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Equilibrium Practice problems


Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. For a chemical system at equilibrium, a. the concentrations of reactants and products are equal. b. the partial pressures of reactants and products are equal. c. the forward and reverse reaction rates are equal. d. the rate constants for the forward and reverse reactions are equal. e. the concentrations of the products divided by reactants equals one. 2. Which of the following statements concerning equilibrium constants are true? 1. Kinetically fast reactions always have large equilibrium constants. 2. Temperature has no effect on an equilibrium constant. 3. Reactant favored reactions have negative equilibrium constants. a. 1 only b. 2 only c. 3 only d. 1 and 2 e. none of above 3. A large equilibrium constant a. is obtained with catalysts. b. indicates the formation of products is favored. c. is common for equilibria at high temperatures. d. indicates that a reaction has a small activation barrier. e. indicates that a reaction has a large rate constant. 4. Write the expression for Kc for the reaction below. Ag+(aq) + 2 NH3(aq) a. K c = e. K c = Ag(NH3)2+(aq) b. K c =

[Ag + ][NH 3 ] [Ag(NH 3 ) + ] 2 [Ag][(NH 3 ) + ] 2 [Ag + ][NH 3 ] 2

[Ag(NH 3 ) + ] 2 [Ag + ]

c. K c =

[Ag][(NH 3 ) + ] 2 [Ag + ][NH 3 ]

d. K c =

[Ag+ ][NH 3 ] 2 [Ag+ ](NH 3 ) + ] 2

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5. Write the expression for Kc for the reaction below. Mg3(PO4)2(s) a. b. 3 Mg2+(aq) + 2 PO43-(aq)

K c = [Mg 2 + ][PO 3 ] 4 K c = [Mg 2 + ] 3 [PO 3 ] 2 4

c.

Kc =

[Mg 2 + ] 3 [PO 3 ] 2 4 [Mg3 (PO 4 ) 2 ]

d.

Kc =

[Mg3 (PO 4 ) 2 ] [Mg 2 + ] 3 [PO 3 ] 2 4

e.

K c = [3 Mg2 + ][2 PO 3 ] 4

6. Write the expression for K for the acid reaction below. HF(aq) + H2O() F-(aq) + H3O+(aq)

a.

K=

[F ][H 3 O + ] [HF]

b.

K=

[HF] [F ][H 3 O + ]

c.

K=

[F ][H 3 O + ] [HF][H 2 O]
[HF][H 2 O] [F ][H 3 O + ] [F ] [HF]

d.

K=

e.

K=

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7. Write the expression for Kp for the reaction below. H2(g) + Br2() a. K p = 2 HBr(g) b. K p =

P2 HBr P Br 2 P H 2

PH 2 P2 HBr

c. K = P

2 HBr

d. K p =

P2 HBr PH 2

e. K p =

P H 2 P Br 2 P2 HBr

8. Write the expression for Kp for the reaction below. CO2(g) + CaO(s) CaCO3(s)

a.

Kp =

P CaO P CO 2 P CaCO 3 P CaCO 3 P CaO P CO 2


[CaCO 3 ] [CaO][CO 2 ]

b.

Kp =

c.

Kp =

d.

K p = [CO 2 ]
Kp = 1 P CO 2

e.

9. Write a balanced chemical reaction which corresponds to the following equilibrium constant expression.

Kp =

P NOBr P NO P 1 / 2 BR
2

a. 2 NOBr(g) 2 NO(g) + Br2(g) b. NOBr(g) NO(g) + 1/2 Br2(g) c. NO(g) + 1/2 Br2(g) NOBr(g) d. 2 NO(g) + Br2(g) 2 NOBr(g) e. NOBr(g) NO(g) 10. Write a balanced chemical reaction which corresponds to the following equilibrium constant expression. K = [AG+][Cl-] a. Cl-(aq) Ag+(aq) b. Ag+(aq) Cl-(aq) c. Ag+(aq) + Cl-(aq) Cl-(aq) e. AgCl(s) Ag+(aq) + Cl-(aq) AgCl(s) d. 1 Ag+(aq) +

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11. Write a balanced chemical reaction which corresponds to the following equilibrium constant expression.

Kp =

P2 SO P

3 O2

a. 3 O2(s) 2 SO3(g) b. 2 SO3(g) 3 O2(s) c. 2 SO2(g) + O2(s) 2 SO3(g) e. 2 SO3(g) 2 S(s) + 3 O2(s) 12. For the following reaction, 2 SO3(g) 2 SO2(g) + O2(g)

2 SO3(g) d. 2 S(s) + 3 O2(s)

the equilibrium constant, Kp, is 1.32 at 627C. What is the equilibrium constant for the reaction below? SO3(g) SO2(g) + 1/2 O2(g) a. 0.660 b. 1.15 c. 1.32 d. 1.74 e. 2.64 13. The equilibrium constant (Kp) for the following reaction is 1.93 10-3 at a given temperature. N2(g) + 2 H2O(g) 2 NO(g) + 2 H2(g)

What is the equilibrium constant for the reaction below? 2 N2(g) + 6 H2O(g) 6 NO(g) + 6 H2(g) a. 7.19 10-9 b. 5.79 10-3 c. 1.73 102 d. 1.55 103 e. 1.39 108 14. For which one of the following reactions is the value of Kp equal to Kc? a. SnO2(s) + 2 H2(g) Sn(s) + 2 H2O(g) b. 3 O2(g) 2 O3(g) c. CaCO3(s) NH3(g) 3 H2(g) + N2(g) e. NH4I(s) NH3(g) + HI(g) 15. Nitrogen dioxide dimerizes to form dinitrogen tetraoxide. 2 NO2(g) N2O4(g) CaO(s) + CO2(g) d. 2

Calculate the value of Kc, given that the gas phase equilibrium constant, Kp, for the reaction is 1.3 103 at 273 K. (R = 0.08206 Latm/molK) a. 0.017 b. 2.6 c. 58 d. 2.9 104 e. 6.5 105 16. The oxidation of sulfur dioxide produces sulfur trioxide. 2 SO2(g) + O2(g) 2 SO3(g)

Calculate the value of Kp, given that Kc for the reaction is 2.3 104 at 999 K. (R = 0.08206 Latm/molK) a. 3.42 b. 2.8 102 c. 2.9 103 d. 2.3 104 e. 1.9 106

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17. What is the relationship between Kp and Kc for the reaction below? CS2(g) + 3 Cl2(g) a. K p = S2Cl2(g) + CCl4(g) b. K p =

Kc (RT) 2

(RT) 2 Kc

c. K p = (RT) K c
2

2 RT 2 e. K = K c d. K p = p K RT c

18. The reaction below was studied at 250C. PCl5(g) PCl3(g) + Cl2(g)

At equilibrium, the partial pressures of the gases are as follows: PCl 5 = 2.0 10-2 atm, PCl3 = 4.2 10-2 atm, and Cl2 = 4.2 10-4 atm. What is the value of Kp for the reaction? a. 3.5 10-5 b. 8.8 10-4 c. 5.0 10-2 d. 2.1 101 e. 1.1 103 19. An equilibrium mixture of SO3, SO2, and O2 at 1000 K contains the gases at the following concentrations: [SO 3] = 0.41 M, [SO2] = 0.032 M, and [O2] = 0.59 M. What is the equilibrium constant for the decomposition of SO 3? 2 SO3(g) 2 SO2(g) + O2(g)

a. 4.6 10-4 b. 3.6 10-3 c. 1.1 10-1 d. 2.2 102 e. 2.8 102 20. At 2010 K, the equilibrium constant, Kc, for the following reaction is 4.0 10-4. N2(g) + O2(g) 2 NO(g)

If the equilibrium concentrations of N2 and O2 are 0.25 mol/L and 0.33 mol/L, what is the equilibrium concentration of NO? a. 3.3 10-5 M b. 1.7 10-5 M c. 5.7 10-3 M d. 6.8 10-3 M e. 7.0 10-2 M 21. A gaseous mixture of NO2 and N2O4 is in equilibrium. If the concentration of N 2O4 is 3.5 10-3 M, what is the concentration of NO2? 2 NO2(g) N2O4(g) Kc = 170

a. 2.1 10-5 M b. 4.5 10-3 M c. 7.1 10-2 M d. 2.2 102 M e. 4.9 104 M 22. The equilibrium constant at 25C for the dissolution of silver iodide is 8.3 10-17. AgI(s) Ag+(aq) + I-(aq)

If an excess quantity of AgI(s) is added to water and allowed to equilibrate, what is the equilibrium concentration of Ag+? a. 8.3 10-17 M b. 4.2 10-9 M c. 8.3 10-9 M d. 9.1 10-9 M e. 1.4 10-5 M

