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H. P. TURBINE 1
Contents General Turbine casing Rotor Bearings and bearing brackets Diaphragms Gland seals
2 2 2
General The high pressure turbine for ahead drive only is a single casing impulse turbine. The steam is passing from fore to aft. The turbine casing and bearing brackets are supported on a common base plate.
HP TURBINE - APII 32 and APH 50
Turbine casing (1) The cast steel turbine casing is horizontally split and includes the inlets for three nozzle groups. Provisions are made for steam extraction at 6 stages. It is, however, not possible to utilize all extraction points simultaneously. Flexible supports permit thermal expansion of the casing.
the rotor is machined from a solid heat-stabilized forging and has nine (APH 32) or ten (APH 50) integral discs and one coupling flange. The thrust collar is integral with the shaft and is located at the inlet end of the turbine. The blades are fastened to the rotor by the normal de Laval side entry bulb root method. The shroud is integral with the blades and through all stages shroud wires are rolled into the shrouding to prevent vibration. The rotor has been dynamically balanced. Bearings and bearing brackets (9and 10) The turbine rotor is supported by two split babbit-lined journal bearings. In order to keep the rotor in the correct axial position a segmental tilting pad thrust bearing is provided. The bearings can be replaced without moving the rotor. Journal bearings and thrust bearing are housed in horizontally split bearing brackets supported by the horizontal joint flange of the turbine casing. See following pages. Diaphrams The guide vanes (4) are welded into the diaphrams which are horizontally split and held in place by grooves in the casing. The upper halves of the diaphrams are lifted together with the upper half of the casing. Gland seals (Fig. A) The diaphrams and both ends of the turbine casing are provided with labyrinth type gland seals. The glands consist of rings divided into four sections and provided with turned fins projecting towards the shaft. They are supported by springs enabling them to move radially with the rotor. Nozzle plate' (Fig. B) The nozzle plates are secured by keys (7) and bolts (8).
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Turbine casing Nozzle Steam shield Guide vanes Shaft seals
7. 8. 9. 10.
Turbine rotor. Securing keys Bolt Aft bearing bracket Forward bearing bracket
STAL-LAVAL HP TURBINE .APH 50 3b .
Oil from the internal lubricating system is distributed to the bearing surfaces through an annular passage and radial holes. Oil from the bearing is drained into the gear and through the pipe (5). The bearing housing rests on the turbine pedestal and is kept in its position relative to the turbine casing by a pin (6). The bearing housing is on the opposite side connected flexibly to the gear casing (7) by a rubber membrane. The coupling flange between turbine rotor and gear quill shaft is accessible without removing the upper half of the bearing housing.journal bearing Forward bearing bracket . . APH 65 BEARING BRACKETS Contents page Aft bearing bracket . Wrong assembly is prevented by special pins.journal bearing The bearing is located between turbine and gear but carries only the weight of the turbine rotor.STAL-LAVAL HP TURBINE BRACKETS . The journal bearing is white metal lined. The bearing halves are fixed in relation to each other by means of pins.APH 50.journal and thrust bearing 2 1 Aft bearing bracket .
2 HP TURBINE . Lift and replace the thrust pad (or pads). The levelling links in the parting line have rounded edges for easy assembly. The thrust bearing oil drains through an orifice (10) into the drain oil collector below the bearings. Temperature measuring in bearing surfaces . 1. 2. The axial load is (Figs. which are generally found in different sizes in the spare part stores. Thrust bearing(3) The thrust bearing has six thrust pads ( 4) on each side of the thrust collar. B. 5. 9. Keys ( 8) in the top half prevent the holder from rotating. A. Pins keep the pads and links in position. 12. Lubrication Oil distribution to the bearings is shown by arrows (main figure). Assemble the bearing. Pads on the aft side are pressed against levelling links (5). The links are inserted in a circumferential groove in the thrust pad holder (6). C-C and D-D) equally distributed to the thrust pads.extra equipment for APH 50. Turn the thrust pad holder until the parting line is horizontal. lift and replace. This is adjusted by means of distance rings.APH 50. The thrust pads weigh on buttons and every second link weighs on cams. 3. 15. Replacing the thrust bearing pads Remove top half of bearing housing. . when this size of turbine is combined with APL 35. 6. 14. * Journal bearing Dowel (prevents rotation) Thrust bearing Thrust pads Levelling links Thrust pad holder Distance ring Key (prevents rotation) Sealing ring Orifice 11. An overspeed trip and an axial position indicator is located at the forward end of the shaft. 13. 7.APH65 Devices for measuring the temperature in the bearing metal in the thrust pads and in both journal bearings can be installed.combined journal and thrust bearing The bearing is located at the free end of the HP turbine. The thrust bearing is submerged in oil during running. 4. 10. Housin& Oil seal Steam deflection shield Connection to HP turbine casing Overspeed and axial displacement trip Oil inlet Oil outlet The same type of bearing bracket is used in APH 32. Turn ° the lower half 180 . The journal bearing (1) is basically of the same design as the aft bearing. APH 65 iE Forward bearing bracket . 8. Measure the axial clearance. It is only necessary to change pads that are worn out or damaged.
STAL-LAVAL FORWARD BEARING BRACKET . APH 65 3 .APH 50.
TURBINE . The steam passes through the turbine from aft to fore. Two Curtis wheels for astern drive ( 7) are shrunk onto the rotor at the fore end and secured by radial dowels. APL 45 1 LP TURBINE WITH BUILT-IN ASTERN TURBINE Contents General Rotor 1 Blading Turbine casing Diaphragms Page 1 2 2 2 General The low pressure turbine and built-in astern turbine have axial exhaust in the same direction. .APL 32. APL 35. Rotor The rotor (6) is machined from a solid heat stabilized forging and has. eight integral discs for ahead drive. thus avoiding heating of the ahead blading when running astern.P.STAL-LAVAL L.
LP TURBINE - APL 32, APL 35 , APL 45
The blading of the LP turbine is of the same type as that of the HP turbine, except in the three last stages of APL 35 and 45, where there is no shrouding. The blades on the last discs are furthermore provided with lacing wires in order to prevent blade vibrations. In those ahead stages where tip speed and steam moisture make it necessary, the blades are provided with brazed on stellite shields to protect them against moisture erosion. Turbine casing The turbine casing consists of three main parts: The LP casing (1), the astern turbine casing (7) and the exhaust casing (8), all horizontally split in the same plane. The upper and lower halves are located in relation to each other by means of taper pins. Steel flange bolts join the two halves. The LP casing is a fabricated conical steel plate structure which is bolted to the exhaust casing to form a rigid structure. The cast steel astern turbine is mounted in the exhaust casing so as to allow for radial and axial thermal expansion such as occurs when running astern. The exhaust casing is a fabricated steel plate structure. Its forward end is bolted to the condenser. The casing carries the forward journal bearing, which is located in a vertical shaft, thus allowing inspection of the bearing without lifting the upper half of the casing. Provisions are made for steam extraction at points can be utilized simultaneously. Diaphragms (Fig. A) All diaphragms are of the same design as those of the HP turbine. The last stages have a moisture separation arrangement. The diaphragms are divided horizontally and located in grooves in the turbine casing. The lower part of the diaphragm is supported on adjustable bolts (Fig. A), which rest on a support pin in the turbine casing. The upper part rests on the lower part of the diaphragm.
stages. Only two extraction
2. 3. 4.
Casing Guide vanes Labyrinth shaft seals Aft bearing.bracket (Thrust and journal bearing) Forward bearing bracket (Journal bearing) Turbine rotor Astern turbine Exhaust casing Labyrinth shaft seals Coupling flange to high speed shaft
Fig. A Suspension of the diaphragms 12. Diaphragm 13. Support pin 14. Screw, adjustable 15. Bolt (keeps the upper diaphragm in position when lifting Steam inlet from crossa. over Astern steam inlet b. Extraction c.
LP TURBINE - APL 35 and 45
L.P. TURBINE --- > 45, .
BEARING BRACKETS Contents Forward bearing bracket - journal bearing Aft bearing bracket - combined journal and thrust bearing Page t 2
Forward bearing bracket - journal bearing The bearing housing is supported in the exhaust end of the turbine casing. The bearing can be inspected or exchanged without removing the turbine casing. It is a split white metal lined journal bearing. The two bearing halves are secured -to each other by pins. Reassembly can only be done in one way. Oil is supplied to the bearings through an annular passage and drained through a pipe connected to the bottom of the housing. The bearing housing contains an overspeed trip and an axial position indicator.
LP TURBINE - APL 45, APL 55, APL 70
Aft bearing bracket - journal and thrust bearing
The bearing is situated between the LP turbine and the gear. The bearing housing rests on supports on the turbine casing and is guided by means of a cylindrical dowel. Journal beari_g (1) Thrust bearing (3) The design of the journal bearing is . the same as that of the forward bearing. The thrust bearing (3) has 8 thrust pads on each side of the thrust collar. The pads on the forward side are pressed against levelling links (5). The axial load is, by means of this, equally distributed to the thrust pads.
The links are inserted in a circ »m ferential groove in the thrust pad holder. The thrust pads balance on buttons and every second link on cams. Pins keep the pads and links in position. A key in the top half prevents the holder from rotating. Temperature measuring in bearing surfaces - extra equipment (Only APL 45, APL 55, APL 70
Devices for measuring the temperature in the bearing metal in the thrust pads and in both journal bearings can be installed. The oil inlets to the lubrication points are shown in principle on the main figure. Oil from the journal bearing and oil which leaks at the oil sealing ring is drained into the gear casing. Oil which is accumulated in compartment (B) is drained to the oil tank. The thrust bearing is during running submerged in oil. Lubrication
The coupling between the intermediate shaft and the turbine shaft is lubricated through pipe and nozzle (15). Remove top half of bearing housing. Turn the thrust pad holder until the parting line is horizontal. Lift and replace the thrust pad (or pads). It is only necessary to change pads which are worn out or damaged. Turn the 0- lower half 180 , lift and replace. Replacing the thrust bearing pads.
Assemble the bearing. Measure the axial clearance. This is adjusted by means of distance rings, which generally appear in different sizes in the spare parts assembly.
The levelling links in the parting line have, for easy assembly, rounded edges. 1. 2. 3. Journal bearing Dowel (prevents bearing from rotating) Thrust bearing Th ust pads Levelling links Thrust pad holder Distance ring Key Sealing ring Eousin& Oil seal 12. 13. Connection to LT turbine casing Flexible connection to gear box Axial displacement device Nozzle for lubricating the coupling between turbine shaft and high speed shaft Oil inlet Oil outlet to lube oil tank Oil outlet to gear casing
A. B. C.
7. 10. 11.
APL 45.LAVAL AFT BEARING BRACKET .STAL.APL 35. APL 70 3 . APL 55.
which transmits the power to the intermediate shaft ( 6) through coupling rings. Secondary reduction train ( Planetary gear) 9. which rotate in and around a stationary annulus ring. 2. 1 7.planetary gear HP Secondary reduction train .star gear The shaft of the HP turbine is connected to the sunwheel (3). (internally toothed gear ring). I. 7. The high speed shaft of the LP turbine passes through the hollow pinion and operates the sunwheel (13). This engages with the planet gears (9). connected to the intermediate shaft Star wheels. This shaft is connected to the sunwheel of the secondary reduction gear train. 5. The star gears engage with the annulus ring (4). HP Primary reduction A.2 TRIPLE REDUCTION GEAR HP primary reduction train . This engages with the planet gears (14). First reduction train ( Star gear) LP Primary reduction train . LP Primary reduction ( Planetary gear) 14. These wheels revolve on the fixed star carrier spindles and engage with the sunwheel and annulus Intermediate shaft Annulus fixed to the casing Sunwheel connected to the intermediate shaft Planet wheels rotating on own spindles Planet carrier. Final reduction train ( Parallel shaft gear) Pinion Main wheel Coupling to the flange of the propeller thrust bearing . which rotates the star wheels (5) in the stationary carrier (2). 3. connected to the HP turbine shaft Annulus. connected to the pinion (second reduction) rotating in the same direction as the sunwheel. HP turbine HP turbine rotor Star carrier. fixed to the turbine baseplate Sunwheel. The intermediate shaft ( 6) passes through the hollow pinion of the tertiary reduction train and operates the sunwheel (8). 1 6. 1. 12.planetary gear 4. The planet carrier transmits the power to the pinion. 13. LP turbine LP turbine rotor Annulus Sunwheel Planet wheel Planet carrier II. 1 0. The planet carrier transmits the power to the pinion. 11. 18. 6. from which it is overhung. which rotate in and around a stationary annulus ring (7). 15. 8. B. Final reduction gears The HP and LP pinions engage in a double helical gear mesh with the main wheel. which gives the desired low propeller speed.
STAL. The reduction gear consists of epicyclic parallel shaft final reduction gear.3 General Description The AP main propulsion unit is a single plane machinery where the centre lines of all journal bearings are in the plane of the propeller shaft. steam flows axially and horizontally through a ring diffusor into the condenser.IAVAL GENERAL 1 Contents: General description Equipment furnished Standards and classification Workshop test Running-in time schedule Material designations Material composition and properties Comparison between material standards Page 1 2 5 5 5 K-1100-1 SvE K-1100-4 SvE Fai 3283 . The machinery comprises a HP turbine and a LP turbine with built-in The LP turbine exhaust astern turbine in cross compound arrangement. primary reduction gears and a The output distribution between the HP and LP turbine at maximum output is HP turbine 52-55% LP turbine k8-I5% The turbines have bleeding possibilities for auxiliary and heating purposes .
nuts. instruments. The main components (HP turbine. spares. keys. screws. which are necessary to make the above items form a complete propulsion unit belong to the delivery as described _in detail later in this specification. tools. LP turbine) are described in detail in the following as well as Governing system Lubricating system Emergency cutout system Gland sealing system Drain system . etc.2 GENERAL Equipment furnished Obligatory_eguipment The propulsion machinery consists of the following main items: 1 HP turbine 1 LP turbine with built-in astern turbine 1 Reduction gear with speed governor 1 Propeller thrust bearing 1 Main condenser Manoeuvring valves and emergency cutout system Piping. etc Type Type Type Type Type Type Type APH APL APG APT APC APM APS Those pipes.
