United States

Naval Aviation

Roy A. Grossnick

with contributions from

William J. Armstrong
W. Todd Baker
John M. Elliott
Gwendolyn J. Rich
Judith A. Walters

Naval Historical Center
Department of the Navy
Washington, D.C.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Grossnick, Roy A.
United States naval aviation, 1910–1995 / Roy A. Grossnick ; with
contributions from William J. Armstrong . . . [et al.]. — [4th ed.]
p. cm.
Includes index.
ISBN 0–945274–34–3 (case bound : alk. paper)
1. United States. Navy—Aviation—Chronology. I. Armstrong,
William J. II. Title.
VG93.G7627 1997
359.94’0973—dc21 96–37481

Secretary of the Navy’s
Advisory Committee on Naval History
Dr. David Alan Rosenberg, Chairman
CDR Wesley A. Brown, CEC, USN (Retired)
Dr. Frank G. Burke
Mr. J. Revell Carr
VADM Robert F. Dunn, USN (Retired)
RADM Russell W. Gorman, USNR (Retired)
Dr. Jose-Marie Griffiths
Dr. Beverly Schreiber Jacoby
Mr. Richard L. Joutras
Dr. Vera D. Mann
Ambassador J. William Middendorf II
Dr. William N. Still, Jr.
Dr. Betty Miller Unterberger
Mr. William D. Wilkinson


Foreword / ix
Preface / xi
Acknowledgments / xiii
Glossary / xv

Part 1 A Few Pioneers, 1898–1916 / 1

Part 2 Test of Strength, 1917–1919 / 23

Part 3 The Twenties, 1920–1929 / 47

Part 4 The Thirties, 1930–1939 / 77

Part 5 World War II, 1940–1945 / 101

Part 6 Postwar Years, 1946–1949 / 159

Part 7 Korean Operations, 1950–1953 / 183

Part 8 The New Navy, 1954–1959 / 203

Part 9 The Sixth Decade, 1960–1969 / 235

Part 10 The Seventies, 1970–1980 / 279

Part 11 The Diamond Anniversary Decade, 1981–1990 / 331

Part 12 The First Half of the Nineties, 1991–1995 / 369


Appendix 1 The History of Naval Aviator and Naval Aviation Pilot / 401
Designations and Numbers, the Training of Naval
Aviators and the Number Trained (Designated)

Appendix 2 Aviation Commands / 415

Appendix 3 Aviation Ships / 421

Appendix 4 Aircraft on Hand / 447

Appendix 5 Aircraft Designations and Popular Names / 451

Appendix 6 Combat Aircraft Procured / 489

Appendix 7 Transport and Training Aircraft / 507

Appendix 8 Naval Helicopters / 513

Appendix 9 Bureau (Serial) Numbers of Naval Aircraft / 517

Appendix 10 Aviation Personnel on Active Duty / 593

Appendix 11 Navy and Marine Corps Air Stations and Fields Named / 595
for Naval Aviators and Others

Appendix 12 Ships Named for Naval Aviators / 601

Appendix 13 Medal of Honor Awards in Naval Aviation / 607

Appendix 14 Aviation Ratings / 611

Appendix 15 Evolution of Carrier Air Groups and Wings / 615

Appendix 16 U.S. Navy and Marine Corps Squadron Designations / 625
and Abbreviations

Appendix 17 The Navy in Space / 633

Appendix 18 Honorary Naval Aviator Designations / 649


Appendix 19 Naval Aviation Hall of Honor / 653

Appendix 20 Evolution of Naval Wings (Breast Insignia) / 655

Appendix 21 List of Naval Aviation Drones and Missiles / 669

Appendix 22 U.S. Navy and Marine Corps Aces / 677

Appendix 23 Visual Identification System for Naval Aircraft (Tail Codes) / 683

Appendix 24 Current Squadron Lineage List / 691

Appendix 25 Carrier, Carrier Based Squadrons and Non-carrier Based / 699
Squadron Deployments During the Korean War

Appendix 26 Carrier, Carrier Based Squadrons and Non-carrier / 705
Based Squadron Deployments to Vietnam

Appendix 27 Grenada Combat Operations (25 October–2 November 1983) / 737

Appendix 28 Carrier Squadrons and Non-carrier Based Squadrons Involved in / 739
1986 Libyan Operations (24 March–15 April 1986)

Appendix 29 Naval Aviation Units Involved in the Persian Gulf War / 741
(16 January–27 February 1991)

Appendix 30 List of Early Naval Jet Pilots / 743

Appendix 31 List of Early Helicopter Pilots / 755

Appendix 32 Gray Eagle Award / 763

Appendix 33 List of Navy and Marine Corps Shoot Downs Since 1950 / 767

Appendix 34 Cold War Incidents Involving U.S. Navy Aircraft / 773

Index / 777


Information on Photographs

T he illustrations in this volume are official U.S.
Navy, Marine Corps, Coast Guard or NASA (National
photographs are held by NASA Headquarters, Public
Affairs Office (News and Imaging Branch).
Aeronautics and Space Administration) photographs. Photograph numbers for illustrations in the book
Negatives for most of these photographs are held by the appear at the end of the caption. Illustrations without a
National Archives and Records Administration’s Still photo number were reproduced from non-numbered pho-
Pictures Branch. Photographs with an NH or NAH pre- tographs in the Naval Historical Center’s Aviation History
ceding the number are held by the Naval Historical Branch collection. An illustration with a number but not a
Center’s Photographic Section. U.S. Coast Guard pho- letter prefix is a U.S. Navy photograph. Please be sure to
tos, with USCG preceding the number, are held by add USN in front of these numbers when ordering them
either the Coast Guard Headquarters (History Office) or from the National Archives. The prefix K or KN means the
the National Archives (Still Picture Branch). The NASA original is in color, but it is still a USN photograph.



T he fourth edition of United States Naval Aviation
1910–1995 is a testimony to Naval Aviation’s achieve-
than doubled the number of appendices, which
include the most commonly requested subjects or data
ments as it prepares to enter the 21st century and its on Naval Aviation. The aim is to make this the first-
first one hundred years of service. The Naval source document that people use when they are look-
Historical Center’s Aviation History Office has ing for basic information on Naval Aviation. The book
expanded on previous editions to make this chronol- provides the opportunity to gain an insight and learn
ogy the quintessential reference work on Naval about the origins, achievements and traditions of
Aviation history. Naval Aviation as it relates to the rich naval heritage of
This work is designed to provide naval personnel, the United States.
historians and aviation enthusiasts with a general back- Naval Aviation has undergone immense change since
ground on Naval Aviation history. It highlights the sig- 1910. It now plays a defining role in the nation’s
nificant events and developments that shaped Naval defense structure and is on call to respond to military
Aviation from 1910 to 1995, rather than providing a crises around the world. The past developments, as
detailed treatise of particular subjects or actions. It cov- chronicled in this book, serve as a prologue to future
ers all aspects of Naval Aviation, including operational developments in Naval Aviation.
activities, technical developments and administrative
To help make this book a more useful reference William S. Dudley
tool, Mr. Roy Grossnick and his expert staff have more Director of Naval History



T he history of this book goes back to 1956 when the
Deputy Chief of Naval Operations (Air) and Chief,
The first update, United States Naval Aviation
1910–1970, followed the basic scope and concept put
Bureau of Aeronautics supported the preparation of a forth in the earlier edition. Authors for this update were:
chronology for Naval Aviation. Their intent was to Mr. Clarke Van Vleet, historian, DCNO (Air); Mr. Adrian
record events of special interest and lasting significance O. Van Wyen, historian (Ret), DCNO (Air); and Mr. Lee
pertaining to the growth of U.S. naval air as an element M. Pearson, historian, Naval Air Systems Command. The
of sea power, its employment and accomplishments in second update, United States Naval Aviation
war and peace. 1910–1980, represented a more substantial upgrade to
The writing project was undertaken by two history the publication. It retained the basic format but includ-
offices, the Naval Aviation History Office assigned to ed more detailed appendices. The primary authors were
Deputy Chief of Naval Operations (Air) and the Dr. William J. Armstrong, historian, Naval Air Systems
Historian’s Office in the Bureau of Aeronautics. Under Command, and Mr. Clarke Van Vleet, historian, DCNO
the initial directive, the two offices were permitted con- (Air Warfare).
siderable leeway in defining the elements to be includ- Many transformations in Naval Aviation have taken
ed in the chronology. Adherence to professional stan- place since the first publication in the early 1960s. The
dards was paramount. Accuracy and comprehensive world structure has undergone major realignments and
coverage of events and developments were key words old adversaries are now allies, or at least friends.
for the project; its scope included the air elements of the People and machines are still the key ingredients for
Navy, Marine Corps, and the Coast Guard in time of war. Naval Aviation. However, technology has come to play
At the outset of the project, the historians in the two a very dominate role in how Naval Aviation projects its
offices realized that “one of the drawbacks of chronolo- power in support of national defense objectives and
gies as a form of exposition stems from the fact that our nation’s heritage. The third update, United States
they record, or chronicle, events with no attempt at Naval Aviation 1910–1995, attempts to bring into focus
explanation.” Their chronology departed from that the myriad aspects of Naval Aviation and how they play
form, particularly for extended periods such as war a role in defense as well as the humanitarian side of
campaigns and for developments in various technical their mission.
areas. Some types of information, important to the his- This edition, besides attempting to maintain the pro-
tory of Naval Aviation, became repetitious when includ- fessional standards set by the early authors, has attempt-
ed in a chronology. When such information was ed to correct any errors in previous editions and make
amenable to statistical or tabular treatment, it was incor- it the primary reference source on Naval Aviation for the
porated in appendixes. Thus, the chronology project Navy Department and researchers. It is not designed as
evolved into two parts: an actual chronology and vari- a comprehensive source on Naval Aviation but as a
ous appendices providing invaluable facts and figures basic guide to educate readers on Naval Aviation histo-
on subjects not suitable for the chronology but perti- ry. In order to accomplish this goal, the number of
nent to the history of Naval Aviation. appendices covering commonly requested data on
The authors of the initial publication, United States Naval Aviation has been more than doubled. The
Naval Aviation 1910–1960, did an admirable job in chronology provides a narrative flow of information,
adhering to their professional objectives. Mr. Adrian O. while the appendices provide an insight into the multi-
Van Wyen, historian DCNO (Air), and Mr. Lee M. ple functions of Naval Aviation. All aspects of Naval
Pearson, historian, Bureau of Aeronautic/Bureau of Aviation, including operational activities, administrative
Weapons, set the standards for future aviation historians and personnel changes and technical developments,
to chronicle the history of Naval Aviation. have been incorporated.


When drafting a reference work with such an exten- compiler for this edition, I accept full responsibility for
sive range of data, it is almost impossible to prevent any mistakes or errors of fact or misinterpretations that
errors. An exhaustive effort was made to check the may have occurred in the book, and I welcome any
accuracy of information in this book. When different corrections.
sets of records or sources provided conflicting data, I
selected the most accurate information based on
reviewing all the possible sources. As the primary Roy A. Grossnick



I began working in the Naval Aviation History Office
in 1980 and this book, in its editions as United States
uscript and making some excellent recommendations:
Captain Rosario “Zip” Rausa, USNR (Ret.); Captain
Naval Aviation 1910–1970 and 1910–1980, has been Richard C. Knott, USN (Ret.); Dr. William J. Armstrong
my primary reference source. It was the first source I and Dr. Jeffrey G. Barlow.
used when a quick answer was needed on a particular I would also like to recognize the professional staff in
Naval Aviation subject. Credit for making the book an the Naval Historical Center who provided a wide range
indispensable reference tool must go to its past authors: of support for the book. Mr. Bernard Cavalcante’s
Mr. Adrian O. Van Wyen, Mr. Lee M. Pearson, Mr. Clarke Operational Archives Branch was always ready to assist
Van Vleet and Dr. William J. Armstrong. in locating specific records, particularly Mrs. Kathy M.
Compiling a reference work of this magnitude was Lloyd, head of the Reference Section. The Ship’s History
beyond the scope of just one person. The staff of the Branch, headed by Mr. John C. Reilly, Jr., was instru-
Naval Aviation History Office, both past and present, mental in reviewing and documenting specific informa-
must be complimented on the work they have done tion on aviation ships. Ms. Jean L. Hort and her staff in
over the years that contributed to updating the book. the Navy Department Library provided the minute
Special recognition goes to the contributors who are list- details that were easy to overlook. A special thank-you
ed on the title page. Without the work done by Dr. to Ms. Sandra J. Doyle for her strong support and liai-
William J. Armstrong, historian, Naval Air Systems son work. Perhaps the most important thanks go to
Command, and Naval Aviation History Office staffers Mr. Senior Historian Dr. Edward Marolda and Director Dr.
John M. Elliott, historian, retired; Ms. Judith A. Walters, William S. Dudley, who recognized the importance of
historian; Ms. Gwendolyn J. Rich, archivist; and Mr. W. continuing to update this reference source, supported
Todd Baker, historian, this edition would not have been the project and allocated the resources for publication.
possible. I extend to them my sincere thanks for all the The details surrounding the research and writing of a
extra time and diligent work they put into the project. book are well recognized, but the administrative sup-
The Naval Aviation News magazine staff contributed port necessary is usually forgotten in the flourish of get-
their expertise in editing the manuscript. Their knowl- ting the book to the printer. The center’s Administrative
edge of Naval Aviation terminology and subject matter Branch needs to be recognized for all the work it does
helped smooth out any writing discrepancies that may in supporting the operations of the Naval Aviation
have crept into the text. Commander Diana T. History Branch. Branch head Lieutenant Carol Dula,
Cangelosi’s staff includes: Ms. Sandra K. Russell, Ms. USN, and her staff consistently responded to our
Wendy E. Karppi, Journalists Second Class Gerald E. administrative needs. Special recognition goes to Mr.
Knaak and E. Blake Towler, Mr. Morgan I. Wilbur, Art Randy Potter for his technical computer support and to
Director, and Mr. Charles C. Cooney, former Art Ms. Donna Smilardo, the center’s Budget Analyst, for
Director. keeping us out of the red ink.
Several people outside the Naval Historical Center Finally, I would like to thank my wife, Mary, and
also played a role in reviewing, making comments and daughter, Maki, for being patient during the period
providing information on special topics. Mr. Hal of extended working hours necessary to get this
Andrews’ vast knowledge of Naval Aviation, particular- book to publication. A special debt of gratitude is
ly its technical aspects, helped make this book a pri- extended to Mr. John Grier, design and typesetting
mary reference source for years to come. Lieutenant specialist of the Government Printing Office, for his
Commander Richard R. Burgess, USN (Ret.); Mr. Robert layout efforts. For those I have not mentioned by
Lawson; Captain James E. Lesher, USNR (Ret.); and Mr. name, let me say that your contributions are appre-
Leroy Doig III contributed to special sections in the ciated and are not forgotten.
appendices. A special thank-you goes to four people
who spent considerable time reviewing the entire man- Roy A. Grossnick



1st MAW First Marine Aircraft Wing
6thFLT Sixth Fleet
7thFLT Seventh Fleet
A&R Assembly & Repair
A.P. Armor Piercing
AAF Army Air Forces
AAM Air-to-air Missile
AAS Army Air Service
ABATU Advanced Base Aviation Training Unit
ACC Air Combat Command
ACLS Automatic Carrier Landing System
ACMR Air Combat Maneuvering Range
ACNO (Air Warfare) Assistant Chief of Naval Operations (Air Warfare)
ADM Admiral
ADVCAP Advanced Capability
AED Aeronautical Engineering Duty
AEDO Aeronautical Engineering Duty Officer
AEW Airborne Early Warning
AEWWINGPAC Airborne Early Warning Wing, Pacific
AFB Air Force Base
AFEM Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal
AIM Air Launched Aerial Intercept Guided Missile
AIM Aircraft Intermediate Maintenance
AIMD Aircraft Intermediate Maintenance Department
AirDet/AIR DET Air Detachment
AirLant/AIRLANT Air Force, Atlantic Fleet or Commander, Air Force, U.S. Atlantic Fleet
AirPac/AIRPAC Commander, Air Force, U.S. Pacific Fleet or Air Force, U.S. Pacific Fleet
ALARS Air Launched Acoustical Reconnaissance
ALNAV All Navy
ALVRJ Advance Low Volume Ramjet
AMD Aeronautical Maintenance Duty
AMO Aviation Medical Officer
AMRAAM Advanced Medium Range Air-to-air Missile
ANA Association of Naval Aviation
ANG Air National Guard
AOCP Aviation Officer Continuation Pay
AOCS Aviation Officer Candidate School
ARAPAHO Name for a portable modular aviation facility for merchant ships
ARG Amphibious Ready Group
ARM Antiradiation Missile
ARPA Advanced Research Projects Agency
ARPS Automatic Radar Processing System


ASM Air-to-surface Missile
ASMD Anti-ship Missile Defense
ASO Aviation Supply Office
ASROC Antisubmarine Rocket Missile
ASTOVL Advanced Short Takeoff/Vertical Landing
ASW Antisubmarine Warfare
ATARPS Advanced Tactical Aerial Reconnaissance Pod System
ATG Air Task Group
ATU Advanced Training Unit
BRAC Base Closure and Realignment Commission
BTG Basic Training Group
BuAer Bureau of Aeronautics
BuC&R Bureau of Construction and Repair
BuMed Bureau of Medicine and Surgery
BuNav Bureau of Navigation
BuOrd Bureau of Ordnance
BuPers Bureau of Naval Personnel
BuShips Bureau of Ships
BuS&A Bureau of Supplies and Accounts
BuWeps Bureau of Naval Weapons
CO/co Commanding Officer
CAA Civil Aeronautics Authority
CAEWWS Carrier Airborne Early Warning Weapons School
CAF Confederate Air Force
CAINS Carrier Aircraft Inertial Navigation System
CalTech California Institute of Technology
CAP Civil Air Patrol
CAP Combat Air Patrol
CAPT Captain
CARDIV Carrier Division
CASU Carrier Air Service Unit
CASU(F) Combat Aircraft Service Units (Forward)
CC Construction Corps
CCR Circulation Control Rotor
CDR Commander
CG Commanding General
CIC Combat Information Center
CincPac/CINCPAC Commander in Chief, Pacific
CincPacFlt/CINCPACFLT Commander in Chief, U.S. Pacific Fleet
CINCUS Commander in Chief, U.S. Fleet
CIWS Close in Weapons System (Phalanx)
CNATRA Chief of Naval Air Training
CNR/CHNAVRSCH Chief of Naval Reserarch
CNO Chief of Naval Operations
COD Carrier On-board Delivery
COIN Counter Insurgency
ComAirLant Commander, Naval Air Force, U.S. Atlantic Fleet
ComAirPac Commander, Naval Air Force, U.S. Pacific Fleet
ComFAIR/COMFAIR Commander, Fleet Air
COMHATWING Commander, Heavy Attack Wing
COMHSLWINGPAC Commander, Helicopter Antisubmarine Light Wing, U.S. Pacific Fleet
COMINCH Commander in Chief, U.S. Fleet
COMINCUS Commander in Chief, U.S. Fleet
COMLATWING Commander, Light Attack Wing


COMMATWING Commander, Medium Attack Wing
COMNAVAIRESFOR Commander, Naval Air Reserve Force
COMNAVAIRLANT Commander, Naval Air Force, U.S. Atlantic Fleet
COMNAVAIRPAC Commander, Naval Air Force, U.S. Pacific Fleet
COMNAVFOR Somalia Commander, Naval Forces Somalia
COMNAVSUPFOR Commander, Naval Support Force
COMOPDEVFOR Commander, Operational Development Force, U.S. Fleet
COMPATWING Commander, Patrol Wing
COMSTRKFIGHTWING Commander, Strike Fighter Wing
CONUS Continental United States
DASH Drone Antisubmarine Helicopter
DCNO Deputy Chief of Naval Operations
DFC Distinguished Flying Cross
DICASS Directional Command Active Sonobuoy System
DMZ Demilitarized Zone
DoD Department of Defense
ECM Electronic Countermeasures
ECMO Electronic Countermeasures Operator/Officer
ECP Enlisted Commissioning Program
EDO Engineering Duty Officer
EFM Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability
ELEX/COMNAVELEX Naval Electronic Systems Command
ENS Ensign
EW Electronic Warfare
FAA Federal Aviation Administration
FAETU Fleet Airborne Electronics Training Units
FASOTRAGRULANT Fleet Aviation Specialized Operational Training Group Atlantic
FAW Fleet Air Wing
FAWTUPAC Fleet All Weather Training Unit, Pacific
FBM Fleet Ballistic Missile
FEWSG Fleet Electronic Warfare Support Group
FLIR Forward Looking Infrared Radar
FMS Foreign Military Sales
FORSCOM Forces Command
Ft Feet
FTEG Flight Test and Engineering Group
FY Fiscal Year
G.P. General Purpose
GCA Ground Controlled Approach
Glomb Guided Glider Bomb
GMGRU Guided Missile Group
GMU Guided Missile Unit
Halon Fire Suppression Agent
HARM High Speed Antiradiation Missile
HATWING Heavy Attack Wing
HIPEG High Performance External Gun
hp Horsepower
HTA Heavier-than-air
HUD/Hud Heads up Display
Hvar High Velocity Aircraft Rocket
IBM International Business Machine Company
IFF Identification Friend or Foe
IGY International Geophysical Year
IO Indian Ocean


IOC Initial Operational Capability
IR Imaging Infrared
JATO Jet Assisted Takeoff
JCS Joint Chiefs of Staff
JPATS Joint Primary Aircraft Training System
KIA Killed in Action
KIAS Knots indicated air speed
KLM Kuwait Liberation Medal
KPUC Korean Presidential Unit Citation
KSM Korean Service Medal
LAMPS Light Airborne Multipurpose System
Lant/LANT Atlantic
lbs Pounds
LCAC Air Cushion Landing Craft
LCDR Lieutenant Commander
LCOL Lieutenant Colonel
LDO Limited Duty Officer
LGB Laser Guided Bomb
LIC Low Intensity Conflict
Loran/LORAN Long Range Navigation Equipment
LRAACA Long-range, Air Antisubmarine Warfare-capable Aircraft
LSO Landing Signal Officer
LT Lieutenant
LT (jg) Lieutenant Junior Grade
LTA Lighter-than-Air
LTV Ling Temco Vought Corp.
MAC Military Airlift Command
MACV Military Assistance Command, Vietnam
MAD Magnetic Airborne (or Anomaly) Detection
MAG Marine Air Group
MAGTF Marine Air Group Task Force
MATS Military Air Transport Service
MAU Master Augmentation Unit
MAW Marine Air Wing
MAWSPAC Medium Attack Weapons School, Pacific
MCAAS Marine Corps Auxiliary Air Station
MCAF Marine Corps Air Facility
MCAS Marine Corps Air Station
Med Mediterranean Sea
MEF Marine Expeditionary Force
MEU Marine Expeditionary Unit
MIA Missing in Action
MiG Russian aircraft designed by Artem I. Mikoyan and Mikhail I. Gurevich
MIRALC/SLBD Mid Infrared Advanced Chemical Laser/Sea Lite Beam Director
MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology
MLS Microwave Landing System
MRC Major Regional Conflicts
MUC Meritorious Unit Commendation
NAAF Naval Air Auxiliary Facility
NAAS Naval Air Auxiliary Station
NAB Naval Air Base
NACA National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics
NAD Naval Aviation Depot
NADC Naval Air Development Center


NADEP Naval Aviation Depot NAEC Naval Air Engineering Center NAESU Naval Aviation Electronic Service Unit NAF Naval Air Facility NAF Naval Aircraft Factory NAFC Naval Air Ferry Command NAILS Naval Aviation Integrated Logistic Support Task Force NALCOLANTUNIT Naval Air Logistics Control Office. Atlantic Unit NAMC Naval Air Material Center NAMO Naval Aviation Maintenance Office NAMTC Naval Air Missile Test Center NAO Naval Aviation Observer NAP Naval Aviation Pilot/Naval Air Pilot NAR Naval Air Reserve NARF Naval Air Rework Facility NARTU Naval Air Reserve Training Unit NARU Naval Air Reserve Units NAS Naval Aeronautic Station NAS Naval Air Station NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASM National Air Space Museum NATC Naval Air Test Center NATMSACT Naval Air Training Maintenance Support Activity NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization Natops/NATOPS Naval Air Training and Operating Procedures Standardization Program NATB Naval Air Training Base NATC Naval Air Training Center NATS Naval Air Transport Service NATEC Naval Airship Training and Experimental Command NATT Naval Air Technical Training NATTC Naval Air Technical Training Center NAVAIR Naval Air Systems Command NAVAIRSYSCOM Naval Air Systems Command NAVCAD Naval Aviation Cadet NavE Navy Battle “E” Ribbon NAVICP Naval Inventory Control Point NAVMAT/NMC Naval Material Command NavPro/NAVPRO Naval Plant Representative Office NAVRES/NR Naval Reserve Navstar Navigation Satellite NAWC Naval Air Warfare Center NAWC (WD) Naval Air Warfare Center (Weapons Division) NAWC (AD) Naval Air Warfare Center (Aircraft Division) NDSM National Defense Service Medal NEM Navy Expeditionary Medal NERV Nuclear Emulsion Recovery Vehicle NFO Naval Flight Officer NFRC Naval Reserve Flying Corps nm Nautical Mile NNV National Naval Volunteers NOB Naval Operating Base NORAD North American Air Defense Command NorLant Northern Atlantic Ocean NorPac Northern Pacific Ocean xix .

Development. Electronic Warfare and Special Operations RFC Canadian Royal Flying Corps RimPac Pacific Rim Exercise (Joint) RIO Radar Intercept Officer RN Royal Navy RNAS Royal Naval Air Station ROK Republic of Korea RPV Remotely Piloted Vehicle RPV Star Ship-deployable. Training and Evaluation Ret Retired REWSON Reconnaissance.NOTS Naval Ordnance Test Station NRAB Naval Reserve Aviation Bases NRFC Naval Reserve Flying Corps NRL Naval Research Lab/Naval Research Laboratory NROTC Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps NS Naval Station NSF National Science Foundation NTPS Naval Test Pilot School NUC Navy Unit Commendation NVG Night Vision Goggle NVN North Vietnam NWC Naval Weapons Center O&R Overhaul and Repair OASU Oceanographic Air Survey OCS Officer Candidate School ODM Operational Development Model ONR Office of Naval Research OPNAV Naval Operations Ops Operations ORI Operational Readiness Inspection OSD Office of Secretary of Defense P/A Pilotless Aircraft Pac/PAC Pacific PASU Patrol Aircraft Service Unit PatSU/Patsu Patrol Aircraft Service Unit PatWing/PATWING Patrol Wing PLAT Pilot Landing Aid Television PMTC Pacific Missile Test Center Pol Petroleum. Securing and Traversing System RCA Radio Corporation of America RDT&E Research. Tactical Airborne Remotely Piloted Vehicle RVN Republic of Vietnam RVNGC Republic of Vietnam Meritorious Unit Citation (Gallantry Cross) SAM Surface-to-air Missile SAR Search and Rescue SASM Southwest Asia Service Medal xx . Oil. Lubricants POW Prisoner of War PPI Plan Position Indicator PUC Presidential Unit Citation Radar Radio Detection and Ranging Equipment RADM Rear Admiral RAF Royal Air Force RAM Rolling Airframe Missile RAST Recovery Assist.

Air Force USCG U. United States UN United Nations UNSM United Nations Service Medal USA U. Atlantic Command USAF U.S.S.S.S.SCS Sea Control Ship Concept Seals Sea-air-land Team SEAPAC Sea Activated Parachute Automatic Crew Release SecDef/SECDEF Secretary of Defense SECNAV/SecNav Secretary of the Navy SEVENTHFLT Seventh Fleet SIXTHFLT Sixth Fleet SLAM Standoff Land Attack Missile SLCM Sea/Surface Launched Cruise Missile SLEP Service Life Extension Program Sol Rad Solar Radiation SoLant/SOLANT Southern Atlantic Ocean SOOS Stacked Oscars on Scout System SoPac/SOPAC South Pacific SPASUR Navy Space Surveillance System Sq Square SSM Surface-to-surface Missile STM Supersonic Tactical Missile STRATCOM Strategic Command SVN South Vietnam SWIP System Weapons Integration Program SWOD Special Weapons Ordnance Device TACAMO Take Charge and Move out Tacan/TACAN Tactical Air Navigation System TACELWING Tactical Electronic Warfare Wing TACGRU Tactical Group T&E Test and Evaluation TARPS Tactical Aerial Reconnaissance Pod System TERCOM Terrain Contour Matching TF Task Force TG Task Group TINS Thermal Imaging Navigation Set TRAM Target Recognition Attack Multisensor TraWing/TRAWING Training Air Wing TRIM Trail Road Interdiction Mission TWA Trans World Airlines UAV Unmanned Aerial Vehicle UDT Underwater Demolition Team U.S.S.S. Army USACOM U.K. Navy Reserve USNRF U. United Kingdom U. Navy USNR U.S. Coast Guard USMC U. Marine Corps USN U.S. Navy Reserve Force USNS United States Naval Ship USSR Union of Soviet Socialist Republics VADM Vice Admiral VAST Versatile Avionics Shop Test xxi .