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23. An excess of PbBr2(s) is placed in 750 mL of water. At equilibrium, the solution is found to contain 0.012 M Pb 2+. What is the equilibrium constant for the reaction below? PbBr2(s) Pb2+(aq) + 2 Br-(aq)

a. 1.7 10-6 b. 3.5 10-6 c. 6.9 10- 6 d. 1.4 10-4 e. 5.8 10-4 24. At 25, only 2.45 mg of BaSO 4 will dissolve in 1.00 L of water. What is the equilibrium constant for the reaction below? BaSO4(s) Ba2+(aq) + SO42-(aq)

a. 4.63 10-15 b. 1.10 10-10 c. 1.05 10-5 d. 4.63 10-6 e. 6.00 10-4 25. We place 0.064 mol N2O4(g) in a 4.00 L flask at 200. After reaching equilibrium, the concentration of NO 2(g) is 0.0030 M. What is Kc for the reaction below? N2O4(g) 2 NO2(g)

a. 3.6 10-5 b. 4.7 10-5 c. 5.6 10-4 d. 6.2 10-4 e. 1.9 10-1 26. When 0.100 mole NH3 is dissolved in water to a volume of 1.00 L, 1.3% of the NH 3 reacts with water to form NH4+. What is the equilibrium constant for the reaction? NH3(aq) + H2O() NH4+(aq) + H3O+(aq)

a. 5.7 10-10 b. 1.7 10-5 c. 1.3 10-3 d. 1.3 10-2 e. 7.7 102 27. Oxygen and ozone form an equilibrium mixture according to the chemical equation below. 3 O2(g) 2 O3(g)

The partial pressure of O2 is measured in a flask at equilibrium as 1.15 atm and the total pressure in the flask is 1.59 atm. Calculate Kp. a. 0.13 b. 0.38 c. 1.66 d. 2.6 e. 7.7 28. A sealed tube is prepared with 0.83 atm PCl5 at 500 K. The PCl5 decomposes until equilibrium is established. PCl5(g) PCl3(aq) + Cl2(g)

The equilibrium pressure in the tube is 1.23 atm. Calculate Kp. a. 0.19 b. 0.37 c. 0.40 d. 0.48 e. 1.8 29. A mixture of 0.200 mol NO and 0.200 mol CO 2 is placed in a 1.00 L flask and allowed to reach equilibrium at a given temperature. Analysis of the equilibrium mixture indicates that 0.067 mol of CO is present. Calculate Kc for the reaction. NO(g) + CO2(g) NO2(g) + CO(g) a. 0.071 b. 0.11 c. 0.25 d. 0.34 e. 0.50

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ID: A

30. Nitrosyl bromide decomposes according to the chemical equation below. 2 NOBr(g) 2 NO(g) + Br2(g)

When 0.500 atm of NOBr is sealed in a flask and allowed to reach equilibrium, 18% of the NOBr decomposes. What is the equilibrium constant, Kp, for the reaction? a. 1.8 10-4 b. 2.0 10-4 c. 1.3 10-3 d. 2.2 10-3 e. 2.9 10-3 31. Hydrogen iodide can decompose into hydrogen and iodine gases. 2 HI(g) H2(g) + I2(g) Kp = 0.016

If 0.750 atm HI(g) is sealed in a flask, what is the pressure of each gas when equilibrium is established? a. HI = 0.599 atm, H2 = 0.076 atm, I2 = 0.076 atm b. HI = 0.666 atm, H2 = 0.084 atm, I2 = 0.084 atm c. HI = 0.269 atm, H2 = 0.034 atm, I2 = 0.034 atm d. HI = 0.420 atm, H2 = 0.053 atm, I2 = 0.053 atm e. HI = 0.732 atm, H2 = 0.093 atm, I2 = 0.093 atm 32. We place 3.2 mol PCl5 in a 2.0 L flask and allow it to reach equilibrium at a given temperature. What is the final concentration of Cl2 in the flask? PCl5(g) PCl3(aq) + Cl2(g) Kc = 0.47 a. 0.11 M b. 0.27 M c. 0.32 M d. 0.55 M e. 0.66 M 33. The equilibrium constant, Kc, for the following reaction is 1.0 10-5 at 1500 K. N2(g) + O2(g) 2 NO(g)

If 0.60 M N2 and 0.60 M O2 are allowed to equilibrate at 1500 K, what is the concentration of NO? a. 3.4 10-4 M b. 1.9 10-3 M c. 4.2 10-3 M d. 8.1 10-2 M e. 1.0 10-1 M 34. At 800 K, the equilibrium constant, Kp, for the following reaction is 3.2 10-7. 2 H2S(g) 2 H2(g) + S2(g)

A reaction vessel at 800 K initially contains 5.00 atm of H 2S. If the reaction is allowed to equilibrate, what is the equilibrium pressure of H2? a. 8.9 10-7 atm b. 1.2 10-6 atm c. 2.5 10-3 atm d. 5.4 10-3 atm e. 3.1 10-1 atm 35. Carbonyl bromide decomposes to carbon monoxide and bromine. COBr2(g) CO(g) + Br2(g)

Kc is 0.190 at 73. If an initial concentration of 0.330 M COBr 2 is allowed to equilibrate, what are the equilibrium concentrations of COBr2, CO, and Br2? a. [COBr2] = 0.230 M, [CO] = 0.100 M, [Br2] = 0.100 M b. [COBr2] = 0.138 M, [CO] = 0.162 M, [Br2] = 0.162 M c. [COBr2] = 0.157 M, [CO] = 0.173 M, [Br2] = 0.173 M d. [COBr2] = 0.209 M, [CO] = 0.121 M, [Br2] = 0.121 M e. [COBr2] = 0.157 M, [CO] = 0.081 M, [Br2] = 0.081 M

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36. Given the following chemical equilibria, N2(g) + 2 O2(g) N2(g) + 2 O2(g) 2 NO2(g) N2O4(g) K1 K2

Determine the equilibrium constant for the dimerization of nitrogen dioxide. 2 NO2(g) a. b. c. d. N2O4(g) K3

K3 = K1 + K2 K3 = K1 - K2 K3 = K1 K2 K3 =

K1 K2 K2 K1

e.

K3 =

37. Determine the equilibrium constant for the following reaction Ca(OH)2(s) + 2H+(aq) Ca2+(aq) + 2 H2O()

given the chemical reactions below. Ca(OH)2(s) Ca2+(aq) + 2 OH-(aq) +(aq) + OH-(aq) H2O() H K = 6.5 10 -6 K = 1.0 10-14

a. 1.5 105 b. 6.5 108 c. 1.5 1019 d. 6.5 1022 e. 2.4 1038 38. Given the following equilibria, Mg2+(aq) + 2 OH-(aq) Mg(OH)2(s) MgF2(s) Mg2+(aq) + 2 F-(aq) K1 = 1.5 10-11 K2 = 6.4 10-9

determine the equilibrium constant for the following reaction. Mg(OH)2(s) + 2 F-(aq) MgF2(s) + 2 OH-(aq) K3

a. 9.6 10-20 b. 2.3 10-3 c. 4.3 102 d. 6.1 104 e. 1.0 1019

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ID: A

39. Given the following equilibria, NiCO3(s) Ni2+(aq) + CO32-(aq) CO32-(aq) + H3O+(aq) HCO3-(aq) + H2O() determine the equilibrium constant for the following reaction. Ni2+(aq) + HCO3-(aq) + H2O() NiCO3(s) + H3O +(aq) K3 K1 = 6.6 10-9 K2 = 4.8 10-11

a. 3.2 10-19 b. 4.8 10-11 c. 7.3 10-3 d. 1.4 102 e. 3.2 1018 40. A 2.00 L flask is filled with 2.5 mol SO 3, 2.0 mol SO2, and 0.40 mol O2, and allowed to reach equilibrium. Predict the effect on the concentrations of SO3 as equilibrium is achieved by using Q, the reaction quotient. Assume the temperature of mixture is chosen so that Kc = 1.0. 2 SO3(g) 2 SO2(g) + O2(g) a. [SO3] will decrease because Q < K. b. [SO3] will decrease because Q > K. c. [SO3] will increase because Q < K. d. [SO3] will increase because Q > K. e. [SO3] will remain the same because Q = K. 41. Consider the reaction A(g) 2 B(g) where Kp = 4.0. If 2.0 mol A and 3.0 mol B are introduced into a 1.0 L flask, what change in concentrations (if any) will occur in time? a. [A] increases and [B] increases b. [A] increases and [B] decreases c. [A] decreases and [B] increases d. [A] decreases and [B] decreases e. [A] and [B] remain unchanged 42. Consider the following chemical equation for which the enthalpy of reaction equals +26.9 kJ. 2 ICl(g) I2(g) + Cl2(g)

At 25, Kp = 5.0 10-6. If the temperature is decreased to 0.0, what changes (if any) will be observed? a. Kp will increase. b. Kp will decrease. c. Kp will remain unchanged. d. [ICl] will decrease. e. [I2] will increase. 43. Assume that the following endothermic chemical reaction is at equilibrium. C(s) + H2O(g) H2(g) + CO(g)

All of the following will increase the ratio of products to reactants in the equilibrium mixture EXCEPT a. increasing the temperature. b. increasing the volume. c. decreasing the pressure d. addition of solid carbon. e. removal of a gaseous product. 44. The formation of ammonia from elemental nitrogen and hydrogen is an exothermic process. N2(g) + 3 H2(g) 2 NH3(g) H = -92.2 kJ

