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Collection Spaþii Imaginate
Spaþii imaginate Series coordinator: Augustin Ioan English proofreader: Barbara Bartos Cover: Ionuþ Ardeleanu-Paici Photo credits: Claudia Robles - Konfluentia (2007). Sub-editing: Ameluþa Viºan Imagine copertã:
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Descrierea CIP a Bibliotecii Naþionale a României Artã, spaþiu ºi memorie în epoca digitalã / coord.: Tincuþa Heinzel. Bucureºti: Paideia, 2009 Bibliogr. ISBN 978-973-596-551-8 I. Heinzel, Tincuþa (coord.) 7
Editor Tincuþa Heinzel
ART, SPACE AND MEMORY IN THE DIGITAL ERA
Translators: Barbara Bartos, Patricia Comãnescu, Tincuþa Heinzel, Simona Klodnischi, Ancuþa Ionescu
thus creating a new model for understanding reality. image. the utopias they generate. The correlations that can be made between the different elements of the phenomenological environment and the interfaces that translate these correlations. Digital technologies have become the common denominator of the way we represent and utilize different elements that compose our environment: sound. the interactions that take place between the physical and virtual space involve a complex set of processes. are part of a process in which creators and users constantly interact in defining and negotiating these new structures of everyday life. while their potential demands to be explored. but they had induced changes in the way we represent and understand the world.INTRODUCTION Tincuþa Heinzel The revolution that took place in the consumption of electronics and digital communication devices in the second half of 20th Century compels us to speak of a real technological revolution. There is no wonder that the problems raised by the new media have been and will continue to be the subject of complex investigations. The change they produced compels us to reconsider the conditions of our modern lives. The speed with which all these technologies integrate into our daily life. as well. the possibilities they offer. They had a direct impact not only on the conditions of our everyday life and our models of social interaction. and information. Not few of those asked to describe and 5 . The approaches are diverse.
If the tools we use have an influence on the way we deal with our environment. Interdisciplinarity has become mandatory. the texts assembled here are questioning the relationship between art and technology in the current digital era. If quantification has become the motif of modern times. as well. The complete reliance on instrumentation in science (Latour) and the mathematization of reality (Koyre) pushed the scientific explanation and production to become closely related in modern epistemology. the association often made between the study of new media and the phenomenon of modernity. What can and should art and aesthetics do in these circumstances? Based on the presentations made during the conference Areas of Conflu(x)ence: Art. then digitization is its most salient expression. Today. Martin Heidegger. while art is asked to mirror these new experiences. Borrowing concepts from different disciplines turned out to be a viable approach.define the phenomenon. are we using them at their fullest potential? What traps are to be avoided? What 6 . The volume and the impact of scientific and technological research in our everyday life make it a cultural act. have referenced concepts and terms that were outlined in earlier studies of technique and its contexts. If the Greek classical philosophy distinguished between téckhne and episteme. this relationship had been reformulated from a modern perspective. technology and science are asked to push the frontiers of knowledge. Precisely these types of associations have demanded some of the most complex approaches in the analysis of digital media. focusing on the impact of new media in our lives. Technology and Space in the Digital Era. It should not be neglected also. but an extension of it. discuss the models of perceiving and understanding this new environment. The technology is not an imitation of nature any more. and Marshall McLuhan are enlightening at this point. The separation of genres was often questioned. The influences of Walter Benjamin. reorganizing the research methods and their institutional recognition are polemic issues. organized by the Association 2580 in Sibiu in the fall of 2007. The issues addressed during the conference. The social and political dimensions of the new media are often subject of theoretical research.
The studies presented here can be divided into two groups. The super-production of power (Agamben) and the generalized panopticism (Foucault) are contributing to the dissipation of the architectonic structures of power. Using as a starting point the abundant innovations in imaging and communication devices produced today. Free from the constraints of 7 . Bogdan Ghiu discusses the concept of visibility and the way it defines reality. If in the past there were only insular visible aspects. to the integration of experimental methods into artistic creation the conference tried. today democratic transparency and generalized visibility lead to an uncontrollable irrepressible generalization of control. to present different current theoretical positions related to these issues. We find texts that are debating the framework of our existential structures and sensibilities. Whether descriptive. The post-neo-panopticism is not interested in the image any more.do we expect from technology? Should the new technologies be a matter of concern? If the proposed area of exploration was wide. Bogdan Ghiu places the source of todays visibility in the lineage of Giorgio Agambens concept of bare life or Michel Foucaults concepts of panopticism and biopolitics. but to de-figure. to the liberty of expression and the promotion of open source software. today they seem to be out of control. the image of man has long since left the attention of the power generating structures. from the surveillance of the internet and of the public spaces. If modernity has always tried to adjust and correct the way things have become visible. but in registering the continual flux of data. The other group tries to quantify the precise experience gained from diverse artistic and technical projects. The power doesnt look to des-figure. from the existence of the virtual space. from the digitization of cultural patrimony. analytical. to the creation and organization of databases. The new visibility does not promote mimetic representation. the texts gathered here try to identify the role of art and aesthetics in contemporary society. to question the forms they take. The subject proposed by Bogdan Ghiu tries to clarify how a pertinent significant act can be realized in the current media-overwhelmed environment. seen through the current framework of technological impact. or to propose new ways for their future interaction. or even polemic.
almost a necessity. Woody Vasulka had hoped to break the structures that defined the analogue media. the author looks to offer a gnoseologic understanding of the notion of interaction. and reconstructing the magnetic and electronic impulses which are the medium itself. the direct correlation between these two elements 8 . which he ends up somatizing it. the new visibility is not interested in the image of the man. as well.representation. art must be reborn as ars and techné. preoccupied by technology. What art can do in this omni-visibility and trans-visibility caught between bio-métrisable (fr) and bio-maîtrisable (fr)? For Bogdan Ghiu. The fact that this attempt. still dominant at the time. and the software used in his own compositions. Woody Vasulka was an experimenter and a creator of technology. Recognized as a pioneer of video art. to traverse him. Approaching this new medium. that was video art in the 1960s. Paolo Ferreira Lopes analyzes their categoriezation and operational structures. Woody Vasulka has tried to conquer it. The modern man who finds himself in a continuous process of escape. the artist talks about the hopes of an entire generation to take over. In the interview. Or for doing this. can restore the corporeality. deconstructing. to produce a change in the narrative structure. in a critical way. and their impact on the musical composition. art can recreate the distance. is from Vasulkas point of view. as well as the paradigms and the models of interaction that these imply. The relationship between art and technology is also questioned in the 2005 interview with Woody Vasulka. this search for a new utopia. In a text that discusses the creation of musical instruments and digital technologies. is not completed. is an equipped man. a technology wearing man. By altering. must become an art of an hyper-perceptible existence in the imperceptible. but in the man himself. and in the case of music. based on the analysis of the material elements. Defined in informatics as a dynamic principle (Wegner). the dominant forms of representation. part of the flux itself. trying to short-circuit him. the interaction is the notion describing the adaptability of digital computation relative to the real world. not only technologically but ideologically. Refusing to create delineate a hierarchy between informatics and music.
Digital Surrealities. The formalization of the interactive processes can lead to two forms of interactivity: one orientated towards the internal space of the machine. Considering the data. not less spectacular is inserting a bit of fiction into reality. imposed by the digital culture. the notion of musical performance being dependent on its time-based character and its interpretation imposed by the software. the computational device is less a tool for rationalization. in which there is no temporal synchronicity but only the interpretative act. as much as a tool for the interpretation 9 . Design and Architecure: Arts of F[r]iction inventories the influence exerted by the virtual reality technology on architecture and design. The exchanges between the architectural design and the computational design lead to a new production and fabrication process. are ways that allow for a gradual understanding of reality.and time. The paradigms of interaction in music are built through the development of musical models whose relevance in real time is translated in a spatial sound effect. the author finds it difficult to establish a real time relationship. and the traditional instrument cannot be attached to a principle of causality. but into an actor of the project. questioning the principles of industrial repetition. but also in the way in which digital language exploits mathematical models as way of avoiding the intentional and predictable act. Transcribing the distortions of the materials. The concept of mimesis in the digital context cannot be clarified outside of the current digital utopias and. The new way of reading the information. an act which implies reflection. the author notes that the fictive space built by these new technologies. Thus. That is the reason why the interaction that can be established between the composer/interpreter. the computer. The text of Sophie Fetro. The author shows that if digital imagination was built around the notion of simulating reality. The introduction of a sequence in real-time opposes de facto the act of creation. the use of these technologies leads to the hierarchization of the image. Surrealistic inspiration finds its expression not only in the attempt to go beyond reality. transforms the code not only into a new way of representation. If the mediation and the tasks imposed by architectural competitions invite the use of digital visualization techniques. undoubtedly leads to a new utopian era. and the other having an impact on the human-machine relationship.
He points out the concept of virtual heritage the digital reconstruction of patrimonial projects. The question the author is trying to answer is how to define some viable forms of experimentation that could function in the current conditions of economic and technologic austerity in Romania. the authors try to define a theoretical framework for analyzing the current media art production. by making a parallel between the historiography of the concept of space and the models of contemporary artistic practice. the experiments in industrial architecture and the impressive participation in international contests. transforms the current architecture into a computational performance art. Even though there werent any outstanding acts. and classifies the possible forms of refuge of the architect facing the political power. arts. and ideas. 10 . Augustin Ioans text about the experiment in Romanian architecture puts into question precisely the lack of such preoccupation after 1989. Most often technical development is assimilated into a modern perspective that builds itself around the notion of progress. the text deconstructs the politico-economic socialist context and its heritage. via the new forms of cultural production and consumption. The declared purpose of this archaeological investigation is to determine the type of relationships produced by the information and communication technologies today as they relate to space.of reality. Polemicly. well as drawing attention to crisis housing and sustainable architecture as relevant solutions. the neo-primitive investigations. The author is mapping the reasons why the notion of habitation does not find its expression in todays projects and innovations. Last but not least. while arguing that this situation does not exclude the research. and takes as starting point an incursion in the history of notions and concepts of space as they had been defined over time. The hyper-reality of the digital era. were ways in which the Romanian architects have tried to detached themselves from the conformism imposed by the communist state. The interaction between the artistic representation and the theoretical and the scientific ways of understanding the world has often been debated in the histories of science. Gemma San Cornelio and Pau Alsinas text Spaces of Flows: Processes and Places in Spatial Media Artworks discusses the question of spatial media in the contemporary arts.
The digitization of collections and archives. a performance. Heike Helferts text brings to attention the archiving and restoration project 40yearsvideoart. the digitization of collections poses a series of questions of technical. and to take advantage of the new reproduction and documentation tools available in order to save a recording of a perishable artistic intervention. anarchive is a collection of CD-ROMs. a video recording. In the present text are offered details about how the TK DVD. for example. and studying of material culture. the Google virtual library and the opposition of the French National Library). the museum is probably the most vivid modern expression of collecting.de. or an intervention in public space. The different ways of accessing the data and the relationship between the different parts of the digital archive.Three of the texts presented here are discussing problems related to digital archiving. The three texts published here present three different approaches regarding the collection and digitization of archives. The objective of the collection is to offer an instrument of historical and critical research for work of an artist. Presenting projects of different complexity. the texts describe three ways of capturing and presenting the artistic message as it is transferred from the analogue to the digital format. juridical. dedicated to the French artist Thierry Kuntzel. the research of pertinent ways of displaying them in a digital context is the subject of a diverse series of projects. Besides developing a critical method 11 . classifying. recording. presenting. was realized. and aesthetic nature. some of them highly debated (see. DVDs and internet projects lead by Anne-Marie Duguet that explore the complete work of an artist based on different archives of his/hers activity. If collecting and archiving are processes that can be subject of research onto themselves. The originality of the project consists in inviting the artists to select the elements to be included in the data base. and offering them the opportunity to think of an original way to structure and navigate the data. In the lineage of the medieval cabinets of curiosities. such as an installation. make of the TK DVD a work in itself. The project tried to offer an overview of the different tendencies and modalities of expression in German video art beginning with 1963 until today. intellectual.
and its perception. Mediarc is a technical project that looks to offer answers for the preservation of a variety documents by offering easily accessible and efficient solutions. The present book has attempted to present various layers of theoretical research on new media. which allows data entry into a database by accessing different peripherals: scanner. 12 . as well as. to offer reliable technical solutions and system stability. the publication offers possible answers to the way in which image and sound are affected by the digital technologies of today. The relationship established between the original work and its digital versions. and the shortage of hardware devices that allow the reading and processing of the video material. the complexities involved in the organization of a database or an archive. Based on diverse artistic and aesthetic experiences. Movements like open source tried to tackle the issue of free access by proposing different sets of interventions. a special effort was made to digitally collect. requires its restoration and transfer from the magnetic support to digital format. can raise preservation concerns. are not details to be neglected. video camera. the project tried to respond to the safety and security needs of a database. Even if it may seem strange that a relatively young medium. as the video. As Peter Tomaz Dobrila and Uro Indihar state. and archive the works included in the collection. This collection of texts is organized around different types of imagery and sound. its spatial representation. and the attempt to preserve the authentic experience of the work. One of most significant issues in the process of digitization is the concept of free software. But this transfer is not only technically problematic. the degradation of the magnetic support. spatial forms and forms of memory to be found in the current digital context.for the analysis and interpretation of the works. digital camera. and to have a friendly user interface. MEDIARC Open Source Multiuser Central Archiving System: Web Application for the Electronic Management of Documents and Other Files. restore. tries to put into practice an open source system for on-line archiving. and to highlight a few points of view and possible ways of approaching it. The volume approaches the ways in which new technologies have influenced the artistic production. its organization.
to the authors of the texts. also to Augustin Ioan. to the participants at the conference. Ancuþa Ionescu. and to the translators: Barbara Bartos. (Text translated from Romanian by Barbara Bartos) 13 .Thanks to all those who contributed to the materialization of this project. the coordinator of the Imagined Spaces collection and to Eugenia Petre from Paideia Publishing House who made possible the publication of this volume. Thanks. Patricia Comãnescu. Simona Klodnischi.
Which visibility? What kind of visibility? Where does novelty lie here. turning from latent into manifest and evident actuality? Is this about a slow evolution that could have been avoided. Should therefore the novelty. become sweepingly generalized. we perceive? Otherwise said. the old field of visibility? In an implicit wording again is this all about an evolution that has finally reached the threshold. with irreparable consequences? And if this is where the novelty lies. the final break-up.. gone over a threshold. thus inducing a broad reorganization of the entire field. a drift for the prompting of which we feel guilty. Types of Imagery and Sound and Their Interaction IMPERCEPTIBLE.. the term of comparison. lie in the fact that the contemporary world visibility has passed beyond. what reference should we use in the attempt to define the novelty we feel. that it has undergone a qualitative shift and turned into a field? Has it. the innovation. HYPERCEPTIBLE: THE NEW HODOLOGICAL CONDITION Bogdan Ghiu Which visibility? How many visibilities ? Art in the new field of visibility.CHAPTER I. as my thread would suggest. but that proves to have been inexorable and that has now finally 15 . which should be the benchmark. what does it actually consist of? And what does the new field specifically the new field of visibility mean? My amazement and hence my questions are not at all preliminary and not in the least rhetorical.
impossible to live subjectively. between these two attitudes. dualist perspective on history: a new impersonation of history. A qualitative leap rendered possible by a quantitative accumulation. spectrally walking it along full of remorse. I think. a new visibility and 16 . corrected. We are living in a society of uncontrolled and incontrollable control. the hodos between two fixed points. these well-controlled control spaces have now escaped our control. abettingly-valued generalization of visibility. dissociation. impossible to draw. we say exposure. alternate speech: we celebrate the democratic transparency and visibility. the mainstream our historic moralized conscience remains to haunt from now on. The novelty. thus changing it radically: we live in a new field because this field was conquered by visibility. I consider that visibility fields were also in place so far. The incontrollable is in fact exactly this purely ideal line. a path. public non-concealment and at the same time deplore their historical victory. However. between the triumph of the Lights and its consequences. There exists. Three far too expedite concepts Novelty does not only consist of this two-sided. a line of psychic scission hard.come off victorious? Its something like that that we actually conceive modernity: as a process concomitantly fatal and that could yet have been avoided. Well. thus seems to be defined by the coextensivity of visibility with the field. the shift. leading to the generalization of visibility and thus to an incontrollable generalization of control. according to our presupposition. well delimited and controlled: the visibility fields of the past were controlled control spaces. In the political discourse and generally. denudation. Visibility thus seems to have become a field. Hence. An objective process. accompanying it. as a deviation from the straight triumphal way that proves itself to have been the royal path. deceitful. both visibility and transparency are bestowed with an ambiguous. adjusted. intrusion. When today we say visibility. but they were insular. to have grown coextensive with the entire mundane field. in the public contemporary discourse. division. we say transparency.
not the field-like generalization of the old visibility . where humaneness ceases to be defended. is quite in vogue. In our critical applications. Power to the people: trans-visibilty and senselessness In a direct. double-sided criticism. their broad serviceability tricks us and the hasty critical gestures that derive from the uncritical utilization of these concepts lead to an ambiguous. hasty use the three concepts do not describe innovation. As a matter of fact. but is expeditely . where the delineation between celebration and denunciation triumphantly displays its impossibility. Spaces where life is being laid bare are totalitarian spaces. Coupling the concept of bare life proposed by Giorgio Agamben with the concept of panopticism and that of biopolitics. of juridical exceptionalism. Yet. protected and is made available for monstrous experiments. clarified by its correlation with the concept of bare life.translated. the ruling powers production of non-rule-of-law spaces. outside the reach of justice. The also Foucauldian concept of biopolitics still preserves a certain aura of indeterminacy. but the old: 17 . immediate. of exception-to-law spaces. The uncritical fashion of the immediately-critical employment of Foucaults concept of panopticism spares me any description. of the rule-of-law. confined and excluded at the same time: confinement outside the society.is the source of the novelty of the new field of visibility. Artistic thought. But in this case we are faced with a non-critical takeover of immediately and hastily serviceable critical instruments of sensibly different lines of critical thought. for an overproduction of power. the novelty about the new field of visibility. the exposure of humaneness. we live in the evidence of these three concepts. uses them increasingly often and with ever growing success. Giorgio Agambens bare life describes the denudation.exactly this . as Michel Foucault has designed and mapped them. particularly.and hence with equally hasty lack of criticism . sometimes right through their instrumentality.
un-recognizable and irreducible type of visibility. The major contemporary shift as regards visibility is the appearance. it defined itself in space and as well-delimited space it materialized as an architecture of power. therefore exactly the exception situations of contemporary normality. constraint. Yet the difference against the past is that it no longer isolates itself. Static power is permanently under the threat of opposition. Contemporary power itself has been subjected to a qualitative shift: its steady.or macro-totalitarian correlation with space. Its exactly the image that they are no longer related to. time is all the time past. Today. The new transparency. is no longer of interest for power production: it was yielded to society. is no longer pertinent to contemporary production of (over)power. state operating mode is all the time that of a supra-power. Architectonics. new visibility. producing 18 . The old panopticist visibility bred offspring.totalitarian political conditions. are no longer mimetic-representational. it no longer counts for the power. Post-neo-panopticism is no longer interested in images. by annulling it: time is transcended. mimetically-recognizable images of humaneness. material. The dispute over mans image. It shifted to the dimension of time. screens. micro. It now performs a permanent-automatic scanning of humaneness. the image of bare life no longer matters. exactly due to its new condition of flow. where arts and media are claiming it in a fratricidal dispute. limitation. Modern-traditional panopticism was cutting out and defined spaces. I mean they disappear as pertinence to the production of power: they were yielded to the society that continues to believe that the stake is there. spaces. the old architecturalization of power is doubled by the converse dis-architecturalization of power. The image of man was dismissed. the architectural layout itself disappears. Post-neo-panopticism no longer produces representational. generalization and standardization of a fundamentally new. materiality. The image of man. that this is the target. that it no longer gets piled up or stored. counteroffensive. proliferation. but flows: supra-power in continuous flow. over the images about man has become a society game. The current production of power forsakes its panopticist.
the consensual stake of the social game between arts and media. un-noticeable. Its this scientific-economic transparent-rendering and visualization of man down to the human pattern that a reorganization of rule-of-law regimes derives from. un-recognizable. biopolitics effectively. at that level of humaneness that the manipulation of man takes place today. It is there. literally apply. the invisible or trans-visible visibility. They become. or the modern-type normalization defines today the locked. explicitly legal regime. irrepresentable. the production of non-visual. whereas the new visibility. I repeat it. attack. they have surpassed their historic literal stage and constitute the new regime of contemporary normality. as people. The historic regimes of visibility and power do not replace each other. But the phenomena described by these three concepts have themselves evolved. but add up and redistribute: the old normalization. affect the economic scientism power production currently builds on the adjusted. punitive. we are free also enter the artistic-media dispute over the images of ourselves because the shape man or the level of pertinence of what we call man were made available. We face a radicalization of the bare life phenomenon. 19 .abstract. Life denudation has transcended man. And this is imperceptible. the new visibility and new transparency: it scans man stripping him in continuous flow down to what is called human or . no longer can touch. Under conditions of accelerated speed. of situations of juridical exceptionality.more correctly the infra-human pattern: sets of pertinent information. automated production of supra-power in a continuous steady mode. actually its coming into full effect. panopticism. arts. defines today this specific locked regime. The old panopticism we rush to denounce and represent in our critical celerity. of light speed of the flow. To man. humaneness is un-recognizable and irrepresentable. purely idealized information records in a continuous flow. Power no longer needs images. the space of exception. extra-visual images of humaneness define the new normality. in their fight for image with media. yielded back to civil society. As men. the space of explicit punishment. Only here do concepts like bare life.
his representations. current existence of subject-patient whose permanent normal-clinical condition is that of being connected to life-support machines. of residual humanity. but by de-figuring him. And it is exactly for this reason that even when we voice criticism. Power emerges and is preserved today not by des-figuring man. We did not become. jubilantly to this reduction not only in the spaces especially intended for this purpose of the old panopticist power production. effecting. the new visibility goes through us. no longer needs man and his images. Become? It would be more exact for me to say got free. Power production. exploited subject-object is the great anti-hero of modernity. a conceded triumph. Well. let to go. The political revolution of modernity has grown automated. that all globalisations and worldwide-expanding processes take place. but remained free: the voluntarist finalism of modernity is manifest today in the form of a deliverance. the reference of bulky bargaining and prophetic-apocalyptical imprecations of modernity. underneath. but also through his normal. accomplishment. pertinent only as a human resource And in this capacity. But today. miniaturized and undergoes a ceaseless decline by a double and 20 . Its down there. They are both reversible schemes of production. I believe that today we have really become free. By both the concept of bare life and that of panopticism. The submissive. Man is today important in the form of humaneness that stretches underneath. target and support of power. extorted. object. Humaneness is dissociated from man by the latters reduction to resource. We are free exactly to the extent whereby we were delivered. the schemes of communication are identical with those of the power schemes. we actually celebrate: a granted victory. of barren-panoptic existence. its communication-production-effecting scheme. dismissed from the great krato-dicy of alienation. modern man was celebrating himself as conspicuous victim. Man is important. continuous. he renders himself happily.(Artistic) dis-figuring and de-figuration: ultra-human man (technological) As types of scientific formalization.
wears technology (the technological suit). commodity. He territorializes the 21 . The equipped man: equi-pathy and the society of departure Man. rationalizing itself through merger. he is moving all the time: he dwells inside the flow. fellow-people etc. Contemporary man carries technology. He is a man occupied by technology. the current individual (shall we call him modern? Shall we call him post-modern? Maybe call him hyper. plane. his ears walled off by loudspeakers. He evaded. the individual as such. transforming precisely the society into a field: somatizing and idealizing itself. transforming himself into the screen and relay for social market messages. a contact and recording toggle-switch decision surface. his eyes escaping through the walls of rolling images. advertisement. naturalizing it: instead of the organless body. train. the body with increasingly more organs and accessories. carries the TV set with him. that progressively loses its own body and which we now confer more and more bodiness to. portable computer. He no longer needs to sedentarily shut himself in the house in front of the TV or the PC. resorbing. is part of it. MP3-player on his ears. He shut himself in the Heideggerian open he has so long yearned for. an ever better equipped man. pretending that we could still give him a name?) is an equipped. one with it. just like Aristotles metaphysical intellect in his treaty De anima. individual and crowd) flows and the inner flow of each of us. he is the flow itself. this increasingly becomes a part of his mandatory corporal equipment and is underway towards somatization: the current individual embeds technology in his body. Yet he thriftily. through osmosis with technology. territorially manages his flow. the entity individual is no more than an interface. abstracting and idealizing itself. he circulates.contradictory process that frames the entire social field. an equipped man: mobile phone. an activation surface. hiding.or ultramodern? Or call him otherwise. automobile. media. Between the outer (financial.