15.VCNO Vice Chief of Naval Operations VFAX Advanced Experimental Fighter Aircraft VLAD Vertical Line Array DIFAR VOD Vertical on board Delivery Vstol Vertical/short Take-off and Landing Vtol Vertical Take-off and Landing Vtol/stol Vertical Take-off and Landing. aviation ship designations and aviation ratings may be found in appendices 16. respectively. Other appendices in the book also provide a limited number of more specialized acronym meanings. xxii . Short Take-off and Landing Vtxts Navy Undergraduate Jet Flight Training System VWS Ventilated Wet Suit WestPac/WESTPAC Western Pacific Ocean WNY Washington Navy Yard WTS War Training Service WW-I World War I WW-II World War II Note: Acronyms or abbreviations for squadron designations. air groups or air wings. and 14. 3.

Since the machine was a camp had been selected. and the site of the first aviation Langley flying machine. Fla. Va. recommended to the Secretary that he inventors and builders. and combat sorties at Veracruz. including a bureau chief. Progress in these early years was marked by an gating the military possibilities of Samuel P. capability for shipboard operations and showed the Langley’s flying machine and report upon its practica- world and a skeptical Navy that aviation could go to sea. That year the Navy of research. Langley in further experimentation. The need for more science and less rule of thumb was apparent to Captain Chambers. the first money had been appro. pushed for a national aerodynamics laboratory. but the report expressed enthusiasms were transformed into realities. Before the Navy had either appoint two officers “of scientific attainments and planes or pilots he arranged a series of tests in which practical ability” who. and the assignment of an airplane to every major combatant ship of the Navy. By mid-year.” year Captain Washington I. That was the naval forces for offensive and defensive operations. Cuba. assigned officers to sit on an interservice board investi. Josephus Daniels announced that the point had been It was in 1910 that a place was made for aviation in reached “where aircraft must form a large part of our the organizational structure of the Navy. All were enthusiastic about Mexico. The idea of a seagoing avia. Early in 1911 the first naval officer reported for flight training. He collected the writings and scientific papers of leaders in the new 1908 field. Cowles. The report outlined the 1 . he pulled 1898 together existing threads of aviation interest within the 25 March Theodore Roosevelt. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1 PART 1 A Few Pioneers 1898–1916 T he United States Navy’s official interest in air- planes emerged as early as 1898. Naval Constructor William McEntee were official Navy namic and hydrodynamic problems. In subsequent years there were naval cessful catapult launch of an airplane from a ship. The Navy built a observers at the first Army demonstration trials of the wind tunnel. Although holding no special title. with representatives from the Glenn Curtiss and Eugene Ely dramatized the airplane’s War Department. In 1914. by pioneer pilots. Sweet and and encouraged naval constructors to work on aerody. and the National Advisory Committee for Wright flying machine at Fort Myer. exer- observers at air meets here and abroad and at the cises with the Fleet during winter maneuvers at public demonstrations staged by Orville and Wilbur Guantanamo Bay. 29 April The first joint Army-Navy board on aero- priated. model of 12-foot wing span. Assistant Secretary of Navy and gave official recognition to the proposals of the Navy. Wright in 1908 and 1909. These were but some of the accomplishments the potential of the airplane as a fleet scout. Aeronautics was established. the first suc- flying machine. The first real study of what was needed in aviation was conducted by a 2 December Rear Admiral Willliam S. the first nautics submitted the report of its investigation of the pilot had qualified. Secretary of the Navy the purchase of aircraft. Chief board under Chambers’ leadership and included in its of the Bureau of Equipment. would examine Professor Samuel P. 17 September Lieutenant George C. Chambers was designated as the officer to whom all aviation matters were to be referred. the expansion the Secretary of the Navy. its value for military pur- tion force was beginning to take form as plans and poses was largely theoretical. Sweet to flight training center at Pensacola. Langley’s endurance record of six hours in the air. submitted a report on recommendations the establishment of a ground and aviation prepared by Lieutenant George C. Their activity furthered the importance naval officers. the first aircraft had been purchased.. bility and its potentiality for use in war. By the end a general sentiment in favor of supporting Professor of the year a humble beginning had been made. By 1909. were urging of aviation to the Navy.

Sweet is credited with having been the first authority to advertise for the construction of “two Navy officer to fly in an airplane.” and in elaborating upon that erence to a provision for aviation in Navy theme prophetically noted two means by which air. and the second was the construction of a discussed the tactical advantages of such capability for floor (a flight deck) over the deck houses of auxiliary naval forces and recommended that a number of air- craft be purchased and “placed in the hands of the ships to provide the clear space required for take-off personnel of the Navy to further develop special fea. heavier than air flying machines” was disapproved by the Acting Secretary of the Navy with the comment: 1910 “The Department does not consider that the develop- ment of an aeroplane has progressed sufficiently at 26 September The Secretary of the Navy informed this time for use in the Navy. Lahm. expressing the opinion that “the Assistant to the Aid for Material. The first was the use of the Wright launching device (a cata- specifications of an airplane capable of operating from pult) to launch planes from the cleared quarterdeck of naval vessels on scouting and observation missions. November 14.S. USA. runs and landing aboard.” the U. This is the first recorded ref- ed in the near future. tures adapted to naval uses. 16 August A Bureau of Equipment request for As a result. Chambers. had been designated airplane would have a present usefulness in naval as the officer to whom all correspondence on avia- warfare. Rheims Aviation Meet.2 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1908—Continued craft could be operated from naval vessels.S. Eugene Ely Leaving Birmingham at Hampton Roads in the first takeoff from any ship. tion should be referred. Chapin. Sweet was taken up as a passenger in the first Army Wright by 1909 Lieutenant Frank P. U. ence as a means of supplementing the national Naval Attache at Paris. reported his observations at the defense) that Captain Washington I. and that the limits of the field will be extend. 1910 42878 . battleships. Md. Department organization.” 3 November Lieutenant George C. at College Park. Aeronautical Reserve (a new organization of private citizens formed to advance aeronautical sci- 1 September Commander Frederick L.

. Ellyson.” . the Chief of 1911 the Bureau of Steam Engineering. pointed to “the rapid improvement in the same Curtiss pusher used to take off from design and manipulation of airplanes and the impor- Birmingham (CL 2). Curtiss at North Island.. who assisted in preparing for Chambers. Calif. previously designated to serve in a similar the test. and Ely landed safely on Navigation for “experimental work in the development Willoughby Spit.m. flying the Cone. fully informed of work contemplated and the results of all experiments. completing the earliest demonstration of the adaptability of aircraft to ship- 13 October The Secretary of the Navy approved the board operations. in his stan- 22 October The International Aviation Tournament dard biplane using a single main float in place of the opened at Belmont Park. of which Admiral out charge for one naval officer as one means of George Dewey was president. Harkness. Theodore G. Attending in an official tandem triple float used in earlier tests. These take-offs capacity as Navy observers were the three officers demonstrated the superior efficiency of the sled profile recently named to investigate aviation: Captain float which was used on Navy hydroaeroplanes up to Washington I. Captain Hutch I.000 to the Bureau of Hampton Roads. San Diego. Wright. 4) at anchor in San Diego Harbor. Chambers. in experiments in connec- steps be taken to obtain one or more aeroplanes to tion with use of wireless from aeroplanes. and Lieutenant N. Calif. was space for airplanes or dirigibles be considered in all ordered to report to the Glenn H. appointed to investigate the subject of aviation and San Diego. Curtiss taxied his hydroaeroplane alongside ply one or more aircraft as a part of their obligation.” the problem of providing flight training.S.Y. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 3 1910—Continued 29 November Glenn H. landed on a specially built plat- tant role they would probably play” and requested form aboard the armored cruiser Pennsylvania authority to requisition an airplane for Chester (CL 1) (Armored Cruiser No. At 11:58 he took off and returned to officers to fly the machine. develop their use for naval purposes and recommended that in the absence of specific funds for their purchase. 35) be modified so as to require its contractors to sup. Ely.. and directed craft to naval needs was witnessed by Lieutenant that these officers keep Captain Washington I. Curtiss Aviation new designs for scouting vessels. Calif. in recognition of “the great plane to military purposes. capacity in the Secretary’s office. and Repair suggested to the Secretary of the Navy that U.. providing $25. 7 October In a letter to the Secretary. Calif.” advances which have been made in the science of avi- ation and the advantages which may accrue from its 23 December The first naval officer to undergo use in this class of vessel. Curtiss made two successful flights from the water at San Diego. of the adaptability of aircraft to naval uses. Aeronautical Reserve. N. Ellyson. a civilian pilot. 1 February Glenn H. Eugene Ely. of aviation for naval purposes. recommendation of the Chief Constructor that an offi- cer from the Bureau of Construction and Repair and 26 January The first successful hydroaeroplane another from the Bureau of Steam Engineering be flight was made by Glenn H. took off in a 50-hp Curtiss plane from a wooden platform built on the bow of 4 March The first funds for Naval Aviation were Bir mingham (CL 2). 17 February In another of the early demonstrations specifications for the battleship Texas (Battleship No. The ship was at anchor in appropriated. Camp at North Island. 18 January At 11:01 a. recommended to the assisting “in developing the adaptability of the aero- Secretary of the Navy that. This important step in adapting air- gain technical knowledge of airplanes. McEntee. 4) at anchor in San Francisco and the services of an instructor to teach one or more Bay. San Francisco. Glenn H. H. Pennsylvania (Armored Cruiser No. Wireless 31 October The Chief of the Bureau of Construction Station to cooperate with Captain Harry S. Calif. Naval Constructor William World War I. 10 February Acting Secretary of the Navy Beekman Winthrop directed the Point Loma. Lieutenant Theodore G. Selfridge Field. was hoisted aboard and off again 14 November First take-off from a ship—Eugene by ship’s crane and then returned to base. Va. Curtiss wrote to the Secretary of the Navy offering flight instruction with- 11 October The General Board.

1 April Captain Washington I. who became Naval Aviator No. with provisions for carrying a passenger alongside the pilot. Chambers. when space for aviation was not available in the office of the Aid for Operations. a move suggested by Admiral George Dewey.000. One. 8 May Captain Washington I. 14 April The embryo office of Naval Aviation was transferred from the General Board and established in the Bureau of Navigation. the Triad. 2. the officer in charge of aviation. was to be equipped for arising from or alighting on land or water. reported to the Wright Company at Dayton. with a metal tipped propeller designed for a speed of at least 45 miles per hour. and with con. 17 March Lieutenant John Rodgers. Ohio. reported for duty with the General Board. for instruction in flying. Captain Washington Chambers 424786 .4 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1911—Continued Ely in Curtiss biplane comes aboard Pennsylvania in the first shipboard landing. This offer was later made unconditional. 1911 428455 9 March The Wright Company made a formal offer to train one pilot for the Navy contingent upon the purchase of one airplane for the sum of $5. Chambers prepared req- uisitions for two Curtiss biplanes. January 18.

Y. February 1911 1051558 . and two by Ellyson alone. who became Naval Aviator No. the first aircraft built for the Navy. Towers. 27 June Lieutenant (jg) John H. one by Curtiss Sandbags. taking off from and alighting on Lake Keuka at Hammondsport. the A-1. necessary to direct the General Storekeeper to enter into a contract with the Curtiss Company. halt Ely’s plane 450108 with Lieutenant Theodore G.. N.Y. first arresting gear. they did indicate Captain Chambers’ decision as to which air- planes the Navy should purchase. N. Although these requisitions lacked the signature of the Chief of the Bureau of Navigation. Three other flights were made the same evening. 3. Hoisting plane aboard Pennsylvania. and to an altitude of 25 feet. Glenn H. Curtiss demonstrated the A-1.m. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 5 1911—Continued trols that could be operated by either the pilot or the passenger. 1 July First flight of the A-1—At 6:50 p. reported for duty and instruction in flying at the Curtiss School. 8 May has come to be considered the date upon which the Navy ordered its first airplane and has been officially pro- claimed to be the birthday of Naval Aviation. This flight was of 5 minutes’ duration. Ellyson as a passenger. The machine thus described later became the Navy’s first airplane. Hammondsport. From this.

July 1912 650864 3 July Lieutenant Theodore G. on the first landed in water.. 13 July The Navy’s second aircraft. N. Ellyson.Y. “in connection with the test of gasoline motors and other experimen- 10 July Amphibious features of the Navy’s first air. Annapolis. Annapolis. Curtiss. Although not Hammondsport. Curtiss in the instruction at the aviation school” being set up on 24th flight of the Triad—the machine in which he took Greenbury Point. Ellyson flew the A-1 off from land.Y.. was set up and flown at Hammondsport. the site for which had been previously selected 23 August The officers on flight duty at on Greenbury Point. and Dayton. Chambers was ordered was made by Glenn H. this was the ordered to report for duty at the Engineering first base for Naval Aviation. landing successfully on the water on the second attempt without the aid of lights. first Navy plane. tal work in the development of aviation. New York 1061484(NHF) Lieutenant Ellyson gives Captain Chambers a flight in the A-1 424469 . N. taxing on Lake Keuka. and the second by to temporary duty at the Naval Academy in connection Lieutenant Theodore G. lifted the wheels while in the air. Annapolis. Hammondsport.6 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1911—Continued Preparing A-1. Md. N. The first flight 6 July Captain Washington I. the A-2. including craft were demonstrated by Glenn H. for wire launch 428450 A-1 on the first catapult. Ohio. Experiment Station. Naval Academy. and from Lake Keuka to Hammondsport. with the establishment of an aviation experimental sta- tion. night flight by a naval aviator. First Navy aircraft. Md.Y. the A-1 Triad Hydroaeroplane. were occupied by the aviators until September.

or a visor. an inclined wire rigged from the beach down to the Richardson became water. Curtiss. Va. The trailing wire anten- . some description. of aviation. 8 November Ensign Victor D. . with covering for the ears and yet holes so 17 October Searching for improved powerplants. to test the durability of the aircraft on cross-country flight. . Ellyson and experimental work connected with the development John H. Annapolis. and a life preserver of some turbine engines similar in principle to those that. conversion of the Wright B-1 landplane into a hydroaeroplane. by Ensign Charles H.. Herbster. 7 September A memorable experiment in the Richardson. Navy’s search for a shipboard launching device was USN. Chambers. reported to completed at Hammondsport. to Fort Monroe. Ellyson. was initiated with a telegraphic order to the Burgess Company and Curtiss. on a flight in the A-1 from Annapolis. 4. and the aeroplane manufacturer who navigational instruments was reflected in a request gets in with it first is going to do wonders. having cov- ered 112 miles in 122 minutes.” Model Basin were described in a letter Holden C. when Lieutenant aviation at the Wash- Theodore G.Y. for a suitable float. Chambers in which he stated that a model of G. Md. . in a letter to Glenn with fur or wool. CC. this turbine is the 20 September The attempt to equip aircraft with surest step of all. Everything happened for a scientific test so quickly and went off so smoothly that I hardly of hydroaeroplane knew what happened except that I did have to use the floats at the Wash- ailerons. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 7 1911—Continued 10 October Lieu- tenant Holden C. 14 November The Navy’s first major aircraft modifi- cation. were forced down by a leaking radiator near Milford Haven.. Towers.. 30 years later. Richardson (CC) 650871 16 September Plans to purchase flight clothing from Captain Wash- were described in a letter from Lieutenant Theodore ington I. and that the machine was sensitive to their ington Navy Yard action.” of the Bureau of Navigation to the Naval Obser- vatory for temporary use of a boat compass in 25 October Lieutenants Theodore G. Va. later desig- nated Naval Aviator No. Ellyson’s report contained the following the Navy’s first engi- description of the run: “The engine was started and neering and mainte- run at full speed and then I gave the signal to release nance officer for the machine. Requirements were previously nearly ready for test. N. as possible as I wanted to be sure that I had enough headway to rise and not run the risk of the machine 16 October Plans partly rising and then falling. high rubber H. would make jet propulsion practical. Chambers wrote. .. leather trousers. . Marblehead. a leather coat lined Captain Washington I.. discussed heavy oil (or diesel) engines and galoshes and gauntlets. Md. “In my opinion.. who hoped to get the Navy Department the pontoons with Forlanini planes (hydrovanes) was to pay for them later. Md. Maddox in the A-1 airplane piloted John Towers and Theodore Ellyson 427990 by Lieutenant John H. Mass. reported for flight instruc- tion at the Aviation Camp at Greenbury Point. . Towers. 20 December Experiments with airborne wireless transmission were conducted at Annapolis. that the engine could be heard. I held the machine on the wire as long aviation. outlined as a light helmet with detachable goggles. Ellyson made a successful takeoff from ington Navy Yard.

Curtiss. Calif. showed the Monel wire to be both free of corrosion and 50 percent stronger than Navy Wright... Cunningham. which were received by a station at Point Richmond. were ducted experiments with wireless at Mare Island Navy ordered to transfer with their equipment to North Yard. Md. (Armored Cruiser No. . 5. 5). 20 July Comparative tests of Wright steel wire and Monel wire were conducted at Engineering Experiment Station Annapolis.” 11 March An early. and no definite results were obtained. Chambers. “From all I can gather. San Francisco. . The Secretary’s accompany- ing policy implication was followed with a few excep- 26 December Search for a shipboard launching tions for the next 30 years: “The Department recog- device continued as Captain Washington I. the first Marine Corps officer assigned to flight instruction and later designated Naval Aviator No. 20 miles distant. Ellyson ascended 900 feet over Annapolis.” somewhat after the manner of launching torpedoes. the earliest recorded Navy tests of air- craft structural materials. Calif. Nelson of West Vir ginia weak. who wrote to Captain Washington I. in which he made transmis- sions from a dummy airplane fuselage hoisted to a height of 85 feet. by the Aviation Camp. for flight instruction. B-1 after installation of pontoon 428225 the steel wire. 21 June Lieutenant Theodore G.. Md. Morin con- 29 December The aviators at Annapolis.. USMC. . These. It would be unwise to make any requisition for such a construction until a practically standard design has been developed. This date is recog- nized as the birthday of Marine Corps aviation.E. reeled out after take-off.. Rodgers and Wiegand with B-1 1053801 (NHF) copter was shown as the Secretary of the Navy autho- rized expenditure of not more than $50 for developing models of a helicopter design proposed by Chief na. in 3 minutes and 30 sec- onds in the A-1. Chambers nizes the value of the helicopter principle in the reported that the Bureau of Ordnance was interested in design of naval aircraft and is following closely the experimenting with a catapult for launching aeroplanes efforts of others in this direction. Mass. Calif. 1912 9 March Interest in steel and aluminum as aircraft structural materials was evident in a letter from Assistant Naval Constructor Holden C. . interest in the heli- Herbster. to set up an Aviation Camp on land offered for the purpose by Glenn H. San Diego. was found to be too Machinist’s Mate F. there is little doubt that much greater confidence would be felt if pontoons were constructed with a metal skin. Md. reported to the Superintendent of the Naval Academy for “duty in connection with aviation” and subsequent- ly was ordered to the Burgess Company at Marble- head. 22 May 1st Lieutenant Alfred A. 23 March Chief Electrician Howard E. Richardson. if limited.8 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1911—Continued Island.

took off from the water at Annapolis. The purpose expressed by the Secretary and later designated Naval Aviator No. On one flight.” the first general specifications for the second Marine officer assigned to flight training naval aircraft. while improving the factors in Annapolis. Smith. not being secured to the catapult. without demanding anything that may not be accomplished under the lim- 3 October The Davis recoilless gun was given initial itations of the present state of the art and without con- fining purchases to the products of a single factory. reported for was “to assist manufacturers in maintaining the highest instruction at the Aviation Camp at the Naval Academy degree of efficiency. Md. Md. The pilot was not injured. Indian Head. 19) at a distance of about one and Curtiss A-2. at 6:50 a.. USMC. Towers. 6. Hydroaeroplanes. who was giving technical assis- tance to the aviators. sent messages to Stringham 6 October Lieutenant John H.. Md. setting a new American 31 July The Navy’s first attempt to launch an air- plane by catapult was made at Annapolis. The air- craft. Md. Md. Maddox. was caught in a cross wind and motor were completed at the Engineering Experiment thrown into the water. a half miles. Chambers. Washington Navy Yard. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 9 1912—Continued constructed at the Naval Gun Factory. using the Wright B-1 piloted by damage submarines but with a recoil slight enough to Lieutenant John Rodgers. Charles H. flying the (Torpedo Boat No. Ellyson in the A-1. Annapolis. This gun was designed by Commander Cleland Davis to 26 July Tests of airborne wireless were continued at fire from an aircraft a caliber shell large enough to Annapolis. the Navy’s first recorded catapult. 10 min- utes and 35 seconds. This. from a plan proposed by Captain 25 July Aircraft specifications—On the basis of the Washington I. which was powered by compressed air. Ensign be absorbed by the aircraft. Lieutenant Theodore G. similar to the A-2 428449 . the Secretary of the Navy published “Requirements for 18 September Lieutenant Bernard L.. was attempt to utilize laboratory equipment and methods Single-seat Curtiss trainer. by endurance record for planes of any type. Navy’s experience with its first airplanes. reared at 8 October Tests of a Gyro 50-horsepower rotary about mid-stroke.” tests at Naval Proving Ground. This Station. and remained in the air 6 hours. which govern safety in aviation.m. Md.

was: “Circular climb. L. 12 November The Navy’s first successful launching of an airplane by catapult was made at the Washington Navy Yard by Lieutenant Theodore G. was tested at Hammondsport. Speed. 2 December Ensign William D. only one He gave general conclusions that the best altitude for complete circle. Navy members of the commis- sion were Naval Constructor David W. followed by ground runs and flight tests.575 feet in 14 minutes 30 seconds observation was about 800 feet. Ellyson in the A-3. the Navy’s first flying boat. reported for flight instruction become Naval Aviator No. and set up the Aviation Camp on Fisherman’s Point for its first opera- tions with the fleet.3 to 1. more than a hundred of whom were Catapult launch of flying boat. The endurance test was not made. D.4 miles per hour face.Y. 1913 6 January The entire aviation element of the Navy arrived at Guantanamo Bay. Towers reported completion of a series of tests begun on 26 October to Theodore G. als be held at Guantanamo Bay.. later designated Naval Aviator No. as informally determine the ability to spot submarines from the air. owing muddy for a fair test. Md. consisted of three brief dynamometer tests.” 19 December President William H. Taylor and Captain Washington I. reported by Ellyson. N. that submarines could fully loaded. Cuba. 25 October Ensign Godfrey deC. 8. Chambers. Aviation Camp. 1. later to later Naval Aviator No.C. Annapolis. Chevalier. served both to demonstrate operational capabilities of the aircraft and to stimulate interest in aviation among fleet personnel. 30 November The C-1..10 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1912—Continued in evaluating an aircraft engine. 428462 taken up for flights during the eight-week stay. Its performance. 59. Md. and suggested that additional tri- to the fact that the weather has not been favorable. . Cuba. acting on a recommendation made by the Secretary of the Navy. The following month a flying boat Godfrey deC. Washington. and I did not like to delay any longer. Chevalier 466256 was successfully launched from this catapult. Billingsley. which included scouting missions and exercises in spotting mines and submerged submarines as part of the fleet maneuvers. Ellyson. and was assigned to the Navy-Wright B-2 for instruction. reported for duty at the at the Aviation Camp. reported for flight training at the Aviation Camp at Annapolis. Taft. by Lieutenant 18 December Lieutenant John H. 8 October Physical requirements for prospective naval aviators were first defined in Bureau of Medicine and Surgery Circular Letter 125221. 9. Bellinger. On glide approximately 5. Md. but that the waters of Chesapeake Bay were too fully loaded. 7. The assignment. be detected when running a few feet below the sur- eight runs over measured mile. Annapolis. 26 November Lieutenant (jg) Patrick N. created a “Commission on Aerodynamical Laboratory” to determine the need for and a method of establish- ing such a laboratory.

production in association with others of the flying ple device gotten up by one of the men. A. D. 13 March Captain Washington I. P. or major in the Marine Corps. 4 March The Navy Appropriations Act for fiscal year 1914 provided an increase of 35 percent in pay and allowances for officers detailed to duty as flyers of heavier-than-air craft. Billingsley (standing) V. could be detailed to duty involving flying. Bellinger. L.” 26 February Action to provide the Navy with a wind tunnel. in developing a practical catapult Cuba. including bombing. aerial photography. in having been instrumental in the introduction obtained some good photographs from the boats at into our halls of Congress of bills for a National heights up to 1. remained in operation until after the end of World War II. 3-5 March. Have boat. W. aeroplane in navies. a basic tool in aeronautical research and 31 March Aircraft instruments and allied equipment development. Lieutenant John H. and further provided that no naval officer above the rank of lieutenant com- mander. N. Chambers was Guantanamo 1913 — B. The resulting tunnel. I believe we will get some Aerodynamic Laboratory. January 1913 652044 8 February Lieutenant John H. using a fairly sim. and results with wireless this winter. the Burgess Constructor of the Navy. and for the launching of aeroplanes from ships. Herbster. awarded the medal of the Aeronautical Society for the Cunningham. deC. 5 March As a result of tests held at Guantanamo Bay. G.” through his perseverance and able efforts in advancing the progress of Aeronautics in many other channels. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 11 1913—Continued Base for first aviation operations with fleet at Fisherman’s Point. A. in assisting wireless transmission. Towers reported on being the first to demonstrate the usefulness of the experimental work underway at Guantanamo Bay.000 feet. L. limited to 30 the number of offi- cers that could be so assigned. was approved formally by the Chief for installation in a new flying boat. Cuba. and a Competitive Test. which was built at the Washington Navy Yard. Smith. Towers reported that submarines were visible from the air at depths of from 30 to 40 feet. Guantanamo Bay. D. year 1912 and cited for “his unusual achievements in Chevalier (seated) 426948 . Cuba. and stated: “We have become in the practical solution of the hydroaeroplane by the fairly accurate at dropping missiles.

and generator. riding as passenger... Richardson. piloting the B-2 at 1. and equipped with a flying boat.I. CC. N.T. hensive plan for the organization of a Naval ments to serve on an advisory committee for the Aeronautic Service.. and hangar tents. were approved by the organization of an efficient naval air service should be Secretary of the Navy. thereby relieving Captain Washington I. spare parts.297. Hunsaker. The 28 April Chief of the Bureau of Navigation Rear aircraft. reaching 6. They were described by immediately taken in hand and pushed to fulfillment. the program. was thrown from the plane and fell to his death. amphibian. subsequently redesignated E-1. to draw up “a compre- designation of representatives of governmental depart.200 feet. an receiving serious injuries. was ordered to Culebra Island. 6 January The Marine Corps element of the Aviation Towers. Fla. or Over-Water-Land type—were Aeronautique Internationale. USMC. and to undertake research training in operations at sea and to make practical in that field. CC. L. Hammondsport. L. Chambers of that duty. Bellinger at sentative instrumentation on naval aircraft of the period.” Its report. Billingsley. and issuance of a certificate to all offi.” After making a tour of aeronautical tests of equipment necessary for such operations.. was the A-2 Admiral Victor Blue approved a proposal that the hydroaeroplane in which the pontoon was replaced with Navy Department. for exercises with the Advance 23 June A General Order fixed the cognizance of Base Unit.600 feet over the water near Annapolis. Smith. Bellinger. flying 17 December Captain Mark L. charge of aviation. under the supervi- sion of Lieutenant Holden C.12 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1913—Continued various bureaus in aviation in a manner paralleling the division of responsibility for naval vessels.R. and the Sperry a flying boat hull containing a three-wheel landing gear. CC. completed at Hammondsport. 20 June Ensign William D. the General Board expressed its opinion that “the cers meeting the requirements. chart board. the Navy Department for special duty as officer in tude record for seaplanes. USN. Although the radio and generator pilot) was flight tested in the C-2 Curtiss flying boat by were not installed. for flight and 12 June Secretary of the Navy approved detailing ground training and for the study of advanced aero- Lieutenant Jerome C. Lieutenant John H. Lieutenant (jg) Patrick N. was also unseated but Camp at Annapolis. Glenn Curtiss. Richardson. Chambers and Lieutenant an orderly development of Naval Aviation. submitted after 12 days Langley Aerodynamical Laboratory which had been of deliberation. USN.700 to implement M. and for the integration of aviation with the fleet. Its recom- Holden C. Company and Curtiss D-1. Hunsaker participated in assignment of one aircraft to every major combatant establishing a course of aeronautical engineering at ship. and Navy members of the advisory committee were was in all respects the first comprehensive program for Captain Washington I. establishment of a central aviation Massachusetts Institute of Technology to develop “a office under the Secretary to coordinate the aviation course of lectures and experiments on the design of work of the Bureaus. Bristol reported to the Curtiss A-3 at Annapolis. Md. 9 May President Woodrow Wilson approved the Chambers as senior member. Md. 13 June Lieutenant (jg) Patrick N. mendations included the establishment of an Aeronautic Center at Pensacola. the Federation ing boat—the OWL. 7 October The Secretary of the Navy appointed a board of officers. in the Department of Naval Architecture. speed indicator. Navy Air Pilot. under Lieutenant Bernard L. 30 August A Sperry gyroscopic stabilizer (automatic radio. the assignment of a ship for aeroplanes and dirigibles. to the nautic engineering.. USN. altimeter.Y. Md. .Y. N. the remaining equipment was repre. 10 April Performance standards for qualification as a 30 August In a report to the Secretary of the Navy. emphasized the need for expansion reopened by the Smithsonian Institution on 1 May. set an American alti. with Captain Washington I. Company cooperate in testing the gyroscopic stabilizer on a new Navy airplane. were listed as: compass. P.. the research facilities in Europe.” Chambers as being different from those of the “land pilot” and more exacting than the requirements of the 5 October Initial trials of the Navy’s first amphibian fly- international accrediting agency. inclinometer. clung to the plane and fell with it into the water. the 1914 first fatality of Naval Aviation. and the expenditure of $1.