95-98 % of max. rated power. Running-in time schedule To ensure a good condition of the reduction gear it is desirable to arrive at maximum load gradually. We therefore recommend the following time schedule before going to full power: 60-70 % of max. Design and materials meet the requirements of the following classification societies: Lloyds Register of Shipping American Bureau of Shipping Bureau Veritas Germanischer Lloyd Det Norske Veritas Registro Italiano Navale Nippon Kaiji Kyokai and can be surveyed by the society requested by the customer. Q . N 75-85 % of max.e. i. rated rpm 3-6 hours. All other parts according to STAL-LAVAL standards.e.e. STAL-LAVAL Fai/HaW GENERAL 5 Standards and Classification Metric coarse threads as standard. 90-95 % of max. rated rpm minimum 14 hours. rated rpm 4-8 hours. Flanges according to DIN standards. Workshop test A full speed no load test is usually performed in order to verify the good function of the machinery. 84-90 % of max. 90-95 % of max. rated power. rated power. i. bearing temperatures and function of the governing and emergency cutout system are checked. i. During the test such items as vibration levels.
the pressure shall not exceed 110°0 of the rated pressure. STAL-LAVAL Fai/HaW LIMITATION OF VARIATION FROM RATED STEAM PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE 6 Exerpt from INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION I. The repeater safety valves shall be set so that the turbine exhaust pressure before the reheater cannot exceed 120% of the pressure at this point when the machine is operating at rated power Output. except that swings to 120% of the rated pressure shall be admissible. . In no case shall the temperature exceed the rated temperature by more than 28 deg C (50 deg F).tenl. the temperature shall not normally exceed the rated temperature by more than 8. in excess of the rated temperature. provided the augregate duration of such swings over any twelve months of operation shall not exceed 12 h. Operation between limits of 1 4 deg C (25 deg F) and 28 deg C (50 deg F). the permissible variations should be the subject of special agreement. limits should be given for the moisture content at t he inlet points to the turbine.v. The average pressure at the turbine inlet over any twelve months of operation shall not exceed t he rated pressure. Pressure h) Tellperatt/re Cl t -rn The average steam temperature at any inlet to the turbine over any twelve months of operation shall not exceed the rated temperature. is meant the period the machine is connected t the load l w .E. For turbines operating with nominally saturated steam. in paragraphs a) and h). provided that the total operating time between these two limits does not exceed 400 h during any twelve months' operating period. a temperature difference not exceeding 28 deg C (50 deg F) shall be admissible. Should steam be supplied to any terminal point on the turbine through two or more parallel pipes.C. except that during fluctuations not exceeding 15 min in duration. providing that the total operating time between these two limits does not exceed 80 h during any twelve months' operating period. the steam temperature in any of these pipes should not differ from that in any other by more than 17 deg C (30 deg F). For rated steam telllperatures up to and including 565 °C (I 050 °F). the instantaneous value of the temperature may vary between this figure and a value 14 deg C (25 deg F) in excess of t he rated temperature. may be permitted. burr. a. The steam temperature in the hottest pipe shall not exceed the limits given in the preceding paragraph. If. For specified temperatures in excess of 565 °C t 1 050 F). In maintaining this average.3 deg C (15 deg F). In maintaining this average.3 deg C (15 deg F). exceptionally. the temperature exceeds the rated temperature by more than 8. RECOMMENDATION Publication 45/1958 Recommendations for steam turbines Limitation of variation from rated steam pressure and temperature The turbine shall be capable of accepting variations from the rated conditions within the limits stated belosc. the permissible variations are as stated in the succeeding paragraphs. By the period of operation.
in each case where STAL-LAVAL standards have been substituted according to this table. Please notify STAL-LAVAL marine service department. Finspong. . Sweden.STAL-LAVAL 1 COMPARISON BETWEEN MATERIAL STANDARDS The following table can serve as a guide if some detail needs to be manufactured where STAL-LAVAL's standards are not available.
). whereas the protecting coating is not highly stressed (for example : handling and transport of rolls of paper with an automotive crane which travels on a ground in poor condition with shocks. the protection coating (in contact with sharp edges) is damaged long before the metal cable. the metal cable may be subjected to high stresses. one tends to maintain the sling in use. ATLANTIQUE STAL. For this particular use.LAVAL SLINGS WITH AN OPAQUE PROTECTION COATING FOR THE DISASSEMBLING OF ROTORS 1 Whenever one uses a sling provided with an opaque protection coating (VIGORFLEX. It is the reason why all the necessary precautions must be taken to check the condition of the cable (for example.) it is necessary to take all the precautions required for checking the cable condition. by taking some pieces of wire and carrying out repeated bend tests or radiographic examination). etc.. .. in some cases. On the other hand. As a general rule. swinging'. as the protecting coating is not damaged after a long period of use. FLEXPORT. etc.
TRIPLE REDUCTION GEAR .
LAVAL TRIPLE REDUCTION GEAR 3 . STAL.
Flexibility is obtained by the toothed couplings and by the turbof lex coupling between the annulus coupling system of the primary reduction and the intermediate shaft. b. 2.first train HP1 a. 1. e. Intermediate shaft HP turbine baseplate HP turbine high speed shaft Planetary gear annulus coupling system Star gear annulus coupling system Couplings for high speed shaft Sunwheel gear coupling . The pinion is supported in two journal bearings and operates the main wheel. Sunwheel Planet wheels (star wheels) Planet spindles (star spindles) Internal gear ring (annulus) Planet carrier Oil inlet Pinion 10. (The internally toothed ring ( 4) is stationary). 7. Flexible toothed coupling (14) between intermediate shaft ( 8) and sunwheel. c. 6. Primary reduction . 4. The planet wheels run in the rotating carrier (5) that is connected to the pinion (7). d.final reduction h. 11. g. Flexible toothed coupling between high speed shaft and sunwheel (1). Flexible toothed coupling between HP turbine and high speed shaft. Tertiary reduction .secondary train HP2 f. 5. 8. 14. 13. 3. The internally toothed annulus ring (4) operates the intermediate shaft (8). Flexible toothed coupling (12) between the annulus ring and the intermediate shaft that passes through the hollow pinion (7). TRIPLE REDUCTION GEAR 4 Power transmission on HP side Couplings and rotating parts are listed below in the order they appear in the power transmission. The stationary planet wheel carrier (5) in the primary reduction is supported by the turbine baseplate and the stationary annulus ring of the secondary reduction is fastened to the gear casing. The fixed star gears (2) rotate the annulus. Secondary reduction . 9. 12.
LP LINE Page 1 2 1 General Power transmission on LP line General The same gear arrangements on the LP line are used for "Double reduction" and "Triple reduction". . The second (and final) reduction is a parallel gear.STAL-LAVAL F ai/HW Contents. DOUBLE AND TRIPLE REDUCTION GEAR . The first reduction is an epicyclic gear of planetary gear design.
The turning speed is approximately 1/5 rpm.2 DOUBLE AND TRIPLE REDUCTION GEAR Power transmission on LP line The sunwheel (1) is connected to the turbine rotor shaft by a spline coupling flange (2). together with the arrangement of floating annulus system. The journal bearings can be moved and . Lubrication The epicyclic gears and the adjacent spline couplings are lubricated through hollow shafts with radial holes. Provision is made for mounting a crank or a pneumatic motor to the oil pump. 8. The tank is fed with oil from the main oil system. Sunwheel Sun -Wheel tooth coupling Planet wheels Planet s in. 1. Bearings The journal bearings are split into two halves and secured with dowels in such a way as to make assembly "fool proof". les Internal gear ring (annulus) 6. 9. The planet carrier is rigidly bolted and dowelled to the secondary reduction pinion. 5. electric driven oil pump and necessary valves. Hydraulic motor.replaced without lifting the wheel cover or moving any rotating parts. u. 1 75 atg 2 500 psig) consisting of oil tank. the turning gear is operated by a hydraulic motor. Turning gear A turning gear is included in the delivery. This. The hydraulic motor is mounted on the epicyclic gear casing and'drives the main gear through the sunwheel to which it is connected by means of a manually operated coupling. 3. Axial expansion of the turbine rotor is taken up in the teeth of the coupling flange and sunwheel. 2. The spline coupling at the LP turbine end is lubricated by means of oil nozzles which admit oil to a groove in the coupling flange from where the oil passes through conical holes into the tooth mesh. Hydraulic motor operated turning gear The hydraulic motor operated turning gear comprises: a) b) An oil supply unit (max. Planet carrier Oil inlet Pinion High speed shaft . 7. equalizes the load between the planet wheels. Smaller sizes are equipped with an electric motor turning gear. The low speed gear is lubricated by means of oil sprayers. For large reduction gears. The sunwheel is not supported in bearings but free to float between the planet wheels.
The gear wheel and the pinions rest in their journal bearings supported in the lower section of the gear casing. The design assures access to each part of the gear. DOUBLE AND TRIPLE REDUCTION GEAR . The upper section includes four main covers.GEAR CASING PROPELLER SPEED ABOVE 100 RPM Page 1 2 STAL--LAVAL Fai/HW 1 Contents. which is the centre plane for all rotating main parts. Inspection of the final reduction gear mesh and the gear wheel is possible by removing inspection covers in the upper half of the gear casing. Gear casing Lubricating and cooling of pinions and wheel Gear casing The fabricated casing is horizontally split in one plane. .
From the tank the oil is sprayed through nozzles (c) to the gear mesh of the second reduction. Oil a) b) c) inlet Strainer Oil distribution tank Nozzles 18. f) Drain oil pipes from the propeller thrust bearing g) Drain oil connection from the final wheel bearing h) Cover with drain oil connection from the gear casing bottom half. 3. 14. 12. Cover for first reduction in the LP line. 17. Cover for high speed shaft between the HP turbine rotor and the first reduction. Pinion of the second reduction (HP line). Cover for inspection of the second gear mesh. 9. 10. Bottom half of reduction gear casing. 5. Speed governor. be inspected through a cover on top of the bearing mantle. 7. 16. Final reduction wheel. d) Stiffener channels acting as a crossover connection between the two gravity tanks. Cover for inspection of the final reduction wheel. 13. 15. Turning gear. 1. 2 DOUBLE AND TRIPLE REDUCTION GEARS LUBRICATION Lubricating oil is supplied to a distribution tank (b) on each side of the gear casing. 8. 2. Gravity tank. 6. Cover for the gear coupling between the LP turbine and first reduction. The total capacity of the gravity tanks together with the direct driven lube oil pump is sufficient for "running out" purposes. The driving gear of the pump car. Cover for the bearing cap of the pinion of third reduction (HP line). 4. Top half of the reduction gear casing. e) Covers for inspection of gravity tanks. The oil passes through a cylindrical strainer (a). 11. . Cover for the first reduction in the HP line. Cover for the bearing cap of the pinion of second reduction (LP line). Cover for the second reduction in the HP line. Direct driven lube oil pump.
LAVAL MANOEUVRING AND EMERGENCY CUT-OUT SYSTEM-APMK 1 SUMMARY Introduction Oil supply unit Emergency cut-out system . ATLANTIQUE STAL.Electrical part Electronic speed governor Page 2 5 9 13 21 .Hydraulic part Emergency cut-out system .
Guardian valve. 11 . Ahead steam valve See separate description.Remote control locker with speed display (see separate description) 2 .Astern valve. 3 .Emergency cut-out system. 8 . are connected by a solenoid-valve.Guardian valve relay. 5 .Ahead valve.Tripping solenoid-valve. through which the servomotors are drained when a safety device trips off. . These 2 part. this resulting in the steam feed being cut at the turbines. This unit is fitted with a standby pump. 10).Discharge valve. Astern steam valve and guardian valve The guardian valve is automatically operated through an hydraulic relay.Elect ro-hydraulic converter. 4 . 7 . which is controlled by the hydraulic servomotors of the steam valves. under a constant pressure of 10 bar. See separate description. 2 MANOEUVRING AND EMERGENCY CUT-OUT SYSTEM-APMK INTRODUCTION The steam flow control system on turbines includes Oil supply unit Supplying the necessary oil flow-rate.Tachometer connection.Overspeed trips. 1 . 6 . Control system with speed governor See remote control Emergency cut-out system This system includes an electrical part and a hydraulic part. 12 .
LAVAL MANOEUVRING AND EMERGENCY CUT-OUT 3 SYSTEM-APMK . ATLANTIQUE 4 24 STAL.
ATLANTIQU E STAL. one of them as stand-by. The bearings of these pumps are lubricated by the oil circulation. .Summary Components Description Diagram Pages 5 6 7 Components The hydraulic system for the APMK control and tripping is fitted with 2 paddle-pumps. The non-return valves are of YUKEN make. 5 bar. Their opening pressure is 0. Make : YUKEN The main oil filter is of BOLL make.LAVAL MANOEUVRING AND EMERGENCY CUT-OUT SYSTEM-APMK 5 OIL SUPPLY UNIT . It is a Duplex filter which allows for changing over during the ship's operation.
5 bar. When the loss of pressure reaches 0. . 5 Kw. with the other being used as the standby pump. During the changeover. 1720 rpm. with connections for filling and draining and with a low-level detector. 2 to 1. The two separate motor pumps (6201-6202) can be used in turn. The pumps have an average delivery rate of about 60 l/min at 5 ° E. it is fitted with visual level indicator. a discharge valve and a main fitter which are common to both pumps.6 MANOEUVRING AND EMERGENCY CUT-OUT SYSTEM-APMK The pump unit supplies the pressurized oil to the servo-motors of the steam valves and to the emergency cut-out system. The standby pump can be removed at sea for maintenance. filter and warm oil. The filter (6245) is a double filter. 5 bar. read off on the pressure gauge (6325). 3. . The principal elements of this plant comprise two separate motor-pumps each fitted with its own non-return valve and its own suction-strainer. The electric motors possess standard specifications : 440 V/60 Hz. The suction-strainers (6241-6242) of the pumps have a mesh size of 12`5 pm. 1 Kw. the loss of pressure should not exceed 0. the other being in reserve. the oil circulates through one element only. The nominal pressure is 10 bar gauge within a limit + 1 bar gauge. fitted with a magnetic element and has a mesh size of 25 pm. The loss of pressure via this valve is around 0. Their effective power under normal conditions is from 1. 5 bar the filter should be cleaned. in normal operation. Its purpose is to start the standby pump automatically when the oil pressure falls below 1. The pressure switch (6056) trips the main unit in case of low control oil pressure after a delay of 10 sec. 3 phases. By closing the valve (6673) and then applying a known pressure to the flange (6961) the switching point can be checked. 1 bar. and which allows this latter to be dismantled while the oil supply unit is operating. the oil circulates through both elements at once. -0 The tank has an oil volume of 500 1. Normally. With a clean. Components - Oil supply unit - The oil used is of the same type as the lubricating oil. Each motor pumps is provided with a pressure switch (6081 & 6082) connected between the pump and the non-return valve. Each motor pump group is fitted with a non-return valve (6281 & 6282) which prevents the oil from returning to the tank via the standby pump. viscosity 5 to 7°E at 50 ° C. An oil for hydraulic control with a viscosity of 2-3°E can also be used. as the main pump. The discharge valve (6481) can be adjusted to give the correct pressure.
ATLANTIQU E STAL-LAVAL MANOEUVRING AND EMERGENCY CUT-OUT SYSTEM-APMK 7 .
IC PART Summary Components Emergency cut-out . thus draining the emergency cut-out circuit. . in both senses. instead of being electric.hydraulic part Normal conditions Cut-out conditions Blocking Page 9 10 10 10 10 9 Components HERION Solenoid-valves The coil of the tripping solenoid valve is normally desenergised. A WESTINGHOUSE manual valves The operation of these is similar to that of the solenoid valves with the sole difference that they are manually controlled.IIYIRAUI. When a fault occur's the circuit of this coil is closed. ATLANTIQU E STAL.LAVAL MANOEUX'RING AND EMERGENCY CUT-OUT SYSTEM -APMK EMERGENCY CUT-OUT .
