Prologue

1. 2 centuries ago- New Guineans lived in Stone Age 2. whites arrived a. brought ³cargo´ i. steel axes, matches, meds, clothing, soft drinks, umbrellas b. despised New Guineans- ³primitive´ 3. Yali- local polition a. Question: ³Why is it that you white people developed so much cargo and brought it to New Guinea, but we black people had little cargo of our own?´ b. Why is it that people of Eurasian origin (especially those in Europe, eastern Asia, and transplanted to N America) dominate the modern world in wealth and power?´ i. Possible Explanations: 1. Genetics a. However not likely based on intelligence i. New Guineans might actually be more intelligent 1. Europeans- natural selection based on disease; New Guinean- natural section based on murder- required intelligence 2. Europeans had TV, radio, movies; New Guineans actively do activities. 2. The seasonably variable climates at high latitudes require people to be more technologically inventive to survive. 3. Importance of lowland river valleys in dry climates, where highly productive agriculture depended on largescale irrigation systems that in turn required civilized bureaucracies 4. Immediate factors that enabled Europeans to kill or conquer other peoples- especially guns, disease, and steal tools

Up to the Starting Line
1. 11,000 B.C.- beginnings of village life in a few parts of the world, 1st undisputed peopling of the Americas, the end of the Pleistocene Era and last Ice Age, and start of the ³Recent Era´ a. plant and animal domestication within 1,000 years 2. the 1st 5-6 million years of human history was confined to Africa 3. Homo erectus- close to modern humans except brain nearly ½ of ours a. Stone tools- crude- made of flaked or battered stones- 2.5 million years ago b. 1st human ancestor to spread beyond Africa c. ½ million years ago evolved into Homo sapiens- however still smaller brains- different artifacts and behavior i. use of fire d. 1/3 million years ago- the human populations of Africa and western Eurasia proceeded to diverge from each other and from East Asian populations e. 130,000- 40,000 years ago i. population of Europe and western Asia were Neanderthals 1. had brains slightly larger than our own 2. buried their dead 3. cared for sick 4. however- still used stone tools which were more crude than the New Guineans ii. Africans had more modern skeletons than the Neanderthals 1. However made same crude stone tools without standardized shapes 2. Unimpressive hunting skills 4. 50,000 years ago- Great Leap Forward of human history a. East African sites of standardized stone tools and 1st preserved jewelry- similar developments appeared elsewhere b. Cro-Magnons: i. Developed multi-piece weapons that allowed for hunting of dangerous prey from a distance ii. Invented rope- allowed addition of fish and birds to diet iii. Artworks iv. Evidence suggests that Cro-Magnons wiped out Neanderthals in Europe

earliest evidence of watercraft ii. Americas filled up with humans so quickly that people were motivated to keep spreading south toward Patagonia b.that is why no animals in Australia are larger than kangaroos. Human range expanded into the coldest parts of Eurasia i. During Great Leap Forward (50. during Ice Ages.000 B. 14.000 and 35. May have been responsible for extinction of Eurasia¶s woolly mammoth and woolly rhino 6. sea levels were much lower 1.000 years ago.Americas were first colonized with Clovis (1st unquestioned remains found around 12.however it is also believed that they became extinct due to the Ice Age c.it remains unknown how this was done. b. reaching Australia/New Guinea still required a crossing of 8 channels 2. extension of human geographic range since colonization into Australia and New Guinea (both joined as a single continent at that time) i. evidence of pre-Clovis people cannot yet be proved 7. at this point it cannot be predicted which continent would develop most quickly .000 years ago extinctions similar to those in Australia occurred in the Americas i.C.5. 17. nevertheless.) a.000-12. the human settlers caused the 1st mass extinction of large animal species by humans.000 years ago) a. however possible. discovery of mammoth skeletons with Clovis spear-points between their ribs suggests that they were exterminated by hunters.

They developed locally dense populations and fought wars with neighboring populations. social complexity. . Maori tropical crops could not grow in the Chatham Islands (Moriori) climate. 2. and material products. clubs. The hunter-gatherers had to remain in the Chatham islands and learn how to get along. related in turn to differences in island area. This serves as a ³natural experiment´ i. the Maori killed or enslaved the Moriori at will and without mercy. fragmentation. Polynesian islands differed greatly in their economic specialization.A Natural Experiment of History 1. a. The northern part of New Zealand (Maori) could support Polynesian agriculture. and axes b. Their prey could be captured by hand or with clubs. political organization. The differences in the Polynesian islands within a short time from a single ancestral society. Both the Maori and Moriori were Polyesian peoples and diverged from a common origin less than a millennium earlier. Organized resistance could have defeated Moriori but they wanted to resolve the dispute peacefully. ii. Maori overran Moriori people in the Chatham Islands in 1835 a. allowing them to overrun the Moriori. related to differences in population size and density. making it a good model for the cultural differences that emerged elsewhere in the world. and the colonists had to become huntergatherers. leading to their peaceful nature. Due to their greater warlike capability. and isolation and in opportunities for subsistence and for intensifying food production 4. 3. c. Maori came with guns.