. Lieutenant Commander Henry C. 7 aircraft. . Fla.” 20 January The aviation unit from Annapolis. under Lieutenant John H. hydroaeroplanes and tent hangars at the first permanent station 72-CN-6422 7 January The Office of Aeronautics. was transferred from the Bureau of Navigation to the Division of Operations in the Office of the Secretary of the Navy. Towers as officer in charge. in command of the station ship Mississippi (BB Henry C. on board Mississippi (BB 23) and Orion (AC 11) to set up a flying school. Md. 10 January Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels announced that “the science of aerial navigation has reached that point where aircraft must form a large part of our naval force for offensive and defensive operations. arrived at Pensacola. with Captain Mark L. Mustin 1061482 23) was also in command of the aeronautic station.. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 13 1914—Continued Pensacola 1914 with flying boats. Mustin. consisting of 9 officers. 23 men. and other gear. Bristol in charge. portable hangars.

on the subject of physical requirements for aviator candidates which expressed 20 April First call to action—In less than 24 hours the opinion that useful infor mation could be after receiving orders. Lambert of St. embarked on Mississippi (BB 23) and Aviation detachment at Veracruz 1914. in the Class. an aviation detachment of 3 obtained by observing pilots during flight and by pilots. 10. on board Birmingham (CL 2) to join Atlantic Fleet program developed that would permit incorporation forces operating off Tampico in the Mexican crisis.. Thus the third hydroaeroplane. Officer at Pensacola. of such practice in the work of the flight training school. H. A. and first letter denoted class. 27 March The original designations of aircraft were 21 April A second aviation detachment from changed to two letters and a number of which the Pensacola.. on a flight at Pensacola.. Murray. hydroaeroplanes. D for airships or dirigi- 16 February Lieutenant (jg) James M. B. respec- tively. informed the Secretary of the Navy that the services of 9 March The wind tunnel at the Washington Navy the Aviation Reserve. Louis. and convertibles. were apparent in a letter to the Commanding became AB-1. Naval bles. commanded by Lieutenant (jg) Patrick N. 20 of whom ventilator cowling. three student pilots. were available for use in the Mexican crisis months. which he had organized the year Yard was tested. Within the A Aviator No. formerly C-1. Fla. the letters L. land and water machines. and the first flying boat. Calibration required about three before. of Lieutenant John H. of one pilot. Fla. Four classes were set up. 12 enlisted men. ter further directed that this be considered and a Fla. B. flying boats..14 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1914—Continued within class were acquired. The let. B for balloons and K for Kites. class. under command physical examination before and after flight. sailed from Pensacola. X and C represented land Burgess D-1 flying boat. Bellinger. Fla. the second type within a two aircraft. 20 April Mr. formerly A-3. A for all heavier-than-air craft. Mo. crashed to the water from 200 machines. could furnish their own aircraft. and its first use in July was a test of ship’s and listed the names of 44 members. 20 February The beginnings of Aviation Medicine became AH-3. combination feet and was drowned.. and 3 aircraft. Towers. Bellinger (right) in front of first plane to be hit by hostile gunfire 391984 . and the number the order in which aircraft L.

recommended that 28 April Lieutenant (jg) Patrick N. This temporary assignment. L. France. Mexico. USN. 19 May As the need for scouting services dimin- ished at Veracruz. from North Carolina (ACR 12) for a two-day tour of aircraft factories and aerodromes in the immediate area. Fla. . respectively. the aviation detachment 22 April The Bureau of Navigation approved formal resumed routine flight instruction while awaiting courses of instruction for student aviators and student orders to return to Pensacola.000 feet against land and water targets. Herbster reported his bombing would have been more accurate “if I had been able to disengage my fingers from the wind-wheel sooner. 24 May The aeronautic detachment on board 25 April On the first flight by the Mississippi (BB 23) Birmingham (CL 2) arrived at Veracruz. observe the city and make a preliminary search for mines in the harbor.” 21 August Lieutenant Commander Henry C. Mexico—the first marks of combat on a Navy plane. was hit by rifle fire bombs were dropped over the side of the machine while on a reconnaissance flight over enemy positions from about 1. Fla. Fla. LaMont made a flight in the AB-3 fly. piloted by aeronautical design. flew the first mission in direct 1 July Aviation was formally recognized with the support of ground troops as Marines encamped near establishment of an Office of Naval Aeronautics in the Tejar. reported being under attack and Division of Operations under the Secretary of the Navy. Burgess-Dunne. Bellinger piloted the AB-3 flying boat to the school routine of flight instruction. Lieutenant (jg) Patrick N.” The aircraft which were subse- quently obtained were designated AH-7 and AH-10. mechanics at the Flying School at Pensacola. sailed for Mexican waters to assist in military opera- tions at Veracruz. Mexico. . Smith. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 15 1914—Continued in the vicinity of Veracruz. Germany. Mexico. USMC. tions can be thoroughly determined . carried out at Indian Head Proving Lieutenant (jg) Patrick N. Herbster and 1st Lieutenant Bernard L. CC. D. 26 May On the basis of flight tests. . Bellinger with Ensign W. Mexico. Bellinger and the Navy buy two swept-wing Burgess-Dunne Ensign Walter D. 28 July Lieutenant (jg) Victor D. Stumpneck. L. Mexico. piloted by Smith. Smith reported to Berlin. arrived in Paris. Herbster reported on bombing tests which he and Lieutenant Bernard L. which began the same month when Lieutenant John H. Towers was sent to London. Mustin. The AH-7. 6 May The Curtiss AH-3 hydroaeroplane. and Paris. Lieutenant Patrick N. was a precedent for the assignment of aviation assistants to naval attaches. the first use of Naval Aviators as observers in foreign lands. 16 November An administrative reorganization at Pensacola. L. Mexico. as it appears to be only the beginning of an important development in 2 May The AH-3 hydroaeroplane. L. L. Md. shifted overall command from the sta- tion ship to headquarters ashore and the station was officially designated Naval Aeronautic Station. Lieutenant (jg) Tampico to join the Mississippi (BB 23) detachment in Patrick N. to locate the attackers. Bellinger with Lieutenant Grounds.. LaMont as observer. Both dummy and live (jg) Richard C. Richardson. from aviation unit at Veracruz. Bellinger and 1st Lieutenant Bernard L. flying over Pensacola 1061479 Pensacola. In September Lieutenant (jg) Victor D. requested the aviation unit at Veracruz. USMC. Saufley as observer. Lieutenant Holden C. Mexico. hydroaeroplanes “so that the advantages and limita- ing boat to photograph the harbor at Veracruz.

USN. Bristol. The success of this and subse- could be organized in each of the state Naval Militia. Bellinger at Pensacola. L. and squalls at the ends of 22 March The title “Naval Aviator” replaced the for- the speed course at Pensacola. established an American alti- Captain Mark L. tude record for seaplanes by ascending to 10. 3 March A rider to the Naval Appropriations Act cre- ated the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. First catapult launch from ship. men of the Navy and 12 officers and 24 men of the Marine Corps. raised the limits on personnel assigned to aviation to a already serving in that capacity.000 feet Richardson. Fla. and fabricated at the Bureau of Navigation directed that an aeronautic corps Washington Navy Yard. Fla. 25 November To measure and record velocity and direction of winds. Mustin in AB-2 439969 . Stolz. Bellinger. Bristol established qualified as aviators. 16 April The AB-2 flying boat was successfully cata- pulted from a barge by Lieutenant Patrick N. The same act also in charge of Naval Aviation. 1 February The Division of Naval Militia Affairs in the Richardson. and provided for the pay- 23 November The title “Director of Naval ment of one year’s pay to the next of kin of officers Aeronautics” was established to designate the officer and men killed in aircraft accidents. was ordered to report yearly average of not more than 48 officers and 96 to the Secretary of the Navy under the new title.16 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1914—Continued involving flying. Fla. 23 April Lieutenant Patrick N. L. Director of Naval mer “Navy Air Pilot” designation for naval officers Aeronautics Captain Mark L. in the Navy members in the original organization were Burgess-Dunne AH-10. increased the amount previously pro- vided for qualified aviators. Bristol and Lieutenant Holden C. quent launchings led to installation of the catapult aboard ship. CC. student avia- added enlisted men and student aviators to those eligi. requirements for special meteorological equipment to be installed there. was killed in a crash of the AH-9 hydroaeroplane ble for increased pay and allowances while on duty at Pensacola. gusts. Captain Mark L. CC. tor. Fla. USN.. 3 March The Naval Appropriations Act of 1916 8 May Lieutenant (jg) Melvin L. The catapult used had 1915 been designed in 1913 by Lieutenant Holden C. over Pensacola.

Fla. tic force within the Naval Militia. New Haven. Although this had the effect of abolishing the Office of the Director of Naval Aeronautics.000 yards altitude. signaling his Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels stated in a let.. incidence indicator. would perform spe- cial duties. Edison: “One of the imperative needs of the Navy. 11 August The Naval Observatory requested the ties for utilizing the natural inventive genius of Eastman Kodak Company to develop an aerial camera Americans to meet the new conditions of warfare. made the first catapult 28 enlisted men. flying the Burgess-Dunne AH-10. in the AB-2 flying boat. reaching 11. L. to convert gyroscopically stabilized artificial horizon might be a merchant ship to operate aircraft. a group of civilian advisors which the pressure of the air during flight would not distort functioned during the World War I period and includ. It ordered one non-rigid airship which was later designated the DN-1. which he had set only three days before. cam- 1 June The Navy let its first contract for a lighter. launching from a ship. par- alleling that of other forces established at the same 5 November Lieutenant Commander Henry C. is machinery and facili. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 17 1915—Continued for 13 instruments to be installed in service aero- planes: air speed meter. school aeroplanes. time. Mustin. Board with the comment that there was a more imme- diate need to determine what could be done with 10 July A standard organization prescribed by North Carolina (ACR 12). Fla. er flight training at Pensacola. spotted mortar fire for 7 July In the initial step towards mobilizing science. 15 October The Secretary of the Navy referred a factory for aircraft use. binoculars. was available for a oil gauge. authority for aviation programs in the Navy D. and landsmen. Washington. was in sections of not more than 6 officers and Mustin. indicator.000 to 2.056 feet form duties as aeronautic mechanics. as aeronautic machinists. in my judgment. flying off the stern of North Officers were in the “aeronautics duty only” category.. 1916 22 July Based on recommendations received from 6 January Instruction commenced for the first the Naval Aeronautic Station. All except the navigational instruments. magazine camera. the equivalent of today’s strikers. set an American altitude record for machinist mates and electricians would perform duties hydroaeroplanes. Army shore batteries at Fort Monroe. compass... fuel gauge. Fla. that 10 July After test of a sextant equipped with a office continued to exist until the detachment of the pendulum-type artificial horizon. the group of enlisted men to receive flight training at Director of Naval Aeronautics established requirements Pensacola.975 feet over Pensacola. Fla. and clock were also required for than-air craft to the Connecticut Aircraft Company. ter to Thomas A. with an authorization by the Secretary to outfit a Department to the Chief of Naval Operations and to building for testing aeronautic machinery. two sections forming a division. Its composition. ed in its organization a “Committee on Aeronautics. 5 August Lieutenant Patrick N. and so constructed that Consulting Board.” 12 October A directive was issued establishing an Officer in Charge of Naval Aeronautics under the 10 July The Aeronautical Engine Laboratory had its newly created Chief of Naval Operations and giving beginnings at the Washington Navy Yard. to the General acceptable. Va. Its enlisted structure 3 December Lieutenant Richard C. NAS Pensacola’s incumbent director.. Bellinger. ter.C. planes. the Bureaus. spots with Very pistol flares. Henry C. Fla. carpenter mates would per. reported that while the pendulum principle was basically unsatis. including Aero Motors. Carolina (ACR 12) in Pensacola Bay. course and distance limited number of its aviators. Saufley. and sextant. already fitted to carry aero- General Order was the first to provide for an aeronau. the highest rank provided being that of lieutenant commander at the division level. era. . the focus. Bristol. altitude barometer. suitable for photography at This letter led to the establishment of the Naval 1. tachome- 28 May The Naval Militia was informed that refresh.” with high-speed lens. skidding and sideslip indicator. clock. a sextant incorporating a proposal. commanding officer. made by Captain Mark L. and surpassing his own record of 11. binoculars. flying provided that men taken in under regular ratings of the Curtiss AH-14. Pensacola.

Numbers. Lieutenants (jg) were in 11 January The Naval Observatory forwarded two addition to have some knowledge of nautical astrono- magnetic compasses to Pensacola. provided a model for astronomy and ability to fly at least two types of naval the compasses widely used in naval aircraft during aircraft.. cumula. These extras. Additional requirements for British Creigh-Osborne design on the basis of recom. bettered his apparatus for aeroplanes were received at Pensacola. The anchor and numeral were painted out- ranks and ratings of the Militia. assumed the Secretary of the Navy that Coast Guard officers operational supervision over all aircraft. own American altitude record with a flight to 16. rank provided for the force. Bronson 416339 the office ceased to exist. both 25 March Qualifications for officers and enlisted in dark blue on a white background. 10 February The Bureau of Construction and Repair implemented a Navy Department decision by directing that designating numbers be assigned to all aircraft under construction and that these numbers be used for identification purposes until the aircraft were tested or placed in service at which time standard designations provided by the order of 27 March 1914 would be used. Sugden and Third and the further development of aviation in the Navy. . the craft maintenance and aviation machinists were to Officer in Charge of Naval Aeronautics requested the have similar knowledge of motors. while lieutenant commanders. Lieutenant Clarence K.. the tive for ranks in ascending order. Bristol was detached as Director of Naval Aeronautics and both the title and C.072 feet. for tests under my. faces and the numeral fore and aft on both sides of omy) and scouting problems. by late July an officer and a civil. practical and theoretical the fuselage. Fla.. Radio Service. Fla. Second Lieutenant Charles E. board on the upper and lower wing surfaces. under a 30 March The Secretary of the Treasury informed new title of Commander of the Air Service. Lieutenant Elmer F. in accordance with an Chief of Naval Operations were assumed by agreement between the two departments. modified from the a Navy pilot certificate. were also to have knowl- edge of Navy business methods used in aeronautics. K. Bronson. flying a with aircraft radio. required ensigns to anchor was generally placed on the vertical tail sur- have knowledge of navigation (except nautical astron.. four sets of radio Curtiss hydroaeroplane at Pensacola. These compasses. beginning with 51-A. and ability to fly at least one type of aircraft. Captain Bristol was assigned to command North Carolina (ACR 12) and. Aeroplanes” in a Bureau of Construction and Repair were over and above those prescribed for the same drawing. lieutenants called for a greater knowledge of nautical mendations by Naval Aviators. 16. air stations. to authorize the radio operators at the Pensacola Radio Station to experiment 29 March Lieutenant Richard C. the highest World War I. Superintendent. were simultaneously assigned to 33 aircraft. Fla. Saufley. 15 April An anchor and a two digit numeral. Stone had been assigned to flight Such aviation duties as remained in the Office of the instruction at Pensacola. ian radio expert had been detailed to aircraft radio experimentation at Pensacola and the Bureau of Steam Engineering had ordered approximately 50 aircraft radio sets.010 Although initiation of developmental work did not feet and on 2 April extended it again with a mark of begin immediately. were pre- men in the Aeronautic Force of the Naval Militia were scribed as “Distinguishing Marks for Naval defined by General Order which. This was the introduction of serial numbers hereafter assigned to all aircraft. and to qualify for all conditions. 21 January In a step that led to the establishment of Aviation mechanics were to have knowledge of air- an aviation radio laboratory at Pensacola.18 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1916—Continued knowledge of aeroplanes and motors. Simultaneously. Fla. 4 March Captain Mark L. principles of aeroplane design. in each instance.

” Aluminum Company of America apply its resources to the development of a suitable alloy. Aviators were to be furnished hel- mets. in addition. and base Carolina (ACR 12) while underway in Pensacola Bay. it ing the subject from “Naval Aeroplanes” to went further in that it assigned the General Board “Aeronautics. loading of about four pounds per square foot. suit. piloted by Lieutenant gyroscopic attachments for instruments and equip. Secretary of the Navy approved a course proposed by Lieutenant Commander Frank R. a novel ing an order with the Sperry Gyroscope Company. duties involved flying were to receive. and for use in 9 June Lieutenant Richard C. Fla. crashed to his death after being in 8 August The Secretary clarified the place of avia- the air 8 hours and 51 minutes. Curtiss requesting him to “call at the Bureau [Construction and Repair] Monday with a proposition to supply at the earliest date practicable thirty school hydro aeroplanes.. The telegram concluded. In addition to extend.” this order embraced lighter-than-air and responsibility for advising as to the numbers and gen- eral characteristics of aircraft. by the Secretary. North Carolina became the first ship of the U. Fla. by David 22 May The Naval Observatory sent a color camera. “Speed.. 10 August Negotiation for the first aircraft produc- tion contract began with a telegram to Glenn H. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 19 1916—Continued certain heavier-than-air components that were not pro- vided for in the earlier order. 13 May The Chief of Naval Operations requested appropriate bureaus to undertake development of 12 July The AB-3 flying boat. was issued defining cognizance for aero. pult designed for shipboard use.. 18 July Flight clothing allowances were established nautic work. was made at Norwich. Rate of delivery is important and must be guaranteed. Godfrey deC. goggles. to the Naval Lieutenant (jg) George D. While the new direc- June 1913. Enlisted men whose 3 June Formal instruction in free and captive bal. Chevalier. and directed 22 July Serious interest in the development of light that it be added to the Bureau of Navigation Circular metal alloys for aeronautical use led Chief Constructor “Courses of Instruction and Required Qualifications of Rear Admiral David W. H. bomb-dropping sight was initiated with the allocation of $750 to the Bureau of Ordnance to be used in plac. established by the General Order of 20 June 1916. Fla. on an fabrication of Zeppelin-type girders. including compasses. Navy equipped to 20 May Development of a gyroscopically operated carry and operate aircraft.” Specified characteristics included: two seats. Conn. airplane with the propeller mounted in the fuselage aft of the wings. tion in the departmental organization by redefining the responsibilities of bureaus and offices for specific ele- 20 June A General Order. and power loading of about twenty pounds per horsepower. and boots. propeller in the fuselage 1061646 which were delivered between November 1916 and . Aeronautic Station at Pensacola. climb and details of construction to be proposed by you. was catapulted from North ment. Murray. the latter being a forerunner of the turn and Fla. Saufley. loons was instituted at Pensacola. superseding that of 23 ments of the aviation program. to determine whether color photography would be of value in aero. The launch completed calibration of the first cata- bank indicator. and in effect made the Bureau of Construction and Repair a lead bureau for aircraft development and procurement. when the wool head cover.. bombsights.” This telegram resulted in a contract for thirty N-9s Experimental Gallaudet. tive followed the division of cognizance over material nautics in the Navy Department. McCulloch and witnessed by Navy Inspector made by the Hess-Ives Corporation. and safety jackets. McCrary. lines.S. endurance flight in the AH-9 over Santa Rosa Island off Pensacola. Taylor to request that the Personnel for the Air Service of the Navy. gauntlets. 17 July The first flight of the Gallaudet 59-A.

under wind tunnel test 72-CN-6423 Ensign Wadleigh Capehart holds early semple bomb while straddling cockpit of a Burgess-Dunne 416327 . first aircraft designed and built by the Navy.20 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1916—Continued K Model of 82- A.

Hewitt—was witnessed by Lieutenant vices with the fleet as a primary mission. when it dived sharply. popular training aircraft during World War I. ment—a piloted hydroaeroplane equipped with automatic Pensacola. 17 August The Secretary of the Navy approved a 12 September A demonstration of guided missile equip- reorganization of the Naval Aeronautic Station. Wilkinson reported: “The departments for Manufacturing. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 21 1916—Continued the Naval Flying Corps. L. including a Naval Reserve Flying Corps to be com. body and pontoon of the N-9 be finished with opaque posed of officers and enlisted men transferring from yellow (or greenish-yellow) varnish. ment of procedures for determining whether opera- tem of controlling aircraft in flight be adopted as the tional aircraft were safe to fly were provided for in an standard system for use in all aircraft of both services. of surplus graduates of aero- nautics schools. climbed to its desired height. Company and P. This instruction establishment of a Naval Reserve Force of six classes canceled use of slate color and provided that wings. The machine left the water without difficulty. and of members of the Naval Reserve February 1917. Fla. Experimental Test and automatic control of the aeroplane is adequate and excel- Inspection. Johnson and pioneer Naval photographer W. Public Works. Supply and Medical. Richardson 452495 . 9 September The initiation of formal flight testing 12 August The Secretary of the Navy agreed with as a basis for accepting new aircraft and the establish- the Secretary of War that the straight Deperdussin sys. and. Wilkinson of the Bureau of Ordnance at the establishment of an Aeronautics School and Amityville. order issued by the Secretary. It also provided for the ing color of naval aircraft was issued. which reassigned the training of com. F. stabilization and direction gear developed by the Sperry missioned and enlisted personnel for aeronautic ser.Y. Pilot E. The aircraft became the Navy’s most Force with experience in aviation. and ordered Theodore S. maintained this altitude until the 29 August The Naval Appropriation Act for fiscal end of the run. would have dived to the earth.” Flying Corps to be composed of 150 officers and 350 enlisted men in addition to those provided by law for 20 September The earliest extant instruction regard- other branches of the Navy. N. C. lent. unless con- year 1917 provided for the establishment of a Naval trolled by the aviator. Long Island.

Among the requirements were a 11 October The Acting Secretary of War recom. Navy board be appointed to consider the requirements for developing a lighter-than-air service in the Army or 7 December Lieutenant Commander Henry C. . . on an obtained in the utilization of such machines to meet experimental bomb test flight at Naval Proving the tactical and strategical requirements of the fleet Ground. Philadelphia.” The commission recommended that 17 November Efforts to develop high speed sea. purposes. there Mustin reported that an Eastman Aero camera. speed range of 50 to 95 mph. two and a half hours mended to the Secretary of the Navy that a joint Army. Navy or both. and provisions for radio. and specified that the apparatus be as Admiral Albert Gleaves. a joint Army-Navy board decide upon locations that planes for catapulting from ships led Chief Constructor might be used by both services.000 Atlantic Fleet. 30 December The Commission on Navy Yards and 27 October The Chief of Naval Operations directed Naval Stations. Taylor to solicit suitable designs from vari- ous manufacturers.100 feet. was by far the best camera tested up to that time. Bristol was detached requested the Navy Yard. Pa. as Commander of the Air Service. Bronson. with one. tion in aeronautics which under its later title. Commander Destroyer Force.. and the functions of take development of a radio direction finder for use the command but not the title were transferred to Rear on aeroplanes. USMC 1061483 . 24 October The Bureau of Steam Engineering 12 December Captain Mark L. and Lieutenant Luther Welsh. submitted its preliminary report. meters. endurance.. Md.. at altitudes of 600 to 5. tested came into being an agency for interservice coopera. light as possible and use wave lengths of 600 to 4.22 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1916—Continued David W. and the practical experience so far Aviator No. and Aeronautical Board. functioned for over 30 years produced photographs very satisfactory for military before being dissolved in 1948. Naval machines . McIlvain. at NAS Pensacola. the determination at this time of any extensive system of aviation bases. Indian Head. authorized by the Act of 29 August that all aircraft loaned or donated to the Naval Militia 1916 for the purpose of selecting new sites for the by private individuals or organizations be designated expansion of Navy Yards and for submarine and air NMAH and be given numbers in sequence beginning bases along the coast. Ken Whiting 1061480 W. Fla. With the Secretary’s concurrence. to under. 15. is such as to preclude premature explosion of a bomb in their plane. For aviation the commission could only report that “the present development of aeronautical 8 November Lieutenant Clarence K. were instantly killed by the and the defense of the coast.

UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 23 PART 2 Test of Strength 1917–1919 A small group of pioneer Navy and Marine Corps aviators had nurtured the early growth of Naval place in aviation history in 1919 as the first aircraft to fly the Atlantic. operation. and New and accessories to be manufactured by the Eastman England yacht manufacturers. 8 January A Benet-Mercie machine gun. Aviation. but all could trace their ancestry to the earlier work of Glenn 10 January The first production order for aerial H. on university campuses. decision represented a modest beginning for a pro- mechanics and technical specialists. and enthusiasts of lighter-than-air pointed required. aircraft designers and naval tacticians advanced from concept to mass production and for years to come. but Naval Aviation nonetheless 1917 achieved a good wartime record. and 12 in the United States. 48 aviators and students were taking air power to sea. Naval ommended to the Secretaries of the War and Navy aircraft flew more than 3 million nautical miles and Departments that an airship of the Zeppelin type be attacked and damaged a dozen U-boats. 23 . When the call came in April 1917. The Naval Reserve Flying Corps Navy decided to convert a collier to a carrier. the NC type secured a Kodak Company. One of its units was 6 January A board of Army and Navy officers rec- the first from the United States to reach France. Both the gun and the aircraft operated satisfactori- family. A product of naval Observatory issued requisitions for 20 aero cameras constructors. but none of them ion that aircraft should fly from combatant ships of had been designed for the work that would be the fleet. two in Canada. expansion was remarkable (see usefulness of these aeronautic types. installed in Naval Aviation’s outstanding technical product of a flexible mount in the Burgess-Dunne AH-10. of the work. The logic of these claims. Training programs were established at But even as the war ended. and the the armistice. The culmination of work with flying boats photographic equipment was initiated when the Naval in the war was the Curtiss NC type. three Army and three Navy officers be created to When hostilities ceased. Numerous fired at altitudes of 100 and 200 feet above Pensacola. ground officers. one air Aviators urged its adoption as the major means of station was operating. Air stations sprang up on both sides of ignored. sentiment in favor of the new air stations. one in the Azores. insure effective interservice cooperation in prosecution tors were using 27 bases in Europe. were not Appendix 4). By war’s end. types appeared but they all bore the look of a single Fla. The speed and breadth of the expansion produced expected chaos. The design progressed through the HS-1 and ly during the test. 54 aircraft were on hand. H-16 to the British original known as the F-5L. In 1919 the with private industry. a Yankee builder of aircraft. Aircraft of many gram which would occupy the attention of a host of types were produced. was the war was the long-distance flying boat. and that a board of round-the-clock air campaign which would have been the first strictly American air offensive of the war. Navy and Marine Corps avia. but it was too small and poorly equipped to The flying boat was so impressive that many Naval wage war. designed and constructed under the direction of the Navy and Marine Corps squadrons had organized the Chief Constructor of the Navy with funds provided Northern Bombing Group which was preparing a equally by the Army and the Navy. the Atlantic. to airship success in the war and urged development In the 19 months between declaration of war and of their specialty. Others remained of the opin- available. and one aircraft engine ship builders. This produced thousands of aviators. Curtiss. The 1920s saw development in each area. one in the Canal Zone. and even aircraft carrier was gaining currency.

established standard flight clothing for the eight aeronautic coastal patrol stations be established. Fla. aerial machines carrying high explosives..R. an N-9 floatplane at 3. Calif. Pa. the Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company and the B. 12 March The first interservice agreement regarding 20 April The Navy’s first airship. Trubee Davison. Navy and Marine Corps combined. Towers as a member. tee with Lieutenant John H. Clothing consisted of a tan sheep- 10 February The National Advisory Committee for skin long coat. 24 March The First Yale Unit of 29 men. enlisted in the at Culebra. Assistant Secretary of approved which called for assignment of new classes the Navy for Air held by David S. Advance Base Force. Captain Francis T. and operation. 14 April The Navy’s first guided missile effort began Evans. For this con. when the Naval Consulting Board recommended to plane. it was grounded and never flown again. ther orders. and enunciated basic principles whereby joint effort could be achieved in these areas. was: 48 16 nonrigid airships of Class B be procured. Gates. from other Marine Corps units and from the Marine Corps Reserve Flying Corps. F. 6 April The Secretary of the Navy. yellow color over all. 26 April The catapult installed on Huntington (ACR cal functions along lines traditional to the services. This Grounds. San Francisco Bay. he was later the form of automatically controlled aeroplanes or awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross. P. 6 April The United States declared that a state of war existed with Germany. after only two more flights Army and Navy officers and approved by the in this month. Under every 3 months and the establishment of a course of . From this date until 23 March her air detach- was the first of several college groups to join up as a ment operated from ship and temporary shore bases unit for war service. Secretaries of the War and Navy Departments. Naval Flying Service.000 be apportioned it into a spin and successfully recovered. 11) arrived of Defense held by Robert A. goggles. Goodrich Company. The agreement recognized a general division of aeronauti.. moleskin Aeronautics (NACA) established a patent subcommit. Captain Alfred A. The strength of Naval 4 February The Secretary of the Navy directed that Aviation. with an aviation detachment and air- Naval Reserve Flying Force and four days later left col- craft on board. and Secretary 15 January Seattle (Armored cruiser No. by approval of 5 February The Chief of Naval Operations recom. performing scouting and other missions in conjunction with fleet operations. and then forced the Secretary of the Navy that $50. soft leather boots.. which were four destined to hold such high positions in the military departments as Assistant Secretary for 1 May An expansion of the training program was War held by F. among Cunningham was in command. The waders. by the transfer of person- directed that all seaplanes be finished in an opaque nel from the Marine Aviation Section at Pensacola. performed the first loop with a sea. Department to operate as a part of the Navy until fur- tion of the entire industry. were issued subsequently to the Connecticut Aircraft 3 balloons. for fleet exercises in the Southern Drill lege to begin war training at West Palm Beach. Equipment. in view of the urgent military necessity. 13 March The Bureau of Construction and Repair Philadelphia Navy Yard. hood. Ingalls. Fla. DN-1. and 1 air station. USMC. the recommendation of the Board on Flying mended that. 27 April The Marine Aeronautic Company. brogans and life belts. short coat and trousers.000 feet. black leather gloves. the president directed the holders of basic aeronautic patents was causing that the Coast Guard be transferred from the Treasury prohibitive prices for aircraft and general demoraliza. Navy Yard. but 5) was given its first dead load tests at Mare Island stressed the importance of joint development. and authorized its issuance as Title B equipage.24 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1917—Continued Secretary of the Navy and Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Air held by Artemus L. to carry on experimental work on aerial torpedoes in tribution to the science of aviation. zation. 13 February At Pensacola.. 1 airship. was organized at Marine Barracks. necessity for this subcommittee arose from the fact that the threat of infringement suits being brought by 7 April By Executive Order. Fla. Lovett. organi. Contracts officers and 239 enlisted men. Its performance was unsatisfac- operations of aircraft was submitted by a board of tory on several counts and. made its first the development of aeronautic resources and the flight at Pensacola. 54 airplanes. Corporation.