Manual blocking shou:c: be viewed as the last thin. Normal operation The normal operating conditions are shown on the diagram opposite. •t o resort to in cases where it is absuiute. the solenoid valve (6021) is again desenergised. The contactor (6147) linked to this valve signals this condition. The effect of this operation is to prevent the discharge of oil pressure at the trip valves of the servomotors through the solenoid valve. the oil feed to the trip valves of the servomotors is re-established and the pressure switch (6076) is under pressure. which is usually.hydraulic part - I MPORTANT : If the group is desengaged. this latter sets the oil pressure at the trip valves of the servomotors to drain through the solenoid valve (6022).of oil coming from the hydraulic plant passes after diaphragm (6591) through the tripping solenoid valve (6021) and the 2 manual valves (6505 & 6301) before spreading out to the trip valves of the servomotors. when it is operated . When the fault has been cleared and the electrical chain been reset (see following chapter). Electrical blocking Provided certain conditions are met (see safety devices.. (6021) by diverting the pressure of the hydraulic plant to the discharge outlet. Manual cut -out - The manual valve (6301) permits the group to be cut-out by draining the oil from the trip valves of the servomotors. Cut-out conditions When the chain of safety devices is cut. The pressure switch (6076) is then depressurised and" signals "Tripped Turbine".. This suleno. The pressurd. the power is supplied to the solenoid valve (6021). not energised. The pressure switch (6076) is the only means of monitoring this operating and of giving the "tripped turbine" signal. . •: v necessary for the safe operation of the ship. make sure before manual blocking' that the control of the manoeuvring gear has been re t urned to zero. Blocking - Emergency cut-out . Manual blocking The draining of the hydraulic circuit of the cut-out system can be blocked by the manual valve (6505) which.*d valve ensures the link between the electrical and hydraulic parts of the safety device system. electrical part) it is possible to energise the solenoid valve (6022).10 MANOEUVRING AND E\IERGI :'NCY CUT-OFT SYSTEMI-A['\IK The main component of the hydraulic part of emergency cut-cut system is the tripping solenoid valve (6021). even when the system has been manually blocked. The solenoid valve (6021) is not energised. This action brings the pressure switch (6058) to switch over (normally not under pressure) which then signals "Cut-out system blocked". connects the trip valves of the servo-motors directly to the oil feed and isolates the 2 solenoid valves (6021) and (6022).
ATLANTIQUE STAL- LAVAL
MANOEUVRING AND EMERGENCY CUT-OUT SYSTEM-APMK
MANOEUVRING AND EMERGENCY CUT-OUT SYSTEM-APMK
EMERGENCY CUT-OUT SYSTEM - ELECTRICAL PART Summary Sensors Introduction 4 operating conditions Page 13 15 16
The vital functions of the unit are monitored with the help of different types of sensors. The action of each sensor is transmitted by the tipping of a two pole contactor for the sensors which have an immediate action, and by a single contactor for the sensors which have a delayed action. These contacts are then relayed into the safety device cabinet. The unit can equally be protected against the high water level in boilers. The safety device cabinet is fitted with a push-button for emergency stop.
ATLANTIQUE ~• STAL-LAVAL
MANOEUVRING AND E MEIMENCY Ct I -Ut'I' SYSI'E\I-:\P\IK
Introduction In order to minimise the tripping of the unit in case of circuit or component failure, the following has been considered - the solenoid valve trips the unit when energized - the cubicle is supplied by two power cables
- an alarm is given when the solenoid valve circuit is cut (a push-button allows to ckeck this alarm)
- the sensors or the associated relaies cut two chains (if only one chain is cut the unit do not trip, only an alarm is given). A "Test lamp" push-button allows the conditions of the signal lamps (normally not lit) to be checked at any time. Another push-button allows, when the unit is not disengaged, checking of the proper functioning of the relay system for resetting, which is based on the principle of a voltage transmission circuit.
MANOEUVRING AND EMERGENCY CUT-OUT SYSTEM -APMK
El ectrical part - 4 Oper a ting conditions
The diagrams opposite show the electrical chain of safety devices.
To simplify the diagram, only 3 types of sensor nave been shown. The type 1 sensor cannot be electrically blocked, whereas types 2 & 3 can. 4 operating conditions are represented lines in red. . Current is supplied via the
Let us suppose that the ahead running valve is open (pressure switch 6148.A) The contacts of sensors 1-2 and 3 are closed. Relays RDI and RD2 are energised, hence the tripping solenoid valve (6021) is not energised . The lamp "Safety devices working normally" is lit.
-Normal operation (diagram l) -
Let us suppose that the type 3 sensor has operated. The power supply of relays RDI & HD2 is cut off, hence the power is supplied to the solenoid, valve (6021). The "tripped Turbine" lamp lights up. The power supply to relay RS3 is cut off the corresponding lamp lights up. The signal "tripped Turbine" is transmitted via the pressure switch (6076) to the remote control and to the ship's central alarm station.
Tripping (diagram 2 )-
ATLANTIQUE STAL-LAVAL MANOEUVRING AND EMERGENCY CUT-OUT SYSTEM-A PMK 17 .
HP turbine overspeed and axial displacement . rather than that all safety devices be put out of service icy locking them: NOTE - The makers reserve the right to suspend the terms of the guarantee in cases of accidents occurring during operation with blocked emergency cut-out system. so that relay RS3 corresponding to the sensor which caused the tripping is energised. The pressure switch (6058) interprets this condition and signals "Electric blocking". As far as the last two safety devices are concerned. with the exception of the following safety devices : Emergency stop . . Resetting ( diagram n°3) . Electric blocking (diagram n° 4) If the unit is operating normally. and reset before releasing the push-button. has been cleared and the control of the steam valves returned to zero (relay Ro energised). each safety device's signalling function can operate. provided that the safety devices are electrically blocked. a push-button placed on each turbine below the overspeed contactor allows.Turning gear disengaged . This operation energises relay RRI. Should a sensor be defective. and the signal is cancelled. Under these conditions.18 MANOEUVRING AND EMERGENCY CUT-OUT SYSTEM-APMK Once the fault which caused the turbine to trip. After each test. and keeping it pressed. it is possible to reset the chain of safety devices by pressing the reset button. with relays RD1 and RD2 energised. If the safety devices are blocked (whether electrically or manually). and provided that the control of the operating equipment has been returned to zero. to do this.Relay RT23 is energised. manually operate the tripper. the contactor to be tested. operating of the blocking-key switch energises the blocking solenofd valve (6022). or if the unit has been tripped by a sensor other than the type 1. depress the test push-button. then as long as the main power supply of the chain of safety devices is maintained. with the following results . it is necessary to reset the electrical chain of safety devices to restore normal conditions. it is recommended that a shunt be placed on it.LP turbine overspeed.Relays RD1 and RD2 are energised so that solenoid valve 6021 is deenergised and the "turbine stopped" signal is cancelled. it is possible to test the sensors to check their position.
LAVAL MANOEUVRING AND EMERGENCY CUT-OUT SYSTEM-A PAM 19 . ATLANTIQUE STAL.
GEAR CASE DRYING 1 STAL-LAVAL Gear dehumidifier In order to prevent gear corrosion caused by water contamination of the lubricating oil. NOTE. . The installation of a Munters dehumidifier for continuous operating does not mean that the correct adjustment of the gland sealing steam pressure may in any way be neglected.which is exposed to the process air absorbs moisture from the air. during which time the portion of the rotor. and the portion which is exposed to the reactivation air (hot air releases the moisture which has been extracted from the process air. The dehumidifier will remain in the best condition if run continuously. The rotor is divided into two sectors in the rotor casing: a larger sector for process air and a smaller one for reactivation air. It is intended to supply the gear with dry air under all operating conditions. The rotor slowly rotates inside the casing. a dehumidifier is installed. at an approximate rate of 7_rpm.
are driven directly by a capacitor motor with builtin thermal protection. main air Impeller. outlet side Console Heating element Inlet cone 3-43 3-49 3-66 4-46 Filter cover Filter cover Lid Pinion 2-27 2-84 3-47-1 3-47-2 Inlet cone 4-52 Filter support 4-53-1 Filter P 15/500 4-52-2 Filter T 3/290 4-54 Packing 4-55 Spaces 4-56 Line pipe. air Absorption rotor Cover. one for absorption air and one for regenerating air.DRYING Drying unit General Design The casing of the unit is a light metal casting.. The inlet sides are fitted with an air filter. Regenerating air is heated electrically. S-5 S-6 S-7 0-6 0-7 Impeller. inlet side Cover. The rotor x. A very large contact area is thus presented to the air flow. This device can be reset by a button on the outlet end covers which is made accessible by removing a bakelite protective cover. reg. complete 4-266 4-266 Thermostat. Klixon Thermometer 0-1500. The drying unit is a Type M 100 made by Munter and works on the absorption principle. 2 GEAR CASE . Operation Two fan wheels. The absorption section consists of a moisture absorbing rotor built up of flat and corrugated strips of asbestos paper. There is a high temperature protection in the regenerative air stream. creating a large number of passages through which the air can flow. The filter covers are made of aluminium plate.s noninflammable and is impregnated with hygroscopic material which is the actual absorption medium. Rexotherm .
x = 13.4 GEAR CASE --. Read content of water in diagram. (Ex.0 . If the capacity of the dehumidifier is less than 75% of. . t 6. 0 . 3. Plugs located on pipes close to the humidifier.100 0 C. = 8%. Take the water content of the inlet air minus the capacity (13. RH 10. and calculating its effectivity.0 g/kg. (Ex.) 9. use two precision thermometers with scales approx.5 o C.) 7. pipe. proceed as follows: 1. the specific capacity shown in the diagram.DRYING Measuring of efficiency Wet and dry bulb method For measuring the humidity of the air before and after the dehumidifier. t = 23 ° C. 8. and read which capacity the dehumidifier should have (in our example 6. take readings. t 25 t = 20. The result should correspond to the specific capacity shown in the diagram. The mercury bulb of one of the thermometers should be wrapped with a bit of gauze. Moisten the cloth and insert both thermometers in the intake pipe. RH = 66%.5 g/kg). Make sure that the bulb is well covered by the cloth. Read content of water in diagram.the absorption rotor replaced. When the thermometers have stabilized take readings 0C (Ex. For measuring.5 g/kg. the unit should be overhauled as soon as possible and.6.5g for each kg of treatened air). Moisten the cloth again and insert both thermometers in the dry air. x = 6. Remove the (four) plugs of the humid air intake pipe and the dry air outlet pipe.) 12. which can be held on place by a rubber band. When thermometers have stabilized. 11. (Ex. t dry = 50°C.) dry wet 2. Plot the intake air condition in the diagram.) 5.
2. Before removing the bearing take a depth gauge reading. 3. . 1. Main wheel Remove the direct driven oil pump together with the upper and lower halves of the cover. Permanent support Hydraulic jack Jacking screws Support for the hydraulic jack Lifting gear 4. 5. STAL-LAVAL Fai/HW INSPECTION OF SECONDARY REDUCTION BEARINGS 1 General Remove casings and caps over the bearings to be inspected. The main wheel is lifted by means of two lifting jacks (2) and guided by two jacking screws (3) fitted to the forward end of the gear casing.
MARKING OF BEARINGS The journal bearings and their housings are marked for identification as follows: Bearing Main wheel HP pinion LP pinion Forward I III V Aft II IV VI . the bolts of the high speed shaft coupling must be removed. 8. 6. The AFT BEARING (D) is reached by easing the planetary gear with items 6 and 7.2 HP pinion INSPECTION OF SECONDARY REDUCTION BEARING The AFT BEARING (B) is reached by easing the planetary gear with items 6 and 7. Sling LP pinion Before easing the pinion. The FORWARD BEARING (E) is reached by easing the forward end of the pinion. Lifting beam Turn buckle The FORWARD BEARING (C) is reached by easing the forward end of the pinion. 7. Note After replacing the bearings repeat the depth gauge reading.
LAVAL INSPECTION OF SECONDARY REDUCTION BEARINGS 3 . STAL.
WHEN TAKING OFF THE GEAR CASE COVERS. NEVER EXPOSE THE ESCAPING OIL VAPOUR TO FLAME.STAL-LAVAL DISMANTLING OF EPICYCLIC GEARS Gear size APG 310 and larger lb EPICYCLIC GEARS Contents: Dismantling of HP primary gear first train (HP LP primary gear (LP) ) HP primary gear second train (HP 2 ) C)I 1 0 2 0 Z Reassembly of HP and LP primary gears Spring rings WARNING: TO AVOID THE RISK OF EXPLOSION. .
.STAL. NEVER EXPOSE THE ESCAPING OIL VAPOUR TO FLAME.LAVAL DISMANTLING OF EPICYCLIC GEARS Gear size APG 310 and larger lb EPICYCLIC GEARS Contents: Dismantling of HP primary gear first train (HP LP primary gear (LP) ) HP primary gear second train (HP 2 ) 1 Reassembly of HP and LP primary gears Spring rings WARNING: TO AVOID THE RISK OF EXPLOSION. WHEN TAKING OFF THE GEAR CASE COVERS.
Disconnection of coupling shaft from quill shaft shaft (check that position To remove the gear from the casing Disengage the coupling shaft (1) from the quill shaft spigot by using jacking screws placed in the quill shaft flange. Screw a bolt in the tapped hole in the pipe and withdraw the pipe. ( check that position marks are provided across the coupling flanges). . Disconnect the oil inlet pipe (100) from the oil inlet plate and bottom half of the end casing and remove the pipe. then lift off the top half to expose the sunwheel coupling sleeve. and the bolts and dowels securing the top half of the end casing to the oil inlet plate and turbine casing. Remove the spring ring (109) from the coupling flange and slide the sinwheel coupling sleeve (101) towards the gear. left in the gear and removed after lifting the gear assembly.HP 1 APG 310 and larger CAUTION Before lifting the gear case top cover. annulus system. Removal of coupling sleeve between gear and turbine Remove the horizontal joint bolts of the end casing (102). thus avoiding removal of the sunwheel coupling flange. The sunwheel coupling sleeve (101) may be removed at this stage by removing the turbine shaft coupling bolts and coupling flange 44. Disconnect and turn away the external pipe and nipple. Then slide the sunwheel coupling sleeve towards the turbine and remove it. star wheels and sunwheel along the star spindles towards the turbine as far as the assembly will go. Remove the gear case horizontal joint bolts and lift off the top half casing. Remove the bolts and tapered dowels securing the oil inlet plate to the top half of the gear case. Lift out the gear. A (see page 4) and take the weight off the gear assembly. Use starting screws to "break" the casing joint. outer coupling ring. Take care while lifting that the coupling sleeve does not fall out. then slide the assembly of coupling quill flange. Tapered dowels in the oil inlet flange to be removed towards the main gear wheel Lift out the gear Carefully move the whole assembly towards the turbine until the coupling flange (1) is clear of the radially positioned dowels and locating pegs in the shaft flange. Disconnect the coupling shaft (1) from the quill marks are made before separating couplings). Removal of bolts and dowels in bottom half of casing Fit the lifting bracket to the star carrier and oil inlet plate as shown in fig. Disconnect and remove the oil drain pipe from the bottom half of the end casing. Alternative: the sunwheel coupling sleeve may be.2 b DISMANTLING OF EPICYCLIC GEARS . the lubricating oil pipe on the starboard side of the star gear must be removed.