Which of the following would drive the equilibrium system to the left? a. addition of hydrogen b. removal of ammonia c. increasing the pressure d. decreasing the temperature e. removal of nitrogen

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ID: A

45. In which of the following equilibrium systems would a decrease in volume have no effect on the concentrations of products and reactants? a. CaCO3(s) CaO(s) + CO2(g) b. N2(g) + 3 H2(g) 2 NH3(g) c. H2(g) + CO2(g) CO(g) + H2O(g) d. 3 O2(g) 2 O3(g) e. 2 H2O2(g) 2 H2O(g) + O2(g) 46. A flask contains the following chemical system in equilibrium. Cu(OH)2(s) Cu2+(aq) + 2 OH-(aq)

Addition of which of the following reagents would increase the solubility of Cu(OH) 2? a. HCl b. NaCl c. NaOH d. Cu(OH)2 e. Cu(NO3)2 47. Which of the statements concerning equilibrium is false? a. A system that is disturbed from an equilibrium condition responds in a manner to restore equilibrium. b. Equilibrium in molecular systems is dynamic, with two opposing processes balancing one another. c. The value of the equilibrium constant for a given reaction mixture is the same regardless of the direction from which equilibrium was attained. d. A system moves spontaneously toward a state of equilibrium. e. The equilibrium constant usually is independent of temperature. 48. Which of the following is the best definition of chemical equilibrium? a. A condition where the forward and reverse reaction rates of a reversible reaction are equal and constant. b. There are equal amounts of reactants and products. c. The forward and reverse reaction rates have stopped. d. The product concentrations are larger than reactant concentrations. e. The reactant concentrations are larger than product concentrations. 49. When the system A + B C + D is at equilibrium, a. the forward reaction has stopped. b. the reverse reaction has stopped. c. both the forward and the reverse reactions have stopped. d. neither the forward nor the reverse reaction has stopped. e. the sum of the concentrations of A and B must equal the sum of the concentrations of C and D. 50. Consider the gas phase system below at a high temperature. The form of the expression for the equilibrium constant, Kc, __________. 4NH3 + 5O2 4NO + 6H2O

a. cannot be determined without rate data b. is Kc =

[NH 3 ][O 2 ] [NH 3 ] 4 [O 2 ] 5 c. is Kc = d. is Kc = [NO][H 2 O] [NO] 4 [H 2 O] 6

[NO] 4 [H 2 O] 6 [NO] 4 e. is Kc = [NH 3 ][O 2 ] [NH 3 ] 4 [O 2 ] 5

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51. Consider the following reaction. What would be the equilibrium constant expression? 4Br2(g) + CH4(g) 4HBr(g) + CBr4(g)

[CBr 4 ][HBr] [CH 4 ][Br 2 ] 4 [CBr 4 ][HBr] 4 [CH 4 ][Br 2 ] a. Kc = b. Kc = c. Kc = d. Kc = e. Kc = 4 4 [Br 2 ][CH 4 ] [HBr][CBr 4 ] [HBr] [CBr 4 ] [Br 2 ] [CH 4 ]
[HBr] 4 [Br 2 ] 4 [CH 4 ]
52. Consider the following reaction. What would be the equilibrium constant expression? CH4(g) + H2O(g) CO(g) + 3H2(g)

a.

[CH 4 ][H 2 O] [H 2 ] 3 [CO]

[H 2 ] 3 [CO] [H 2 ][CO] 3 [H 2 ][CO] [CH 4 ][H 2 O] b. c. d. e. [CH 4 ][H 2 O] [H 2 ][CO] [CH 4 ][H 2 O] [CH 4 ][H 2 O]

53. Consider the following reaction involving a solid. 3Fe(s) + 4H2O(g) Fe3O4(s) + 4H2(g)

The appropriate equilibrium constant expression would be: [H 2 O] 4 [H 2 ] 4 [Fe 3 O 4 ][H 2 ] [Fe 3 O 4 ][H 2 ] 4 a. b. c. d. [Fe][H 2 O] [H 2 ] 4 [H 2 O] 4 [Fe] 3 [H 2 O] 4 54. The equilibrium constant expression for the reaction NH4Cl(s) would be written a. Kc = [NH3][HCl] b. Kc = NH3(g) + HCl(g)

e.

[Fe] 3 [H 2 O] 4 [FE 3 O 4 ][H 2 ] 4

[NH 4 Cl][NH 3 ] [NH 3 ][HCl] [NH 4 Cl] [NH 3 ] c. Kc = d. Kc = e. Kc = [NH 4 Cl] [NH 3 ][HCl] [HCl] [HCl]

55. For a reversible reaction with a one-step mechanism, A B , the rate of the forward reaction is rate f = 3.2 -6 s-1 [A] and the rate of the reverse reaction is rate = 4.6 10-4 s-1 [B]. What is the value of K for this reaction? 10 r c -11 b. 7.0 109 c. 7.0 10-3 d. 1.4 102 e. 1.5 10-9 a. 2.5 10 56. What is the value of Kc for the reaction 2A(g) + 3B(g) 0.30 M, [C] = 0.10 M and [D] = 0.50 M? a. 1.9 b. 0.15 c. 2.4 d. 0.51 e. 0.088 57. What is the value of Kc for the reaction CH4(g) + H2O(g) [H2O] = 0.20 M, [CO] = 0.50 M and [H2] = 1.50 M? a. 19 b. 0.24 c. 0.053 d. 42 e. 16 2C(g) + D(g) if at equilibrium [A] = 0.60 M, [B] =

CO(g) + 3H2(g) if at equilibrium [CH4] = 0.20 M,

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ID: A

58. In a 1.0-liter container there are, at equilibrium, 0.20 mole of I 2, 0.30 mole of H2, and 0.20 mole of HI. What is the value of Kc for the reaction? H2(g) + I2(g) 2HI(g)

a. 0.33 b. 0.67 c. 2.7 d. 1.3 e. 1.5 59. In a 1.0-liter container there are, at equilibrium, 0.10 mole H 2, 0.20 mole N2, and 0.40 mole NH3. What is the value of Kc for this reaction at this temperature? N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g)

a. 0.0012 b. 20 c. 8.0 102 d. 0.050 e. 8.0 60. Consider the following reversible reaction. In a 3.00-liter container, the following amounts are found in equilibrium at 400C: 0.0420 mole N2, 0.516 mole H2, and 0.0357 mole NH3. Evaluate Kc. N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g)

a. 0.202 b. 1.99 c. 16.0 d. 4.94 e. 0.503 61. Some nitrogen and hydrogen gases are pumped into an empty 5.00-liter vessel at 500C. When equilibrium was established, 3.00 moles of N2, 2.10 moles of H2, and 0.298 moles of NH3 were present. Evaluate Kc at 500C. N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g)

a. 0.080 b. 0.63 c. 0.96 d. 0.022 e. 0.0067 62. Nitrogen oxide and bromine combine to form nitrosyl bromide, NOBr. 2NO(g) + Br2(g) 2NOBr(g)

In a 5.0 liter reactor at equilibrium at a constant temperature, it was determined there was 0.45 mol NO, 0.17 mol Br and 1.32 mol NOBr. What is the value of K c at this temperature? a. 0.0116 b. 86.2 c. 253 d. 0.00395 e. 22.7 63. At equilibrium, the following amounts are found at a certain temperature in a 3.0-liter container: 2.0 mole of Cl 2, 0.80 mol of H2O (steam), 0.0030 mol of HCl, and 0.0045 mol of O 2. Evaluate Kc at that temperature. 2Cl2(g) + 2H2O(g) 4HCl(g) + O2(g)

a. 4.7 10-14 b. 8.4 10-7 c. 1.4 10-13 d. 2.2 1013 e. 7.1 1012 64. Consider the reaction 2NO2(g) N2O4(g) oC with 2.35 moles NO in a 3.0 L reactor (no N O present). If the equilibrium A reaction is initiated at 100 2 2 4 concentration of N2O4 is 0.25 M, What is the value of Kc at 100C? a. 0.25 b. 0.31 c. 3.2 d. 6.7 e. 0.15

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Name: ________________________