Y. was given addi- and for selection of a few for pilot training and qualifi.. vided for training enlisted men as aviation mechanics who remained as an assistant to Irwin. 5 May The Secretary of War agreed to a proposal of the Secretary of the Navy that a joint board be estab. Reconstitution of the Board by Act of Congress on 1 October 1917. except Zeppelins. Irwin was ordered to the Material Branch to relieve Lieutenant John H. particular aircraft. reported on a test in which a the rudder. The insignia called for a red disc within a white on Aircraft. ing of double walled galvanized iron containing layers gram while stations of a more permanent nature were of felt. Fla. was originally titled “Joint Technical Board craft. . building (bureau) number of each aircraft be placed in figures three inches high at the top of the white verti- 15 May The Secretary of the Navy established an cal band on each side of the rudder. These were two of several actions taken immediately after 18 May Experimental self-sealing fuel tanks. the practice of assigning numbers to aircraft. N. Taylor. consist- declaration of war to expand the flight training pro. 17 May Aircraft machine gun procurement— The Chief of Naval Operations requested purchase of 50 aircraft machine guns synchronized to fire through propellers and 50 for all-around fire. Lieutenant Towers. enlarged its membership for greater service representation. was discontinued and the building (bureau) or ment” ninth on a list of twenty major fields of material serial number became the sole means of identifying a procurement. with the blue forward. Naval Reserve Flying Corps. Towers 18 months duration to qualify officers as pilots of as Officer-in-Charge of the aviation desk in the Office either seaplanes or dirigibles. On Reserve Flying Force as aviators at the company field the same date. Membership included a representative from each service. As a result of this order of precedence for work involved in the prepara. as tion for war which placed “aircraft and their equip. over the Naval Militia station at Bay Shore. Berthier machine gun. were demonstrated to representatives of the Army and Navy by the Bureau of Standards. synchronized to fire through the propeller. The board. gum rubber and an Ivory soap-whiting paste. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 25 1917—Continued 16 May The Aircraft Production Board was estab- lished by resolution of the Council of National Defense as a subsidiary agency to act in an advisory capacity on questions of aircraft production and pro- curement. 4 May The Commandant of the First Naval District 17 May The Navy awarded a contract to the Curtiss was directed to assume control of the Naval Militia Exhibition Company to train 20 men of the Naval station at Squantum. order. and changed its title to Aircraft Board. AH. 19 May A distinguishing insignia for all United lished for the purpose of standardizing the design and States Government aircraft was described in a general specifications of aircraft. Mass.” star on a blue circular field to be displayed on the wings and for red. arrangements were completed to take at Newport News. Navy’s first airship approaches floating hangar 19370 17 May Captain Noble E.. tional duty orders to the Bureau of Navigation as cation as quartermaster. The program also pro. being built. for use in air training. Supervisor. of the Chief of Naval Operations. transferred its control to the War and Navy Departments. the Navy’s being Rear Admiral David W. white and blue vertical bands on 5 May Pensacola. Va. was fired from a Curtiss R-3 taxiing on 19 May The Secretary of the Navy directed that the water and standing on the beach. subsequently order which directed that it be placed on all naval air- established.

J. The the Atlantic coast was implemented as the first con- B-1 was manufactured at Akron by Goodyear. hotel by J. mended by the Joint Technical Board on Aircraft. 11) as 29 May The Navy awarded a contract to the she made ready for convoy duty at the Brooklyn Navy Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company of Akron. Ohio.. Her raised catapult. Ralph H. located at Montauk. D. enlisted men. ed to mass production techniques. Ohio. The and service seaplanes. and until 1 commanded by Lieutenant Kenneth Whiting. 14 June The establishment of patrol stations along pleting an overnight test flight from Chicago. Calif. Ill. aboard Jupiter (AC 3).C. Rockaway and Bay Shore.and 12-cylinder Liberty motors was authorized by 19 May The Chief of Naval Operations requested the Aircraft Production Board and the Joint Technical that two small seaplanes and one pilot be detailed for Board on Aircraft. the B-1.Y. Fla. France. The N-9 World War I. 200 service seaplanes. Hall of the Hall-Scott Motor Car Company. from Mare Island. Navy with the aircraft necessary for war was recom. (AC 8) which arrived at St. assem. N. G.. experiments involving the operation of seaplanes and kite balloons from her deck. while left on board. The design of these engines. consisting of seven officers and 122 were not sufficiently developed to permit a selection. to Yard. 30 May The Navy’s first successful dirigible. including the element aboard Neptune 28 May Huntington (ACR 5) arrived at Pensacola.Y.. com. August 1917. Hispano-Suiza engine version of the N-9 trainer 1312 . Goodyear pilot. based duty in connection with radio experimentation at on conservative engineering practices especially adapt- Pensacola. was lowered and secured to the deck where it would not interfere with normal operations at sea. military unit sent to France in 100 speed scouts and 100 large seaplanes.26 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1917—Continued 4 June The construction of five prototype models of 8. N. 11 June All aviation personnel and aircraft were transferred from Seattle (Armored cruiser No. arrived and R-6 were listed as the most satisfactory for school in Pauillac. 5 June The first U. tract for base construction was let. to consist of 300 school machines. train 20 men as LTA pilots. had been worked out in a room in a Washington. landed in a meadow 10 miles from Akron. Nazaire on 8 June. 23 May The initial production program to equip the Vincent of the Packard Motor Car Company and E. but the remaining two types Detachment. and piloted on this flight by ered sites on Long Island. the First Aeronautic Detachment. While there. was Fla. Upson.S. The contract cov- bled in Chicago. she was used in various aeronautic Offloading was completed by 10 June.

one of the main training bases in France 1053802 . and to start construction of three patrol sta- Detachment began preliminary flight training in tions for American use. the Caudron landplanes under French instructors at the mouth of the Loire River (Le Croisic. cabled the Secretary of 17 June A joint Army-Navy Mission (called the the Navy reporting the results of his negotiations with Bolling Mission after its senior member. Detachment at existing French Army Aviation Schools (pilots at Tours. France). and assembly of Preliminary Flight School for flight training through 5 this motor had required less than six weeks. and the Military Aviation School. France). France. Westervelt and Lieutenant Under the terms of the agreement. 22 June Enlisted men of the First Aeronautic France). for training as mechanics. 9 July A group of 24 potential Naval Aviators under 22 June Change No. Commander George C.. the French agreed to train personnel of the and program for the American air services. concerned with the expansion of Naval Aviation over- opments among the Allies and recommend a policy seas. manufacture. the French in regard to training and establishment of Bolling). ed at the University of Toronto for the start of flight vided for a summer service flying uniform of Marine training under the Canadian Royal Flying Corps (RFC). to be worn when on immediate active duty Army and the RFC that 25 men from the Navy would with aircraft. Raphael. and a train- same time. commanding the First Aeronautic Detachment. Major R. report- the first to make special provision for aviators. for testing by the Bureau of Naval Reserve Flying Corps was circulated for com- Standards. The order also provided for a working be included in the contingent of 100 Americans for dress uniform made as a coverall from canvas. and mechanics at St. Tours. Raphael. Child. and (3) a Completing Flight American built HS flying boats moored at NAS Moutchic. to 10 hours of solo. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 27 1917—Continued 7 July Lieutenant Kenneth Whiting. Calif. Ground School for indoctrination into the Navy and ers in plants scattered from Philadelphia. France). At about the mouth of the Gironde (St.C. ing station at Lake Lancanau (Moutchic. the first of several Warren G. France. It pro. France. 11 in uniform regulations was Ensign Frederick S. D. to study of subjects related to aircraft and flight. Allen as Officer-in-Charge. Design. of which the Navy members were air stations and requested departmental approval. located at Dunkirk. sailed for Europe to study air devel. 4 July The first 8-cylinder Liberty motor arrived in 10 July A plan for training student officers of the Washington. 50 men of the Detachment were sent to St. France. having been assembled at the Packard ment. It proposed a program in three parts: (1) A Motor Car Company from parts made by manufactur. (2) a Berkeley. C. Pa. khaki which the Government of Canada had agreed to pro- or moleskin of the same color as the flying uniform. vide flight training. Corps khaki in the same pattern and design as service This training was arranged by an agreement with the whites.. Trojan.

. 8 August The approval by the Secretary of the Navy McKitterick. The arrival of Lieutenant Earl W. San Diego. School in the same month and the later division of flight training into elementary and advanced courses. In this... Woman at work in Naval Aircraft Factory. was authorized for 23 July Ground instruction for prospective pilots the purposes of constructing aircraft. Philadelphia.000 to construct a small plant for the purpose. Spencer on 8 November 1917. Pa.28 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1917—Continued nent aviation stations and aviation schools. France. class of 43 students comprising the Naval Air Detachment under command of Lieutenant Edward H. undertaking and for aviation ground officers began at the aeronautical developments and providing aircraft con- Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) with a struction cost data. Seattle. large numbers of officers were indoctrinated was expanded successively and ultimately provided 27 and introduced to the fundamentals of aviation. patrol stations in France was the first of several deal- Wash. ing with an overseas base construction program that Minn. USNRF. Calif. School for advanced flight training and qualification as under orders to establish and command a station for a Naval Aviator and a commission as Ensign. World War I (NH)2493 Naval Air Station at Treguier. 27 July An act of Congress authorized the president to take possession of North Island. the purpose of training pilots and mechanics and con- This plan was implemented without the benefit of a ducting coastal patrols. 24 July A large obstacle to the effective expansion of aircraft production was removed by formation of the Manufacturers Aircraft Association to handle the business of a Cross Licensing Agreement by which member companies had full access to all patents held by other members at fixed low rates. initiated helium production in the United States. subsequently approved by both Departments. 26 July The Army Navy Airship Board endorsed a proposal by the Bureau of Mines for the experimental production of helium and recommended the allotment of $100. for use by the Army and Navy in establishing perma.. 27 July Construction of the Naval Aircraft Factory at the Navy Yard. and in similar programs later for plans to establish one training and three coastal established at the University of Washington. Minneapolis. This action. marked the beginning of the formal directive by the establishment of the Ground present NAS North Island. showing HS-1 flying boats used in patrol over the English Channel 72979 . and the Dunwoody Institute.

Before the wings were naval aircraft with “English-Khaki-Gray-Enamel” and issued. Fiske. ational type aircraft was established on the basis of a report issued this date by the Joint Technical Board on 4 September The technical members of the Bolling Aircraft. a dummy torpedo 7 September A forestry green winter service flying was launched from a seaplane.” Lieutenant Hoyt so that he could be hauled up on deck. impetus of Rear Admiral Bradley A. Va.700 oper- duction. Fla. The trend. that would be able to fly across the overboard.S.Y. similar to that used on British aircraft. Hoyt. etc. For this act of heroism. 14 August In an experiment initiated through the were received by Naval Radio Station New Orleans. and at Squantum. of the same design as the summer uniform. it seems to me the submarine menace the basket and caught underwater in the balloon rig- could be abated. Navy interest in launching torpedoes from aircraft. and con. These. Long Island. as lighter-than-air pilots and requested their . that the himself. were followed by so many other exceptions that no standard existed for the 8 September A site at Naval Operating Base. use of the letters “U. the initial 12 October 1917 and the design adopted was essen- variations to the color scheme that had been estab. 140 miles distant. Taylor stated: (ACR 5) was hit by a squall and while being hauled “The ‘United States [Liberty] Motor’ gives good promise down struck the water so hard that the observer. McDonnell at Huntington Bay. however. preliminary to being ordered into mass pro. was to use an Hampton Roads. memo which outlined certain general requirements of an airplane needed in war and directed his staff to 17 September A kite balloon from Huntington investigate the subject further. This event marked the beginning of serious duty. next six months. the Curtiss School at Newport News.. from European aircraft be obtained for use at those stations which naval air units were operating at the close of until the more satisfactory types manufactured in the the war. October. having just returned from studying air devel- opments in Europe. transferred to this location in 25 August The NC flying boat development was ini. Taylor in a Air Station was formally established.. 18 September A production program of 1. Among other things they manding the Naval Air Detachment at Akron. even if not destroyed. the Naval tiated by Chief Constructor David W. from the air.. tially that of the wings worn today. Pa. Detachments under training at service machines. Mass. England. Mission. an unfavorable angle and ricocheted. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 29 1917—Continued United States establish and operate as many coastal patrol stations in Europe as possible. and on 27 August of the next year. but struck the water at uniform. Va. McGunigal was later 25 August The 12-cylinder Liberty motor passed a awarded the Medal of Honor. ducted by Lieutenant Edward O. and that locations in France. lished the preceding March. was established as an air training opaque yellow finish for school machines and to use a station and patrol base to conduct experimental work khaki finish. As the balloon was pulled toward the ship. for 300 Simon radio transmitters. The ideal solution would be big flying boats or the Patrick McGunigal. of being a success. In part. submitted a report to the 26 September Lieutenant Louis H.. sent from an R-6 seaplane flying from NAS Pensacola. jumped equivalent. and if we can push ahead on the Lieutenant (jg) Henry W. ging.”. was knocked out of airplane end. N. 10 August Ground was broken for the Naval 7 September In tests which led to additional orders Aircraft Factory at the Philadelphia Navy Yard. Ohio. Ships Fitter First Class. was abandoned by order of or clear varnish on floats and hulls. nearly striking was authorized for all officers assigned to aviation the plane. for in seaplane operation. which had been incor- all aircraft manufacturers to use either opaque yellow porated in the first design. radio signals. com- Secretaries of War and Navy. Maxfield.. La. Ireland and Italy. 50-hour test with a power output of 301 to 320 horse- power. recommended that air measures against submarines reported the qualification of 11 students. cleared the tangle and put a line around Atlantic to avoid difficulties of delivery. United States became available. 7 September A winged foul anchor was adopted as 15 August The Bureau of Construction and Repair an official device to be worn on the left breast by all authorized the Curtiss Company to paint the wings of qualified Naval Aviators. including take precedence over all other air measures..

were Inspector School. and the First Marine Aeronautic Company. 1.. using her aeronautic gear except for one attempt with Captain Noble E. 2 November Twelve men who had organized as the Second Yale Unit and had taken flight training at their 11 October The catapult. 9 November Permission was received from the Argentine Government to use three Argentine Naval 14 October The Marine Aeronautic Company at Officers. was estab. were commissioned as gear were removed from North Carolina (ACR 12) at Ensigns. as Philadelphia. composed of 10 10 November A Navy “flying bomb. which had evolved hangar.S.Y.Y. N-9s were also con- 16 October The first power driven machine was verted for automatic operations as flying bombs that started at the Naval Aircraft Factory. N.Y. established as station at Langley Field. Fla. Air Station at Cape May. In addition to this specially designed aircraft. This flight and other successful demonstrations be given by the War Department to naval needs for led to the adoption of both the engine and the air. Irwin.30 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1917—Continued 22 October Special courses to train men as inspec- tors were added to the Ground School program at MIT designation as Naval Aviator (Dirigible).. Long Island. Naval Aviation forces abroad. Also called an aerial torpedo. plane bases. aircraft and all aeronautics own expense at Buffalo.. was put into license and with the understanding that the Army operation as Captain Hutch I. These men. Naval Aviators. composed of 24 officers and 237 men.Y. for the erection and maintenance of a seaplane Aviation Forces. On the same day. to pro- vide housing and repair services for seaplanes on test 24 October Routine instruction in flight and ground flights from NAS Hampton Roads. plane types for study by those responsible for their construction and improvement. Va. and soon after received their designa- the Brooklyn Navy Yard. the flying and flying boats and on 17 October the First Aviation bomb was designed for automatic operation carrying Squadron transferred to the Army field at Mineola. Squadron.S. N. Baker. and to set up new sea. just 67 days after were closely related to the guided missile of today. Newton the first time in a Curtiss HS-1 flying boat at Buffalo.C.C. Huntington (ACR 5) transferred her requested that representatives of bureaus having cog- equipment ashore at New York. Naval D. ground was broken. In Commander Kenneth Whiting of command over all the following January.” . USNRF. N. NAS Anacostia. D. 14 November A major step in assuring the success 21 October First flight test of Liberty engine—The of the Navy’s World War I aircraft production pro- 12-cylinder Liberty engine was flown successfully for gram was taken when the Secretary of War.J. a training station serving naval air units in Europe. was divided into the First Aviation instructors in the ground school at Pensacola. recently qualified as U. with 14 men enrolled. and a top speed of 90 miles per hour.. 6 October The Secretary of War authorized the Navy to use a part of the Army landing field at Anacostia. the First tured by the Curtiss Company. D. Eventually established as an the first trained specifically as dirigible pilots. Va. a kite balloon. for training in landplanes. and the nizance over some phase of the program meet regular- subsequent departure of aviation personnel. aviation material necessary to equip and arm sea- plane as standard service types.. Cone relieved Lieutenant might have joint use of the Navy area at any time.. tions as Naval Aviators. approved a recommendation “that priority N. Pa. France. N. combatant ships that had started with the North Carolina (ACR 12) in 1916.000 pounds of explosive with a range of 50 miles Long Island. this program met the expanding subsequently assigned Naval Aviator numbers ranging need for qualified inspectors of aeronautical material from 94 to 104. N. 13 October After serving on convoy duty without 5 November To coordinate the aviation program.. for training in seaplanes for test.. Terms of use were within those of a revokable from the First Aeronautic Detachment.Y. and the Army courses began at NAS Moutchic. lished to provide a base for short test flights. by producing 58 motor and 114 airplane inspectors before the end of the war.” manufac- officers and 93 men. Foreign Service. Officer-in-Charge of Aviation.. This transfer. marked ly each week in his office for the purpose of discussing the end of the operational test with aircraft on board and expediting all matters pertaining to aviation. was delivered to the Marine Aeronautic Company transferred to the Naval Sperry Flying Field at Copiague. 24 October The first organization of U.

France. Roads. in the training program at MIT was marked by the start of classes with one student enrolled. 22 November A Tellier seaplane piloted by Ensign 31 December The First Aviation Squadron of the Kenneth R. Smith. Two days later. 54 parallel aerial torpedo project. commanded by Captain William M. 1 January The Experimental and Test Department at Pensacola.. the school’s new instruction program was carried out at ing bomb at Amityville. Corry. 7 December The Naval Aeronautic Station Pensa- France.. Fla.. Of 55 men enrolled in the school. but some nessed by Major General George O. 7 December Fighter-type aircraft development was 15 November A Committee on Light Alloys. France. N. retarded tor- pedo plane development in World War I and contin- ued as an important factor in the post war years. but actual support of development efforts was to be limited to moral encouragement until a vendor had demonstrated a Ancestor of guided missile.” This single-pontoon established within the NACA to intensify efforts to seaplane was equipped with dual synchronized develop light metal alloys for aeronautical use. This problem.. for advanced training to investigate the reported presence of German sub. Basically.Y. 5 December The policy regarding helicopter devel- opment was established by the Secretaries of the War and Navy Departments on the basis of recommenda- tions made by the Joint Technical Board on Aircraft. marines south of Belle Isle. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 31 1917—Continued carry no more than a 600-pound ordnance load and thus were incapable of delivering a torpedo with an explosive charge large enough to seriously damage a modern warship. need for improvements in powerplants and propellers was recognized as necessary if a successful helicopter was to be obtained. A major portion of 21 November A demonstration of the Navy N-9 fly. and only minutes before their damaged plane sank. was established as an active assembly and repair station supporting all naval air stations in France. was Curtiss HA. patrol station. they were rescued by a French destroyer. qualified as aerologists by the end of the war. transferred from Mineola. N. was forced McIlvain. La. Subsequently the Army established a the MIT campus. It was the first armed 1918 patrol by a U. Fla.Y. Harvard University. USMC.. This seaplane cola. with initiated with the Secretary’s authorization for the Naval Constructor Jerome C. the Blue Hill Observatory. was transferred to NAS Hampton 24 November In discussing the development of air. was established 27 November under command of 22 December The addition of an Aerography School Lieutenant William M. or “Dunkirk Fighter. with Electrician’s Mate Wilkinson Marine Corps. and Machinist’s Mate Brady on board. at the mouth of the Loire River. in landplanes. the size of an effective torpedo versus the capabilities of aircraft. Squier. USA.S. Naval Aviator in European waters. World War I flying bomb 651988 helicopter of military value. Gerstner Field. to overcome difficulties arising from the craft torpedoes and torpedo planes.S. was redesignated a Naval Air Station. Chief classes were also held at the Aerographic Laboratory on Signal Officer. 1 December NAS Pauillac. Hunsaker a member. to down at sea on a flight out of NAS LeCroisic. aerial coastal patrols in European waters began with Tellier seaplanes from LeCroisic. was wit. machine guns forward and dual flexible machine guns in the rear cockpit. 18 November U. Va.. Long Island. the first of eight established in France. the Chief of Naval remoteness of the former location from the principal Operations pointed out that available aircraft could manufacturing and industrial areas. . Lake Charles.

France. commanding. 25 January The Supervisor. 26 February In recognition of the importance to 3 February Aerial gunnery training for prospective flight operations of data on weather phenomena in the Naval Aviators and enlisted men began under upper atmosphere. to permit pilots on patrol to communicate marine patrols over convoy lanes in the Azores area. Harvard University. that prohibited private nearest the rudder post. Evans. Calif. its territorial waters and its possessions without a special license issued 21 February NAS Bolsena. Lieutenant Commander Paul J. Atwater commanding. Peyton Reserve and be assigned to the Aviation Office in CNO commanding. Italy. Bolsena was used primarily as a flying school. the Chief of Naval Operations established 8 February A change in national aircraft insignia an allowance list of aerographic equipment for air sta- was promulgated by the Navy which replaced the tions abroad. two air stations established in Italy during World War I. was established. The following May. to organize a Naval Aerological Organization. World War I 426915 21 January The First Marine Aeronautic Company. at Naval Base 13.32 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1918—Continued Naval aircraft on beach at Pensacola. The first of Cognizance. 1 March The dirigible station at Paimboeuf. Alexander McAdie. Director 22 February NAS Queenstown. USMC. Fort Worth. and Coco Solo. this request was expanded to cover all naval air stations. Ponta Delgada. was taken over was requested to provide wireless transmitting and by American forces and established as a Naval Air . to fly antisub. where several aviation personnel had been on duty 22 February The Director of Naval Communications with the French since November 1917.. Ireland. Panama. by the Joint Army and Navy Board on Aeronautic Ensign William B. enrolled as a Lieutenant Commander in the Naval was established. an assembly of Blue Hill Observatory. receiving equipment at five naval air stations on the Captain Francis T. white 28 February The president issued a proclama- and blue vertical bands on the rudder. placing the red tion. with their bases. flying over the United States. arrived Atlantic coast and at San Diego. McAdie. Naval Reserve Flying Corps requested that Dr. white star with concentric circles of red and blue around white. and acting largely on the recom- Canadian Royal Flying Corps instructors at the Army mendations of Lieutenant Commander Alexander field at Camp Taliaferro. and reversed the order of the red. be and repair station for all naval air stations in Ireland. Tex. Azores. formerly of Harvard University’s Blue Hill Observatory. effective in 30 days.