DISMANTLING OF EPICYCLIC GEARS APG 310 and larger 3b STAL-LAVAL .
3b STAL-LAVAL DISMANTLING OF EPICYCLIC GEARS APG 310 and larger .
a. Fit the turning beam (3) to the oil inlet plate. The star wheels can now be removed. 1+b DISMANTLING OF HP1 EPICYCLIC GEARS APG 310 and larger To dismantle the gear assembly The epicyclic gear is disassembled in three major steps. 1+ Fia C Trunnion bearing 3 Turning beams with trunnionz _Fig B Support the oil inlet plate with jacks. Lift out the gear and support in brackets. Fit the trunnions to the oil inlet plate. see separate description. Raise and lift the gear.. Fig A Attach lifting bracket to the oil inlet plate and star wheel carrier by means of sleeves and bolt through one of the holes in the outer coupling ring. i 2 Distance sleeve 1 Lifting bracket Lower the gear into the trunnion bearings. Turn the gear 180 degrees and remove oil inlet plate and one of the annulus rings. D. c. C. . Turn the gear so that the oil inlet plate faces the deck. Lower the gear onto the bearing pedestal and turn the oil inlet plate upwards. . The gear is turned into horizontal position as shown in fig. 5 Three leg wire sling 7 Jack screw Fig D Fig E Attach the loose end of the lifting bracket to the star wheel carrier. b. Tools for removal of spindles etc. Turn the gear so that the oil inlet faces the deck and remove outer coupling ring. Lower the inner coupling ring with the remaining annulus ring and lift the star gear carrier. 6 Trunnionz Note: The sectional drawing shows the epicyclic gear before assembly. Remove the distance sleeves and attach a three wire sling to the outer coupling ring and lift. Then lift the gear assembly out of the gear casing. Remove the turning beams.
H to lower the internal coupling ring with the remaining annulus ring onto the deck. Fit eye bolts to the oil inlet plate.6b DISMANTLING OF HP1 EPICYCLIC GEARS APG 310 and larger To dismantle the gear assembly (cont. 5 Fig G Three leg wire sling 8 Eye bolts Remove screws and cylindrical pins (see separate description). Lift the oil inlet plate. 8 Eye bolts 11 Four armed wire sling Fig K Lower the star carrier onto the jacks (13). The lower annulus ring remains in the internal coupling ring.) Fig F Support the gear at the inner coupling ring and the star carrier. 11 Four armed wire sling 12 Lifting tackle for annulus ring Fig I Fig J Use the same tool mentioned under fig. attach a three leg lifting sling and lift. . 9 Jack screw for planet carrier 10 Jack screw for annulus ring Fig H Attach the fourarmed lifting tool to the upper annulus ring and lift out. Fit eye bolts to the star carrier.
. NEVER EXPOSE THE ESCAPING OIL VAPOUR TO AN OPEN FLAME. DISMANTLING OF EPICYCLIC GEARS-HP 2 and LP I 5 STAL-LAVAL WARNING: IMPORTANT: NOTE ALL POSITION MARKS BEFORE DISASSEMBLING TO AVOID THE RISK OF EXPOSION WHEN TAKING OFF GEAR CASE COVERS.
the lubricating oil pipe on the starboard side of the planet gear must be removed. making sure that the nozzle is clear of the planet carrier face before lifting clear. Remove the bolts securing the planet carrier (11) to the secondary reduction pinion. Carefully move the gear assembly away from the secondary gear until the carrier face is clear of the sunwheel coupling. then remove the fitted bolts securing the coupling flange to the gear case. Disconnect and turn away the external pipe and nipple. DISMANTLING OF EPICYCLIC GEARS-HP 2 6 HP PRIMARY GEAR Second train (HP2 ) Dismantling CAUTION Before lifting the gear case top. Remove the gear case top. . Remove the screws (82) and withdraw the sunwheel coupling sleeve locating segments (79). Take the weight of the gear assembly on the lifting sling. Screw a bolt in the tapped hole in the pipe and withdraw the pipe. This is done so that the trunnions will be horizontal when fitted to the planet carrier. Remove the stub shaft and oil nozzle assembly. Place slings around the grooves at each end of the planet carrier. (The sunwheel coupling remains fixed to the quill shaft). then fit the lifting beam. Turn the gear so that one of the planet wheels lies on the horizontal centre line. Remove the oil muff.
1 0. Lift out the annulus ring by means of the annulus lifting tackle. Assemble the lifting bracket. Screw jack 11. Lifting beam 27. trunnions and trunnion bearings. Screw jack 6.8 DISMANTLING OF EPICYCLIC GEARS . 'Annulus lifting tackle Figure P Lower the lower annulus ring with coupling rings and lift out the planet carrier.HP 2 To dismantle the gear assembly Figure L Lift out the gear assembly by means of the lifting tools attached to it. Screw jack 17. Figure 0 Lower the gear onto the jacks. To remove and replace. Turnbuckle with sling Figure M Lower the gear assembly on to the jack and trunnion bearings. 6. Lifting bracket 12. spring rings refer to separate description. Trunnion bearing Turn the gear assembly. Figure N . 5. Trunnion 1 3.
Remove the top fitted bolts connecting the coupling flange case. the lubricating oil pipe on the port side of the planet gear must be removed. Carefully move the primary gear assembly away from the secondary gear until the sunwheel (1-5) is clear of the coupling flange ( 44) and second reduction pinion. coupling sleeve ( 75) and oil nozzle. then remove the bottom fitted bolts securing the coupling flange (51) to the gear case. 40/30/80 and 4 0/30/85 gears. NEVER EXPOSE THE ESCAPING OIL VAPOUR TO A NAKED LIGHT. Remove the barring gear. Remove the gear case. Place the slings provided around the grooves at each end of the planetcarrier. Screw a bolt in the tapped hole in the pipe and withdraw the pipe. Remove the oil muff (2). The 40/30/93 and 32/110 gears have four spindles which should be placed off centres for trunnions positioning. Carefully observe the positions of the identification marks on the different parts of the gear.LP 1 LP PRIMARY GEAR Dismantling WARNING: TO AVOID THE RISK OF EXPLOSION WHEN TAKING OFF THE GEAR CASE COVERS. which connects the outer coupling ring to the gear casing. To remove the gear from the casing CAUTION Before lifting the gear case top. Remove the internal bolt on top of the gear casing. IMPORTANT: NOTE ALL POSITION MARKS BEFORE DISASSEMBLING . Remove the bolts securing the planet carrier (11) to the secondary reduction pinion. Disconnect and turn away the external pipe and nipple. and make sure that the nozzle ( 60) is clear of the stub shaft 1 before lifting clear. Ensure that one of the planet wheels ( 32) is in the top dead centre position for 36/37/85.10 DISMANTLING OF EPICYCLIC GEARS . ( 51) to the gear Take the weight of the gear assembly on the lifting slings. then fit the lifting beam as shown in figure S (see page 4).
STAL-LAVAL 11 DISMANTLING OF EPICYCLIC GEARS .LP .
LP 1 To dismantle the gear assembly Figure S Lift out the gear assembly by means of the lifting beam. Hydraulic jack 13. Lifting beam 27. Lower the planetary gear. Figure T Lower the planetary gear to the trunnion bearing and hydraulic jack. 5. Trunnion bearing 21. Meanwhile assemble the lifting bracket and trunnion bearings. Figure V Place the hydraulic jacks according to the figure. Screw jack 8. Lifting bracket 22. Screw jack 6. Annulus lifting tackle To remove and replace spring rings refer to separate description. . Trunnion Figure U Turn the planetary gear.12 DISMANTLING OF EPICYCLIC GEARS . Lift out the upper annulus ring. Figure X Lower the lower annulus ring with the coupling rings and lift out the planet carrier. Turnbuckle with sling 10. 6.
~f this precaution is not observed. If the oil muff seal rings (sectional arrangement) have been removed. difficulty will be encountered when dismantling the gear. To reassemble the spring rings. care must be taken that the gear case oil ways and all parts are perfectly clean and free from dirt or foreign matter. The tapped holes in the rings must be opposed. . THIS IS MOST IMPORTANT. If the star wheels are not correctly meshed with the sunwheel. This will ensure that the star wheels are symmetrically placed in the star carrier. Make sure that the edges of the star wheel teeth are in line with the edges of the sunwheel teeth. Make sure that the identification marks on the internal gear rings (48. Star gear (HP1 ) Place the star wheels in their respective positions in the star carrier. Each spring ring must be assembled with its joint visible at one of the slots (or adjacent to one of the tapped holes) in the component in which the ring is fitted. Lighting holes must be adjacent to each other. NOTE Before assembly of the gear. these should be replaced with sides marked "PRESS" facing each other. THIS IS MOST IMPORTANT. Non-fluffy rags should be used for cleaning. The gears should be reassembled by taking care that all parts which are marked are reassembled against their corresponding letters. Wedglok screws may be reused as long as they show appreciable resistance to tightening when the insert comes in contact with the female thread.14 HP and LP TURBINE GEARS REASSEMBLY Reassembly of the gears is mainly carried out in the reverse order to the disassembly of the gear. 56) and the inner coupling ring (55) are in their right positions. serious damage to the gear may result during subsequent running. separate description. see. wearing of the nylon insert or apparent falling off in efficiency. They must not be reused if they show signs of heavy usage. If the star wheels are not correctly placed in the star carrier serious damage to the gear may occur during subsequent running.
STAR GEAR 1 5 STAL LAVAL . REASSEMBLY OF EPICYCLIC GEAR l i p 1 .
843" 1.781" 1. THIS IS MOST IMPORTANT. Particular care must be taken that the end of the sunwheel is aligned with the ends of the planet wheels.906" 1.41 mm 45. Make sure that the identification marks on the internal gear rings ( 48. If the planet wheels are not correctly placed in the planet carrier serious damage to the gear may occur during subsequent running.91 mm On gears with modified annulus rings ( annulus rings with the same width as tha star gear teeth) it is only necessary to check that the upper end of the forward annulus ring is in level with that of the star wheels.532" 48. Planetary gear ( HP 2 and LP) Insert the planet wheels in their respective positions in the planet carrier and adjust the height of the sunwheel so that the planet wheel and sunwheel teeth mesh correctly. This will ensure that the planet wheels are symmetrically placed in the planet carrier.81 mm 38. Failure to mesh the sun and planet wheel teeth correctly may result in serious damage to the gear during subsequent running.16 REASSEMBLY OF EPICYCLIC GEARS APG APG APG APG APG 36/27/85 40/30/80 40/30/85 40/30/93 32/110 1. THIS IS MOST IMPORTANT. .23 mm 46. 56) and the inner coupling ring ( 55) are in their right positions.
STAR GEAR 17 . SrAL--LAVAL REASSEMBLY OF EPICYCLIC GEARS }IP. .
40. STAL--LAVAL 18 DISMANTLING AND REASSEMBLY OF EPICYCLIC GEARS Removal and Replacement of planet and star spindles Utmost care must be taken so as not to damage the white-metal spindles when removing or reassembling them. 42. C Removal of cylindrical dowel in oil inlet flange. 38: Support Remover Support Remover Hexagon ring bar (threaded) beam nut 41. 59. A Removal of spindle Fig. 36. When reassembling make sure that the holes for cooling and lubrication are correctly situated in the carrier. 44. . use tool No. If the guiding pin is located at the end of the spindle. Remover nut Hydraulic spindle ram Hand pump Dowel extractor body Planet spindle guide ( not always necessary) 39. The same tools are used on both HP and LP side. 43. B Reassembly of spindle Fig. 59. 37. Fig.
but is not allowed-to exceed 1 mm (0. If the ring ends are burred. the damage may be removed by careful filin g. clamp or lever one of the ends of the spring ring while the other is driven out of the groove. Light chamfering is permissible for removing sharp corners. near the joint of the spring ring.04") x 45 0 UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES SHOULD THE RING BE SHORTENED OR HEAVILY CHAMFERED FOR EASE OF ASSEMBLY. If the ends have been distorted during removal. they should be reformed to the correct radius. Replacement Before replacing inspect the spring rings for damage. Jack out one end of the ring. radially inwards on to the spring ring joint which will be in line with the slot in the coupling ring. STAL-LAVAL DISMANTLING OF EPICYCLIC GEARS 19 SPRING RINGS Removal and Replacement Removal Check for identification marks on spring ring and coupling. If possible. INNER GROOVE of coupling ring Apply a screw to one of the tapped holes in the coupling. WARNING Restrict the free movement of the released ring to avoid injury to the personnel. . OUTER GROOVE of coupling ring r Apply a sharp blow with a soft steel drift and hammer.
drive the free end around until the ring springs into position with the ends together in the groove. Slight misalignment can be tolerated but this must not exceed 1.20") away from a tapped hole for outer and inner rings respectively.06") for 12.55") diameter section and a proportional amount for other sizes. With a soft steel drift with larger section than the spring ring. leaving enough room to drive on the free end by means of a drift and hammer.7 mm (0.20 Insert one end of the ring in the groove in line with a slot or approximately 5 mm (0. Check that the ends of the ring are in contact with the bottom of the groove. A greater amount of misalignment must be corrected by removing the ring from the groove and reforming the radius as mentioned above. . Do not clamp the ring close to the free end as i may cause permanent deformation of the ring. The two ends should be in line and it is essential that the joint is tight across the full face of the ends. Retain the free end of the spring ring with just enough pressure to hold it back into the groove. Hold the ring end in the groove by two levers or clamps. A further lever can be applied to the fixed end in the slot to prevent the spring ring from slipping out of the groove. Work the ring in the groove until the free end overlaps on the inside of the fixed end.5 mm (0.
HYDRAULIC TURNING GEAR INDEX Hydraulic system Oil pump Hydraulic motor 3/4 way valve Constant flow valve Pressure limitation valve Starting valve Coupling Locking of the coupling Starting .Operation Remote control unit PAGE 1 2 2 4 4 6 6 8 8 8 10 1. .
