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HISTORY OF Hevea brasiliensis
• • • • •
Common Name Scientific Name Family No. of Species : 11 Origin
: Rubber Tree : Hevea brasiliensis : Euphorbiaceae
: Bolivia – Beni (north); Brazil – Amapa, Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Para; Columbia – Amazonas; Peru – Huanuco,Loreto,Madre de Dios,Pasco, San Martin
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 2
4 Phases of development: 1. Pre Industrial phase. 2. Starting to organize planting and used for export based on demand and supply. 3. The establishment of plantation to meet the demand of the emerging industries such as automobiles and hospitals etc. 4. The emergence of synthetic rubber as a competitor
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 3
Rubber in Malaysia
11th June 1877 - 22 Hevea plants either Wickham* or Cross* arrived at Kew garden, Singapore. They were successfully raised and distributed in Malaya. 1888 - Hendry Ridley a Director of Singapore Botanic Garden, began experiments on the tapable trees
Wickham* - 14/06/1876 – 17,000 seeds of Wickham Upper Amazon arrived at Kew & 2,700 germinated.
Cross* - 23/11/1877 – 1,080 plants of Cross Lower Amazon arrived at Kew.
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 4
Local Name: Rubber Scientific Name: Hevea brasiliensis The tree can grow up to 40 m tall in plantation area. (in the wild it can grow much higher). The stems are smooth and straight The bark is grayish in colour. The trunk unbranched up along way.
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 5
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 6 .
The leaves are 10 –15 cm long and 3 – 6 cm broad.5 – 3. The roots are well developed. creamy. The flowers are numerous. The rubber tree seeds are mottled brown and variable in size (about 2. Branched with leafy canopy.0 cm long & 2-4 g each. Abu Talip 7 . Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. yellow or green in colour and sweet scented.
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 8 .
Availability of much organic manure.3 – 8. PH of 4. Abu Talip 9 .0 Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Deep and fertile loamy soil.SOIL AND CLIMATIC SUITABILITY Excellent irrigation system.
Abu Talip 10 . Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Tropical climate: 1000 km to the north and 1000 km to the south of the equator. the lowest the activity and yield. Rainfall about 180-250 per year. Temperature between 25 – 35ºC. The highest plantation level: about 500 m for sea level (the highest the level.
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.VARIETIES (CLONES) „Clones‟ is used to identify a tree variety bred by clonal propagation. which is a normal plant breeding technique. Abu Talip 11 . The word has since to be associated with exact replication.
Bark thickness. Growth vigor before and during tapping. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Colour and dry rubber content of latex.CLONES IN MALAYSIA Differ in characters of economic importance. Yield level. Abu Talip 12 .
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 13 .
moisture stress areas). For environment with known wind damage incidence (wind prone areas). Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Problematic soils and terrain (soil types. Timber quality. Abu Talip 14 . Major diseases.
Abu Talip 15 .Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.
Abu Talip 16 .IDENTIFICATION OF CLONES Methods of classification. Estates. ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Conventional planting. Rootstocks. Smallholding. Crown budding. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Planting in smallholdings.
1. Abu Talip 17 . Tested widely and have yield performance confirmed from trials and commercial yield results. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Conventional Planting Class I Refer to planting materials which are: Suitable for large scale planting.
which have a certain amount of risk. Clones.Class II Refer to planting materials which are: Suitable for moderate scale planting. Clones of comparatively recent breeding. Abu Talip 18 . here means that planting for any one clone from this class should not exceed 10% of the land area in a single year replant. Good yielder in certain environs but constraint by undesirable secondary characters. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Promising clones with potential for upgrading to Class I. Moderate-scale planting.
IIIA and IIIB. or moderate scale planting. It is recommended that planters should not attempt to plant more than 10% of the total planted area in any one estate from this class. viz. Allowed to be planted up to 10 hectares. This is because there is insufficient information on these clones to warrant large. Class III ◦ Consists of experimental planting materials and is subdivided into two subclasses. Abu Talip 19 . ◦ Refers to planting materials which are: Class IIIA Tested in large-scale clone trials only and which show early promise in yield and growth. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.
size blocks only. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. which have only been. Clones in this class are new selections and have been tasted only in small-scale trials involving a limited number of trees. These were recently established for further test in large-scale trials. Abu Talip 20 . Selections. Class IIIB ◦ Refers to planting materials which are: Planted in one task. tested in small scale trials. The main purpose for planting clones from this class is to ensure that there will be a source of available budwood if some of these clones prove successful. Interested planters should refrain from planting more than 5 % of the planted are in any one estate from this class.
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. However. Abu Talip 21 .Clones recommended for crown budding. Recommendation for crown budding involves trunks and crown for moderate and experimental scale planting. which prevent their usage in certain environs. there are deficiencies in one or more secondary characteristics. The trunks include both recommended clones and discard clones that show good yield potentials.
Abu Talip 22 . Both the trunks and crowns have been tested in trials and they show promise. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. many clones are excluded because of crown budding experience with them. The clones are given exclusive and are not intended to indicate that other clones outside of those listed are not good.
Results from both trials and commercials areas have necessitated changes in the RRIM planting recommendations. The change made are as follows: E. Susceptible to wind damage. from Class II to Class IIIA Poor initial yield.g. Undesirable secondary characteristics.Changes from Previous Recommendations. Abu Talip 23 . Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.
However. Abu Talip 24 . upgraded from Class IIIA to Class II On account of their better yield performance in clonal trials in various parts of the country.g. E. Class IIIA upgrade from Class IIIB Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.g. E. it should be noted that RRIM 905 is prone to wind damage and should only be planted in area that do not have severe wind damage problems.
2. These lists of clones are recommended is therefore reduced to eleven trunk clones and five crown clones. Abu Talip 25 . Crown Budding The following changes have also been made in the clones recommended for crown budding. The classification for crown budding has been dropped and only clones with crown budding experience and show promise are considered. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.
The recommended rootstocks are now given as follows: ◦ Proven performance: PB 5/51. Rootstock The recommendations made on this section remain essentially the same except for the deletion of smallholders. Abu Talip 26 . RRIM 623 Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.3.
◦ Polycross seedlings from selected polyclonal areas: RRIM large-scale clone trials. Projected good performance bur limited seed availability: PB 217. PB 260. GT 1. ◦ Prang besar further proof gardens and boundaries between clones recommended for large and moderate-scale planting. PB 217. Abu Talip 27 . PB 235. PR 255 and PR 261. PB 235.◦ Projected good performance: RRIM 605. PR 255 and PR 261. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. PB 260.
Planting Materials for Smallholdings and Estates. Each environment will continue to have its own group for large and moderatescale planting. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 28 . Seedlings and experimental clones continue to be recommended for all environments.
closely supervised Class II clones are recommended for smallholdings. Abu Talip 29 .4. Smallholding The clones recommended for smallholdings should be reliable. only Class I clones and some low risk. For these reason. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. tolerant to high frequency tapping in the individual smallholding and should respond well to IS d/2 or lower frequency tapping in block-planted smallholdings.
In the case of Class II clones for smallholdings it must be emphasized that most of the high yielding Clones is this class are susceptible to brown blast and should therefore be tapped on IS d/3 tapping system. Seedlings are not recommended because of relatively low yield. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Crown budding may be recommended only on a project basis for block-planted smallholdings. Abu Talip 30 . brown last and variable growth.
which are between 1 ha and 2 ha. ◦ A clone should not be planted with more than 50% of the planted area on individual smallholdings. or more than 25% of the total block-planted area. Abu Talip 31 .5. this should not exceed 10% of the area under block planting. Planting in Smallholdings The following practical guidelines should be observed when planting in smallholdings: ◦ Individual holdings of 1 ha may be planted with only one clone. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. ◦ If a class II clone is included in the planting program. unless the environmental constraints severely restrict the number of usable clones.
PB 217. PB 255. PB 280. IAN 873. PR 255. RRIM 701. PM 10 Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. RRIM 623. Abu Talip 32 . RRIM 901. PB 260. RRIM 728. RRIM 905. RRIM 600. PR 261.- Clones-recommended for smallholdings is a follow: Class I: GT 1. PB 235. Class II: PB 28/59. RRIM 712.
Abu Talip 33 . Estates ◦ Clones (Classes I.6. ◦ Crown budding is also recommended as follows: In difficult environs where wind damage or crown diseases severely limit the choice of Class I clones. In regions where local environmental factors such terrain. soil depth of high water table reduces the range of usable clones. II. crown budding is not recommended unless it is an experimental scale. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. crown budding is recommended up to moderate scale. and III) and seedlings continue to be recommended for estates.