Early guns. Spain¶s writing (communication) g. November 16. European maritime technology f. Pizarro executed Atahullpa anyway 2. Horses and cavalry c. . Why did Pizarro capture Atahullpa? a. Gave the Spaniards access to a huge body of knowledge about human behavior and history h. however they played only a minor role d. Pizarro captured Atahullpa i. Spain¶s literacy i. Pizarro¶s steal weapons armor b. 1532. Set high ransom but when it was delivered.000 soldiers b.Collision at Cajamarca 1. However.1st encounter between the Inca emperor Atahullpa and the Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro at the Peruvian highland town of Cajamarca a. Pizarro led a rag-tag army of 168 soldiers while Atahullpa was in the middle of his empire with an army of 80. Small pox spread by Spanish caused the death of the Inca emperor and left the Incas divided and weak (Atahullpa had won decisive battles in the war) e.

germs developed in societies from domestic animals . last 11. food production was a prerequisite for the development of guns. domestication of Eurasian horses helped military conquest g.people turned to ³food production´ a. settlement allows for storage of food surpluses d. domesticating wild animals and plants b.Farmer Power 1.000 years. hunter gathers cannot carry more than one infant with them. germs. eating the resulting livestock and crops 2. availability of more consumable calories = more people = stronger military b. government that collects taxes can feed professional soldiers f. settlement allows for the development of government which also allows organized conquest e. and steel a. creating lower birth rates than the farmers c.

. so calculations based on a constant ratio are subject to systematic errors. the Andes. archaeologists date food production with radiocarbon dating a. it was imported to others. radiocarbon dating is plagued by many technical problems i.much more than the amount in seeds and bones. parts of China. and Africa¶s Sahel zone) 2. The carbon 14/carbon 12 ratio of the atmosphere fluctuates over time. Mexico. Mesoamerica. earliest sites of food production rank today as somewhat dry or ecologically degraded (Iraq and Iran.(thought that the import took place through population replacement by the farming peoples) 3. ii. Therefore the scientists had to resort to dating material that was thought to be ³associated with´ them. radiocarbon dating required large amounts of carbon. China. in few places food production developed independently and they did do at widely different times (Southwest Asia/Fertile Crescent. until the 1980s.History¶s Haves and Have-Nots 1. the Andes of South America. eastern United States).

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they were displaced by neighboring food producers a. and storing cereals efficiently. it was not a decision or discovery a. in most areas of the globe suitable for food production. . in others they chose only certain elements of it. hunter-gatherers met one of two fates: a. food production evolved as a by-product of decisions made without awareness of their consequences. Why didn¶t the transition take place earlier? a. suffered from more serious diseases. wild cereals were not yet abundant. At later dates. technologies. etc. 2. In some cases the hunter-gatherers adopted the neighboring system of food production virtually as a complete package. and human population densities were not yet high enough for a large premium to be placed on extracting more calories per acre 4. they survived only by adopting food production themselves. i. and population pressures from growth. and died on the average at a younger age than the hunter-gatherers they replaced 3. being a hunter-gatherer was more rewarding because wild mammals were still abundant. processing. people had not yet developed the inventions necessary for collecting.To Farm or Not to Farm 1. and cultural attitudes. the availability of domesticable wild plants and animals. the first farmers in many areas were smaller and less well nourished. influenced by the decline in availability of wild game. prestige.