15 March The Bureau of Construction and Repair directed that all new naval aircraft be painted in low visibility naval gray enamel. and designated the stations at which the respective courses would be given.S.” Supplementary letters clarified the duties and functions and on 31 October it was specifically stated that Aviation Intelligence Officers be specially trained for this work. Seaplanes. A-1049. a compass. was initiated which provided that. flying out of ment allowances for naval aircraft allotting a compass. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 33 1918—Continued German seaplanes. 25 March Ensign John F. USMC. The H-16 was used in antisubmarine patrol from U.Y. Naval Aviation Forces. the second seat. and European stations. 6 March The Bureau of Navigation established instru. one forward. Division. 19 March A formation of flying boats. France. Foreign Service. 21 March The HA seaplane. Maxfield in being the first American Naval Aviator to shoot down command. England. two-seater landplane after a period of general training. RNAS Portland. all student aviators was fitted with two synchronized and two flexible specialize in one of three general types of seaplanes. on long range reconnaissance off the German coast. or “Dunkirk Fighter. attack. occupying obtained 12 dirigibles from the French. and two Naval Operations and the Aviation Section became a amidships. and for this purpose 7 March The Office of the Director of Naval was equipped with two 230-pound bombs and five Aviation was established in the Office of the Chief of Lewis machine guns. Serial No. 30 March The Curtiss 18-T or “Kirkham” triplane 9 March A revised training program for Naval fighter was ordered from Curtiss Engineering Aviators..S.” 6 March An unmanned flying-bomb type plane was launched successfully and flown for 1. advanced. Secretary of the Navy for his “valiant and earnest efforts on this particular occasion. and an altimeter cessful. having been obtained from the French on 1 made its first flight at Port Washington. Prior to the armistice.” Ensign McNamara was commended by the and clock for kite balloons and training planes. made the first attack on an two altimeters and a clock for service seaplanes and enemy submarine by a U. Corporation. Commander. Copiague. 19 March As combat operations underlined the need for Aviation Intelligence Officers. clock and stato. an enemy seaplane. 3 March Dirigibles in France—The AT-1 (Astra. March. This single-engine. reported by Admiral Sims as “apparently suc- scope for dirigibles and free balloons. that they follow a syllabus which divided the program into elementary.” Torres). the Navy trols and Captain Bernard L. the H-16. distributed a circular letter defining the duties and functions per- formed by such officers at Royal Navy Air Stations with the suggestion that provisions for similar services be made at naval air stations “as may seem expedi- ent. McNamara. made its first flight under American control at N. Long Island. For his flying boats. Lieutenant Commander Louis H. was attacked by First NAF-built H-16 leaving assembly building NAF 2121 . and advanced specializa- tion courses. altimeter. guns. with Curtiss test pilot Roland Rohlfs at the con- Paimboeuf. Naval Aviator.Y. two aft. Ensign Stephan Potter shot down one of the attackers and was credited officially as Station. was flown for the launching device was a falling weight type catapult. first time. Smith.000 yards at the 27 March The first aircraft built at the Naval Aircraft Sperry Flying Field. The Factory. N. Long Island.

that the Marconi SE 1100 radio transmitter. Delano. for what was then called “aero- graphical” duty. for air operations to be undertaken in the Headquarters Company and four squadrons designat.. the commanding officer tary training at Pensacola. was 30 April Northern Bombing Group—The Secretary formed at NAS Miami. This was one of the first radio sets used in. A Europe. Fla. that bureaus and offices expedite assembly of the nec- essary personnel and equipment. commanded by aircraft.. four at a mined zone. Brewer and 18 May The Chief of Naval Operations set training Thomas E. command- ed by Captain Alfred A. completed a 25-hour 43. Lieutenant Ralph G. to 120 nautical miles. Lieutenant Frederick P.S. Pennoyer commanding. be discontinued as Curtiss (Krikham) 18-T experimental fighter 1061648 . Cunningham. Dunkirk-Zeebrugge region against German submarine ed A. to main- tain patrols over the seaward approaches to the 17 April Lieutenant William F. B. during the them. from personnel of the First of the Navy approved a plan. and to meet minute flight out of Paimboeuf. Fla. USMC. France. departed for duty at naval air stations in Europe. the longest on record Miami. were organized within this Force on support facilities by a specially organized unit later 16 June and it was later transferred overseas to oper. consisting of nine officers and 15 enlisted men. For their flight. and the first tube set developed for.34 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1918—Continued and crew were officially commended by the French Minister of Marine.. recommended by the Aviation Squadron and the Aeronautic Detachment. N. NAS Pensacola. and two at Bay Shore. McCracken. was established. Panama. and directed ate as the Day Wing of the Northern Bombing Group. Reed. Naval Forces in USMC.. Arthur D. France. 6 May NAS Coco Solo. Jr. designated the Northern Bombing Group. Fla. both of which had disbanded the day before.. directed that eight elementary training course of which three convoys were escorted through squadrons be operated. C and D. 15 April The First Marine Aviation Force. General Board and developed by U. had demonstrated 23 April The first shipment of Liberty engines to dependability in voice communications at distances up Naval Aviation units in France was received at the to 50 nautical miles and in code communications at up assembly and repair station. that elemen- for an airship of the type. reported at Panama Canal.. Culbert and a crew made up of Ensigns Merrill P. Fla. 16 April The first detachment of trained aerologists.Y. two at Key West. designed for use on the H-16 flying boat. NAS Pauillac. naval 27 April The airship AT-1. the first such assignment ever made to 15 May The Bureau of Steam Engineering reported a naval air station. goals to provide pilots for foreign service. Fla..

with Commander James B.. 30 July Headquarters Company and Squadrons A. France. a technique developed by the mance against a target moored in the Delaware River station meteorological officer. USNRF. made its first flight at completing an inter-service agreement which assigned Pauillac. to take special training with and C of the First Marine Aviation Force arrived at British units. Killingholme. England. France. firing on a tugboat and three barges three miles off Nauset Beach soon as students on board were graduated. as passengers. Lieutenant W. began taking upper successful flight and its first test of the Davis gun for atmospheric weather soundings to provide information which it was designed. piloted by Lieutenant Charles P. and that on Cape Cod. Reed. 20 July The RAF Station. France 1053803 . was placed in operating status. France. 30 June The first Navy pilots of the Night Wing. and Dunkirk. first experimental aircraft designed and built at the Naval Aircraft Factory. soon as practicable. rized the president to transfer as a class all its mem- bers. USN. they proceeded to air- Royal Air Force (RAF) Squadron 214. 8. B. the squadrons were redesig- to the National Naval Volunteers (NNV) and autho- nated 7. Lieutenant Victor Vernon pilot- on wind velocity and direction. was turned over to American forces and established as a Naval Air Station.S. 27 July The N-l. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 35 1918—Continued 21 July A surfaced German submarine. aboard Lake Placid (a Navy cargo ship). to the Naval Reserve.. made its fourth 19 June NAS Pensacola. begin training patrol plane and night bomber pilots as the submarine submerged and escaped. After firing on both aircraft. Navy pilots had been flying patrols since February 1918. for operations as the Day Wing. Pauillac. responsibility for the development of rigid airships to Mason. an HS-1. the Naval Reserve Flying Corps or the Marine Corps Reserve. Navy 24 May The first consignment of American-built fly. Upon disembarking. Italy. marked the completion of their course by Brest. Mass. Haviland commanding. in their confirmed ranks and ratings. arrived at Lieutenant Wallis B. the Navy. ed and Lieutenant Sheppard operated the gun which al training flights. With the arrival. Northern Bombing Group. Northern Bombing 1 July An act of Congress repealed all laws relating Group. from which U. 24 July NAS Porto Corsini. Fla. Lieutenant Comman- der Kenneth Whiting in com- HS flying boats at Naval Air Station Brest. Recording instruments were carried gave what was reported as a very satisfactory perfor- aloft by a kite balloon. and 9 respectively. seaplane patrol station established in Italy during ing boats. was attacked by two seaplanes six advanced training squadrons be organized there to from NAS Chatham. dromes between Calais. France. near the factory. Jameson. one of two receiving and assembly plants established in mand. thus assembled in France. F. 25 July The Secretary of War approved a recommen- 13 June The first American-built aircraft to be dation by the Joint Army and Navy Airship Board. USN. Mass. Patton. 7 July The Naval Aircraft Factory completed its first order for 50 H-16 flying boats. the only U. needed for navigation. France.S. on board DeKalb (a Navy troop trans- participating as observers in a night bombing raid by port). six HS-1s aboard Houston (AK 1) and two World War I. and Lieutenant William B.

was assigned to the Staff of the clouds without sighting the enemy and came down Commander. second pilot. 11 August Ensign James B. Ensign Charles H. project. bases in Ireland began from NAS Lough Foyle with Long Island. Naval Aviation Forces. Hale rear gunner on the flight. aerial victory in 6 weeks to become the Navy’s first ace. although equipped with a was used successfully to launch a flying bomb at British ABC motor for flight. Ensign Charles Fahy was second pilot and work. Lawrence as was later awarded the Medal of Honor. Fla. Long Island. For his hero- During the ensuing fight. For this and other meritorious acts while serving 19 August In trial runs observed by Naval as a fighter pilot with Royal Air Force Squadron 213. abroad. was placed in oper. 162. This aircraft. England. was not successful. was intercepted by a superior the gunner and held him above water until help arrived. a forerunner ever built for the Navy with an empty weight of less of those installed aboard the Lexington and Saratoga. British Government and the Distinguished Service er. 19 August NAS Halifax. gunnery. Italy. piloted a Caproni bomber in Aircraft Radio Electricians which included code work. Hammann. semaphore and blinker study. the Kirkham 18-T experimental triplane fight.m. at Waters. Ingalls. with another Camel he attacked and scored his fifth Byrd commanding. while on a test flight in a Sopwith Camel. C. Nova Scotia. forced down 3 miles from the harbor entrance. England. one American plane was ism. Ormsbee went to the rescue of two men in a plane 21 August A flight of bombers and fighters from which had crashed in Pensacola Bay. almost out of fuel. the first of two 24 September Lieutenant (jg) David S.S. took off from NAS Killingholme.. and unit commands 5:30 a. N. built by the Curtiss Company. Ireland. U. In company approaches to the Atlantic coast. 25 September Chief Machinist’s Mate Francis E. N. This school was transferred subsequently to D. Fla. and. achieved speeds of Medal by the president of the United States. began a course of instruction for Taber of Air Squadron 1.Y. Naval Aviator. and the night combat patrol out of Killingholme and may have Northern Bombing Group to control and direct the been the first of the war by a U. then made repeated dives into the wreckage in an Hungarian naval base at Pola on the Adriatic Sea. Development of this cata- a two-cylinder Lawrance 30-horsepower air-cooled pult by the Sperry Company had been undertaken in engine which was the predecessor of the large connection with the Bureau of Ordnance flying bomb American air-cooled radial engines. unsuccessful attempt to rescue the pilot. a night raid on the submarine repair docks at Ostend. Harvard University. 15 August Independent offensive operations of the 23 September The Aircraft Radio School at Northern Bombing Group began as Ensign Leslie R. in rain and poor visibility at 10:30 p. to 1 September In a reorganization of aviation forces patrol a course intercepting a reported Zeppelin raid. Taylor made the initial 3 September The first naval air operations from flight in the Loening M-2 Kitten landplane at Mineola. evaded his pursuers and landed alongside ping missions were flown by Marine Corps pilots . The patrol was made in good weather above the Foreign Service. was one of the smallest aircraft 23 September The flywheel catapult. Richardson and Charles N. the Commander. took him on board and flew back to base. U. than 300 pounds. 161. rescue under hazardous conditions.m. Naval Forces Operating in European through heavy weather at South Shields. Chief Ormsbee was awarded the Medal of Honor. It was the first American were set up for France.S. operations of stations and units in their respective areas. Italy. air stations established in Canada.Y. interest because it was the first monoplane developed under Navy contract. but is of special Sea. he was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross by the Liqued.S. over a measured course. Constructors Holden C.36 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1918—Continued the downed pilot. force of Austro-Hungarian planes over the Austro. and laboratory Germany. Ensign Hammann Hawkins with Lieutenant (jg) George F. Lieutenant Richard E. and 158 miles per hour. as the Aide for Aviation. He pulled out NAS Porto Corsini. was designed for use with Copiague. sighted an ating status to conduct patrols over the northern enemy two-seat Rumpler over Nieuport. Pensacola. whose fighter plane was also 1 October Some of the earliest recorded food-drop- damaged. which was intended for patrols over the North Channel entrance to the Irish use aboard ship. For his extraordinary heroism in effecting the 5 August A flying boat piloted by Ensign Ashton W. England.

that an H-16 flying boat. On this day and the next.107 aircraft.500 yards. CC. N. and the plane by Lieutenant A. was launched success. Although rec- ognized only as an American record. gibles.. based at Mineola.. and at that height released it for a free flight back to base. Richardson. the NC-1. Fla. Fla. com. USNRF... Cape Sable. ships were renewed by the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations request that the Bureau of Construction and 17 October A pilotless N-9 training plane. which dropped 17 had begun the preceding July. Va. via Washington. 15 diri- Captain Francis P. 15 October The Bureau of Steam Engineering 27 November The NC-1 took off from Rockaway reported that five Hart and Eustiss reversible pitch pro. reported ed by German troops near Stadenburg. Belgium. W. hostilities of World War I.Y. Ensign Marcus H. and with the slowest flying speed possible. involved.. flying eastward. radio station at made its initial flight at NAS Rockaway.Y. carrying fighter aircraft on dirigibles. with 51 persons aboard.. converted Repair provide aircraft of the simplest form. 2nd Lieutenant Ralph was authorized by the Chief of Naval Operations to Talbot. Williams dropped a 400-pound dummy torpedo from 14 October The first raid-in-force by the Northern an F-5L at the Naval Aircraft Factory in the initial test of Bombing Group in World War I was made by eight a torpedo launching gear upon which development planes of Marine Day Squadron 9. USMC. Hamlen. with 2. establishing a pellers were under construction for use on twin. although the distance gear failed to 12 December In a test to determine the feasibility of land the airplane at a preset range of 14. T. with a distance of 150 miles. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 37 1918—Continued 30. Commander Holden C.000 feet.Y. were later awarded the Medal of Honor.716 officers and ing an H-16 flying boat at Pensacola.. Estorly. 26 December Ensign Thomas E. Captain Robert S. enemy fire and delivered 2. S.600 pounds of food and badly needed supplies to a French regiment surround. this time sur- 11 November An armistice was signed ending the passed by more than 25 hours the existing world mark. two Hart and Eustiss variable pitch propeller hubs for the F-5L were being 2 December Efforts to develop aircraft to operate from ordered. and 282 officers and 2. pilot- Aviation had grown to a force of 6. Maytham. the strength of Naval 30 December Lieutenant Thomas C. Beach. piloting a Roulette and James Royal. completed a flight from Key West. these numbers 18. Fort Tilden. Preston. For extraordinary 23 November Use of titles “Navigation Officer” and heroism on this and on an earlier raid in engaging “Aerographic Officer” in naval air station organization enemy aircraft at great odds.. Lieutenant George Crompton. commanding the 52d Aero Squadron USNRF. lightly load- to an automatic flying machine.Y. Lytle. bombs totaling 2. N.000 officers and men and 570 aircraft they made repeated low level runs in the face of had been sent abroad. to Tampa.500 feet over at an altitude of 4. 4 October The first of the NC flying boats. 22 November Lieutenant Victor Vernon and Mr. This bet- later awarded Smith and Hamlen its Medal of Merit for tered his earlier endurance mark of 32 hours with a this flight.Y. received signals from the Arlington..Y. Fla. McCulloch pilots. fully at Copiague.. and his observer. and flew a pre- scribed course. Hood. The airship was piloted by 22 October The twin-engine dirigible C-1.. D. USA. N. Rodman.. new world record for persons carried in flight. and 215 kite and free balloons on hand. Redfield.C.218 pounds on the German held rail- road junction at Thielt. Va. crew consisting of Lieutenant Ralph A. Smith. the C-1 lifted an The plane was last seen over the Bay Shore Air Station Army JN-4 in a wide spiral climb to 2. Of and Lieutenant Frank Nelms. N. Mulcahy. Fla. Long Island. having flown that day from Akron. M. continuous flight of 40 hours 26 minutes. D. In the 19 months of the United States’ participation. and Lieutenant David H. engine dirigibles.693 men in Navy units. USNRF. scored the .Y. Lieutenant (jg) Donald T. N. ed. Gunnery Sergeant Robert G. Rockaway. Fla. Palm Beach. The Aero Club of America return that covered approximately 690 miles. N. identify officers trained to perform the special duties Robinson. Dirigible Officer at NAS manded by Major Bernard L. equipped with a radio direc- tion finder using the British six-stage amplifier.180 men in Marine Corps units. N. In addition. was delivered at NAS B-type airship. 17 November NAS Hampton Roads. Ensign Warner L. and with Rockaway. and two civilian mechanics.. USNRF. and Ohio.

with extra mileage credit for passenger load. completed assembly at Guantanamo Bay. permanent provision for aviation in fleet organization.S. Navy battleship as H-16 flying boats under Lieutenant Commander Bruce he successfully took off from the No. Established for the purpose of test. The sea sled was manufac- forces.S. Atlantic Fleet. immediately assembled. and with benefit of special gas tanks. . Although all elements of the detachment were not 9 March Lieutenant Commander Edward O. Rodman carried 11 passengers 670 statute miles and received credit for 970 miles. an annual competition set up by Glenn H. remained airborne for 9 hours 21 minutes. The contest was on the basis of miles traveled in 10 hours of flight. in a single-engine pusher flying boat. subsequent exercises. the new command marked the beginning of a tured by Murray and Tregurtha of South Boston. this is the first recorded instance of 7 March In a test at NAS Hampton Roads. began operations with the fleet by participating planes for station use. in the Boston at the recommendation of and under the guidance of Navy Yard. an airplane division of three landplanes (BB 35). Specialized types desired were fighters. Commander Henry C. Leighton. and a combination land and in long range spotting practice. tests of this device which was later to prove an invalu- Lieutenant (jg) Frank M.38 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1918—Continued Navy’s first win in the Curtiss Marine Trophy Race. on of the target and had been developed experimentally board his flagship. Mass. made the first (CM 4) flagship and tender. Harris took off at NAS Miami. HS-2L. 13 March The Chief of Naval Operations issued a mitted by NAS Pensacola. under Lieutenant Commander Edward O. Cuba. the Secretary of the Navy who was seated at his desk obtained at various naval air stations.. HS-2L flying boat powered by Liberty motor 1053768 3 February Captain George W. the detachment gave a practical demonstration of the capabilities of aircraft and of the 21 March A gyrocompass developed by the Sperry advantages to be derived from the coordinated Gyroscope Company for the Navy was tested in an air- employment of air and surface units. to the U. in the Navy Department some 65 miles away. Va. Weather Bureau for use in coordinated study of weather conditions. On this day and in seaplane for Marine Corps use. lying at anchor at Guantanamo Bay. Cuba. carried on a conversation with 9 February The submission of aerological data. on the twin-engine and long distance patrol and bomber 15th. Fla. demonstrated as Lieutenant Harry Sadenwater. Mass. its composition was: Shawmut McDonnell. Shawmut (CM 4). torpe- 17 February The Fleet Air Detachment which had do carriers and bombers for fleet use. The sea sled was a powerful motor boat 7 April The Seaplane Squadron and Shawmut (CM designed to launch an aircraft at a point within range 4) of Fleet Air Detachment left Guantanamo Bay. commenced with the report sub. In win- ning. Johnson launched an N-9 able navigational instrument for long-range flight. telephone relay for air to ground communications was under Lieutenant (jg) John G. McDonnell on Texas (BB 35) and a kite-balloon division of six 12 March The feasibility of using voice radio and balloons on various ships and the Shawmut (CM 4).. a seaplane squadron of six flight from a turret platform on a U. Mustin as a means of attacking ing the capabilities of aviation to operate with fleet German submarine pens. Dalrymple and Chief Machinist’s Mate Frederick H. 1919 23 January Ensign Fitzwilliam W. landplane from a sea sled making approximately 50 knots. Paul. in an airborne flying boat. 2 turret of Texas G. Steele. Jr. Although this particular instrument was not found acceptable. Fla. assumed command of Fleet Air Detachment. craft. Curtiss in 1915 to encourage seaplane development. piloting a Sopwith Camel. single-engine. preliminary program for postwar naval airplane devel- opment..

to St. there- Lieutenant Elmer F. Newfoundland.050 nautical miles in 25 hours and 50 minutes. Lieutenant (jg) Walter K. L. But in establishment of Porto Corsini. when the plane was from the Bureau of Navigation for duty in the Office 1. The NC-4 was commanded by Lieutenant Commander Albert C. completing the first crossing of the Atlantic Ocean by air. Lieutenant Commander Emory W. Azores. Rodd and Chief Machinist’s Mate Eugene S.m. flying boats neared the Azores. Long Island. Maine. The NC-3 drifted backwards toward the was demobilized. Azores. at Lisbon. Portugal. The NC-1 sustained additional dam- 26 April An F-5L flying boat. for Halifax. radioman on the the squadron had operated entirely afloat and had no NC-4. Bar Harbor. Nova Scotia. nautical miles. At 1323 GMT. Although the flight was not made under Her entire crew was taken on board Ionia and arrived FAI supervision and was prior to the date on which at Horta. Cuba. cov- the forthcoming transatlantic flight. and landed at sea to determine their positions. A radio mes- sage from one of the NCs was also intercepted by the 8 April Captain Thomas T. Grow out of Hampton Roads. resume flight.m. seaplanes were recognized as a separate class for record purposes. Newfoundland..m. during which time 16 May Ensign Herbert C. intercepted a radio message from the steamship support from shore bases. on 18 May. and the NC-3. to reach the Azores by air. the NC Director of Naval Aviation. Ensign ble to use these instruments for astronomical observa- Herbert C. by providing an artificial horizon which made it possi- Breese. three NC flying boats took C-5 airship attempted transatlantic crossing 1061650 . N. Lieutenant James L.325 miles distant. Azores and arrived at Ponta Delgada. England. Johns.400 miles away. Rodd. Azores at 12:30 p. on 19 May. was completed as landing they sustained damage and were unable to the Assembly and Repair Base at Eastleigh. tions from aircraft. for the United States after almost seven weeks of participation in fleet exercises.. so fortunate. this time was better than any recog- 27 May At 8:01 p. Hinton.. Stone. 14–15 May The airship C-5. Va. made a record flight from Montauk Point. the NC-4 arrived the after- who developed and tested navigational equipment for noon of the 17th. USCG. the NC-4 landed at Horta. completed a flight Gridley (DD 92) then attempted to tow the NC-1 but of 20 hours and 19 minutes in which it covered 1. Lieutenant Naval Observatory to supply bubble levels which he Commander Albert C. on the first leg of a projected transatlantic flight. at 6:30 p. Bellinger. George Washington 1. for the long overwater flight to the Azores.m.Y.Y. Byrd.250 the aircraft pulled adrift again and broke up and sank. in the follow- ing month. but the tow lines soon parted. D. Read. and after a layover of 10 days. was Commander John H. at 10:00 a. took off from NAS Rockaway. Coil commanding. both had lost their bearings in thick fog which had begun on 31 December 1918 with the dis. comprised of three NC flying boats. The other NC boats were not 10 April The roll-up of naval air stations in Europe. Towers. he relieved Captain Noble E. Greek steamer Ionia. covering the 1. requested the ered the last leg of the crossing to Lisbon. age in the heavy seas and was taken under tow by the hp Liberty engines and piloted by Lieutenant H. of the Chief of Naval Operations where. Irwin as 17 May After more than 15 hours in the air.m. Craven was detached radio station. The only one of three NC boats 28 April Lieutenant Commander Richard E. The NC-1 was com- manded by Lieutenant Commander Patrick N. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 39 1919—Continued off from Trepassey Bay. equipped with two 400. the NC-4 landed in the harbor nized seaplane duration record until May 1925. 16 May Around 6 p. 8 May Seaplane Division One. Italy. Commanding the Division. Read was in command and adapted for attachment to navigational sextants. N.

Portugal. the act limited to six the heavier-than-air sta- this program provided the direction for a number of tions that could be maintained along the coasts of actions taken in the following months.” Approved later designated ZR-2 (R-38). commanded by LCDR A. On the conclu. later named fleet. The NC-4 flight terminated temperature and humidity of the upper atmosphere. England. at Plymouth. C. later cy for developing a naval air service. reported reported a modification to the aircraft color scheme that the 27 Naval Aviators on board had completed the whereby stretched fabric surfaces were to be finished preliminary flight phase in JN-4s and were rapidly with aluminum enamel. May 27. continental United States. reported experiments in which aircraft carried aloft instruments to measure Rhoads made up the crew.. completed first transatlantic flight.. Va. wing and tail surfaces nearing the end of the formation flight syllabus in DH and in some instances the fuselage surfaces were to aircraft. the board urged adoption of a broad program for Wright (AZ 1). Va. only one of which. for conversion of two merchant ships sion that aviation had become an essential arm of the into seaplane tenders. sense. 2 July The Officer-in-Charge of the Navy Detachment under instruction in landplanes at the 21 June The Bureau of Construction and Repair Army Air Service School. for use each of the eight battleships. on 31 May. In a more restrictive with some modification by the Secretary on 24 July. Thus. 11 July The Naval Appropriations Act for fiscal year 1920 made several important provisions for the future 23 June The General Board submitted the last of a of Naval Aviation. Read.. 1919 650875 . D.C. 1 July The Secretary of the Navy authorized installa- 12 June A contract was issued for the construction tion of launching platforms on two main turrets in of a revolving platform at Hampton Roads. and for construction of peacetime development that would establish a naval one rigid dirigible later designated ZR-1 and named air service “capable of accompanying and operating Shenandoah and purchase of another from abroad with the fleet in all waters of the globe.40 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1919—Continued 25 June NAS Anacostia. Lisbon. NC-4. This training was in preparation for the opera- be aluminum-colored while the specified color for tion of landplanes from battleship turrets. was completed. named Langley. other exterior surfaces continued to be naval gray enamel. version of Jupiter (AC 3) into an aircraft carrier. Among others it provided for con- series of reports to the Secretary of the Navy on a poli. in experimental development of techniques and equipment for landing aircraft aboard ship. Langley Field.

H Jackson 1061649 SecNav with transatlantic flyers (1) Read. Richardson. McCulloch. L. SecNav Daniels. (3) Breese. USCG. Barin. F. Lavender (4) Rhoads. Asst SecNav Roosevelt. Read—with CAPT R. ENS H. Sadenwater. Breese. LT(jg) Walter Hinton. C. Stone. Rodd. LT J. C. Hinton 45354 . Towers. C. Christensen. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 41 1919—Continued Crew of the NC-4— 1st LT E. A. LCDR. Bellinger (2) Rodd. CMM E. Stone. Rhoads.

was authorized by the Secretary of the Navy. and suggested they report about 1 the pre-war white star national insignia on all naval December when classes were scheduled to start.42 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1919—Continued Training School at Carlstrom Field. Fla. aircraft in place of the concentric circle design adopt- ed for the war. Riverside. the Aviation Division of the Office of the Chief of the program already conducted under the Army at Naval Operations was abolished and its functions reas. Langley Field. By this order.. Fla. 9 August Construction of the rigid airship ZR-1.. in response to his request. 18 November The Secretary of the Navy informed ship was constructed at the Naval Aircraft Factory and the Secretary of War that. This air. 22 October The Secretary of War approved the 5 December The Secretary of the Navy approved Navy’s request that 18 Naval Aviators and 10 mechan. In addition to an unobstructed “flying-on and ble flights parachutes be carried for each person on flying-off deck. The following November. F-5L American adap- tation of British flying boat 644471 . Field. the red. Arcadia.. assembled at Lakehurst. Pensacola. The Director of Naval Aviation retained his operation of scouting aircraft from battleship turrets. white and blue 21 November Engineering plans for the conversion vertical bands on the rudder reverted to their prewar of Jupiter (AC 3) to an aircraft carrier. Calif. pleted 5 July were modified. Va. the basic agreement covering procurement of the R-38 ics be given landplane training at the Air Service (ZR-2) rigid airship from the British Air Ministry. Fla. the new plans provided for amplified to apply also to flights in kite balloons and catapults to be fitted on both forward and aft ends of added the further requirement that life preservers be car- ried in all lighter-than-air craft during flights over water. and a summary specifica- tion was issued by the Bureau of Construction and 23 August A general order directed that during dirigi. and two days later approved a similar program at March 1 August To merge aviation with other naval activi. the flying-off deck.J. opened with a class of one Marine Corps and four Navy officers. blue being forward. title as head of the Aviation Section of the Planning Division. the future Shenandoah and the Navy’s first rigid airship. N. This training. arrangements had been made for six Army men to attend the enlisted men’s course in meteorology at 19 August The Secretary of the Navy ordered use of Pensacola.” stowage space for aircraft and facili- board. In the reorganization. originally com- position. had been requested by the signed to other divisions and to the Bureau of Secretary of the Navy as necessary to the successful Navigation. an extension of ties. Repair. the Aircraft Test Board 1 November The Aerological School at NAS was transferred to the Board of Inspection and Survey.. this directive was ties for repair of aircraft.

repre- sented an early World War I step in aircraft develop- ment NH 60768 Thomas-Morse S-5 powered with rotary engine 1053765 . a twin engine flying boat. a World War I trainer. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 43 F-boat. at Pensacola 177954 The Curtiss H-12.

44 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 Sea sled. Caproni landplane on board. high speed boat for transport and launch of bombers. November 1918 229907 Turret platform helped adapt planes to ships 428436 .

UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 45 Davis recoilless ASW gun. a means of increasing Naval avia- tion’s offensive power 1061481 . mounted on H-1 1053766 Launching torpedo from R-type aircraft.

46 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 Gondola of C-class with bomb in rack 1053767 .

and reduced the Even the further need for a Navy was questioned. Impressive technical progress also characterized the training and expansion of operating facilities. Better instruments came into use. fleet war games. sion which spanned the years to and beyond the more Tactics were developed. It defined the functions of Army. NAS Pensacola. higher and longer. and photographic survey.000 went beyond the Navy. small air detachment in each ocean fleet proved them- selves effective under conditions at sea. patrol squadrons 1920 were performing scouting functions. overall training period from nine to six months for the Naval Aviators were unhappy with their career limita. 20 January The development and purchase of 200-hp lem of taking aviation to the sea. scouting. were nated a Naval Aviator or given a certificate of qualifi- investigated and learned. Together to aircraft was published for the information and guid- these elements played important roles in the annual ance of the services. The techniques of torpedo attack. it enunciated the propulsion. 47 . familiar Key West and Newport agreements reached lished almost before anyone knew enough about it to by the Joint Chiefs of Staff in 1948. spotting reported that in the future no student would be desig- for gunfire and operating from advanced bases. the radial air-cooled engine forth the conditions under which air operations would was developed into an efficient and reliable source of be coordinated in coast defense. Of the many world records line of interservice agreements on function and mis- placed on the books. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 47 PART 3 The Twenties 1920–1929 T he twenties stand out in the history of Naval Aviation as a decade of growth. but director without authority to direct. The air arm steadily tions and lack of command responsibility. aircraft flew ous year. it set period. Each year. There were charges of 17 March To overcome an acute shortage of pilots. With slim funds. Aircraft equipped ed. prejudice and jealousy. call it by name. duplication. In the early 1920s a decade’s end. statements by the proponents of air power and viru- lent retorts from its opponents. and an means by which duplication of effort would be avoid- accurate bomb-sight was developed. There a change in the flight training program was approved was discussion over the role of air power and such which separated the heavier-than-air (seaplane) and issues as the role of the services in coastal defense. The skills of naval pilots cation as a Navy Air Pilot unless he could send and turned the airplane to new uses in polar exploration receive 20 words a minute on radio telegraph. It was evident everywhere that the Navy was solving its basic and unique prob. 19 January Commandant. Newspapers reported angry to the Bureau of Steam Engineering for this purpose. and it provided for the free exchange of technical with oleo struts and folding wings enhanced the oper. radial air-cooled engines from the Lawrance Aero Engine But the period was also one of controversy that Corporation was initiated with an allocation of $100. three carriers were in full operation. Fla. Most of this controversy was typical Navy. Marine Corps expeditionary troops learned through experience the value of air support.. Naval aircraft set their share. and aircraft were 8 January The policy of the Army and Navy relating regularly assigned to battleships and cruisers. information. Dive bombing was estab. At the end. An outgrowth of discussion in the previ- ating capability of carriers. this statement was one of many in a long faster. The period began under the leadership of a of a new technology developing at a rapid pace.S. inefficiency. Navy and Marine aircraft as a guide to procurement. It ended with a not all of the questions would be answered before the flourishing Bureau of Aeronautics. duration of the shortage. the lighter-than-air (dirigible) courses. The aircraft industry was discontented with small peacetime orders increased in size and strength while improving its and government procurement policies and govern- administrative and operational position within the ment competition. U.