Also in old French. we get equipped to leave. We set off equipped. or senses.much-frowned upon de-territorialization which thus becomes a false deliverance. the coming: send. We set off in the flow. into the equipment of each separate individual. the society have turned from community. because he leads an equipped existence: the others.inclusively with all the others. living. current man can also be considered as equi-path. He runs away. its departure itself that counts: technologically we set off unmoving. in an immobile nomadism. work.. However. metaphora means until today transposition). setting off for adventure. to navigate. family. the pathology of equivalence and equipotency. we permanently. équipée meant embarkation. (Love.to leave. incessantly leave without arriving. as human technology. to seclude himself as swiftly as possible (thats what speed serves him for) on the move. start. We actually live in departing. he unceasingly evades just to shut. So. as structurally afflicted with equi-pathy and manifesting equi-pathologies: the pathology of mass individualism. in what sense. our fellow people serving as equipment. we are the flow: existence in /as adventure. is departure: a literally built metaphor (a word of Greek extraction. without preoccupying ourselves with the arrival. as I said. In current society departure 22 . but in the later form eschiper it meant something close to what we understand today by escapade and through escapism (eschipre meaning seaman). he carries purportedly communicational equipment.) 3) If we were to play (just a little) with words. Hence. we equip ourselves in all the senses of the word. We get equipped . as social suit . Technology as such. Derived from an ancient Anglo-Saxon word (scipian) and another just as old Norwegian one (skipa). man as collective equipment of man. the seamanship term équipe (documented for the first time in 1160) meant in old French to get aboard. couple. 2) Because he operates inside an equipage. can we speak about the current individual as about an equipped man? 1) Because. human environment etc.
he is exactly in the condition opposite to that described by the concept of plasticity initiated by Catherine Malabou1 (subject to recent. teleological feature. We live in a society of departure. that works with images and which media and arts dispute each other. between these two visibilities: the old one. and the new transparency-visibility. Happy biometry: living in-visibility Between the old transparency-visibility that still builts on image. Between brackets said. man is today squeezed in as between two lenses. and a new one. the trajectory. and which is the really important level for a critical analysis. Man has become that Dead Part or Dead Zone between the central tower and the circular peripheral wall of Benthams Panopticum. he is rather a medium. relay and channel between these two visibility modes.today attentively circumscribed visible regime of visibility). incipient discussions). interleaved. of the residual deliverance of humanity accompanied by its images. captivating. where man has become human resource. by its dissociation into human resources as an informational-technological portrait pertinent to the new economy of power production. scanning him down to the human pattern. Between dis-figuring that operates with images. that defines lifes normality itself in our societies. and de-figuring that goes beyond the images in a kind of a live 23 . and another one that transcends man. in ever homogenously equipped equipment-cities and societies: an equipment-humanity. two screens. messaging ourselves into the settings of the others.was uncoupled from arrival. between the old transparency-visibility that operated with images of man art was having access to. that of man scanned through in continuous flow down to the human pattern. the existential track were stripped off their initiatory. Contemporary man is interleaved between two visibilities: a conceded one. defining todays exceptional situations and punitive spaces. and the new transparency-visibility where man has turned from the condition of emitter-producer and receptor-addressee-beneficiary of power-information (as he was in the old . through man.
no longer counts as a game and social convention.television broadcast of pertinent data and information at the speed that causes the production of power and supra-power. The technological continuum. man has become a medium framed by the technological continuum. rigidly interleaved between omni-visibility and trans-visibility. under these circumstances. We actually live increasingly dangerous: soldier-men.be it even multiply disfigured . art do? What can art still do when image-built reality. media technology has exploited the perception deficiencies of human senses. the natural difficulty of establishing a useful perception. through the bio-metering of existence. action in flow. pilot-individuals. define the new human-biometric condition of man. The biométrisable (in French) existence becomes an increasingly bio-maîtrisable existence. A good perception hinders the occurrence of accidents.becomes progressively hard to accomplish.that arts do and can fight with . says Simondon. undermined through human.and the hyperceptible produced by contemporary connectivity and portability. in extreme conditions. We live between the imperceptible favored by media technologies . when the image . are those machines that facilitate a practical perception of use in conditions of exception. non-separatibility. man sunk in humaneness. in environments where perceptibility already naturally reduced and cumbersome . when de-figurativity competes des-figurability ? 24 . Art as public space: des-figuring versus de-figuring What can. The new visibility is in-visibility: the imperceptible as a frame-condition of hyperceptibility. According to Gilbert Simondons analysis (in his Course about Perception2). Important to man. Dangerous exception environments are those characterized by speed. current. servo-engines permanently mobilized in a true ontology of the enemy3. it belongs to day-to-day life. the ultra-human and ultra-humanized man. But the old hodological condition of exception has today become normal.
becoming identical to images. following its sovereign animal instinct. fluid forms that make reference to each other also by figural way.) Art restores the public space. the devices themselves virtualize. the spacing. interleaved.technology osmosis. pointing to a possible. of man-field. Changeux4). hard to foresee post-technological condition of man: the rebirth of the hand. taking after them: getting increasingly flat. This is where art intervenes or needs to intervene. the existential do-it-yourself. the eye. of reducing man to the condition of medium and relay between human and technology-borne existence. with no technological body. time-forms. flow forms. But now. virtualizing the entire field of reality.It can restore the distance. contemporary art restores the body. At the same time. against the equi-pathy and portable connection. corporality and instrumentality. self-representing themselves: vector forms. restoring and manifesting the synaptic exteriority (according to J. non-corporeal. disappearing vertiginously. Only now does the image become really ideal. ethics versus technological estheticism (forms symbolizing. pointing to and inducing the flow. but unceasingly expands it. the delimitation of the body in the environment against the transformation of humaneness in a field and correlatively remaking serviceability: existential techniques against technology.that does not go beyond the field of virtuality. symbolizing the technologic-economic market processes. virtual technologically produced images still benefited by a technologic body of visible gear that could still draw attention upon their technological artificiality. denouncing the sped-up already accomplished process of merger and osmosis between humaneness and technology. following the trend of their own products and processes. 25 . denouncing the false scientist-naturalized man-environment continuities against the human . that can thus become measurable in bio-technologic standards. compacted. neo-tactility aimed at re-distancing man. But until recently. Art renders handicraft essence. ready to somatize into the ideality of the human imagination. The virtue of virtual images is conferred by their capacity to induce an update in its turn virtual .-P. reconditioning man in the new ultra-humanist field of humaneness.
Paris. dialectique. happy to retrieve itself into a hyper-neo-perception in the new field of visibility. Que faire de notre cerveau?. nationalism a communism of machines and with machines. new osmoses. Paris. It restores the minimal threshold of perceptibility. new alliances are underway. Éditions de la Transparence. the path . produces. panopticism or biopolitics (M. 1996. La plasticité au soir de lécriture. A new humanity emerges: new mergers. becoming usefully invisible. Agamben). gets reabsorbed. 2006. where it actually is the field. 2005. Art in the strict meaning of the word disappears. takes photos. comes down and dwindles. LAvenir de Hegel. art of hyperceptible existence in the imperceptible. Plasticité. (dir. offering itself as a an environment of hyper-perceptibility and trans-visibility of scientific economic coding & recoding: humaneness through man.). art reminds of the urgency of finding a way to restore the level of perceptibility under extreme conditions. You hear this from someone compelled to learn how to stay on the watch for transitions and permanently transform survival techniques into life arts. Gilbert Simondon. (Text translated from Romanian by Simona Klodnischi) References 1. Dialectique. in this authentic communitarianism. and frantically consumes images of itself. Éditions Léo Scheer. and from man. temporalité. Power production was by way of economics returned to civil society and this one. Paris. Plasticité. Catherine Malabou. 26 . 2004. Paris Vrin. Bayard. where the other messages represent the noise. déconstruction. Foucault) need to be applied only to the ultra-human condition of the contemporary man. Éditions Léo Scheer. destruction. re-becoming ars and teckne. actes du colloque du Fresnoy.In the imperceptible frame of hyperceptibility we live in. changes. 2000. Getting back and concluding. 2. I think that concepts like that of bare life (G. Cours sur la Perception (1964-1965).hodos in the adverse mined territory.
Paris. Lhomme neuronal. 228-266. Cf. pp. 4. apud. les membranes cellulaires de la terminaison axonale et de la surface innervée se juxtaposent. mais ne fusionnent pas (p. Le Seuil. 1983. LEmpire cybernetique. Peter Galison. Paris. 414): 27 . 33-38.3. A son niveau. mais aussi entre neurones et dautres catégories cellulaires (cellules musculaires. Fayard. Jean-Pierre Changeux. glandulaires). Céline Lafontaine. The Ontology of the Ennemy: Norbert Wiener and the Cybernetics Vision. pp. no 21. Des machines à penser à la pensée machine. Critical Inquiry. 2004. Synapse: jonction entre neurones.
deconstruction. Being ones of the first to use video and electronic devices with the purpose of producing image and sound artifacts. Their efforts continued and culminated with the creation of the Digital Image Articulator. The logic behind this approach was resumed by Claudine Eizykman and 29 . Tincuþa Heinzel Introduction Woody and Steina Vasulka moved to New York in 1965 and. had to be discovered. Their latest works explore what Woody Vasulka calls media machines and non-centric space. the Vasulkas looked to inventory the possibilities offered by the apparatus. the new material provided by the electronic instruments had to be experimented with. As Woody Vasulka put it in the interview. the Digital Image Articulator was one of the first image synthesizers ever build. they have also discovered a new medium: the video. INTERVIEW WITH WOODY VASULKA. the result was the alteration. a digital image device specifically build to manipulate electronic images in real time with the use of custom software. Their artistic trajectory started with the use of the video camera for recording New Yorks underground art scene. In a certain way they were pioneers. Realized in collaboration with Jeffrey Schier. along with a new environment. Later their interest was directed toward the medium itself and toward the language it proposed. and reconstruction of the electronic data.VIDEO BETWEEN UTOPIA AND HISTORY.
the creative process represents a dialogue with the machine. and to reveal a possible poetic of technology. moral aspects are detached from the technological phenomenon. From a technophobes point of view. If todays technology seems to minimize authors role. If reality was as it was. Considering the impact that technology has today. video offered all the possibilities of an unexplored field. As Marco Maria Gazzano stated. it is not surprising that the positions took by different people are so diverse.2 As observers of machines capacities. this approach proves to be a highly subjective way of artistic expression. the reality of the apparatus promised freedom from the constraints of the established narrative format. as it was understood up to that point. fact that leads 30 . Wanting or not. Woody Vasulkas merit is that of succeeding. to manipulate in order to invent.Guy Fihman in the formula: to understand in order to manipulate. to invent in order to understand. but the receptors of its capacities. the artists are asked to provide the conditions which allow it to manifest itself. to a technophiles point of view. we find ourselves in the middle of the technology conundrum. from the very beginning. seen from the perspective of the film camera. the palette is quite wide. The purpose was to escape the principles of the narrative. Being an exponent of cinematic arts. Far from being dehumanizing. In most of cases. it also seems to hold back people: use technology to free people. Technophobia is generally skeptic of any artifice and manifests its support for the natural order. to transcript the source video code by inventorying the vocabulary of the electronic image and by mapping its syntax. video was in the direct lineage of film. at a certain point. the latter remarked the fact that the Romantic idea of the author is highly present in Woody Vasulkas discourse. Vasulka would approach the issue of the narrative structure. for the artists Steina and Woody Vasulka. not to enslave them Woody Vasulka said in the interview. it was probably unavoidable that.1 If photography and film were subservient to the dominant eye of the film camera. In a discussion with Peter Weibel in July 1987. in which they are not only masters of an instrument. Considering his preoccupations with the fundamentals of language.
and in fact. they argue for a cultural integration of technology. and cultural fields. while innovation deals with the 31 . In The Forms of Existence of Technical Objects. One of the values of the technological object can be measured in its utility. It could be said that the principle of innovation involves the harmonization of the technological with the social. Thus. as it happens in Gilbert Simondons case. the technological culture must build itself on the basis of critical inquiry. Born out of artifice. we need to discus the invention. one of the central keys to understanding the technological phenomenon is its own technical character. avoiding any critical approach. that is. economic. As defined by Gilbert Simondon. Perhaps. Woody Vasulka position seems to define itself: it is about the cultural integration of technology. but. or political fields. Even so. This quality was defined by Jean-Pierre Seris4 as innovation. The technical character of an object cannot be separated from the evolution of technology. the technological object is the result of the technologic inertia. Gilbert Simondon defined the technical character of an object as the quality that it allows it to be compatible with other elements inside the technological field. From this point of view. education playing a central role in this sense. It has been argued against such an attitude by pointing out its simplistic view and the rather poor way in which it defines technology. is the instrument of this evolution.to a constant appeal to the traditional and symbolic culture3. From a totally different perspective. it not objectified. On the other hand. in the same way as technology itself cannot be objectified. but in the same time. the technophiles not only advocate for a constant co-existence of the human-machine relationship. economic. in its capacity to be compatible with the technological and cultural fields simultaneously. the technologic character of an object is given by its ability to be grounded both in the technologic field as well as in the social. what could probably be criticized is precisely their initial claim: the presupposition that there is a scientific solution for any kind of problem thus. A technological invention clarifies a principle.
What interests me . Interview with Woody Vasulka ZKM...development and practical application of this principle. 32 . the questions are always more difficult than the answers. only this takes place with a critical eye on the act of innovation. aims to clarify a technological principle. Tincuþa Heinzel: I had the chance to assist at one of your conferences held last year at Paris 1 University.and this would be my first question . Woody Vasulka: I suppose you are asking me the perfect question. I would like to know how you define your approach to art and technology. September 8. like the one published by Cinedoc in Paris. TH: Yes. Germany. are all elements that define invention. Karlsruhe. readjusting the functional system itself.is the way you generally relate to technology. Though they are art objects of critical questioning. in other words. We can state that Vasulka is a pioneer of video art and that his work relates to the aspects of invention. revealing its capacities. Woody Vasulkas works dont show any interest in harmonizing with the rules of the social. and I also saw some of your catalogues. by this leading to the reassessment of the system. Any pioneering activity that highlights the characteristics of the technological process itself. Theyve raised some questions for me. Describing the code of the machine. The tension that dominates Woody Vasulkas work is that between invention and innovation. and I would like to use this opportunity to find out some of the answers. in fact. with the constitutive elements of culture. How to innovate? Isnt this. I know. What the poetics of the machine reveals in Vasulkas work is the raw character of the machine itself.. so I will give you the perfect answer. the central question of modernity? The following interview took place in September 2005 at ZKM. 2005. political. and economical systems..
The format is somehow an interface between the human experience and the forms of abstraction. The colors and other various components of the image were transferred then into the 33 .which suddenly found themselves resetted by new instruments and new ways of organizing sound.and I am referring here to music composition and its elements. With the electronically generated sound structures we do not look anymore outside into the acoustic space. The electronic sound offered the first kind of understanding of a different organization of sound. So this kind of unity of the instrument. and rhythm . involved in experimenting with the format. namely the musical instruments. When you can develop. And the resulted discourse marked a different force within a different world. or by musical instruments. this new material has also been adopted by the visual world. And this was probably the most interesting thing: this inquiry into how the music or the sound environment can be made without involving the reality of the objects that have vibrating surfaces. like harmony.) musical instruments. or in other normal. And the electronic equipment started to organize the sound based on the internal functioning of the apparatus. Immediately before us was the film. The sound produced by voice. and the code is not simply a score. this new way. photography and music. at this stage in the Sixties. And the filmmakers were already. Outside is the acoustic space that you need to record or to hear. then you can understand the difference. but we are looking inside the electronic instruments. and produce sounds directly from code.WV: And you wouldnt come all the way here if you didnt know the question. analogue way was confronted by the sound produced by the electronic equipment. OK. pitch. but by code. but if you do it internally than you can produce those sounds within the apparatus. After a series of experiences in film. the idea of the art material imposed itself. And this was basically the first critique of the analogue world. which was of course combined with the existence of digital instruments digital instruments that are not operational could not be operated by the direct influence of the hand or (traditional t. n. organize. There was a curiosity to explore this other world. It was about a world that existed for centuries. that developed itself like a coding system . whether they are narratives or visual.
TH: And do you feel that in fact. long period of time. And we were citizens who could play with the fire of gods. the digital and the electronic media have allowed a change in the material source of art? WV: One reason for that is curiosity. and tearing them apart. in fact. and Steinas work. activated by a sort of dependency on each others energy and time potential.but all these components begin then to be constructed internally inside the instrument. it was a sort of professional technological cast . So it was also a political statement. But this idea of the material being defined. And thats how we got our world to open.like the priests . through the lens . when everything underwent a transfer from the hands of the industry to the citizens. became the critique of the previous camera obscura. where they were no more exclusively recorded through a camera. this idea was expanded. and practicing them. and then the system being treated as behavior. These are. It was in a way some kind of a coup. 34 .like musicians play . so to speak. This transition is the reason for my work. as well. or evolution. or whatever.we played with audio-visual electronic instruments for a long. Later. And we really played . or visible through the analogue world of the speakers and monitors. which was then translated. because you have to know the secrets of the world. Of course. It is a kind of eurhythmics.which is a sort of how the human eyes look at this world . This separation between the world in which we grew up and the world that contained new instruments.therefore in order to understand the technology they kept it separated from society. it became in the end a practice. of course. so that audio and video became mutually interactive. new materials. Before. Just remember that we grew up in the Sixties. It was this entire electronic world which led to the conceptualization of the material. the principles of digital instruments. that also made the separation between the traditional world and the new world. and new codes was important to us. certainly. being somehow described. We can say that we came from parallel experiences and a few years later we took different directions in our work. or made audible. that somehow has a certain development. and.organizing electronic instruments. when these rules of engagement were about taking over the secrets of the industrial society.
Now. sounds. as well as the cultural and the political context. That was the reality of the Sixties. And there was also a technological change. It was a whole generational movement. We came immediately like owners. knowing also that later you return to it.had an important role in this matter. And they instituted. It was not only a pictorial reality. It was a sort of separation from Hollywood and the established market which were corrupted. 35 . And there were many economic.a symbol. From their perspective. art is a sort of narration of the society.as a static image for being limiting elements required to produce narration. and performances. and there were many reasons for that: there was still war in Vietnam. but it was far away from the instrumentation of the current way of producing images. or we all instituted. And then they became sort of independent. and so on. taking over this generation of devices. My generation and the whole 20th Century were profoundly convinced that this was a form of reality. and still is such an owner. And the narration. socio-politic.Suddenly the dominant role of the camera couldnt be denied. or a cliché. being either melodramatic or analytic. but it was also a symbol since it was a moving image . for example. Our generation was. this kind of movement. of the story. I am quite interested how you relate to narration. So the new instruments contained all the old media that existed before. and aesthetic reasons that made these things happen. which made that the components became smaller and cheaper. you really accuse somehow the cinema and the photogram . In one of your catalogues. when you are speaking about the nature of the film. of the narration. It wasnt really a programmatic movement. Jimmy Hendrix was still alive. and the dominant role of the microphone couldnt be denied either. But there are also some art theories which relate the very concept of art to that of narration. It concerns the relationship between the material and the social condition of art. in the States there was the Civil Rights movement. tried in a way to criticize the world we were looking at. TH: There is a question that comes to my mind listening to what you said. You take a somewhat critical attitude against towards narration.to present the world as it is . There was a new generation of designers. Is this another topic in your work? WV: The first idea about the camera obscura . But this was still the dominant way we looked at the new material. or of the history.
my generation tried to answer. had no assignment. and there is a vocabulary that could be used and re-contextualized in order to remake a content. was not specified. But these questions were already asked by some independent filmmakers. What I tried to do.I dont know if you know his films. It becomes a kind of pure. These authors questioned the new narrative or abstract narrative. one that can be achieved by colored fields. in the Seventies. It was a sort of minimalist ideology still carrying on the very unambiguous narrative content. It was very much undefined. because they were just designed for people to look at and say if such an attempt is possible or 36 .one that was not reflected through peoples feelings that love each other or kill each other. such as Paul Sharits . So I made two long pieces: Art of Memory and The Commission. or of the narrative system. But I found out that they had completely failed. There is a language that is made by electronic means. It was about a different domain . a mood that conveys a possible reflection upon the world. What does this mean? Nobody really knew. or that of reality. There was no definition and no tradition to be used. And this image was independent. And what had to be figured out was the reason for that change: what made this change possible and how to employ these basic primitive elements to structure something different from the world that we knew? Later in my life. I think. ethical indifference because the machine at that time was not employed by any kind of ideology or instrumentalist ideology . or with a minimum of elements. or of gender. So.I was looking for a different image.like television. to create a new narrative. We were looking for a change in the state of our mind. which raised these questions. I attempted to question these artifacts that I could find in the electronic world and to question how these artifacts could actually be used. or of social reality. But they werent really made to succeed. It was no longer the image of the world. was to identify a different image that came from a different world. And thats why I made these two works. it was a certain period of freedom while working with this material (the video). All this was the very change of the image. they were conceived to question if this narrative possibility exists. So these were the questions that.
recent history. I always tried. I dont know if a discussion about the collection has its place here.but a kind of media constructions. like Art of the Memory.a sort of rewarding direction for this new material? But there was also this curiosity about what it does. and video and computer media have widely spread genres.you know . I understand that you are working now on archiving and digitizing some video (VHS)5 works. primitive. you know. What is the code that could set a new effort. Because this material taught me a lot. Its a broad arena. But its not even possible to finish it because there is too much data. I am looking at it historically and Im trying to see what has been developed.not. With this project Im looking to build a repertory of all these works. what was accomplished. Im not looking for an overview. all my life. so to speak. WV: Thats right! Im looking back and Im trying to see what happened. and if this experience is valid. which are outside of the trends. That means I didnt create them to succeed. Many people thought Id gave too many clues. we can see documentaries or abstract films. because right after that and Im referring now to the Eighties . And this is still the question TH: Speaking of transferring. or how we could form it. it has to be passed on. But that was rather unusual in my work. Yet one of them succeeded somehow. Anyway.I got turned on to robotics. but to question these things. a 20th Century which was a sadistic system of wars . to see which works are related. and how could it be learned. I am referring specifically to the Oasis project. in .especially the Second World War and this system was a sort of instrument for the development of this narrative. They are very broad: we can see works that tell a story. simplest code could be. I see a lot of unfinished works. A lot of them! And Im thinking of what that means. So I would like to narrate a sort of paradigm. what the most basic. and what it supports. And there is also the problem of the collective approach. because its subject was history. not really robotics . still the film dealt with the 20th Century. to look for what the code is. the only paradigm in my work that interests me.like human robots . So I try to establish a history of styles. And this is another question. Im going to get through it and 37 .
art is completely powerless in the current world configuration. Scientific research has to deal with more or less successful experiments. science is well funded. but scientists experiment in order to crown their success. It is not an independent activity. in some strange way. while the aesthetic experiment doesnt really have any options. another problem I have with science is that it takes place in a different environment. 38 . and this narrows down its options.like it was when it used to work for the church when the artists were called to depict the heavens in such a way as to attract as many people as possible and to keep them believing in the promise of the eternal life. Art has been marginalized. Also. they make atomic weapons. Especially today. is usually done outside of the institutional realm. The aesthetic experiment has to deal with aesthetic evaluations. because it doesnt produce sufficient returns. I dont think that art works this way. And I consider that somehow. Art cannot make you rich. I will take care of my friends. or whatever else. Art is made to succeed. It is no longer auxiliary to power . On the other hand. it has no meaning. In science. So its like a kind of gong. while artists are never well funded. You were speaking of a paradigm WV: What is a research? A research is an attempt to understand the way the world works. Art. Scientists can change the world. Maybe not quite the same value. with approvals and norms. a failed experiment has the same value as a successful one. like obsessions. they are looking for solutions to produce more energy. Its not true research. Art does not hold that Ace card anymore. and that is limiting. with the opinions of one or the other. driven by desire. Actually its more like certain passions.Ill do what I can. art has much more limits. some of them have passed away by now. cannot improve your living conditions. TH: You have described your work like some kind of research. We cannot fund art enough. the best art I know. your approach is similar to a scientific research. If art produces non-art. So. Its usually done in a governmental or institutional environment and by that is often subject to institutional changes.
This is almost evident. after centuries of questions. a transcendental power. I could be totally wrong.to be priced from $20 or $12 to $30 million.. there is a community of artists that knows how the system works. that they work together. The link between art and science is made through technology. Sometimes you give the impression that your work follows the same directions as the scientific research. There is not evidence of such a practice. I think your answer is very much related to the contextual or sociological aspect of the work. But if you consider all the scientific theories. And how it does it. But it does work. with a group of artists and scientists in a laboratory in Santa Fe. Still. Let me define it in a different way. Most collaboration initiatives between art and science actually come from science. perhaps six or eight years ago. sometimes! And this is the very provocative power of art. All this happens behind their back. because in order to exist. TH: I am quite surprised by your answer since your artistic interests are so tightly related to the video material. We had an experience. of making a little daily object . 39 . works documented throughout the centuries. There are paintings that go way back to the prehistory. But thats just my opinion. Of course artists are like crazy people. Maybe the only thing common between art and science is indirectly. WV: You see. usually the artists have long since passed away or they arent part of the transaction anymore. Its impossible. somehow. only a few survive. it is still a transcendental mystery.like a canvas . But Im not aware of these situations. scientists have always fought to prove the fact that their work is as creative as that of the artists. Maybe science and technology have a lot in common. The questions raised by the artistic creation have always provoked extreme behaviors. and that these people like each other. that they develop magnificent art. science needs an everlasting project. I will never doubt that.. But of course. that this relationship is real. It all ended in a complete disaster. Maybe it is possible to combine art and science. though technology. But art has an unshakable past.Of course art has a certain power. I think this is just a theory. but then. and where each artist appreciates the work for the other. Other people could support the contrary.
And then you take science. But it depends on the angle from which you look at it. Of course we can say that Einsteins theory has held up for a century. Somebody else can convince you that this relationship is true. and which you probably know very well. Art is usually a conglomeration of symbolic. in which we grew up. Then. we can think of the work of scientists as an intense effort to convince their own community of the existence of something. every scientific domain is questionable. which is kind of an old discourse. 40 . What these people lack is the fact that their existence has nothing to do with the market economy. but can you imagine the number of theories that have been forgotten? This has already happened many. All of a sudden. And then there were these promises of the market economy. Were talking about a new aesthetic. of interest in the future? WV: What I see as an important issue in the future is basically what it is called the utopian model. iconic. or whatever other kind of sentences. from your point of view. but this goes on only for a short period of time. and what things will be. but Ive also seen profound differences in their social environment.There are masterpieces. calling itself the Arts and Science Academy. saying that everyone will work and make money. and Ive seen not only profound differences in aesthetic thinking. TH: Which are. and that what counts is the human quality of life. Ive met many scientists and Ive met many artists. This marriage can only be made in heaven. Anyway. there is the promise that through automation we will free the human being from enslavement its 19th Century utopian thinking. even if many scientists deny that. and eventually become rich. a new understanding. And that is irreconcilable. the socialism. My generation has known several of these projects. from your perspective. So I think art and science are not really similar processes. than you see that actually what the poor people of New Orleans are looking for is comfort. And of course. the next steps to be done? What things are important for you. When you look at the latest catastrophe in New Orleans. many times before and its still happening. this is an observation. and even if the French Academy brought them together in the 18th Century. or the communism.
there are the waves of wars that are no longer considered aberrations. and see how far removed the artists concerns are from the official interests. we have to decide what the value of human existence is.So. video was especially politicized from the inside. you realize that these officials arent interested in improving the governmental strategy anymore. non-narrative. Only in Bhutan. It is an aberration! It consists of a war prepared and paid for from the national budget. It is the budget that goes to war. The generation of the Sixties in the United States and everywhere. It is whats lacking in 41 . we were totally involved with every aspect of the social condition. non-figurative. And art is now placed in a no mans land. the future is this unfulfilled promise of the past reconfigured as a vision. Then you have to ask the question why. They are even called preemptive. what counts is the happiness of his people. We. and Im referring here to the concept of preemptive war. the actors of historical movements. which was the latest evolutionary concept. we took advantage of those politics. including that of the video. there is a kind of kingdom there. Then. and these concepts keep coming back into the United States. So I am interested in the story of a generation. Is it to get a job? More and more people are born because there is a need for more slave labor. And eventually. Of course this is nothing new. We were extremely realistic of the politics of the time. But this is an approached that was used in Germany during WWII. my generation and I. like those aiming to eradicate poverty. or whatever old terms might define their abilities. There have been a series of patents. as well. from what Ive heard lately. I think. and what is our existence? Are we here to build a large predatory capitalist system or to oppose it to Marxs old model? I think we live in very strange times. It sounds so strange! But the man was correct. It did not matter the format: be it abstract. If you look around. and they are talking about the Gross National Product being happiness. lets call them of enlightenment. So it is the very existence of a person that is questioned. ability. Or is there any way people can choose to live according to the talent. So. But it contrasts so much with all these promises of evolution. became the actors of a certain style of social movement. suddenly there is a crisis of thought.
