlev > 0 Squal = Qqualmeas – Qqualmin Srxlev = Qrxlevmeas .

0] (dB) Int [-115.33] (dBm) Default Value -10 -45 33 Recommended Value -16 -115 33 Class C2 C2 C3 P_Max = maximum UE output power (dBm) according to its class Power Class 1 2 3 4 Maximum Output Power (dBm) 33 27 24 21 32 ..-25] Step = 2 (dBm) Int [-50..Cell Selection Parameters Parameter qQualMin qRxLevMin maxAllowedUlTxPower Object CellSelectionInfo CellSelectionInfo UlUsPowerConf Range Int [-24..

2 types of measurements are done: Intra frequency and inter RAT 33 .Cell Reselection Procedure Squal SintraSearch Threseholds given as example SinterSearch Measurement on same frequency SinterRAT Measurement on other frequencies Measurement on other RAT If Squal = CPICH_Ec/No – qQualMin < Threshold Associated measurements are performed Thresholds are broadcasted in SIB 11 In UMTS02.

40] (dBm) Step = 2 Int [0...40] (dB) Step = 2 Int [-50..50] (dB) CPICH_EcNo or CPICH_RSCP Int [0.50] (dB) Int [-50.A...31] (s) Default Value 10 4 0 0 CPICH_EcNo 31 Recommended Value 4 6 TBD TBD N. 6 Class C2 C2 C0 C0 Static C2 34 .Cell Reselection Parameters Parameter qHyst1 qHyst2 qOffset1sn qOffset2sn qualMeas tReselection CellSelectionInfo Object CellSelectionInfo CellSelectionInfo GSMCell UMTSFDDNeighbouring Range Int [0.

A measurement object corresponds to one cell. • • Inter-RAT measurements: measurements on downlink physical channels belonging to another 35 .Measurements  The different types of air interface measurements are: • • Intra-frequency measurements: measurements on downlink physical channels at the same frequency as the active set. A measurement object corresponds to one cell. • • Inter-frequency measurements: measurements on downlink physical channels at frequencies that differ from the frequency of the active set.

is a special case of soft handover where the radio 36 • • Soft handover • • Softer handover . means that the radio links are added and removed in a way that the UE always keeps at least one radio link to the UTRAN. which refers to the condition that several radio links are active at the same time. Hard handover can be seamless or non-seamless. Handover (Handoff) • There are following categories of handover (also referred to as handoff): • • Hard handover means that all the old radio links in the UE are removed before the new radio links are established. In practice a handover that requires a change of the carrier frequency (inter-frequency handover) is always performed as hard handover. Seamless hard handover means that the handover is not perceptible to the user. Soft handover is performed by means of macro diversity.

The maximum active set size at the RNC is determined by the parameter MaxAciveSetSize 3 to 4 cells. the larger the active set size the more likely it is that Iub link efficiency is reduced (more than one resource for a single connection due to SHO) Active Set • • Cells..e. the UTRA cells currently assigning a downlink DPCH to the UE constitute the active set). It may however also be performed for other reasons such as system load control. which are not included in the active set. which are neither in the CELL_INFO_LIST nor in the active set belong to the Detected Set. less interference).Handover (Handoff) • The most obvious cause for performing a handover is that due to its movement a user can be served in another cell more efficiently (like less power emission. • • • • is defined as the set of Node-Bs the UE is simultaneously connected to (i. Reporting of measurements of the detected set is only applicable to intra37 . • • Cells detected by the UE. but are included in the CELL_INFO_LIST belong to the Monitored Set.

The Monitored Set should be updated each time the primary cell of active set changes. A measurement control message is sent (with measurement commend set to modify) is sent to the UE in order to update the monitored set. 38 • • Measurement control used for monitored set update • • . The primary cell algorithm is called from SHO algorithm.PRIMARY CELL ELECTION ALGORITHM (MONITORED SET UPDATE) • The primary cell election algorithm applies to soft HO. The message contains the cell to add/remove from the monitored and should follow the ACIVE SET UPDATE message. therefore it is performed each time a MEASUREMENT REPORT is received by the SRNC. It is used for monitored set determination and a pointer to mobility parameter.