◦ Class V : major limitations. Soils categorized into five broad groups based on soil-suitability. ◦ Class IV : generally unsuitable for clones with heavy crowns. ◦ Class I to III : generally very suitable.Characterization of Rubber-growing areas Environmax method of planting recommendation: ◦ Environments which display the factors that act as constraints in the selection of clones. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 34 . Identified by a boundary and a distinctive colour or combination of colour and alphabetical codes. ◦ The productivity ratings according to physio-chemical and morphological characteristics.
referenced seed collection. Abu Talip 35 . dorsal. In young immature budding and young to mature stage of growth depends on differences in a number of botanical features and disease resistant and can be done by trained clone-inspectors who have knowledge of these features and considerable experience in recognizing differences of detail between clones. which enable it to be identified with certainty if its seed can be compared with. frontal. Nursery stage (shapes.Identifications of Clones Characteristic seed shape (ventral. amount and distance of branches whether it is touching each other). micropiler) and Patterns of Markings on the seed coat. disease resistant signs. crown size and diameter. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. side.
distance of leaves. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. upright. oval. oval. round. Abu Talip 36 . straight and smooth. ◦ Disease signs and symptoms. conical. ◦ Main stem (branch stems. grooves. curved. buds mark or dents). Young stage (2-6 years) ◦ Branching system and shape of the crown (round. Young stage of growth (Not branched) ◦ Leaf structure with 4-5 whorls. with humps.
Mature stage (during tapping) ◦ Small branches “pruned off” by itself. thickness and thinness of bark. ◦ Balanced tree system ◦ Latex. Abu Talip 37 . Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.
◦ Production of a large number of hand-pollinated seedling progenies. . ◦ Testing elite progenies in the field with proper experimental design in optimum conditions (agronomic and management practices regardless whether it is for smallholders and estate). RRIM has been successful in increasing latex yield through breeding and selection from 550kg/ha/yr to more than 2500kg/ha/yr. ◦ Recommending the new cultivars to grower for commercial planting. Abu Talip 38 2. Number of stages involved (15 years). ◦ Early selection in the nursery.Rubber Planting Clones 1. Since 1928. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.
Wider exposure to diverse environmental conditions and from the results thus obtained. An adaptation of the block planting approach.involves in large planting of new clones in large hectarage. Liberalized the planting of new clones and has created and interest on replanting with new high yielding latex timber clones. The planting of selected latex-timber clones from Group II of the previous RRIM Planting Recommendations under the Monitored Development Project (MDP) was initiated in 1996. Abu Talip 39 4. . The MDP concept. accelerates the process of recommending new clones in various environmental condition. has been replaced by two major groupings. The classification system of clones. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.3. which have traditionally three classes.
PB 355. wind damage and disease problems.distribution maps of soils series. RRIM 712. PB 255. PB 359. PB 217. PB 366 PM 10 (RRIM 600. PB 260. RRIM 936. PR 255 PR 261 and RRIC 100 removed) based on unsatisfactory yield performance. RRIM 938. RRIM 940. RRIM 937. RRIM 908. PB 28/59. Environmaxs.5. susceptible to wind damage. PB 235. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Group I clones gathered from large-scale clone trials and commercial areas. PB 280. Estate planters and smallholders are free to plant without any restriction in size. RRIM 911. RRIM 921.proven track records. Abu Talip 40 . unfavourable growth characteristic and susceptibility to local leaf diseases. RRIM 901. tested and grown widely and their yield performances for at least five years are obtained.
PB 260. PM 10. smooth trunk characteristics.6.RRIM 908. RRIM 940. upright. Latex Timber Clones. RRIM 937. RRIM 938. have straight. PB 366. PB 280.have good latex yield but low timber yield. RRIM 936. Abu Talip 41 . Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. 7. PB 355.RRIM 901. RRIM 911. Latex clones. RRIM 921. PB 359: have good latex yield as well as timber yield. PB 350.
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. ◦ Latex Timber Clones. RRIM 208. RRIM 928. RRIM 2001. RRIM 2016. RRIM 2009. RRIM 2014.14 in the RRIM 900 series (second selection) and RRIM 2000 series are considered suitable. RRIM 2025. RRIM 2000 series (first selection) RRIM 2000 series (second selection). RRIM 2023. ◦ 39 clones from RRIM 900 series (second selection).clones with limited information on yield and growth performance selected in small scale clone Trials (SSCT) based on five years yield record and the secondary characters available: planting only under close supervisions. RRIM 2002.8. RRIM 2020. Abu Talip 42 . RRIM 2026. RRIM 2015. RRIM 929. Group II. RRIM 2024.
RRIM 926. Abu Talip 43 . RRIM 2010-2013. RRIM series (first selection). RRIM 900 series (second selection). 2016.8 promising clones RRIM 2001. 2015. RRIM 927. 2008. RRIM 2000 series (second selection). and 2026. 2020.935.2 promising clones RRIM 928 and 929. 2002. 2014. RRIM 2017-2019 and RRIM 2021-2022. 2024. RRIM 942-943. ◦ Latex clones. RRIM 2007.4 promising clones RRIM 2023. 2009.25: RRIM 924. RRIM 2003. RRIM 930. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. 2025.
stumped buddings and soil core plants can be grown and prepared in a nursery. after extraction. • Maintained in situ as sources of budsticks for vegetative propagation. Definition: A special established area or location within a rubber plantation where plants are nursed and raised for either later field planting. • Various types of advanced planting materials. Abu Talip 44 . Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.Establishment and Maintenance of Nurseries 1. such as budded stumps.
Ensure that planting materials transplanted into the field achieve high initial establishment success. Abu Talip 45 iii. ii. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. . Reduce costs of plantation development by reducing failures at the initial stage. Prepare advance-aged planting materials. Obtain plants in the field reaching early maturity. iv. Nurture and raise high quality planting materials in large scale.Objectives of Setting Up a Nursery i. if necessary. v.
Choice of Nursery Site i. iv. vi. Abu Talip 46 . v. Preferably having good infrastructure. iii. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. vii. The soil must be well structured and textured There must be a good of water supply The land must be flat or slightly sloping Water table should be below 75 cm from the surface The land should be an open area It must be free from root disease source ii.
5cm). iii. 100 cm wide. iv. Germination occurs on tenth day.Seed Germination Seed should be go through the germination process: i. Seeds are watered twice daily. river sand or wellweathered sawdust (15 cm high. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. v. vii. vi. river sand or well-weathered sawdust to the thickness (1. Then pressed into the germination bed surface. Seeds are covered by putting a layer of loose soil. close together. ii. Germination process can be done by constructing a raised bed of loose soil. Abu Talip 47 . A raised partial shade of 1 m high is erected over the bed to prevent direct sunlight. The seeds are spread over the bed in one layer.
Germination Process Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 48 .
Abu Talip 49 . ◦ Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Two types of nurseries: i. ◦ The ground nursery. A source bush nursery is a unique type of ground nursery where plants are to raised and regularly trimmed encourage profuse branching for the purpose of harvesting budsticks which will be used for budding seedling stocks. Sustain the seedling stocks from the time the germinated seeds are transplanted from the germination bed at the required distances to grow for later budding.2.
Ground Nursery Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 50 .
Germinated seeds are transplanted into the polybags and allowed to grow for later budding. filled with soil. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.ii. Abu Talip 51 . are placed in rows at assigned distances. Polybags. The polybag nursery. either as young buddings or as conventional green buddings.
Polybag Nursery Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 52 .
either a running. Nevertheless. some perquisites for establishment are common for all nurseries. subterranean source or from a main pipe supply. The method of nursery establishment mainly differs between ground and polybag nurseries. a major consideration would be the availability of a constant water source. stream. a.3. b. Abu Talip 53 . Establishment. When siting any nursery. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.
c. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. The land must be of undulating terrain with free drainage: priority rating and not confined to discarded areas abandoned valley tracts or areas of low depression or near rivers where the groundwater level is subject to considerable fluctuation. Abu Talip 54 . d. The nursery must be so located to allow easy supervision and maintenance.
the nursery must be fenced effectively.e. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 55 . f. Especially those raising advanced materials. proper accessibility must be provided to enable smooth transportation of planting materials to the field. To prevent animal pest damage.
the land is cultivated with one ploughing and two harrowings. liming is done and germinated seeds (at plumule and radicle stage) are transplanted. which is harrowed in. 250 kg of magnesium limestone is broadcasted per hactare. Soon after cultivation.Ground Nursery Plants are grown on the ground. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. followed by 625 kg of rock phosphate per hactare. Soon after clearing. in the case of ground nursery. It is recommended that the nursery should be sited on a fairly heavy textured. During ploughing. the soil type is of prime importance. good structured friable soil. Abu Talip 56 .
Germinated seeds are first established in the ground for later green budding at five to six months. Abu Talip 57 . A green budstick source bush nursery can also be raised from green budded stumps in polybags. At a planting distance of 120 x 90 cm. They are then pollarded to a height of about 90 cm. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Four healthy side branches are left to grow for about twelve weeks before they are harvested as green budsticks at a few centimeters from the base. the original stand is 8. just above a whorl of buds.960 points per hectare. The successfully budded plants are cut back and the scion shoots allowed growing for eight to nine months until they have about 90 cm of brown bark.Green budstick source bush nursery.
Abu Talip 58 .Budwood trees Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.900 per hectare with planting distance of 120 x 90 centimeters. Abu Talip 59 .000 budsticks in four-rounds. A budded stump nursery can also be converted to a green budstick source bush nursery by the extraction of thinning of the budded stumps to leave a final stand of 7. Allowing for runts and other losses. One or more new shoots are allowed to grow from each of the branches where shoots have been harvested earlier. a final harvest and subsequently an annual production of about 125.