I became just an observer. You know. Anyway. So. and not to enslave them. 42 . but about something that supports the values of tolerance and will advance the qualities that in the end do not follow the industrial and political necessities. and then the religion. you cannot think otherwise. Im only an instrument. But I believe it is a deep human crisis: to find out who we are. Im looking at the past and Im trying to imagine what was. Do you have any other questions? TH: No. for the moment these are all my questions. and if they dont help you. thats all I can say. The crisis raises questions like: what is all about in the end. We have this repetition of the past over which none of us has control. Sometime I am tempted by the idea of making art. maybe. If allowed.the art of today. I am not a creative person anymore. are the same thing. there is this democratic process which justifies it. There is a struggle for personal choice. I would like to make a suggestion: use technology to free people. but who. Its about free people who dont want to participate in the way that society forces them to. and what the process that allowed it to be born was. But there is no evidence that such a thing is happening. It is not about liberation. and the evolution of the media was so rapid that we barely could touch on some of these things or describe them in some way. It took us four centuries to get rid of the religious oppression. or areas that have just been neglected. and on top of it. So I am reflexive. and what is the relationship between people and industry? Are we exploited? Should we be exploited? What about the people that cannot be employed. And then there is a certain kind of Islam. forget them. because they dont have the ability to maintain a job. I dont know why. and what we should be. because there are so many unfinished areas. because the time has passed so fast. And looking at the media. could be productive through their aesthetic innocence? These arrangements. WV: Use my answers. and this. what kind of explanations do we get? What is the relationship between government and people. And suddenly in the United States begins its exacerbation again.
Jean-Pierre. Ed. PUF. as well as the radical emancipating position formulated by Tristam Engelhard. probably. Paris.119/2005. Roma. « Technique ». 1995 (catalog). La question de la technique ». p. 5 transcription note 1 43 .« Lintelligence artificielle et la création contemporain en réflexion.13-23. (catalogue) 2 Gazzano Marco Maria « On the Trail of the Fire from the Gods ». Pasquier reviews the position of some philosophers in respect to technology: he recounts Jacque Ellul technophobia and Gilbert Simondon technophila. Media e Nuove Immagini nellarte Contemporanea ». 3 Philippe Pasquier . 154-164. 1969-1984: 15 annees dimages electroniques -â. no.CINEDOC. Ed. 1984. in « Steina e Woody Vasulka Video. In his article.TH: As am I. Ed. Fahrenheit 451. Paris. Cine-MBXA . The residence at ZKM was possible with the support of DAAD German Academic Exchange Service. 4 Séris. WV: We all are. Notes Steina et Woody Vasulka Videastes. 1994. Thanks to Woody Vasulka for the interview. Parachute. pg.
1. The construction of musical instruments. Reflection on several operating structures resulting from the integration of digital technologies in music and sound production. they can be illustrated by the impact and implications of the lutherie of musical instruments on musical compositions based on digital technologies. Paradigms and interaction models. when I was passionately interested in the construction of sound producing instruments. presuppose the meeting. Introduction My fascination with interaction stems from my childhood. vicinity and 45 . As for my research interests of the last ten years.A GNOSSEOLOGICAL APPROACH OF THE CONCEPT OF INTERACTION REAL TIME IN MUSIC SEVERAL PARADIGMS AND MODELS Paulo Ferreira-Lopes Abstract Digital technology and the tools of artistic expression. more specifically those created through digital lutherie. The digital musical instrument: an ontological perspective on the main structures of sound manipulation interfaces and interactions.
whose components are the composition.intersection of several subjects and of different fields of knowledge. As for the specific case of my work. For both the method of accessing the instrument and for the process of sound production. goes beyond the materialization of the instrument. concerning both its macroform and its microstructure. This means that the elements hardware and software which representare the basis of a the computer science-based work and which enable the production of the basic material of musical composition namely the sound . in my work as well as in my mind. Actually. 46 . support and on the back-end side. interaction. Invariably and generally. the degree of complexity of the instrument. determine in the end. This means that the digital environment and the use of digital means in the conception of an instrument. The material specificity of each of these elements naturally and permanently determines not only the dimensions and the characteristics of the instrument. digital technologies and computer science are but a few elements in the chain of creation. the computer science involved. as well as the applications that I intend for them. The individual complexity of each of the parts and components of the musical instrument as well as the complexity according to which each of the parts connect to each other. In this sense. this implies mastering and deepening our knowledge on subjects such as the representation. one should consider that the use of digital technologies generates reflexes and interactions in the field of the musical composition. interface. the relationship between computer science and music is not structured in a hierarchical form. and for the personal application of my research. or of its function controls. these domains represent indirectly the different components and parts that structure a musical instrument.coexist within a chain of multiple interactions. one can discern several domains which coexist and structure the development of my projects. but also the limits of the composition and the outline of the network that leads to its finalization due to the endogenous characteristics of the instruments. Materially speaking. of its sound. the performer and the composer.
the fluctuation between these two variables is conditioned by the type of support used by the communicational phenomenon. It is not unusual for the composer to create his own instruments in accordance with a pre-established ideal which evolves in fragments. with the progression of his lutherie work as his instrument begins to take shape. A gnosseological approach on the concept of interaction In general. on the other hand function as a mirror.In order to support this basic idea. several of the main aspects related to the concept of the musical instrument1. the concept of interaction as defined by the different fields of communication sciences is the result of communication seen. In the case of the new media especially those transmitted or fixed on a digital support . enabling a shallow access to the main outline of musical reality. (pp 162-163) In this respect. 2. the interaction proves to be weak as the communication is unilateral. In the case of traditional media. The musical instrument may become at the same time the object of a composition. as the 47 . by means of reduction or redunndancy.the interaction proves to be strong. either from a conversational or visual point of view (including gestures). are proven to be the essential aspects of the mentioned approaches: • through the study of the connections between the user and the surface structure of the musical instrument: the interface • through analyzing the relationships between the user and the more profound and abstract structures of the musical instrument: the interaction. I quote a paragraph from of my PhD thesis: The musical instrument may be the material motivation of the musical composition. The limits and the challenges of its complexity can direct the contents and the form of a musical composition. The musical instrument can. As for the quantification and the measure of the interaction.
in order to offset some of the opposing reactions to his algorithmic calculation. This concept reveals thus. as compared to the quite closed communication chains in which the information was exchanged and converted by algorithmic calculation previously. their occurrence may be explained by the specificities of the media and of the instruments related to different fields of research. one can mark note. on a macro-dimensional level. modalities and degrees of interaction in the framework of interaction between man and machine. One of the most interesting paradigms tackling the concept of interaction is that of Wegners. McLoughlin: 1988). requiring an extensive flexibility of calculation which must adapt to the reality. The concept of interaction introduced by Wegner evolves to a dynamical principle. as well as. As for computer sciences. However. is based grosso modo on the communicational phenomenon. according to the communication science. as will be discussed we later. Trying to identify the common aspects of the most widespread approaches towards the concept of interaction. If case certain divergences come up regarding the communicational phenomenon. moves away from the simplification based on the communicational principle mentioned earlier. 48 . The concept of interaction. analyzed by Wegner (Wegner: 2001). and especially those influenced by the fundamental thought of symbolical interaction. which proves to be very strong. the concept of interaction. and to connect to the temporal axis. that the mainstream understanding of the general concept of interaction is directed either to a category focusing on the action and the transfers of states which is reached due to the action moving to other possible states (Dance: 1967. (Rafaelli: 1988) In short. or to a category which defines the concept of interaction as a process catalyzing instable states directed towards principle of communication and exchange. I have inferred several taxonomies. by the specificities induced by quantifying the signification of each media. a new principle. according to the participants personality.communication mechanism is theoretically established according to an exchange model.
towards the impact of the human-machine relationship on the concept of interaction. Consequently the concept of interaction. 3. or branches into several fields of knowledge. can lead to solving the problems more efficiently and closer to the human context. as I said it previously. the interpretation.Wegner presupposes that the association between algorithms and interactive technologies. and on the other hand. in other cases. based on the concept of adaptive interaction. At this point. Realtime. in the technical terminology of musical composition delimits the vast connotations of interaction and music. Here is the Manourys position on the subject: Considered from the point of view of an intelligent interactivity between musician and machine. but the contrary (Manoury: 1987). Interaction and real-time in music A few attempts to study the relationships between music and interaction compel the us to reflect on the concept of real-time. one has to consider the lack of precision found in few attempts to understand the principles of causality between real-time and interaction. 49 . I will mention my study developed in the context of a my PhD thesis tackling on one hand the definition of the concept of interaction oriented towards the internal space of the computer and towards the space of calculation. As I tackle the concept of interaction from the point of view of computer sciences. my research evolves two different levels. it is not difficult to conceive real-time as if it could simultaneously include many unique aesthetic tendencies and. From this point of view. as its definition becomes extremely formalized in some cases. In this respect. especially when these theoretical speculations eliminate the interaction between mixed forms of music or recorded music. implies a greater complexity. from the computer science point of view and by comparison to communication sciences. needs to reintegrate itself into the body of the electroacoustical music so that the performer should no longer be the slave of the machine.
encounters serious problems because of several limitations. due to the fixed and unchanging medium of the composition. derived from the principle of time interpretation. 7). In my opinion. cannot take place. using pre-recorded music. if we take into consideration the relationships between architectural space and the acoustic conditions needed by a musical composition. the interaction. these limitations will never find a solution through technologic development because these problems are a the result of time irreversibility associated to certain uses of realtime technology. In this sense. or the compositions recorded exclusively on media. one can often note that the use of real-time. which also include the acoustics of a space. If. as the time dimension does not allow for interpretation.at the same time. it is worth mentioning that due to its nature. in the case of mixed-media works that use previously recorded music are the integration of reactions to all kinds of interactions is inexistent. For interpretation. This argumentation implies that in the mixed compositions. which can enhance the interpretation of a piece. one can immediately note the countless interactions. However. as the interpretation is an exogenous manifestation. limit the topic of interaction to certain technological contexts. without mentioning the importance of the speakers as instruments of perceptive reproduction. which is a true resonance box: the sounds thus projected will spring to other ghostlike locations drawing unique paths for each elevation and each tone. (Vaggione: 2000: pp. observed in a more refined light and in certain applications. among the number of potential advantages brought by real-time technologies to the field of music its most profitable use 50 . Here is Horacio Vaggiones commentary on the immanent characteristics of the outer surrounding space of the composition and its interactions with the concert hall: We have to add to this the characteristics of the concert halls reaction. the concept of interpretative variation is highly dependant (if not exclusively dependent) on the time axis. on one hand it is true that real-time enables a direct intervention on the sound processes involved and the implementation of wider interactive processes during the concert. According to Manoury.
simultaneously associated with reflections of diverse natures. but most of all for the performer. considering the costs. I quote for example my work Sotto Voce. and as a result of my observations. These models. each time I have to begin a new project. This approach is also valid for the composer as for the computer scientist. Even if. essentially. more specifically related to several families of sound synthesis. from a real-time perspective. from a certain point of view real-time technologies introduced the concept of flexibility and intuition in musical composition. In this sense. the topic of interaction has a very important role.resides. especially the time costs and the compositional complexity implied by the real-time when composing a musical piece. real-time compositions or certain methods of sound production. especially those involving multi-channel distribution. 4. As far as my whole body of reflections is concerned. do not really find. in my opinion. the space of reflection and construction/deconstruction. what is more commonly named spatial rendering. the musical composition often compels the composer to develop models. in digital lutherie: the building of digital musical instruments and their association to the traditional instruments. In this sense. The introduction and use of digital technologies in my work starts with the beginning of the nineties. for which the production time and the time of setting the digital instrument was so long. being interested in real-time technologies since 1993. that certain technical solutions adopted at the beginning of the project were simply outdated after almost 20 months of work. Paradigms and models of interaction There have been almost twenty years since electronic technologies were present in my creative work. I have to reconsider and to exactly forecast the consequences of such a choice. 51 . I think nevertheless that the use of real-time requires apprenticeship and the substantial mastery of different fields of knowledge. On the contrary. inherent to musical creation and composition. evenit doest do it in a systematic way.
reflects undoubtedly a rather formal choice than an aesthetical one. and more specifically that of a digital musical instrument. The typology concept. the musicians and the instruments. 52 . In this way. Not only did this kind of reflection have an enormous influence on the creation and the composition of my musical pieces and of the instruments involved. As for the global process. which are quite different from a multicasting device such as an interactive CD or DVD. one can deduct that the configuration of an interactive device. one can remark that it is associated with non-discrete time developments. and aside my interventions in setting the acoustic levels (on the mixing console) or in adjusting the equalization. which are the basis of a relationship formed on principles of cooperation and exchange between two realities: • the performer through his music. while a local or a micro-local process is associated to discrete time developments. but I also introduced the computer as a means of expression and as concert instrument since the computer may simultaneously be the creative instrument and my ideal digital musical instrument. • the micro-local process. These two typologies enable the standardization of: • the global process. the composition. • the local process. I developed a classification model for an interaction paradigm (Ferreira-Lopes: 2004) founded on two main typologies: genre (discrete or non-discrete) and directionality (unidirectional/multidirectional).adapted to specific situations. • the digital musical instruments. In this context. tries to explain the types of interaction and communication models. in the creation of musical pieces along to the other performers. via the computer. enable the establishment of a catalogue-memory or of a musical notation which generally and musically reflects the paradigms of interaction between the composer. one can conclude that realtime and the consequences of its use dont allow us to infer an universal aesthetic status. Among the analyzed cases. This is a consequence of my intervention. In this sense. during the concert.
implies the specific construction of the instruments. joystick. That is. implies that the quality of the musical outcome and the quality of the interactions. The solutions for constructing the instrument. acquiring the status of performer along that of composer.) that are especially configured and assembled ergonomically for a specific work. often very intensely. 5. or only transformating the interventions of the performers. as described in my research paper from 20002. Within this structure. followed 53 . and the development of (quasi meta-technical) strategies in order to play my instruments. and thus.the computer integrates functions similar to those of the musical instruments as it not only is the means of connecting traditional instruments to the musical device. the integration of the computer in the concert as a musical instrument. Concerning my composition doN. before the rehearsals. mouse. etc. but it is also an autonomous instrument. I control it and interact with it as well. as digital filters modeled after the mutes of the trumpet. On the other hand. My presence in the realization of my musical pieces. The quality of the musical outcome during the concert also depends on the time that I spend rehearsing on my instrument. the construction of my digital musical instrument and of the global system aimed to model the mutes by applying filters on the trumpet signal. and other virtual. when I use the computer in concert. Conclusions As for the specific aspects concerning my instruments and the particular objectives of each instrument. like the mutes of the trumpet. depends entirely on the quality and on the complexity of the surface structures or on the deeper and more abstract structures of the musical instrument. Id especially like to mention in this article two projects: doN and Sotto Voce. the main objective of the project was that of confronting the musician with the possible extensions of his instrument. using peripheral devices (sensors. some of them of a material nature. especially those resulting directly from my intervention. during the a concert. which I control in a unique manner.
As for the second aspect. At the beginning of the project in October 1998. I relaunch in the space the outcome of the aforementioned operations using four speakers. the audience must assemble the resulted fragments in a single point where they can rebuild the pieces of a previous deconstruction. My idea was to split an object in four dynamic segments which enable us to monitor its evolution in the field of time/frequency. Then. Thus. In this composition I wanted to work on two aspects: the first aspect being the 3D spatial rendering. Finally. the second that of instrument replication in realtime. throwing in space residues generated by a sound source which is the cello. I actually wanted to create an environment different from the common models. I tried the implementation of filters using the Fourier transforms as well as general techniques of convolving the signal. The modeled mutes enabled an outcome similar to the acoustical reality of the trumpet reaching dissonant paradoxes opposed to the source. using the cello. after the splitting using the band-pass filter and after treatments based on the FIR and IIR filters. according to my research. 54 . globally speaking. This solution allowed me to have quite a flexible instrument when it comes to calculating the computational power of the computer and the musical outcome. the paradigms are completely different from those of doN. or both at the same time. based essentially on Gérad de Caussés work. whose spatial modelling signifies either a movement of the source. As for the 3D spatial rendering. connected to tools of spread modulating spectrum (the ring modulation principle). as well as. This operation. at the end of 1999 I abandoned the transforms trying to establish the functional basis of the instrument on the FIR IIR filters. or a model of acoustical space. In the case of Sotto Voce for cello and live electronics.several stages. enables the spectator to acoustically rebuild the disjunctions initially operated. the aspect of communication between performers and instruments. using the acoustical multiplicity spread in the space. the main objective was to combine the musical structure of the instrumental part and the coordination of each of the four instruments. whose modules included each an IIR FIR band pass filter.
and Sousa Dias. Massachusetts : The MIT Press. 2005. • the diminishment of musicians gestures as they relate to the evolution and the development of the musical content operated by the digital musical instrument. Mutations and Metaphors of the Digital Music Instrument in ACTAS do 2º Workshop Luso-Galaico de Artes Digitais. This research was developed with the support of Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia. (Text translated from French by Patricia Comãnescu) 7. This means that the cellist plays simultaneously five instruments independent from one another. • the non-synchronization in time of the manipulation of control interface and its impact on the musical outcome. . of Sciences and Technologies of Art.Dep. A. The Aesthetics of Computer Music in Computer Music Journal vol 25 no. PHD . P. Étude de modèles interactifs et dinterfaces de contrôle en temps réel pour la composition musicale. I would also like to thank ZKM for hosting my projects. Paris . : Music and Interaction: Consequences. in Lisbon and of the POCI2010 program. Coimbra D. References Ferreira-Lopes. 6. Acknowledgments We are thankful to Horacio Vaggione for his precious advice and orientation. 55 . Vila Nova Cerveira / Portugal . G. . . 2004. University of Paris VIII . this operation enables the reproduction of the cello signal x times. Ferreira-Lopes. E. 1. Garnett. P. This type of challenge is only possible thanks to the principles according to which I specifically structured this instrument: • the principle of non-causality between the manipulation of the instrument and its impact on the musical outcome. as well as autonomously duplicating the associated instrument. 2001.Considering that signal processing modules (the filters) are fed acoustically by the cello signal.
. in John Carroll (ed. 306-314) . Beverley Hills . Tuebingen : Genista VERLAG . J.html 1 56 . 2001.1987. Interactivity . LHarmatan . C. Solomos et J-M Chouvel (Ed.). Tuebingen : Genista VERLAG. Evolution des outils de création sonore in Interfaces homme-machine et création musicale . Jensen. : Lespace composable sur quelques catégories opératoires dans la musique électroacoustique in M. Tracking a new concept in media and communication Studies in Computer Media and Communication . Manoury. H. Rafaeli. . Lisbonne : Fondation Calouste Gulbenkian . Risset. Notes We highlight the concept of interface as one of the most important concepts introduced by the research on the diffrerent aspects of the interaction within the musical composition. : Interaction Spaces for 21st Century Computing. Oxford : Oxford University Press. 1999. Winograd. 1999. J. P. Human-Computer Interaction in the New Millennium. Sense and the Discipline of Playing Interfaces in The Sciences of the interfaces (p. Paris. . . Interactivity : From New Media to Communication (pp110-134) in Sage Annual Review of Communication Research . Weibel. 2 http://ima. 1988. . Vaggione . S. Paris : Hermes. J. .): Espace : musique.de/~pfl/publications3/rap00. 272-281) . T. Addison-Wesley.Newbury Park : Sage . . philosophie.zkm. De lincidence des systèmes en temps réels sur la création musicale in Actes de la Conférence ARTE E TECNOLOGIA . The Art of Interfacing : Senses. 1999 . 1999. P.Goebel. 1998. The Art of Interface Technology in The Sciences of the interfaces (p.
The spaces. are designed to introduce a part of fiction into reality. seem to move away from reality and to generate unlikely. A new form of imaging is being created due to digital design. and the perceptible and practicable environment with a new dimension. 1. es57 . almost fictitious spaces.CHAPTER II. digitally defined. they count on the abstraction and fictional power of digital representation in order to enrich the architecture. However. but it also questioned their capacity to change their work habits and approach to reality. dont give up reality entirely. Not only did the development of the CAD challenge architects and designers relationships to the traditional operating modes. architects and designers have high hopes in the representational and programmatic possibilities offered by new media. On the contrary. Spatial Forms DIGITAL SURREALITIES. DESIGN AND ARCHITECTURE: ARTS OF F[R]ICTION Sophie Fetro If certain digital images are based on the simulation of the reality. Digital Utopias Developers. The digital representations that imply directly the question of mimesis in the deign1 arts become sometimes so autonomous that they confirm Georg Simmels considerations related to the work of art as existence par-delà la réalité2 (existence beyond reality). others. on the contrary. the arts of design that involve the digital realm in their creative process.
found in the digital space a place of possible existence and visibility. This purely fictitious space could recall the nowhere-space of the computer networks. The architects and designers who propose to both transform reality through their designs and to create new realities. 58 . or the energy saving BedZed garden-city in Great Britain10. the hope for the successful application of visionary projects is still there. remind us of the prophetic traditions as they make out of computer imaging the measure of a new eloquence. as Marc Augé8 puts it. the nowhere-space. developed new methods which highlight this relationship between design and utopia. by the echoes of Eden and of the lost Paradise7. Despite previous totalitarian drifts caused by the materialization of certain political and social utopias. Intimately connected to utopia through invention and prediction the arts of design unveil new ways of organizing the space and the human environment. The 21st Century inaugurates a new utopian age thanks to the development of the digital world and of computer graphics imaging techinques. the digital space may be a refuge from reality. where the nightmare intersects the dream. of a cathartic deliverance from contemporary fears and anxieties. Messenger of both the worst deviations and the most promising visions. A good example is the project to rehabilitate a housing complex in Netherland by the Greg Lynn FORM9 architecture firm. digital imaging reveals the ambivalent characteristic of the utopia. Marked by the search of the ideal city. The utopia6. or to the ideal cities imagined by Étienne-Louis Boullée and Claude-Nicolas Ledoux. They base their dream of a neverland and set off to conquer new territories on these technologies. somehow akin to the utopian worlds described in literature 3 or seen on film 4. Fostering the imagination of the ideal city. as well as by eschatological visions. namely the imaginary island invented by Morus. although removed from their religious origins and their biblical models. the present digital utopias. The digital world and Thomas Mourus visions have two features in common: rationalizing reality and introducing Science Fiction5 in this process.pecially the 3D software and modeling programs.
nor from their possible posterity. does not deter the interest from these projects. Either they could not be materialized for budgetary reasons or due to modification impediments. dependent on the image. the flattering characteristic of the realistic representation was amplified more than ever before. dominates and opens the way to the a visual overload at the cost of less demonstrative projects. for many.2. This hierarchy imposed by the image. in producing overwhelming images. up to then. If. even if not new. to the point that the projects dont even need to be executed in order to exist. The Photogenic Object Designers fascination with computer tools leads to a new form of seduction of the project by the image. that give their projects the necessary attention grabbing shine. The design or architecture projections are more than ever so dependant on the image. The use of synthetic images in the arts of design and the visual proliferation enabled by the computer leads to a state opposed to the lack of iconicity12 mentioned by Cyrille Simonnet. or of projects that dont privilege the image. This existence. or even because these projects assume their virtual existence as is. they are a visual testimony that enables the understanding of the age and of its practices. the digital space is a voluntary exile. This type of reasoning that values the visually attractive object excludes from the beginning the modest object. Like the previously non-executed projects11. They engage thus. the architectural photographer was the one capable of enhancing a buildings 59 . their digital broadcasting on the Internet and the use of competitions are challenges that determine architects and designers to develop their projects through digital imaging technologies. With the wider introduction of CAD in the deign process. The Art of Representation The Subordination of the Project to the Image The media coverage of the projects. namely to a surplus of iconicity.
nowadays the photographical quality of a building is predefined and refined by computer programs (that enable the choice of the best vista. framing or to favorable lighting. Although this vision requires a certain level of visual education (a culture of the virtual image). as for example in Arik Levis Meteor series of tables featuring mirrored and faceted surfaces or even Jean Nouvels Agbar tower in Barcelona. skin effects. what one sees is no longer a work of art or a building. A new surface quality appears. etc. Back to Black13. Seeing the Landscape Through Virtual Perspective The 3D and CAD programs are new visualization devices producing not only original imaging but also largely modifying our perception of the real environment. This is transposed in the digital projects to a specific luminosity. a project is no longer solely marked by the architects or designers gesture or imprint. light. but also by the computer programs employed. the cinema via special effects or even the whole visual media environment (architecture. Illustrating the artistization that Alain Roger debates in his Court traité du paysage (Short Treaty on Landscape)14 there is a similar phenomenon that perceives the landscape through the virtual grid filter. So. a new iconography is born. design.). 60 . the 3D modeling software is based on an internal luminescence that give the virtual objects a particular aesthetic quality. With digital technologies. etc. As Mark Wigley puts it in his text. the media.).appearance thanks to exposures. but. New household and outdoor and indoor landscapes are about to flourish both in real life as well as in the virtual environment. are the promoters of a passive but effective education of the eye. mainly a virtual design that has first of all emerged as an image. visual communication. founded on a process of inverting the principle of drawing with black on white. via advertising. which functions based on the light sensitivity of the medium. As opposed to the film camera. properly or metaphorically speaking.