. The impact is that to maintain the same bit rate. 2D event for on. ask them if they know what messages and events trigger and configure compressed mode on/off. TRANSPORT CHANNEL RECONFIGFURATION or PHYSICAL CHANNEL RECONFIGURATION. If they seem knowledgably.Compressed mode • Compressed mode is when the mobile goes into a slotted transmit mode whereby it opens up an idle period (transmission gap) where it can monitor another carrier or technology (GSM). If the SF cannot be halved then the bit rate of the bearer decreases.  Messages would for configuration would be RADIO BEARER RECONFIGURATION. it halves the SF. 2F for off. and therefore increases power level causing higher interference to the network.

– • – – In both approaches. 1 to 7 slots per frame can be allocated for the UE to perform this intra frequency (hard handover). TDD measurements. GSM RSSI measurement Who controls it? 40 – . transmission/reception by the mobile is continuous : no idle periods are available for monitoring other frequencies if the UE has only a single receiver Transmission gaps are created in the radio frame in DL and/or UL to allow the UE to switch to another frequency. GSM initial BSIC identification. Restrict the bit rate (by higher layer scheduling) to match the fewer available transmission slots in a compressed radio frame.  • • Why is – compressed mode needed? In UTRAN FDD. GSM BSIC reconfirmation. How is it done? – – • How is it done? – Two approaches can be taken in creating the transmission gaps of the transmission gap pattern sequence • • Modifiy the physical layer parameters (by puncturing or spreading factor reduction) to allow all information bits to be transmitted. TDD or GSM) and switch back Transmission gaps are positioned in one radio frame or at the boundary of 2 radio frames in regular intervals referred to as a transmission gap pattern sequence • no more than 7 slots are used in any one radio frame to create the transmission gap. perform measurements on another carrier (FDD.Compressed Mode • During inter-frequency handover the UE’s must be given time to make the necessary measurements on the different WCDMA carrier frequency. the goal is to not loose transmission frames Compressed mode is under the control of the UTRAN Compressed mode is configured by the RNC per UE in the form of transmission gap pattern sequences • • • given to the UE via RRC signalling given to the node B via NBAP signalling a transmission gap pattern sequence is associated with a specific measurement purpose: – – – FDD measurements.

Physical layer Aspects Compressed Mode Methods • Three methods are available to create transmission gaps – Puncturing: additional puncturing/fewer repetitions are Puncturing performed compared to normal mode • • • to be used only in DL to be used only in the case of mapping to fixed positions scrambling and channelisation code remain unchanged can be used in UL and DL can be used with mapping to flexible positions to be used only when SF>4 only 2nd DTX insertion and physical channel mapping is modified may lead to channelisation code shortage and the need to use a secondary scrambling code – Spreading Factor Reduction: SF is divided by 2 Reduction • • • • • 41 .

Cell Shakedown • Purpose – – – – – – – To test Call Setup (Voice and FTP) in each cell To test Handoffs (Soft and Softer) between Cells Verify antenna orientation Primary Pilot Ec/Io Scrambling Code for each cell UE transmit power Path Balance • Method – By driving clockwise and anticlockwise within a designated route around the the base station (about 30% of the site coverage area). – 42 .

Difference between Scanner data & UE Data Collection •Difference in data collection Antenna Cable Sampling An overview of cluster performance based on scanner Best Serving CPICH RSCP and Ec/Io measured data. • • Scanner Primary Common Pilot Channel (PCPICH) scrambling code measurements Continuous Wave (CW) measurements Spectrum analysis Synchronization Channel (SCH) code word measurements • • • • • • • • • • UE Data/Voice/Video Calls Layer 3 messages logging Layer 2 messages logging (Transport channel) RRC State logging UE Transmit Power SIR Serving Cell / Active Set / Monitored Set Events GSM neighbor measurements • • • • • • • • • 43 . •Solution : Perform a calibration drive .

Inner loop & Scanner E xp l i I n e r a n d O u te r l o p p o w e r an n o co n tro la n d w h o co n tro l th e m . • In pre-launch optimization. If there is a stronger pilot from a nearby cell that appears on the scanner but not on the UE. O u te r l o p p o w e r co n tro l i o s p e rfo rm e d b y th e R N C to se t th e ta rg e t S I b a se d o n th e re q u i d R re B E R / B LE R fo r th e re q u e ste d se rvi s ce ( occurs up to 100 times per sec ). One would thenverify that the neighbor appears in defined neighbor list • . te l th e m yo u o l w a n t I n e r/ O u te r C l se d Lo o p  P C . how are missing neighbors usually detected? Usually you use a scanner and compare the best pilots in Ec/Io from the scanner against that of the active set and monitored set from an active UE. s I th e y sta rt ta l n g a b o u t O p e n f ki a n d  C l se d Lo o p  P C . there is a possible missing neighbor. n o I n e r l o p p o w e r co n tro l i p e rfo rm e d n o s b y th e N o d e B to se t th e  tra n sm i p o w e r o f th e U E a n d B T S t to co m p e n sa te fo r si n a l va ri ti n s g a o d u e to fa d i g o r p a th l ss to m a i ta i n o n n th e se t S I ( o ccu rs u p to 1 5 0 0 ti e s R m p e r se c ).