ID: A

65. The reversible reaction 2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g) has come to equilibrium in a vessel of specific volume at a given temperature. Before the reaction began, the concentrations of the reactants were 0.060 mol/L of SO 2 and 0.050 mol/L of O2. After equilibrium is reached, the concentration of SO 3 is 0.040 mol/L. What is the value of Kc? a. 2.7 b. 1.3 102 c. 7.5 10-3 d. 0.38 e. 40. 66. Consider the following reaction in which all reactants and products are gases. 1.00 mol of A and 2.00 mol of B are placed in a 5.0-liter container. After equilibrium has been established, 0.50 mol of D is present in the container. Calculate the equilibrium constant, Kc, for the reaction. A + 2B 2C + D

a. 1.0 b. 0.15 c. 0.33 d. 3.0 e. 5.0 67. Given: A(g) + 3B(g) C(g) + 2D(g) One (1.0) mole of A and 1.0 mole of B are placed in a 5.0-liter container. After equilibrium has been established, 0.50 mole of D is present in the container. Calculate the equilibrium constant, Kc, for the reaction. a. 1.2 b. 0.68 c. 12 d. 27 e. 1.4 102 68. The equilibrium constant for the reaction CO2(g) + H2(g) is 26 at 50C. What is Kc for CO(g) + H2O(g) 3CO2(g) + 3H2(g) 3CO(g) + 3H2O(g) at the same temperature? a. 0.34 b. 1.8 104 c. 0.038 d. 5.7 10-5 e. 2.9 69. Given the following reaction and its equilibrium constant at a certain temperature, N 2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g) Kc = 3.6 108 calculate the numerical value of the equilibrium constant for the following reaction at the same temperature. NH3(g) N2(g) + H2(g)

a. 2.8 10-9 b. 1.9 104 c. 1.3 107 d. 5.3 10-5 e. 7.7 10-18 70. If the equilibrium constant at a certain temperature is 2.1 1013 for the following reaction, 4HCl(g) + O2(g) 2Cl2(g) + 2H2O(g)

calculate the value of the equilibrium constant at the same temperature for Cl2(g) + H2O(g) HCl(g) + O2(g) .

a. 2.2 10-7 b. 3.8 103 c. 5.3 1012 d. 4.7 10-4 e. 1.2 10-14 71. Which of the following statements about the reaction quotient, Q is false? a. The value of Q can be used to predict equilibrium concentrations. b. It has the same expression as Kc. c. Its value is calculated using nonequilibrium concentrations. d. If Q > Kc, the reaction must move to equilibrium by forming more reactants. e. If Q < Kc, the reaction must move to equilibrium by forming more products.

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72. The equilibrium constant for the following gas phase reaction is 0.50 at 600C. A mixture of HCHO, H2, and CO is introduced into a flask at 600C. After a short time, analysis of a small amount of the reaction mixture shows the concentrations to be [HCHO] = 1.5 M, [H2] = 0.5 M, and [CO] = 1.0 M. Which of the following statements about this reaction mixture is true? HCHO H2 + CO

a. The reaction mixture is at equilibrium. b. The reaction mixture is not at equilibrium, but no further reaction will occur. c. The reaction mixture is not at equilibrium, but will move toward equilibrium by forming more HCHO. d. The reaction mixture is not at equilibrium, but will move toward equilibrium by using up more HCHO. e. The forward rate of this reaction is the same as the reverse rate. 73. The equilibrium constant, Kc, for the following gas phase reaction is 0.50 at 600C. A mixture of HCHO, H2, and CO is introduced into a flask at 600C. After a short time, analysis of a small amount of the reaction mixture shows the concentrations to be [HCHO] = 1.5 M, [H2] = 1.2 M, and [CO] = 1.0 M. Which of the following statements about this reaction mixture is true? HCHO H2 + CO

a. The reaction mixture is at equilibrium. b. The reaction mixture is not at equilibrium, but no further reaction will occur. c. The reaction mixture is not at equilibrium, and will move toward equilibrium by forming more HCHO. d. The reaction mixture is not at equilibrium, and will move toward equilibrium by using up more HCHO. e. The forward rate of this reaction is the same as the reverse rate. 74. The equilibrium constant, Kc,for the following reaction is 0.0154 at a high temperature. A mixture in a container at this temperature has the concentrations : [H2] = 1.11 M, [I2] = 1.30 M and [HI] = 0.181 M. Which of the following statements concerning the reaction and the reaction quotient, Q, is true? H2(g) + I2(g) 2HI(g)

a. Q = Kc b. Q > Kc; more HI will be produced. c. Q > Kc; more H2 and I2 will be produced. d. Q < Kc; more HI will be produced. e. Q < Kc; more H2 and I2 will be produced. 75. At a certain temperature Kc = 25 and a reaction vessel contains a mixture with the following concentrations : [H 2] = 0.10 M, [Br2] = 0.10 M and [HBr] = 0.50 M. Which of the following statements concerning the reaction and the reaction quotient, Q, is true? H2(g) + Br2(g) 2HBr(g)

a. Q = Kc b. Q < Kc; more HBr will be produced. c. Q < Kc; more H2 and Br2 will be produced. d. Q > Kc; more HBr will be produced. e. Q > Kc; more H2 and Br2 will be produced. 76. At a certain temperature Kc = 55 and a reaction vessel contains a mixture with the following concentrations : [SO 3] = 0.85 M, [NO] = 1.2 M , [SO2] = 1.5 M and [NO2] = 2.0 M. Which of the following statements concerning the reaction and the reaction quotient, Q, is false? SO3(g) + NO(g) SO2(g) + NO2(g)

a. Q < Kc b. Q > Kc c. The reaction is not in equilibrium. d. Product concentrations will increase as equilibrium is approached. e. Reactant concentrations will decrease as equilibrium is approached. 14

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77. For the gas phase reaction N2O4 2NO2, Kc = 8. If 2 moles of N2O4 is introduced into a 1-liter vessel, the number of moles (not concentration) of NO2 at equilibrium, x, can be calculated from the equation: a. 8 =

x 2 x 2

b. 8 =

4x 2 x2 x2 x2 c. 8 = d. 8 = e. 8 = 2x 2 2x x 2 2

78. Nitrosyl chloride, NOCl, dissociates on heating as shown below. When a 1.50-gram sample of pure NOCl is heated at 350C in a volume of 1.00 liter, the percent dissociation is found to be 57.2%. Calculate the equilibrium concentration of NOCl. NOCl(g) NO(g) + Cl2(g)

a. 8.76 10-1 M b. 9.26 M c. 9.80 10-3 M d. 1.31 10-2 M e. 1.75 10-4 M 79. The numerical value of the equilibrium constant, Kc, for the following gas phase reaction is 0.50 at a certain temperature. When a certain reaction mixture reaches equilibrium, the concentration of O 2 is found to be 2.0 M, while the concentration of SO3 is found to be 10 M. What is the equilibrium concentration of SO 2 in this mixture? 2SO2 + O2 2SO3

a. 0.50 M b. 10 M c. 0.10 M d. 5.0 M e. 1.0 M O3 the value of the equilibrium constant is 0.0187 at a particular temperature. If the 80. For the reaction 3O2 equilibrium concentration of [O2] is 0.75 M, what is the equilibrium concentration of O 3? a. 0.089 M b. 0.22 M c. 0.75 M d. 0.0079 M e. 0.014 M 81. Consider the following system. The equilibrium constant for the reaction at 900C is 0.082. A reaction is initiated with only COCl2 in a 2.0-liter vessel. At equilibrium 2.36 10-3 mol of Cl2 is present. How many moles of COCl2 are present at equilibrium? COCl2(g) CO(g) + Cl2(g)

a. 1.4 10-4 mol b. 1.4 10-3 mol c. 6.1 10-5 mol d. 5.8 10-4 mol e. 3.4 10-5 mol 82. A quantity of HI was sealed in a tube, heated to 425C, and held at this temperature until equilibrium was reached. The concentration of HI in the tube at equilibrium was found to be 0.0706 moles/liter. Calculate the equilibrium concentration of H2 (and I2). For the reaction H2(g) + I2(g) 2HI(g), Kc = 54.6 at 425C.

a. 4.78 10-3 M b. 9.55 10-3 M c. 2.34 10-3 M d. 1.17 10-3 M e. 1.85 10-4 M 83. The equilibrium constant for the following gas phase reaction is 4.0 at a certain temperature. A reaction is carried out at this temperature starting with 2.0 mol/L of CO and 2.0 mol/L of H 2O. What will be the equilibrium concentration of H2? CO + H2O CO2 + H2

a. 2.0 M b. 0.75 M c. 1.3 M d. 0.67 M e. 1.5 M

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84. For the following reaction, Kc is 144 at 200C. If 0.400 mol of both A and B are placed in a 2.00-liter container at that temperature, what will be the concentration of C at equilibrium? A(g) + B(g) C(g) + D(g)

a. 0.015 M b. 1.64 M c. 0.200 M d. 0.185 M e. 1.13 M 85. For the following reaction, Kc is 144 at 200C. If 0.400 mol of both A and B are placed in a 2.00-liter container at that temperature, what will be the concentration of B at equilibrium? A(g) + B(g) C(g) + D(g)

a. 0.015 M b. 1.64 M c. 0.200 M d. 0.185 M e. 1.13 M 86. Ammonium carbamate decomposes into NH3 and CO2 when heated. NH4(NH2CO2)(s) 2NH3(g) + CO2(g)