3. according to Yve-Alain Bois15. and sometimes even the main part of the project. somewhere between reality and fiction. by the dim light and absence of any object or individual. due to its features. It invites designers to dismiss the imitation of reality and invent a new one. The project of designing a Reebok store proposed by the American studio CAP16. but also an essential part. may enable the creation of new identities. able to produce images more real than nature itself. which consists of rendering an athletes spatial and vectorial dynamics juxtaposes athletic performance with visual performance. introduce a doubt in what is being perceived. For the latter. Some aim to design projects close to reality. contemporary architects and designers consider the digital tool not only a simple representational device. Each designer has a different relationship to the digital image. the computer. initialized a new vision of the space. This operating mode functions based on the figurative capacities of the representational tool employed. namely to design projects purposely removed from reality and thus embracing a different logic. Actually. These images. partially caused by the distortions of the volumes. they claim an indescribable and singular quality which questions the visual experience. Surreality. As axonometry. Digital Surrealities The digital promises: images more real than nature itself. facilitates a digital overtaking of reality. especially with artists like Gerrit Rietveld. by the bluish reflections. the Indetermination Principle and Random Processes The approach of the projects which tackle the field of surreality share with the surrealist conceptual adventure the same desire to dismiss 61 . reminds us of the unprecedented characteristic that Aragon was referring to when analyzing the surrealist artworks. Its strangeness. whereas others have a different goal. The computer tool. which one doesnt know where to really situate. and is typical for the 20th Century design process.
demonstrate that digital means. can produce. Even if reality is still the main guideline. The principle of reality is questioned not by the unconscious but by the way in which the user explores the formative and informing potential of the virtual environment. contemporary designers find the subjects of a new. digital space. oneiric. provided by the computer and which consequently eludes the designer. 62 . the designers who work with digital tools also work to overtake them and thus emphasize the surrealist expression. and creative power within computer programs. as opposed to the surrealists. focuses less on a the process of introspection and searches inside the machine the means of stimulating his imagination. in spite of any preconceptions spaces in permanent interaction with the humans. despite their mathematical expression. While designers of digital spaces borrow concepts from architecture and urbanism (website architecture. architects tend to borrow principles of organization from the digital field (ramification. a means for the designer to determine the evolution of conventional program development methodologies. This way of creating. website construction. But. The computation level. the designer using digital tools within his creation in order to enhance the quality of reality. the unconscious and the dreams.nls (who aims to produce a live architecture. Greg Lynn FORMs works (the complexity theory)17. paradoxically. e-motional)18. mathematical models and algorithms. becomes. or Oosterhuis. based on mathematical models and the generative and dynamic possibilities of the software. In architecture. networks).the permanence of the known world. by associating data in an original manner in order to espace pre-established outcome. the creative and conceptual models are updated. there are many who orient their research towards the programmatic indetermination. becomes for him a means of escaping from pure intentionality and predetermination. New Processes of Formatting and Manufacturing With the development of 3D imaging. If the surrealists overtook reality by means of guided writing. inversely.
stratification, connection, virtuality, etc.). These exchanges are translated into architectural projects through interwoven structures, spatial structures with complex connections (bridges, gateways, embankments), through the stratification of levels and surfaces, and very often through seamless19 spatial and formal continuity. Ensure the Transcription of Distortions and Digital Continuous Forms Rendering digital visions into reality not only involves the research for new materials and new physical properties (acoustic and formal qualities, sizing, wear and shock resistance, thermal and phonic performance, etc.), but also pushes designers to find new ways of modifying the already existing material. The flexible materials, the resins, the linoleum, the textiles, twist, twirl, bend, while the rigid materials are fragmented into facets in order to render the formal continuity and the flexibility of digital projections. The New Fiera Milano exhibition complex, designed by Massimiliano Fuksas and Schlaich Bergermann und Partner, illustrates magnificently the digital strangeness originating from this works transposition of the virtual into reality. Computer Science - Strangeness Factor in Industrial Design In design, the upheavals may be represented, as asserts Frédéric Migayrou, by the emergence of a possible digital continuum20 in the production flow of the project. The projects made through digital production, or the projects using the techniques of stereolithography initially employed in the fast prototyping field (M. Faltasis objects, Skets furniture by Front Design, or Patrick Jouins Solid chair) directly link the conceptual and the manufacturing processes of the object. Actually, the introduction of biological data in the programming of design objects (application of the osteoporotic damages on a plastic 63
garden chair by Robert Stadler), as well as the use of variables in the process of formatting an object (i.e. EZCTs project of computational chair design using genetics and Greg Lynns one-of-a-kind tea & coffee towers designed for Alessi) challenge the fundamental principles of the industrial manufacturing production (serial conception, pragmatic relationship between from & function). They also bestow it an unprecedented strangeness. The digital processes generate paradoxical objects in the field of furniture design. As opposed to the digital continuum mentioned above, they value first the conceptual process over production and manufacturing methods. It is the case of several projects engendered by the computing of the extrusion. The Frédéric Ruyants Mobilier en ligne Radi designers Ray stool, YED Transalpins Living in a box or Marc Newsons extruded furniture series are symbolic for the way in which the computing tool induces the forms. In these four projects, there is no effective extrusion but an imaginary one, virtual, enabled by the representation of digital forms. Thus, the manufacturing method doesnt correspond to the virtual generative process of the project. These projects seem actually to illustrate this difference between the digital visualization, the conceptual approach of and the technical processes of industrial manufacture. As opposed to Alvar Aaltos furniture made of bended glued-laminated timber or Marcel Breuers furniture of metal tubes, which are based on the exploitation of the physical, structural and formal properties of a specific material, the furniture digitally conceived highlights mainly the designing process that has created them. Consequently, with CAD, it is not always the material that dictates the formal and structural identity of the project; it is rather the virtual design that defines the forms the materials need to take. Surreal Experiences While the surrealist experiences tend to reduce the difference between inner life and lived experience, as Marguerite Bonnet says about the surrealist adventure, they tend to weaken the opposition between what is inside us and what is outside us21, the digital projects arent 64
always based on reducing the difference between themselves and reality. Digital projects sometimes seem to come close to the ideal22 existence, as mentioned by Georg Simmel regarding the work of art, reflect a constant tension with the reality. The architects and designers using digital means devote themselves mainly to explore the multiple links between reality and fiction. They search for possible relationships between the two, aware of the the simultaneity between the inside and the outside, to put it in Georg Simmels terms. The computing applied to architectural and design projects is not a tool of extreme rationalization of reality but rather of interpretation, allowing reality and fiction to relate. Front Designs chest of drawers could put into phisical form this complicity between digital design and reality. Andrea Branzis Culture of Surreal The projects using the abstracting power of digital imaging could be integrated into the surreal culture23 invoked by Andrea Branzi. The strangeness of certain images and the fascination induced by them, contribute to the overtaking of the reality by the digital tool. For Branzi, the surreal culture, whose fundaments originate in the Latin culture and start from the international Surrealism including the Dadaism and the Metafisica art movement, employ methods of creation founded on the convergence of heterogeneous elements, which greatly enhance the consistency of reality. This surreal culture which tends to make reality more complex and richer could be continued by digital practices. Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLPs24 project of Shanghais Aeroport 3rd terminal, reflects the architects and image creators capacity of producing representations of the project that illustrate an extraordinary degree of strangeness in spite of an entirely rational construction. Multiple white sloping panels compose a roof with no boundaries covering an artificial Eden where luxurious vegetation shelters an idealized population. With the development of new technologies, this surreal culture seems to have gone beyond its Latin origins and to have flourished in international architecture and design. However, the use of 65
computing is not enough to warrant the interest of a production. For Branzi this ability, identical with the one of a master of ceremonies, adorning a reality consumed by others, creates poison or pleasure by skillfully and mysteriously issuing relationships and becomes finally the soul of the banquet, the grey eminence of the encounter.25 4. Hyperreality: Age of Digital Mega-structures If for Andrea Branzi, some artistic manifestations could generate a surreal culture which enhances reality, or its consistency, according to his expression, contemporary architecture and design projects, whose ambition seems to be the enhancement of reality, are easily confronted with the issues of gigantism and excess. This is no longer a spiritual enhancement, sensitive and metaphorical as Andrea Branzi understood it, but a physical and spatial growth serving a political and commercial intention. The many projects effectively executed, as well as the many complexes, as those planned for the Olympic games in Peking, the airport areas, and the different cultural and touristic complexes of Shanghai mark the beginning of an demonstrative age, now more than ever. As it was the case with 19th Century universal exhibitions, the architectural projects and their execution are involved in an eloquent demonstration of the last technical innovations. The excess and the oversizing prolong the tradition of an architecture of power. An Art of Computational Performance The quality of the digital imaging, its hypnotic character, the graphical and constructing potential of digital programs, the resourcefulness of those who make use of the computing equipment, make of the architecture of today an art of the computational performance. The improbable visions that result from it (architectural promenades, dynamic lighting, etc.) attract our curiosity. Design studios and designers employ multiple artifices and effects capable of adorning their projects. The mastering of computer modeling tools can generate projects and achievements that overrule traditional references. The 66
Even if they have a delightful appearance. is symbolic of this current performative art. conception. Degenerative Amplifications: Apotheostrophical Projects The vast complexe of Abou Dhabi. seem to ignore contemporary ecological problems. Zaha Hadid. the grandiloquence of certain propositions puts into question the interest and the validity of spatial and physical transcriptions of certain virtual designs. On the other hand. Often elegant and highly seductive. as they assemble contradictory qualities which mix in the same project.overhangs seem to defy the laws of nature. perfection and folly (apotheosis and catastrophe) are emblematic for the beginning of 21st Century. the proposed spaces look often immoderate and impracticable for the pedestrian. bear inside the signs of a degenerative amplification of the computing potential applied to architecture and to the organization of human spaces. The gigantic size and the spectacular effects they employ hide sometimes the scarcity of the proposed device and or of the actual service. These projects that we may call apotheostrophic. etc. The more and more complex building coverings and the multiplication of resin structures are true challenges to the engineering skills. However. Jean Nouvel and Tadao Ando) gave an example of their art. and building techniques. quantity and importation of raw material. but also illustrate the subjection of the architecture and design to the commercial and political authority. resides in the power of illusion and of bewitchment of their images. The juxtaposition of projects having in background the sea. wasteful use of glass surfaces. Resulted from the sublime blooming of the design. they also may be considered dystopical deviations of digital delusions. where big names of architecture (Frank OGehry. 67 .). these projects display grand formal and spatial qualities. capable of fascinating whereas their content may be questionable. aligned and equidistant is grotesque. The drama of digital utopias. if there is such a drama. the execution of certain projects which need considerable prodigality of means (monumental building sites. These projects whose appearance is impeccable.
This is about a substitution of reality with the signs of reality. the digital and virtual images that it employs and that it produces. Didier Fiuza Faustinos projects (Corps en transit or The 1m² House) could be called hyperreal.Computing may be then identified to a hallucinogenic device capable of amplifying reality beyond the reasonable. In this context. The tendency to imitation and the attempts to revive reality via digital reproduction leads precisely to the disappearance of the objects in the process of representation. if certain projects seem to take refuge in an art of simulation and justify this flee from content and finality. hyperreality could actually be the that visual quality of digital images which generate a perceptive confusion thus enabling a differentiation from the reality. This way the simulation of reality and reality itself are not confused anymore but able to generate a new parallel esthetic experience>: a counter-reality. may favor the development of what Jean Baudrillard calls hyperreality26. For him. the arts of design could participate and encourage the elimination of the references mentioned by Jean Baudrillard. have a seductivity that makes possible the its manipulation. Hyperrealism and Hyperrealities The designers and architects who currently employ figuration digital visualization techniques. If architecture has always been the place of manifestation of power. nor about duplication. the age of simulation opens on a liquidation of all the frames of reference ( ) so this is no longer about imitation. Critical Utopias and Counter-utopias: Between Denounciation and Fascination If the projects may create signs and raise questions through images. nor about parody. The critical analysis he makes without concessions. especially when these arts take the hazardous path of simulation. But. doesnt forecast a very bright future for the arts of design that use digital means. as they are based 68 . they can also be the critical expression of a clear-sighted look as they question the world as well.
An Art of F[r]iction Already based on a balance between imaginary projections and reality. The counter-utopian characteristic of his digital visions. or Superstudios Continuous monument) and Anglo-Saxon (Plug-in City and Archigrams Walking City) radical movements. continuing with Georg Simmel and Andrea Branzi and passing by Jean Baudrillards hyperreality. remind us of the reality of Thomas Morus utopia or of the critical utopias of the Italian (No stop-city of Archizoom Associati. beginning with André Breton. even if is sometimes related to an invocation of the simulation as Jean Baudrillard puts it. close to sci-fi imagination. as in computing simulation and especially in 3D modeling one can find the search for new experiences and an original interpretation of reality. but instead it multiplies and becomes more complex. The role of the designer 69 . Thus. In this relationship between designer and computing environment there are several come-and-goes based on the alternation between reality and fiction. It would be a shame then to reduce the content of virtual images to senseless signs. The utopia does not represent any longer a finality in itself. but the means of a clear-sighted reflection on the functioning of the society and on its possible contradictions. and on the constant interpretation of information. the architecture and design projects have seen the digital world amplifying the come-and-go sway between projection and reality. situations and environments. between formal ideal and material technical solutions. it is also marked by a process of remoteness and differentiation from to reality. Reality does not dissolve into the digital world.on the power of virtual representation and reflect a possible critical quality of digital images. there are several possible degrees of relating with reality. 5. The neo-figuration produced by contemporary designers and architects by means of digital technologies. This quality interprets reality through the image and transforms it proposing original forms. Hyperreality could represent this visual quality of the projects as related to digital design.
a reciprocity between real space and visualized space is established. It is this conjunction between reality and imagination that is reflected by computer generated projects more than ever. we prefer to think that the virtual manifestations do not deny reality but rather highlight differentiated. to imagine new horizons and to seek adventure in surreality. but also to translate them into reality in order to so that they become meaningful and find a reason to be.is then. we have tempted to prove that different projects which use digital technologies in their conceptual and in their methods of visualization. to guide these intersections and to modify not only his virtual representations so that they elude pure abstraction. If some may be tempted to think that virtual reality may prove to be more desirable than reality and could even replace it. (Text translated from French by Patricia Comãnescu) 70 . The fear of seeing the digital world substituting reality. Initially stimulated by the search for realism. but the manifestations of a possible friction between reality and imagination. the 3D modeling seems aimed to go beyond mimicry. parallel and simultaneous existences. In resonance with the idea of digital space. could actually enable an endorsement of reality rather than its rejection or negation. as they employ computer science according to modern technologies consists in transforming the virtual and the reality alternatively. Some theses seem to question the positive qualities of digital imaging. Of the Necessity of Digital Utopias Not only did digital technologies facilitate the design and conceptual work of designers and architects but it also represented the starting point of a reflection on reality and imagination. which implies a mutual enrichment. The arts of design are not only fictional arts. The designers and architects work. is replaced by the necessity of accepting its multiplication and fragmentation. and the permanent connection of these two universes so that the feasibility of the project and the palpable real world could inspire each other.
16 Technique et Architecture n°479. p.96. Seuil editions.46-47. in Catalogue de lexposition Architecture non standard. mai-juin 2006.Notes We understand by « arts of design ». 1988.44-46. 2001-2005. Cahier pédagogique. 1931. éditions HYX. p. Non-lieux : introduction à une anthropologie de la surmodernité. Imaginaire scientifique. Saint-AmandMontrond. Beddington. 2005. Fritz Lang. éditions Gallimard. 4 Metropolis. 2003. 3 Le meilleur des mondes. chapter Un matériau sans image. 2003.129. all artistic activities. 17 Greg Lynn. Concept de boutique Reebok. 1 71 . Paris 2003. 6 Ibid. 4 to July 9 2000. may still appear in the idealised contemporary visualizations. Netherlands. renovation of the Kleiburg. Variations calculées.27.nl. 10 Project BedZed. n° 354 .septembre 2004 . Le béton histoire dun matériau. in Images et imaginaires darchitecture. long identified in medieval tradition to the earthly paradise of Adam and Eve. p. file Pour une Europe durable. Rivages poche editions. Parenthèses editions. Great Britan. éditions du Centre Georges Pompidou. 13 Mark Wigley. Bijlmermeer building. éditions du Centre Georges Pompidou. through the presence of idealized vegetation and a luxurious and flourishing flora. in Architectures expérimentales 1950-2000. See the review Architecture dAujourdhui.90. article Cinématique. proposed by Éric Justman. p. p. exhibition presented at BNF from April. 1984.Le pouvoir des images. 11 We think of Cénotaphe de Newton by Étienne-Louis Boullée or of Plan Obus by Le Corbusier for Alger city. La Tragédie de la culture. directed by Roland Schaer. 2005. in Catalogue de lexposition Architecture non standard. Court traité du paysage. 5 Catalogue of the exhibition « Utopie. Une architecture « e-motive». Paris. 7 The utopia. Shanghai (Chine). p. p. 2002. Petite bibliothèque. collection Frac centre et SCEREN CRDP académie Orléans-Tours. éditions Centre Georges Pompidou/CCI. 1997. 15 Yves-Alain Bois. 8 Marc Augé. Utopia : Latin neologisme quotation from ou-topos (the place of nowhere) and eu-topos (place of hapiness). la quête de la société idéale en Occident ». In À vivre n°30. Orléans. 12 Cyrille Simonnet. 1948. collection of Frac centre. 1984. Avatars de laxonométrie. 1992. 18 Oosterhuis. in Architecture et numérique. Aldous Huxleys. Amsterdam. Paris. George Orwell. 1927.115. 9 Greg Lynn FORM. 14 Alain Roger. as architecture and industrial design which are based on design work aimed for usage. Paris. documents et fictions. Back to black. Paris. 2 Georg Simmel.
n°8.26. p.cit. p. Op.. Wohen Architektur Media Mobil. Les essais. Frédéric Migayrou. design et seconde modernité. 1988 José Corti editions. Galilée editions. 2007. 2007. 26 Jean Baudrillard. 1991. 21 Margueritte Bonnet.Gilles Delalex. projet du terminal 3 de laéroport de Shanghai par les architectes Skidmore. Simulacres et simulations. 22 Georg Simmel.cit. Op.E. Owings&Merrill LLP. traduit de litalien par Christian Paolini.59. Les ordres du non standard. 23 Andrea Branzi. 24 Revue H. éditions Au diable vauvert.tous !. Paris.O. La rue sans couture. Paris. André Breton et laventure surréaliste.M. 20 Catalogue of the exhibition Architecture non standard.. 19 72 . 1975. Nouvelles de la métropole froide. 1981. Paris 2003. 25 Andrea Branzi. éditions du Centre Georges Pompidou. Centre Georges Pompidou editions. Catalogue of the exhibition La rue est à nous.
It seems paradoxical to speak of not being totally home in a philosophical. on a long term. as proclaimed by the 1962 Conrads & Sperlichs eponymous book) is. to continually pro-pose through the architectural project something permanently innovative.four blue glass cylinders surrounding a central one . a fertile one. the act of habitation. for its capacity of allowing the being to reach its essence through active protection which is. provocative. Detroits Renaissance Center .is an indisputable star that can be see all too often on the movie screens: the concept of the hotel with an atrium open through the height of the building began in Atlanta. even if it often gets stuck there without the ability to produce real inheritors. in fact. as Mircea Eliade knew well). Many sci-fi films are still shot today in buildings belonging to the architectural vanguard. The trendy terms of today are somewhat different: uncanny. unheilmlich or that Heideggerian not-home. Hyatt Atrium 73 . And still. new. at the Peachtree Center and still gives vertigo to its visitors. now being called experimental as in the book by Peter Cook from 1970 but always fantastic. Projective architecture anticipates the houses of the future. or even architectural text that praises the tiny house of the Black Forest mountains (or by extension any traditional culture.EXPERIMENT IN ROMANIAN ARCHITECTURE Augustin Ioan Something in the etymology of the term planning tells us of the necessity to anticipate. the anxiety produced by this projective architecture (considered vanguard in the past.
Hotels are to be found everywhere nowadays, including in Budapest, but the Renaissance Center still remains the star of the genre. On the other hand, there are new buildings in which one can see the past not the future. The socialist realism, and partly the post-modern era have created this type of architecture of the past, aged and on the most part nonfunctional. At the 1939 World Exhibition in New York, while at the Romanian pavilion one could eat grilled meatballs and listen to Maria Tanase, elsewhere one could see the Futurama - an exhibition representing the city of the future, of the kind that have always intoxicated the minds of dreamers. It should be noted that, similarly to what happened with Antonio SantEllias sketches from the beginning of the 20th Century and those form the Futurism era, this type of architecture does not seem to age. The cars, the fashion, the tastes have changed I would hesitate to use the term evolved but that radical architecture continues to fascinate through its otherworldliness, so well defined in English with one word. Deconstructivists decided to inhabit this rejection of the comfortable shelter, and from the beginning, they did it programmatically. Constructivism wanted to be the travel companion of the Russian communism (and if it did not receive the immediate benefits of what Lenin offered them, it certainly shared their faith under Stalin), while Deconstructivism is a cynical demonstration of the intellectual ability invested with the power to manipulate the shapes in ways never seen before. In extreme, with the couple Eisenman Derrida we can speak of the construction as philosophical object of the newest kind; the architecture seemed to come out of a millenary inertia during which it only imported concepts, themes, styles and judgment criteria from everywhere else but itself. Not in Romania. Romanian architecture is, with the exception of Marcel Janco, one that has refused to experiment, to project, to anticipate. Lacking the traditional engine of a respectable avant-garde, it was content to import, copy, vary, or simply stagnate. We discuss influences and reactions to these influences, but never priorities. The source of this lost cause, and especially, the possible solutions for this fight against the wind, are coming soon. 74
Prof. Alexandru Sandu, urbanist and past Dean of the Institute of Architecture in Bucharest, noted often in his interviews that no cultural achievements have been made in Romanian architecture of the past three or four decades. Interestingly, this lack of cultural dimension of our architecture does not imply necessarily a complete lack of theoretical research. On the contrary, the 60s, 70s and even 80s, are periods in which the efforts of architectural research sporadic and individual, but especially without consequence for what was being built at the time are rediscovered only now, after they overlapped almost two post-1989 decades. While doing research for an exhibition (so far remaining virtual) dedicated to the post-war Romanian architecture, I received many drawer documents from my colleagues of the 80s generation because it exists even an unknown 80s national architecture style, of which no one seems to have written, besides my modest attempts to document it. Studies, projects, texts of the times, local exhibitions and participations in international competitions (who knows today that Romania had more participants in the Tête Defénse competition organized by Mitterand then the US? Or that Romanian architects have regularly won prizes and awards at the glass architecture completion in Shinkenchiku, Japan?). Only now, the interdisciplinary experiments of Mircea Enescu from Costineºti gain the importance they deserve, as well as the surfacing of technological experiments with atypical structures viewed also, in an unfavorable light by comparison to modernity - made for the social, cultural, sporting, and industrial projects of the time. This is an exploratory effort that seemed to be a relief valve against the pressure buildup caused by the dysfunctional situation of the Romanian construction industry. Thus, these explorations functioned as an avoidance from reality and not as they should as an engine for the improvement of the current practice. That is why this type of research was one that more often would offer utopias than solutions: those clusters of neo-medieval apartments with workspaces at street level, surrounding communal courtyards for which Florian Biciuºcã received a prize at the International Biennial in Sofia (Bulgaria); how could they be anything but evasions from the ghetto apartment blocks of the last decade of dictatorship? 75
The way the architectural experimentation needs to be discussed is thus tainted by the meanings that the historical avan-garde, especially the Western one, has conferred to it. As a consequence, we discuss the experimentalists as vanguard battalion of the artists, those that detach themselves from the status quo seen without exception as retrograde, academic, historically exhausted in order to leave it behind. Politically, they are radical and excessive: revolutionaries of all kinds regularly found on the left of the political spectrum, practicing a rhetoric of demolishing the status quo - the manifest, the slogan and using its fragmentation as the motif of their art. The rule is to oppose, breaking away from the dominant discourse both in society (from which they break off through a bohemian lifestyle), as well as in art. They want to re-define the society along with the art that it - horribile dictu! - favors. At this point, it would be good to mention, that in the strict sense of the word, the experiment does not exist in the post-war Romanian architecture. Neo-vanguard does not exist, the radical experiment does not exist, and least of all, a complete, open opposition to the dominant discourse. Whenever there is a distancing from the discourse of the establishment, it lacks program and coordination, it is isolated, being hidden inside the realms of the totalitarian society: concealed. I believe though, following the thematic article offered by Dragoº Gheorghiu1, that the key term with which to begin a conversation about the Romanian experiment is context. Thus, we cannot speak only of experiment, without referencing the context that it addresses and to which the experimenting artist is mandatorily referenced against. Dragoº Gheorghiu makes a solid analysis of what, outside context, could be investigated while looking for the experiment; on the other hand, he sees the official discourse as one in perpetual relocation, capable of colonizing those folds of society that might escape its control, which is otherwise complete. Seen, in Deleuzian terms, as spaces of flight, during the dictatorship the artistic genres have been under stricter control than the overall society. As soon as it seemed that an escapist discourse would gel, it was immediately incorporated in the official rhetoric or silenced. The areas of society that could easily be controlled were allowed to 76
At the farthest conservative end of this type of discourse. There were mixed: Blaga with Noica. Going abroad meant evading the vernacular rhetoric. his studies for the renewal for of artistic expression through a seemingly indirect route: by exploring tradition deserve more.survive as possible release valves both for the artists as well as for their public. and as much as it has been.precisely that different perspective inherently implied by the experiment. The awards received by the Romanian teams at the contest in Schinchenciku (Japan) prove the same interest in escaping geographically. was informed by this snobbish. Still. an interesting experimentation device used much more in the past than now were the architecture competitions. During the same time. This would be the case with all those experiments related to folklore. transcendental meditation with Matyla Ghyka and his divine ratios. thus it could have become a good chance for an alternative. unfortunately. I understand that it is risky to speak of experimentation in the case of Constantin Gojas work. along with the nationalist communism from which. and this especially when the power could foreseen any possible gains. During those years (the 80s) the attempt can seem almost heroic. embodies even if it seems paradoxical . traditionalist discourse which. with regards to what was going on in the mainstream architectural theroy. despite being obsolete and forgotten. the experiment is defined also as a hybrid of the most resistant traditionalism which is not foreign of past political associations with the extreme right . 77 . It is a little known fact that there were more Eastern European architects participating in the contest for the Defénse district in Paris than Japanese and American ones.and contemporary architecture. unchanged. especially in regards to its theoretical aspects. with all its limitations and risks. they cannot be dissociated. but also from the excessive order of the communist rhetoric. vernacular architecture and that entire field of neo-primitive investigation that has so powerfully impregnated Romanian architecture of the 70s and 80s. the Masons with the Pythagoreans and the structural paths of the traditional Romanian house with those of Cheopss pyramid via Brâncoveanu and his villas surrounding Bucharest. The Romanian postmodernism. to the point that it persist to this day. as it has been2.
e. they are clearly different from contests. Some believed themselves to be close to a Faustic pact. as it seems to transpire from a series of interviews I have done during the 90s with architects who have worked there. the client/the state. The fact that there is a clear break between the monumental architecture of the administrative or political power and social 78 . on their turn. retrograde. The third world. in this ocean of verbal confusion. Some of them have admitted it. where the participants were individuals or small teams. Octogon magazine dedicated them a special issue. lacking architectural culture and anti-urban. often to countries with an even harsher totalitarian regime than Romania). beginning somewhere in the early 50s. some architects practiced their craft in industrial architecture. North Africa or the Arab peninsula.I place in the same context. explaining Still. But.e. which in this case was the head of the regime. It is evident that some of the participants in these obscure contests ended up designing what would become The House of the Republic Victory of Socialism. strongly controlled both when leaving (i. Alexandru Beldiman. the Romanian works abroad were most often a collective product. but with more precaution than when discussing the contests. unknowingly participating in the invention of a new state conformism: anti-modern. it later became clear they were terribly mistaken. the type made by Speer. Withdrawing into those areas of architecture that least interested the totalitarian power to monumentalize. Romania) as well as on their arrival (i. Many more are still perpetuating this belief. because they did not confirm completely the criteria for experimentation: made by state governed enterprises. Others thought they will have the freedom. a significant part of the works exuberant. were convinced they are experimenting and they really did. like Mr. explaining. to sneak in the strictest bofillisms3. Probably devoted comrades or just manipulative people they were convinced of possessing the necessary abilities to manipulate. outside of the state directed theme and without its assistance or control. all post-war years. explaining. but especially never executed destined for foreign lands. propose an unusual type of experimentation. Consequently. contain a significant number of works by Romanian architects. like poor Anca Petrescu.