. At least one radio link is always active and there is no interruption in the dataflow during the actual handover. the observed sequent messages in the UE side are: – – – – – – • UTRAN -> UE: Active set update (to request the UE to remove a cell. Possible solution: No solution.Drop after active set update  Symptom: Normally.. In Soft Handover the UE is connected to more than one Radio Base Station (RBS) simultaneously. • • • • • • 45 .(since no Active set update completion was sen after 12 secs ) •   The radio performances no matter DL and UL are very good.. SC281) UE -> UTRAN: Active set update complete UTRAN -> UE: Measurement Control (update neighbour list) UE -> UTRAN: Measurement report (to propose to add7) UTRAN -> UE: Active set update (to request the UE to add SC 137) DROP..g. e.. The signals are received in the UE and combined in the RAKE receiver to give protection against fading.. check this problem with UE vendor.

All Rights Reserved 46 . R e fe re n ce : U se r D e scri ti n a n d E n g i e e ri g G u i e l n e s p o n n d i 7 5 / 1 5 5 1 -H S D 1 0 1 0 2 / 1 U e n  B 2   © Ericsson AB 2003 .Soft/Softer Handover Radio Link Addition and Radio Link Removal.

Cont. BLER is getting worse RF condition is o. 47 .Drop after active set update.k.

Cont. No Active Set Completion was sent after Active Set Update. 48 .Drop after active set update.

Automated tools are needed that could suggest the best possible neighbour relations. right methods and advanced tools are needed to perform 3G tuning and optimisation • • • • • . we need to relay on field measurements which require extensive drive tests Finding the best possible configuration for antenna heights. tilts. azimuths and parameter setting for all the present cells/sectors in the network and also for any new sites that might be needed to improve coverage Power adjustment can also be used for network tuning but can become complicated and result in poor network performance Use of Remote Electrical Tilt (RET) Antenna is preferred over mechanical tilt antenna Neighbour definition is of prime importance in UMTS network (Soft handover gain and interference reduction). Keep neighbour list upto 20.FINAL WORDS • • For network tuning. antenna heights and tilts by using both the field measurements and the propagation models & simulations Skilled people.

Bonus they say they would see RADIO BEARER RECONFIGURATION messages when the states are changing. If they talk about inactivity timers and mention that the state goes from CELLDCH straight to CELL-PCH or URA-PCH. The RNC tracks the UE down to the URA level. Cell-DCH: UE has been allocated a dedicated physical channel in uplink and downlink. URA-PCH: UE monitors (using discontinuous reception) a PCH channel (PCH) indicated by the PICH channel. Small amounts of UL/DL data can be transfers in this state. The RNC tracks the UE down to the cell level and cell reselections are possible with the CELL UPDATE message. . Cell-PCH: UE monitors (using discontinuous reception) a PCH channel (PCH) indicated by the PICH channel. The RNC tracks the UE down to the cell level and cell reselections are possible with the CELL UPDATE message.Name the 4 RRC Connected Modes (states) and describe the characteristics of each. that is also possible. Cell-FACH: UE listens to RACH channel (DL) and is allocated a FACH channel (UL). No data can be transferred in the UL in this state. If a UE is on a data call (CELL-DCH state) and there is in no activity for awhile what would you expect to see occur? UE should go from CELL-DCH to CELL-FACH then if still no activity to either CELL-PCH or URA-PCH (via CELL-FACH).

If the measured SIR is below the target then the base station requests the mobile to increase its power (and vice versa). This type of power control is known as the Inner-loop power control and is capable of adjusting the transmit power in steps of. for example 1 dB at a rate of 1500 times per second. Inner-loop power control is only applicable for connections on dedicated channels .Power control In the uplink the base station measures the received Signal-toInterference Ratio (SIR) and compares this to a target SIR.

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