Producing Green Budsticks Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 60 .
giving an initial stand of 71.Budded stumps production. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. When the stock plants are reach to six months old and when the top whorl of leaves is hardened. the land is lined with a planting distance of 60 x 23 centimeters. Abu Talip 61 . they are ready for budding. which are to be slightly buried. Workers with sharp pointed sticks make shallow depressions in the soil for planting the germinated seeds.400 suitable for budding. After the land has been ploughed and harrowed with fertilizer incorporated. Planting of germinated seeds is carried out with the help of a marked rope.630 plants per hectare and a final stand of 49.
the taproot is pruned to 30 – 45 cm and the laterals trimmed off. Two or four rounds of budding operation may be required depending on the growth of the seedling stock plants. The budded stocks are cut back at 4-5 cm above the bud patch. Three weeks later the successfully budded plant are extracted from the nursery for transplanting to the field. Abu Talip 62 . The cut end of the budded stock is sealed n molten wax. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.
Abu Talip 63 .Budded Stumps Production Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.
Transplanting budded stumps into polybag Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 64 .
which will give an initial stand of 11. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 65 . all of which are carried out in ground nurseries.Stumped budding reduction The technique of raising stumped budding or maxi stumps is similar to those described for budded stumps.960 plants per hectare and a final stand of 9. The se plants can also be raised in nurseries originally planned for budded stumps. The planting distance is 90 x 90 cm. after cutback from green budding success.880 for extraction 18 – 24 months after budding and cut back. some plants are extracted as budded stumps leaving the rest with planting distance of 90 x 90 cm.
The cut end is treated with tree dressing and the stump is whitewashed immediately with hydrate lime. 6 – 7 weeks before transplanting. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. The exposed lateral roots are trimmed off and the tap root is severed at a depth of 40 – 50 cm (the tailing process). a trench is cut along one side of the plant. The trench is partially filled with soil. 10 – 14 days before transplanting. the stem is pollarded at a height of 240 cm (brown bark) and just above a whorl of dormant buds. Abu Talip 66 .
On the other hand transplanting before bud emerge would result in greater failure. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. The stumps are extracted for transplanting when the buds have emerged for about 5 millimeters. Expected number of extractable maxi stumped budding is about 9. Abu Talip 67 .880 per hectare. Transplanting at a stag when the buds are much longer than the above would cause considerable damage.
Abu Talip 68 .Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.
which holds 23 kg of soil.Large polybag nursery Budding can also be allowed to grow to seven-whorl stage in large polybags of 38 x 64 cm (lay flat dimension). A suitable potting soil would be one with heavy clay loam texture. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. good structure and friability. Abu Talip 69 .
pieces of tough plant materials and rots are removed and larger clods of soil are broken up to smaller pieces. ◦ The polybags are filled to about 3 cm below the brim. Soil for the polybags must be collected from the top 0 – 15 cm depth: ◦ The top vegetation is removed and the soil from the required depth is cut and removed. ◦ The soil is then partially dries. Abu Talip 70 . if too moist. it is to gently tap to ensure no cavities are formed. About 56 g or rock phosphate is incorporated into the soil for each polybag. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.
They are watered regularly. After one month of growth. the less vigorous plant in each bag is removed. The number of seeds to be germinated must be one and a half times more than the number of plants required. Two germinated seeds are transplanted per bag. Abu Talip 71 . Shading is not necessary. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Seeds are germinated in sand beds under moist condition.
Strong and extremely heavy soil is unsuitable and sandy soil should be avoided. which will not disintegrate on extraction.680 plants per hectare. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. which will give a stand of 26.Soil core-whorl plant nursery Soil core is successful if there is sufficient clay in the soil (Class I soils for rubber) to produce a firm core. Abu Talip 72 . The plants are raised in the same manner as in ground nursery with a planting distance of 60 x 60 cm.
The successfully budded plants are cut back and the scion shoots are allowed to grow up to two hardened whorl of leaves for transplanting. The soil core is wrapped in used newspaper and tied with a string. Abu Talip 73 . They are extracted together with soil tore by means of special extraction equipment known as the „plantool‟. The seedlings are budded on reaching suitable size. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.
Abu Talip 74 . The seedling stocks are raised in small size polybags of 15 x 33 cm (layflat dimension). they are ready for young budding.5 kg of soil. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.Young budding in polybag The technique of young budding is another form of budgrafting on very young stocks. When the seedlings are about two months old. The bags are arranged in two rows close together with spacing of 60 cm in between and are held together by plants or wires fixed around them. which can hold 2.
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 75 .
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. The technique of budding is almost similar to that of green budding. Abu Talip 76 . The strip of clear polythene tape which is used for binding the budpatch should be half the width of that use in normal green budding. The buds used are obtained from green budsticks prepared in the usual manner as for normal green budding.
Any stock shoot that emerges from the snag must be pruned off. Abu Talip 77 . The long snag with its food reserve is essential to minimize dieback of the emergent scion shoot. A long snag of about 20 cm is left behind. Successfully budded plants are cut back four weeks after budding. taking care in the opening of the polythene tape. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. The plants can be transplanted into the field when two hardened whorls of leaves have developed. to allow the scion shoot to develop.
Maintenance. The nursery must be provided with optimum agro-management inputs so as to maintain the plants at the best stage of growth. Abu Talip 78 . The inputs are discussed in the text that follows: Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.
care must be taken to prevent scorching of the plants during the very young stage by avoiding contact of the fertilizer with the plant. it is recommended that manuring should not be carried out during flushing stage. In addition. during the first year of planting on the ground or in polybag fertilizer incorporating nitrate nitrogen must be avoided as this may cause scorching.Fertilizer application. During fertilizer application. Abu Talip 79 . For young plants. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. A balanced NPKMG fertilizer incorporating a soluble phosphate is to be applied for polybag plants and during the initial fifteen months for ground nurseries.
Abu Talip 80 . vigorous growth is maintained by the continued application of proper fertilizer in slurry form to the bags after cutback up to two weeks before transplanting. For polybag nurseries. For source bush nurseries. (Table 3). polybag plants and source bush nurseries are provided in Table 1 and 2. the schedule as for a nursery established for green budstocks. stumped buildings. it is preferable to water the polybags soon after manuring. soil core plants. Strict adherence to a proper fertilizer fungicide schedule is important to raise healthy vigorous buddings. For young buddings in polybags. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. No shade is required to establish young budding in the nursery. The recommended manuring schedules for budded stumps. A provisional schedule is given in Table 4.
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 81 .
Irrigation can be carried out manually in small nurseries or mechanically by means of sprinklers for large nurseries (more than 4 ha and raising materials for more than 200 ha of field planting). Abu Talip 82 . watering is therefore essential during prolonged dry periods.Liberal watering is necessary at all stages of development. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. However. in ground nurseries and source bush nurseries. minimal irrigation during extreme dry weather can give significant beneficial results. This is recommended practice for polybag nurseries. Irrigation Sufficient moisture must be available for maximum growth.
to maintain the plants at the best optimal stage of growth. When sufficient brown bark on the stem has developed. appropriate herbicides can be used. is essential to prevent unnecessary competition mainly for water. Prophylactic chemical spraying rounds against leaf diseases and pests are also necessary. Abu Talip 83 . manual weeding is recommended. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.General weeding. During the initial stages when the plants are still tender. Of the ground nursery and the spaces in between the polybags in the polybag nursery.
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Large polybag plants of 6 to 7 whorls can be transplanted by 7 months after budding or 12 months from establishment.Conclusion. Young budding technique can also produce advanced planting material at comparable cost and input to that of two-whorled normal budding. which allows it to utilize both seedfall season in spring (April/May) and Autumn (October/November). Hence the use of advanced young budding can reduce the period of immaturity of rubber. advanced planting materials such as stumped buddings can reached 10 – 12 cm girth for transplanting by about 15 to 18 months after budding or 20 to 22 months since nursery establishment. Abu Talip 84 . This allows planting throughout the year. Source bush nurseries would be able to yield budsticks by about five to six months after cutback. Young budding has a short production cycle. With the optimum agro-management inputs.
Abu Talip 85 .Fertilizer Recommendation Fertlizer Application on Budding.doc Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.
Propagation of Rubber
As an efforts to produce, increase or multiply quality planting materials. The rubber tree can be propagated be sexual and vegetative means. Sexual propagation produces offsprings which have variations in their characteristics whereby their performance are not guaranteed. Propagation by this method is done through pollination which can occur naturally or manually. The process involves the removal of the anther containing pollen grains from the male flower and putting it in the stigma of the female flowers
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 86
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip
Vegetative propagation reproduces almost exactly the type of mother plant.
Several propagation techniques such as cuttings, graftings and tissue culture. Grafting is the most preferred and several options such as approach grafting, cleft grafting, root/seed grafting and bud grafting. Budgrafting is the most popular as it is simplest and guarantees higher grafting success.
