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Example: Calculation of effective section properties for a cold-formed lipped channel section in bending

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Example: Calculation of effective section properties for a cold-formed lipped channel section in bending EN 1993-1-3 V. Ungureanu, A. Ruff D. Dubina
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Example: Calculation of effective section properties for a cold-formed lipped channel section in bending
This example deals with the effective properties calculation of a coldformed lipped channel section subjected to bending about its major axis.
For practical design of light gauge sections to EN1993, designers will normally use software or refer to manufacturers data. This example is presented for illustrative purposes

Basic Data The dimensions of the cross-section and the material properties are: h = 200 mm Total height Total width of flange in compression
Created on Monday, October 25, 2010 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement

b1 = 74 mm b2 = 66 mm

Total width of flange in tension Total width of edge fold Internal radius Nominal thickness Steel core thickness Basic yield strength Modulus of elasticity Poissons ratio Partial factor

c = 20,8 mm
r = 3 mm
t nom = 2 mm

t = 1,96 mm
f yb = 350 N mm 2

EN1993-1-3 3.2.4(3)

E = 210000 N mm2

= 0,3

M0 = 1,00

EN1993-1-3 2(3)

The dimensions of the section centre line are:

Web height Width of flange in compression Width of flange in tension

hp = h t nom = 200 2 = 198 mm

bp1 = b1 t nom = 74 2 = 72 mm bp2 = b2 t nom = 66 2 = 64 mm

Example: Calculation of effective section properties for a cold-formed lipped channel section in bending

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Example: Calculation of effective section properties for a cold-formed lipped channel section in bending EN 1993-1-3 V. Ungureanu, A. Ruff D. Dubina
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Width of edge fold

cp = c t nom 2 = 20,8 2 2 = 19,8 mm

Checking of geometrical proportions The design method of EN1993-1-3 can be applied if the following conditions EN1993-1-3 are satisfied: 5.2

b t 60 c t 50 h t 500

b1 t = 74 1,96 = 37,75 < 60 OK c t = 20,8 1,96 = 10,61 < 50 OK h t = 200 1,96 = 102,04 < 500 OK

In order to provide sufficient stiffness and to avoid primary buckling of the stiffener itself, the size of stiffener should be within the following range:
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0,2 c b 0,6

c b1 = 20,8 74 = 0,28 c b2 = 20,8 66 = 0,32

0,2 < 0,28 < 0,6 OK


0,2 < 0,32 < 0,6 OK
EN1993-1-3 5.1(3)

The influence of rounding of the corners is neglected if:

r t5
r bp 0,10

r t = 3 1,96 = 1,53 < 5 OK


r bp1 = 3 72 = 0,04 < 0,10 OK r bp 2 = 3 64 = 0,05 < 0,10 OK

Gross section properties


Abr = t (2cp + bp1 + bp2 + hp ) = 1,96 (2 19,8 + 72 + 64 + 198 ) = 732 mm 2

Position of the neutral axis with respect to the flange in compression:


z b1

[c (h =
p

2 2 cp 2 ) + bp2 hp + hp 2 + cp 2 t

Abr

= 96,88 mm

Example: Calculation of effective section properties for a cold-formed lipped channel section in bending

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Example: Calculation of effective section properties for a cold-formed lipped channel section in bending EN 1993-1-3 V. Ungureanu, A. Ruff D. Dubina
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Effective section properties of the flange and lip in compression The general (iterative) procedure is applied to calculate the effective EN1993-1-3 properties of the compressed flange and the lip (plane element with edge 5.5.3.2 stiffener). The calculation should be carried out in three steps: Step 1: Obtain an initial effective cross-section for the stiffener using effective widths EN1993-1-3 of the flange determined by assuming that the compressed flange is doubly 5.5.3.2 (3) supported, the stiffener gives full restraint ( K = ) and that design strength is not reduced ( com,Ed = f yb / M 0 ). Effective width of the compressed flange The stress ratio: = 1 (uniform compression), so
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EN1993-1-3 5.5.2 and EN1993-1-5 4.4

the buckling factor is: k = 4 for internal compression element.