HYDRAULIC MOTOR List of parts Item A • C • E F • I J • • M • • • Q R • • Y Designation Motor case Bearing plate Valve housing Cylinder head Piston Connecting rod Crank shaft Valve spacer End cap Valve coupling Cover plate Retaining ring Restrictor screw Retaining ring Piston seal Piston seal backing ring Seal ring CD Circlip Timken bearing 0-ring Item z AA AB AC AE AF AI AN AT AU AW BE BK CA CB CC CD CE CF OG Designation 0-ring Shaft seal 0-ring 0-ring 0-ring Shim Drain plug Piston filter Hammer drive screw Name plate Key Super pressure plug Shim plate Washer Cap Circlip Spring 0-ring Piston Body . complementary Seal ring Low screw M 10-25 Washer Parallel key Disc key Indicating arrow Firm's name plate Rivet Position pin. Description II . List of parts Item 1 2 3 4 5 6 2.OIL-PUMP The oil pump is driven by an electric motor. 7 8 ( 100110 ) 100089 ( 100118 100089 ( 100120 ) 100089 ( 100108 100089 100158 100159 100264 100085 100105 100096 100096 ( 100116 100089 N° Front casing Middle casing Rear casing Front support Rear support Description Item 13 14 15 100495 100498 100497 100152 100233 100152 100141 100140 100064 100196 100065 100072 N° Driving pinion 10 Driving pinion 20 Driving pinion 30 Driving pinion 40 Dr Driven pinion Stop valve Stop valve gasket 9 10 11 12 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 0-Ring Compensation joint Compensation joint.HYDRAULIC TURNING GEAR I .
List of parts Item 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Plug Self-tapping screw Screw TC 6 p. 24 Description Item 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 Seat Stop Valve Washer Fwd tip 0-Ring R N° 9 Stop Ring Spring Cap Plug Aft tip Notching tip Staple Ring Joint Washer Pin O-Ring 0 38 x 2 Ball 0 6 Description 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 IV . cap screw Soc. HD. which can be locked in each different position by a special key. the valve should be closed. cr Flange Plug Body Slide valve (central part) Fwd cap Anti-extrusion ring Joint Square cap of 10 type 200 BNA. Item 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Body Piston Orifice sleeve Throttle Spring Spring Spring Plug Snap-ring Adjust bar Coupling Dial Name plate Revolution indicator Lock screw Detent Description Item 17 18 19 20 Detent Indicator plate Snap ring Direction indicator plate Key Spacer Pipe plug Pipe plug Spring pin Spring pin Machine screw Tapping screw Soc. When the lever is in the centre position. HD. 20 to 6 p. 0-Ring R. When the motor is rotating at normal speed. set screw Poppet Seat Spring Description 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 .4 WAY / 3 POSITION VALVE FDRA 20 D 16 The hydraulic motor is operated by this valve. The direction of rotation depends on the position of the lever. set screw " " " Description Item 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 0-Ring 0-Ring 0-Ring 0-Ring Back-up ring Plug Snap ring O-Ring Retainer Jam nut Soc. HYDRAULIC TURNING GEAR III . The valve is adjusted by a screw.c.CONSTANT FLAW VALVE The RPM of the hydraulic motor can be controlled by the constant flow valve. M.4. the motor is stopped.12 Ig 15 Pin "MECANINDUS" thick ring Copper cap Scraper joint 0-Ring R 7 0-Ring R 13 Screw TF/90 0 Lg.Cap screw Soc.
cap screw Soc. this valve acts as a safety valve and drains the circuit.3080 This valve. Item 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Designation Body Cap Piston Seat Spring Spring Seat Poppet Spring Plunger Retainer Jam nut Adjusting screw Control knob Item 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Designation Indication plate Shim Stop screw Indicator plate Plug Plug Plug Plug Rivet Spring pin 0-ring 0-ring O-ring 0-ring . The low rotation speed allows the clutch position of the flutes to be found easily.D.PRESSURE LIMITATION VALVE BT-06. H. The low power prevents the whole machine from being driven and focuses the power onto the entry of the flutes when coupling.BG-06. Item 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Designation Body Cover Piston Sent Spring Spring Seat Spring Spring Plunger Retainer Jam nut Adjusting screw Item 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Designation Control knob Indication plate Shim Collar Indicator plate Soc. calibrated between 10 and 20 bars.STARTING VALVE . HYDRAULIC TURNING GEAR V . set screw Pipe plug " " Rivet 0-ring 0-ring Bonded seal VI .6.3080 If the pressure rises beyond a pre-set valve. allows operation of the clutch of the hydraulic turning gear without risk of damage.
.HYDRAULIC TURNING GEAR 7.
mounted on the motor shaft by screw (9) and washer (8) 8. Washer _ Screw Fixed oiling ring 0-ring Oil injector for planetary gear Inspection cover Micro switch LOCKING OF THE COUPLING To avoid unintended engagement of the turning gear the handle can be locked in each end by a locking device consisting of : 15. 2. thereby bringing the main valve (item IV) into operation. In each end limit the lever actuates a micro switch is connected to the EMERGENCY CUT OUT SYSTEM (see this chapter).engaged. 9. i) When rotation is finished. to avoid damage to the unit (Normally. in "OUT" . 14. Electric motor Casing Handle Lever shaft Levers Coupling sleeve Splined sleeve. 7. close the tap of the starting valve (item VI) by k revolution. 6. 12. Lever release knob Compression ring Locking plunger 18. COUPLING HYDRAULIC TURNING GEAR The hydraulic turning motor is connected to the sunwheel in the first reduction gear on the LP side by a tooth coupling. e) Put valve III lever in the desired position (forward or reverse).The control knob for the discharge pressure must be unlocked only with. which. 10. 4. f) Unlock handle 3 and move the lever towards the "IN" position. a special key. moves a splined coupling sleeve towards the motor shaft until the coupling is engaged. 13. revolution to start the starting valve.8. . Should a lower speed be required. d) Open the tap by k b) Put the lever of the valve (III) to its centre position. Hole for padlock Padlock OPERATION a) Check the oil tank level c) Start the oil pump. the pressure hovers between 60 and 80 kg/cm2).B. g) To drive the machine. 11. 16. 1. it can be reduced by altering the calibration pressure. The coupling is operated by a handle. 19. Never allow the pressure to exceed 150 Kg/cm2. N. 5. until the coupling is completely. 17. 3. by means of two levers. disengage the lever and lock it position with a padlock. h) Check the oil pressure regularly during operation. This constant flow valve should be set at maximum turning speed.
.HYDRAULIC TURNING GEAR 9.
only a very low rotation speed is obtained. a hand pump is provided. a 4 way /3 position solenoid-valve is fitted in connection with valve shown as item III. MANUAL CONTROL In case of failure of the electric motor or the oil pump. However this is sufficient to effectively cool the turbine rotors. HYDRAULIC TURNING GEAR REMOTE CONTROL UNIT Where a remote control unit is required for the hydraulic turning gear. . By operating this hand pump.10. This low speed can also be useful for fitting purposes.
The thrust pads are situated on both sides of the thrust collar. Oil seals of the floating bushing and of the labyrinth type are at both ends of the bearing. STAL-LAVAL Fai/HW PROPELLER THRUST BEARING 1 Contents: General Lubrication Dismantling of flange bolts Replacement of thrust pads Page 1 2' 2 2 General The propeller thrust bearing is of the tilting pad type and is located in a separate casing aft of the main reduction gear. The space between the seals is connected to drain. The bearing is lubricated from the lubricating oil system. . The thrust shaft has integral thrust collar and coupling flanges. The bearing operates completely submerged in oil. It caries the complete propeller thrust and keeps the final reductior gear wheel in correct axial position.
• 1. 6. Engage a suitable lever into the periphery of the spherical ring (11). by forcing the retainer into its correct position. 2 PROPELLER THRUST BEARING Lubrication The oil is fed through pipe (a) into spaces between bearing housing (1) and seating ring. This drainage together with shaft leakage oil is led away through the second outlet pipe (b). It can conveniently be freed by jacking the intermediate shaft axially. 1 4. Pipe elbow with flange Spherical ring Pad holder ring Erection ring Orifice Dowel Jacking screw c r . Dismantling of flange bolts Should it be necessary to remove must be replaced by the erection by STAL-LAVAL. Screw an eyebolt into an accessible thrust pad ( 6) and lift this out. The main oil outlet is through pipe (c) but there is also a smaller drain from bottom of the housing through orifice (13) which ensures continuous removal of sludge. This is necessary (2) from resting on and damaging Replacement of thrust pads • • • • • the flange bolts. 7. 10. 8. Turn the spherical ring so that the next pad is in position. Bearing housing Intermediate shaft Oil catcher Oil sealing ring Inspection cover Thrust pad Gasket Remote thermometer plug Oil inlet pipe Oil drainage Main oil outlet 9. 15. 1 3. 11. b. as far as possible. a. Difficulty in turning the ring may be due to its having been dropped and wedged against the thrust collar. 2. shaft seals (3) rings (12) supplied with the delivery in order to prevent intermediate shaft the shaft seals. Fit a new thrust pad in place of the one removed. Replace the inspection cover. 5. etc. Remove inspection cover (5). c. 3. Alternatively jacking screws (15) can be fitted in place of the seal plugs. 12. 4.
STAL-LAVAL PROPELLER THRUST BEARING APT 251. APT 265. APT 300 3b .
APM AND AP-MK 1 STAL--LAVAL Fai/HW Contents. Steam flow Ahead operation Astern operation Page 1 2 2 . STEAM INLET SYSTEM .
c. ahead Manoeuvring valve.ET SYSTEM . Starboard nozzle group 9. h. sometimes provided and this should be opened first. a pressure balancing valve (5) in line (b) is. g. The space between the manoeuvring valve and guardian valve is connected to the main condenser through the line (g). Drain from the valve casings is led through line (e) to a drain tank (high pressure drain tank). In order to facilitate the opening of the isolating valves. During the warming up of the machinery. f. The supply line (a) is drained through line (c). Astern nozzle group 1. Leakage from the glands of the manoeuvring valve is led through line (d) to the gland condenser. e. The valve (h) is provided with a drilled head to enable continuous drainage to take place. Astern operation The manoeuvring valve for ahead operation (1) is closed. Bypass valve for (1) and (2) 7. Port nozzle group 10. to equalize the pressure on each side of the isolating valve. 2. The function of the guardian valve is to provide an additional safeguard against the flow of condensate or steam to the astern turbine when the machinery is operating ahead. whereas the astern and guardian valves (2 and 3) are closed. An isolating valve ( 4) is provided in each of the supply lines. Ahead operation At ahead operation the ahead manoeuvring valve (1) is open.APM AND APMK Steam from the boilers is supplied to the manoeuvring valves (1 and 2) through two supply lines (a). valve ( 6) in the bypass line ( f) is opened while the manoeuvring valve is closed. 2 Steam flow STEAM INT. 3. The steamflow through nozzle groups valves ( 10) and ( 11). Valve for manual control of port nozzle group ( 91 14. d. Pressure balancing valve for 6. Valve for manual control of starboard nozzle group ( 8) 11. Isolating valve 5. astern Guardian valve 4. When the astern manoeuvring valve (2) is opened. the guardian valve (3) is opened and permits the steam to enter the astern turbine through the nozzle group (15). Astern turbine (schematics 1 5. Supply line from boilers Pressure balancing line To high pressure drain tank To gland condenser To high pressure drain tank Warming through line To main condenser Drain valve ( 8) and (9) can be controlled by ( 4) Pressure gauge Thermometer Valve Orifice plate Not supplied as standard O u n . Top nozzle group 8. HP turbine (schematic) 7A. Manoeuvring valve. a. b.
LAVAL STEAM INLET SYSTEM .sTAL.APM and APMK 3 .
APMK 1 Page 1 2 2 2 1+ General The manoeuvring valve unit consists of one ahead and one astern valve. . Oil pressure in the servo keeps the valve closed against the full steam pressure. and a guardian valve. STAL-LAVAL Contents General Steam valve Servomotor Lifting mechanism for emergency operation Manoeuvring valve characteristics MANOEUVRING VALVE WITH SERVOMOTOR . Opening and closing of the guardian valve is automatically controlled by the opening and closing of the astern valve. supplied with oil from a separate governing oil system. both similar. The servomotors are electric-hydraulic controlled. The valves have hydraulic servomotors. The guardian valve relay is included in the standard equipment.
B. The leakoff steam is extracted to a leakoff condenser. for instance. the valve bonnet complete with servomotor and the valve head can be withdrawn after loosening the oil pipes and bonnet nuts. A feedback cam ( 5) at the end of the servo spindle positions the valve at the lift determined by the control pressure. 9. 8. . To clean the steam strainer. Servomotor 1. E. Servomotor The single action servomotor is controlled by an oil pressure (B) applied at the servo pilot valve (3). 1 2. In this position the forces in the spindle are minimized by disc springs in the back of the servo cylinder. The pilot valve provides for about 50% of the steam volume which represents about 75% of maximum speed. It can be opened by turning it in anticlockwise direction.APMK The steam valve includes a valve housing. In an emergency cutout. F. C. it can be closed by turning the handwheel in clockwise direction. 5. Steam valve 10. the main head seats against the valve and seals for leakoff along the spindle. 11. Other main parts are the built-in pilot valve. the oil pressure in the emergency cutout system (C) diminishes and oil from under the servo piston is emptied to the cavity above the piston. Lifting mechanism for emergency operation A worm gear with a handwheel is mounted on top of the servomotor.2 Steam valve MANOEUVRING VALVE WITH SERVOMOTOR . the main head and the valve seat with a pressure recovery nozzle. thereby reducing the risk for spindle seizure. the control signal being near in proportion to the propeller speed. 7. The valve housing has the form of a cube and is machined out of a forging. The spindle gland consists of a number of bushes of a special cast iron. Main head Pilot valve Valve spindle Back sealing seat Steam strainer Pump oil pressure Control oil pressure Oil pressure from emergency cutout system Drain Steam inlet To leakoff condenser 6. a spindle guide and a steam strainer. a bonnet incorporating a pedestal for the servomotor. A. 4. 1 3. 2. In the fully open position. 3. Different characteristics can be obtained with different cam forms. The valve spindle fits firmly into the servo piston and minimizes any possible vibrational tendencies. If the valve is sticking. D. Main piston Relief spring Servomotor pilot valve Mechanical feedback Feedback cam Feedback plunger Position sensor Tripping relay Device for opening the valve under emergency conditions 1 4.
APMK 3 . STAL-LAVAL MANOEUVRING VALVE WITH SERVOMOTOR .
and the resultant of C and D gives the diagram E. can be drawn up from A. D shows a typical diagram for an ahead valve. showing the RPM as a function of the input signal. B and E.e. Diagram A gives steam-flow the relationship between and valve stroke and B between steamflow and RPM of turbine. . i. i. 4 MANOEUVRING VALVE WITH SERVO-MOTOR Manoeuvring valve characteristics Fig. the relationship between valve stroke and feedback stroke which is proportional to the control oil pressure. Diagram C shows the normally used profile of the feedback head. the relationship between input signal (revolutions on stepping motor) and valve stroke. The electric-hydraulic converter characteristic is shown in diagram D.e. Diagram F.
APMK 5 .STAL-LAVAL MANOEUVRING VALVE CARACTERISTICS .