From all the material I was able to collect for this text limited compared to what I know as drawer projects very few confirm the theme. is not a secret to anyone. the context to which it was parallel to. yet. I leave to the reader the pleasure of discovering them. is an experimental approach that should be revived. on experiments either. or works not yet finished. If we include this context circumstance in our calculations. including tridimensional metal elements (strangely little used in a country with so much steel as Romania during those years) as in the case of Ion Mircea Enescus sports halls. these works become blindingly experimental. Encouraging only finished works. parallel architecture. only on the fact that so far they have not been produced. Of course. even in the absence of traumatic circumstances. helps in establishing a terrifying conformism. one that fills the exhibitions rooms and isolates the few remarkable works that exist. This expression remains valid even if we define the missing element. To this lack of social and urban conspicuousness we owe. many of the successes achieved by the successive teams of architects under Emil Barbu Petrescus direction during the 80s in sporting. Why? Only the Annual contest organized by ORA6 in Bucharest has opened the door to projects. even when it was particularly rigorous and interestingly solved. respectively technical. What should be pointed out though. not all this architecture fulfills the criteria for experimentation. this architecture that escaped (not always completely) the strictest state control. able to produce remarkable works. is that after almost two decades4 the experiment has not been practiced or encouraged. secondary to Partys objectives. Similarly. The Biennial of Architecture organized by URA5 does not have to this day a section for projects/experiments. In the homonym issue of Arhitext magazine dedicated to Email Barbu Petrescu. became theories for experimentation is also well known. for instance. Radu Drãgan called this gentle form of escape. but it doesnt count. The use of structures atypical in the Romanian practice of the time. and the last years seem to have setoff a series of initiatives in this direction. the fact that some social programs. Changes in the curriculum will certainly produce positive 79 .architecture. industrial and especially youth programs. The school is a favorable space for practicing experimentation.
a guild in which only one out of a thousand pushes ahead by himself unknown and/or completely unappreciated at his true value by his colleagues while the others are waiting for the future to go by for the sake of a mediocre present. like architecture it will cease to generate interest. If this self-reflecting dimension lacks in a field of any type. urbanism. The reasons for this are not always. a group one should place any bets on. Maybe. and not totally. more likely imploding. technology. especially when there is a strong component of experimentation and conceptual investigation in architecture. precisely those that could have had the ambition to experiment and we will be more and more colonized by architects and corporations lacking any hint of ambition to reform. Romanian architecture is. their responsibility. What could it mean to experiment in a systemic crisis? Case study: Romania Due to globalization. investigation has not been seen as the foremost tendency in architecture. Art survives by getting rid of itself repeatedly. unfortunately for its future. The Romanian participation in architectural contests like Europan or the one in Schinchenchiku. But. More and more people will leave abroad usually it is the cream of the crop that does it. Since the work of the National School. but especially one already conservative. to put itself into discussion repeatedly. lacking from the beginning the research gene. and thus were not considered among the outstanding (according to their instructors). Japan remains to be seen. it is not. some teachers should worry that the students who stood out in the treehouse contest in US were those that received low grades in class for sketches on the same subject. 80 . and material science. I believe that architecture cannot survive without constant attempts to renew itself. Statistically speaking. the land of innovation coming from the second and third worlds narrows down more and more. What remains between these two opposing colonizations is too little for a long term survival. Im afraid.effects in a medium term.
What does it mean to restore Troy IV or V? Obviously the two cities are not completely different. because I have been exposed to the VH concept since 1993. Ohio. I will not go into all the archeological details. VH allows us another extraordinary thing. The previous city was used as quarry for the new one. On the commercial end would be the tourism industry. which is the ability to experiment with restoration. But I have given the example of Troy. Lets imagine such a site. Hancock. It is one thing to see the ruins of Micene and another to travel through the virtual rendition of the site (before or after visiting the real site) as it looked when was built or in its subsequent reconstructions. but I do have an advantage over my younger colleagues. as well as in my subsequent visits in 1999 and 2004 I was able to closely observe the work of one of the frontrunners of this virtual restoration technique. John E. During the following years. in the sense that. each representing a different stage in the development of the city. how do we decide if a column. Through this technique he was able to reconstitute archeological sites of the Hopewell culture that have been partially destroyed by agriculture or urban expansion. my professor Mr. At the other end it is obvious that the VH technique could be used most sophisticatedly in research. at one of the most important research centers on this subject. This type of reconstruction has a large array of potential clients. one of the VH projects that were in works in Cincinnati. when I was in Cincinnati. when we restore. in the same process that formed each previous state before.1. What exactly does VH do? It reconstitutes in virtual reality (VR) those archeological sites and/or monuments that are in an advanced state of degradation or have even disappeared. My technical contribution to the most effective way of virtually replicating the scanned monuments is minor. based on varying criteria more than one virtual restoration proposal could be made. Virtual Heritage Virtual Heritage (hereafter VH): this is the subject my friend Alexandru Nancu has directed me to in the wake of the project ReSITUS he coordinated. And so. a 81 . It is known that there are a number of successive archeological layers.
the moment of its scanning. deliberately brought as symbol of subordination from all over the new Christian empire to support the cupola of Santa Sophia cathedral in Constantinople belong to? To the temples from which they have been removed. or they could even hold them back completely: why should we invest in restoring a site or building if we could walk through it via VH as if we would be in that remote. ruined place? Furthermore. John Hancock worked for the tourism industry. certainly not Native American Indians. the Hopewell is a strange and extinct culture. He prepared the VH material for the National Parks that protect the remnants of the Hopewell culture. In other words. Too many alternatives of virtual restoration could complicate the decisions in a real restoration case. its range is very short. time-wise. The European colonists have plowed their sacred earth mounds and erased their traces. and especially why they disappeared completely. or to the historical process that led to these temples? Most likely the answer here would be: its impossible to decide. Contemporary with Jesus. these qualities and limitations could be hard to distinguish from one another. Depending on ones point of view. Prof. inaccessible. the virtual image of an object returns the object to mark 0. Similarly to the quantum physics paradox in which it is impossible to determine the physical position of a 82 . Some have remained under golf courses or under some schools. No one knows who they were. The excess of physical detail is limited by the extremely short period of time registered by the process. If our aim is fidelity. to the cathedrals.sculpture. a high resolution image of a scanned object brings into discussion the concept of immediacy. A similarly accurate registration done after a certain period of time would differ dramatically from the previous one because time changes the geometry of an object and decomposes its matter. They knew enough sacred astronomy to be able to orient their temples after the Moon and its natural cycles or after the equinox. Hancocks studies are an introduction for the park visitors to this culture. done in a way that emphasizes the qualities of the VH technique. as well as pointing to some of its limitations. or any other recycled piece belongs to Troy IV or Troy V? To whom do the columns of pagan temples. but not from a commercial standpoint.
who might be. Yes. La Sagrada Familia cathedral will be finished as planned in 2020. like me. which in time has become quarry for the new buildings? Indeed how could it be known? After a major cataclysm (or after few more decades of neglect). For those. too much detail in a VH project is sabotaged by the short time span it covers. one that fits our times so well: as a souvenir of the completed construction. and the archeologists of the future will have the same dilemma: are they looking at a Roman temple that became a church or are they looking at a church? And how will they know that there was a church? Of many basilicas we still dont know if they were meant to spread justice or. because bringing something into being and its opposite are processes. few or many. The marble is a process not an object. the church of Densus.are reconstructed in virtual reality the way they would have looked at some point in their history.sub-atomic particle and know its speed in the same time. after they have been taken over by Christians. Could it be a reused fragment from a previous temple. and not all the processes involved in imagining a house are achievable. A virtual patrimony means that historic castles and buildings . wrote Lee Smolin in a book about quantum cosmology translated in Romanian. It involves as much creativity and decision work as architectural research. debating how could it be known if a certain stone in a certain building was new.especially when a physical reconstruction is not possible anymore . available in all the tourist shops in Barcelona. many. I have participated in many study sessions in the Virtual Heritage lab at the University of Cincinnati regarding some building in some archeological layer of Tory. I would like to give you hope after my last visit to Barcelona. meant to offer salvation. not instantaneous events. I believe that by the time of its inauguration we will be able to experience it via VH. Another example would be the upside-down tombstone used at the foot of an altar table in a church. as can be seen at the Romanian 83 . It already exists in a kind of finished state. will become a ruin. or from a previous iteration of the city. Do you think it is easy to translate architectural plans intro 3D? No. admirers of Antoni Gaudi. The houses are processes. as proved by the VH technique can only exit in virtual reality.
Peasant Museum. we are discussing a projection into the future. but he has designed it in its completeness. Is this virtual patrimony? Yes. I believe this practice of experimenting with the virtual processing of reality. This is precisely what my colleagues at the Foundation for Habitat and Art in Romania. a method of anticipating the final look of a monument or its possible image. VH is in this case. we will maybe discover something about the many changes that a project goes through until it becomes a building. were made. similarly to the geometry surrounding the black holes in contemporary cosmology. Gaudi did not build the whole cathedral. is it possible to reconstruct through virtual reality something that has not yet been consecrated by being brought into being? While youre thinking of an answer. of foreign attractors and of the bending of the time-space continuum. And what does this VH tell us about architecture? If it is to compare the (quite significant) differences between virtual and real villas. of a building7 which the devout architect did not finish. it is possible to understand the drawings and models of an artist that died more than a century before these discoveries in math and physics. Thus. Discovering his atypical geometries. the architects that try to understand Gaudis drawings can understand and translate them into stone only now. This is how it was possible to execute the light lotuses. Only now! After the discovery of fractals. from which have resulted a series of scans of these monuments. least in architecture. Consequently. Lets return to Gaudi. different from the way we see it now. not as they have been build but as the maestro imagined them in his four books on architecture. with the approval of both parties. here is another example: there is an online Palladio museum where some of his architectural dreams are made visible. (which represent both cosmic explosions and/or black holes) from the deep seated ceiling of the cathedral. How should we define it? And from what state of the building process was it removed in order to be incorporated in another? Of course. (IMUAU) at the institute of Opt-Electronics at the University of Piteºti have began to research in the project on the Barbaþia from Cîmpulung Muºcel and the church from Corbii de Piatrã. or will be seen in the future. through virtual reality. you will note that this type of questions do not apply to Gaudi: in the end. 84 .
a certain coquettishness with the people exists (Marxist expressions taught by a very prized communist critic of capitalism.e. modeled. the natural disasters. all of this being the common denominator of the American intellectual resistance. What seems to be evident lately is that more and more nonprofit organizations. the architecture dedicated to those social segments (that elude the architect whose compensation is a percentage of the projects cost). But paradoxically. the best answer (as long as the experts. the patrimony legislation. 2. Of course. Investing in a VH laboratory is significantly less expensive that doing the actual restoration. 85 . Fredric Jameson). lawmakers. an extreme form of modernism). Characterized by a minimalist aesthetic without a social mission and autistic artistic expression lacking aesthetics (i. moreover. and patrimony administration still remains blind) is Virtual Heritage. the result of their work tends to be incorporated into mainstream architecture.beginning with visualizing a historic monument and ending with the virtual reconstruction of all its potential restorations is very favorable to our time and space and expected to produce surprising results in the future. as we can easily observe in the book The Next House8 which proposes this approach as a model for the future. and restored. has all of a sudden become fashionable. and peoples migrations put us in unimaginable situations. So far. Lagging as well are the policy. The practice of restoration in Romania is lagging. Adding to that. which we thought could not happen to us. The VH data in Romania is very different form that in the US. Experimenting with Sustainable Architecture a) The Poor Architecture Suddenly. the public discourse. especially in universities. which are surprisingly effecting us too this year. poverty has become fashionable. the few similar aspects can enhance a vanguard approach in restoration: there are many monuments that could be researched. foundations and other voluntary organizations have become involved in residential architecture.
but there is a an area of concern that unites both the Western developed countries (including here Japan). have transformed the drama of suddenly loosing ones home into a major crisis for the respective countries. the portability and mobility of such a construction are inversely proportional with its lifespan11. mostly with the narrower problem of creating permanent or temporary shelters for homeless people.Today. Moreover. Some architects. possibly. Starting. they have designed a shelter that emphasizes even more its temporary nature. Inversely. from the premise that not all people in need of a shelter are in this situation against their will. probably. This is why a preventive thinking based on which the state would finance the research and construction of a sufficient number of prefab shelters is necessary10. The recent earthquakes in Turkey and Greece. they refer to a certain type of shelter with is less then a house and this is. social activism in the developed Western countries is concerned. fixed architecture is by necessity thought of in terms of its durability. that is the emergency shelter. without any other concern than to provide basic protection. which use military trucks as structural elements12. like Gans and Jelacic (from New York) work on an even more basic level than that of emergency shelters for the survivors of natural disasters. because it is more urgently needed that a house. and the developing states in the East. perhaps. portability. inflatable or flexible architecture can be thought of in terms of strength of its components or materials. 86 . In other words. 2001. Labeled extreme housing. The answer: shelters being built on hundreds of square miles9. These characteristics define some predictable materials like earth and wood. needed in large numbers in the aftermath of a natural disaster or war. but contemporary architecture has come to favor others even more perishable that these. The materials and the construction methods used in emergency architecture bring into discussion the concept of ephemerality and disappearance. Emergency architecture needs to take into consideration: speed (that of on-site construction or of assembling prefab parts). As an example are to be seen the medical structures designed for catastrophic events like September 11. as well as temporality (inherent to its very existence). for instance.
The Japanese architects are able to equally relate to both the contemporary space they try to address as well as to its traditional past (the temple in Ise. Sometimes the more or less innocent incentive for recycling abandoned buildings is the inflated price of construction materials (a frequently seen process in Bucharest during the 90s and the predominant source of brick for new residential architecture). The final stage of an architecture is often times seen as a great opportunity for the next. like a concrete structure covered in bricks of clay and straw. as it happens with Shigeru Ban. as well as his Metabolist predecessors (from whom he redeemed himself at least in terms of his ability to conceive of a movable. The modernization has practically eliminated the use of natural/local materials and the inherent construction techniques from the architecture of the rural house. Such an approach would define the Japanese architects as retro-futurists. with its paper walls is one such example). and double-pane windows. a new roof material resistant to tornados was conceived by two professors at the University of Delaware. still baring the 87 . with cemented cardboard because the construction funds have been prematurely depleted. in a rush. newspapers and waterproof adhesive. The strange combinations that I have seen in the 90s. temporary architecture). A city or a building could become the site for a new construction (normally in the aftermath of a natural disaster). wattles and other temporary materials is still practiced in rural areas of Romania. According to Newsweek magazine. and has replaced them with concrete. or could become a quarry for another settlement or building.The architects who investigate the limits of durability dont always have their own tradition as an inspirational source. They are mostly used for buildings and shelters farm annexes but not for houses. I myself have used perfectly intact bricks. tin. The use of straw bales. down. at the intersection of archaic and modern. give an idea of the confusion that exists regarding the use of materials. a confusion that architects have the responsibility to clarify. or the proud church in Urziceni (designed by me). covered. There is an element in this (re)architecture (the term was proposed by ªerban Cantacuzino as a book title regarding conversions) that is concomitantly contemporary and archaic. It contains: soy straw.
we want it to be 88 . natural or artificial. We are not leaving in times of generosity or of Christian self-sacrifice (or social-democrat for that matter). Recently. the situation is solved small-mindedly and without any overall perspective. expensive and. We have at our disposal whole quarries of such materials. That is why every catastrophic event catches the government and local builders unprepared. I am not aware of any coherent effort on behalf of the state or city authorities to indentify those who could offer a solution from architects and builders to possible donors and the army. while those afflicted by a catastrophe sit outside without shelter. and their solution is pitiful: building long term. regardless of their previous use. due to it being exiled from the city . as proved by the project in Cãlãraºi which nostalgically. and therell be need for such housing.I would call remarkable. ugly housing. new or recycled. There is nothing special in recycling modern buildings. especially modern industrial buildings. The only class dedicated to extreme housing and emergency architecture is taught by me at IMUAU13. while there still is something to take or destroy in the country. there is no preoccupation in researching emergency housing in a country haunted by the specter of devastating earthquakes. useless to say. the president of ORA14 has shared his concern regarding this dreadfully irresponsible lack of interest from on the part of authorities. In architectural contests. which should not impede the creative use of any construction materials. Instead of a strategic preoccupation for a responsible administration of such construction. and evidently superior in quality to the mostly broken brick one could purchase as new. But when natural disasters will come one after another. Now is the time of the wolves and scavenger vultures.proud stamp of its pre WWII manufacturer. One of the most serious problems of contemporary Romanian society be it national or local . the criterion requested is local character. using it towards a new house as it was free. I have recycled it from a previous neighboring demolition. Similarly.is its complete disinterest in social housing in the true sense of the word. meaning housing for those who depend on social services.
Extreme housing refers to a certain type of shelter which is less then a house. an anguished habitation. lets try to peel off its layers of meaning and in the process add to them. be it on the left or on the right. and that is probably because it is more urgently needed than a house. or does it mean something more. in the term discussed we are faced with a reversal of meaning: we are expected to know already what it means to inhabit in order to be able to speak about the shelter in its radical form. In other words. calming refuge which could divert the attention from the emergency situation. as proposed by Robert Venturi). The temporary shelter questions the very definition of inhabitation. Instead of defining the architecture of the home as an enhanced shelter (by decorating it with symbols.architectureforhumanity. b) Extreme Housing Goal of the Median Inhabitation? The term extreme housing (used by the architects Gand & Jelacic in their project for shelters in Kosovo (see www. but on the contrary. since we are not discussiong the house per se but the act of inhabitation in an extreme form. Extreme inhabitation might not mean sheltering from crisis as it could mean inhabitation in crisis. If the temporary shelter the basic form of inhabitation which does not need more then minimal preparation to take place is seen on one extreme of the process of habitation. that we did not build houses for the nouveau riches while those leaving under the poverty line survive in indescribable conditions. extreme references the need more than the solution.known that we did not sit when we should have worked. maybe a proposal for a new way of habitation? If we were to speculate. that we have not taken part in the general indifference. we could safely say that it is the process not its cover that concerns us here.com ) is meant to become part of the theoretical architectural lingo. not a protective. to the point of discussing an inhabitation of crisis. 89 . being itself affected by the extreme situation in which it exists. And what does this extreme mean exactly? Does it mean reducing the elements of inhabitation to their minimum. and implicitly temporary. like the others. then we must meditate on what is to be found in-between. Thus. in which the shelter does not protect anymore.
Years ago. 2001. during the same conversation. in a conversation with Christopher Alexander. becomes a nodal point for opening the self towards the other. In this sense. Still. invoking the Latin term colere (culture). in extreme habitation. hiding. could we ask that the process of habitation itself be more active rather than reactive/ passive? Retreating. For Heidegger. implies a fertile territory for investigation. almost a manifesto for habitation. Through an active habitation and through building for an active habitation. If architecture is a mirror image of society. opening the self towards the world. detachment. Dwelling. engagement with the community problems beginning with its close vicinity and ending with its placement in ensemble but in the same time. 90 . Living at such height and in such a charged area (in the proximity of Ground 0) will be a radical act. by extrapolation. something profound ties these two perspectives together: the idea that habitation implies action. The house. could extreme housing possibly be a goal for contemporary habitation? The apartment tower proposed by Santiago Calatrava in downtown Manhattan is a type of rise against. The radical quality of this type of habitation continually engaged in a complex socio-economic net. It is hard to imagine a bigger difference between the ways Heidegger saw the problem of habitation and that proposed by Eisenman. engagement (even physical). and not passivity. implies participation. openness. as he puts it. 145-6). opening the one towards the many and vice versa opening the community towards the individual. Peter Eastman hoped that the housing architecture would resist its seemingly predestined tendency to evade the social anguish particular to its location. why should the house be different by retreating from society and refusing to reflect its positives and its negatives? In other words. the habitation space is active. (Heidegger. and introversion. different from that practiced by Neemia in the reconstruction of Jerusalem. Thinking15. one that transforms the being in an almost agrarian way. the act of habitation evolves towards the full realization of its essence. resting all actions traditionally and almost unquestionably associated with the duties of the house are questioned by that active habitation exposed by Heidegger in Building. in and through the process of habitation itself. introspection and self redefinition.
Maybe because in their understanding. such a shelter may bring fame to its designers who show it in a gallery or on the web. the center of my world. in which the home is more than a house. can help in facing the trauma rather the ignoring it. we can build glass towers in Dubai. a space for the healing prayer (or just comforting prayer. The world is full of famous buildings that push the limits of materials. located openly. On its own. the presence of such a space alongside a basic shelter. as the charity night-shelters dont do it either. of the church. Of course. and spiritual trajectories of the neighborhood as a unit. but exists as b) community/collective shelter (in the care of the community. the term extreme housing is not something less than a permanent house. mobile shelter. The shelter is not only a) individual. and of course that glass has reached the strength of many materials with good thermal variation. On the contrary. c) Extreme Architecture in Romania Due to the modern construction technology we are able to detach the architectural design from the materials involved. for example. The house becomes then. On the contrary. but as a form of habitation. of the community as a site and as a universe. but it does not solve the lack of shelter. but something more then a temporary. it creates a situation in which it attracts attention to itself. in such situations). and not of the states social services). not as a symbol of personal/collective drama that needs to be treated or healed through blame or pity. the way it was described so far. the term I propose here is that of hyper-housing. as a sanctuary and as a right to the comfort of the sacred space. and by analogy the public space becomes the center of our worlds. a church. it includes the social. sacrificing comfort for a powerful image. economic. We thought it important. to propose for the pilot project done with Habitat and Art in Romania foundation (HAR) in Bujoreni/Vâlcea not only a house for crisis situations but a spiritual space as well. But glass will never behave as well as the 91 .The shelter proposed by Gans & Jelacic does not solve the problem of those without a home. in the context of extreme housing. The church is a privileged space of shelter for individual or collective psychological dramas.
have provided thermal resistance similar to a solid wall. For example. increasing the taxes on the already prohibitive price of gas and electricity should encourage a faster transition to the use of alternative energy. We already know that our energy resources are limited and. Not only does the Ministry for the Environment need to support this inevitable process. The forests. even the architects need to reconsider their planning models. finally. because good policy cannot be implemented through the benevolence of the investors or by force. we even have as lifestyle model the house that not only uses. Reducing the taxes for those that comply should also be mandatory in order for the use of green technology to be cost effective compared to the traditional sources of energy (because we also have bad traditions that have killed the independent thinking of pre-modern architecture). Principles of Planning We know that even in Romania the climate is changing towards extremes.materials that. Houses that are completely independent of the electrical system are more and more common and better designed. at this point. where they still exist. do not exist). solar energy and the heat pump are the norm. the use of at least one alternative energy source needs to be mandatory by law for all buildings in Romania. but generates energy. can be renewed only through political decisions (which. Only a few days ago the Ministry for the Environment has discovered that the sources for renewable energy are not easily available to the consumers and will propose legislation to encourage their use. but so does the Finance Ministry. or at least for those over a certain size (and for all public ones). with sudden variations in temperature. but through an intelligent taxation system. On the other hand. The South of the country is becoming dryer. Abroad. It is inadmissible that in places blessed with good exposure to wind and sun power plants still burn heavy oil in order to produce thermal energy. they come with heavy political agendas. for now. from the beginning. In conclusion. Claiming that we are designing based on the models of Western architecture does not apply anymore: please look at 92 . because we have long since crossed the limit of natural self-renewal for this living resource.
does not need the artificial cool air (which. The solid space conserves more than the empty space. If climatically speaking we are migrating South. think of the architecture of the traditional dirt hut. A good ventilation of the interior is achieved if we orient the building. We need shade and coolness. We should maintain a well balanced ratio between the solid and the glassed surfaces or walls. we are constantly told is harmful to our health). the volumetric articulation of the buildings themselves needs to change. from the tall office buildings to the villas are still built based on the pre-WWII and immediately post war architecture. A simple look over the border at the traditional architecture of Bulgaria. even in desert conditions.e. for the absence of walls make these buildings a vessel for conserving the internal energy of the building. we need to follow the time tested architectural models of the South. for lack of a better argument) and that the awnings need to be designed in such a way as to provide appropriate shade based on the sun exposure of the house. and how expressive these consoles could be. towards at least two cardinal points. not only as a form of poor architecture (as it is seen at the Village Museum. We should. And especially. and Turnkey can teach us how to design an extended awning supported on wood consoles. we need to use internal courtyards. using the vertical movement of the air through ventilation wells between the basement of the building (which could even contain a body of water) 93 . besides their traditionally use. I feel its obvious that we should stop using terraces only for their modern look (meaning stylistically obsolete. The solution is not the air conditioning system that avidly consumes electrical power at prohibitive prices. and all its adjacent units (i. often poorly assimilated. which are still remembered and used by traditional architects. Greece.the current Western architecture and you will see that in Romania everything. Intelligent facades that collect and store solar energy are doubling their positive impact on the site. apartments). In the Middle East are used other forms of air circulation. perhaps. for example) but as a form of contemporary eco-architecture as well. In conclusion. A well designed house.
