# nd 2

Law of Thermodynamics

Meaning
commonly known as the Law of Increased Entropy. the ultimate cause of why everything ultimately falls apart and disintegrates over time. the entropy of the universe increases in a spontaneous process and remains unchanged in an equilibrium process. heat cannot flow, on its own, from an area of cold to an area of hot.

Some explanations 

"The entropy of the universe increases toward a maximum" (Clausius) "It is impossible in any way to diminish the entropy of a system of bodies without thereby leaving behind changes in other bodiesµ (Planck) "In any irreversible process the total entropy of all bodies concerned is increased." (Lewis)  

"Entropy" 

measures the spontaneous dispersal of energy: how much energy is spread out in a process, or how widely spread out it becomes ³ at a specific temperature. Symbol for entropy : S 

Formula 

When entropies are measured at standard conditions (250C and 1 atm ) they are called as standard entropies and symbolized by S0. The symbol for entropy is S, hence the difference change or difference in entropy can be represented as DS. DS = S products - S reactions 

Example : If standard entropies for S (s) , O2 (g) & SO2 (g) is 7.6, 49.0 and 59.4 Cal deg -1 mol -1 respectively, the entropy of reaction
*S (s) + O2 (g) -> SO2(g) DS = 59.4 - [ 49.0 + 7.6 ]= 2.8 Cal deg -1mol -1 The positive entropy change means that there is greater disorder in the products than in the reactants.

Examples 
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A rock will fall if you lift it up and then let go. Hot frying pans cool down when taken off the stove. Iron rusts (oxidizes) in the air. Air in a high-pressure tire shoots out from even a small hole in its side to the lower pressure atmosphere. Ice cubes melt in a warm room. 