STAL-LAVAL GUARDIAN VALVE 1 Contents Principle Main parts Forced closing Page 1 2 2 Principle The guardian valve is mounted on the line between the astern ma noeuvring valve and the turbine. . The extraction of leakoff steam to the condenser is connected between the two valves. In ahead operation it acts as an extra safeguard against leakage into the steam line of the astern turbine.
Guide bush for valve spindle (3). The spindle should not be rotated since the bellows (8) would be damaged. Servo cylinder. Forced closing If the servomotor develops a fault or if the valve spindle seizes. Drain (1. Nut for forced closing. f. The valve head is fixed to the spindle (3) by means of a dowel. Valve seat and gaskets. clamped between the flange of the guardian. assembly. GUARDIAN VALVE 7. The sensor is always fitted. 12. Bellows. seats on the valve seat (2). a. although not always electrically connected. 2. Split pin for lock nut 12. c. Valve casing. The split pin (14) is then removed-and the spindle is prevented from rotating with a spanner on the flats (f). Valve seat. prevents air leakage into condenser. 9. 15. 6. 10. consisting of five components. 3. Packing. When the astern manoeuvring valve is inoperative. The seating surfaces are stellited. Spindle. the valve must be forced to close. Oil sealing ring 0-ring Oil supply b. 13. 5. connected to the servo piston. valve casing and the mating flange. the guardian valve will seal against full steam pressure when closed as described above.2 Main parts 1. Turn the nut (13) with a spanner so that the spindle moves in the valve closing direction. Lantern ring for the spindle leakoff steam.5 nnm hole provides a constant leakoff) Flats for spanner Steam inlet Spindle leakoff branch h. g. Nut to clamp belows assembly. d. The switch is used for indicating "closed valve". The servo cylinder (14) is welded to the valve casing. 11. 4. Valve head. 14. Sensor for microswitch (6151). Servo piston. Steam to astern turbine . in the shape of a 90 0 pipe bend with a welded-in spindle guide. The seating surfaces are stellite coated. Locking pin for nut 10. 8. The valve seat (6) forms the seal between the flanges. e. 16.
STAL-LAVAL GUARDIAN VALVE 3 .
STAL-LAVAL GUARDIAN VALVE 3 .
ATLANTIQU E STAL-LAVAL MANOEUVRING AND EMERGENCY CUT-OUT SYSTEM-APMK 1 SUMMARY Introduction Oil supply unit Emergency cut-out system .Hydraulic part Emergency cut-out system .Electrical part Electronic speed governor Page 2 5 9 13 21 .
2 MANOEUVRING AND EMERGENCY CUT-OUT SYSTEM-APMK INTRODUCTION Oil supply unit - The steam flow control system on turbines includes Supplying the necessary oil flow-rate.Electro-hydraulic converter. These 2 parts are connected by a solenoid-valve. 4 . 11 . See separate description. This unit is fitted with a standby pump.Guardian valve relay. this resulting in the steam feed being cut at the turbines. under a constant pressure of 10 bars.Emergency cut-out system. 5 . through which the servomotors are drained when a safety device trips off. 2 .Tachometer connection. Astern steam valve and guardian valve - The guardian valve is automatically operated through an hydraulic relay. 10). . 8 .Tripping solenoid-valve.Ahead valve. 3 . Control system with speed governor - See remote control This system includes an electrical part and a hydraulic part.Remote control locker with speed display (see separate description) 7 .Discharge valve. Ahead steam valve - Emergency cut-out system - See separate description. which is controlled by the hydraulic servomotors of the steam valves.Guardian valve. 12 .Astern valve. 6 . 1 .Overspeed trips.
LAVAL MANOEUVRING AND EMERGENCY CUT-OUT SYSTEM-APMK 3 . ATLANTIQUE STAL.
. 5 bar. The bearings of these pumps are lubricated by the oil circulation.LAVAL MANOEUVRING AND EMERGENCY CUT-OUT SYSTEM-APMK 5 OIL SUPPLY UNIT Summary Components Description Diagram Pages 5 6 7 Components The hydraulic system for the APMK control and tripping is fitted with 2 paddle-pumps. one of them as stand-by. It is a Duplex filter which allows for changing over during the ship's operation. ATLANTIQUE STAL. Their opening pressure is 0. Make : YUKEN The main oil filter is of BOLL make. The non-return valves are of YUKEN make.
viscosity 5 to 7°E at 50 ° C. with the other being used as the standby pump.6 MANOEUVRING AND EMERGENCY CUT-OUT SYSTEM-APMK Oil supply unit - The pump unit supplies the pressurized oil to the servo-motors of the steam valves and to the emergency cut-out system. The two separate motor pumps (6201-6202) can be used in turn. 3. The standby pump can be removed at sea for maintenance. read off on the pressure gauge (6325). The discharge valve (6481) can be adjusted to give the correct pressure. The nominal pressure is 10 bar gauge within a limit + 1 bar gauge. The pumps have an average delivery rate of about 60 l/min at 5 ° E. Its purpose is to start the standby pump automatically when the oil pressure falls below 1. The pressure switch (6056) trips the main unit in case of low control oil pressure after a delay of 10 sec. The suction-strainers (6241-6242) of the pumps have a mesh size of 125 him. the loss of pressure should not exceed 0. With a clean filter and warm oil. 5 Kw. with connections for filling and draining and with a low-level detector. The principal elements of this plant comprise two separate motor-pumps each fitted with its own non-return valve and its own suction-strainer. The filter (6245) is a double filter. fitted with a magnetic element and has a mesh size of 25 um. Each motor pumps is provided with a pressure switch (6081 & 6082) connected between the pump and the non-return valve. and which allows this latter to be dismantled while the oil supply unit is operating. An oil for hydraulic control with a viscosity of 2-3°E can also be used. 3 phases. Their effective power under normal conditions is from 1. Normally. a discharge valve and a main fitter which are common to both pumps. the other being in reserve. 5 bar. When the loss of pressure reaches 0. During the changeover. 2 to 1. 5 bar the filter should be cleaned. the oil circulates through one element only. the oil circulates through both elements at once. . The oil used is of the same type as the lubricating oil. The loss of pressure via this valve is around 0. By closing the valve (6673) and then applying a known pressure to the flange (6961) the switching point can be checked. . it is fitted with visual level indicator. 5 bar. -0 Components The tank has an oil volume of 500 1. as the main pump. 1720 rpm. 1 Kw. Each motor pump group is fitted with a non-return valve (6281 & 6282) which prevents the oil from returning to the tank via the standby pump. 1 bar in normal operation. The electric motors possess standard specifications : 440 V/60 Hz.
LAVAL MANOEUVRING AND EMERGENCY CUT-OUT SYSTEM-APMK 7 . ATLANTIQUE STAL.
thus draining the emergency cut-out circuit. in both senses. When a fault occurs the circuit of this coil is closed. WESTINGHOUSE manual valves The operation of these is similar to that of the solenoid valves with the sole difference that they are manually controlled. instead of being electric.IIYDRAULIC PART Summary Components Emergency cut-out .hydraulic part Normal conditions Cut-out conditions Blocking Page 9 10 10 10 10 Components HERION Solenoid-valves The coil of the tripping solenoid valve is normally desenergised. ATLANTIQUE STAL-LAVAL MANOEUX'RING AND EMERGENCY CUT-OUT SYSTEM-APMK 9 EMERGENCY CUT-OUT . .
when it is operated .10 M_1N0E[VRING AND EMERGENCY CUT-() E"T SYSTI-' MI-A I'MIK The main component of the hydraulic part of emergency cut-out system is the tripping solenoid valve (6021). even when the system has been manually blocked. The pressure switch (6076) is then depressurised and signals "Tripped Turbine".hydraulic part - The normal operating conditions are shown on the diagram opposite. Cut-out conditions When the chain of safety devices is cut. The pressurc. The effect of this operation is to prevent the discharge of oil pressure at the trip valves of the servomotors through the solenoid valve. Manual cut-out - . the power is supplied to the solenoid valve (6021). connects the trip valves of the servo-motors directly to the oil feed and isolates the 2 solenoid valves (6021) and (6022). The pressure switch (6076) is the only means of monitoring this operating and of giving the "tripped turbine" signal. the solenoid valve (6021) is again desenergised. the oil feed to the trip valves of the servomotors is re-established and the pressure switch (6076) is under pressure. This soieno''d valve ensures the link between the electrical and hydraulic parts of the safety device system.of oil coming from the hydraulic plant passes after diaphragm (6591) through the tripping solenoid valve (6021) and the 2 manual valves (6505 & 6301) before spreading out to the trip valves of the servomotors. Normal operation - Emergency cut-out . which is usually not energised. electrical part) it is possible to energise the solenoid valve (6022). make sure before manual block_ng' that the control of the manoeuvring gear has been returned to zero. When the fault has been cleared and the electrical chain been reset (see following chapter). Manual blocking The draining of the hydraulic circuit of the cut-our system can be blocked by the manual valve (6505) which. This action brings the pressure switch (6058) to switch over (normally not under pressure) which then signals "Cut-out system blocked". The manual valve (6301) permits the group to be cut-out by draining the oil from the trip valves of the servomotors. The solenoid valve (6021) is not energised. (6021) by diverting the pressure of the hydraulic plant to the discharge outlet. The contactor (6147) linked to this valve signals this condition. this latter sets the oil pressure at the trip valves of the servomotors to drain through the solenoid valve (6022). Manual blocking shuu:d be viewed as the last thing to resort to in cases where it is absolute-:v necessary for the safe operation of the ship. Blocking - IMIPORTANT : If the group is desengaged. Electrical blocking Provided certain conditions are met (see safety devices.
ATLANTIQUE I STAL.LAVAL MANOEUVRING AND EMERGENCY CUT-OUT SYSTEM-APMK 11 .
ATLANTIQUE STAL.LAVAL MANOEUVRING AND EMERGENCY CUT-OUT SYSTEM-APMK 13 EMERGENCY CUT-OUT SYSTEM .ELECTRICAL PART Summary Sensors Introduction 4 operating conditions Page 13 15 16 .
only an alarm is given). Another push-button allows. the following has been considered .the solenoid valve trips the unit when energized . which is based on the principle of a voltage transmission circuit.the sensors or the associated relaies cut two chains (if only one chain is cut the unit do not trip. .NCY CUT-OUT SYSTEM-:\ Y \I K 15 Introduction In order to minimise the tripping of the unit in case of circuit or component failure. when the unit is not disengaged. checking of the proper functioning of the relay system for resetting. A "Test lamp" push-button allows the conditions of the signal lamps (normally not lit) to be checked at any time.an alarm is given when the solenoid valve circuit is cut (a push-button allows to ckeck this alarm) .STAL-LAVAL ATLANTIQUE MANOECV'RING AND EMILRGE.the cubicle is supplied by two power cables .
whereas types 2 & 3 can. To simplify the diagram. hence the power is supplied to the solenoid valve (6021).16 MANOEUVRING AND EMERGENCY CUT-OUT SYSI'E M-A PMK F:]t • c trica'l part 4 operating conditions are representated.A) The contacts of sensors 1-2 and 3 are closed. The power supply of relays RD1 & RD2 is cut off. T ht.diagrams opposite show the electrical chain of safety devices. Tripping (diagram 2 )- . Normal operation (diagram 1) - Let us suppose that the type 3 sensor has operated. The type I sensor cannot be electrically blocked.nes in red.. Relays RD1 and RD2 are energised.. Current is supplied via the . The power supply to relay RS3 is cut off the corresponding lamp lights up. The lamp "Safety devices working normally" is lit. - 4 operating conditions Let us suppose that the ahead running valve is open (pressure switch 6148. The signal "tripped Turbine" is transmitted via the pressure switch (6076) to the remote control and to the ship's central alarm station. only 3 types of sensor nave been shown. hence the tripping solenoid valve (6021)is not energised . The "tripped Turbine" lamp lights up.
AI'LANTjkl ..~E STAL-LAVAL ALIANOEUVRING AND EMERGENCY CUT-ouj . SYSTEM-APAIK .
STAL-LAVAL ATLANTIQUE MA'_\OEUVRING AND EMERGENCY CUT-OUT SYSTE lI-APMIK 19 .
Adjustments Arrangement Page 22 22 22 22 23 . q 4 ATLANTIQUE STAL.LAVAL MANOEUVRING AND EMERGENCY CUT-OUT SYSTEM-APMK ELECTRONIC SPEED GOVERNOR 21 SUMMARY Principles Speed measurement Current frequency converter Tests .
The width of'these tops is thus proportional to the speed of the group. The alternator is one of those envisaged for the remote display of the speed of the vessel. The extra load on the alternator is negligible. the overflow valve drains the servo-motor of the ahead-running steam valve. the signals coming from the alternator are shorter than those of the time base. The amount of drain corresponds to the amount by which the speed has been overstepped. Speed measurement This is effected from a three-phase JAEGER alternator. proportional to the speed.Adjustments - The tachometric alternator is one of those installed for the remote indication of the speed of the vessel. A test push-button fixed on the current frequency converter allows the equipment to be adjusted at half speed. The output voltage of the integrator stage drives a current generator whose output is also proportional to the input frequency. The rectangular signal so obtained is applied to the current frequency converter composed of a monostable circuit (time base) and a subcarrier circuit. The sub-carrier circuit generates tops whose width is equal to the width difference of the preceding signals. Lr: The speed governor is a device for the regulation of speed whose set-point is set to 104 % of the nominal speed of the group. These tops are then integrated with the help of a diode pump and changed into voltage proportional to their input frequency. Current-Frequency converter - Tests . . ARRANGEMENT The discharge valve. When the speed of the group develops a tendency to overstep the speed set on the governor. After passing through low-pass filter. When the speed oversteps that set. This allows a very precise adjustment of the speed governor and one which is much less dangerous than a no-load adjustment with an uncoupled shafting. The resulting signal is sent to a "pressure" type servo-valve which pilots an overflow valve. the servo-valve and the converter cabinet are fixed on the APMK panel.22 MANOEUVRING AND EMERGENCY CUT-OUT SYSTEM-APMK ELECTRONIC SPEED GOVERNOR Principle - One of the tachometric alternators installed onto the group transmits a signal. to a current frequency converter which compares the signal received with the set value. the signal coming from the alternator is shaped.
Y ATLANTIQUE STAL.LAVAL MANOEUVRING AND EMERGENCY CUT-OUT SYSTEM-APMK 23 .