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip
Method of Propagation
Seeds a. Rubber trees Produce seeds once per year. In Malaysia for e.g. twice a year)- flowering March & August.
b. Seedling trees Ordinary seeds Unselected (collected indiscriminately from seedling area. Selected
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 89
c. Clonal trees Clonal seeds are rubber seeds collected from trees of a particular clone whereby it is a good progeny and able to produce abundant seeds.
They must preferably be hight yielding and with good characteristics, such as PB 5/51 and RRIM 623. Monoclonal (monoclonal tree)- one clone Polyclonal (produced special polyclonal seed garden polyclonal seed gain from their hybrid nature.)
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 90
loose soil. Clones show very wide variation I the no. only the second collection will be used. Abu Talip 91 . Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. of seeds produced. Each collection should be in 2 days gap. sand. Usually the first collection of the seed will be throwing away. Heavier seeds produce more vigorous (healthy) seedlings (suggested weight is 220 seeds = 1 kg). wood dust (habuk kayu).g. Germination needs a free-draining friable material e.
Seeds are spread horizontally in a single layer touching one another, and pressed lightly in the rooting medium until the micropyle (lubang seni) is buried under it.
Then the field is covered with a layer of matting or similar mate to prevent moisture loss. Seed germinate after 7 days. Those fail to germinate within 14 to 21 days should be used. Usually 80% germination is being good.
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 92
On germination, the radicle pushes open the cap, which closes the micropyle and emerges as a small white stump with a flattered end. As it elongates (memanjang), the end become conical – develop into lateral roots. The conical tip grows into the taproot.
Once the taproot has developed, the epicotyl emerges as loop, and as it grows, the plumule is pulled out of seed. The shoot subsequently strengthens up and becomes vertical.
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip
Germinated seed may be planted in: ◦ Seedling nurseries well drained soil (enough water for irrigation) Easy access
◦ Polybags proper protection Facilities for effective supervision
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip
let them exposed for a few days before move it to the polybags. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. ◦ Plant at the roof sand bed with continuous water supply (except at night) for 6 to 8 week (when start rooting). Stem ◦ Prune from 30 – 35 cm long. ◦ The base dips into fungus pesticides.2. Abu Talip 97 . Vegetative a. ◦ Get rid of the roof. Cutting (keratan) Seeding ◦ Young stem from selected clone.
◦ Stock plants in 5 or 6 whorls of leaves. ◦ Scion shoots with one whorl of leaves. which is raised in the bags. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. to the stock plant. Abu Talip 98 .b. Approach grafting (cantuman sanding) Involves the grafting of the scion without severing it from the sources plant.
A strip of bark along with a thin slice of the stock and scion over a length of about 18 cm. iii. ii. Placing the stock plants along with the bags near scion in such a way that the portions of the scion and stock intend to be grafted remain parallel to each other. Then the exposed portions are pressed together and hold with a bandage. Abu Talip 99 . Steps involve: i. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.
Abu Talip 100 . vi. v. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Grafted plants are nursed well for 1 to 2 months before they are transported to the field. Stock-scion union will be over 7-8 weeks. Then the scion severe from the source plant by cutting about 5 cm below the graft union and the stock cut back at about 5 cm above the approach union.iv.
c. Then spilt into two along the pointed edge with the dept of about 1. The stock is decapitated at the height of about 4 cm above the collar with wedges shaped end.5 cm. Cleft grafting. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Shoot apex is grafted to the decapitated stem of the stock plant 2 – 3 weeks old stock. Abu Talip 101 .
The plant kept in mist propagation for 2 weeks or under the dense shade. Based of the scion is then inserted into the spilt made on the stock and kept in the position by bandaging with clear polythene tape. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 102 . Basal end of the scion shoot is also shaped into a wedge of about 1.3 cm with 2 opposing sloping cuts.
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 103 .
Healthy terminal cutting about 30 cm long with fully expanded leaves and dormant terminal buds are used for rooting. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.5 cm long & 0.stimulants (tetrametiltiuram disulphide 1%). The back at the size of 2.6 cm width and the exposed part deep in the fungicide. A typical unit consists of a raised bed made of the rooting medium such as river sand.d. Root grafting Cuttings of rubber are rooted on mist propagation units. Abu Talip 104 .
Both the exposed tissue combines with string of transparent polythene. it will transfer to polythene bag for 3-4 week before transplanted to the field. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. 2. The cuttings are planted in the bed for 3 weeks with continuous mist applied during daytime & at night nutrients are provided through the atomizers. The based of stock plant prune is slanting. Abu Talip 105 .5 cm long. After 3 weeks.
Abu Talip 106 . ◦ Green budding (cantuman tunas hijau) ◦ Young budding (cantuman tunas hijau muda) ◦ Brown budding Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.e. Bud grafting 3 types of bud grafting.
Green budding Tender green coloured buds are use.5 cm above the collar & brown bark up to a height of at least 15 cm.6 months old. with a girth of at least 2.i. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 107 . Healthy & vigorous plants. Young stock plants. 5 .
Under normal condition. but not hardened. Abu Talip 108 . but with intensive manuring they can be brought to budable size within 2 months. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Stocks are used for budding when the bark peels off very easily which usually occurs when the top whorl of leaves (ring of leaves) is fully expanded. 3-5 months are required for stock plants to attain this stage.
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. and they are joined by a horizontal cut either at the upper or lower end. 7. Abu Talip 109 . A budslip of 10 cm in length is cut away from the budstick. The bark is cut away leaving 1 cm of tongue to hold the budslip in position later on. Two vertical cuts are made at the base of the stick stem.Green Budding Techniques The base of the stock plant is wiped clean with a piece of cloth or rag. The bark is then stripped off either upward or downward where on where the horizontal cut was made.5 cm high and 1 cm apart.
The stock stem is cut-back at 10 cm above the bottom end of the budding panel and at the same time the polythene tape is removed. Abu Talip 110 . if the budpatch still green (with callus formation around it). Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. the budding operation is successful. The scion shoot is expected to sprout in 2 – 3 weeks. After 3 weeks.005 mm. One end of the budpatch is carefully slipped into the tongue of the budding panel (make sure budpatch is not placed upside-down) The budslip is then firmly secured by tying a piece of transparent polythene tape of 16 mm x 0. The bark is peel off to remove the wood.
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 111 .
Stem diameter for rootstock. and then make 2 vertical incisions with 5-6 cm long and 0. Stem diameter for scion. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.6 mm diameter. raised in polybag (15 x 33 cm). Clean the base of the stock plant.6 width. Abu Talip 112 .ii. Young budding Rootstock seedling age 8 weeks old. The stripped flap of bark is cut and removed leaving a short tongue about 1 cm long at the top.6 mm diameter.
Abu Talip 113 . The top of stock plant have to be pruned and leaving a long stump. means it is successful.04-0.05 thick). 1. Remove the bark from the bud patch and insert the bud patch under the tongue of the bark of the stock plant. This will cause a lot of stock shoot to develop and have to be pruned repeatedly. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. If the bud patch still green in colour after 4 weeks.5 cm width & 0. The bud patch is fixed in postion by bandaging with strip of transparent polythelene (20 cm long.
Abu Talip 114 .Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 115 .
5 cm above the upper end of the bud patch. o 7 –8 weeks (about 2 months). Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 116 . when the top whorl of leaves is fully expanded. Scion o Same o About 5 weeks Budding can o Stocks are used for o Anytime irrespective of be performed budding when the bark growth condition of the peels off very easily top whorl of leaves which usually occurs stock. o More stock shoots are likely to develop. 7.Green Budding Young Budding Stock Plant o Not less than 5 months. o The budded plant retained a long snag of o Budded plants are cut 20 to 25 cm-with the back at a height of about greater food reserves.
Abu Talip 117 . Replanting is defined as planting of rubber in an area already planted with the same crop with the aim of replacing the old uneconomic trees with high quality planting materials.FIELD PLANTING New planting is defined as planting of rubber in an area where rubber was never planted before. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.
v. x.secondary burning Constructing agricultural road Tilling Field lining (straight and contour) Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. ii. ix.primary burning Pruning and stacking Burning. viii. Abu Talip 118 . vi. vii. iii. iv. New planting operations: Constructing drainage Underground brushing of ground vegetative Felling of jungle tres by chainsaw cutting or buldozing Drying of felled timber Burning.New Planting Preparation i.
Holing xiv. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Establishing xiii. Abu Talip 119 .Terracing xii. Perimeter fencing xv. transplanting xi.
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 120 .
ii. Replanting operations: Underbrushing or blanket chemical spraying of ground vegetation. Removing felled rubberwood. or i.Replanting Preparation i. ii. Abu Talip 121 . Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Felling of old rubber stand by chainsaw cutting and poisoning stump Poisoning old rubber stand to facilitate rotting or i. Felling (uprooting of old rubber stand by bulldozing or mechanical winching.
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip
All living plants needs water to survive. However, excess water limits aeration in the soil and upsets the breathing roots. This can affect the growth, and if this condition is prolonged, death of young plants can occur. Drainage can be defined as draining or removing excess water in the soil. It is transferred to another area or lowered deep into the soil, or both.
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 124
Objective of Drainage
i. ii. iii.
v. vi. vii.