1921 22 June The Bureau of Navigation announced plans to select four officers for a two-year postgraduate 20 January The Secretary of the Navy approved a course in aeronautical engineering at the Naval recommendation that development of radio-controlled Academy and M. Va.48 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1920—Continued aircraft. commanded by Lieutenant Commander for fabrication at the Philadelphia Navy Yard. Pacific and Asiatic Fleets. while F. Under this order. respectively. P. was 28 June Six F-5Ls of the Atlantic Fleet Airboat approved by the Bureau of Construction and Repair Squadron. Twelve 4 November The third of a series of tests to deter- German Fokker D-VII planes. and asked for volunteers for the aircraft be undertaken by the Bureau of Ordnance and fall semester. using the old battleship Indiana were being procured from Charles Ward Hall. the plane made the return trip to Hampton Roads. powered by compressed air. 94 miles at sea in a position unknown to the pilot..000 flown on maneuvers with the fleet. T. scouting..I. O. 17 July The Secretary prescribed standard nomen. T and G were estab- lished for fighter. Part of the requirement was that the Bureau of Engineering. January. this time navigating by signals from Norfolk. Va. 1) as a target. reported that suc- do and bombing and Fleet planes as classes within the cessful night weather soundings had been made since V type. 12 July A general order provided for the organiza- tion of the naval forces afloat into the Atlantic. com- pleting a seven-month cruise through the West Indies on which the squadron logged 12. Submarine. and for the formation of type forces within each designated Battleship. returned to Philadelphia. Va. reversible pitch propeller was ordered for the VE-7. Pa. observation.T. Destroyer. an F-5L left Hampton Roads. 6 July In a test of the radio compass as an aid to navigation. Mine.. Pa. Bruce G. torpe- 2 April NAS Hampton Roads. was installed on the C-10 bombs could be dropped on stationary targets and the airship at Rockaway Beach. Aircraft were launched from capital ships by turntable catapult. appointees take flight instruction and qualify as Naval Aviatiors after completing their studies. That same month a Hart damage caused by near-misses and direct hits. using candlelighted free balloons to measure the force and direction of the wind. which used welded steel extensively. Cruiser. patrol. N and K for lized automatic pilot system in an F-5L was completed rigid dirigibles... Leighton. the Air Detachments in each fleet became Air Forces. and flew directly to Ohio (BB 12). including 4. including shown on a pier at NAF with an N-9 428435 . metal construction for aircraft was disclosed in a Bureau of Construction and Repair report. The tests which began on 14 October were conducted at Tangier Sound in 18 June A reversible pitch propeller designed by the Chesapeake Bay under carefully controlled condi- Seth Hart and manufactured by the Engineering tions to determine both the accuracy with which Division. clature for types and classes of naval vessels. (Battleship No. S. 17 September The site of the naval aviation activi- ties on Ford Island was officially designated NAS Pearl 1 May Developmental and experimental work in Harbor. non-rigid dirigibles and kite balloons at Hampton Roads. Va. Army Air Service. Without landing.H. 20 January A Naval Aircraft Factory design of a turntable catapult. Air and Train. in which lighter-than-air craft were identified by the type “Z” and heavier-than-air craft by “V”. were to be obtained from the Army mine the effectiveness of aerial bombs against ships and two sets of metal wings for the HS-3 flying boat was completed. Va.731 nautical miles. Class 27 March A successful test of the Sperry gyrostabi- letters assigned within the Z type were R.

Navy and Marine Corps planes dropped 52 bombs. Although prior to this time certain general service ratings had been iden- tified parenthetically as pertaining to aviation.000. Aviation Metalsmith. and on the 18th the German light 1 July The following basic ratings were established in the Aviation Branch: Aviation Machinist’s Mate. in conse- quence. and became a bone of contention between a generation of Army and Navy air officers. Army bombers sank the German captured many world speed records. The Ostfriesland under attack in 1921 Army-Navy bombing test. Iowa (Battleship No. Navy air- ment of metal as a high-strength aircraft structural craft located the radio-controlled U. were carried out off the Virginia proven satisfactory both in extensive laboratory tests Capes beginning 21 June. . On the 29th. 4) in 1 hour and 57 minutes after being alerted of her approach somewhere within a 16 June Two CR-1 Curtiss racers were ordered. and the means by which ship design and 15 March The Metallurgical Laboratory at the Naval construction might counter their destructive capability. Aircraft Factory. qualifi- cations for them required meeting the standards of the general rating in addition to those required for the avi- ation specialty.100 feet. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 49 1921—Continued 21 July The bombing tests—The German battleship Ostfriesland was sunk by heavy bombs dropped by 7 March Captain William A. chromium-vanadium steel alloy had tion of the Navy. On that day. 12 July An Act of Congress created a Bureau of Aeronautics. and they ended the next day when the Army delivered eleven 1. in which the Army participated at the invita- high-strength. Moffett the first Chief of the Bureau of Aeronautics 466366 attack. the Navy’s purposes were not realized.and 2. The one firm conclusion that could be drawn was that aircraft. These submarine U-117 was sunk by 12 bombs dropped findings marked an important advance in the develop. On 13 July. in unopposed W. the Army participated for the purpose of portray- ing the superiority of air power over sea power. from Navy F-5Ls at 1. The Navy had originally planned the tests to provide detailed technical and tactical data on the effectiveness of aerial bombing against ships and the value of com- partmentation in enabling ships to survive bomb dam- age.S. Moffett relieved Captain Army bombers in the last of a series of tests to deter- Thomas T. the 25. Mining effects of hits like this sank her 161903 cruiser Frankfurt went down under the combined effect of 74 bombs delivered by Army and Navy air- craft. mine the effectiveness of air weapons against combat- ant ships.. Craven as Director of Naval Aviation. destroyer G-102. A.000 square mile area and attacked with dummy first of the series with which Navy and Army fliers bombs. Pa. Aviation Carpenter’s Mate. reported that a The tests. could sink capital ships. the German and in the actual manufacture of aircraft fittings. Philadelphia. battleship ex- material. Tests against the Ostfriesland began on 20 July when Army. charged with matters pertaining to naval aeronautics as prescribed by the Secretary of the Navy. Aviation Rigger and Photographer. The ratings established on this date were the first concerned specifically with aviation and based solely on aviation requirements.000-pounders. The significance of the tests was hotly debated. The divergence in purposes and resulting differences in operational plans were not reconciled and.

the assignment of officer and enlisted personnel to avia- tion. and defined its duties under the Secretary of at the Philadelphia Navy Yard. described the scope of its relationships with other 1 December The first flight of an airship inflated bureaus having cognizance of aeronautical materials and with helium gas was made at Norfolk. building. The airship. and repairing Naval and Marine 3 November A Curtiss-Navy racer. in its first successful test.7 mph. Calif.. won the Pulitzer Race at Corps on all matters pertaining to aeronautic training and Omaha with a world record speed of 176.S.” gave it authority to recommend to the 400-hp Curtiss engine. the latter the prospective American high-altitude bombsight for the Bureau of Ordnance. M. Atlantic Fleet at Yorktown.Y. was tested Humber River at Hull. turntable catapult. the first U. operations and administration that may be called for by the Chief of Naval Operations. It carried to their by the Torpedo Squadron. AV1 with sea- plane on board. Naval vessel especially fit- ted as an aircraft ten- der 1053778 . was commissioned the AZ 1 at New York. nice soft cushion” so mounted “that it would take up under its Chief. launched an N-9 seaplane pilot- 10 August A General Order established the Bureau of ed by Commander Holden C.” 26 October A compressed air. Moffett. a seaplane tender and balloon carrier. powered by a Corps aircraft. 9 August Rear Admiral Bradley A.).” 16 December Wright. fitting out. the Navy as comprising “all that relates to designing. Maitland and Commander phase of Carl L.50 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1921—Continued 24 August During its fourth trial flight. Fiske. was piloted by Lieutenant Commander Ralph made in its organization to furnish information “covering F.. landplanes. England.. the forward motion of the airplane and not check its forward velocity at once. “a tioning as an organizational unit of the Navy Department. several Pacific Fleet commands. Pride taxied an Aeromarine onto the dummy 20 December To meet requirements expressed by deck. the commanding offi- ed in the development of arresting gear for Langley. includ- Va. Wood. on loan to the builder and Bureau of Navigation and the Commandant of the Marine piloted by Bert Acosta. marking the successful completion of the first ing Air Commodore E. Wright. and also directed that special provision be the C-7. Pa. 11 August Practical development of carrier arresting N. These tests result. with Captain Alfred W. gear was initiated at Hampton Roads as Lieutenant Alfred M. commanding officer. the R-38 (ZR-2) rigid airship purchased by the Navy from the 1 August A World War I high-altitude bombsight. and engaged arresting wires. 1 September The Bureau of Aeronautics began func- proposed as a landing surface for aircraft carriers. Maxfield. USN (Ret. and fore and aft wires. cer of NAS San Diego. deaths 28 British nationals and 16 Americans. Royal Air Force. Rear Admiral William A. broke into two parts and fell into the mounted on a gyroscopically stabilized base. equipment. Richardson from a pier Aeronautics. Johnson in command. all aeronautic planning. Va. was authorized to estab- consisting essentially of both athwartship wires lish a school for training Naval Aviators in the use of attached to weights. Norden’s development of an effective Louis H.

observers. the Dominican Republic.C. The same ratio for aircraft 27 March To comply with a provision of the law carrier tonnage set overall limits at 135. The first carrier. 16 January Parachutes issued for heavier-than-air Following the construction of necessary buildings at use—The Bureau of Aeronautics directed that Army. Bellevue. Section of the Engineering Experiment Station were consolidated at the new organization prior to its estab- 6 February The Washington Treaty. France. tion of this facility. 200-hp. the Naval Radio Research Laboratory aviation units in Haiti. Numbers appear- eventually producing a new type catapult for use in ing between letters indicated the series of designs launching aircraft from capital ships. the second. and this treaty. Rear structed ships which would otherwise be scrapped by Admiral William A. radial aircooled engine by 29 March A change in the aircraft designation sys- the Aeronautical Engine Laboratory. was signed in Washington.000-135.. was com. Martin became M2O. Thus. D. The treaty established a tonnage changed to that by the Naval Appropriations Act of ratio of 5-5-3 for capital ships of Great Britain.000. and a lesser fig- ure for France and Italy. on 17 June 1922 qualified as the first Naval Aviation Observer. Italy. United States and Japan respectively. Langley. two carriers of not more than 33. nations could build tions and qualifications of Naval Aviation Observers. by repre. it was generally called the Naval sentatives of the British Empire. D.C.000 tons each or and recommended a course of study for their training.000 tons. Guam from the Bureau of Standards and the Sound Research and Quantico. Symbols con- engines in naval aircraft. under command of her 2. converted from the collier Jupiter class letter indicated modifications of the basic model. if total carrier ton. Va.000 tons with a provision that. The treaty also limited any new carrier to and at least 70 percent of its officers be either pilots or 27.. Upon its approval by the Bureau of Navigation. the second modification of the MO became MO- missioned at Norfolk. Washington Navy tem was promulgated which added the identity of the Yard. 7 February The completion of a 50-hour test run of the Lawrance J-1. limiting naval lishment in July 1923. while the second-design observation plane built by Executive Officer. D. the Aircraft Radio Laboratory from NAS type seat pack parachutes be shipped to Marine Corps Anacostia. and its name was officially and the United States. converted from the col- lier.. D. with fighters and torpedo planes aboard 185915 . sisted of a combination of letters and numbers in which the first letter identified the manufacturer and 2 March Experimental investigation and develop. Commander Kenneth Whiting. In view of the research orienta- armament. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 51 1922 25 March Research Laboratory as had been provid- ed for in a public law passed in August 1916. within the class built by the same manufacturer (the 1 being omitted) and numbers following a dash after the 20 March Langley.. Moffett reported for training. obtain them by converting existing or partially con. Va.C. the class (or mission) of the aircraft. Jupiter. foreshadowed the successful use of radial manufacturer to the model designation. Navy. Japan Research Laboratory. the Bureau of Aeronautics defined the func- nage were not exceeded thereby. establishing the Bureau of Aeronautics that its chief 81.C. (AC 3) as the first carrier of the U.. Thus ment of catapults using gunpowder was initiated. MO was a Martin observation plane.S. the 1926.

part of World War I reparations. Perhaps more important. plane. McFall. was test- flown by Eddie Stinson. 17 June In anticipation of a reorganization that craft engines beyond the 50 hours then required. and was the only Navy qualifier for the International The plane after engaging the transverse wire is guided Balloon Race to be held at Geneva. began their instruction at NAS a step forward in the development of all-metal aircraft. Reed and Chief Norden and Warren Noble. including Carl L. development of new high performance engines. This zeppelin.. from ished battle cruisers Lexington and Saratoga to aircraft Maryland (BB 46) off Yorktown. Mullenix. [and which] lead finished third in the race with a distance of 441 miles around sheaves placed outboard to hydraulic brakes. the capabili. aerial tactics that would later be further developed by carrier aviation. Shade. respectively. Norfleet’s balloon was filled with consist of two or more transverse wires stretched helium. Wisc. with 1 July Congress authorized conversion of the unfin- Lieutenant DeWitt C. commenced with the successful launching of a VE-7 piloted by Lieutenant Andrew C. Such endurance testing. Four had previously completed the flight surgeon’s course at the Army Technical School 24 May Routine operation of catapults aboard ship of Aviation Medicine. Scouting and Battle Fleets. Germany. The ST-1 twin-engine torpedo Conference of Ambassadors on 16 December 1921. the first use of the gas in a free balloon. was changed to a system of ommendation of the general board that one spotting numbering all squadrons serially by class in the order plane be assigned to each fleet battleship and cruiser. came to be an important step both in 26 June The rigid airship Los Angeles (ZR-3) was increasing the operating life of engines and in the ordered from the Zeppelin Airship Company. adopted. and the other by Lieutenant William F. and then redesigned for longer life. Techniques were thus developed for supporting packing of parachutes when 10 Chief Petty Officers conventional surface forces. the first class of student Naval ties and limitations of aircraft were demonstrated to Aviators to be trained in landplanes. the Navy acquired the capability of operating aircraft from existing capital 1 July Navy men began training in the care and ships. . Although this aircraft possessed 1 July Eight medical officers. Switzerland. as permitted under the terms of the catapult was used.52 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1922—Continued 31 May In the National Elimination Balloon Race at Milwaukee. These commands would whereby the weaker components of an engine were replace the Atlantic and Pacific Fleets. squadron they served. Ill. began training at officers and men throughout the Navy. A compressed air carriers. were retitled Aircraft Squadrons of the 1A-1551 dirigible engine. Norfleet and Chief Rigger James F. built by Stout Engineering Laboratory. identified in runs to destruction. and experimentation was conducted with School at Chanute Field. Reed across the fore and aft wires . brought to rest by the action of the transverse wire working with the hydraulic brakes. Va. later down the deck by the fore and aft wires and is in the year. particularly in spotting for reported for two months instruction at the Army ships guns. As catapults were installed on other Washington Treaty. The use of and that the feasibility of operating more aircraft from letter abbreviations to indicate mission was also these ships be tested. Ramsey as passenger. Bureau of Aeronautics issued a contract to the Packard Fleet. its completion marked flight training. the Navy was represented by two 1 April Descriptive specifications of arresting gear of balloons: one manned by Lieutenant Commander the type later installed in Lexington and Saratoga were Joseph P. Fla. .S. 3 July Class XVI. the would merge the Atlantic and Pacific Fleets into a U. Pensacola. “The arresting gear will Rigger K. sent to various design engineers. . the fleet aviation commands. was obtained as a non-mili- 25 April The first all-metal airplane designed for the tary aircraft under the terms approved by the Navy made its first flight. the first to report for inadequate longitudinal stability. Rantoul.” 17 June The practice of numbering aircraft squadrons to conform to the number of the ship 22 April The Secretary of the Navy approved a rec. in which they were initially authorized. battleships and then on cruisers. Fla. Friedrichshafen. 24 April In efforts to increase the service life of air. whose titles had Motor Car Company for the 300-hour test of a Packard previously been changed from Air Forces to Air Squadrons. Pensacola.

respectively. Gorton. flying CR-2 and CR-1 Curtiss Racers with or air units but the outstanding fact demonstrated was Curtiss D-12 engines. flying a TR-1 powered by a Lawrance. Navy’s invention of radar. was won by Lieutenant Aldophus 25 minute period during which the aircraft W. Arkansas (BB 33).. when a passing spotting aircraft in fleet fire control. C. Second place went to Lieutenant Harold A. Plane Squadron One. Brow with 1922 Curtiss CR Pulitzer Racer 1053781 . Subsequent analysis emphasized artificialities which prevented the practice from 14 October Lieutenants Harold J. J-1 approached the ships from port and starboard and engine. held at Detroit. The list of Bureau and Division representatives to the means proposed.. river steamer interrupted experimental high frequency radio transmissions between Anacostia and a receiver 27 September The first mass torpedo practice across the river at Hains Point. proposed that radio could be used to detect the 17 July The Chief of Naval Operations forwarded a passage of a ship at night or during heavy fog. Mich.000 yards and obtained eight hits on the Elliott in a Vought VE-7H. He averaged 112. which was one of a 8 October The Curtiss Marine Trophy Race for sea- formation of three battleships that were maneuvering planes. and be made to run straight. H. Young of the up tactical doctrine governing the employment of Aircraft Radio Laboratory. Mich. as an event of the while running at full speed. The squadron attacked the des- ignated target. D. the “Beat method of detection.6 mph over the 160 mile released 17 Mk VII Model 1 “A” torpedoes at distances course.. The observation and against a live target was conducted off the Virginia analysis of the phenomenon was a basic step in the chain Capes by 18 PT aircraft of Torpedo and Bombing of events that led to the U. of 193 and 187 mph. designated target. NAS Anacostia. NAS Anacostia. Brow and Alford J. making speeds aircraft. demonstrating combat capability of either the surface Williams.” resulted Bureau of Navigation with the request that they be from the unexpected nature of a radio signal observed by ordered to meet as a board for the purpose of drawing Commander A. D. L. finished third and fourth in the that torpedoes could be successfully launched from Pulitzer Trophy Race at Detroit.S.C.C. of 500 to 1. J. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 53 1922—Continued 27 September Commanding officer. The attack lasted over a National Air Races. Hoyt Taylor and Mr.

deC. on the homeward leg. pilot- ing a PT seaplane.. VE-7.. Omaha.. Naval Aviator No. The planes made the trip in short hops. La. Fla. near Norfolk. weather and lack aboard the carrier Langley while underway off Cape of navigating equipment accounted for most of the Henry. Navy was made by Lieutenant Virgil C. An aeromarine practices landings aboard Langley. on the outward leg. Wyatt and George T. D. Calif. Calif. elapsed time. through Dayton.54 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1922—Continued 14 November Lieutenant Commander Godfrey deC.. and Pensacola. Owen. completing the 7. type to make the first Langley take-off 651598 Nebr. died in the Naval 17 October The first carrier takeoff in the U. arrived at San Diego. piloting DH-4Bs. 7. Griffin in a Vought Hospital. New Orleans. made the first landing mechanical difficulties. 18 November Commander Kenneth Whiting. 29 November Lieutenants Ben H. Ariz.. Utah. bad gasoline. flying an Aeromarine. at anchor in the York River. flying a southern route through Tucson. Chevalier.000-mile trip 26 October Lieutenant Commander Godfrey deC. and completed a round trip transcontinental flight that began from the same place on 14 October.S. Salt Lake City. Va. Layovers caused by Chevalier. made the first catapult launching from the carrier Langley. and San Francisco. LCDR G. Ohio. while she was at anchor in the York River.C. crash two days before at Lochaven. 1922 215821 . Portsmouth.. Chevalier made first landing on October 26.. and from Washington. in about 90 hours of flight. of injuries received in a plane VE-7SF from Langley.

units defending the Canal. On the gasoline and benzol-gasoline.S. and early the next morning a single plane repre.. the Navy was able to expend promptly its residual nation as a Naval Aviator. the millstone of stocks of obsolescent engines. freed of 18–22 February Aviation was employed in a U. launched a mental research with fuels. the Fleet Problem for the first time as Problem I was Navy could aggressively sponsor the development of worked out to test the defenses of the Panama Canal improved aircraft engines to meet its various require- against air attack. More importantly. The lack of carriers and planes Engine Laboratory report on systematic tests. flew in undetected and.). seaplane by catapult to scout ahead of the force (21 eventually resulted in the development of tetraethyl- Feb. lead as an additive for aviation fuels and of iso-octane senting an air group took off from Naranyas Cays. D. theoretically destroyed Gatun 10 March The aircraft model designation system Spillway with 10 miniature bombs. Sandpiper (AM and development was indicated in the Aeronautical 51) and Teal (AM 23). Results showed that it required two minutes Laboratory from the Washington Navy Yard. and in the best the Naval Aircraft Factory was authorized by the time for the day three planes were landed in seven Secretary of the Navy. were assisted by the opera- tions of 18 patrol planes of Scouting Plane Squadron 1 7 March Navy participation in aviation fuel research based on the tenders Wright (AZ 1). as a standard for antiknock characteristics. of which this was a part. Blue Fleet and Army coastal and air ments. without either air opposition or antiaircraft fire. Through this means. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 55 An aerial camera on the gun mount of a DH-4 1053779 1923 21 February Tests of aircraft handling were made aboard Langley with Aeromarines operating in groups 6 February Transfer of the Aeronautical Engine of three. the Bureau of Aeronautics issued Commandant at Pensacola. was modified by reversing the order of letters in the . 21 February In recognition of the fact that the newer aircraft engines offered advantages of longer 12 February The Bureau of Navigation informed the life and lower cost. ed by the Bureau of Standards. thereby clearly establishing the minutes. on mixtures of alcohol- nating two battleships as simulated carriers. Industrial and govern- approach one of these. stocks of World War I engines and equip most new aircraft with newer engines. that two year’s service guidelines that severely restricted the repair and reuse in an operating unit subsequent to graduation from of engines over two years old. flight training was no longer a requirement for desig. Fla. conduct- for the attacking Black Fleet was made up by desig. Naval Aircraft Factory as the center of the Navy’s aero- nautical development and experimental work. Oklahoma (BB 37).. to to prepare the deck after each landing.C.

reaching 11. as follows: 15 April The Naval Research Laboratory reported Lieutenant (jg) Mainrad A. Barnaby was ordered to McCook Field as the bureau’s representative at an interservice 15 March The training of nucleus crews for the rigid conference on standardization in December. placing the class letter first and manufac.000 kilograms. Dayton. ground school work started at NAS Lakehurst.. Although this modification specifications whenever possible and further stated applied only to new aircraft and did not change desig. opened at a new location when time staff to carry on the work. 58 seconds.. that he considered it desirable for the Army and Navy nations already assigned. When remained in use until 1962. Lieutenant Ralph S. formerly of the German Navy. Schur. 23 min- 17 April Lieutenant Rutledge Irvine. in an F-5L patrol world altitude record for Class C airplanes with a use.56 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1923—Continued 26 May The Chief of the Bureau of Aeronautics agreed with the Chief of the Air Service that it would combination. and was found satisfactory up Lieutenant Henry T. lighter-than-air expert. established a Lieutenant Herman E. to a range of 10 miles. utes. under Captain Anton Heinan. flying a Douglas utes. plane. set the speed record for 500 kilometers at 72 mph. Va. 35 min- McCook Field.609 feet over kilogram payload at 466 miles and 7 hours. Stanley.75 miles and 10 hours. in a DT-2 torpedo that equipment for radio control of aircraft had been plane. a series airships Shenandoah (ZR-1) and Los Angeles (ZR-3). DT equipped with a Liberty engine. It also stated that radio control set distance and duration records with a payload of of an airplane during landing and takeoff was feasible. Battle Fleet. set distance and duration records with a 500- ful load of 1. be advantageous to both the aviation industry and the turer’s letter last. when the Aeronautical Board assigned a full- Hampton Roads. 6 June Planes and pilots of Aircraft Squadrons. the designation FB indicated a military services to work under identical aeronautic fighter built by Boeing. Ohio. Two versions of the Douglas DT torpedo plane 426931 . established seven world records for Class C seaplanes at San Diego.J. Calif. Thus. 250 kilograms at 574. the system so established to work together toward that end immediately. demonstrated in an F-5L.. N. 54 seconds. of annual meetings was initiated that continued until which had been underway since 1 July 1922 at NAS 1937. in an F-5L patrol plane. Halland.

. in a TS seaplane equipped with a Lawrance J-1 R2C-1 equipped with a Curtiss D-12 engine. Both were flying CR-3s equipped with Curtiss D- Lieutenant Earl B. 9 seconds. in a DT-2 torpedo plane. McCrary commanding.000-kilogram load. Lieutenant Robert L. an R2C. Fuller. in a DT-2.682 feet. continued their marked up 177. Lieutenant Cecil F. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 57 1923—Continued 28 September U.. ters at 243. established a new world record for seaplanes with a load at 205.Y.898 feet for planes with no useful load. Mass. set the altitude record of 13. 21 July The Bureau of Aeronautics established a policy of assigning experimental airplanes to fleet squadrons for operational evaluation before adopting them as service types. England.2 miles and 2 hours. Al Williams’ R2C won the 1923 Pulitzer Race 458279 . 59 seconds. Lieutenant Ralph A. Halland. set the duration mark at 2 hours.438 feet for planes carrying a 500- kilogram load. Lieutenant Herman E. in an F-5L with a 2. in an F-5L. a distance mark of mark. record of 10.. N. N. set world speed records for Class C seaplanes lished a world speed record at Mitchel Field. for Class C seaplanes with a duration mark of 11 Both first and second place bettered the world’s speed hours. setting the new records for 100 and 200 kilome- meters.673 mph.000-kilo- gram load. Louis.95 and Island. with a 1. estab- engine. with the winner Lieutenant Alford J. speed of 169. set an alti- tude record of 8. Brow. Schur. set an alti- tude record of 7. Calif. Lieutenant Henry T. CR-3. 7 June Pilots at San Diego... and an altitude record of 5. 18 minutes. 45 minutes.49 mph for 1. averaging 259. flying an Ofstie. taking the first four places all at engine. Calif.979 feet for planes with a 1. Calif. Captain Frank R.500-kilogram load. N. Williams in 792. Dolecek.Y.. Mo.000-kilogram pay. faster speeds than the winning time of the previous year.47 mph in four flights over 121. the 3-kilometer course. Long for 100 and 200 kilometers with speeds of 121.89 miles per hour for 200 kilometers. 2 November Lieutenant Harold J.46 marks for Class C seaplanes as follows: mph.. and Squantum. 13 August Constructive action towards building an effective aviation branch of the Naval Reserve Force was marked by the establishment of Naval Aviation Reserve Units at Fort Hamilton. Fuller. in a DT-2. in an F-5L. Ensign Edward E.14 mph.885 feet. the new record holder. set Schneider Cup at Cowes. Brix. Lieutenant David Rittenhouse.S.000 kilo. set three world records at San Diego. 13 June At San Diego.38 miles per hour for the race and assault on the record books with eight new world Lieutenant Rutledge Irvine placed second with 173. respectively. flying a 6 October Navy planes swept the Pulitzer Trophy DT-2 Douglas torpedo plane powered with a Liberty Race at St. and a speed of 70.812 and 243. set an altitude 12 engines. Navy aircraft won first and sec- ond place in the international seaplane race for the Lieutenant Robert L. 16 minutes. 4 September Shenandoah (ZR-1) made its first flight at NAS Lakehurst. Stanley. in an F-5L.J.25 miles.850 feet for planes carrying a 250-kilo- gram useful load. Harper. respectively. winner of 1923 Schneider Trophy Race 175426 12 June Lieutenant (jg) Mainrad A. set a duration record of 51 min- utes and an altitude record of 4. and in winning distance and duration marks with a 1.

