1. Introduction Sheet metal is simply metal formed into thin and flat pieces. It is one of the fundamental forms used in metalworking, and can be cut and bent into a variety of different shapes. Countless everyday objects are constructed of the material. Thicknesses can vary significantly, although extremely thin thicknesses are considered foil or leaf, and pieces thicker than 6 mm (0.25 in) are considered plate. 2. Sheet metal processing The raw material for sheet metal manufacturing processes is the output of the rolling process. Typically, sheets of metal are sold as flat, rectangular sheets of standard size. If the sheets are thin and very long, they may be in the form of rolls. Therefore the first step in any sheet metal process is to cut the correct shape and sized ‘blank’ from larger sheet. 3. Sheet metal forming processes Sheet metal processes can be broken down into two major classifications and one minor classification • • • 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Shearing processes -- processes which apply shearing forces to cut, fracture, or separate the Forming processes -- processes which cause the metal to undergo desired shape changes Finishing processes -- processes which are used to improve the final surface characteristics. Punching: shearing process using a die and punch where the interior portion of the sheared Blanking: shearing process using a die and punch where the exterior portion of the material. without failure, excessive thinning, or cracking. This includes bending and stretching. 3.1 Shearing Process sheet is to be discarded. shearing operation is to be discarded. Perforating: punching a number of holes in a sheet Parting: shearing the sheet into two or more pieces Notching: removing pieces from the edges

5 Fig.1Shearing Operations: Punching. Ref fig. Blanking and Perforating 3.2 Forming Processes • • • • Bending: forming process causes the sheet metal to undergo the desired shape change by Stretching: forming process causes the sheet metal to undergo the desired shape change by Drawing: forming process causes the sheet metal to undergo the desired shape change by Roll forming: Roll forming is a process by which a metal strip is progressively bent as it bending without failure.3 drawing without failure.4 passes through a series of forming rolls. Ref fig.2 & 2a stretching without failure. Ref fig.2 Common Die-Bending Operations . Ref fig.6. Lancing: leaving a tab without removing any material Fig.

2a Various Bending Operations Fig.3 Schematic illustration of a stretch-forming process. .Fig.

4 Schematic of the Drawing process. punch. or ram and a set of dies .5 Eight-roll sequence for the roll forming of a box channel 3. Fig. geometry of the starting material. Equipments Basic sheet forming operations involve a press.Fig.3 Finishing processes Material properties. and the geometry of the desired final product play important roles in determining the best process 4.

Stroke motion is not uniform. Stroke motion is of uniform speed. especially adapted to deep drawing operations. and develop full force throughout the stroke. Ref fig.The ram is actuated using a flywheel.4.1 Presses • • Mechanical Press . Ref fig.Longer strokes than mechanical presses.6 Mechanical Press .7 Fig.6 Hydraulic Press .

Try Square .two operations with a single stroke Combination.two or more operations at two or more stations with each press stroke. are performed by these tools.2 Dies and Punches • • • • Simple.It is used to set out dimensions.7 Hydraulic Press 4. bisecting lines. arcs. Tools and Accessories The various operations such as cutting.1 Marking and measuring tools • • • • Steel Rule . creates what is called a strip development Fig 8 Progressive dies Punches 5. laying out perpendicular lines.two operations at two stations Progressive.Try square is used for making and testing angles of 90degree Scriber – It used to scribe or mark lines on metal work pieces. shearing.This is used for marking circles. folding etc. Divider .Fig. 5. etc . bending.single operation with a single stroke Compound.

10 Straight snip .They have straight jaws and used for straight line cutting.2 Cutting Tools • Straight snip .Fig.9 Marking and measuring tools 5. Ref fig.10 • Curved snip . Ref fig.10a Ref fig.They have curved blades for making circular cuts.

11 Fig. Demerits • • Wrinkling and tearing are typical limits to drawing operations Different techniques can be used to overcome these limitations o Draw beads o Vertical projections and matching grooves in the die and blank holder • • • Trimming may be used to reach final dimensions Roofings Ductings High strength Good dimensional accuracy and surface finish Relatively low cost 8.10a Curved Snip 6. Striking Tools • Mallet .Ref Fig.It is wooden-headed hammer of round or rectangular cross section. Applications . Merits • • • 7.11 Types of Mallets 6. The striking face is made flat to the work. Ref fig. A mallet is used to give light blows to the Sheet metal in bending and finishing.

House hold articles and Railway equipment Questions: 1.give their applications 19.• • 9. Nibbling. What are the formability test methods? 8. State their advantage and applications 18. Explain any one method of stretch forming operation with a neat sketch 17. What is stretching? 5. aircrafts etc. Piercing. Write down any four sheet metal characteristics 3. Describe various types of bending operations with its neat sketches 16. What are Punching. Furnitures. How magnetic pulse forming process is carried out on sheet metal?Explain peen forming process with a neat sketch 20. ships. Part A Vehicles body buildings like 3 wheelers. What is progressive die stamping? 14. What is meant by clearance? 4. What is super plasticity of metals? 9. tools/machines are needed for these processes? 12. Explain hydro forming process with its neat sketches. Blanking. How force exerted on the form block is calculated 7. What is sheet metal work? 2. Explain the power spinning process with a neat sketch . What is deep drawing? Provide a few examples of products/parts made using deep drawing operations. Describe shearing operations in a sheet metal work with a neat sketch 15. Define the term “spring back” 6. What is super plastic of metal? How this process is carried out on sheet metals? END . 13. What is metal spinning process? 10. What is sheet metal? Part B 11. 4 wheelers. Website . References Book • • • • Manufacturing Technology by Hajra choudry Sheet metal working by Robert cook www.esnips.efunda.