= 235 f yb
The relative slenderness:

p,b =

bp1 t 28,4 k

72 1,96 = 0,789 28,4 235 350 4

The width reduction factor is:

p,b 0,055(3 + ) 0,789 0,055 (3 + 1) = = 0,914 0,789 2 p,b 2

The effective width is: beff = bp1 = 0 ,914 72 = 65,8 mm

be1 = be2 = 0,5beff = 0,5 65,8 = 32,9 mm

Example: Calculation of effective section properties for a cold-formed lipped channel section in bending

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Example: Calculation of effective section properties for a cold-formed lipped channel section in bending EN 1993-1-3 V. Ungureanu, A. Ruff D. Dubina
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Effective width of the edge fold The buckling factor is: if bp, c bp1 0,35 : if 0,35 < bp, c bp1 0,6 :

k = 0,5
k = 0,5 + 0,83 3 (bp, c bp1 0,35)
2

EN1993-1-3 5.5.3.2 (5a)

bp, c bp1 = 19,8 72 = 0,275 < 0,35

so

k = 0,5
EN1993-1-5 4.4

The relative slenderness:

p,c =

cp t

28,4 k

19,8 1,96 = 0,614 28,4 235 350 0,5

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The width reduction factor is:

p,c 0,188 0,614 0,188 = = 1,13 0,614 2 p,c 2


so

but 1

=1
EN1993-1-3 5.5.3.2 (5a)

The effective width is:


ceff = cp = 1 19,8 = 19,8 mm

Effective area of the edge stiffener:


As = t be2 + ceff = 1,96 32,9 + 19,8 = 103,3 mm

5.5.3.2 (6)
2

Step 2:

Use the initial effective cross-section of the stiffener to determine the EN1993-1-3 reduction factor, allowing for the effects of the continuous spring restraint. 5.5.3.2 (3) The elastic critical buckling stress for the edge stiffener is EN1993-1-3 5.5.3.2 (7)

cr ,s =
where:

2 K E Is As

Example: Calculation of effective section properties for a cold-formed lipped channel section in bending

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Example: Calculation of effective section properties for a cold-formed lipped channel section in bending EN 1993-1-3 V. Ungureanu, A. Ruff D. Dubina
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K is the spring stiffness per unit length: K=

EN1993-1-3 5.5.3.1(5)

1 E t3 2 3 2 4(1 ) b1 hp + b1 + 0,5 b1 b2 hp kf

with:

b1 distance from the web to the centre of the effective area of the stiffener in compression (upper flange)
b1 = bp1 be2t be2 2 32,9 1,96 32,9 2 = 61,73 mm = 72 (be2 + ceff )t (32,9 + 19,8) 1,96

kf = 0 for bending about the y-y axis


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K = 0,439 N mm
I s is the effective second moment of area of the stiffener:
3 2 ceff ceff 2 be2 t 3 ceff t ceff Is = + + be2 t + ceff t 12 12 2 2(be2 + ceff ) 2(be2 + ceff ) 2 2

I s = 3663 mm 4

so, the elastic critical buckling stress for the edge stiffener is

cr,s =

2 0,439 210000 3663 = 355,78 N mm 2 103,3

Example: Calculation of effective section properties for a cold-formed lipped channel section in bending

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Example: Calculation of effective section properties for a cold-formed lipped channel section in bending EN 1993-1-3 V. Ungureanu, A. Ruff D. Dubina
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Thickness reduction factor d for the edge stiffener The relative slenderness:

EN1993-1-3 5.5.3.2 (3) Figure 5.10d

d =

f yb cr,s = 350 355,78 = 0,992

The reduction factor will be: if d 0,65 if 0,65 < d < 1,38 if d 1,38

d = 1,0
d = 1,47 0,723 d d = 0,66 d
so

EN1993-1-3 5.5.3.1 (7)

EN1993-1-5 4.4 (2)

0,65 < d = 0,992 < 1,38


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d = 1,47 0,723 0,992 = 0,753


EN1993-1-3 5.5.3.2 (3)

Step 3:

As the reduction factor for buckling of the stiffener is d < 1, iterate to refine the value of the reduction factor for buckling of the stiffener. Figure 5.10e The iterations are carried out based on modified values of obtained using:

com, Ed, i = d f yb M0 and

p, red = p d

EN1993-1-3 5.5.3.2 (10)

The iteration stops when the reduction factor converges. Initial values (iteration 1): Final values (iteration n):

d = 0,753
be2 = 32,9 mm ceff = 19,8 mm

d = d, n = 0,737
be2 = be2, n = 35,9 mm ceff = ceff, n = 19,8 mm

Final values of effective properties for flange and lip in compression are:

d = 0,737

be2 = 35,9 mm

ceff = 19,8 mm

and be1 = 32,9 mm

Example: Calculation of effective section properties for a cold-formed lipped channel section in bending