San Diego. to include other energy sources. Roads Naval Base.. modifications were indicated by Mark numbers. The squadron. Under Long Island. Operations. bettering the record set by this system. climbed to 5. 26 February VS Squadron 3 was authorized to fly manded by Lieutenant Commander Charles P. were completed at the Hampton with some modification.58 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1923—Continued 7 December The Bureau of Aeronautics established a new designation system for catapults whereby a type let- 4 November Lieutenant Alford J. for the purpose of developing long-distance wing chrome yellow or other color to increase visibili- scouting planes. D.000 feet in 1 minute. was approved by the Chief of Naval ty in case of forced landing.C. turntable catapult Lieutenant Harold J. designed to show the I. A crew from Langley. raised the flywheel. and “F” for R2C-1 equipped with a Curtiss D-12 engine. designated VS Squadron 3. sailed from launching it by submerging the submarine. D. or fleet could uniformly paint the upper squadron. commanded by from a tank on the submarine. except stretched fabric on wing and tail and some hauled once every six months.59 mph at Mitchel Field. S-l and launching it. Murray. R2C-1. N. the practice of striping or camouflaging aircraft be dis- continued and that by 1 July all aircraft should be 16 November The Bureau of Aeronautics directed painted in accordance with the prescribed naval gray that all aircraft attached to vessels of the fleet be over.C. “P” for powder. Williams. Brow only two days before. had cooperated with the S-l’s Commanding Officer. notably the type letter “H” for hydraulic catapults. “A” for compressed air. Lieutenant Powel M.000 feet in the 4 February The Bureau of Aeronautics directed that same time. Griffin. assembling it. Mason. speed record holder with R3C-1 459589 . flying an ter. bettering the best previously reported climb of 2. super. vised by Lieutenant Commander Virgil C. was initially based at NAS Anacostia.. demonstrated at the Naval Aircraft Factory and installed aboard Maryland (BB 46) was designated type “A” Mark 5 November A series of tests.Y. in an as the first air unit of the Asiatic Fleet. The one exception permitted was that all squadrons of a 3 December The establishment of a special service station. Williams. one division of CS seaplanes from Anacostia. indicated the energy source while major design world speed record to 266.. in carrying out the tests 1924 which involved removing a disassembled Martin MS-1 3 January VT Squadron 20. Calif. and com. on board Vega (AK 17) for transfer to the Philippine Islands to operate from Ajax (AG 15) 6 November Lieutenant Alford J.. force. and Langley’s catapult was designated type “A”. to Al Williams. Va. and Lieutenant Commander George D. fuselage surfaces which were to be aluminum. Rhea. the compressed air. Mark feasibility of stowing a seaplane aboard the submarine III. This designation system was subsequently extended.

1924 19-N-9670 . flying a CS-2 equipped with a Wright mile sending radius. and 74... V. to be used on the top surfaces of upper wings of vice parachutes be used by all personnel on all flights.123 miles.. color was to be aluminum enamel with clear varnish on wooden spars and struts. in a Curtiss CS-2 equipped with one Wright T-3 of the mooring mast erected aboard ship to facilitate Tornado engine. Grant in a Vought scribed the external color of naval aircraft. D.000 kilometers. airship operations with the fleet. 23 min- Miami.17 mph for 1.C. for the pur. one for distance with 963.1 mph. August 8. Dillion and also carried Lieutenant it was assuming cognizance of pigeon boxes for use in Stanton H. planes at Ana-costia.27 mph for 1. 15 seconds. broke world records for Class C sea- or engine driven generator. Naval yellow enamel was 21 March The Bureau of Aeronautics directed that ser. and cast off 22–23 June Lieutenants Frank W. and powered by a small battery Tornado engine. Shenandoah. moored to Patoka. 44 seconds. utes. training planes and yellow or other high visibility color could similarly be applied to all aircraft of any 21 April The Bureau of Aeronautics requested the station. D. with new marks for distance of 994. remained moored to the ship during her passage to anchor off Jamestown. and return. 11–12 July Lieutenants Frank W. In first use of mooring mast aboard ship. the airship. 8 March The race for the Curtiss Marine Trophy at 24 June A technical order was issued which pre- Miami was won by Lieutenant L.500 kilometers. Fla.C. Wead and John D. Overall VE-7. Fla.41 mph pose of conducting service tests under actual operat. M. R. and three for speeds of 73. ing conditions. and Key West. Narragansett Bay. The plane was piloted by 23 July The Bureau of Aeronautics announced that Lieutenant W. This was the first use Price. force or fleet. with a 20. launched by catapult from Langley. 19 June The Bureau of Ordnance issued a contract 8 August Shenandoah (ZR-1) secured to the moor- to the Ford Instrument Company for development of ing mast on Patoka (AO 9) while underway in an antiaircraft director for shipboard fire control. Price.19 miles and for duration of 14 hours. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 59 1924—Continued planes at Anacostia. almost 24 hours later.I. carrying a dummy torpedo. at anchor in Pensacola Bay. set five world records for Class C sea. aircraft. was utes. at an average speed of 116.. Wead and John suitable for installation in fighting planes. Wooster as gunnery officer. 53 min- 2 May A DT plane. next day. D. for 500 kilometers. 74. one for duration for 13 hours. Bureau of Steam Engineering to investigate develop- ment of a single-wave radio sending and receiving set. Fla.

000 yards ahead. 11 November Lieutenant Dixie Kiefer piloted a ly timed and therefore not an official record. set 15 September An N-9 seaplane. to train enlisted men in the care.317 miles in 258 hours 10 October A CS-2 seaplane. USN.4 flown on a 40-minute flight at the Naval Proving mph and 62. The launch at 9:46 p. records for speed over 100 and 200 kilometers with loads of 250 and 500 kilograms. 25 October The rigid airship Shenandoah (ZR-1). it was not official. plane in a successful night catapult launch from California (BB 44) at anchor in San Diego. 188..507 mph. broke world speed records for 100..000-mile flight searchlights trained about 1. and for radio control and without a human pilot aboard. and duration 1 strated the practicability of radio control of aircraft. miles logged.500 kilograms at 68. 200 fleet. 18 September The repair ship Medusa (AR 1) was com. Lieutenant Ralph A. San Diego. and three more with a useful Grounds.J. at68. Gunner month course at the U.. via speed record of almost two years standing with Iceland. Wash.. in a CR-3 with a Curtiss 15 August In the first use of rigid airships with the D-12 engine. maintenance and testing of parachutes—the first distance record of 248. Hugo Eckener. N. Germany. hour.9 seconds. ing a round-trip transcontinental cruise that began on 7 October and covered 9.m.S. on the last leg of their round-the-world flight.C.55 miles and a duration record school of its kind in the Navy. set four 17 August after 40 hours in the air. Coles. all at 78. Calif. landed at NAS Lakehurst. Calif. broke a maximum world for the Army flyers.. a speed of 78.14 for the 500. also in a PN-7. 11.. Calif. 49 minutes. The require- ment that a medical officer so qualified also make 25 October When all foreign entrants withdrew flights in aircraft was limited to emergencies and the from the Schneider Cup Race to be held at Bayshore desire of the officer. then crossing the Atlantic. Hardison. N. and 1 September A parachute school opened at NAS four records with a useful load of 1. of 20 hours. Medicine and three months of satisfactory service with cessful emergency parachute jump from his JN.137 miles. equipped with world records for speed over 100 kilometers. distance 62. a ation. of VF Squadron 1. She discovered the “enemy” fleet but heavy rains Lieutenant George R. har- 15 October The rigid airship ZR-3 was delivered at bor.. the United States agreed to cancel the race rather than win by a flyaway. Cuddihy. completing a 5. 100 and 200 and 161. to and 500 kilometers with marks of 178.. the Navy staged 11 August Observation planes from the light cruiser a series of record attempts in which the scheduled Raleigh (CL 7) took off from the water near the Arctic contestants and other naval aircraft put 17 world Circle on the first of several reconnaissance flights records in the book for Class C seaplanes as follows: over the Greenland coast from Angmagsalik to Cape Lieutenant George T. Captain George W. in 81 hours under the command of Dr. Steele aboard.000 kilograms in speed for 100 kilometers from damage sustained while landing. missioned and a section of VO-2. and 1. Dahlgren.4 mph.. were agreed upon by the Chiefs of the Bureau of Aeronautics and the Bureau of Medicine and Surgery.000 kilograms with Lakehurst.137 miles. made a suc. was distance with a useful load of 1. and a stay of 11 days on the Quantico.J. D. 16 October Emergency use of parachute—Following which required medical officers to complete the three- a mid-air collision over Coronado.. of 5 hours. Lyon. Ofstie. piloted by Lieutenants of flight. Md. including a flight to Camp Lewis at Anacostia..078 mph.507 mph for 100 and 200 kilometers. consisting of two officers commanded by Lieutenant Commander Zachary and 20 men. 28 minutes. Shenandoah (ZR-1) departed Lakehurst.460 Tacoma. 28 minutes. oper.25 mph for the take part in a Scouting Fleet problem 300 miles at sea. after a continuous flight from NAS west coast. Army School of Aviation William M. Andrew Crinkley and Rossmore D. in a CR-3 powered Farewell to locate suitable emergency landing areas with a Curtiss D-12 engine.J. in a PN-7 flying forced her early retirement to base where she arrived boat equipped with two Wright T-2 engines. N. was organized and assigned as a ship-plane Lansdowne. and with prospective 14 November Qualifications for Flight Surgeons commanding officer. Va. this test demon. Va. complet- repair detail to support the operations of VO-1. Lieutenant Osborne B. Although the aircraft sank load of 2.60 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1924—Continued Park. landed at Tex. was aided only by NAS Lakehurst. . Instead. N. Henderson. Although the flight exceeded world records for endurance and distance. 43 seconds. from Friedrichshafen.J. a Naval Aviation unit before designation. The trip included stops at Fort Worth.

headed by the Chief was extended to include Saturday. carrier. Calif. Appointed on 23 September 1924 to consider recent developments in aviation and to recommend a policy 13 March Rear Admiral William A.. Moffett was for the development of the Navy in its various appointed for a second tour of duty as Chief of the branches. made a night landing on Langley. and was followed on board by training after two years of sea duty. He observation plane from the forward turret of the bat. it recommended that carriers be built up to to launch landplanes was demonstrated by catapulting treaty limits. moored to its dock in program be established to insure a complete comple. and that demonstrated in the launching of a Martin MO-1 catapult and recovery gear be further improved. of Lower California. the powder catapult was widely NAS Anacostia. the board devoted most of its discussion to Bureau of Aeronautics.. reported arrangements were used on battleships and cruisers. being made for daily weather flights to an altitude of 10. For this 2 April The feasibility of using flush-deck catapults branch. aircraft was piloted by Lieutenant L. Fellers as passenger.S. the first trained to oper. Although the air activity of Langley was limited to scouting in advance of the 13 December The NM-1. Battle Fleet. 8 April Lieutenant John D. dependability and radius. Price. Aldolphus W. that a new 23. the importance of the battleship. an all-metal airplane. Lyon.000 feet to obtain weather data and to test upper- air sounding equipment. ing on the night of 5 February when Lieutenant Harold J. Lieutenants Delbert L. Sunday and holi- of Naval Operations. Eberle. Admiral Robert E. Mason. was Black Fleet movement to Guadalupe Island. and an earlier Fleet. Gorton ment of a definite policy governing assignment of and Rossmore D.C. Hayden with Lieutenant William M. These flights commenced in 1925 mid-April. approaches. 4 February Commanding officers were made craft carrier in the U. . the first to incorporate part of the ceremony it was commissioned a ship of aircraft carrier operations. with the altitude being increased to mitted its report to the Secretary of the Navy. 25 November Mrs. piloted by Lieutenant Commander ed expeditiously. and the following February the schedule 17 January A special board. day flights. order of 1923 was canceled which had required com- plete overhaul of such aircraft every six months. On 1 December she responsible for determining when aircraft attached to also became the flagship of Aircraft Squadrons. at sea off San all qualified academy graduates to aviator or observer Diego. Battle Fleet. completion of Lexington and Saratoga be speeded up ed for Marine Corps expeditionary use. assignment of plane.S. In regard to per- sonnel.000 feet. on board a U. sub. a DT-2 landplane. thereby ending over two years in experi- mental status and becoming the first operational air. The Admiral also recommended that steps be taken to insure development of planes of 14 December A powder catapult was successfully greater durability. This aircraft was formance was convincing enough for the Commander designed and built for the purpose of developing in Chief. Calif. Coontz. with Lieutenant Braxton Rhodes as laid down. Conley. from the Langley. Following 11 March Routine aerological sounding flights— this demonstration. that Lexington and Saratoga be complet. Battle vessels of the fleet required overhaul. and that a progressive aircraft building passenger. ment of modern planes for the fleet. but in its recom- mendations gave prominence to aviation. Steele commanding. was conducted off the coast the Fleet. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 61 1924—Continued tice on Langley off San Diego. Admiral Edward W. 15. Wash. to recommend that metal construction for naval airplanes and was intend. piloting a VF-1 tion offerings at the Naval Academy. with Captain George W. This was also the beginning of the Langley operations as a unit of 17 November Langley reported for duty with the Aircraft Squadrons. As a 2–11 March Fleet Problem V. and the establish. C.C. began landing prac. the board recommended expansion of avia. the per- flown at the Naval Aircraft Factory. The ing of planes from battleships and cruisers as routine. San Diego.000-ton carrier be Charles P. Calvin Coolidge christened the ZR-3 as Los Angeles (ZR-3) at NAS Anacostia. as much as possible. also reported that experience now permitted catapult- tleship Mississippi (BB 41) at Bremerton. Navy. Brow stalled while practicing night 22 January VF Squadron 2. D. Calif. these were the first night landings made ate as a squadron from a carrier. Except for an accidental land- officers to aviation. D.

broke the world endurance record for Class C sea- aluminum color. planes. remaining in the air for 28 hours. Rodger’s PN-9 on mainland to Hawaii flight. stabilizers and elevators. sailed from Boston with three Loening amphibians aboard Peary (DD 340). Maine. Lieutenant record distance. and for each of four fighting squadrons at 18 officers and 20 men. to give three months of special involving flying. 27 seconds. Kyle. wings. under Lieutenant Commander John Rodgers later in the year on his Commander Richard E. orange-yellow.. Observers. graduate as an aviator or observer during the first two years after graduation. was used by 17 June The Naval Air Detail. new uniforms of forestry required to make aviation an integral part of the cur- green for winter and khaki for summer were authorized riculum. the establishment of a program. and the top surface of upper wings. 1 July When a law.000 square miles before the end of the month. on a test flight over Philadelphia. a metalhulled flying boat equipped with two Packard engines. sailed 450 miles to Kaui 426936 Byron J. in additional instruction as necessary to qualify each khaki. beginning for Naval Aviators. fuselages. The plane. Although there were minor modifica. A traditional Hawaiian greeting to Rodgers and crew at Kaui 184669 . ground and flight instruction to all midshipmen. Authorized squadron complements for each of three scouting and three bombing squadrons were estab- lished at 40 officers and 130 men. Schildhauer and James R. forced down after 1 September Commander John Rodgers.. landing gear. and tions to the original design in later years. this uniform. zation of certain departments at the Naval Academy as form had been abolished. the Naval Aviation Reserve began to orga- nize into 10 squadrons of four divisions each. modified: hulls and floats of seaplanes were to be painted navy gray.000-mile voyage. the expedition reached Etah in North Greenland on 1 August to begin an aerial exploration of the area that covered 30. 29 May The standard color of naval aircraft was of the PN-9 manufactured at the Naval Aircraft Factory. Connell and a crew of three in a PN-9.62 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1925—Continued 5 May The Secretary of the Navy approved reorgani- 8 April Almost two years after the special aviation uni. 1–2 May Lieutenants Clarence H. Bowdoin (a civil- ian research ship) joined Peary (DD 340) off Wiscasset. and other officers on duty with the Class of 1926. Expedition. etc. was adopted for the entire Navy in 1941. Pa. enacted 28 February. and after a 3. became effective. 35 minutes. Byrd of the MacMillan record flight toward Hawaii.

March 1924 by the House of Representatives as the Select Committee of Inquiry into the Operations of the 3 September The rigid dirigible Shenandoah (ZR-1) United States Air Services.. be given training struction and procurement program be carried out. the commanding officer. (Territory of Hawaii) were forced industry and military aviation that were of far reaching down by lack of fuel shortly after 4:00 in the after. The control car and after section and an adequate representation of aviation in the high of the hull fell directly to the ground. Battle Fleet. made the first flight over the North Pole. designed as land. known as the Morrow Board. schools be established at the naval air stations at Hampton Roads. SC-2 9 May Lieutenant Commander Richard E..H. importance and influenced a number of legislative noon.I. 27 October Oleo shock-absorbing landing gear for aircraft was reported in use on NB-1. flight of the race on the last lap with engine trouble. Ofstie. In all there were 29 survivors.12 statute standard replacement schedules were among those of miles. from personnel of VS-2B and 1926 assigned to Aircraft Squadrons. was accepted by the F. and that a five-year con- already qualified to pilot landplanes. Calif. not for new flying equipment. that the requirement of competitive bidding be Zachary Lansdowne. was formed at San Diego. first of the Utility Squadrons. Va. sea of upper air data for improved weather forecasting.841.. reaching it at 9:03 GCT. 21 April The Secretary of the Navy directed that beginning with the Class of 1926. were forced out for the purpose of providing this instruction.. George Cuddihy and Ralph A. Lieutenant John F. and San Diego. Norway completing the round trip in 15 submitted its report to President Calvin Coolidge. FB-1. . Lost at sea for 10 days in spite of extensive air actions taken in the following months. and its recognition of they were sighted on 10 September by the submarine the need for a policy of long-range procurement and R-4. gunnery and training planes were completed at NAS the Bureau of Aeronautics requested that aircraft Anacostia. abolished in favor of other restrictions promoting the best interests of the Government. set up on 24 unbeaten for almost five years. Moloney was the first commanding officer. flown by Lieutenants instruction during their first year of sea duty and that. flown from 31 August to their forced landing special interest to the Navy. On and one half hours. they returned to base at Kings Bay. Calif. 5 October VJ-1B. T. D. that the War and 29 September The Chief of Naval Operations Navy Departments each spend $10 million annually directed that all heavier-than-air Naval Aviators. while the for. UO-1. It favored was torn apart in a severe line squall before daylight establishment of a Department of National Defense over Byesville. after its senior member. named the Josephine Ford. Douglas and Boeing. These trials led to the procurement of squadron flagships take upper air soundings twice a the Consolidated NY series of training planes which day when at sea. better the Pole.A. all graduates of the 26 October The two Navy entries in the Schneider Naval Academy be given a course of 25 hours of flight Cup Race at Bay Shore Park. to made recommendations in regard to the aviation Honolulu. in landplane operation. Calif. Md. 10 miles from their goal. the board attempting a flight from San Francisco. After covering about 450 miles by sail. continued in use into the 1930s.C. as a new world airline dis- tance record for Class C seaplanes that remained 14 December The Lampert Committee. Commander Rodgers and his crew dations against a separate air force and in favor of rep- rigged sail from the wing fabric and set course for resentation for aviation on operational commands and Kaui Island. Spitzbergen. The 1. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 63 1925—Continued the basis of views expressed in extended hearings by prominent civilian and military leaders. flying a trimotor Fokker Naval Aircraft Factory. try in the production of aircraft. Byrd and and new bombing planes being constructed by the Aviation Pilot Floyd Bennett. filed its report. 3 October In view of the need for an accumulation Curtiss and Huff Daland aircraft. Ohio. It showed particular concern over ward section with seven men aboard free-ballooned the state of the aircraft industry and recommended for an hour before they landed safely 12 miles from that the government cease competing with the indus- the scene of the crash. 18 December Competitive trials of Consolidated. After circling 30 November The President’s Aircraft Board. engines and acces- but 14 were killed including Lieutenant Commander sories. high level administrative offices. military councils. Its recommen- and sea search.

Lieutenant Thomas P.C. for Alaska. and three Loening rized by Congress as an award for acts of heroism or amphibians. implementing the rec. that the office of an Assistant Secretary of the Navy be created to foster naval aeronautics. D. 24 June An Act of Congress.94 mph. establishing a requirement that the number 6 June The last elements of the Alaskan Aerial Survey of enlisted pilots be not less than 30 percent of the Expedition departed Seattle. was won by 1. P. extraordinary achievement in aerial flight by any mem- ed through the summer and into September. held off the number on hand would be increased to reach Hains Point. 6 April 1917. Warner took the oath of office as the emergency barricade on Langley had successfully the first Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Aeronautics. prevented landing aircraft from crashing into planes parked on the flight deck. 16 June The Bureau of Aeronautics reported that 10 July Edward P. provided that command of aviation stations. under command of Lieutenant Ben H.. Wash. which extend. Wyatt. Jeter in a Curtiss F6C-1 Hawk with a speed of 130. that command of aircraft carriers and tenders be assigned to either Naval Aviators or Naval Aviation Observers. and that a five year aircraft program be set up under which . The total number of pilots on active duty in the Navy. 1 July Provisions of a law enacted 24 June became effective. was per. Navy for Air E. ber of the armed services including the National formed in cooperation with the Department of the Guard and the Reserves. was composed of the tender Gannet (AM 41). The award was retroactive to Interior for early aerial mapping of Alaska. over the Potomac. The work of the expedition. First Assistant ommendations of the Morrow Board pertaining to the Secretary of the Navy.. expedition.000 useful planes. Warner schools and tactical flight units be assigned to Naval Aviators. 2 July The Distinguished Flying Cross was autho- the barge YF 88 housing a photo lab.64 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1926—Continued F6C-1 Curtiss fighter powered by D-12 engine 460634 14 May The Curtiss Marine Trophy Race.

500 feet and at 18 August A contract was let to the Aircraft Development Corporation. plete surprise and so impressed fleet and ship com- 2 seaplane. lized line of sight to aid in tracking approaching air- marines in tests with XS-2 seaplane. D. flown by Lieutenant D. Battle Fleet. 19 November Maryland (BB 46) conducted experi- mental firing with the Mark XIX antiaircraft fire control system which had been developed by the Ford Instrument Company and which incorporated a stabi- S-1 demonstrates the feasibility of operating aircraft from sub.. surfaced and launched a Cox-Klemin XS. pilots of manding Aircraft Squadrons. 9 August In a day of tests to determine the speed 13 December Rear Admiral Joseph M. This was the last Navy participation in international racing competition. The descriptive term “metal-clad” resulted from the fact that the ZMC-2’s lightly framed hull was covered with gas-tight stressed- aluminum skin. Coming down in almost vertical dives from 12. Mich.. 1926 1053777 craft. tion squadrons participated. USMC. One Marine and under the emergency conditions created when the two Navy fighter squadrons and three Navy observa- ship ran into a heavy mist. B. with an average speed of 231. Naval Aviator No. Lieutenant Commander Frank D. Momsen. Allen. the squadron achieved com- C. the obvious nature of the solution to the prob- lem of effective bomb delivery was evident in that the same tactic was similarly and simultaneously being developed by VF Squadron 5 on the east coast.” as it was then called) to be conducted in same squadron later landed 12 planes in 21 minutes the formal fleet gunnery competition. It was also to be pressure-rigid in that the shape of the hull was to be maintained by positive internal gas pressure. 2. Schilt. Reeves. As a result of the experience gained. on a flight from NAS Anacostia. took second in the Schneider Cup Race at Hampton Roads. This was the first fleet demonstration of dive-bombing and the feasibility of basing aircraft on submarines. the bombing. com- with which aircraft could be operated at sea. although the tactic had been worked out by the demonstrating squadron in an independently initiated project. Detroit. The Marine and Navy fighters made 45 degree dives from 2. It also manders with the effectiveness of their spectacular recovered the aircraft and submerged completing the approach that there was unanimous agreement that first cycle of operations in a series of tests investigating such an attack would succeed over any defense. reported on VF Squadron 1 completed 127 landings aboard the results of the first dive bombing exercise (“light Langley.000 feet at the exact time of which the fleet 28 July The submarine S-1. crashed in the Delaware River near the Naval Aircraft Factory dock and received injuries from which he died on the same day. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 65 1926—Continued from San Pedro.. Wagner led the F6C-2 Curtiss fighters in a simulated attack on the heavy ships of the Pacific Fleet as they sortied FB-5 fitted for longitudinal arresting wires 458533 . flying an R3C-2. 27 August Commander John Rodgers. for a metal- clad airship designated ZMC-2. 13 November Lieutenant Christian F. commanded by Lieutenant had been forewarned.C.363 mph. C. Va. 22 October In a display of tactics developed by VF Squadron 2.

455 feet. ing the beginning of a three month period during equipped with a Pratt & Whitney Wasp engine and which the entire resources of the school were devoted NACA supercharger. flying a Lieutenant George R. carrying a useful load of 500 kilograms with a speed of 136. Vought O2U Corsair equipped with a Pratt & Whitney Wasp engine. Shoemaker commanding. manned with 30 April Lieutenant James D.C. observation squadrons similarly attacked from specialty at the Army School for Flight Surgeons. Barner. in a Wright Apache. VF Squadron 2. 1 January A flight test section was established as a separate department at NAS Anacostia.000 feet. Vought O2U Corsair at Hampton Roads. D... destroying enemy aircraft in flight. broke the 500- lished at San Diego. Wagner and flying F6Cs and FB. Henderson in charge. D. D.178 feet over Washington.000 feet. commanded by Lieutenant Commander Frank D. dropped 25 pound fragmentation by which Navy Medical Officers were trained in this bombs. from Hampton Roads. attacking exposed personnel on ship or 14 April Lieutenant George R..C. 9 March The first passenger transport. with 23 April Lieutenant Steven W. Champion took off of the Naval Medical School. was purchased from the Ford Motor Company 45 feet. an altitude of 400 feet.C.C. was estab- O2U Corsair at Hampton Roads.023 mph.. Va. abling or demolishing flight decks. breaking the existing world record for tution of this program also marked the beginning of Class C seaplanes by better than 3. Henderson. Va. Washington. Poppen.. Callaway. at 147. and climbed to an altitude of to intensive instruction in aviation medicine. D. Pilots of VF-2. set a new 100-kilometer world speed record for Class C seaplanes 1 January To test the feasibility of using enlisted with a 500 kilogram useful load. The insti.66 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1926—Continued Flight Surgeon training in the Navy and the discontinu- ance of an interservice agreement in effect since 1922. 1.. the JR-1 tri- 5s. flying a Vought four Naval Aviators and 10 Aviation Pilots. Battleship-based O2Us (Vought Corsairs) of 1920s 426930 . 1927 reaching 22.263 mph. flying a shore and attacking light surface craft and submarines. Va. following a demonstration at NAS Anacostia. 18 January Lieutenant Commander John R. The uses visualized for this tactic included dis. pilots in fleet squadrons. Calif. MC. reported for duty in charge of the Aviation Section 5 May Lieutenant Carleton C. 33. Lieutenant Commander kilometer world speed record for Class C seaplanes James M. broke the world altitude record for Class C seaplanes with a useful load of 500 kilograms. scored 19 hits with 45 bombs on a target 100 feet by motor. mark.

in addition to the standard flying boat with a useful load of 7.. Marines at Ocotal. and a new world duration record and evacuated 18 wounded officers and men while with a 1. in a Wright Apache rigged as coatings. a landplane and reached 38..726 pounds. establishing a new world record that stood for 2 years. flying out of San Diego in a PN-10 effectiveness against moving targets. Pride in a than-air aircraft. with marks of 1.. 8 July Lieutenant Byron J. Corsair equipped with a Pratt & Whitney Wasp engine.J..932 mph. USMC. was placed in com- tion officers to one year of training duty with the fleet mission at Camden. Schilt. Pope.569.. Captain Albert W. and duration with a for special aircraft and units. ing an O2U-1. Although instances of established a world record for Class C Seaplanes for diving attacks had occurred during World War I and 1. began with the commanding. with a speed Marine Corps pilots had used the same technique in of 130. Captain Harry E. the results broke three world records for Class C seaplanes.000 meters to break the world record for suffix letter to indicate the fleet. as a standard method of attack. Wright Apache powered with a Pratt & Whitney engine. For this feat.. dis- of these tests generated wide discussion of the need tance with a 500-kilogram load.000 kilograms. in a PN-10 became effective providing. Rowell. to conduct tests to evaluate its Herbert C. D. of the Navy to bear the name. Connell and Herbert 1 July A new system of squadron designation C.. led a flight of five DHs in a strafing and dive bombing attack 21 May Lieutenant Rutledge Irvine. 27 May Dive bombing came under official study as the Chief of Naval Operations ordered the Commander 15–16 August Lieutenants Byron J. Mass. N.995 feet over Anacostia. Squadron 5S in late summer and early fall. or unit to which the greatest payload carried to that altitude by a Class the squadron was assigned. Carried out by VF patrol plane equipped with two Packard engines. first carrier and fifth ship 1 July The practice of sending Naval Reserve avia. Rodd took off from San Diego. Yarnell after graduation from Pensacola. thereby breaking his own world altitude record for 1928 Class C seaplanes. Battle Fleet. Schilt was awarded the air and a distance of 947. Nicaragua. force. was commissioned at 4 July Lieutenant Carleton C. was Fighting Squadron 1 of Battle Force. Nicaragua.0 miles and 20 development of equipment and adoption of the tactic hours 45 minutes 40 seconds in the air. Champion took could be decreased by the application of anodic off from Anacostia. Lexington was made by Lieutenant Alfred M. Rodd. reached 37. This 5 January The first takeoff and landing on height exceeded any previously reached by heavier. Connell and in Chief. first carrier and fourth ship of the Navy to carry the name. 18 August Lieutenants Byron J. R. D. which he accom- San Diego.C. Calif. USMC. a climbed to 2. established 2 months earlier.419 feet.S. Champion. Fla. Lieutenant Carleton C. the Medal of Honor. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 67 1927—Continued 17 July Major Ross E. UO-1 as the ship moved from the Fore River Plant to the Boston Navy Yard in Massachussetts. 14 December Lexington. Haiti in 1919. 16 November Saratoga. of 2. on the same flight out of under hostile fire. flying a PN-10 equipped with 6 January Lieutenant Christian F. . Va. in a Vought O2U against bandit forces surrounding a garrison of U. fly- two Packard engines. made the first of 10 flights in which he tance records for Class C seaplanes with a useful load landed in a street of the village of Quilahi. Connell and Naval Aviaton Pilot S.C. Naval Aircraft Factory’s report that the corrosion of aluminum by salt water—hitherto a serious obstacle 25 July Three weeks after breaking the seaplane to the use of aluminum alloys on naval aircraft— altitude record. flying a Quincy. assignment of the first group of 50 newly commis- sioned ensigns.000 kilometers at Hampton Roads. and class designation letters and identification number. which led directly to the 500-kilogram load.000 kilogram load. logging 11 hours 7 minutes 18 seconds in plished in three successive days. this attack was made according to doc- trine developed in training and is generally consid- 23 May A major advance in the transition from ered as the first organized dive bombing attack in wooden to metal aircraft structures resulted from the combat. Under this system VF-1B C seaplane. set new world duration and dis. Marshall commanding.705 miles.