resulting in our seedless bananas. Only mutant seeds lacking those mechanisms would have been harvested and would thus have become the progenitors of crops. 3. plants evolved to attract animals to carry their seeds through natural selection 2. and pineapples.Some mutant hermaphrodites lost their selfincompatibility and became able to fertilize themselves²a process exemplified by many fruit trees such as plums. apricots. c. Many plants have specialized mechanisms that scatter seeds (and thereby prevent humans from gathering them efficiently). the mutation would immediately be diluted or lost. Competition between seeds in a garden also caused the larger seed size and other changes of wild plants into crops. and cherries. Children of farmers would have tasted the non-bitter almond seeds and they would be planted. All such mutants promptly sprouted and yielded harvested mutant seeds. which can kill even a human snacker a. b.How to Make an Almond 1. grapes. 4. most wild almonds contain amygdalin. Occasional mutant individuals among wild plants lacked thick seed coats or other inhibitors of germination. . Individual almond trees would have a mutation that prevents them from synthesizing the bitter amygdalin. oranges. apples. which breaks down to yield the poison cyanicide. Those mutant seeds were planted and the trait was passed down. If those desirable mutants proceeded to interbreed with normal plants. Some mutant individuals developed fruit without even having to be pollinated. Humans also made changes in domestic plants that weren¶t as noticeable a. peaches.

broadcast seeding.y 5. Old World. a. There were several differences in food production systems around the world. and eventually plowing . monoculture fields.

b. mixed gardens. By Roman times.fields were hand tilled and seeds were individually. no plows 6. New World. almost all of today¶s leading crops were being cultivated somewhere in the world .

Selects of annuals (plants that die in dry season) 1. which are often edible by humans ii. Favorable traits would automatically be passed on to offspring iii. Range of altitudes (more diversity and staggered) 4. Fertile Crescent crops were already abundant and highly productive in the wild 1. but these crops were very few in variety and only one of them gained worldwide importance 3. Fertile Crescent. Great climate variation (favored evolution) 3. dry season) i. Fertile Crescent has Mediterranean climate (long.all knowledgeable about their enviroment .site of origin of several of the world¶s major crops 2. Fertile Crescent had high % of hermaphroditic ³selfers´ (usually pollinate themselves) a. Large domesticated mammal species b. Difference was not due to the people in the areas. Annuals do not have inedible wood or fibrous material but must make big seeds (to survive the dry season). New Guinea and E. U. Rich in harvest seasons 5. Largest (more diversity) 2. Did the flora and enviorment of the Fertile Crescent have clear advantages over those of New Guinea and the eastern US a. 5 Advantages of Fertile Crescent over other Med.S.Apples or Indians 1. Some hunting-gathering peoples had settled before they began to cultivate the plants and few additional changes were needed to cultivate the plants 2. Zones 1. did domesticate crops.

The repeated independent domestications of the Ancient 14 v. this is because: i. which became an important reason why they developed guns.humans take over the dominance hierarchy. Nasty disposition. Tendency to panic.some animals tend to kill humans 1. territorial animals cannot be herded . carnivores require too much food ii. Not due to people because: i. Diet. Growth rate. Zebras become impossibly dangerous as they grow older. and the Anna Karenina Principle 1. Unhappy Marriages. most lived in Eurasia. Rapid acceptance of Eurasian domesticates buy non-Eurasian peoples ii. Limited successes of modern efforts at further domestications b.must grow quickly to be worth keeping (What would-be gorilla or elephant rancher would wait 15 years for his heard to reach adult size?) iii. humans become ³leader of the pack´.food energy pyramid. Of the ancient 14 species of domestic mammals. Social Structure.nervous species are difficult to keep in captivity vi. Problems of captive breeding. Because it is larger and more diverse 2.some animals don¶t like to have sex under the eyes of others iv. The rapid domestication of the Ancient Fourteen big terrestrial wild mammal species iv. None of Africa¶s 51 candidates were domesticated. germs. Eurasia has largest # of big terrestrial wild mammal species 1. and steel a.eliminating them despite their closeness to horses v. Eurasia has highest % of candidates for domestication that were actually domesticated 2.Zebras. bite. Reasons for failed domestication i. despite their closeness to mammals that were domesticated a. The universal human penchant for keeping pets iii.

they also tend to share similar diseases. and rainfall. However climate barriers can slow east-west spread too b. and habitats ii. such as the wheel because areas that exchanged food were more likely to exchange technology .Spacious Skies and Tilted Axes 1. the major axis of Eurasia is east-west a. The axes also affected the diffusion of other technologies and inventions. regimes of temp. Food production spread much faster along east-west axes (spread faster from Fertile Crescent than other places of domestic plant origins) i. This is because localities distributed east and west of each other at the same latitude share exactly the same day length and seasonal variations. Unlike the other major continents.