If 25.0 g of ammonium carbamate is placed in an empty chamber and heated to 100C, what are the equilibrium concentrations of NH3 and CO2? Kc = 58.3 at 100C. a. [NH3] = 2.44 M, [CO2] = 4.88 M b. [NH3] = 4.88 M, [CO2] = 2.44 M c. [NH3] = 29.2 M, [CO2] = 14.6 M d. [NH3] = 15.3 M, [CO2] = 7.64 M e. [NH3] = 10.8 M, [CO2] = 5.40 M 87. At 25C, Kc for the following reaction is 4.66 10-3. If 0.800 mol of N2O4 is injected into a closed 1.00-liter glass container at 25C, what will be the equilibrium concentration of N 2O4? N2O4(g) 2NO2(g)

a. 0.016 M b. 0.770 M c. 0.088 M d. 0.236 M e. 0.667 M 88. Exactly one mol/L of each of the four gases involved in the following reaction is placed in a reactor at 200 C and allowed to reach equilibrium. What is the equilibrium concentration of H 2O? Kc = 2.38 @ 200C. CO(g) + H2O(g) CO2(g) + H2(g)

a. 1.21 M b. 0.213 M c. 0.787 M d. 2.38 M e. 1.0 M 89. The equilibrium constant, Kc, is 0.022 at 25C for the reaction below. What is the concentration of PCl 5 at equilibrium if a reaction is initiated with 0.80 mole of PCl 5 in a 1.00-liter container? PCl5(g) PCl3(g) + Cl2(g)

a. 0.080 M b. 0.12 M c. 0.54 M d. 0.68 M e. 0.76 M 90. Phosgene, COCl2, is a poisonous gas that decomposes into carbon monoxide and chlorine according to the following equation with Kc = 0.083 at 900C. If the reaction is initiated with 0.600 mole of COCl 2 at 900C in a 5.00-liter container, what concentration of CO will be present after equilibrium is established? COCl2(g) CO(g) + Cl2(g)

a. 0.072 M b. 0.048 M c. 0.067 M d. 0.012 M e. 0.090 M 16

Name: ________________________

ID: A

91. Kc = 0.040 for the system below at 450C. If a reaction is initiated with 0.20 mole of Cl 2 and 0.20 mole of PCl3 in a 1.0-liter container, what concentration of PCl 5 will be present at equilibrium? PCl5(g) PCl3(g) + Cl2(g)

a. 0.09 M b. 0.13 M c. 0.22 M d. 0.31 M e. 0.16 M 92. For the following system, the equilibrium constant at 445C is 51.0. If a reaction is initiated with the following initial concentrations, [H2] = 2.06 x 10-2 M, [I2] = 1.45 10-2 M, and [HI] = 0, what will be the equilibrium concentration of HI? H2(g) + I2(g) 2HI(g)

a. 1.8 10-2 M b. 1.4 10-1 M c. 2.7 10-1 M d. 2.6 10-2 M e. 3.7 10-3 M 93. A reaction begins with 0.600 mole of A and 0.200 mole of B in a 2.00-L container at a certain temperature. What will be the equilibrium concentration of C? A(g) + B(g) C(g) Kc = 23.5

a. 0.0684 M b. 0.0200 M c. 0.044 M d. 0.0836 M e. 0.105 M 94. For the following reaction, Kc is 144 at 200C. If the reaction were initiated with 0.600 mol of A and 0.200 mol of B in a 2.00-liter container, what would be the equilibrium concentration A? A(g) + B(g) C(g) + D(g)

a. 0.684 M b. 0.200 M c. 0.444 M d. 0.982 M e. 1.05 M 95. At 990C, Kc = 1.6 for the following reaction. How many moles of H 2O(g) are present in an equilibrium mixture resulting from the addition of 1.00 mole of H 2, 2.00 mol of CO2, 0.75 mol of H2O, and 1.00 mol of CO to a 5.00-liter container at 990C? H2(g) + CO2(g) H2O(g) + CO(g)

a. 0.60 mol b. 0.80 mol c. 1.02 mol d. 1.45 mol e. 1.14 mol 96. Which statement best represents LeChatelier's Principle? a. A system in equilibrium will always remain in equilibrium. b. Only a change in equilibrium will affect the equilibrium of a reaction. c. When a change is made to a system in equilibrium, equilibrium can never be restored. d. A system in equilibrium will respond to a change by moving in the direction that reduces the change as it returns to equilibrium. e. A system in equilibrium will not be affected by a change in concentration. 97. For the system H2(g) + CO2(g) H2O(g) + CO(g) at equilibrium, the addition of H 2(g) would cause (according to LeChatelier's principle) a. only more H2O(g) to form. b. only more CO(g) to form. c. more H2O(g) and CO(g) to form. d. only more CO2(g) to form. e. no change in amounts of products or reactants.

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98. For the system H2(g) + CO2(g) H2O(g) + CO(g) at equilibrium, the removal of some of the H2O(g) would cause (according to LeChatelier's principle) a. more H2(g) to be form. b. more CO2(g) to be form. c. no change in the amounts of products or reactants. d. more CO(g) to be form. e. the amount of CO(g) to remain constant while the amount of H2O(g) increases to the original equilibrium concentration. 99. If the system below is at equilibrium in a closed vessel and a small amount of nitrous acid is added, what would be expected to happen? HN3(l) + hydrazoic acid 2H2O(l) N2H4(l) + hydrazine HNO2(l) nitrous acid H0 = +641 kJ

a. Some HN3 would be used up in re-establishing equilibrium. b. Some HNO2 would be formed in re-establishing equilibrium. c. Some HNO2 would be formed, and some N2H4 would be lost. d. More HN3 and H2O would be formed. e. The temperature would decrease, and the forward reaction would be favored. 100. Consider the following systems at equilibrium. Which response includes all the stresses listed that would shift the equilibrium to the right (favor the forward reaction)? Equilibrium CO(g) + Cl2(g) CO(g) + Cl2(g) PCl3(g) + Cl2(g) Stress add Cl2 remove COCl2 remove PCl3

I. II. III.

COCl2(g) COCl2(g) PCl5(g)

a. I b. III c. I and II d. II and III e. I, II and III 101. Suppose we let the reaction below come to equilibrium. Then we decrease the total pressure, by increasing the volume of the container. What will be the effect on the net amount of SO 3(g) present? 2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g)

a. It increases. b. It decreases. c. It does not change. d. The question cannot be answered without knowing the value of K. e. The question cannot be answered without knowing the value of H0. 102. Consider the reaction A(g) + B(g) D(g) + Heat Which of the following sets of reaction conditions would produce the maximum yield of product? a. 100C, 50 atm, b. 100C, 10 atm, c. 500C, 50 atm, catalyst d. 100C, 10 atm, catalyst e. 100C, 50 atm, catalyst 103. Suppose we let the reaction below come to equilibrium. Then we decrease the total pressure, by increasing the volume of the container. What will be the effect on the numerical value of the equilibrium constant, K? 2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g) + heat

a. It increases. b. It decreases. c. It does not change. d. The question cannot be answered without knowing the initial value of K. e. The question cannot be answered without knowing the value of H0.

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104. Suppose the following reaction is at equilibrium at a given temperature and pressure. The pressure is then increased at constant temperature, by compressing the reaction mixture, and the mixture is allowed to re-establish equilibrium. At the new equilibrium __________. H2(g) + Cl2(g) 2HCl(g)

a. there is more hydrogen chloride than there was originally b. there is less hydrogen chloride than there was originally c. there is the same amount of hydrogen chloride as there was originally d. the hydrogen and chloride are completely used up e. the amount of hydrogen chloride may be either larger or smaller than it was originally, depending on the value of K 105. Decreasing the volume of the container (at constant temperature) after the system below has reached equilibrium would be expected to __________. HN3(l) + 2H2O(l) N2H4(l) + HNO2(l)

a. produce more HN3 and raise the temperature b. produce more H2O and lower the temperature c. produce more N2H4 and raise the temperature d. produce more HNO2 and lower the temperature e. have no effect on this equilibrium 106. Suppose we let this reaction come to equilibrium. Then we increase the temperature of the reaction mixture. What will be the effect on the net amount of SO3(g) present? 2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g) + heat

a. It increases. b. It decreases. c. It does not change. d. The question cannot be answered without knowing the value of K. e. The question cannot be answered without knowing the value of H0. 107. Consider the system below at equilibrium at 200C. 2Cl2(g) + 2H2O(g) + heat 4HCl(g) + O2(g)

Which response contains all the stresses listed that will result in a shift of the equilibrium so that more HCl is produced when equilibrium is re-established, and no stresses that will not? I. II. III. adding some Cl2 raising the temperature at constant pressure decreasing the volume at constant temperature

a. I and II b. II and III c. III d. I and II e. another one or another combination

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108. Which of the numbered responses lists all of the following stresses that would shift the equilibrium to the left (favor the reverse reaction), and no other stresses? 2NOCl(g) + 75 kJ I. II. III. IV. 2NO(g) + Cl2(g)

Add a catalyst. Heat the mixture. Decrease the volume at constant temperature. Increase the partial pressure of NOCl by adding NOCl.

a. I, II, and IV b. II, III, and IV c. II and III d. III e. a different one or a different combination 109. Which of the numbered responses lists all the following stresses that would shift the equilibrium to the right (favor the forward reaction), and no other stresses? 2NOCl(g) + 75 kJ I. II. III. IV. 2NO(g) + Cl2(g)

Add more NOCl. Remove some Cl2. Lower the temperature. Add more NO.