conserves more energy. which should also extend to facades as sun protectors. If we deplore the loss of green spaces. Gardens can also be vertical surfaces (facades and fences but also multi level structures traversed internally by promenades). on the one hand. Interior courtyards offer. They are waiting for us. or the house-garden ensemble with internal shade. to cease to be salesmen for a dumb-down industry that poisons our air in order to 94 . The construction materials. Maybe we should give up. The facades of apartment buildings could be transformed from radiant heat sources into lungs of the city. the introverted building. just that we seem to be looking only at old architecture books not the most recent examples! A viable garden is not necessarily tied to the ground. in the urbanization plans proposed. We need vegetation. The viaducts near the Bastille opera in Paris offer one such solution. from the unfired clay to ceramics. the architects. and colors could be. we should act not by limiting construction but by intelligently using the construction site. while the urban policies practiced in Bonn. but also the stone and the wood are all here. their textures. it would be a good idea to use them as green surfaces. Interior gardens have long been used in office building architecture.and the levels above. In any case. Natural materials first of all the earths. to the independent house with smaller and smaller plots and to give a chance to the surrounding-building. as opposed to the building with four external walls. and thus we should not automatically reduce it to the available size on the construction site. The Roman villa knew already all these principles and it is not at all shameful to admit that it was right. and on the other hand more intimacy from the public space. and the architecture of today is not. as well. shade and cooler temperatures for the interior spaces. Germany where covering the terraces of apartment buildings with vegetation is deliberate are another. If we end up using terraces. The light-well courtyards of our pre-WWII buildings play this useful role to the day. Already existent surfaces can be covered with vegetation and recovered as parks for the city unlike anything built so far. gathering more buildings into one block surrounding a courtyard. the keys of an instrument that the architect could play a cooling music. waiting for our awakening.
when necessary the place and the climate. respectively after 1989. I know what resistance anyone can encounter when it undermines a tradition wrongly built on the idea of modernization. If the place and the climate become extreme. These are the premises of the text I proposed to Tincuþa Heizel: a synoptic map of the post-WWII Romanian experimentalism. it needs to be reinvented. poses the same questions I am posing here after two thousand years of proud endurance. and how the simple proximity of a castle. like the one from Argamum (Capul Doloºman. I also know with what awe my colleagues discover the forming qualities of the earths.make the concrete and asphalt from which we ultimately end up running from. for the last few summers. and to all those who. During the conference in Sibiu. For this volume though. this text is an indirect homage to the Foundation for Habitat and Art in Romania. I have given a talk together with Ciprian Mihai about the inherent complexities of philosophy and architecture. (Text translated from Romanian by Barbara Bartos) 95 . which is the source of the present volume. I hope that such a project does not seem outdated compared with the most recent experiments of my other colleagues represented in this publication. in the absence of Ciprian I thought it fit to present this site-specific text. If critical thinking succumbed under the fascination with producing a maddening technology. Why does the Danube delta need to be covered in concrete when we could built good houses on stilts and stone like always? Why does the mountain need to be covered in concrete when stone and wood are all there. taught us slowly. As one who has written the architectural norms for the Danube Delta area. almost against the will of those who feel that such experiments reveal their own traditions. Jurilofca). that the architecture needs to change in Romania too in order for it to fit or not. discussing the experimentalism as a hidden aspect of post-WWII Romanian architecture. similarly our built environment needs to rethink itself. followed by a panorama of the experimental potential in contemporary Romanian architecture. to which communism was only its gangrenous stage. In a way. under our eyes burned by the light of a dying modernity? All these questions would be rhetorical but in Romania and some tropical countries.
see the magazine Ianus/2002. Alexandru Nancu and I have vehemently denied our opposition to the ex-commissioner of PUR announced donation during the opening. For details about this incredible episode. Oxford: Elsevier/Architectural Press. not even the publication of this project in mainstream media had any effect on the MLPTL.simple apartment buildings identical with those built before 1989 at much higher prices that they would go for on the market! 11 For more detials see Robert Kronenburg. p. 7 La Sagrada Familia (translators note). but from my experience working with the Foundation for Habitat and Art in Romania. 2 I am sending the reader the a text dedicated to this subject in my book: Bizatium after Bizatium after Bizatium (Constanþa: Ex Ponto. 2003. CSAC. On the other hand. the wood church that accompanies the pilot housing in Bojoreni had been promised by Sen. I could see the fury with which the local authorities of Vâlcea (county and city) have responded to such a project on the day of the opening (the fall of 2001). 3 Reference to Ricardo Bofill (translators note).Notes Context and Experiment in Architecure in Experiment in Romanian Art after 1960 (Bucharest. and where the reconstruction costs have been much more than the sum granted to the HAR Foundation. Adrian Paunescu to a community in Serbia that had previously offered him an award. 10 In Romania. 6 The Order of Romanian Architects (translators note). claiming that it misrepresents the efforts of the government to engage with a similar problem in the county specifically the collapse of a settlement situated over a abandoned salt mine. 1 96 . We have been lectured in cosmopolitanism and false orthodoxy and other 50s accusations. 1997). fact that would have transformed a project financed by EU money in one of fiscal evasion. 4 Since 1989 (translators note). which led to the denigration of the project by the bullied employees of the city hall for the remainder of the evening. and which strangely has forgotten to built an Orthodox church in an Orthodox country. 8 by Lola Gomez & Cristina Montes (translators note).108-112. non only this way of thinking does not exist at an official level. 5 Architects Union of Romania (translators note). Portable Architecture. 2000). I do not know how much did this sight change since. Of course. 9 The neverending forest of houses between Istabul and Ankara was a postapocalyptic sight for the professors and the students of Ion Mincu University of Architecture with whom I was travelling on this route in 2001. 3rd edition. the company that builds this social housing .
14 The Order of Romanian Architects (translators note). pp. London: Harper Perennial. 12 97 .Stephen Verderber. isue 3. Compassionism and the Design Studio in the Aftermath of 9/11". 15 Martin Heidegger. 13 Ion Mincu University of Architecture and Urbanism. Journal of Architectural Education. Thought translated by Albert Hofsadter. Bucharest (translators note). Building. Thinking in Poetry. Republished in 2001. 1976. 48-62. Dwelling. February 2003. volume 56. Language.
New forms of cultural production and consumerism are being explored in association with those new spatial practices. or GPS technologies have made possible the instantaneous connection between location dependent information and physical spaces. the incessant tagging of objects and the world itself. PLACES AND SPACES: TOWARDS A FRAMEWORK FOR LOCATIVE MEDIA ARTWORKS Gemma San Cornelio. in reciprocal co-production with the social and the technological. Geomatics. Pau Alsina Abstract Information and communication technologies have redefined our understanding and relationship with space as much as (far from techno-deterministic approaches) the other way around. The networked society and its specialization on information flows have brought us new territorial configurations through processes that are being constantly recreated by the variable geometry of global information flow. remote sensing. Mobile phones. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) or Global Positioning Systems (GPS).ON FLOWS. The use that artists make of media technologies in relation to space interventions suggest a stimulating 99 . have delivered new forms of representing the space as much as new forms of perception of that space through tools and techniques used in land surveying. wireless networks.
100 . and by extension. Western philosophers raised different questions about space. as case studies for the use of information and communication technologies. sociology or geography. such as anthropology. being approached from very distinct disciplines: from philosophy to architecture. In this context. or even media studies. the creative practice. and as field. establishing connections between theoretical sources and artistic interpretations of space. should be regarded as a set of emerging practices that deal with our relationship with space in varied forms and that may be challenging current and previous theoretical approaches to space. or in other words. through the study of different locative media artworks. The aim of this chapter is two-fold: first of all. The main positions can be summed up as follows: space was understood as position of objects. We will focus on such theories and interpretations in order to highlight different layers of space-related concepts in relation to the practice of art. Secondly. 1. The nature of space Throughout history. particularly initiating a discussion about its objective nature.way of approaching the study of how these technologies shape and affect our everyday life. Through the analysis of these theories and practices we will further seek to outline a proper and useful theoretical framework for the current practice of locative media art. we want to dig into an archaeology of space-related concepts throughout history. as enclosure of objects. locative media artworks. The question of experiencing and representating space has been at the heart of many debates on technological developments in our contemporary societies. art practices using what has been defined as locative media. the concept of space had different interpretations in the Western philosophical tradition. we will investigate the transformation of the subjective perception of space. including social sciences.
also by Descartes in his Geometry. by its own nature without relation with anything external. Descartes. extended this notion in science as did Kant. Then Newton.1 This concept almost disappeared in Western philosophy. Descartes defines it in a more expressive way than by size and figure. Leibniz. Zeno. There is no space without material objects. as Aristotle explained in his Physics. as the immobile limit that embraces a body. and have just a nominal difference. is always the same and immobile. with the exception of Heidegger. Spinoza and Leibniz argued against the existence of the void. This notion became established through some authors of the Renaissance and then. then it must be the property of a substance. For Newton the absolute space. who said that being-there. the human reality. determined by our senses through its position respective to our bodies. 101 . The relative space is a mobile dimension or measure of all absolute spaces. and that is commonly considered as immobile space. against Newtonians. Lucretius. regarding the nature of space as a place. The limited empty space. would be the property of which substance?. which was identical with the notion of space for Plato. The second position considers that space is the enclosure. an affirmation made in order to find a particular way to solve the problem of the nature of space. But both are identical. and we end up thinking more on the lines of the latter definitions when we think of space. Epicurus. against Leibnizs arguments. This position was supported by the old Atomism that believed in the existence of the void and its infinity. and later Giordano Bruno followed this concept. is unique in its nature through its relationship with things.The first one to be considered was space as a positional quality of the material objects in the world.2 Absolute space is then the measure of all dimensions of space. said if space is a property or an attribute. whose defendants believe exists between two bodies. We can find this concept in Aristotle. and therefore there is no possible void.
the De Stijl group and Theo van Doesburg (with his design for a house in the 4th dimension of space-time). as it did for Kants philosophy and its Euclidean geometry. For example artists and architects as Le Courbusier and Ozenfant (through their magazine LEsprit Nouveau). as a way to visualize and measure the space. as a new way of explaining the universe and the nature of space and reality. the expressive force of a particular notion of space completely different from the modern concepts. as Panofsky explains. During Renaissance artists like Leonardo da Vinci or Alberti used the system of geometric perspective as a tool for the representation of space in their artworks. as it also represents a totally different conception of the world itself. Nowadays it still is the most comprehensive notion of space applied to contemporary physics. the Theory of Relativity. Artists around the world tried to inspire their work on these ideas.The third understanding was the concept of space as field. Laszlo Moholy Nagy (through his art and 102 . when the possibility of measuring it through non Euclidean geometries exists. we could think of many artists being inspired by Euclidean geometry. which in some way. The mathematization of the representational space is. in the cosmic space the shortest distance between two points is not a straight line anymore. But the non-Euclidian geometries of Lobachevsly or Rienman also captured the attention of artists. As the space is wrinkled by gravitational fields. It is illogical to think of space without implying a field. The forth dimension adds time to the traditional three-dimensional understanding of space. as well. This way of representing space also had a tremendous impact on German idealism. generated by massive stars and galaxies. represents a return to the notion of space as place. Therefore the notion of field paradoxically substitutes the notion of space. In art history. and the fusion between space and time as a continuum makes its appearance in the Physics of Minkowski. especially when Einstein and his Theory of General Relativity were used to explain the physical space. or the undulatory mechanics of Schrödinger for example.
a universal dating system (the calendar). Anthony Giddens. got inspired by these ideas generated by the Theory of Relativity and the non-Euclidean understanding of space. the clock. so that it provides a basis for their recombination in ways that coordinate social activities 103 . 2. as linked to the different notions of space mentioned above. but in the late capitalist societies there is a separation of these two spheres. and differentiates them from the spatial practices of ordinary users (the citizens). Giddens states that in the pre-modern society. and its separation from institutional or panoptic consideration. the development of an empty dimension of time. distinguishes three elements to describe the dynamic character of modern social life: the first one is what he defines as the separation of time & space. For example. time and space were connected through the circumstances of place. honoring Lobachevsky). El Lissitzky (with his Proun artworks and his manifesto of A. and maps are just some elements that have contributed to the separation of time and space. is one of the most important features that define the diverse concepts on space in social theory. Max Bill (in his art and math series as the Moebius strip). The accent on the personal and subjective experience of space. one of the most prominent contemporary theorists. the main lever which also pulled space away from place4. social theories on space focus on the conventional understanding of space provided by institutions (states and governments)3. In this sense. above all. This separation involves. Naum Gabo (with his kinetic sculptures) André Breton and Marcel Duchamp (and the ideas of mathematician Poincairé) or Salvador Dalí (through many of his artworks like The Persistence of Memory) amongst others. and Pangeometry. Social space and its dualities We could also consider space through social theory.design classes). in Modernity and Self-identity. Kazimir Malevich (with his Suprematist Machine) .
voyeuristic eye. actually.without necessary referencing the particularities of place. one of the important authors in the modern aesthetic theory. who defined the artistic evolution in the visual Western arts in terms of a shift from haptic space to optical space. the space is 104 . and accumulate one above the other. unitary space. This duality is expressed by some authors. as in the pre-moderns era. like David Clarkes or Alois Riegl. by all the different media that have emerged during the twentieth century. on the contrary. the when of these actions is directly connected to the where but not. This thesis has been later supported by K. regarding a social and economic model. In the optical space. the experience of space through media points to one of the most relevant questions regarding space in contemporary art and culture: the distinction between the visual and the corporeal understanding of space. exemplified in the primitive systems of representation. one of the most relevant consequences of the separation of space and time is that. Gergen. or partially caused. The scenes are formed as links to the objects. that is. the concept visuality recalls the space perceived by the detached. and more recently by Manuel Castells. two concepts originally introduced by Giddens and used very commonly nowadays by scholars. is facilitated. and hapticallity defines the space perceived by the mobile.5 In this way. without being organized in a homogeneous and. as McLuhan initially proposed. there is another result of the transformation of space: the coexistence of what has been labeled as globality and locality. Thus. Anthony Giddens. the objects are isolated inside the visual field. In haptic space. to Clarke. David Clarke talks about visuality and hapticality in cinema. as he points out: Modern social organization presumes the precise coordination of the actions of many human beings physically absent from one another. Related to this. The coexistence of locality and globality. Haptic space is also a central concept in Alois Riegls writings. it is not essential to overlap in space and time in order to share a (collective) experience. The mediated practice of space. via the mediation of place6. living body7.
and used until today. the city is offered up to the voyeur as a whole. The voyeur point of view is defined as gazing at the city from above. Visuality. In the authors words. The walker is a person who practices and lives the space from the inside. is the anonymous person walking and experiencing the city. Borrowing from Baudelaires notions the voyeur and flaneur. this distinction (argued elsewhere by San Cornelio8) it is not only due strictly to the different systems of representation. unorganized. but not paying attention to small things or particularities. in contrast with the messy city that one moves through down below. From this vantage point. would refer to an optical and pretended objective way of understanding the human experience. Considering this approach. transformed into a solar eye and looking down like God. walkers are practitioners that make use of spaces that cannot be seen10. but also to how images allude to sensuality and evoke emotions. hence. and the other senses of the human being. That is the way Walking in the City begins: the author is standing at the top of the World Trade Centre gazing over Manhattan. The walker. a graspable image. Clarkes concept of hapticality would recall that of Riegl. analyzing spatial practices in the city. applying these theories to film analysis throws light on the particularities of the image and shifts from the voyeurs to the walkers perspective as it is shown in the following examples. holistic.represented using the perspective system. The voyeur would be the figure representing an optical point of view. in a way that an image (a shot) taken from a very close distance may appear incomplete. while hapticality would refer to the body. Following a similar duality. particularly by means of photography or films. and sometimes distorted. Michel de Certeau. 105 . defined by the Renaissance painters. In our view. As proposed by San Cornelio11. in The Practice of Everyday Life. De Certeau describes the city experienced by either voyeurs or walkers9. a representation with perspective. elaborates a theoretical model where he distinguishes two types: voyeurs and walkers. thus.
agricultural.A Fig. Greek temples are absolute spaces because they imply notions of divinity. forming a texture that encloses them both. but not the dimensions of the abstract or Euclidean space12. 4 the shift from voyeur to walker perspective in Wings of Desire © reverse-angle pictures Finally. or space in origin) shows the relationship between urban space and its surroundings: the nature. Absolute space has dimensions. and the representations of space are geographic or transportation and communication route maps.Fig. Henry Lefevbre. the same 106 . as Lefebvre defines it. Following Lefebvre. the representational space is more related to nature and fertility. 2 walker perspective Caresses © Els Films de la Rambla. 3 and Fig. talks about production of space and distinguishes between absolute and abstract space. absolute space is a representational space. For instance. in which space is conceived rather than lived. Absolute space defines the space as lived. rather than a representation of space. S.1. as opposed to abstract space.voyeur perspective People from Rome 2003 © Istituto Luce y Roma Cinematografica Fig. Absolute space (pastoral. in other words.
which aims to achieve objectivity . but after a closer look it becomes illusory because it is defined through empirical metaphors13. governed by the logic of capitalism. eliminating differences.as it is commonly understood . in fact. On the other hand. representing Lefebvres abstract space Actually. 5. Absolute space addresses not the intellect.occurs with tombs and funerary monuments that also belong to the absolute space. Google map from aerial perspective. both in social and art practices. The main assumption of such critical approaches is that conventional cartography. influenced by a subjective view.is. punishments. Fig. On first impression it appears homogeneous. related to power (for example the northern hemisphere is situated at the top of terrestrial globes. the empirical representation of space has been critically observed. abstract space is political. but the body (threats. instituted by state. but retaining a bond with their severed surroundings. while the 107 . emotions) In absolute space people inhabit nature.
it could be stated that Situationist practises are. Furthermore. there have been some alternative responses. 3. Dérive would be connected with psychogeography. It is also a rhetoric territory where the practitioners share signs and have things in common. Thus. or the situationist movement in the Fifties of the Twentieth Century. relationship. partially or totally. In this sense. airports. spaces where the identity. as an alternative to journeys and maps. Particularly. Within the category of non-places. letting themselves be drawn by the attractions of the terrain and the encounters they found there. and history of its practitioners can not be read. This way. Thus. This position is overtly represented by Marc Augé definition of non-places. substitution and disappearance of place Some other contemporary authors go a step further and point to the transformation or possible disappearance of the notion of place. In an anthropological sense.developing countries are at the bottom). such as feminist geography (D. as well as other art practices related to space. proposed the Derive as a method for exploring space. such us performances and interventions (installations) in public buildings and open spaces. petrol stations ) spaces of consumerism (super markets. a response to the theories previously drawn. many appropriations and personalization of maps are currently taking place. Chance is a less important factor in this activity than one might think: from a derivés point of view cities have psychogeographical contours. This experience consisted of a rapid passage through varied environments of the city by a group of people. hotel chains ) and spaces of 108 . with constant currents. to some extent. where one can read. Transformation. the study of the effects of geography on individuals14. Guy Debord. Massey). the basis of Augés theorization of non-places is based on their contrary conditions. he includes three types of spaces: spaces of circulation (motorways. the place is a symbolic space. the identity of its inhabitants15. thanks to location-based technologies. fixed points and vortexes that strongly discourage entry into or exit from certain zones. that is. that is.
communication (screens. have been extensively inspired by these ideas. and the poststructuralist space is broken up into discontinuous elements that are branching without an unifying frame of reference. It is a city without history. These places have empirical existence and they are spreading towards the suburbs (peripheries) and characterizing what he defines as super-modernity. This leads to a non-unified final form. For him. superficial like a film studio. Other post-structuralist authors. or a manifold space without a common measure. Poststructuralist geography emerges from the deconstruction of pointilistic articulations of space. waves ) 16. they can be turned into places. deny the category of place. these are not places where long-term social relationships can be inscribed. and heterogeneous moments of subjectivity that do not cohere into an identity19. For him. as much as by the non-Euclidean parameters hidden inside them. Concretely. In a more general perspective. Many artists or architects. it is a product of the market. thus denying the category of place as source of identity. as for example Peter Eisenman. breaking up a given space into fragments. he claims the dissolution of epistemic coherence. exploring the 109 . time. The manifold spaces are folded in many ways as the model for the material sciences is the origami or the art of folding20 as Deleuze and Guattari affirm. Marcus Novak is another architect directly inspired by the ideas of Deleuze and Guattary. such as Lyotard. cables. Auge draws on Rem Koolhas idea of generic city 18. This assertion opens the possibility that through an intense experience of these spaces by its practitioners. This way. and place. in a process of never ending self-destruction and renewal. which could be conveyed in terms of heterotopia. narrative elements disintegrate into clouds of linguistic combinations. Nevertheless. although with different arguments. the notion of place is a nostalgic response to the conditions of late capitalism. the opposition between places and non-places is relative. without layers. it depends on the place and the moment of the day17. Immutability gives way to fluidity. or in other words. he criticises the notion of domesticity or dwelling. Augé states that in a first level of analysis. which is defined as a uniform model of a city where the skyscraper is the definitive typology.
ITC and the transportation systems have defined a new space for social interaction. As Felix Stalder affirms. in Manuel Castells words. the effects are dramatic and are still unfolding. For the first time ever. What logically belongs together no longer needs to be in one place in order to function as a single unit ( ). In this space. Baudrillard points to a spatial representation and experience based on the idea of simulacrum. in the last decades. arrival becomes elusive.21 As many authors have already stated. 4. people. His work is based on the prominence of the image in our society up to the point that images substitute reality. interaction takes place in real time across very large distances and is shaping and shaped by the flow of information. but to keep them moving around. it is becoming possible to be geographically distributed and still act as a unit in real time. goods. and GPS technologies have introduced the possibility to instantly connect ubiquitous information with physical spaces. but also in the conceptualization of the cyberspace as a disembodied space. flow of information. From an aesthetic point of view. It is. The space of flows is not so much organized to move things from one place to another. His work has been extremely influential not only in sci-fi or futuristic films like the Matrix trilogy. and goods. the space of flows: a space that is organized for. virtually indistinguishable from departure. The opening and the ubiquity of place In recent years. strongly determined also by the technological developments of Virtual Reality. flow of organizational 110 . flow of technology. and information over large distances. In the space of flows. thus living in a continuum of simulated experiences. and created by the constant movement of people. as he explains broadly in his work. Simulacra and Simulation (1981). Castells writes: Our societies are constructed around the concept of flow: flow of capital.immense possibilities of the folds and multiplicity as key factors for his creations. the empirical information and descriptions of space have increased spectacularly: mobile phones. wireless networks.