and coughing 2. ³Bonanzas´ for microbes a. those who did recover develop antibodies that leave them immune for a long time d. ex: genital sores. Spread of germs a. Even more densely packed human populations under even worse sanitation conditions ii. one host eaten by next host ii. tend to be restricted to humans 3. spread quickly and efficiently b. hitchhike in the saliva of an insect from host to host iii. Agriculture sustains much higher human population densities than does the hunting-gathering lifestyle b.Lethal Gift of Livestock 1. the epidemic disappears i. diarrhea. active i.required constant immigration . Farmers are sedentary and live amid their own sewage. Farming practice such as using feces as fertilizer 5. Did not become self-sustaining until 20th century. modify the anatomy or habits of their host in such a way as to accelerate their transmission 1. Why did the rise of agriculture launch the evolution of our crowd infectious diseases? a. Passive i. providing microbes w/ a short path into drinking water c. almost an entire tribelet may be wiped out by an epidemic brought by an outside visitor b. you either die or recover completely c. ³acute´ illnesses: within a short time. mother to fetus b. explains why triblets never could evolve epidemic diseases of their own to give back to visitors 4. after killing most of the tribelet. crowd diseases could not sustain themselves in small bands of huntergatherers and slash & burn farmers a. Rise of cities i. epidemics (rather than steady trickle of cases) a.

Development of world trade routes 6.b. Pizarro defeated Incas (Ch 3) . Cortes + Spaniards defeat Aztecs ii. More Native Americans died from germs than in battle (kill many and lower morale of survivors) i. Microbes in history a. Most microbes responsible for our own unique diseases have come from our domesticated animals 7.

Alphabet. Mexican Indians. 2 indisputably independent inventions of writing a. 1st writing signs.000 BC and Chinese writing of 1. Sumerian cuneiform a.3.000 BC b.Blueprints and Borrowed Letters 8/25/2010 5:15:00 PM 1. Syllabaries.1 written sign stands for a whole word c.provide a unique sign for each basic sound b. Sumerians of Mesopotamia.recognizable pictures of the object i. Thousands of years before cuneiform people of some farming villages used clay tokens for accounting b.600 BC c. Writing System Strategies a. gradually became more abstract and signs were combined to create new meanings . Logograms.a sign for each syllable 2. (Egyptian writing of 3.300 BC may also have arisen independently) 3.

Easy to observe advantages 3.Necessity¶s Mother 1. Differences in human population . Requirements for acceptence: i. oldest printed document b. Compatibility w/vested interests iv. China. Level of food production b. examples of rejection of important inventions i.rejected fishing iii.some rejected pottery b. which for places w/geographic or ecologic barriers is limited 4. it must be accepted within a society a. Polynesians. Most new developmements arrive by diffusion. for an invention to spread. Technology is autocatalytic.with technology. Economic advantage ii. Reasons for difference in technological development between the Europeans and Native Americans a. Japan. ³although necessity is sometimes the mother to invention. Barriers to diffusion c. Tansmanians. ahead of its time (lacked receptive circumstances and supporting technology) and did not lead to proliferation of printing c. invention often precedes the creation of necessity´ i. Early inventions often perform poorly and appear to be unconvincing. have arisen cumulatively from creative geniuses building by trial and error on the discoveries of the capable predecessors 2. Social value + prestige iii. the rate of development can increase dramatically 6. food production + large population = more rapid technological development 5. some inventions can allow a culture to overrun another a.Phaistos disk a. 1700 BC.samurai restricted the adoption of guns until 1853 ii.rejected ocean going ships iv. examples: airplane and lightbulb 1.

States a.000 people b. Thousands of people b. Class and residence relationships d. intensive food production i. f. division of labor k. 1 or more languages/ethnicities e. show early division of labor/luxury goods 4. Class and residence based relationships d. Consist of family-based clans c. no economic specialization 2. centralized rule (often hereditary) f. monopolies of force and information h. monopoly/centralized conflict resolution g. informal/difficult conflict resolution 3. Many villages and a capital c. etc. Chiefdoms a. Over 50. Consist of 1 or more villages c. 1 language and ethnicity d. intensive food production j. Band a.From Egalitarianism to Kleptocracy 1. no bureaucracy f. many levels of bureaucracy g. usually blood relation b. egalitarian government w/informal leadership e. centralized govt.) . pay taxes (public architecture. egalitarian/´big man´ government e. Tribe a. no formal structures for conflict resolution g. 1 language and ethnicity d. 1 ethnicity e. Hundreds of people b. typically nomadic c. redistributive economy h. 5-80 people. formal laws and judges i.

especially good at developing weapons of war 5. States arise in response to needs for irrigation and regional population size. kleptocrats-maintain power by disarming the populace and arming the elite. may justify kleptocracy 1. . which requires intensive food production. making the masses happy by redistributing the tribute.i. keeping order and preventing violence l.