Remove excess water in the soil. Ensure that the soil water table is not less than 100 cm from surface. Ensure there is sufficient water in the soil for crop usage. Enable plants to obtain sufficient soil air. Maintain healthy growth of crops Increase crop yield Prevent diseases connected with stagnant water condition of soil.
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 125
Main Drain 100 – 200 m intervals Intermediate drain
Subsidiary drain 50 m intervals
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip
Movement of people. Abu Talip 127 .Plantation Road Road system is an important part of the infrastructure. produces and vehicles must be fast enough so as to maintain all deriveriues and schedule on time. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. A good road system is considered another sign of progress.
iii. iv. Facilitate communication.Objective of Road System i. goods and materials within the plantation and the outside connection. Maximise the general efficiency of all activities undertaken by the plantation. Reduce production cost of the plantation. Reduce travelling time within the plantation. Abu Talip 128 . Facilitate supervision of all field activities. Facilitate transportation of people. vi. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. v. ii.
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.Categories of Plantation Road The main road connecting the main or parent plantation or headquarters and the normal public road. Subsidiary road connecting the headquarters with the various devision. Minor road connecting field blocks in the plantation with the headquarters. Abu Talip 129 .
Abu Talip 130 . •Total length per hectare: 25 M (Flat areas). to ensure surface water can be quickly drained to the sides. •Road surfaces must be constructed cambered towards the centre at 2°. 75 M (Hilly areas). Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.Construction of Plantation Road • The width of plantation road should be 4 – 7 M.
Abu Talip 131 . rectangular. The planting distance should not be closer than 2 m. 1 ha is suitable for planting 400 – 500 rubber trees.triangular or quincunx planting system. Studies done by RRIM. hedge. avenue. The trees are spread evenly over the 1 ha area and by arranging them in well-planned design. square. double hedge. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.Rubber Planting Design Rubber planting requires a design or arrangement to portray rubber as a plantation crop.
Abu Talip 132 .Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 133 .
Abu Talip 134 .Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.
Abu Talip 135 .Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 136 .
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 137 .
There are two (2) types of lining – straight lining for flat areas and contour lining for hilly areas.Field Lining Lining is fixing of points in the field where planting is to be carried out. Abu Talip 138 . Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.
Straight Lining Equipment for straigh lining: ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Guide poles Planting pegs Lining robes A 30M measuring tape Prismatic compass A straight lining can be square. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. rectangular or triangular design. Abu Talip 139 .
Abu Talip 140 .Planting Distance of 4 m x 5 m to obtain 500 points per hectare. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.16 m (which perpendicular height of the triangle) to obtain a density of 500 points per hectare.8 m x 4. Abu Talip 141 .Planting Distance of 4.
Abu Talip 142 . Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Large and very well made planting holes are expected to assist in spearheading the initial growth of crops.Planting Hole The initial growth of crops in the field starts from the planting hole.
Abu Talip 143 . v. ii. iii. vi. vii. Enable the weathering and seasoning of the planting hole. Facilitate root development at a critical stage. Remove root disease source. iv. Remove rocks and other hard materials which may be hidden in the soil. Facilitate application of basal fertilizer (RP) Facilitate transplanting of rubber tree. Obtain a block of loose soil. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.Objective of Holing i.
Holes are dug at the planting pegs fixed during field lining. Abu Talip 144 . cylindrical planting holes of 45 cm diameter and 45 cm deep are constructed. The minimum size of planting hole is 60cm x 60cm x 60cm (manually) Mechanically. The soil dug out is placed as near to the brim of the holes as possible and it not more than two heaps.Method of Holing Planting holes are dug 2 weeks earlier before transplanting to allow them to weather by sunlight and drain. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.
Abu Talip 145 . Current technology requires the use of planting materials: ◦ Polybag buddings Budded stumps Young buddings ◦ Advance-aged core stumps prepared in the nursery. transplantig activities can be carried out. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.Transplanting After allowing the planting holes to weather for about 3 – 3 weeks.
until one whorl of the scion is buried up to 15 cm of the scion stem. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. It also can be planted much deeper. Abu Talip 146 i. The bottom of the polybag is cut away to expose the soil.Method of Planting A polybag budding is normally planted up to the base of the scion shoot or stem. the polybag is placed upright in the planting hole to determine the correct depth. . ii. 1st.
Only the soil around the brim of the hole is pressed to avoid damaging the roots. viii.iii. A vertical cut is made on the side of the polybag. vi. iv. Abu Talip 147 vii. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. v. The hole is refilled with the top half of the soil first. Mulching is then applied around the plant. . The hole is completely refilled with the rest of the soil after mixing it with 113g RP. The cut polybag is then carefully pulled out.
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 148 .
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip
Mulching can be defined as providing cover to the soil surface, especially around the base of crops with whatever type of green litter and other materials. Mulching is recommended particularly on transplanted rubber crop. It is an old established farm practice, but its importance was only realised in recent year.
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip
Advantages of Mulching
Protect soil surface from direct sunlight. Preserves moisture in the soil. Encourages feeder root development in the top soil. Prevent weed growth. reduce soil erosion. Improve soil structure. Adds organic matter to the soil. Enhances growth of rubber crops.
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip
Plant litter such as Imperata cylindrica (lalang), empty palm fruit bunches, fruit skins, coconut husks, palm kernel.
Used packing materials such as fertilizer bags, cement bags, sugar bags and other polythene or paper wrapping.
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. The mulching material is spread around the base of the crop to cover the soil at a radius 30 – 60 cm with a thickness of five cm. A space of five cm should be left vacant around the plant base to avoid fungal growth. Abu Talip 154 .Method of Mulching Mulching is recommended immediately after transplanting of rubber planting materials into the field.
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 155 .
Rubber respond favourably in terms of growth and yield to adequate and proper fertiliser application. Abu Talip 156 . Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. potasium (K) and magnesium (Mg). the major ones are nitrogen (N). phosporus (P). Among the elements.General Maintenance Fertiliser Application Fertiliser is defined as a substance that provides nutrients to plants for their growth to enable it to function well.
adequate and proper fertiliser application will: ◦ Encourage good growth in favour of early tapping.Optimum Use of Fertiliser In general. Abu Talip 157 . ◦ Increase latex production and wood volume. ◦ Provide early canopy closure that grants shade and retards undergrowth thereby reduces cost of weeding. ◦ Promote good renewed bark. ◦ Provide protection against diseases. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.
Fertiliser application for stimulated trees. Factors should be considered into before fertiliser application is carried out are: ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Type of soil. Depth of fertiliser application. Abu Talip 158 . Zone of fertiliser application. Type of fertilisers. Rate and amount of fertiliser. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Time of fertiliser application.
Abu Talip 159 .Symptoms due to mineral deficiencies Lack of Symptoms on Leaves Nitrogen Pale green then change to overall yellow Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.Lack of Symptoms on Leaves Phosphorus At the back of leaves turn to brownish starting from the end part of the leaves. Abu Talip 160 .
Abu Talip 161 .Lack of Kalium/ Potassium Symptoms on Leaves Around the leaves turn to yellow Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.
Abu Talip 162 .Lack of Magnesium Symptoms on Leaves The area around he vein shows pale yellow and the vein looks like the fish bone. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 163 .Lack of Calsium Symptoms on Leaves At the end and side part of leaves softened. from white colour to light brown.
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 164 . and after something necrosis of the leaf tip and margin occurs.Lack of Sulphur Symptoms on Leaves Common in young leaf. results in the leaf becoming pale green and smaller in size.
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.contain enough nitrogen. therefore do not need nitrogen fertilizer such as ammonium sulphate. Types of fertilizer depend on age and types of soil.usually contain mediocre amount of potassium. Abu Talip 165 .Availability of Nutrients Inland soil – far from seaside. Loose soil or clay loose soil. Soil with cover crop.usually lack of potassium. Sandy soil.
Usually applying fertilizer to the young rubber tree stop once it reaches age of 65 months where the rubber tree ready for tapping. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. as aster rate such as Yellow Nitrofoska is needed. After that it can be followed by RRI. One month after first bud. C2 or Y according to age and types of soil. either the mix of magnesium M. X. apply the mixture contain soluble phosphate such as Nutrex MX until they reach the age of 9 months. Abu Talip 166 . Early stage of rubber trees development (1-5 months after planting) fertilizer. which can act.
113 g rock phosphate is incorporated into the planting hole at the time of planting. Abu Talip 167 . fertilizer is broadcasted evenly around the base of the plant in a full circle. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.Placement of Fertiliser For the 1st round of manuring. For the 2nd and sunsequent rounds. the radius of which depending on its age.
Abu Talip 168 .Fertiliser application for young trees less than 15 months (circle broadcasting) Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 169 .
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 170 .
Abu Talip 171 . Types of pest The rubber tree is also subject to attack by animal pests. molluscs and mammals. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.Pests & Diseases Management Pest.unwanted species of insect or animal that attack or cause damage to items of an economic importance to man. which are grouped into three – insects.
Abu Talip 172 .Insects i.1% (30 ml + 6 liter of water) or Malathion. Grasshoppers (Valanga nigricornis) Grasshoppers eat away the leaves of legumes covers leaving only the veins and the young shoots of germinating rubber seedlings.5 liter of water). Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.1% (30 ml + 4. Dieldrex Extra @ 0. They are active during the day. Control: Pesticide.Dieldrex 15 @ 0.