a. I and II b. I, II, and III c. I and III d. II and IV e. II, III, and IV 110. Consider the reaction below at equilibrium at a certain temperature. 2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g) + heat Which response contains all the stresses that would shift the equilibrium so as to produce more SO 3 (to the right), and only those stresses? I. II. III. IV. V. increase temperature at constant pressure decrease the volume of the system at constant pressure remove SO2 add O2 increase the partial pressure of SO2

a. II and III b. I, II, and IV c. I and V d. I and III e. II, IV, and V 111. Consider the following reaction: AB(s) + C 2(g) AC(g) + BC(g) + heat Which of the following statements is false? a. Increasing PC2 will cause a shift to the left. b. Adding a catalyst will not affect the equilibrium. c. Decreasing the temperature will cause a shift to the right. d. Adding more AB(s) will not affect the equilibrium. e. Increasing PAC or PBC will cause a shift to the left. 112. At equilibrium a 1.0-liter container was found to contain 0.20 mol of A, 0.20 mol of B, 0.40 mol of C, and 0.40 mol of D. If 0.10 mol of A and 0.10 mol of B are added to this system, which of the following statements is true? A(g) + B(g) C(g) + D(g)

a. The system remains in equilibrium. b. Q > Kc c. More reactants are formed to increase the value of Q. d. The value of Kc decreases. e. More products are formed to increase the value of Q 20

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ID: A

113. For the gas phase reaction SO2 + 2 O2

SO3 H0 = -1.6 102 kJ for the forward reaction. In order to

increase the yield of SO3, the reaction should be run a. at high P, high T. b. at high P, low T. c. at low P, high T. d. at low P, low T. e. at high P, but is independent of T. 114. Which of the following will require the least time for a reaction to reach equilibrium? a. Kc is a very small number. b. Kc is a very large number. c. Kc is approximately one. d. Cannot tell without knowing the value of Kc. e. Cannot tell, since the time required to reach equilibrium does not depend on Kc. 115. Which of the following statements about the Haber process if false? a. Fritz Haber, a German scientist, developed the process. b. Higher temperature favors the forward reaction. c. Most NH3 produced by the Haber process is used to make fertilizer. d. Ammonia is synthesized from elemental nitrogen and hydrogen. e. Higher gas pressures favor the forward reaction. 116. Suppose the following reaction is at equilibrium at a given temperature and pressure. The pressure is then increased at constant temperature, by compressing the reaction mixture, and the mixture is allowed to re-establish equilibrium. At the new equilibrium __________. N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g)

a. there is more ammonia than there was originally b. there is less ammonia than there was originally c. there is the same amount of ammonia present as there was originally d. the nitrogen is used up completely e. the amount of ammonia may be either larger or smaller than it was originally, depending on the value of K 117. Consider the following reversible reaction at equilibrium. N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g) + 9.22 104 J

Which response contains all the choices below that refer to changes that would shift the equilibrium to the right, and no other choices? I. II. III. IV. V. add H2 remove N2 add an iron catalyst increase the temperature at constant pressure increase the pressure at constant temperature by decreasing the volume

a. III, IV and V b. I, IV and V c. IV and V d. I, II and III e. I and V

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118. The Haber process demonstrates that commercial processes do not maximize each factor that affects equilibria but use them in combination to get maximum production. Which of the following statements about the Haber process is false? N2(g) + 3H2(g) a. b. c. d. e. 2NH3(g) + 92.24 kJ

Although Kc is much greater at 25C, the reaction is carried out at 450C. A catalyst is used to increase reaction speed without using very high temperatures. Although the reaction is exothermic , it is carried out at high (450C) temperature. Although high pressure is unfavorable to the production of the NH 3(g), the reaction is carried out under a pressure of 200 - 1000 atmospheres. The emerging reaction mixture is cooled to remove the NH3 and the N2 and H2 recycled.

119. A system at equilibrium in a 1.0-liter container was found to contain 0.20 mol of A, 0.20 mol of B, 0.40 mol of C, and 0.40 mol of D. If 0.15 mol of A and 0.15 mol of B are added to this system, what will be the new equilibrium concentration of A? A(g) + B(g) C(g) + D(g)

a. 0.050 M b. 0.10 M c. 0.20 M d. 0.25 M e. 0.30 M 120. At equilibrium a 1.0-liter container was found to contain 0.20 mol of A, 0.20 mol of B, 0.40 mol of C, and 0.40 mol of D. If 0.10 mol of A and 0.10 mol of B are added to this system, what will be the new equilibrium concentration of A? A(g) + B(g) C(g) + D(g)

a. 0.37 M b. 0.47 M c. 0.87 M d. 0.23 M e. 0.067 M 121. A system at equilibrium in a 1.0-liter container was found to contain 0.20 mol of A, 0.20 mol of B, 0.40 mol of C, and 0.40 mol of D. If 0.12 mol of A and 0.12 mol of B are added to this system, what will be the new equilibrium concentration of C? A(g) + B(g) C(g) + D(g)

a. 0.32 M b. 0.13 M c. 0.24 M d. 0.40 M e. 0.48 M 122. A 1.00-liter vessel contains the following equilibrium concentrations at 400C: N2, 1.00 M; H2, 0.50 M; and NH3, 0.50 M. How many moles of hydrogen must be removed from the vessel in order to increase the concentration of nitrogen to 1.20 M? N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g)

a. 0.94 mol b. 1.5 mol c. 0.33 mol d. 0.76 mol e. 1.1 mol B(g) + C(g) 123. Given: A(g) When the system is at equilibrium at 200C, the concentrations are found to be: [A] = 0.20 M, [B] = 0.30 M, [C] = 0.30 M. If the volume of the container is suddenly doubled at 200C, what will be the new equilibrium concentration of C? a. 0.060 M b. 0.18 M c. 0.24 M d. 0.29 M e. 0.35 M 22

Name: ________________________

ID: A

124. Given: A(g) B(g) + C(g) When the above system is at equilibrium at 200C, the concentrations are found to be: [A] = 0.20 M, [B] = [C] = 0.30 M. If the volume of the container is suddenly doubled at 200C, what will be the new equilibrium concentration of A? a. 0.03 M b. 0.05 M c. 0.07 M d. 0.09 M e. 0.11 M PCl3(g) + Cl2(g) Kc = 0.040 at 450C 125. Given: PCl5(g) What would be the equilibrium concentration of PCl 5(g) if 0.20 mole of PCl5(g) was placed in a 1.00-L container at this temperature? What would be the new equilibrium concentration of PCl 5(g) if the volume were halved at this same temperature? a. 0.070 M, 0.29 M b. 0.13 M, 0.29 M c. 0.13 M, 0.11 M d. 0.070 M, 0.13 M e. 0.060 M, 0.14 M 126. Given: N2(g) + O2(g) 2NO(g) Kc = 0.16 What would be the equilibrium concentration of N 2(g) if 0.12 mole of NO(g) was placed in a 1.00-L container at this temperature? What would be the new equilibrium concentration of N 2(g) if the volume were halved at this same temperature? a. 0.050 M, 0.10 M b. 0.050 M, 0.12 M c. 0.070 M, 0.12 M d. 0.10 M, 0.10 M e. 0.50 M, 1.0 M 127. When equilibrium is established for the following reaction at 298 K, the concentration of N 2O4 is 1.34 mol/L, and the concentration of NO2 is 0.448 mol/L. Convert these concentrations to partial pressures. What is the total pressure of the system at equilibrium? N2O4(g) 2NO2(g)

a. 2.54 atm b. 11.6 atm c. 16.7 atm d. 34.4 atm e. 43.8 atm 128. A mixture of 0.40 mol of N2, 0.60 mol of Ar, and 0.30 mol of O 2 is confined in a 300-liter vessel at 50.0C. What is the total pressure of the system? a. 0.32 atm b. 0.016 atm c. 0.049 atm d. 0.086 atm e. 0.11 atm 129. The equilibrium constant expression for the reaction, 2CO(g) + O2(g) 2CO2(g) is given by Kp =

2 P CO 2 a. P 2P CO O 2

b.

P CO 2 P CO P O 2

c. 2P CO + P O 2 d.

