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Data Transfer and Manipulation

Data Transfer and Manipulation


Computers provide an extensive set of instruction to give the user flexibility to carry out various computational tasks The instruction set of different computers differ from each other mostly in the way the operands are determined from address and mode fields. The actual operations available in the instruction from one computer to another

Data Transfer and Manipulation


Most computer instruction can be classified into three categories:
1. 2. 3.

Data transfer instruction Data manipulation Program control instructions

Data Transfer and Manipulation


Data transfer instruction cause of data from one location to another without changing the binary information content. Data manipulation instructions are those that perform arithmetic, logic ,shift operation Program control instructions provide decision making capabilities and change the path taken by the program when executed in the computer.

Data Transfer and Manipulation


Data Transfer Instruction
Name Load Store Move Exchange Input Output Push Pop Mnemonic LD ST MOV XCH IN OUT PUSH POP

Data Manipulation Instructions


Operation on data and provide the computational capabilities for computer Basically data manipulation instructions in a typical computer usually divided into three basic types: Arithmetic Instructions Logical and bit manipulation instructions Shift instructions

1. 2. 3.

Data Manipulation Instructions


Arithmetic Instruction
Name Increment Decrement Add Subtract Multiply Divide Add with carry Subtract with borrow Negate(2s complement) Mnemonic INC DEC ADD SUB MUL DIV ADDC SUBB NEG

Data Manipulation Instructions


Logical and Bit Manipulation Instructions
Name Clear Complement AND OR Exclusive OR Clear Carry Set Carry Complementary Carry Enable Interrupt Disable Interrupt Mnemonic CLR COM AND OR XOR CLRC SETC COMC EI DI

Data Manipulation Instructions


Shift Instructions
Name Logical Shift right Logical Shift left Arithmetic shift right Arithmetic shift left Rotate right Rotate Left Rotate right through Carry Rotate left through Carry Mnemonic SHR SHL SHR A SHL A ROR ROL ROR C ROL C

Data Manipulation Instructions


Program Control Instructions

Name Branch Jump Skip CALL Return Compare (by subtraction) Test (by ANDing)

Mnemonic BR JMP SKP CALL RET CMP TST