Normally only one of these is working while the other stands by. Observe that only the minimum required capacity is given which means that all extra oil through fine mesh filter and equal by-pass flow has to be added. The system is designed to work with good quality mineral lubrication oil. provided with suitable additives for turbine machinery use. The direct driven pump and one of the electric pumps are capable of feeding the lubrication system with oil of sufficient quantity and pressure. STAL-LAVAL Fai/HaW EXTERNAL LUBRICATING OIL SYSTEM x 1 Contents External oil supply Item list Page 2 1 External oil supply The oil is sucked from the lubricating oil sump tank through a suction strainer (one strainer for each pipe) to the two parallel-coupled electric oil pumps. 40 . The recommended oil inlet temperature to the machinery is (104-113 °F). The number of circulations should not exceed 12 per hour. Please check with the installation of the yard. The required oil capacity is stated in the specifications for the actual machinery. The oil cooler can be supplied with automatic temperature control For purification of the oil an oil separator is installed and the lube oil system can be equipped with a fine mesh filter and a coalescing filter in which certain fractions of the oil quantity pass through constantly. A direct-driven oil pump is also coupled in parallel with the electric pumps and is working when the machinery is running. The oil is discharged from the pumps through an oil cooler and filters of duplex type to the lubrication oil system. having a viscosity of about 7 °E at 50 ° C (122 O F).45 ° C This system is recommended by STAL-LAVAL. .
Spark arrester. 5. possible to adjust by hand. Then starting the main engine. 6. .0 kg/cm2 (bar g). Overflow valve of spring-loaded type. duplex type. 16. If the emergency electric power is large enough it is possible to operate with the main lube oil pumps. The valve should be able to drain the overproduced quantity to prevent the oil pressure in the turbine bearings from rising 2 above 2. 3-way temperature control valve. Lubricating oil sump tank. Mesh size max. Coalescing type of water extraction filter. 0. 9. 5 mm. 17.6 kg/cm (bar g). 18. 3. Lubricating oil separator with heater. Fine mesh filter. 2. Alternative location of overflow valve.052 mm. 14. Oil heater. Governing oil filter. Orifice dia. Direct-driven oil pump. duplex type. Oil to the main lubricating oil system. Oil cooler.• 4 15. 12. Electric oil pump. 8. to get needed ventilation when starting up. 7.9 kg/cm (bar g) and the overflow valve should normally be shut. It can be built into the motordriven pumps or connected to the discharge line before the cooler. Emergency lubricating oil pump. 13. 11. Mesh size max. the pressure in level with the bearings should norm~lly not be lower than 1. it may be necessary to have overflow valves that can drain the total oil quantity from the motordriven and the direct-driven pumps. 4. Suction strainer. Depending on the pump type and the classification requirements. Normal pressure in the main oil pipe in level with the bearing centre line at normal speed 2. 2 EXTERNAL LUBRICATING OIL SYSTEM Figure key 1. 10. Main discharge filter.032 mm. 0.
8 1 8002 5792 .0 0000: oo •. .0000'14 0000 00.T - 0 0 . 1 o 0 00 0 :00 g0 ' Separator_ unit 7 . I .V4 rDo---i 15 17 T. STAL-LAVAL EXTERNAL LUBRICATING OIL SYSTEM 3a ~? It I~ 9 10 0 \ I I I I I I I I I 16 I 0 I rf r - -0o-. ..
the threads of which are so formed that they seal against each other as well as against the casing. The pump consists of three screws. It is reversible in order to be effective even during astern operation. . the seat between the threads moves axially in a perfectly uniform manner and thus acts as a piston moving constantly in the same direction. EXTERNAL LUBRICATING OIL SYSTEM 1 STAL-LAVAL Contents Direct-driven oil pump Direct-driven main oil pump 1200 1/min 600 1/min Page 1 3a 3b Direct-driven oil pump The direct-driven oil pump works in parallel with the electric pump. When the screws rotate.
The thrust bearing washer (b) is lubricated through hole (f).2 EXTERNAL LUBRICATING OIL SYSTEM Direct-driven oil pump The direct-driven oil pump works in parallel with the electric pump. It is guided radially by the casing ( 5) and axially by two thrust bearing rings (a) and a thrust bearing washer (b). Relief valve which discharges the oil back to the suction side of the pump when the discharge pressure is excessive.7. pump). releases the air entrained in the oil. the threads of which are so formed that they seal against each other as well as against the casing. It is reversible in order to be effective even during astern operation. The thrust washers (1) are supplied through a hole (g) in the driving screw and hole (m) in the cover (n). oil is filled through the hoes (i). Onh1 600 1/min pump). to ensure adequate lubrication of the screws during starting. 1. The valve is set and sealed during component testing at the works. provided in the driving screw bore. Spline coupling which transmits the rotation of gear wheel 1 to driving screw 3. A silencing groove (c). . 10. 8. 3. The pump consists of three screws. On dismantling the oil pump. Air vent valve (only 1200 1/min. They are guided radially by the pump casing by the thrust washers (1) against the pump casing. Holes (h) are provided in the casing (5). 2. ( 5) and axially Pump casing containing three bores in which the driving and driven screws rotate. 6. ( If the pump has been inoperative for a long period. 5. through which oil flows from the discharge side. Internal lubrication of the pump The spline coupling is lubricated from the discharge side of the pump through hole (d) in the casing and (e) in the driving screw. driven by a pinion connected to the second reduction of the reduction gear. 11. Driving screw. Valves which are open during ahead operation of the machinery. 4.9. Gear wheel. Valves which are open during astern operation of the machinery. When the screws rotate. This eliminates hairuier in the oil pipes. oil is partly drained through the hole (k). the seal between the threads moves axially in a perfectly uniform manner and thus acts as a piston moving constantly in the same direction. Driven screws.
STAL-LAVAL DIRECT DRIVEN MAIN OIL PUMP 1200 1/min 3a .
the propeller thrust bearing. the gear mesh. %tAL-LAVAL INTERNAL LUBRICATION OIL SYSTEM 1 Internal lubricating oil system Item list Internal lubricating oil system The internal lubricating oil system is fed from the external system. It distributes oil to the turbine bearings. the gear bearings. . and the tooth couplings.
INTERNAL LUBRICATION OIL SYSTEM
Item list A. B. HP turbine Gearing LP turbine Propeller thrust bearing
1. 2. 3.
Inlet from external oil system (oil filter) Lubrication points for the gear bearings
Spray nozzles for lubrication of epicyclic gears
Lubrication points for the turbine bearings Lubricating nozzles for the tooth coupling
Spray nozzles for lubrication of gear helices Oil supply to turning gear and epicyclic gear Gravity tank included in the gear casing
Lubrication point for propeller thrust bearing Throttling valve. During normal operation oil passes through an orifice in the valve to the gravity tank. In the event of a pump failure the oil flow direction is changed, the valve is fully opened and the gravity tank maintains the oil supply to the lubrication points. Alternative blank flange connection for oil inlet from external oil system (oil filter) and for cleaning. Strainer
INTERNAL LUBRICATION OIL SYSTEM 3b
9 Gravity tank
j )( 10 11a ( I ~ 3 )( 11 S U 12
LP turbine ,~, - -
17 4 4 B
18 J _~c _ D L Ord _
1 ~.~ 2 bar g 1 bar g Orifice -8001 1034
INTERNAL LUBRICATING OIL SYSTEM
Contents Gravity tanks
Gravity tank Direct driven oil pump
Gravity tanks The gravity tanks 1 ) are built into the upper half of the gear casing. In the event of an electric pump failure, the tanks maintain the oil supply to the various lubrication points, together with the direct-driven pump. The capacity of the two gravity tanks together with the direct-driven oil pump is sufficient for "running out" purposes a period of 10-15 minutes. The tanks are filled with oil from the lubrication system. Filling time from initial run-up of the machine is approximately half an hour.
See lubricating oil system diagram
INTERNAL LUBRICATING OIL SYSTEM
Gravity tanks Main parts 1. Oil inlet from the lubrication oil line through an orifice plate in valve (10). In the event of pump failure, the oil flows back through the valve (against the direction of the arrow) and maintains the supply to the various lubrication points. Valve (10) then allows the oil free passage regardless of the orifice. Gravity tanks above the level of all lubrication points. The tanks are located at a level sufficiently above the bearings to ensure an adequate pressure head in the event of pump failure. Overflow ducts for excess oil during normal operation. Passage of overflow to the bottom of the gear casing from where it is returned to the separate oil tank. Manhole for inspection and cleaning of the tanks. Hole for continuous drainage. Sampling point. Level indicator. Flange for connection of optional level switch. Combined nonreturn and throttling valve with orifice plate. '
3. 4. 5.
STAL-LAVAL INTERNAL LUBRICATING OIL SYSTEM 3 .
Excessive steam during normal loads are dumped into the gland condenser. make-up steam is supplied to the glands. Steam from the high pressure glands are fed into the low pressure turbine forward gland seal. . During low loads. Through automatic drain valves the drainage is led to the condenser. STAL-LAVAL Contents GLAND SEALING AND DRAIN SYSTEM Page 1 2 4 4 4 1a General Gland sealing circuit Drain system Automatic drain valve Drain from lower bleed box Gland sealing system as recommended by STAL-LAVAL The inner system I is self-sufficient during normal operation. Drain system as recommended by STAL-LAVAL During start up large quantities of steam are condensed.
and to minimize the loss of steam leaking through the glands. . Leak-off from manoeuvring valve spindles Leak-off steam from the spindles of the manoeuvring valves are led to the same condenser mentioned above.2a Gland sealing system GLAND SEALING SYSTEM To protect the machinery against the mixture of steam and oil. as shown on the diagram. Inner system I The inner gland sealing system (I) supplies the gland seals with sealing steam. Additional sealing steam is automatically supplied by a pressure controlled reducing valve. Leaking steam from the first two sealings are led into the turbine and the cross-over pipe resp. During low loads. Outer system (0) The outer glands of each turbine have a subatmospheric pressure and the steam is fed into the gland condenser. a sealing steam system is arranged. During normal operation the sealing steam to the LProtor forward seals high pressure glands. and distributed to the other gland. the sealing steam "extraction" on the inlet side is not large enough. The diagram shows the mentioned relationship between low and normal load versus sealing steam flow through the make-up steam valve and dumping valve. Superfluous steam passes through the dumping valve to the gland condenser.
GLAND SEALING SYSTEM 3a STAL-LAVAL .
has a number of grooves around its circumference. Strainer Governing stage drain Drain from beginning of crossover Drain from end of crossover Drain from gland steam system Drain from LP turbine bleed box 4. Automatic drain valves are built into the pipes which are connected to the governing stage and the beginning and end of the crossover pipe. 5. 6. Each pipe is equipped with a strainer. 1 0. 2. During warmup. The condensate is drained into the condenser. 8. B) When the steam pressure (C) is low. 1. GLAND SEALING AND DRAIN SYSTEM STAL-LAVAL 5 Drain system ( Fig. 9. Automatic. The orifice plate. A) The machinery is provided with drain piping. however. 1 2. When the steam pressure increases to the point when drainoff ceases. drain valve ( Fig. considerable quantities of steam are condensed. valve head 18 is pressed by spring 15 against orifice 19. 3. to permit free drainage. Orifices are built into the other two pipes. by a system of pipes. the drain valve is closed because the spring pressure (15) is exceeded by the steam pressure and the valve head is pressed against valve seat 17. as shown on the figure. HP turbine LP turbine Condenser Crossover pipe Orifice Automatic drain valve 7. 11. . from the LP turbine bleed box and from the gland steam system.
rearrangements of the steam piping as well as the gear will be still be possible to run the machinery with the. it would blanked off and disengaged from its connection to the gear. STALL-LAVAL EMERGENCY OPERATION Triple reduction 1 EMERGENCY OPERATION WITH TRIPLE REDUCTION GEAR UNIT Emergency operation equipment Actions in case of emergency operation Emergency operation of servomotor Different types of emergency operation Emergency operation equipment Should one of the turbines or epicyclic gears be damaged. The necessary blank flanges and piping (with the exception . inoperative turbine of the inlet steam piping for emergency operation of the LP-turbine alone) are included in the delivery. Some necessary.
. d) HP 2 epicyclic gear. 2. machinery according to points 1.2 EMERGENCY OPERATION Triple reduction Different types of emergency operation Damage to a) HP-turbine. machinery according to points 1. Point 9 may be used as alternative to point 8. 3 and 7 in the following. Modify the machinery according to points 1. Modify the machinery according to points 1. 3 and 8 in the following. 8 or 9 may be used as alternatives to point 6. 3 and 6 in the following. b) Modify the HP 1 epicyclic gear. The points 8 or 9 may be used as alternatives to point 7. 2. c) Modify the HP 1 epicyclic gear. 2. 2 3 and 9 in the following. The points 7.
10) Remove LP coupling sleeve and high speed coupling hub. if provided) to LP-turbine. 2) 3) 5) 4) Action. It is an advantage if steam to the LP turbine can be led through the manoeuvring valve (as indicated by dotted lines). * The same emergency bearing may be used on HP and LP side. If this is not possible continuous manual supervis ion of the machinery is necessary. Fit emergency bearing for high speed shaft. Lock astern manoeuvring valve and guardian valve in closed position. Blank off cross-over pipe. 6) 7) The different types of actions are described in more detail on the following pages. . Remove the blank flange in the pipe between the cross-over pipe and condenser. gear: Remove HP high speed shaft. STAL-LAVAL EMERGENCY OPERATION Triple reduction 3 Action.* 11) Remove LP epicyclic gear and high speed shaft. 8) Remove HP epicyclic gear and HP high speed shaft. turbine: 1) Connect emergency steam pipe (including orifice. Disengage the quill shaft from the HP. However. The steam to the LP turbine must be desuperheated. coupling flange. the emergency cut-out system should be kept intact during emergency operation. on HP side a special sleeve must be added. If possible. Fit emergency bearing for the quill shaft.* 9) Remove HP 2 epicyclic gear and quill shaft. Blank off ahead manoeuvring valve.
On the other hand. ahead rated rpm . Warming-through should be made only for a short period. 5. 8. After removing the appropriate bolts. too high torque on the reduction gear must be avoided. Several alternatives are possible. turbine" points 1. The HP turbine is now disconnected from the gearing whereas the LP turbine can be run ahead or by using the valve (3) and astern by using the astern manoeuvring valve. 1. F. 4. Remove the blank flange (8) of the emergency steam pipe (2) at the aft end of the LP turbine admitting desuperheated steam to the LP turbine. E. D. . 4 EMERGENCY OPERATION Triple reduction Emergency operation with LP turbine Description of "Action.fr* HP turbine tooth coupling Steam line Control valve for emergency operation Pivoted flange Manoeuvring valve in closed position Blank flange Blank flange Blank flange with orifice * * C. As the inlet steam temperature is higher than normal it is important to operate the turbine so that it is not overheated. Disconnect the HP turbine. if supplied. slide the blanking-off plate ( 4) in the cross-over pipe between the turbines so that the pipe is blanked off. 6. Operation of the LP turbine alone may be carried out in the following manner. Operation at low propeller speeds should be avoided. see special descriptions. secure the bolts again. 2 and 3. in the inlet steam pipe Fit the blank flange (6) on the ahead manoeuvring valve connection to prevent steam from getting into the HP turbine and blank off the sealing steam to the HP turbine. Fit an orifice plate. B. G. Delivered by the shipyard ** If no torque meter is fitted permitted rpm (corresponding to maximum torque) for a twin screw ship during emergency operation must be estimated from propeller and hull data for the ship in question. 2. 3. Thus the propeller speed for a single screw ship should not exceed67% of the max. 7. A.