000 years ago was once united with New Guinea c. Allowed the decimation of aborigines by Europeans who imported their technologies . European Penetration of New Guinea was slow a. Australia was easier to settle 1. Australian climate and terrain a. New Guinea: Wetter than Australia but grows very little protein 2.Yali¶s People 1. 10. Due to disease such as Malaria and thriving of their cattle and crops b. Mostly inhospitable/supports small population of primitive peoples b.

How China Became Chinese 1.C. Sino-Tibetan family of languages (Northern Chinese) dominate 2. 500. Possible genocide 3.forced unification under the Qin dynasty a. Diseases 4. Suppression of the indigenous cultures 1. Food production 2.000 year human prehistory a. Technologies 5. Northern Chinese overran the Southern Chinese 1. populations have become very uniform b.. Animal domestication 3. 221 B. Pockets of Miao-Yao languages are also scattered c. populations were once more diverse 2. The Austronesian migration may have been of peoples displaced from China . Conquests were aided by: 1.

6. Reached Samoa by 1200 B. Reached Hawaii.had no competitive advantage 2. Reached N. Reached Philippines 3000 B.C. New Guinea by 1600 B.C.Speedboat to Polynesia 8/25/2010 5:15:00 PM 1.000 B. Easter Island. Had trouble establishing themselves in west and north Australia .C.C.C.-Austronesian migrations a. 3. Islands of the Pacific were colonized by waves of colonists from Asia (became the New Guinea Highlanders) b. Reached Taiwan 3500 B.C. and Madagascar by 500 A. 5. These migrants became the Polynesians 1. 4.D. Displaced less capable peoples but not the central or southern New Guineans. Began from Chinese mainland 1. 2. Reached Sumatra and Java 2000 B. c. 40.

ii. writing was limited to a few locations 3. Better political organization 2. Better domesticated plants and animals c. Later arrival of humans there b. Better food production b. 1st European visitors to the New World a. from Greenland and Iceland iii. could not sustain their colony on Newfoundland and it died out (15th century) . Development in the New World was more primitive due to: a.D. the Norse i. Better metallurgy d. Geographic and ecological barriers d. 1000 A. Later domestication c. The wheel had not been invented except as a toy in the New World f. New World shows much less major language diffusion 4. Factors leading to the European conquest of the Americas a. Migration through Siberian Arctic which had stripped away technologies for warmer climates e.Hemispheres Colliding 1. Better weapons and cavalry e. Better transport and communication via wriing f.

Upon expanding. Pygmies 1.How Africa Became Black 1. High diversity of peoples and languages 1. Superior plant and animal domestication 2. speak Niger-Congo languages with some pockets of remaining Nilo-Saharan languages 3. Khoisan 1. but used to be widespread e. ³Blacks´ 1. Now have been marginalized to desert areas the Bantu could not farm. Africa a. Bantu farmers dominated as they spread from 3000 B. Further white colonization succeeded due to better food production. Sahara and sub-Saharan Africa 2. Resemble whites in Middle East and Europe 2. to 500 A. . Now mostly confined to Central Africa but were once more widespread but were engulfed by Bantu farmers 1. etc.D. encountered and fought the Xhosas in 1702 3. North African ³whites´ 1. cannons. Dutch white colonists at S. languages were lost even where they continue to live d. Africa 1. Faced only the poorly defended Khoisan 2. Due to diverse geography and long prehistory b. Mostly speak Afro-Asiatic languages c. due to: 1. Iron and bronze f. occupy most of S.C.

No inherent advantage over other regions once food production was developed b. a. China 1.might prevent diffusion of technologies .might allow too much unification 2. 2. Not too little. Underwent desertification. Answer to Yali¶s question: Incidents in geography and environment brought about the domination of whites of Eurasian origin. Fertile Crescent 1. deforestation. Rates of diffusion and migration due to ecological and geographical barriers including between continents c. Diversity and disunity of Europe ensured that Columbus would find a state leader to support his proposed voyage c. Not too much. etc. View is geographic determinism.Europeans were favored merely by having more starting materials and more favorable conditions 3.Europe is just right 1. Some degree of geographic barrier is desirable. Continental differences in population and areal size 2. Why Europe came to dominate over the Fertile Crescent and China a. salinization of the soil. The power struggle with the eunuchs led to abandonment of shipyards and its oceangoing fleets 1. was ecologically fragile 1. Animal and plant domestication b.The Future of Human History as a Science 1. erosion.

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