This position has been criticized by other authors. he is still supporting the idea that places have lost their identity due to the use of technologies and have become a sort of abstract places not linked to a particular location. The flow is not just one element of social organization: it is the expression of the processes dominating our economic. places are open. Moores considers that they are not opposed because place is not self-contained. where flows are understood a purposeful.22. in a way. Castells is quite right to begin by identifying the relation between flows and places as central to any social theory of space in the network society. flow of images. In other words. as Massey defines them: places should be thought of as not so much bounded areas. it would seem at first sight that the conceptualization of space of flows is a suitable framework for locative 111 . repetitive. he recalls also Rem Koolhas generic city.interactions. sounds. The meaning of the term stresses particularly the idea of flows. For Moores. political. Defining a theoretical framework for locative media artworks Recalling the last theories.24 Castells defines the space of flows in relation to the space of places. programmable sequences of exchanges and interactions between social actors holding spatially discontinuous positions. and symbols. livings ). Castells proposes a new spatial model that characterizes what he defines as the network society. which is considered a previous paradigm where the physical localization was a determinant factor. because. (as Castells suggests) but has extensions outside (emotions. and she points to the openness of places in global times26. 5. In his own words it is a new spatial form characteristic of social practices that dominate and shape the network society: the space of flows. In this model. and symbolic life. but quite wrong to think of the space of flows and the space of places as diametrically opposed forms with completely separate logics25. for considering it the architectonic expression of the space of flows in the information age23.
and shape a rapid set of technological developments. Although there is not an official definition of the term locative media its initial use is attributed to Karlis Kalnins in 2003 and it was the 2006 topic of a special issue of the Leonardo Electronic Almanac. Ben Russell puts it in other words: Locative media is many things: a new site for old discussions about the relationship of consciousness to place and other people. critique. or interventions in the public space. such as land art. Hence. or computers. Yet. which are constantly sending and receiving data flows. locative media is closely related to augmented reality (reality overlaid with virtual reality) and pervasive computing (as in ubiquitous computing). critical or personal (memory) background in relation to the notion of space and place. In the Wikipedia the term is summarized as media of communication functionally bound to a location. they are not the goal for the development of projects in this field. as far as they deal with space. laptop computers.media projects. They are digital media applied to real places and thus triggering real social interactions. a name for the ambiguous shape of a rapidly deploying surveillance and control infrastructure. locative media concentrates on social interaction with a place and with technology28. As Manovich points out29. only based on the technological side of these artworks. although place-based arts have long and rich histories. and mobile phones enable locative media. in order words. and would leave aside their aesthetic and conceptual components. these projects have the possibility to augment or enhance the notion of space. through technological devices. whereas augmented reality strives for technical solutions and pervasive computing is interested in embedded computing. this would be a shallow approach.27 In a technical sense. a context within which to explore new and old models of communication. from a conceptual point of view many locative media projects have a social. PDA. Nevertheless. 112 . which links them with other contemporary practices. GPS. a framework within which to actively engage with. such as mobile phones. While mobile technologies such as the Global Positioning System (GPS). the novelty of locative projects seems to be in the way they include technological agents to express and index spatial relationships. community and exchange.
what kind of strategies are more suitable to provide an extensive use of these public spaces. in other words. in consequence. augmented space and locative media are absolutely related.30 With the previous assertion Manovich describes what he understands as a shift from the Virtual Reality paradigm to the Augmented Reality paradigm. as something that already was often a part of other architectural and artistic paradigm33.For Manovich the context for exploring new aesthetics of space is provided by augmented reality techniques. in a street. graphics and type. Augmented Reality is conceptually very similar to wireless location services. One of the key notions where these aesthetics can be explored is public space. to locative media: the common idea is that when the user is in the vicinity of objects. all the action is done in a virtual space.31 This way. the difference between the Locative Media approaches to space and that of other non-technologically-mediated interventions in public spaces would be the interchangeability and dynamics of data. in a way.beyond its technological side .has become replaced by a new image: a person checking email. constituting . opposed to Virtual Reality because in a typical Virtual Reality system. so that physical space becomes unnecessary and its vision is completely blocked. car. buildings or people. For Manovich. ( ) substituting them with electronic displays makes possible to present dynamic images. Moreover.and commercial branding such as Pradas . or in other actually existing space. Thus. Augmented Reality systems help the user to do the work in a physical space by augmenting this space with additional information. or making a phone call ( ) while in the airport. rather than just a technological issue. Augmented Reality becomes. Overlaying dynamic and contextual data over a physical space is a particular case of a general aesthetic paradigm: how to combine different spaces together. and they can be regarded as the same aesthetic paradigm. [Although] physical space was always augmented by images.an aesthetic paradigm: The previous image of the computer era VR user traveling in a virtual space. In contrast. ( ) it is crucial to see it as a conceptual. 113 . for Manovich. the information about them is delivered to the user32. to mix images ( ) and to change the content at any time. Manovich proposes to learn from architecture .
tagging specific spots into Google or other online maps. Generally audio walks are pieces that suggest to follow a trajectory through spaces where a narration recorded in an audio track . Another project which is also based in exploring and augmenting the experience in the city is Interurban by Jeff Knowlton and Naomi Spellman.In the following paragraphs we provide some examples illustrating. One of the pieces is The Missing Voice (Case Study B). sound effects. and on the other. how locative media artworks are dealing with this aesthetic paradigm. commissioned in 1999 and continues to run. its theoretical source of inspiration being Situationism. combine instructions to the user (go down the stairs. The technique used in this project is what is commonly known as geotagging. the audio walks by Janet Cardiff may one attempt to include narratives (in this case fictional) in the experience of walking along a city. that is. on the one hand. cannot be denied in this project. Utilizing a Tablet PC. and other types of data. The project. 114 . The project was initially presented in 2004 at FutureSonic in Manchester UK. how these projects are related with previous reflections on space. GPS card and custom software. to be used as the basis of walks which navigate urban space in a new and unexpected way. performed initially on June 16th 2008 (Bloomsday) aimed to remap routes from James Joyces Ulysses to any city in the world cited in the novel. These narrations are listened by earphones connected to a CD player or iPod. Although technologically these are not complex projects. as far as every point in the narrative is conditioned by the very spatial coordinates the spectator is covering. look through the window ) with fragments of a story. It was a participatory global intervention aiming to create a day of psychogeographical exploration with 1000 interventions in 24 hours across the globe. Trying to establish a temporary perspective. Walking in the city. their own nature reveals an absolute immersion with the spaces that the spectators experience. inspired by different sources or motivations was the premise of the project 1000 Joyce Walks34 . The importance of the place.leads the action.
heading and proximity to hypothetical or historical events determine how the narrative unfolds. Clara Boj and Diego Diaz. and then. These images will be seen through a device of augmented reality visualization. Environmental factors such as time of day and user/ participant location. currently a kind of binoculars. replace them with alternative material. 6) of a simulation of Time Square in New York. The procedure will consist of training a computer to recognize billboard advertisements. so that its exploration connects interactions between the two spaces. logos and other commercial images. The discontinuities on the reception of this information have to do with specific points of wireless connection.InterUrban plays back pre-recorded narrative elements read by voice actors to weave a story structure in Manchesters historical city center. The project is at the moment being tested in different sites Fig. a project that is currently being developed by Julian Oliver. and between present and past35 the project more evidently linked to Manovichs suggestion to learn from architecture and commercial strategies is The Artvertise. 6 Simulation of The Artvertiser 115 . between vision and hearing. Although the previous examples illustrate the aesthetic potential of overlaying information over a physical space. thus providing a mixed experience to the participant. This location aware narrative unfolds as the user/participant moves through real space. The main idea is taking sites dense with advertisements as an exhibition space. distance traveled. as depicted in the following image (fig.
and can chose to exchange text messages with them and hear the verbal commentary of the Blast Theory runners via audio-stream and via 116 . By this concept he meant that public events now occur. This project started in 2001 and it has been performed in many different locations. 7) which is a test in Madrid. the Blast Theory victor takes a digital photo of the real space where the participant was seen and this photo is displayed on the webpage38. As they navigate the virtual city they are chased by members of the Blast Theory team who appear as avatars in the virtual world. Participants can then access an online virtual environment constructed to replicate the actual streets of the selected city. if a chaser gets within five meters of an online player. the player is seen and is out of the game. in two different places: the place of the event itself and that in which it is watched and heard. The place duplication is at the heart of the experience in the project Can You See Me Now? by Blast Theory. Participants are also able to see the avatars of other players and runners.and its appearance would look like in (fig. is there someone you havent seen for a long time that you still think of?. simultaneously. When it occurs. The remote participants must avoid the Blast Theory chasers. 7 Test of the Artvertiser in Madrid In order to complete this framework it would be useful the recall the idea of place duplication suggested in the work of Scannell36. Fig. A loose narrative framework is established requiring players to answer the question. Broadcasting mediates these two sites37.
the different examples of locative media introduced in this chapter. in our view. as it has been argued along this chapter. it does not make sense any more to believe in this concept since the Internet is full of geographical information. As previously said. Klitch describes her own experience in the game this way: I have the uncanny realisation that I am running alongside these performers. is that they can be examined by many different disciplines and points of view and consequently put in different frameworks. as Townsend and others suggest. Furthermore. whereas the experiences on both sides are equally real. there is no doubt that their experience should be considered as a whole and not separately. Much of the early academic literature in this area has tended to focus on the nature of spaces or places apart from the rest of social life. One of the main reasons. as we intended in this 117 . locative media projects propose a complete fusion between places and. in our view. As Miller and Slater state.walkie-talkie. constitute a very complex and diverse set of artistic practices that are currently emerging. This is not a trivial observation. only understanding this connection we will be able to understand that the openness or the possibilities of being interconnected are part of the same experience40. Conclusions As implied above. there is still a tendency to separate virtual space from the so-called real space. this idea is highly influenced by the notion of simulation but also of simulacrum as a paradigm of a detached representation of reality. In contrast. or approached them in an interdisciplinary way. and consequently there isnt much research done on them. because despite the fact that there has been a lot of research based on the Internet in the last years. I have become a material-informational entity that exists not only in the virtual world. and as part of everyday life. but also elsewhere in the real world39 In a sense the project Can You See Me Now makes more evident the colliding of the two spaces at the same time by connecting both the experience in the physical space with the online space. 6. rather than treating the Internet as continuous with other social spaces.
rather than its disappearance. but there are other aspects to be explored (Manovich proposition on archaeology could be one approach) in the current media practices. these practices although they are close (or part of) the conceptualization of space of flows. Sobremodernidad. their practical and evocative approach would suggest the opening of the place. Furthermore. Related to this. Although precisely their technological orientation would suggest that we are facing a new body of art practices. the truth is that there are many references to both space theories and contemporary art practices in them: from a historical and conceptual point of view they are related to public space interventions. land art. from a theoretical and social point of view. but also of contemporary and media art in general. References Augé M. Augé. but at the same time. This is another line of research we are currently exploring. as Massey or Scanell have suggested. London / NewYork: Verso. and drawing on Manovich insights. We have tried to shed some light on these projects and to demonstrate how artistic practices can contribute or can reflect on the social experience of place through (new) media. In this broad framework. bringing together theories from social and aesthetic perspectives. We definitely believe that locative media allows the rethinking of some artistic practices. happenings. and performance art. and analysing some individual projects in depth we will be able to come to more conclusions and critical understandings not only of locative media art. (1995).chapter. Non-Places: Introduction to an Anthropology of Supermodernity. M. trying to overcome technological determinism. Del mundo de hoy al mundo de mañana. 118 . (2007). constituting a new paradigm of space experience based on the interconnection of physical spaces and virtual data. these artworks provide scholars with the opportunity to explore suitable frameworks in order to analyse them from diverse perspectives. they are framed in the augmented space aesthetics.
New York: Basic Books. (1958). The Conceptualization of Place. empresa y sociedad. Mau. 8. (1989). Barcelona: Kairós. Coverley. Leonardo Electronic Almanac. S. p. R. J. Slater D.leoalmanac. no. Locative Media Special Issue. Cultures and Globalization. [Last accessed: 20 May 2008] http://www. L. J. Psychogeography. G. (1997).uk/collections/media@lse/pdf/Media@lseEWP6. Media and Urban Space. (1992). (1995). Berkeley: University of California Press. [Last accessed: 10 February 2008 http://www. Internationale situationniste (no. 2). (1991). Discipline & Punish: The Birth of the Prison. Reflexiones sobre Internet. (1995).org/journal/vol_14/lea_v14_n03-04/guested. Erdmann. Cambridge: Polity Press. Clarke.au/scan/journal/display. P. Jess P. (1978). Oxford: Berghan.manovich. Moores. The Saturated Self Dilemmas of Identity in Contemporary Life. R. Stanford: Standford University Press. Sigler.ac. D. (2001). Oxford: Blackwell. Cultura y simulacro. New York: Vintage. The Poetics of Augmented Space: Learning from Prada. M. Debord. K. (ed. London: Pocket Essentials. M. A Place in the World? Places. (August 2007).net.pdf> 119 .. Modernity and Self-Identity. IV Lettre à Clarke. (op. 3) [Last accessed: 5 august 2007] http://www. Madrid: Paidós. Hemment. The Monacelli Press. Investigating and Approaching Mediacity. (eds.XL: The Generic City. (1989).Contrastes: Revista cultural (nº 47. Lyotard.M.L. [Last accessed: 10 may 2008] http://scan. Oxford: Oxford University Press/Open University. Flows and Places. 4. Leibniz. J. 101-107). Foucault. S. (1991)..php?journal_id=91> Koolhas. (2006). Gergen.. La galaxia Internet. Understanding.net> Massey. Paris: Seuil. D. no. (vol. The Production of Space. Londres: London School of Economics.L. Giddens. (2000).asp> Klich. The Practice of Everyday Life. Baudrillard. Domus and Megapolis. Paris. Barcelona: Plaza & Janés Editores. V. Eckardt F. El pliegue: Leibniz y el Barroco. (2004). Performing Posthuman Perspective: Can You See Me Now?.) (2007). H. 756). En: Inhuman.). Manovich. (2003). p. The Cinematic City. Philosophie par gros temps. A. Deleuze. M. (1997). Ed. Media. Lefebvre. J. MEDIA@LSE Electronic Working Papers. Descombes. New York: Routledge. Michel de (1984).W. Castells. Certeau. G.. (2006). The Internet: An Ethnographic Approach. Auflage: Frank & Timme. D. En: Massey D. (2002). Scan Journal (vol.lse. 14. B. 2). Miller D.
Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica. (1996). Conferencia en c I T y: reload or shutdown?. Varnelys.com/2006/07/25/tcm-locative-reader/> Scannell. (1992). 1984). University Park. 2004) or Marc Augé (Non-Places: Introduction to an Anthropology of Supermodernity. Oxford: Blackwell. TCM Online Reader 2004. 17. 16. 198-220. 18 7 Clarke D. Leonardo (vol. nº 4. Norton. 5th International PlaNet Congress. 4 Giddens.openflows.Op. 1995) are just some references. (1991) Modernity and self-identity. def 8. Russell. M. W. (2008) Live Cities: Film and Media Approaches to European Cities. (2004). Personal Identity and City Life. 1995). I. Beyond Locative Media: Giving Shape to the Internet of Things.. pp. A. 357-363).L. M. I. Towsend. def 8. cit. Erdmann. whom he considers to be very important in the portrait of the modern scol. 39. 345-347). Cambridge: Polity Press p. 6 Giddens. (2001). p. P.wordpress. K.. A. p. scol. whereas the flaneur is a person who walks among the people in the street and in contact with them (he is quite interested in prostitutes and beggars.com/html/space_of_flows. F. R. [Last accessed:: 15 August 2007] http://parth. p 756 Newton. Olin. Op. New York: Routledge. B. Transcultural Media Online Reader Introduction.) Cambridge: Cambridge Scholar Press. New York / London: W. A. A. Radio. p. I. (2006). (1687). (2006). nº 4. pp. Locative-Media Artists in the Contested Aware City. p. 9 Baudelaires voyeur is a sort of distant observer who is not concerned with the life of the city. Television and Modern Life: A Phenomenological Approach. I (1687) Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica. Tuters.W. (vol. Notes 1 2 Michel Foucault (Discipline & Punish: The Birth of the Prison. (1992). Henri Lefebvre (The Production of Space. 8. Op.. Stalder. 39. (1997) The Cinematic City. ed. Leibniz. cit. Forms of Representation in Alois Riegls Theory of Art. in Shifting Landscapes. Leonardo. [Last accessed: 10 July 2007] http:/ /felix. IV Lettre à Clarke. Christensen and Erdogan (eds. The Space of Flows: Notes on Emergence..Newton. 8-9 8 San Cornelio G. 3 120 . Characteristics and Possible Impact on Physical Space.html> Sennet. Michel de Certeau (The Practice of Everyday Life. 5 Giddens.
B. 1 30 Manovich L.M. G. p. (2004) The production of space.org/wiki/Locative_media 29 Manovich. (1995) The Conceptualization of Place. Massey and P. in D. op. Flows and Places. Op. p. TCM Online Reader 2004. MEDIA@LSE Electronic Working Papers. P. F. 11 San Cornelio. B. (2001) La galaxia Internet. 1. Cit. no. p. M. p. pp. 20 Deleuze. The Monacelli Press. Op. 93. (2005) The poetics of augmented space: Learning from Prada. 19 Lyotard. 235-236. M. 412. Oxford: Blackwell.(1984) The Practice of Everyday Life. Stalder. Stanford: Standford University Press. Contrastes: Revista cultural. 14 Coverley. M. both figures (voyeur and flaneur) are essential in the description of his notion of modernity. 201 12 Lefebvre. & Mau. op. 22 Castells. S. 4. characteristics and possible impact on physical space [online document] see references. p. M. op. (2004) Transcultural Media Online Reader Introduction. M. (2003). Sigler.. Cit. Media.XL: The Generic City. P. (2007) Sobremodernidad. L.. G. cit.city). In fact. Cit. op.L. 106 18 Koolhas. Cit. 15 Augé. 6 21 Stalder. P. p. Cultures and Globalization. 101-107 16 Augé. [online document] see references 28 http://en. Del mundo de hoy al mundo de mañana.wikipedia. 105 17 Augé.. H. J. Reflexiones sobre Internet. D. p. p. 59 27 Russell. (1992) Domus and Megapolis in Inhuman. London and New York are becoming more integrated ( ) its a indication how the space of flows connects places to one another that are similar and thus how the space of flows is actively reconfiguring the space of places. Oxford: Oxford University Press/Open University. cit. 47. (1989) El pliegue: Leibniz y el Barroco.. Madrid: Paidós. 412 25 Moores. p.. Jess (eds) A Place in the World? Places. p. 121 . Berkeley: University of California Press. (2001) The Space of Flows: notes on emergence. Stalder also points to the influence of the spaces of flows on the space of places. (2008) op. 23 Castells. 2001 (see references) 26 Massey. 285. p. 421 24 Castells. R. Barcelona: Plaza & Janés Editores p. 13 Lefebvre. F. Londres: London School of Economics. empresa y sociedad. (1997) S. 10 Certeau. Cit. Some decades later Walter Benjamin also talks about the flaneur. M. J. London: Pocket Essentials. (2006) Psychogeography..
(2000) The Internet: An Ethnographic Approach... P. 4 33 Manovich. op. 37 Scannell. D. (1996) Radio. p. L. vol.. cit. & Slater D. 40 Miller.. Rosemary (2007) Performing Posthuman Perspective : Can You See Me Now?. 38 Klich. op. op.org/walks/bloomsday. 2 Manovich L. op. R. 4-7 32 31 122 . 76. cit.. Oxford: Blackwell. Oxford: Berghan. p.html 35 Manovich. p 7 36 Scannell. Television and Modern Life: A Phenomenological Approach. August 2007 39 Klich. cit. 4 number 2.cit.. P. op.. L. p. Scan Journal. op. pp. p. cit..stunned. 6 34 http://www.cit.Manovich L.
The project is an historical and critical research whose main purpose is to record and to increase public awareness on some of the most important developments in contemporary art such as performances. works in public places. video. approaching artworks from new perspectives. Each production in the series is an archive. and trying to uncover unprecedented relationships between the works. The artists contribute to the creation of the DVD at different levels. experiments with new technologies. This research which belongs yet to archeology. by allowing access and commentary their own archives. 1999) 123 .CHAPTER III. installations. is also an original art project. but its mainly an anarchive.DIGITAL ARCHIVES ON CONTEMPORARY ART Anne-Marie Duguet anarchive is a series of DVDs and Internet projects designed to explore an artists overall oeuvre via diverse archival material.Muntadas Media Architecture Installations by Antoni Muntadas (Centre Pompidou. The titles in the anarchive series published so far: . meaning. Beyond a mode of preservation and beyond producing important databases about a whole body of work. and mainly by assuming the art direction of the project. Types of Memory ANARCHIVE . the project aims to incourage artists to develop new works through the use of digital technologies.
anarchive aims to develop new approaches for describing works by using. Peter Campus. social. for example 3D simulation to explore and understand how installation elements are displayed and function together. Norman White.. It has to preempt the loss of information as well as. theoretical. and mainly between the projects and their diverse historic. Each work is based on the individual 124 . incomplete or poor quality documentation. or by producing a kind of equivalent simulation of to an interactive action. Sometimes new documents have to be produced with the artists precious collaboration. The software allows the interweaving of multiple relationships between the works. often quite extensive. 2002) . supplement. Gary Hill and others. in order to complete and synthesize them. which without pretending to be exhaustive. Mona Hattoum. Masaki Fujihata. 2007).On the Concile of Nicea by Jean Otth (Anarchive. which would not allow for an accurate estimation of the different elements involved in a work and their relationship. represents a significant part of the artists work. An historical and critical approach The archives of these artists.Digital Snow by Michael Snow (Centre Pompidou. 2006) . economic contexts. Bill Viola. provide the opportunity for an historical. but to offer new perspectives on a work or body of work. The series will continue with: Fujiko Nakaya. Each DVD includes an important database. Victor Burgin. and critical study based on the existing works. Jim Campbell.Title TK by Thierry Kuntzel (Anarchive/Musée des Beaux-Arts. Paul de Marinis. Jochen Gerz. The research aims not just to establish chronologies or to reinforce already established categorizations. An original work Experimentation with interface design and systems interactivity plays an important role in the series. Joan Jonas. Nantes.
approach of artists who have developed personal conceptual frameworks and guidelines throughout an entire career. these authors are more likely to suggest non-convetional proposals. a precious source of documentation for researchers. He produced most of his videotapes between 1979 and 1980. a team has been assembled to assist the artist for each DVD. The book (648 pages) includes the transcription of about 600 of his working notes. Thierry Kuntzel is one of the most important artists working in France today. A reference and educative tool These computer archives. more than a half of them translated into English. The involvement of such high caliber artists and the quality of the teams working with them. The developers involved in the project will be inspired by such approaches to engage in research in their own field. libraries. as well as.Title TK Book (648 pages) + DVD TITLE TK by Thierry Kuntzel. For this reason. Through video excerpts of the works that are revealed 125 . etc. Anarchive n°3 . writing. Schools of art. some of them being read by Kuntzel. That is why. First known for his work as a film theorist. media and art centres constitute the major audience of this project. computer programming. light and sound. The DVD also presents these manuscripts. and since has created installations with projected images. The fundamentally pluridisciplinary nature of such a project requires expertise in many fields: art history and theory. facilitate an original approach and a multimedia production exploring all its possibilities. both a new work and a database covering all of artists works. video production. graphic design. critics and curators. which aim to expose the general public to topics and questions in contemporary art. is the third volume of the anarchive series. art departments in universities. are also an educational tool.
exit. In addition. also can be accessed in the database. At any moment along the way. highlighting some of its key aspects. four functions can be activated in the four corners of the screen: beginning on path. Fig. reduplicated. start another path. This DVD-ROM is both a database of Thierry Kuntzels entire oeuvre and an artwork in itself. 2 Using as background the last visualized documents. Through images and sounds taken from his videos and installations. the viewer can set off on a new path. leaves.interactively by the reader. 126 . 1 Fig. several theoretical texts by Kuntzel being collected here for the first time. either written or read aloud. the caress of a gaze.The body and its distortion. and time. beneath a sheet. highlight the processes of memory and perception. there are main possible paths: body. the DVD offers three ways of approaching the work. A selection of texts referring to his works by authors such as Raymond Bellour. the futility of any attempt to hold on to an image. the body split in two. representation. the description of nearly forty works. but also a face erased by too much light. behind a frame. artists biography and access to the database. and imperceptibly guide the viewer to other themes. 1 . Each path has two entries. transparent. the multiplicity of points of view and the place of the viewer. Here we find skin and detail. the fragility of all images. The variations in light and the changes in the speed of interaction. interspersed with some of his notes. the apparition and disappearance of traces. A few connecting points along the way lead from one path to another.
the tomb. At times a self-portrait. perspective. Here we see the horizon. Projected light.glimpsed. the intermittence. The activity of thinking. a hand touching a naked arm (Spring). never returning to the same place. as a child. Discovery is the guiding principle: elements appear. The view and its obstruction. but it is up to the viewer to seize them to make the image truly appear. or on the emphases particular to Thierry Kuntzels work. the tension between movements . Unaccompanied by reference notes or commentary. often caught in an electronic disturbance. blurred. contemplating. tracking light. the series. a panorama of San Francisco or Tampico. passing by. unhurried: smoking. it seeps from the edge or the interior of another image . windows. with the laguna and Venice on the horizon (Venises) 3 . framing. Clouds of colour take shape and form an image as we pay attention to them (for example if we hover over them or click on them to accelerate the appearance of the image emerging). another space. between acceleration and freeze-frame. Time and memory. 2 . viewer to free the image from the 127 . or seen from behind. Entry 2: light-traces of what must have been another arm. Between dazzlement and darkness. This would be the flutter. or simply the light that filters through a door ajar to perhaps reveal some secret. waves and surf (The Waves) Entry 2: the sea once again. attract our gaze. It is left to the.the blue of one merges with the ocre of another. Entry 1: the sea. they transform a studio as they do the landscape. extreme slow-motion. foliated.of the camera or in the processing of the image . each image appears in an almost random way on the screen. reading. Entry 1: The flutter of a heart and of a light on the inscription Nevermore (Edgar Allan Poes Tomb) Entry 2: the flicker of projected light (Still) The association of these fragments is based on thematic or formal affinities.Landscape and representation. colourful variations.Speeds. Entry 1: the body present.and stasis. a hand holding a cigarette (Nostos 1). of desiring. All activity is minimal. sometimes takes shape.
128 . If the viewer doesnt intervene. Theres nothing excessive here. The page gives access to the database which includes documents related to the artists works. start another one. Left-hand bottom: Thierry Kuntzels biography. video installations and other projects. videos. no menu. Operating procedures: Four functions can be found at the four corners of the screen: Right-hand top: go back to the beginning of a path.matter of the screen. his writings. Left-hand top: exit. Right-hand bottom: database. the images simply continue their interaction and incredible unfolding. Fig. some critical texts related to his work and a list of exhibitions. 3 Screenshot with one of the artists sketches for Ete installation.documents about Kuntzels installations. no click. The database gives access to: .
a brief technical description. all his theoretical essays on cinema and video.a list of exhibitions. .additional documents: scores. . . handwritten or transcribed. .a collection of 600 of the artists notes.which directly refer to a specific work or are related it.a commentary that may be a note by the artist. the Saisons. a variety of resource materials are available: . drawings. Language options (French or English) must be selected at the beginning. photos.the artists notes . an entry allows to hear the voice of Thierry Kuntzel reading 67 of his working notes.a few reviews or criticism or excerpts from essays directly related to the work in question. the Tombeaux. When opening the DVD.handwritten (that can be enlarged) and transcribed . . 129 ..a selection of texts about his work. or photos of the installation. compiled for the first time. . .works that are linked to it. Thierry Kuntzel often creates series: the Nostos. . .one or several excerpts from the video. For each work. Working notes read by the artist. an excerpt from a review or another short text..several descriptions of the installations based the artists sketches..
With the great help of the public. Literary and musical manuscripts and artworks from the 16th and 17th Centuries up to the 20th Century were completely destroyed or seriously damaged. was damaged by fire and water. Heike Helfert On the evening of September 2nd 2004. and attic were totally destroyed. Today the library runs a database of the Catalogue of lost and damaged books.SEARCH AND REPAIR. This tragic loss of cultural and historical inheritance in a spectacular fire attracted a great deal of public attention. a disastrous fire broke out in the original building of the Herzogin Anna Amalia Library in Weimar and developed into the largest library fire in Germany since WW II. which belongs to the UNESCO World Heritage. the third floor.1 It seems that this physical connection between the object and the information is easy to understand. The losses were obvious and everybody could immediately see and understand what happened to the physical objects of a precious archive. DIGITAL HERITAGE AND TIME BASED ART. The historical building. But what if the object is no longer physical and information is transformed into data? As long as information is decipherable by humans the access to the resources is 131 . huge parts of the historical building were restored and in October 2007 the library was officially reopened.