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 173 .
Young leaves are consumed entirely. Control: Dipterex 95 SP @ 0. Mocis undata) A caterpillar has thirteen body segments and strong chewing mouth. Amsacata lactinea. It feeds within folds or rolls of leaflets which bind together.2% + 10 g + 5 liter of water. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.2% = 11g + 5 liter of water. Leaf Eating Caterpillars (Tiracola plagiata. and the older ones skeletonised. Sevin 85% @ 0.ii. Abu Talip 174 .
Abu Talip 175 .Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.
Control: Spray with Dursban EC at 20 ml + 5 liters water. They eat away the tap root and into the trunk of the tree. Termites (Coptotermes curvignathus) The species can cause serious damage to rubber. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. or Stedfast at 330 ml + 5 liters water. Lorsban 40 at a 25 ml + 5 liters water. They build mudway over the trunk.iii. and from beneath the casing of the mudway they feed on the bark. Abu Talip 176 .
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 177 .
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Snail (Achatina fulica. Control: Snail can be controlled by poisoned baits consisting of powdered metaldehyde. Abu Talip 178 . hydrated lime and rice bran in the ration of 1:4:6 by weight. Eulica similaris) Snail have protective shells over them.Molluscs i. snails also climb up tapped trees to suck the latex along the tapping cuts and also cause spillage.
Abu Talip 179 .Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.
especially on rubber trees bordering the jungle. Control: They can be kept away by applying repellent substance such as Hinder on the trunk. Deer (Cerva unicolor) They live in the jungle but roam the bordering plantation for food. Abu Talip 180 .Mammals i. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. stripping it off from the trunk and nibble away the foliage that they can reach. It feed on the bark.
Abu Talip 181 .Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.
Rats eat cotyledons of germinating seeds.ii. Control: They can be controlled by rodencide such as zinc phosphide mixed with suitable bait in the ration of 1:19 by weight. Rats (Rattus jalorensis. Abu Talip 182 . they also can be trapped by applying tanglefoot preparation which is available under the trade name ATOM. Rattus argentiventer) Damage caused by rats can be serious in areas where the undergrowth are not controlled. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. and nibble away the barks of young plants.
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 183 .
Monkeys (Presbytis melalopos. Macaca irius) Young plantings bordering the forests the frequently attacked.iii. Abu Talip 184 . Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Branches are broken when they swing on them. Control: Shooting. seedlings are also pulled out and the tops eaten away. They feed on shoots. foliage and young fruits.
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 185 .
Cause by the fungus. Abu Talip 186 . which first attack the skin of the roots and at the end can rotten the roots. The disease can spread from one tree to another.Diseases and Control Root diseases. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.the most dangerous disease for rubber tree cultivation because it can kill the tree.
Abu Talip 187 .Type of diseases Name Fungus Description Chemical protection White disease roots Rigidoporous lignosus The fungus white in colour looks like white thread Red fungus spots on the roots and stick the soil on the roots Brown fungus and stick the soil on the roots Formac 2 Fomicide Firmetex Shell Collar Protectant Ganocide Calixin Collar Protectant Red roots disease Ganoderma pseudoferr eum Brown roots disease Phellinus noxius Calixin Collar Protectant Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 188 .
encourage the insects to rotten the stump.so the infected trees would not be in contact with healthy trees.dig out all the roots stump. put sulphur in the holes. oPlant the cover crop. Abu Talip 189 .How to overcome? oLand clearing. oBefore planting the seedling. oSeparating drainage. oCover the stump with kreosot when cutting the trees. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. (Cut the food supply of fungus).
Abu Talip 190 .Collar Protectant Part of the root infected is exposed by digging the soil at 30 cm to 60 cm width x 20 – 45 cm depth. Collar protectant is painted over the exposed tap root and 15 cm lateral roots. The dead root & dead portion of tap root are removed and burnt. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Refill the hole with top soil.
Chemical Drenching Initial stage of white root disease infection Treated by drenching the collar region (20 cm wide x 5 cm deep) with fungicide such as Bayleton 25WP (10g + 1 litre of water). Abu Talip 191 . Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.
Isolation Trench Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 192 .
Pruning i. should be pruned any branch at the lower whorl. Correction pruning Sometimes there are 2 stems grow from one tree. Abu Talip 193 . Rubber_Pruning. ii. Controlled pruning Trees with 3 whorl. so the unhealthy one have to be cut off.ppt Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.
Corrective Pruning It is important to ensure that only a single scion shoot grows to form the required tree. The strong straight and healthy stem with a central branch known as the leader branch must be allowed to develop. Side shoots which may appear from whorl to whorl are normally allowed to grow unless they are unsatisfactory and require correction: Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 194 . Any other shoot that appears must be pruned off.
Abu Talip 195 .Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.
all branches at the lowest whorl are removed. Pruning trees reach seven months and branches at the lowest whorl have four flushes of leaves. are three whorls of branches on it. The plant continues to grow. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. all branches at the lowest whorl are removed. Abu Talip 196 .Controlled Pruning No pruning of side shoots or branches that appear on the first or second whorl is carried out but when the 3rd whorl of branches appears. and when there.
and the same pruning operation is repeated until 3 m of clean straight stem is achieved. Abu Talip 197 . Branches are induced on plants which have no branches and have attained a height of 2 metres. After that. the tree is allowed to continue growing until it reaches maturity. Meanwhile the tree continues to grow. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. This normally takes about eight to ten months.
Abu Talip 198 .Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.
Abu Talip 199 .Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.
Abu Talip 200 .Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 201 .
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 202 .
Abu Talip 203 .Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.
The more latex vessels are severed. only if the latex vessels are severed or cut.Harvesting a. Latex vessels run spirally from low left to hight at an inclination of 3. Abu Talip 204 . Therefore. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.7 . Latex will from out of the bark. the more will be the floiw of latex.5° from the vertical. the tapping cut is made in the opposite direction of the latex vessels from bottom right to top left. Direction and Flow of Tapping Cut Latex flow through latex vessels founds in the barks of the rubber tree.
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 205 .
between 45º and 25º the thicker the steeper the angle. Angle of tapping depends on the thickness of the bark. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. the thickness of the clones are thinner but the quantity of latex is high and the speed of the flow is faster and therefore less risks in over flow of the tapping channel.30º and seeded clones . Abu Talip 206 . For clones. The inclination of the tapping must be carried with one method to obtain the maximum yield of latex.25º.speed of flow to the latex cup.
Tapping Channel Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 207 .
Height of Tapping Cut For clonal materials recommended height for opening of tapping panel is 150 cm. while the seedling from seedling materials is 75 cm from the ground level. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 208 . For both types of planting materials. the trunk girths must attain 45 cm at opening of tapping panels at their respective heights. clonal materials are opened much higher than seedlings because of their cylindrical shaped trunk.
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 209 .
The number is based on several factors such as girth size. a tapper is given 500 – 600 trees per day of tapping task. tapping system and the topography of the area.Task size Tas size is the number of trees in a task given to a tapper to complete tapping at a specified time. density per hectare. Basically. Abu Talip 210 . at half spiral. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. when tapping alternate daily.
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Girth Measurement ◦ The „beroti‟ 150 cm in length with a piece of wire of 45 cm in length fixed at one end. the girth of the tree is taken as more than 45 cm. ◦ If the ends of the wire do not meet. measured at a height of 150 cm for clones and 75 cm for seedlings from the ground level. ◦ The „Beroti‟ is placed upright against the tree trunk with the bottom end at the ground level and the wire wrapped around the trunk.Opening of Tapping Panel Rubber tree are opened for tapping when their trunk have attained 45 cm girth. Abu Talip 211 .
Abu Talip 212 . Brush and paint: to mark the bark for monthly usage Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Metal spout: to channel the latex. Metal wire to hold the latex cup. Broti 150 cm long with a metal wire 45 cm circumference at 1 end to check that at 75% of the trees achieve 46 cm or more circumference. c. e. b.Equipments & materials required for opening a tapping panel a. d. Broti 150 cm long with a piece of metal to measure the slope of the tapping grove. f. Latex cup: to collect the latex. g.
Abu Talip 213 .Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.
The zinc plate is horizontally fixed at an angle of 30° for clones and 25° for seedling. ◦ Using crayon or nail. a template is required by using a piece of wooden „beroti‟ of 150 cm in length for clones and 75 cm for seedling. a mark is made along the top edge og the template and continued down along the „beroti‟ right to the base of the trunk. Marking the Slope of the Tapping Cut ◦ To mark the tapping cut on the tree trunk. ◦ The „beroti‟ is placed upright against the tree trunk with its bottom end at ground level and zinc plate wrapped around the tree trunk towards the left. Abu Talip 214 . ◦ A piece of zinc plate 40 cm long and 5 cm wide fixed at one end. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.
Abu Talip 215 .Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.
especially in peat soil areas. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. There are certain procedures to be followed when leaning trees are opened for tapping. This is to prevent spillage of the latex. Leaning trees are sometimes present in the plantation. Abu Talip 216 .