2P CO 2 2P CO + P O 2

2 2P CO 2 e. 2P 2 P CO O 2

130. The equilibrium constant expression for the reaction, 2NO2(g) O2(g) + 2NO(g) is given by Kp =

2 P P 2P NO2 NO O2 P NO P O2 P NO2 2 a. b. c. P NO P O2 d. e. 2 2 P NO2 P NO P O2 P P P NO O2 NO2

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131. Consider the reversible reaction at equilibrium at 392C. 2A(g) + B(g) C(g)

The partial pressures are found to be: A: 6.70 atm, B: 10.1 atm, C: 3.60 atm. Evaluate Kp for this reaction. a. 7.94 10-3 b. 1.46 10-1 c. 5.32 10-2 d. 54.5 e. 121 132. For the following reaction at equilibrium at 445C the partial pressures were found to be [H2] = 0.45 atm, [I2] = 0.10 atm and [HI] = 1.53 atm. Calculate Kp for this reaction. H2(g) + I2(g) 2HI(g)

a. 150 b. 34 c. 52 d. 76 e. 4.4 B + C , KP = 17.1. If initially the total pressure in the 133. For the following gas-phase reaction at 400 K, 2A reactor is 1.80 atm and only A is present, what is the total pressure in the reactor at equilibrium? a. 2.20 atm b. 3.54 atm c. 0.803 atm d. 17.1 atm e. 1.80 atm 134. Phosphorus pentafluoride, PF 5(g), partially decomposes to PF3(g) and F2(g) at a temperature of 600 K. A 2.0-liter container is filled with pure PF5. At a temperature of 600 K, the initial pressure of PF 5 is 2.0 atm. When equilibrium is reached, half of the original amount of PF 5 has decomposed. The equilibrium constant, Kp, for PF5(g) PF3(g) + F2(g) is __________.

a. 0.0025 b. 0.12 c. 0.25 d. 0.50 e. 1.0 135. If the equilibrium constant, Kp, at a certain temperature is 8.6 1011 for the following reaction, 4HCl(g) + O 2(g) 2Cl2(g) + 2H2O(g) calculate the value of the equilibrium constant, Kp, at the same temperature for Cl2(g) + H2O(g) HCl(g) + O2(g) . -7 b. 8.5 103 c. 1.2 1013 d. 1.0 10-3 e. 2.7 10-14 a. 4.9 10 136. The partial pressure of a certain gas in a system at equilibrium at 10C is experimentally determined to be 0.340 atmosphere. What is its concentration in moles per liter? a. 4.14 10-1 M b. 1.46 10-2 M c. 68.2 M d. 2.79 10-1 M e. 7.90 M 137. Consider the reversible reaction at equilibrium at 392C. 2A(g) + B(g) C(g)

The partial pressures are found to be: A: 6.70 atm, B: 10.1 atm, C: 3.60 atm. What is the concentration of B at equilibrium? a. 0.015 M b. 1.64 M c. 0.200 M d. 0.185 M e. 1.13 M 138. Kc = 4.6 10-3 for the reaction below at 25C. Evaluate Kp at 25C. N2O4(g) 2NO2(g)

a. 0.086 b. 0.11 c. 6.2 10-3 d. 1.9 10- 4 e. 3.2 10-1

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139. Kc = 2.3 10-2 for the reaction below at 100C. Evaluate Kp at 100C. CO2(g) + H2(g) CO(g) + H2O(g)

a. 43.5 b. 2.3 10-2 c. 1.73 d. 7.0 10- 4 e. 7.5 10-1 140. Kc = 0.040 for the system below at 450C. Evaluate Kp for the reaction at 450C. PCl5(g) PCl3(g) + Cl2(g)

a. 0.40 b. 0.64 c. 2.4 d. 5.2 10-2 e. 6.7 10-4 141. Given: PCl5(g) PCl3(g) + Cl2(g) At 250C a sample of PCl5 was placed in a 24-liter evacuated reaction vessel and allowed to come to equilibrium. Analysis showed that at equilibrium 0.42 mole of PCl 5, 0.64 mole of PCl3, and 0.64 mole of Cl2 were present in the vessel. Calculate Kp for the reaction at 250C. a. 1.2 b. 1.3 c. 1.5 d. 1.8 e. 2.2 142. Certain amounts of the hypothetical substances A 2 and B are mixed at 300. K. When equilibrium is established for the reaction below, the following amounts were present in a 3.00-liter container: 0.200 mole of A 2, 0.400 mole of B, 0.200 mole of D, and 0.100 mole of E. What is Kp, the equilibrium constant, in terms of partial pressures (atm), for this reaction? A2(g) + 3B(g) 2D(g) + 3E(g)

a. 16.4 b. 0.084 c. 3.81 10-2 d. 2.57 10-2 e. 1.46 10-2 143. Certain amounts of the hypothetical substances A 2 and B are mixed in a 3.00-liter container at 300. K. When equilibrium is established for the reaction the following amounts are present: 0.200 mol of A 2, 0.400 mol of B, 0.200 mol of D, and 0.100 mol of E. What is Kp, the equilibrium constant in terms of partial pressures, for this reaction? A2(g) + 3B(g) 2D(g) + E(g)

a. 16.4 b. 0.084 c. 3.81 10-2 d. 1.42 10-2 e. 2.50 10-1 144. For the reaction below, Kp = 6.70 10-3 at 25C. COCl2(g) CO(g) + Cl2(g)

A sample of COCl2 is placed in a closed 15.0-liter vessel at 25C, and it exerts a pressure of 4.65 atm before decomposition begins. What will be the partial pressure of Cl 2 at equilibrium? a. 0.173 atm b. 0.206 atm c. 0.566 atm d. 2.14 atm e. 1.16 atm

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145. The equilibrium constant, Kp, for the following reaction is 280. at 150.C. Suppose that a quantity of IBr is placed in a closed reaction vessel and the system is allowed to come to equilibrium at 150.C. When equilibrium is established, the pressure of IBr is 0.200 atm. What is the pressure of I 2 at equilibrium? I2(g) + Br2(g) 2IBr(g) + 11.7 kJ

a. 0.168 atm b. 0.096 atm c. 0.067 atm d. 0.012 atm e. 0.00014 atm 146. For the reaction below, Kp = 1.59 at 100 C. If 1.0 g of SrCO3 is placed in an empty 5.00 L reactor and allowed to reach equilibrium, what will be the pressure in the reactor? SrCO3(s) SrO(s) + CO2(g)

a. 1.59 atm b. 1.26 atm c. 2.53 atm d. 1.0 atm e. 3.18 atm 147. The equilibrium constant, Kp, for the following reaction is 355 at 175C. If one mole of each A, B and C is placed in a 2.00 L reactor at 175C, what is the partial pressure of A at equilibrium? 2A B+C

a. 8.48 atm b. 1.44 atm c. 26.9 atm d. 9.92 atm e. 2.00 atm 148. For the reaction below, Kp = 6.70 10-3 at 25C. COCl2(g) CO(g) + Cl2(g)

A sample of COCl2 is placed in a closed 15.0-liter vessel at 25C, and it exerts a pressure of 4.65 atm before decomposition begins. What will be the total pressure at equilibrium? a. 1.68 atm b. 3.80 atm c. 5.03 atm d. 4.65 atm e. 4.83 atm 149. The equilibrium constant, Kp, for the following reaction is 280. at 150.C. Suppose that a quantity of IBr is placed in a closed reaction vessel and the system is allowed to come to equilibrium at 150.C. When equilibrium is established, the pressure of IBr is 0.200 atm. What is the total pressure inside the system at equilibrium? I2(g) + Br2(g) 2IBr(g) + 11.7 kJ

a. 0.176 atm b. 0.212 atm c. 0.224 atm d. 0.334 atm e. 0.536 atm 150. The gas phase system below is at equilibrium at 200C with the following partial pressures: 0.20 atm A, 0.20 atm B, 0.10 atm C, and 0.40 atm D. If an additional 0.30 atm C is introduced into the reaction vessel, what will be the partial pressure of C at 200C when equilibrium is re-established? A(g) + B(g) C(g) + D(g)

a. 0.60 atm b. 0.30 atm c. 0.50 atm d. 0.75 atm e. 0.45 atm

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151. The gas phase system below is at equilibrium at 250C with the following partial pressures: 0.50 atm A, 0.50 atm B, 0.30 atm C, and 0.30 atm D. If an additional 0.20 atm D is introduced into the reaction vessel, what will be the partial pressure of A at 250C when equilibrium is re-established? A(g) + B(g) C(g) + D(g)

a. 0.57 atm b. 0.37 atm c. 0.55 atm d. 0.52 atm e. 0.46 atm 152. Given the equilibrium reaction ZnCO3(s) ZnO(s) + CO2(g). Which one of the following statements is true? a. Equal concentrations of ZnO(s) and CO 2(g) would result from the decomposition of a given amount of ZnCO3(s). b. The same equilibrium condition would result if we started with only pure ZnCO3(s) in a closed container as if we started with only pure ZnO(s) in a closed container. c. Introducing 1.0 atm pressure of N2(g) into the system at equilibrium in a closed container would result in more ZnCO 3(s) being formed. d. Decreasing the volume of the closed system initially at equilibrium, at constant temperature, would result in more ZnCO 3(s) being formed. e. At equilibrium conditions, the forward and reverse reactions have stopped. 153. Which one of the following would force the forward reaction to completion? CaCO3(s) + 2H3O+(aq) Ca2+(aq) + 3H2O(l) + CO2(g)

a. Removing some H3O+ from the reaction mixture, by neutralizing it with base. b. Adding more Ca2+ to the mixture. c. Removing CO2 as it is formed. d. Adding CO2 to the reaction mixture. e. None of the preceding would have any effect on the amount of CaCO 3 consumed. 154. Consider the following heterogeneous reaction: Mg(s) + 2H3O+(aq) Mg2+(aq) + H2(g) + 2H2O(l)

Which of the following statements is false? a. The amount of magnesium present does not affect the equilibrium position. b. Adding 1.0 atm of N2 to the system would cause the reverse reaction to be favored. c. Increasing PH2 causes the forward reaction to be favored. d. Increasing [H3O+] causes the forward reaction to be favored. e. Decreasing [Mg2+] causes the forward reaction to be favored. 155. Consider the equilibrium decomposition of ammonium bromide. NH4Br(s) NH3(g) + HBr(g)