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Example: Calculation of effective section properties for a cold-formed lipped channel section in bending EN 1993-1-3 V. Ungureanu, A. Ruff D. Dubina
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tred = t d = 1,96 0,737 = 1,44 mm

EN1993-1-3 5.5.3.2 (12)

Effective section properties of the web

The position of the neutral axis with regard to the flange in compression:

hc =

cp (hp cp 2 ) + bp2 hp + hp 2 + ceff d 2


2 2

cp + bp2 + hp + be1 + (be2 + ceff ) d

hc = 101,6 mm

The stress ratio:

hc hp hc

101,6 198 = 0,949 101,6

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The buckling factor: k = 7,81 6,29 + 9,78 2 The relative slenderness:

k = 22,58

EN1993-1-5 4.4 (Table 4.1)

p, h =

hp t
28,4 k

198 1,96 = 0,914 28,4 235 350 22,58

The width reduction factor is:

p, h 0,055(3 + ) 0,914 0,055 (3 0,949) = = 0,959 0,9142 p, h 2

Example: Calculation of effective section properties for a cold-formed lipped channel section in bending

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Example: Calculation of effective section properties for a cold-formed lipped channel section in bending EN 1993-1-3 V. Ungureanu, A. Ruff D. Dubina
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The effective width of the zone in compression of the web is:

heff = hc = 0,959 101,6 = 97,5 mm


Near the flange in compression:

he1 = 0,4heff = 0,4 97,5 = 39 mm


Near the neutral axis:

he2 = 0,6heff = 0,6 97,5 = 58,5 mm


The effective width of the web is: Near the flange in compression:
Created on Monday, October 25, 2010 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement

h1 = he1 = 39 mm
Near the flange in tension:
h2 = hp (hc he2 ) = 198 (101,6 58,5) = 154,9 mm

Effective section properties

Effective cross-section area:


Aeff = t[cp + bp 2 + h1 + h2 + be1 + (be 2 + ceff ) d ]

Aeff = 1,96 [19,8 + 64 + 39 + 154,9 + 32,9 + (35,9 + 19,8) 0,737]


Aeff = 689,2 mm 2

Position of the neutral axis with regard to the flange in compression:


zc = t cp (hp cp 2 ) + bp2 hp + h2 (hp h2 2 ) + h1 2 + ceff d 2
2 2

Aeff

zc = 102,3 mm

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Position of the neutral axis with regard to the flange in tension:


p

z t = hp z c = 198 102,3 = 95,7 mm


o , a d n i s y c

Second moment of area:


3 3 3 cp t be1t 3 be2 ( d t )3 ceff 3 ( d t ) h1 t h2 t bp2t I eff,y = + + + + + + + 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 2 + cp t ( z t cp 2) 2 + bp 2tz t + h2t ( z t h2 2) 2 + h1t ( zc h1 2) 2 + 3

o i M a l

+ be1t zc + be2 ( d t ) zc + ceff ( d t )( zc ceff 2) 2


2 2
n r

I eff, y = 4140000 mm 4
o e

Effective section modulus: - with regard to the flange in compression Weff,y,c = I eff,y zc = 4140000 = 40460 mm3 102,3
t d a

- with regard to the flange in tension Weff,y,t = I eff, y zt = 4140000 = 43260 mm3 95,7

C T

r h

e i

a s

e m

Example: Calculation of effective section properties for a cold-formed lipped channel section in bending

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Example: Calculation of effective section properties for a cold-formed lipped channel section in bending

Reference(s) ORIGINAL DOCUMENT Name Created by Technical content checked by Editorial content checked by Technical content endorsed by the following STEEL Partners: 1. UK 2. France 3. Sweden 4. Germany 5. Spain Resource approved by Technical Coordinator TRANSLATED DOCUMENT This Translation made and checked by: Translated resource approved by: G W Owens A Bureau B Uppfeldt C Mller J Chica G W Owens SCI CTICM SBI RWTH Labein SCI 12/4/06 12/4/06 11/4/06 11/4/06 12/4/06 23/08/06 V. Ungureanu, A. Ruff D. Dubina Company BRITT Ltd. Timisoara, Romania BRITT Ltd. Timisoara, Romania Date 05/12/2005 08/12/2005

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