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 217 .
Generally. Collection commences when the first few tapped trees cease dripping.Tapping and Collection Good tapping and collection procedures are essential to obtain maximum yield. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 218 . latex is only collected when it stop dripping. This may take two to tree hours depending on various factors. In addition. cleanliness is also important in obtaining clean raw materials and finally high quality finished products.
Abu Talip 219 . the latex is completely scooped out of the cup and poured into the collecting bucktet. During collection. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. The collected latex is immediately sent to the collecting centre or factory for processing. unless late drip is anticipated. The cup is then replaced on the hanger in the inverted position. Collection is continued until latex from all tapped trees in the task is collected.
Abu Talip 220 .Collection of Latex Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.
Frequency of Tapping (First cut.true frequency followed by practical frequency) Cut per unit time for a day (d) d.day divided by the no of rounds per day or alternate days. Abu Talip 221 . True Frequency Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.
Abu Talip 222 .5 Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.d/1 d/2 d/3 d/4 Everyday Alternate day (tapping once in two days) Every two days (tapping once in three days) Every three days (tapping once in four days) Every four days (tapping once in Every five days (tapping once in 6 days) Twice a day d/5 d/6 d/0.
d/1 2d/3 Daily tapping followed by 2 days tapping and a rest day d/2 6d/7 Alternate day tapping. Practical When the tapping is rested a day. Abu Talip 223 . followed by 6 days tapping and a rest day d/9 6d/7 Every 8 days followed by 6 days tapping and a rest day Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. the following tapping is considered the practical frequency.
month (m) and year (y). Period tapping One or more cutting in unit time for a week (w). Abu Talip 224 . 2w/4 2 weeks within a period of 4 weeks (2 weeks of tapping followed by 2 weeks rest) 6m/9 6 months period within a period of 9 months (6 months tapping followed by 3 months rest) 2w/4 6m/9 2 weeks within a 4 weeks period within 6 months within a 9 months period (2 weeks tapping followed by 2 weeks rest within a period 6 months tapping followed by 3 months rest) d/2 6d/7 o Tapping alternate days 3w/4 8m/12 o 6 days and tapping on the 7th day o For 3 weeks within a period of 4 weeks o With a period of 8 month from 12 months Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.
d/2 – true frequency 6d/7 – practical frequency 3w/4 8m/12 – period Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.d/2 6d/7 3w/4 8m/12 Tapping alternate days for 6 days followed by 1 day rest for every three weeks followed by a week of rest within a 8 months with 4 months rest. Abu Talip 225 .
month y.Rotational Tapping Panel Tapping several panels or a group of panels. every tapping at alternate days or within a period of tapping.tapping w. Indicated by brackets.rounds of change to the first or second panel.week m. Abu Talip 226 . t.year Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.
(10t. t) 2 panels. every panel is tapped alternately. with 2 panels.5 (t. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.(t. 6m/9 every panel is tapped alternately for a period of 6 months followed by 3 months rest. t) Tapping every alternate day. 6m) 2 panels. every tapping rotates 6 months. the first tapped for 10 times followed by the second for one month. d/0. (w. d/2 (t. Tapping twice a day. (6m. t) Tapping every alternate day. every panel are tapped alternately every time it is tapped. m) 2 panels. with 2 panels. every t) panel is tapped once a day. the first tapped for a week followed by the second for 2 weeks. Abu Talip 227 . 2w) 2 panels. d/2 (t. with 2 panels.
Change of Tapping Panel ½S→⅓S Tapping downwards from half the circumference to one third in the same direction. ½S→¾S ½ S ↑ → ½ Tapping downwards from half the S↑ circumference to half but in the upward direction Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Tapping downwards from half the circumference to three quarter in the same direction. Abu Talip 228 .
t) 6m/12 = half S panel downward tapping at alternate day for 6 months period followed by 4 months rest change to half S panel downward tapping at alternate panel for the second 6 months period. ¼ V Type of tapping are different therefore ¼ S + ¼ V = ½C Length and type of tapping are the same ½ S + ½ S = 2x ½ S ½ V + ½ V = 2x ½ V Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.Change of Frequency of Tapping ½ S d/2 6m/12 → ½ S d/2 (t. ¼ S First day followed by second day) ¼ S. Abu Talip 229 . Combination Tapping (Use of different length and type of tapping grooves on the same tree) ½S↑+¼S ½ S + ¼ S (same day) ¼ S ↑ + ⅛V ½ S. ⅛ S↑ (come represent alternate days) ½ S.
5 x 100 = 92% 365 Total of tapping days in percentage. Abu Talip 230 .Optimal Tapping ½ S d/2 = 4 x ½ x 182. 4 times the length of the tapping panel with the number of days tapped per year Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.
H0-2 H0-1 H0-2 H0-1 B12 B1B13 1 H1-4 H1-4 H1-2 H1-1 B0-2 B0-1 B11-2 B11-1 Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 231 . Panel Symbol 0 I II III B H B0 – 1 B0 – 2 Virgin bark First re tapped barked Second Third Lower panel opened below 150 cm Higher panel opened above 150 cm First panel from virgin bark from lower panel Panel two from virgin bark from lower panel.
conventional ethephon stimulation has its limitations whilst gaseous stimulation is only for 15 year-old and above. ethephon was introduced for commercial adoption in the early 1970‟s. gaseous stimulation was developed and introduced to the industry during the 1990s . At present. Stimulation is a method to increase tapping yield of Hevea trees by prolonging latex flow with or without the use of chemical.Latex Yield Stimulation In Malaysia. Subsequently. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 232 .
0% (green) and ET 10% (red).5% (blue). through the ethylene it release. thereby enabling latex flow. dlays the plugging mechanism in latex vessels. Ethephon is available in the market at concentration of ET 2. ET 5.Ethephon (ET) Currently. The stimulant has to be in contact with the bark for a stated period of time to attain the effective response. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 233 . Ethephon. intensively used and is mixed with carriers such as palm oil and water.
Abu Talip 234 .Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 235 .
Abu Talip 236 .Important Points to Remember Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.
The upward tapping technique is the controlled upward tapping (CUT). It is controlled in respect of the slope of the tapping cut and the bark consumption. the upward tapping had been practiced since 1950‟s. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.Controlled Upward Tapping High panel. Abu Talip 237 . especially on trees with straight clean stems up to the height 3 m. which is an improvement of the old one. Actually.
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 238 .
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 239 .
recommended.Tapping Tapping system: ¼ s ↑ d/2. Brush the Etefon (Ethrel) 5. Do not need a long groove to get high yield. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.0% to the grooves once a month. ◦ During this period. Abu Talip 240 . the normal tapping system ½ s. The upward tapping should be on rest during the wintering (4 months) ◦ Cause the reaction of the stimulant less effective & the taper do not have to tap against the sunlight.
The tree can be tapping for longer duration. Abu Talip 241 . where the decrease in yield can be avoided. d. Can practice the changing of panel system. virgin bark at the higher panel is in better condition. „Pulau Kulit‟. c. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Gives high yield.Advantages of Upward Tapping a. b. e. Does not need a ladder.
The place that will be drilled. but cannot be commercialized because no latex stimulant. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Inject tapping b.ii. by drilling the bark with needle. which is cutting the vessel. have to brush with etefon (stimulant) It against the normal tapping. Abu Talip 242 . Micro-X tapping The method to release the latex from rubber tree. Introduced in 1906 in Africa. Micro Tapping-Inject Tapping 2 types: a.
Drill with blunt needle (1mm diameter) The next drill. From vertical grooves. Abu Talip 243 . 5-7 drill made along this grooves with same distance. starting 250 cm from the tree base. Inject Tapping Drill on virgin bark. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. with 1 cm distance from the first drill. only once in 2 days.a. 1 cm width and 100 cm long by scraps off the bark. The middle line with 2-4 mm depth.
Next vertical grooves. 2nd round. Upon the completion. use the gap left before. 1 cm gap with the previous vertical grooves. Keep on going till complete 1 circle. Abu Talip 244 . move to the space below. Tapping symbol: 5P1 (100/1) d/2 ET5%. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Keep on going for about 1 month.
had been performed. which will give 9-drill & 3 days normal tapping.X Tapping A combination of injects tapping & cutting the bark (normal tapping). The inject tapping perform on the normal tapping grooves. Abu Talip 245 . Micro. Usually 3 holes drilled along the grooves with same distance between each hole. The bark will be “ditoreh buang” after 9 days drill tapping. b. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.
stimulant: Etefon 5% or less. The latex. brush along the grooves every month. drill less than 1 mm depth for average thickness of the bark. After low panel. move to the high panel. 3t) ET5% Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Blunt needle (1mm diameter). Abu Talip 246 . drill starting from the tapping opening moving upwards. Move to the next panel. ½ S d/2 (9t. Tapping symbol: 3PG (1/2 S). at the other side of previous panel.