STAL-LAVAL EMERGENCY OPERATION Triple reduction 5 .
EMERGENCY OPERATION STAL-LAVAL Triple reduction 7a Removing the HP1 high speed shaft--For gears below 34 000 shp .
F. Remove the remaining part of the high speed shaft. Replace the top half of the cover. Replace the top half of the bearing housing. * * * H. K.8a EMERGENCY OPERATION Triple reduction Removing the HP high speed shaft . D. Blank off the oil supply to the bearing housing. L. . Remove the top half of the bearing housing. E. Support the weight of the high speed shaft with a sling. A. * Not shown in the figures. G. B. C. Remove the joint bolts and lift away the top half of the high speed shaft cover.Type APG 280/85 Description of "Action. The HP-turbine can be disconnected in the following manner. The bolts should be driven out by means of a drift supplied with special tools. Remove the bolts in the high speed shaft flange. gear" point 6. Remove the bolts in the joint between the gear coupling and the turbine rotor flange. Lift out the splitted high speed shaft and the gear coupling.
ffrAL--LAVAL EMERGENCY OPERATION Triple reduction 9a .
Disconnection of the HP1 epicyclic gear,- for gears above
34 000 shp
EMERGENCY OPERATION Triple reduction
Disconnection of the HP1 epicyclic gear - for gears above
34 000 shp
The epicyclic gearing is disconnected at the flange between the quill shaft (6) and the coupling flange (1), allowing the quill shaft to rotate in its own bearing. After disconnecting, the internals of the gear are slid towards the LG1 HP gear approximately 22 millimeters, which is enough clearance between rotating and stationary parts to ensure troublefree operation. Proceed like this: 1. 2. Remove the top half casing (7). The guide bolts in the gear case are conical and should be removed upwards. Remove the spring ring (2) at the aft side of the outer coupling ring (5). Support the outer coupling ring (5). Remove the nuts (3) and push the bolts (4) towards the turbine so far that the coupling flange (1) can be removed. Remove the bolts (4). Refit the coupling flange (1) and fit the spring ring (2). Push the internals of the gear as far aft as possible and secure them towards the flange (8).
3. 4. 5.
EMERGENCY OPERATION Triple reduction
EMERGENCY OPERATION Triple reduction
Removing the HP1 epicyclic gear and HP high speed shaft Contents: Removal of gear and high speed shaft Fitting of emergency bearing page 16 page 18
H. point 8. A. Remove the bolts in the high speed shaft flange coupling. sliding the assembly of coupling flange. Remove the bolts securing the oil inlet plate (1) to the top half of the gear case. L1 L2 M. Fit the quill shaft emergency bearing (See pages 18 and 19). Fit the lifting bracket (5) and distance sleeve (6) to the star carrier and oil inlet plate and tale the weight off the gear assembly. If the gear is equipped with turbo-flex coupling. With the lifting bracket and distance sleeve attached. K. gear". annulus system. . until the coupling flange (4) is clear of the radial dowels and location pegs in the quill shaft flange. "break" the casing joint by using jacking screws and lift off the top half casing. Remove the bottom half casing. Remove the bolts and dowels fastening the bottom half end casing to the oil inlet plate and to the turbine casing. Disengage the coupling in the high speed shaft and slide the coupling towards the sunwheel. Disconnect and remove the oil drain pipe from the bottom half of the end casing. G. 'Lift the gear assembly out of the gear casing. Remove the horizontal joint bolts of the high speed shaft cover (2) and the bolts and dowels securing the top half of the end casing to the oil inlet plate and turbine casing. Remove the remaining bolts and taper dowels fastening the oil inlet plate to the bottom half of the gear case. Disengage the coupling shaft (4) from the quill shaft spigot by using jacking screws in the quill shaft flange. Move the whole assembly carefully towards the turbine. D1 D2 D3 E F. Disconnect the oil inlet pipe from the oil inlet plate and bottom half of the end casing and remove the pipe. star wheels and sun wheel along the star spindles towards the turbine as far as the assembly will go. Remove the remaining high speed shaft. Remove the gear case horizontal joint bolts.16 EMERGENCY OPERATION Triple reduction Removing the HP1 epicyclic gear and HP high speed shaft Description of "Action. outer coupling ring. Support the quill shaft with a sling. B. Use the lifting too as shown. Support the high speed shaft. C. J. Use jacking screws to "break" the casing joint and lift off the top half casing to expose the high speed shaft. do not lift at the coupling hub.
EMERGENCY OPERATION Triple reduction 17 STAL-LAVAL .
each corresponding to a particular gear size. and 9). which is fitted at the oil inlet plate of the epicyclic gear. The hub is mounted on the quill shaft. The ball bearing is fitted between these two and operates as a relative bearing.18 Emergency bearing on the HP side EMERGENCY OPERATION Triple reduction The emergency bearing for the quill shaft on the HP side consists of a ball bearing and a hub. When the epicyclic gear is lifted away it is easily judged what kind of oil pipe that is needed. . and a bearing cage. Three different oil pipe arrangements are shown (7. and the bearing cage on the pinion. 8. Lubrication of the bearing Lubrication of the bearing is accomplished by means of an oil pipe.
STAL-LAVAL EMERGENCY OPERATION Triple reduction 19 .
SrAL--LAVAL EMERGENCY OPERATION Triple reduction 21 Removal of HP2 epicyclic gear and quill shaft .
R. Remove the top half of the intermediate cover and lower the bottom half. Withdraw the quill shaft from the pinion. Replace the bearing and the bearing cover on the aft side. Leave at least three bolts in position. Remove the casing over the epicyclic gear and the end plate. W. Dismantle the bearing cover using a special ring spanner and remove the upper half of the bearing. . Screw a bolt (uNc 1/2") into the tapped hole in the pipe and withdraw the pipe. Remove the sealing ring. NOTE: Replace the casings. • N. • T. Disengage the dog coupling. Z. S. D. P. insert and connect the oil pipes to the pinion bearing. Replace the speed governor. Dismantle the joint between the quill shaft and the BP turbine coupling shaft. F. Remove the bolts which are accessible in the flanged joint. • Y. Remove the upper half of the casing. This is carried out by first disconnecting and turning away the external pipe and the corresponding nipple. It is connected to the epicyclic gear through a tooth coupling and can be removed straight out when the bolts and pipes are removed. U. ). A. X. Dismantle the oil pipe which protrudes into the casing in the same manner as described under (E. C. V. It can be centered by using the bakelite discs included in the special tool set. Remove the stub shaft to allow access to the dog coupling in the sun wheel. L. G. Remove the speed governor with its gearing unit. gear" point • 9. K.22 EMERGENCY OPERATION Triple reduction Removing the HP2 epicyclic gear and quill shaft Description of "Action. Attach. • E. Support the free end of the quill shaft so that it is roughly concentric within the secondary reduction pinion. Lift the gearing so that the full weight is just supported by the slings. Remove the four bolts (two on each side of the gearing) securing the gearing to the vertical brackets which carry the annulus ring. H. B. • 0. a lifting sling to the gearing as shown in the figure. Remove the thermometer oil pipes which project into the starboard side of the epicyclic gear cover nearest to the vertical flange of the cover. • Not shown in the figures. M. Move the gearing towards the aft carefully so that the tooth coupling between the gearing and the quill shaft comes apart and then lift the gearing clear. Remove and blank off the two pipe connections to the speed governor. Remove the remaining bolts in the coupling flange of the pinion. Turn the gear until the remaining bolts in the coupling flange are at the top and one planet wheel is in horizontal position.
STAL-LAVAL EMERGENCY OPERATION Triple reduction 23 .
5. H. secure the bolts again. G. D. special descriptions. Thus the propeller speed for a single screw * ship should not exceed 74 of the max. On the other hand too high torque on the reduction gear must be avoided. Disconnect the LP turbine. E. 7. Two alternatives are possible. LP turbine tooth coupling Pivoted flange Blank flange to be removed Expansion joints HP turbine LP turbine Astern turbine * C. turbine" points 2. . B. slide the blanking-off plate (2) in the cross-over pipe between the turbines so that the pipe is blanked off. 4 and 5. Operation at low propeller speed should be avoided to prevent overheating of the internal parts of the condenser. Warming-through of the HP turbine should be done in the normal way. L. 1. 3. see After removing the appropriate bolts. Remove the blank flange (3) in the emergency exhaust pipe between the cross-over pipe and the condenser. The manoevuring wheel for astern operation should be sec Wired to prevent steam from passing to the astern turbine wheels ( or a blank flange must be installed after the astern manoeuvring valve). rated ahead rpm. 4. In order to operate the HP turbine alone. It should be remembered that since no astern power is available.24 EMERGENCY OPERATION Triple reduction Emergency operation with HP turbine Description of "Action. the following procedure should be adopted: A. F. 6. If no torque meter is fitted permitted rpm (corresponding to maximum torque) for a twin-screw ship during emergency operation must be estimated from propeller and hull data for the ship in question. Close the valve for the nozzle group which is not required to obtain the desired output. the ship cannot be reversed but must "coast" to a stop from ahead motion. K. 2. The LP turbine is now disconnected and will remain locked while the HP turbine exhausts directly to the condenser. Block the astern manoeuvring valve in closed position by removing the pins at the servomotor and then turning the handwheel clockwise to stop.
STAL-LAVAL EMERGENCY OPERATION Triple reduction 25 .
D. Separate the coupling sleeve and hub from the corresponding flanges and lift them out as a unit. First remove the nuts and then knock out the bolts with a lead mallet. 0. L. . Remove the lifting slings. Connect the nylon lubricating pipe to the plugged hole in the top half of the bearing housing. M. The LP-turbine can be disconnected in the following manner. Lift the high speed shaft by means of slings so that it lies in the horizontal plane. After fitting the strap in position. A. *N. Fit the bearing hub on the high speed shaft. the press must be reset and retightened with the pin'(4). H. F. Fit and lock the ball bearing nut. Fit the bearing housing in position on the pinion. the high speed shaft and the coupling hub will be moved aft while the strap prevents the bolts from moving. Remove the bolts in the horizontal plane and lift away the top half of the bearing housing. If there is a risk of the turbine rotor starting to rotate. at a time may be removed. Remove the top half of the casing. the pin (3) must be replaced by a longer pin in order to allow the tool to be used further. B. C.26 EMERGENCY OPERATION Triple reduction Removing the LP coupling sleeve and high speed coupling hub Description of "Action. force the hyraulic press (2) towards the coupling hub by means of the threaded pin (4). The working stroke of the press is about 5 mm. Steady the oil nozzle by fixing it to the plate which is welded to the casing. thus facilitating the removal of the coupling sleeve and hub. Remove the nuts in the bolted joint between the high-speed shaft and the gear coupling hub and fit the dismantling tool shown on the The strap (1) is designed in such a manner that two bolts figure. Replace the casing. If the bolt is free after the first five millimetres. the threaded pin may be used as a press. ` Not shown in the figures. Remove the accessible bolts and the joint between the turbine rotor and the gear coupling sleeve. Fit the cover on the bearing housing. *E. it may be locked by a screwed pin which is entered through the rotor flange and screwed into the top half of the bearing housing. Turn the machinery and remove the remainder of the bolts in the two joints. When the flats on the press are turned. G. After the full stroke has been reached. If it is not possible to remove the bolt by hand after the flanged joint has been pressed toward the after part of the strap. gear" point 10. P. K.
EMERGENCY OPERATION Triple reduction STAL-LAVAL 27 .
At least three of the bolts shall be left in place and one of the planet wheels in top position until later. Remove the slings and withdraw the complete high speed shaft from the pinion. N. Take up the wieght of the high speed shaft by means of slings applied close to the gear coupling. Screw a bolt into the tapped hole in the pipe and withdraw the pipe. V. • • Disconnect and blank off the oil supply to the turning gear motor and the epicyclic gear. the shaft may be lowered so that the flanged joint between the high speed shaft and the gear coupling hub rests in the recess in the pinion. Remove the casing over the epicyclic gearing. Care should be taken to avoid damage to the coupling sleeve and the oil nozzle on the turning gearmotor. Remove the remaining bolts in the coupling flange of the pinion. * Not shown in the figures.. Move the gearing carefully towards the aft. . Dismantle the bearing cover using a special ring spanner and remove the upper half of the bearing. Rotate the gearing so that the remaining flange bolts become accessible. When the gear coupling hub is clear of the sleeve. Draw the high speed shaft carefully aft. D. Y. C. 28 EMERGENCY OPERATION Triple reduction Removing the LP epicyclic gear and high speed shaft Description of "Action. • S. U. Replace the turning gear. so that the toothed coupling between the gearing and the high speed shaft comes apart. H. Remove the locking ring in the gear coupling between the high speed shaft and the turbine rotor. Remove the four bolts (two on each side of the gearing) securing the gearing to the vertical brackets which carry the annulus ring. The LP turbine can be disconnected in the following manner. gear" point 11. Insert and connect up the oil temperature pipes of the pinion bearing.B. T. L. Remove all accessible flange bolts. X. and then lift the gearing clear. Remove the bolts at the after flange of the epicyclic gear housing and remove the turning gear motor. This is carried out by first disconnecting and turning away the external pipe and the corresponding nipple. Dismantle the upper half of the casing.B. N. B. Remove the end plate. I. P. 0. F. Replace the bearing and the bearing cover on the after side. N. Lift the gearing so that the full weight is just supported by the slings. K. E. Replace the casing. G. Replace the end plate. R. Replace the casing over the epicyclic gear. M. Attach lifting slings to the gearing as shown in the figure. Remove the pipes which project into the port side of the epicyclic gear cover nearest to the vertical flange of the cover.
EMERGENCY OPERATION Triple reduction STAL-.LAVAL 29 .
e. just as with a normal valve. i. Remove the pin (1) and turn the wheel (2) anticlockwise for opening and clockwise for closing. .APMK 31b In case of emergency. when the governing system is out of function or when the manoeuvring valve is sticking.STAL-LAVAL Fai/HW EMERGENCY OPERATION OF MANOEUVRING VALVE . the valve can be manually operated by a worm gear at the end of the manoeuvring valve.
APMK The end of the valve spindle is designed with a hollow cylinder ( 6 ) in which the foot of the lifting spindle (1 ) can freely move when the valve is hydraulically operated . . The number of revolutions between the two limiting positions of the foot in the hollow cylinder is quite high.320 EMERGENCY OPERATION OF MANOEUVRING VALVE . due both to the high gear reduction and to the roller bearings. The threaded spindle (1 ) is screwed up or down by the worm gear to open or close the steam valve. 52 revs. CAUTION When the emergency manoeuvring unit is in operation.during normal conditions. the tripping system does not function. appr. The emergency equipment is easy to operate.
APMK STAL LAVAL 33b . MANOEUVRING VALVE WITH SERVOMOTOR .
APMK STAL-LAVAL 33b . MANOEUVRING VALVE WITH SERVOMOTOR .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?