Once equilibrium is established, which of the following would cause this reaction to favor the products more? a. Increase the total pressure. b. Increase the amount of NH4Br. c. Decrease the amount of NH4Br. d. Decrease PHBr. e. Increase PNH3. 156. A sample of only solid ammonium chloride was heated in a closed container NH 4Cl(s) NH3(g) + HCl(g). At equilibrium, the pressure of NH3(g) was found to be 1.75 atm. What is the equilibrium constant, Kp, for the decomposition at this temperature? a. 1.46 b. 1.75 c. 3.06 d. 3.72 e. 4.14 157. A sample of only solid ammonium chloride was heated in a 1.00-L container at 500.C NH4Cl(s) NH3(g) + HCl(g). At equilibrium, the pressure of NH3(g) was found to be 1.75 atm. What is the equilibrium constant, Kc, for the decomposition at this temperature? a. 7.6 10- 4 b. 1.2 104 c. 4.8 10-2 d. 1.9 102 e. 1.8 10-3 27

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158. At 1470 K the value of Kp = 6.0 10- 4 for the reaction 2CO(g) C (graphite) + CO2(g)

CO(g) initially at 2.00 atm is in contact with graphite until equilibrium is reached. What is the partial pressure of CO2(g) at equilibrium? a. 0.0024 atm b. 0.00030 atm c. 0.0012 atm d. 0.00060 atm e. 0.00015 atm 159. Which of the following statements about G0 and the thermodynamic equilibrium constant is false? a. G0 and K are both indicators of the direction of a spontaneous reaction. b. When G0 < 0, the forward reaction is favored. c. When K < 1, the reverse reaction is favored. d. There is a mathematical relationship between G0 and K. e. When G0 < 0, K < 1. 160. Calculate the thermodynamic equilibrium constant at 25C for a reaction for which G0 = 11.3 kJ per mol of reaction. R = 8.314 J/molK a. 0.995 b. 95.7 c. - 4.56 d. 1.04 10-2 e. 4.32 10-24 161. Calculate the thermodynamic equilibrium constant at 25C for a reaction for which G0 = -25.60 kJ per mol of reaction. R = 8.314 J/molK a. 5.14 101 b. 11.2 c. 6.12 102 d. 3.07 104 e. 4.32 106 162. Evaluate the thermodynamic equilibrium constant for the following reaction at 25C. Gof kJ/mol CH4(g) -60.63 + H2O(g) -228.6 CO(g) -137.2 + 3H2(g) 0

a. 5.5 1074 b. 2.2 10-27 c. 3.4 10- 54 d. 4.4 1026 e. 1.8 10-75 163. Consider the following reaction at 25C for which H0 is -26.9 kJ and S0 is 11.4 J/K. Evaluate the equilibrium constant, Kp, for the reaction at 25C. R = 8.314 J/molK I2(g) + Cl2(g) 2ICl(g)

a. 3.6 106 b. 4.2 103 c. 2.0 105 d. 6.7 108 e. 4.9 10-6 164. Evaluate G0 at 718C for a gas phase reaction for which Kp = 7.4 10-6 at 718C. R = 8.314 J/molK a. 68.6 kJ b. 365 kJ c. 427 kJ d. 97.3 kJ e. 168 kJ 165. Kp for a gas phase reaction is 4.7 10-2 at 660.C. Evaluate G0 at 660.C. R = 8.314 J/molK a. 23.7 kJ b. 109 kJ c. 2.46 kJ d. 31.5 kJ e. 16.1 kJ 166. Evaluate G0 for a gas phase reaction for which Kp = 3.1 10-5 at 718C. a. 62.4 kJ b. 85.6 kJ c. 98.2 kJ d. 110 kJ e. 138 kJ

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167. For the reversible reaction below at 1500. K, Kc = 0.150 at 1500. K. Evaluate G0 at 1500. K. R = 8.314 J/molK = 0.0821 Latm/molK 2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g)

a. 83.7 kJ b. -83.7 kJ c. -20.6 kJ d. 14.6 kJ e. 20.6 kJ 168. The van't Hoff equation relates two equilibrium constants at two different temperatures.

K T2 H 0 1 1 1n K = R T T 1 T1 2
Consider a reaction where K298 = 16.3 and Ho = -116 kJ/mol. Which of the following statements is true? a. The reverse reaction is favored at 298 K. b. A decrease in temperature will cause the forward reaction to be favored more. c. An increase in temperature will cause the forward reaction to be favored more. d. The value of K would be larger at 398 K. e. The reaction is endothermic. 169. The value of Kp at 390.C for the reversible reaction given below is 7.95 10-3. Calculate the value of Kp at 25C. H0 = 162 kJ/mol, R = 8.314 J/molK A(g) + B(g) C(g)

a. 2.8 10-2 b. 1.8 10-18 c. 6.3 10-12 d. 3.0 10-14 e. 3.4 1013 170. If the Kp at 2000. K for the reaction given below is 2.1 10-3 and the Kp at 27C is 5.0 10-30, calculate H0 for this reaction. A(g) + B(g) C(g)

a. 2.6 kJ b. 1.44 J c. -179 kJ d. 180 kJ e. 13.9 kJ 171. The value of Kp at 390.C for the reversible reaction given below is 7.95 10-3. Calculate the value of Kp at 25C. H0 = 162 kJ/mol, R = 8.314 J/molK A(g) + B(g) C(g)

K T2 H 0 1 1 1n K = R T T T1 1 2
a. 2.8 10-2 b. 1.8 10-18 c. 6.3 10-12 d. 3.0 10-14 e. 3.4 1013

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172. If the Kp at 2000. K for the reaction given below is 2.1 10-3 and the Kp at 27C is 5.0 10-30, calculate H0 for this reaction. A(g) + B(g) C(g)

K T2 H 0 1 1 1n K = R T T T1 1 2
a. 2.6 kJ b. 1.44 J c. -179 kJ d. 180 kJ e. 13.9 kJ Completion Complete each statement. 173. The symbol Q is called the ________. 174. In 1913, the Haber-Bosch process was patented. The product of the Haber-Bosch process is ________. 175. If a stress is applied to an equilibrium system, the system will respond is such a way as to relieve that stress. This is a statement of ________ principle. 176. When 1.0 mole of acetic acid is diluted to a volume of 1.0 L, the acid ionizes to form acetate ion and hydronium ion. CH3CO2-(aq) + H3O+(aq) CH3CO2H(aq) + H2O() At equilibrium, 0.42% of the acetic acid is ionized. What percentage of the acid ionizes when 2.0 moles of acetic acid is diluted to 1.0 L? _________ Essay 177. The standard enthalpy of formation of ammonia is -46.1 kJ/mol. 1/2 N2(g) + 3/2 H2(g) NH3(g) Commercially, the reaction is carried out at high temperatures. Using your knowledge of kinetics and equilibrium, explain an advantage and a disadvantage of synthesizing ammonia at high temperatures. 178. Compare the situation of a crowded nightclub at capacity with a waiting line to equilibrium. What could change this equilibrium condition? 179. A chemical engineer will use knowledge of a reaction in design of a chemical plant. Name at least four important pieces of information that the engineer would want to know about a reaction to maximize the yield of product. 180. Catalysts have no effect on the position of equilibrium. Why are they used in almost every industrial chemical equilibrium reaction? 181. Why would describing a reaction that has G > +200 kJ/mol or G < -200 kJ/mol as an equilibrium reaction not be meaningful?

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Equilibrium Practice problems Answer Section


MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. C E B E B A D E C E D B E A D B A B B C B D C B D B A B C D A E B D C E D B E A 1

ID: A 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. B B D E C A E A D E C B B A C D D B C B A C A C B A D D D D A D C C A B D C B A E B C D A B 2

ID: A 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95. 96. 97. 98. 99. 100. 101. 102. 103. 104. 105. 106. 107. 108. 109. 110. 111. 112. 113. 114. 115. 116. 117. 118. 119. 120. 121. 122. 123. 124. 125. 126. 127. 128. 129. 130. 131. 132. B C D C B D D B E D C D D C B E C C E B A D A E A E B E B A E D D D E A B C B A E E A D A C 3

ID: A 133. 134. 135. 136. 137. 138. 139. 140. 141. 142. 143. 144. 145. 146. 147. 148. 149. 150. 151. 152. 153. 154. 155. 156. 157. 158. 159. 160. 161. 162. 163. 164. 165. 166. 167. 168. 169. 170. 171. 172. E E D B D B B C D D C A D A B E C B C D C C D C A A E D D B C D A B A B B D B D

COMPLETION 173. reaction quotient 174. ammonia 4

ID: A 175. Le Chateliers 176. 0.30% ESSAY 177. The advantage of high temperatures is that reaction rates increase. The rate of formation of ammonia is negligible at room temperature. The disadvantage is that the equilibrium constant for this (exothermic. reaction decreases as the temperature of the reaction increases. 178. Answer not provided. 179. Answer not provided. 180. Answer not provided. 181. Answer not provided.