Slaughter Tapping Tapping at an above-optimum tapping frequency Conducted on trees that have reached the end of their economic life. Abu Talip 247 . prior to replanting Designed to extract the maximum amount of latex while killing the tree Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.
c. Abu Talip 248 . g. e.Advantages of proper technique/Method of tapping rubber trees a. h. f. To obtain maximum yield Minimum tapping cost Maintain healthy trees Little damage to the trees Bark saving Little drying of bark Time for bark renewal Maximum economic life Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. d. b.
to protect from pollution. j. Hygiene practices all the time to keep the latex from precoagulate. Collect the latex from the cup using finger proper spoon. b. f. Clean the cup from dirt or any liquid inside. a. g. c. Tapping in dept to remove the latex plug.Methods in maximizing the latex yield Use the sharp tapping knives. spout & cup before the tapping. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. h. Removes the scrap from the grooves. Make sure the later flow properly into the cup. i. d. Tap properly.to maximize the vessel cutting. Abu Talip 249 . e. Collect the latex only when it stops dropping. Tapping during the morning time cell still fresh.
Summary of Rubber Processing Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 250 .
Ribbed Smoked Sheet (RSS). tree laces and other forms of solid rubber). while the other 20% is the lower grade field coagula/scrap rubber (cuplumps. Abu Talip 251 . Air-dried Sheet (ADS) & Standard Malaysian Rubber (SMR) Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Field latex. Coagulation process is also necessary for the production of conventional sheet rubber. Unsmoke Sheet (USS).Rubber Processing Approximately 80% of the rubber tree yield is in the form of latex. which is in liquid form which contains considerable amount of water. can be concentrated on coagulated and this is a major process.
Abu Talip 252 .Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.
The cleanliness divided into 3 levels: a. Twist the cup to an upside-down position after collection. High quality.high price & easy to market.Rubber Processing Involve i. Estate/ Field Tapping To keep latex in liquid form till it reaches the factory Use clean tools. The cleanliness Very important (main factor) to produce a good quality of rubber. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 253 . Don‟t expose the latex for too long. remove the scrap from the panel. conduit. and cup.
b. Factory/Processing Cleanliness General cleanliness must be maintained at the factory building and surroundings. Sufficient supply of clean water for use at any time when the factory is in operation. Abu Talip 254 . All equipment in the factory must be kept clean. The latex must first be strained to remove any dirt in it. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.
c. ADS and crepe must be hung individually for at least four hours before putting them in the drying chamber. Post-processing Cleanliness Rubber that has been processed must be washed clean an allowed to drip under shade in a clean place. Sheet rubber. dry and well ventilated area. Abu Talip 255 . USS. Rubber must always be stored in a clean. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.
The DRC varies according to season. Usually. the DRC of latex is within the range of 2045% and 35% can be taken as an average. tapping system (length of cut and frequency of tapping. Abu Talip 256 . climate. soil condition. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. stimulation).Dry Rubber Content in Latex (DRC) Dry rubber content (DRC) is referred only to the rubber particles found in latex. age of trees. clone.
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. To know the yield of an area as a guide in latex estate management. As a guide for calculating the amount of chemicals require in processing bulk rubber. b. As a guide in the sale and purchase of latex. e. Abu Talip 257 . c. As a guide to standardize the latex in the process of making sheet rubber As a guide for the payment to rubber tappers. d.Importance of Knowing the DRC a.
Abu Talip 258 . Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. c. b. ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ a. Take 45 ml latex and put into flask cone. Normal Laboratory Method Flask cone 50 ml Clean cup Measurement cylinder Steamer Jug Analytical scale Oven Measure the latex in kg unit. Take 20 gm of latex and put in the clean cup as a sample.Method of DRC Determination 1.
j.set the average of DRC. The thinning coagulated latex is known as biscuit. Coagulate the latex with 150 ml acetic acid 0. Abu Talip 259 . Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.5%. k. Take out the coagulated latex from the cup and clean properly. f. Measure the biscuit in unit gram. h. Cool the biscuit in the jug for a few minutes. Put the cup in steamer so the latex coagulates faster. Coagulated latex need to be thinned to 2 mm.d. e. Dry it in the oven with 70o for 26 hrs. Repeat the process. g. i.
Table 13: DRC Calculation: Laboratory Method Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip **This method needs big capital and skilled employee** 260 .
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 261 .
d. b. Scale the biscuit in gram unit. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.Calung Method (Chee method) ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ a. Coagulate the latex with 25 g formic acid 2%. c. f. Dry the biscuit in oven with 70oc for 16 hours. e. Calung measurement 50 g Aluminium cup Scale “Triple Beam” Formic Acid 2% Filter the latex and measure in kg unit. Take 50 g of latex and pour in the clean cup as sample. Abu Talip 262 . Clean the coagulated latex properly and thinning to 2 mm (known as biscuit).
Abu Talip 263 .Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 264 .
Filter latex b.5 litre Pail 2 litre a. Take 1 portion of latex (0.Hydrometer Method ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Metrolak Metrolak cylinder Measurement cup 0. (1 litre: 1 kg) c. and then convert to litre.5 litre) and mix with 2 portion of water (1 litre). so 3 portions. Abu Talip 265 . Measure the volume of latex in litre or scale with kg. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.
easy method and cheap Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 266 . When the metrolak settle.053. High error: 4.c. d. Dip metrolak in the cylinder e. Put the latex in metrolak cylinder. take the reading.
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 267 .
◦ ◦ The latex is transferred into the bulking tank to obtain uniformity.5. Bulking and Standardization Factory and equipment must be clean and sufficient amount clean water available. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 268 ◦ . 15 or 20% DRC).Rubber Processing 1. Sheet Rubber: USS (Unsmoked sheet) i. The DRC of latex is estimated for standardization purpose (12.
a few minute rest is allowed for the impurities to settle. After the addition of correct volume of water.◦ This achieved by diluting the field latex with sufficient volume of clean water by using the formula. ◦ Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 269 .
The required amount of diluted acid (pH 4. Abu Talip 270 . Coagulation and sheeting (milling) The standardised latex is then transferred into coagulating tank. The partition sheets are then placed in position and the tanks covered.5-4.8) is poured into the coagulation tank and thoroughly stirred with the latex.ii. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. The latex is made to pass through 16 – 24 mesh percentimetre monel-metal gauze strainer to separate dirt that mayb present in it.
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. The partition sheets are removed. Abu Talip 271 . and the coagulum slabs taken out and allowed to pass through motorised smooth surfaced roller presser to reduce the thickness to 4 mm. The latex is considered coagulated when a clear serum is seen oven the coagulum. Milling (sheeting) is carried out the following day. when the coagula are firm enough for easy handling. The tank is then floodd with clean water to submerge the coagulum to avoid oxidation.
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. The long sheets are then cut into shorter length before being hung individually on a trolley and allowed to drip in a clean shady area for four hours. The sheets then ready to be dried in the smokehouse. The sheets are then passed through a pair of groovesurfaced roller presser to give the sheets the ribbed appearance as well as to quickly drain off surface water. At the end of the milling. Abu Talip 272 . the sheets are again washed.
USS dried in this way become translucent against light and his facilitates its grading. Abu Talip 273 . but the process takes more than 3 weeks. The process take a lot of space and the sheets can get infected by mould (fungus) which brings down the quality. the drying time can be reduced by about 80%. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. With smokehouse.Objective of Smoking USS USS can be dried by atmospheric air.
Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Abu Talip 274 .
Abu Talip 275 .Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.
This in turn determines its value in term of price.Grading of RSS RSS is graded to determine its quality and its depend on the defects found in the RSS that is being graded. Abu Talip 276 . Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. The quality of RSS is determined by the defects.
Occur due to incorrect amount of acid not being satisfactorily mixed the latex during processing. using contaminated utensils or dirty water. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. bark and sand – can be seen against the light. Air bubbles – can be seen at anyway over the sheet. The following are the types of defect found in RSS. Abu Talip 277 ii. i.Defects in RSS The defects that are found in RSS mostly occur during processing. Dirt. This is due to non-observance of cleanliness requirement when handling latex and latex may not have been strained properly or dirty water has been used. specks. .
v. Abu Talip 278 iv. Rust – brownish deposit can be seen on the RSS. poor ventilation and low temperature and poles where the USS are hung have mould growing on them. This is caused be keeping the freshly milled USS in poorly ventilated place overnight or the sheet not being adequately washed during milling. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. Mould – patches of greyish fungal growth can be seen on the sheet This is normally favoured by humid conditions. . Greasy Sticky Surface – The RSS surface sticky when touched This is due to excessive use of acid or sodium sulphite in latex and insufficient washing of the sheet during milling.iii.
vii. Blister – cracks can be seen over the sheet. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj. defective roller preses. viii. This can caused by surface oxidation brought about by the action of oxidising enzymes in the latex and stacking of wet USS can also can lead to these. Thickness or thick ends – thick portion that are found on the RSS occur during machining due to overlapping and folding. Abu Talip 279 . Dark patches – irregular shaped dark and light coloured patches can be seen over the RSS. This can be caused by the froth remaining on the surface of the latex during coagulation. The sheet must be rolled to 4 mm thickness.vi.
Abu Talip 280 .Grade of RSS Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.
Abu Talip 281 .Packing After grading. The packing should follow the international standard. sheet rubber will be packed according to the quality grade before exporting. Prepared by: Muhamad Syukrie Hj.