132 . and therefore the piece of art is hidden in some electronic coffin.direct and can be followed by everyone. regardless if it is digital or not. Video art. the technical equipment for playing back the tapes is no longer available. But we are also talking about memory in terms of recollection and time. Like most projects on cultural heritage 40yearsvideoart. Stored on reels or cassettes. But more and more. This complex project was carried out by five museums in the Federal Republic of Germany: the institutions responsible for the overall project were the ZKM Center for Art and Media Karlsruhe and the K21 Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen Düsseldorf. Machines must be used to get access to the artworks. maintaining. But when the essence of information is separated from its carrier or medium in form of data. And of course it has to be the right machine for each of the diverse formats. They worked together with three partners Kunsthalle Bremen.de2 comes in. which has become one of the most influential art forms of the Twentieth Century. Lenbachhaus Munich.de is designed to store or even re-store objects from the past. it has no physical presence anymore and becomes machine-readable only. Digital heritage This is where 40yearsvideoart. in its physical presence. the magnetic tapes are not readable by human eyes. In creating an archive or a compilation like 40yearsvideoart. an exhibition and a research edition of video art in Germany from 1963 to the present. and mediating the cultural heritage of video art. to combine them with current pieces and to prepare them for future use. lies somehow in between.de we are preparing now the memory of the future. Memory is used in a technical sense as storage of data or as a reservoir for the images that have to be remembered. organizing a project on digital heritage that archives German video art from 1963 to the present. The project consists (or consisted) of three major features: a symposium. Memory is an important term in the field of heritage. The project focuses on saving. and the Museum der bildenden Künste Leipzig.
restoration. Down in the archives and cellars. In order to save great parts of the genre of video art. an independent jury met to highlight the works that represent the diverse aspects and decades of video art in Germany.Saving the cultural heritage of video art what does this mean? Video art nowadays is one of the most popular forms of expression in contemporary art. it turns out that a video work is just as ephemeral as its time-related perception. and continue to disappear because their support materials decomposes more and more quickly. This initial. During this time a lot of decisions had to be made. videotapes require professional help (at the latest 20 years after their origination). This process of decline affects. Typical examples of the process of deterioration are the loss of magnetic signals or the sticky-tape-syndrome. and storage have to take place. The project was carried out over the course of two years from 2004 to 2005 as an initiative of the German Federal Cultural Foundation. above all. a dramatic decay of historical works of video art is constantly taking place. numerous works of art are preserved only in a damaged form. head of the project. tirelessly points out.3 Today. Sometimes. a panorama of 59 historic but also current works ranging from 1963 up to the present. because of its apparent immateriality. What came out was an exemplary selection of works. You will find it in most contemporary art shows or biennales. Due to their physical condition. the works have to be transferred to another physical format. it is the magnetic information of the image. First of all. it will have to be digital or it wont be visible anymore in the future. this genre has its inherent troubles. In order to save the content. the early original tapes. the urgent steps of digitization. What is carried into the future is not the physical tape or the reel containing the signal. 133 . this means digital storage. like Rudolf Frieling. One may raise the question: can our heritage be digital? In the case of video art. The progressive destruction of video works poses an acute threat to a significant element of 20th Century art. However as simple and easy the presentation of video art might seem to the public. Today.
the research for the original master tapes begun in a confusing field of copies. restoration and archiving of video art. copies of copies. as far as possible.4 Concerning the practical.5 To bring up one issue that turned out clearer and clearer while dealing with these questions Id like to quote Rudolf Frieling: The field of technologies has always been a dynamic one. however. to store uncompressed data in order to be ideally prepared for a future change of format. as well 134 . Another objective was to try out and find an exemplary method of restoring video material and preparing it for long-term storage. sub-masters. masters. Major problems in teaching video art history are the problems of unavailable or illegal copies of the video works. but also to make it accessible to the public. Graz. It also tried to analyze todays technical possibilities and future perspectives of maintaining archives.overview-oriented selection is now traveling around the world with the help of the Goethe-Institute. Austria) was specifically modified for the particular problems of early magnetic videotapes. It includes more than 28 hours of historic. But the aim of the current research will be. In most cases the tapes were cleaned and digitized at ZKM by the laboratory for antiquated video systems before the restoration process took place. as well as. A special software named DIAMANT (by HS-Art. to store the works in the best possible quality. The aim was to restore or. the theoretical issues of preservation. etc. but rather to develop a strategy with many complementary options. we have learned to no longer rely solely on the hypothetically best possible archiving medium. As soon as the selection was made. a symposium was held in Düsseldorf in order to bring together international experts in the field. if not necessary. This process was documented with the assistance of the project conservator Patrícia Falcão.6 Another important concern of the project was not only to assemble and store an overview of German video art and to maintain it. and can be found on the website. This was realized image by image in the digital state. new archive masters. In the meantime. A research edition in DVD format was produced as an overview of video art in Germany.
Nowadays these operating systems are outdated and obsolete and only historic computers. the set can only be ordered by institutions from the fields of research and education for internal viewing. schools etc. To give an example I want to mention two CD-ROM archives that were also realized at ZKM by Dieter Daniels and Rudolf Frieling. The first was Media Art Action and the other Media Art Interaction. the 1980s (Düsseldorf) as well as the present Update 06 (Munich). distributed as a box set of 12 DVDs. 135 . Apart from this. The attempt to exhibit early video art leads to another question of preservation of time based artworks: The question of experience and authenticity In a way the notion of work and original stands against the concept of version and occurrence. each museum presented its own perspective as an extension and contextualization of these videotapes. universities. at least from the year 2000 are able to display the CD-ROMs properly. They were released on CD-ROM. Finally the overview of the works was exhibited at the same time by the five participating museums. designed to run on computers with specific operating systems and programs. The spectrum of these exhibitions embraced the 1960s (Bremen). The DVD research edition is directed to the study and discussion of video art in academies. Due to copyright restrictions. To keep the material accessible anyway. current works by 59 artists. Held in two locations was a revision of the selection in light of the chosen artists from the former GDR (Leipzig).as. it was migrated and incorporated into the follow-up project MediaArtNet7 which is an online project. If one tries to run the CD-ROMs on a current computer the speed would be too fast and the menu wouldnt be navigable anymore. We are talking about the ambivalence between the historicity of the work and the need for protective processing to enable its adequate experience. and with regard to the existing collection of video art and restoration practices (Karlsruhe).
to outline the field currently questioned by the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute Media.Store. and what can we achieve by adding them to the content of a media art database?11 All these questions were also lively discussed when developing MediaArtNet12. reinterpret are the catchphrases for the preservation of media or time-based art.Research: . The Variable Media initiative8 appropriatly calls this process...What additional information is necessary in order to describe the socio-cultural and institutional framework of art-production and presentation? Is it useful to save and add as much further details as possible? Do we have to make strict choices in order to avoid information excess? And if so. Recently there was a conference on exactly these topics in the frame of the re:place conference in Berlin organized by LBI.. Although this project is not meant to be an archive in terms of collecting artworks but rather their depictions in documents and excerpts.Art. . what are the meaningful criteria? What different kinds of additional information do exist. how far [can] time based projects be preserved not only as documentation but also as potential for actual experience? Could an actualization. in their 2003 publication.. Another strong issue is the question of contextualization. migrate. There have been extended discussions about the information a media art database should contain in order to provide thorough information about often unstable and hybrid types of works. re-enactment. And of course there is no general solution to these questions but the attempt to find individual solutions for specific projects. 136 . Permanence Through Change9. Or. and archivists balance the quest for historical authenticity and contemporary readability? Which role can digital archives and platforms play within this context?10 These are questions which are currently discussed by people who have to handle time based art. or translation of the work to the contemporary context and technology provide a more adequate experience of the work than the extensive documentation of its historic presentation and reception contexts? How do artists. researchers. emulate. curators.
Again. endless questions about the inner and outer structure of the project have arisen. But the condition to achieve a function like the creation of semantic relations is to have reasonable metadata of all the material that you hold in the database. During the process of development. So we decided to give space to future amplifications in a very early state of the development. as well as.it deals with the question of contemporary re-presentation of time-based art. Thanks to the fact that a database supplies the information at the work-artist level. What is the additional advantage of an online resource like MediaArtNet? It is not only the online accessibility and the attempt of a proper way of representing media art. Dealing with archives is acting within a paradox. or technique you have to explicate. the intention was to make resources of media art accessible. A basic level is showing the scientific text of a specific topic. It also carries the potential of creating additional content references. automatically created semantic relations can be placed. You can never be sure if a future theme or chapter will not bring up a new keyword. and the other concentrates on the artwork and the artist. Editorial supervised links. What is the focal point of the content? How can this be specified and at the same time kept open for future expansions? This must be taken into consideration already during the design of the interface or the online appearance. How can these cross-references be generated and displayed? We decided to work with different layers of information. which is linked to the text. MediaArtNet is an online platform that tries to give an overview of media art while using means of presentation adequate to the specific source medium. item. but presents them audio-visually if possible. It means to look backwards and forwards simultaneously. MediaArtNet does not only offer information on audio-visual material in text form. and to transform in order to 137 . other connections can be originated from this context. These layers are displayed in different windows in order to be able to get back to the base text as easy as possible. A useful balance between necessary and unnecessary information has to be found.
2. Ostfildern 2006) 138 . Cover of the book 40yearsvideoart.Fig.org Fig.mediaartnet. Screenshot of the welcome page of MediaArtNet with random image from www. 1. Wulf Herzogenrath.de . Rudolf Frieling.Digital Heritage: Video Art in Germany from 1963 to the Present (Edt.
New York.de/ main. and Technology. and Technology.40yearsvideoart. 2 1 139 .2/SET=1/TTL=1/START_WELCOME http://www. New York. When this occurs (its just a matter of time).com/tape. Franklin Furnace. the binder delaminates from the substrate and turns into (for lack of a better technical term) a gooey sticky mess. and binds them to the substrate layer. The magnetic layer (or top coat) consists of magnetic particles suspended in a polymer binder. Thats because they store.40jahrevideokunst. Performance Art Festival + Archives. 2003. Degradation of the binder occurs whether or not the tape has ever even been used or recorded on. The binder holds the magnetic particles in place. and The Daniel Langlois Foundation for Art. . Normal humidity in the air seeps into the binder and weakens its physical characteristics .de 3 Magnetic tape construction consists of a thin binder layer comprised of iron oxide or metal particles that records the magnetic signal and is supported by a thicker film backing or substrate. Guggenheim Museum. Daniel Langlois Foundation for Art.. Montreal. The Solomon R.videointerchange. see documentation: http://www.de/main. Walker Art Center.de/DB=2. The phenomenon is known as sticky-tape-syndrome see: http://www. The science-fiction author and founder of the Dead Media Project13 Bruce Sterling notes: Curators.40yearsvideoart. It implies to be strict in order to keep a consistent structure and to be flexible in order to adjust to future requirements at the same time.mediaartnet.net (Founding Members of the Variable Media Network include Berkeley Art Museum/Pacific Film Archives. Rhizome.40jahrevideokunst. 9 Permanence Through Change: The Variable Media Approach. catalog and preserve . Berkeley. New York.org 8 http://variablemedia.maintain.de/main. Montreal.ub.php?p=2&n1=4&n2=25 7 http://www.the objects of the past and present that people in the future will see. Science.14 Notes http://opac. Cleveland.htm 4 see: http://www. conservators.a process known as hydrolysis (bad analogy.uni-weimar. New York. but much like soaking the labels off of a glass bottle). Guggenheim Foundation.they physically touch . Science. Minneapolis).org. and archivists are much closer to the future than most of us mortals..php?p=2&n1=4 6 Rudolf Frieling at the symposium on 40yearsvideoart.php?p=2&n1=5 5 for documentation of the symposium see: http://www.de.
org 13 http://www. 2003.ac.mediaartnet. p. 10 140 .org 14 Bruce Sterling: Digital Decay.at/en/veranstaltungen.deadmedia. in Permanence Through Change: The Variable Media Approach.quoted from the conference program of Online Archives of Media Art: http://media.11.lbg. 12 http://www.php?iMenuID=3&iEventID=91 11 ibid.
since its establishment in 1996.MEDIARC OPEN SOURCE MULTIUSER CENTRAL ARCHIVING SYSTEM: WEB APPLICATION FOR THE ELECTRONIC MANAGEMENT OF DOCUMENTS AND OTHER FILES Peter Toma Dobrila. companies. and have developed a number 141 . Archiving As a Consequence of Celebration KIBLA Association for Culture and Education (ACE KIBLA) has been using and developing open source software from its very beginnings. into which we can enter new contents and tables from a scanner or other peripheral units. digital camera and digital video camera. 1. subfiles and attributes according to his/hers own needs and adapting to his/hers own activities. It is aimed at various organisations. while it is a completely open system. We have implemented several projects that were based directly on open source systems. some of them related to education and culture. foundations. which gives everybody an opportunity to define his/hers files. small and medium sized enterprises. institutions. public and private legal bodies and individuals. Uro Indihar Abstract Mediarc (Media Archive) is an Open Source archiving system that functions as a library of the list of files. Its applicability is very wide.
Figure 1: Mediarc a screenshot displaying the range of possible selections 142 .of software solutions and system applications.e. VHS and beta video cassettes. and especially diverse archive. from photographs and mini DV cassettes to CDs. integrating the complete system of the Narodni dom Maribor Cultural and Event Centre public institute. photographs.kibla. i. These are kept in the form of various media. This was followed by managing the exceptionally large. CD-ROMs and DVDs. which made it available to public. a great deal of material was saved on Kibla server. In 2006 at the occasion of 10th anniversary of Kibla Multimedia Centre (MMC KIBLA) the webpage (URL: http://www. from newspaper and magazine articles and clippings to music. both analogue and digital. The Kibla server system and computer network. has also been based on open source software and GNU/Linux operation system. materials stored by Kibla. In the past year after the webpage was redesigned. films.si/) has been redesigned based on state-of-the-art standards and open source software. slides and in recent years predominantly digital recordings.
2. Archiving as a consequence of quantity Considering the fact that archiving is one of the most current as well as troublesome issues within the digital reality field, we have decided to create software for archiving the materials owned by Kibla. Archiving being the central topic of numerous debates and conferences, and also being discussed in Slovenia at various levels, we are certain that this solution can be a tool or the basis for developing such software. It is primarily intended for public use by organisations and institutions that wish for and need such software. However, they must also be able to use it and integrate it in their operations, and their computing system must be compatible with the applicative solution.
Figure 2: Mediarc a screenshot displaying a range of possible inputs
The archive of Kibla, based on open source software, might present an example of digital archiving, which is undoubtedly the easiest and most economic way. Besides the high level of safety this method ensures an integrated technical reliability of archiving and system stability, a user-friendly updating process, as well as high public accessibility and easy overview of the data. 3. Archiving as a consequence of ecology Since no additional media are required, we can undoubtedly consider this solution economical and particularly environmentally friendly. It is also rational in terms of space and can be easily expanded with additional system memory, peripheral units, or further developed, based on current user experience, new findings, or the needs of both archivists and computer experts.
Figure 3: Mediarc - a screenshot displaying showing possible ways entering data
Mediarc (Media archive) is an open source archiving system, functioning as the file list library. New content and tables from the scanner or other peripheral units can be entered, such as from the digital or video cameras.
Figure 4: Mediarc - a screenshot displaying the list of possible data groups
When working with a scanner, the document to be saved must be placed on it. The person scanning the file puts it in the common folder, from where it is then processed by the media archive administrator, who moves it into a specific folder from the folder list. So far the subfolders foreseen within the list have been Letters, Contracts, Photo Album, Files; and Documents. Additional subfolders with new contents can be added to the list upon choice, existing subfolders can be deleted if not related to the needs or definitions of the working environment. The principle is the same for acquiring data through other peripheral units (camera, video camera). 145
date. a numeric code. as well as the type of company.g. such as the registration and tax status. public company. which includes statutes or rules of engagement.4. in case a mistake occurred or somebody realized the archive would have been more transparent or accurate if the data was defined and classified in another way. author and a comment from which project or program the photo originates and whom it is intended to. The Photo Album requires the address. statistical classification etc. the contracting parties and legal representatives. For the purposes of each company or person. place. subfolders can be created or deleted. time. e. Files relate to documents that are of key importance and historical significance in a certain company. place. for Documents is necessary to include record and fiscal data about a certain company and its status. possibly also a comment on what the letter is about. and similarly the chosen attributes of each individual subfolder can be added or removed. address. Figure 5: Mediarc . number. The program also enables arranging and editing the submitted data. For the section of Letters these are: the title. and the subject. limited liability company.a screenshot displaying possible document search 146 . registration. Order as consequence of archiving Data is entered into Mediarc by title and that is how the software arranges it. For Contracts these are all the information about the contract. All the key data that is needed and indispensable in archiving must be entered as well. sole proprietor.
all the documents are linked. the chosen client must be clicked and the program displays all the documents related to them letters. The name of the document must be entered in the browser. or project.kibla. Unquestionably. This program is available to all potential users for free on the Kibla server. courses and workshops. photographs etc. If searching for all documents related to one client. small. photos to files.. We are certain that this software solution by Kibla can be of great help to everybody. large and medium-sized companies and other corporate entities. files to contracts etc. files. Archiving for all The Mediarc open source multiuser archiving system is therefore intended for a variety of organisations. the latter featuring a multimedia classroom to implement free computer education programs.org/mediarc/ 6.kibla. Archiving presents in public Upon completion of the project. Its applicability is very wide. public and private legal entities as well as individuals. contracts. as well as on its technologically available and innovative open source solution. also fuelling further discussion on how to deal with archiving and particularly how to accomplish it. It can be found on the Internet at: http://www.si/). institutions. We use it to inform the experts and the general public 147 . 5. subfolders and attributes according to their own needs and adapt them to their own activities. meaning that letters are linked to contracts. any personal developments. it can serve as an example based on direct user experience. contracts to letters. which enables the user to review the complete picture of a business. files.Mediarc also features an integrated search function. as well. photos. one of its best features being the fact that the system is completely open. foundations. enabling anybody to define its folders. Even more. a public presentation was organised in MMC KIBLA and KIT KIBLA Communication and Information Point (URL: http://kit.
7. which took place from 11th to 13th April. The last presentation was organised in January 2008 in Ljubljana as part of the SCCA symposium on Digital archives within a European project supported by the e-ContentPlus program.Art. program and system solutions. space and technology in the digital era. 4th October 2007. (URL: http:/ /www. KIBLA Association for Culture and Education (ACE KIBLA) has received support from the Ministry of Education. The open source archive was also presented at the conference Areas of Conflu(x)ence .org/).lugos.si/).kiblix. panel. Science and Technology Information Society Directorate pertaining to the Open Source Based Software. the Kibla festival related to open source. which is now completed and available for use.and integrate it in the program of KIBLIX IT. 148 . as well as. in the Romanian city of Sibiu within the European Capital of Culture 2007 program. Types of Memory. organised in cooperation with LUGOS Linux Users Group of Slovenia (URL: http://www. 2007 at the Grand Hotel Bernardin Congress Center in Portoro. Archiving says thanks To implement the open code archiving system. A presentation took place at the 14th Days of Slovenian Informatics with the headline With Informatics to New Business Opportunities.
149 . Annie Le Brun. Since 1998 he is artist in residence and researcher at ZKM | Center for Art and Media. Didier Anzieu. Deleuze. Bergson. She initiated and coordinated the Areas of Conflu(x)ence project organized as part of the program European Capitals of Culture. Cluj. Germany. He received his PhD from Paris VIII University (2004). in Paris (with Horacio Vaggione. Faculty of Letters. Porto.AUTHORS BIOGRAPHIES Tincuþa Heinzel (editor) is an artist. Luxembourg . theoretician. and professor at the University of Bucharest. Paul Veyne. He has translated Bataille. in Romanian. and curator. Artaud. In 1997 Paolo Ferreira-Lopes was awarded the composition prize at Documenta X in Kassel. Antoine Bonnet and Curtis Roads) and in Darmstadt (with Karlheinz Stockhausen). He is the recipient of the French Government Grant (1996). he has been the director of CITAR . Bourdieu. Currently he is member of the Administration Council of Romanian Society for Radio Communications. Bogdan Ghiu is a philosopher and writer. Karlsruhe. Sarah Kofman. media analyst. He is also a contributor at Luceafarul and IDEA art + society magazine (Cluj Napoca). She is the recipient of the French Government Grant (2002-2003) and of the DAAD research grant (2005) at ZKM | Center for Art and Media. Paolo Ferreira-Lopes is a composer and theoretician. Karlsruhe. Duras. Derrida. poet. After studying visual arts at Arts and Design University Cluj and cultural anthropology at Babes Bolyai University.Research Center for Science and Technology in Art and Professor at the Catholic University. Leiris. Foucault.Sibiu in 2007. He is the author of several books of philosophy and media theory. Germany. Baudelaire. Louis Calaferte. Emmanuel Nunes. Since 2004. He studied composition in Lisabona (with Constança Capdeville). Tincuta Heinzel is currently PhD candidate at Paris1 University Panthèon-Sorbonne under the direction of Pierre-Damien Huyghe.
France in the Art and Industrial Creation department. Currently. Sophie Fetro is a teacher of applied arts and PhD candidate at Paris1 University Panthèon-Sorbonne. a non-profit interdisciplinary organization. funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (HUM2006-02317). she coordinates a research project focused on contemporary art practices related to new media. He lives in USA since 1965. OH. Woody and Steina Vasulka founded The Kitchen. Woody Vasulka studied metal technology and hydraulic mechanics at the School of Engineering in Brno and filmmaking at the Academy of Performing Arts in Prague. Romania. Pau Alsina is a philosopher. Gemma San Cornelio is a lecturer at the Communication Department at Open University of Catalonia (Barcelona. Spain).Woody Vasulka is an artist and curator. appeared at the same time he was winning the competition for the Orthodox Patriarchal Cathedral back home. He taught at the Center for Media Studies at the New York State University. She participated in Le Temps des Appareils seminar coordinated by Pierre-Damien Huyghe and earned accolades at the fifth edition of the Design Biennial. He received the American Film Institute Maya Deren Award in 1992 and the Siemens Media Art Prize in 1995. After working with the Rutt/Etra Scan Processor. Her last publications are: Locative Media and art practice: explorations on the ground Artnodes (2008) and Arte e identidad en Internet (Barcelona. Augustin Ioan is an Associate Professor at the University of Architecture and Planning in Bucharest. and the US. Holding a MSArch degree (with honors) from the University of Cincinnati. 2008). OH (1994). Barcelona. Sophie Fetro graduated from Ecole Supérieure de Cachan. She holds a PhD in Audio-visual Communication (2003) and a degree in Fine Arts (1999) by Polytechnic University of Valencia (Spain). Together with Steina Vasulka he began experimeting with video in the 60s. Augustin Ioan is currently Head of School of Advanced Studies at the University of Architecture and Planning in Bucharest. Hungary. the author also has two PhD degrees in History of Architecture (1998) and Philosophy (2002). He has published extensively in Romania. Former senior Fulbright Scholar at the University of Cincinnati. in 1976 Vasulka collaborated with Don MacArthur and Jeffrey Schier to build a computer controlled personal imaging facility called The Digital Image Articulator. together with Andreas Mannik. where his latest book. Sacred Space (2002). lecturer in the Department of Arts and Humanities at University Oberta de Catalunya. In 1971. and researcher 150 . Saint-Etienne in 2006.
Uro Indihar is a system administrator and IT supervisor at KIBLA Association for Culture and Education. 1991) and Thierry Kuntzel . Nam June Paik. 1993). 2007).Espace Electra (Paris. Heike Helfert is a cultural scientist working in the field of media art. Peter Toma Dobrila is an electronic and IT engineer and a musician who focuses on the creative use of the new technologies. which provides a comprehensive record of the works of Muntadas.IN3. actively participating in EVA (Electronic Imaging the Visual Arts & Beyond) and Echilot Conference in Moscow. He is the director of Artnodes. Since then he has participated in numerous congresses and conventions on Internet and multimedia and information culture. La mémoire au Poing. 151 . Maribor. For the ZKM she worked on mediaartnet. Anne-Marie Duguet is a professor at Paris1 University Panthèon-Sorbonne and Professor/Researcher at the iCinema Research Center.org and 40yearsvideoart. He acts as consultant and advisor in cultural matters and is a fellow of the European Academy for Digital Media (EADIM). She is the Director of Centre de Recherche en Esthétique du Cinéma et de lAudiovisuel (CRECA). www. University of New South Wales.de. Slovenia. her most recent book is titled Déjouer limage: créations électroniques et numériques.artnodes. science and technology. Edith Russ Site for Media Art. an e-journal promoted by the University Oberta de Catalunya which analyses the intersection between art. During the last few years she has worked for institutions like Expo2000.Art. Sydney. Jean-Christophe Averty) and articles about television. He managed MMC KIBLA and ACE KIBLA until 2004.at the Internet Interdisciplinary Institute . Two years later he co-founded the Association for Culture and Education KIBLA (ACE KIBLA) and became its president.Research. She has also curated exhibitions like: Jean-Christophe Averty collages/ découpages . video and new technologies. Published in 2002. being adviser for many ART festivals (Ars electronica festival 2005. During 2005-2007. and the author of several books (Vidéo. She is Editor in Chief of the Anarchive DVD series. In 1996 he co-founded the Multimedia Centre KiberSRCeLab KIBLA (MMC KIBLA). Michael Snow. Maribor. Thierry Kuntzel among others.Galerie Nationale du Jeu de Paume (Paris. Peter Tomaz Dobrila has worked intensively in the New Media Art filed.org. Slovenia. ZKM | Center for Art and Media and the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute Media.
..PAULO FERREIRA -LOPES.... Design and Architecture: Arts of f[r]iction .....Experiment in Romanian Architecture ......... Types of Imagery and Sound and Their Interaction ..... CHAPTER II........... . .......... ............................................... Types of Memory............. TINCUÞA HEINZEL.........Digital Surrealities........................On flows........... ....... .............AUGUSTIN IOAN..................................................... Digital Heritage and Time Based Art............ ......................... HEIKE HELFERT.... places and spaces: towards a framework for Locative Media Artworks .. ....................ANNE-MARIE DUGUET..... .......... .... Authors biographies .....................GEMMA SAN CORNELIO and PAU ALSINA..........CONTENTS Introduction TINCUÞA HEINZEL ...A Gnosseological Approach of the Concept of Interaction............ .....Anarchive (Digital Archives on Contemporary Art) ..Imperceptible........... Real Time in Music Several Paradigms and Models...... ......................... ................SOPHIE FETRO............ ................................................MEDIARC Open Source Multiuser Central Archiving System: Web Application for the Electronic Management of Documents and Other Files ............ CHAPTER III......... ...... ...... ..Video Between Utopia and History............... Spatial Forms................................. ................... ..................................... 5 15 15 29 45 57 57 73 99 123 123 131 141 149 152 ...................................................................................................Search and Repair.... .............. ..... Interview with Woody Vasulka........................ CHAPTER I........PETER TOMA DOBRILA and URO INDIHAR... Hyperceptible: the New Hodological Condition BOGDAN GHIU.
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