68 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1928—Continued Saratoga with a deck-load of aircraft USN 1027066 .

Under this scheme. was the first large mono- landing on Saratoga at sea off Newport.. UO-1 makes landing on Saratoga. J-2. and Lieutenant Commander Hugo Schmidt and Lieutenant Rogers Ransehounsen. This aircraft. Commander Marc 28 February The contract for the XPY-1 flying boat A. Mitscher in a UO-1. Md. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 69 1928—Continued 1 February Joint Army-Navy nomenclature for air- craft engines became effective whereby standard type names were assigned to engines based upon the cubic inches of piston displacement—to the nearest ten. the first Naval Aviator. crashed to their deaths in a Loening amphibian in Chesapeake Bay while on a night flight from Norfolk. 28 February An order was issued limiting the application of standard type names for aircraft engines to air-cooled engines of recent design. CV 3 424479 . water and supplies. 27 February Commander Theodore C. tions. R. toga was made by her Air Officer. and was the remained on board long enough to transfer passengers initial configuration which evolved into the PBY and take on fuel. On the other hand. Ellyson. the Vee type Curtiss D-12 engine received the standard type name Curtiss V-1150 and the air-cooled radial J-5 Whirlwind became the first Wright R-790. and plane flying boat procured by the Navy. Va. was abolished and this engine was reassigned its ear- lier D-12 designation. Catalina. the desig- nation Wright R-790 was retained with provisions for Schilt gets medal of honor USMC 521201 use of R-790-A to indicate a major modification while earlier models of this engine kept the old designa- 11 January The first takeoff and landing on Sara. which was designed for alternate installa- 27 January Los Angeles (ZR-3) made a successful tion of two or three engines. Curtiss V-1150.I. was issued to the Consolidated Aircraft Corporation. the standard type name. For example.. to Annapolis. J-3 and J-4.

that broke all existing records for the distance with an elapsed time of 72 hours and 34 minutes.. could the BM-1. Calif. at the end of a speed run from San Pedro. in a flight out of Philadelphia. and duration at 17 hours 55 minutes 13.000-kilogram load. phia for Class C seaplanes with a useful load of l. made a 3–5 May Lieutenants Arthur Gavin and Zeus Soucek. Pa. 80. 1.000 kilometers at hours. won the Curtiss 11–12 July A PN-12.000-kilogram loads at set world marks for Class C seaplanes with a 1.6 mph over the 100-mile course. powered with two Pratt & Marine Trophy Race at Anacostia. to deliver a 1. 30 June A contract was issued to the Martin 11 May An Act of Congress provided that duty per.426 feet at Philadelphia. in a PN-12 equipped with two 525-hp Pratt & Whitney engines. became them to make regular and frequent aerial flights.C. Hawaii.288 mph. in a PN-12 powered by two Wright engines. The XT2N-1 heavy dive bomber built by NAF 462160 Lexington off Diamond Head. W.20 miles. Pa..000 Maxson. This aircraft and the Naval Aircraft Factory’s be certified by the Secretary as service equivalent to similar XT2N-1 were the first dive bombers designed sea duty.000. in an F6C-3. set five world records for Class 25–26 May Lieutenants Zeus Soucek and Lisle C seaplanes as follows: distance and speed for 2. piloting a PN-12 powered with two Pratt & Whitney Hornet engines. Pa.6 seconds. to Honolulu. Lutz.70 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1928—Continued 27 June Lieutenant Arthur Gavin. USMC. 12 June Lexington anchored in Lahaina Roads.336 miles and 81.and 2.000-pound bomb. Company for development of the XT5M-1 “diving formed by officers assigned to airships which required bomber.043 mph. for Class C seaplanes with a payload of 2. 39 minutes with a 2.000 set the world duration record for Class C seaplanes in a kilograms. in a later production version.. Air races were featured in the 1920s. Lexington and Saratoga were con. LT A. 26 June Lieutenant Arthur Gavin. kilometers with both 1. world record altitude flight of 19. flight of 36 hours 1 minute over Philadelphia. and a duration mark of 16 kilogram useful load: speed over 2.000.593 feet at Philadel- in a PN-12 equipped with two Wright Cyclone engines. set a world altitude record of 15. distance at 1..000 kilograms.” which. Whitney engines and piloted by Lieutenant Aldolphus making a speed of 157. W. Hawaii.243. 19 May Major Charles A. Gorton and Chief Boatswain Earl E. Reber. Gorton in TR-1 won structed on battle cruiser hulls 416531 the 1922 Curtiss Marine Trophy Race 65098 . D.

event of the Problem was the employment of Saratoga by the attacking Black Fleet to achieve its primary 8 May The Bureau of Aeronautics announced the objective. Akron..140 feet over NAS Anacostia. Settle and Ensign Wilfred had placed a bomb within 25 feet of the target. Saratoga later that month. ment. operating on a frequency of 3.000 to 4. On the morning of the 26th.. D. Bushnell won the Litchfield Trophy. qualified for the International Race to be held later in the year. be assigned to duty in 6 October Contracts for the 6. This demonstration made a profound impression reaching 39. Ohio.. on naval tacticians and in the 1930 maneuvers. following successful opera- and with an escorting cruiser. officers completing the flight training course at Pensacola. and manufactured at the Washington Navy Yard. This equipment had been designed at those meeting the physical requirements for aviators. Prince Edward Island. she launched a strike group of 69 aircraft which arrived over the target undetected shortly 8 May Lieutenant Apollo Soucek. Va. tion. exigencies of the Navy permitted and the needs of the Bureau of Aeronautics required. sent on a wide southward tions of a T4M so equipped in tests carried out aboard sweep before turning north to approach within striking Langley in conjunction with the elimination of the distance of the canal.C. D. in order to provide early 13 March Rear Admiral William A. fore-and-aft wire arresting gear. D. rigid airships ZRS-4 and ZRS-5.000 Roads. These. to Savage Harbor. with such Langley was authorized since neither had been operat. Canada. appointed for a third consecutive tour as Chief of the Bureau of Aeronautics.. attached to three categories from 1. rizing. Fla. the theoretical destruction of the Panama policy of providing all carrier airplanes with brakes Canal. to Lieutenant Alford J.C. 4–6 May In winning the National Elimination Bal- ed that three prototypes of the production version of loon Race with a flight from Pitt Stadium.. 21 January The Naval Proving Ground recommend.000 cubic meters opposing forces in Fleet Problem IX. NAS Anacostia. the Mark XI Norden bombsight be accepted and Pa. Pittsburgh. were changed to kilocycles and featuring an engine-driven generator.. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 71 1928—Continued 1 March The Secretary directed that 33 officers of the Construction Corps and one officer of the line des- 25 July The removal of bow and stern catapults on ignated for Engineering Duty Only (EDO).500. The most notable capacity with a flight of 952 miles. culminated a year of experi- The Chief of Naval Operations ordered that prior to 1 mental development on the landing platform at July 1930. subsequently chris- tened Akron (ZRS-4) and Macon (ZRS-5).601 to 4. and similar operations aboard Naval Aviation Pilots of the Navy and Marine Corps. 1929 9 April The feasibility of abandoning fore-and-aft 16 January Experience in night flying became a wire arresting gear was confirmed in operations requirement for all heavier-than-air Naval Aviators and aboard Langley. the physical removal from the and that student aviators meet the same requirement carriers of the fore-and-aft wires and associated equip- during the first year of their first duty assignment. while it was still dark.000 cubic foot the Aeronautical Organization. and 23–27 January The carriers Lexington and Saratoga established world distance records for balloons in appeared in fleet exercises for the first time. and thereby reducing per capita train- 14 December Fourteen fighting-plane radio tele. a tactical unit. built around the aircraft carrier. additional Naval Constructors and EDO officers as the ed in three years. elimination courses that would emphasize flight famil- were shipped to VB-2B Squadron aboard the Saratoga iarization to determine aptitude and be open only to for service tests. Williams by the Secretary of the . and led to the Secretary’s autho- hours of night flying involving at least 20 landings. ing expense.C. and San Diego. W. in September. Moffett was evaluation of radio equipment in single-seat aircraft. reported that on the first trial two of the three sights Lieutenant Thomas G. Calif. the indoctrination courses at Hampton phone sets. appeared in force 10 May The Distinguished Flying Cross was awarded organization for the first time. engine. flying a Wright after dawn and completed the theoretical destruction of Apache equipped with a 425-hp Pratt & Whitney Wasp the Miraflores and Pedro Miguel Locks without opposi. were let to 1 March In an effort to increase the proportion of the Goodyear Zeppelin Corporation. set a new world record for Class C landplanes.. each qualified aviator pilot an aircraft on 10 Hampton Roads. This carrier was detached from the main force and wheel type tail skids. Va.

000-cubic foot airship built by Aircraft Development Corporation. held considered each other’s problems sympathetically in at NAS Anacostia. N.J. and made throughout the 1920s. At the June 1929 con- mance capabilities of aircraft. essential to long range radio recep. .72 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1929—Continued Soucek in his Apache dur- ing the alti- tude record flight #80-G- 416204 Navy for extraordinary achievement in aerial flight mitted some rather remarkable radio reception. B.. Earlier attempts by the same pilot been developed by a naval radio group at the Bureau on 3 July were foiled when the hook failed to operate of Standards at the close of World War I and had per. a metal clad 200. Mich. undue cost in terms of aircraft maintenance or degra- ment of more accurate methods of testing the perfor. ference. Gorton.52 mph. set the new world altitude mark for Class C seaplanes at 38. engine and radio fields and for magneto. Basic techniques for hook-ons to the trapeze of Los Angeles (ZR-3) over shielding airborne radio from ignition interference had NAS Lakehurst. in a Wright “General Specification for the Design and Construction Apache equipped with a Pratt & Whitney Wasp of Airplanes for the United States Navy. was won by Lieutenant order to develop practical shielding standards. Navy representatives included Lieutenant Commander Allen I.. sparkplug and cable specialties 25 May The race for the Curtiss Marine Trophy. subsequently delivered to NAS Lakehurst. A. This airship. spokesmen for aircraft. engine ignition. after making contact with the trapeze.” engine. the results generally indif- developed and applied principles of operation which ferent in that adequate shielding had brought with it contributed directly to safety in flight and the develop. was utilized several years for training purposes. 9 August The ZMC-2. Bureau of Standards. D. Hyland from specially equipped UO-1. during March 1928 in which he studied the action of Although some use of ignition shielding had been aircraft in violent maneuvers and inverted flight. Tomlinson in an XF7C-1 with a speed of the next year or so ignition shielding was generally 162.C. applied to naval aircraft and a requirement for ignition shielding was included in the 1932 edition of the 4 June Lieutenant Apollo Soucek. flying a of Aeronautics and C. dation of aircraft performance. Price from the Bureau 20 August Lieutenant Aldolphus W. made several successful the Naval Research Laboratory. tion.560 feet.J. 11 June General standards for shielding aircraft made its first flight at Grosse Ile (Detroit) Airport. were established at a conference held at the N. Within William G. Mirick and L.

W. that the sight gave about 40 percent more hits than rapher. the Bureau of Ordnance reported operator and Captain Ashley McKinley. Gorton flying a Vought UO-1 makes hook-on landing on Los Angeles. Byrd who also did the navigating. Takeoff from Little America on McMurdo earlier bombsights. and the Pole was reached at 8:55 a. The ZMC-2 metal-clad airship completed in 1929 21724 Lieutenant A. required almost 19 hours. a German-build rigid airship. Harold June was co-pilot and radio ing fleet exercises. including a fuel stop on the return was made in a Ford trimotor named the Floyd flight. on the 29th. 461642 .m. photog. The flight was commanded by Commander 27 December Based upon scores obtained with the Richard E.m. Bernt new Norden gyrostabilized MARK XI bombsight dur- Balchen was pilot. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 73 1929—Continued Sound was at 10:29 p. on the 28th. New York time. 29 November The first flight over the South Pole The round trip. USA. Bennett.

RR-5 5370 .74 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 F4Bs of Fighter Squadron VF-1B in formation 426947 Martin bomber drops torpedo 184698 The SC-1 scout bomber and tor- pedo plane 1053780 Ford trimotor. early pas- senger transport.

UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 75 PD-1 patrol planes conducting high altitude horizontal bombing 184590 Airships J-4 and L-1 flying over Barnegat Bay 463784 .

supported fore and aft wires 426932 . fiddle bridges. a Bird-class tender 1053769 T4M-1 is released from Langley arresting gear. first ship assigned to aviation in the Pacific served as a seaplane tender 1919–1931 1053770 F-5L and DT aboard Teal. in background.76 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 Mine layer Aroostook.

the rigid airship was development programs suffered. Radio controlled 16 January Lexington completed a 30-day period in planes of dependable performance were put to practi. for new ships and for modernizing naval oceans throughout the period. the pilot training program In spite of the hardships. As the rumblings burst forth Better radios of reduced size. as it achieved promi- armament. there was a change as whole squadrons began to turn in the record performances 29 January Hydraulic arresting gear. which she furnished electricity to the city of Tacoma. Only in the field of lighter-than-air were there seri- In the United States. speeds. a type which previously accomplished by individual pilots. grew louder.. there were surprising gains was stepped up. Crashes of the Akron (ZRS-4) and the ing indications of a dark economic depression that Macon (ZRS-5) sounded the death knell of the Navy’s soon became harsh reality. Naval Aviation acquired broader respect and. efficient retractable landing gear and fold- stered by aviation. 77 . and operations were finished. Va. cal use as targets for AA gunners. all contributed to the improvement of air- operations that were strangely similar to those which the craft performance and made airplanes better instru- same units would later perform under conditions of war. and some were improved. the city’s power supply. ous setbacks. getting their feel of the air. The feasibility of instrument flight was demonstrated ashore and at sea. In operations. were on the drawing boards. and repeated recommendations as to its barely sufficient to equip operating units. carrier totaled 4. pated as the nations of the world moved inexorably became a truly integrated arm of naval power. the period began with disturb. that had echoed across both naval aircraft. Aircraft that would facturers produced more dependable products. Tactical eventually proved capable of great refinement to innovations of the 1920s became fleet doctrine. but as the years passed they quietly dissi. nence in both fleet organization and operations. during an emergency arising from a failure of designers learned more about the value of streamlin. Engineers and aircraft manu. gram to recover prosperity through the initiation of As the decade drew to its close. controllable-pitch States declared its neutrality. toward war. the ominous rum- public works. War II were designed and laid down. Forced by this circum. ments of war. Engineers and Wash. in the bold advance across the equipment and components were refined and Pacific. the aircraft inventory was Germany.160 kilowatt-hours. By association. the expansion of from investigating committees. supercharged power plants. followed it into oblivion. Ships that would make history in World in aviation technology. more accurate bomb- into the full force of a European war and the United sights. Three absorb the energy of heavy aircraft landing at high new aircraft carriers joined the fleet. the non-rigid airship almost curtailed drastically. money was made available for more blings of limited wars. Better methods of recovering battleship and cruiser observation planes 1930 were developed. and aircraft performance rose sharply. Hydraulic arresting gear and catapults were installed aboard aircraft carriers. patrolled the Atlantic seaboard in ing wings. continued successes in Naval Aviation was slowed. aircraft operate from their decks.251. Naval air stations. was reported to be under development at NAS tional total high enough to equip peacetime forces Hampton Roads. and in spite of favorable reports stance to effect rigid economies. rigid airship program. strongly bol- propellers. But as the nation began its pro. the Navy. research and value in specialized operations. expansion was authorized. raising the opera. The electricity supplied by the ing and clean design. The upward swing began. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 77 PART 4 The Thirties 1930–1939 T he Thirties began quietly with an international treaty extending previous agreements to reduce naval with a respectable seagoing air arm.

a Boeing Model 205 fighter later pur. that no capital ship in existence on 1 April 1930 15 February The design of retractable landing gear. but recommended further installation of a landing-on or flying-off platform on a development to obtain a rational comparison of mono. designs for a system adaptable in recovering seaplanes of the O2U-3 type. staged over the Potomac off NAS Anacostia. successful air-to-ground glider flight. First experimental monoplane fighter. Under the terms applicable to ered to NAS Anacostia. and fur- ther. and it was agreed that altitude characteristics. in an F6C-3 Curtiss construct working models as a means of establishing fighter with a speed of 164.000 feet over Lakehurst. USMC. XF5B-1 460387 . Treaty which carried forward the general limitations of er operations. es would not make that ship an aircraft carrier.C.. for test. this order caused a temporary lull in enlist- Aircraft Factory study the problem and work up ed pilot training. 22 April A naval treaty was signed at London. met strength 31 January Lieutenant Ralph S.J. the definition of an aircraft carrier was Inspection and Survey in its report commented broadened to include ships of any tonnage designed adversely on the XF5B-1’s landing. N. dropping from the rigid dirigible Los Angeles (ZR-3) at an altitude of 3. would be fitted with such a platform or deck. that earlier agreement and provided for further reduc- chased by the Navy and designated XF5B-1. takeoff and high primarily for aircraft operations. an thereby enhance military value. first dive bomber designed to deliver a l. England. D. Page. was deliv. The Board of Naval Aviation. When men already in the seaplanes by ships underway was initiated by a system or under instruction completed their course in request from the Bureau of Aeronautics that the Naval early 1932. was won by point that the Naval Aircraft Factory was authorized to Captain Arthur H. Barnaby made a and performance requirements in diving tests.78 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1930—Continued 21 March The Martin XT5M-1. D.C.08 mph. had progressed to the annual event for service seaplanes. by the signatories of the Washington Naval 14 February The first monoplane designed for carri. The race was the practicability of various retracting mechanisms. warship designed and used primarily for other purpos- plane and biplane types. particularly attractive for use in fighting planes because of its promise to improve performance and 31 May The last Curtiss Marine Trophy Race. tions of naval armament. 21 April The Bureau of Navigation issued a circular letter directing that no more enlisted applicants be rec- 7 February Action to develop a means of recovering ommended for pilot training.000-pound bomb.

Nebr. a victim of carbon monoxide to be employed as an essential arm of the Army in per- poisoning. was the only military entry. General Douglas MacArthur. tional effects of radio. L. one utility and two patrol squadrons of the Battle Fleet reported for duty to Commander Base Force. while conducting experiments in the direc. Fleet (CINCUS). Page. and the Army Air Corps as a land-based air arm crashed to his death. 22 January The Navy ordered its first rotary winged A. to NAS ticipation in coast defense to the status of a secondary Anacostia.. aircraft.. aircraft repairs and similar support func- tions would be maintained under shore command. Pratt and the Army Chief of Staff. and Cleveland. Lieutenant Apollo Soucek took off from aviation and established it as an integral part of the Anacostia in a Wright Apache landplane equipped fleet to operate with it under the direct command of with a Pratt & Whitney 450-hp engine. USMC. flying to a the Commander-in-Chief U. 1931 8 January Further development of dive-bombing equipment and tactics was insured as tests completed at the Naval Proving Grounds.166 feet. need for offensive action in protecting against invasion from overseas. training. the XOP-1 autogiro. Va. Pratt issued a new naval air policy. Ohio. USMC. Page gained the fleet to move with it and to carry out its primary and increased an early lead but on the 17th of 20 laps mission. Admiral William V. Under the terms. acted as safety pilot and took over henceforth be assigned to. Leo C. The pol- new height of 43. the policy also directed the longest blind flight to date. Page. Ill. via Chicago.. Admiral William V. governing the operations of their respective air forces. thereby pro- viding that command with its first aviation organization. and operate under the the controls only for the landings after Captain Page Fleet. showed that displacing gear eliminated the recently encoun- tered danger of a bomb colliding with its releasing air- plane. effective 1 April 1931. 9 January An agreement was announced between the Chief of Naval Operations. forming its general mission. overhead. and.S. including defense of the coast at home and at possessions overseas. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 79 1930—Continued 28 November The Chief of Naval Operations. Captain Arthur H. and only such other stations as necessary for had brought the plane over the fields at 200 feet. Lieutenant Vernon M. regained the world altitude icy stressed the importance of fleet mobility and the record he had held briefly in 1929. from Pitcairn Aircraft. flying vices. 4 June On the first anniversary of his seaplane alti. To complete the change. assigned the development of the offen- 21 July Captain Arthur H. the naval air force was defined as an element of an XF6C-6. which essentially reorganized tude record. piloted an sive power of the fleet and advanced base forces as O2U from a sealed hooded cockpit on an instrument the primary task of Naval Aviation.. test. USMC. D. had detected an airplane flying Incorporated.” issued which added a course in Advanced Seaplane . task. Dahlgren. and relegated par- flight of about 1.C. the functions of the two air forces 1 September In the race for the Thompson Trophy were closely associated with those of their parent ser- in Chicago. Ill. 2 December The seaplane tender Aroostook (CM 3). Hyland.000 miles from Omaha. that air stations in strategic naval operating areas Guymon. Young and Mr. This led to the formal establishment of a project at the Naval Research Laboratory for 25 February A new pilot training syllabus was “Detection of Enemy Vessels and Aircraft by Radio. which climaxed a long standing interservice controversy Page and Guymon made long blind flight 1930 460434 over the division of responsibilities for coast defense. 5 November The Director of Naval Research Laboratory reported that Mr..

000 pound) bomb to be procured in suffi- cient quantity to equip a squadron. totaled 386. dive bomber carrying 1000-pound bomb 1053772 . dropped in November 1929. Submarine and Base Forces provided for the BM-1. Fleet into Battle. which was a further development of the XT5M-1.80 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1931—Continued appointment of type commanders for each type of ship and for aircraft. supplies and provisions to the stricken city. was the first dive bomber capable of attacking with a XOP-1. she inaugurated carrier aircraft relief operations in the U. This aircraft. which led to the adoption of variable pitch propellers. Early the next afternoon. was initiated with the award of a contract to Hamilton Standard Propeller Company for two such propellers suitable for use on fighting planes. Training and returned the courses in Bombing and Torpedo. As a result.5 hours. Scouting.75 hours and.S. The ground school course was also expanded in some areas and with the inclusion of a short course in photography. and for the next three school years students were assigned in two groups: one to MIT where emphasis was on aircraft engines. Lexington was ordered from Guantanamo Bay. by launching five planes carrying medical personnel. was issued to Grumman. the policy of assigning postgraduate students to civilian institutions was broadened to permit greater special- ization. first Navy Autogiro arrives at Anacostia 215856 heavy (1. 1 April A reorganization of the U. the other to CalTech for study of aircraft structures. Scouting and Base Forces as Commander Aircraft (name of Force). Martin Company for 12 BM-1 dive bombers. and designated the aviation type commands in the Battle. and Observation and Gunnery. for those also taking Advanced Combat. to 282. to assist other Navy and Marine units in relief opera- tions. thereby expanding the regular flight course to 258. the first naval aircraft to incorporate retractable landing gear for the purpose of improving aerodynamic clean- ness and thereby increasing performance. 3 March A recommendation that two officers from the postgraduate aeronautical engineering group be selected for study at the California Institute of FF-1. 2 March A propeller development program. 2 April A contract for the XFF-1 two-seat fighter. 9 April A contract was issued to the Glenn L. first fighter with retractable landing gear 1061485 Technology (CalTech) was approved. 31 March When a disastrous earthquake shook Nicaragua and destroyed most of the city of Managua.S.75 hours. Cuba. Navy.

in 1 June New specifications for aircraft markings were landings and takeoffs aboard Langley while underway. black. D. and landplanes on wheels. an XOP-1 autogiro. 19–20 July A Navy balloon. won the Litchfield Trophy and the National Elimination Balloon Race at Akron.Z. the preliminary step in the Pearl Harbor.. Va. This. The same order permitted use of distin. Ohio. guishing colors on the empennage whenever two or more squadrons of the same class operated together. visualized the installation of operations. with a dis- tance of 195 miles to Marilla. CV-4.500-ton Ranger. issued which directed use of 20-inch-wide colored bands around the fuselage of section leader planes. green and lemon yellow for sections 1 through 6 was laid at the Newport News Shipbuilding and respectively. T. white. Drydock Company. 10 September Rear Admiral William A. a vari- able-pitch propeller on a Curtiss F6C-4 had provided a 20 percent reduction in takeoff run and a slight increase in high speed. Navy to be designed and constructed as a carrier. true blue.C. XOP-1 Autogiro landing aboard Langley 215836 The 14. 30 September The Bureau of Aeronautics reported that studies were being conducted on catapulting 1 July The Naval Air Stations at Coco Solo. Settle and Lieutenant (jg) Wilfred Bushnell. was the first American ship designated as an aircraft carrier from the keel up 428440 .H. first ship of the assigning royal red. thereby qualifying for the International Race. W. piloted by Lieutenant Thomas G. willow U. Newport News. Pride piloted the Navy’s first rotary wing aircraft.Y.S. C. N. Moffett directed that the bureau’s program for test and evalua- tion of variable-pitch propellers be expedited and noted that in recent tests at NAS Anacostia.S. Fleet and development of flush deck catapults for launching their function of providing mobile air units for fleet landplanes from carriers. were redesignated Fleet Air Bases to conform with their transfer to the U.. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 81 1931—Continued 23 September Lieutenant Alfred M. 26 September The keel for Ranger.

to operate as an integral part of Aircraft. become essential to high altitude precision bombing in Battle Force. a new record for the largest number of expanded to include the use of compressed air. the K-1. large areas. 50 per. was disestablished Langley was converted from a carrier to a seaplane tender by removal of forward flight deck 465883 . This was the Army’s first and -15M embarked on Saratoga and Lexington.J. 4).000 feet against the anchored tar. cent hits were obtained with the newly developed Norden Mark XV bombsight as compared to slightly over 20 percent hits with the earlier Mark XI model.J. Rosendahl nessed the performance of the Mk XV Norden bomb- as Commanding Officer. other Marine 2 April Torpedo Squadron 5A (ex-VT-20) sailed from squadrons maintained some carrier proficiency the Philippines aboard Jason (AC 12). enthusiastic reports from its observers who had wit- N.000 cubic. N. in response to Akron. were carrier-based until late 1934. 4) the previous October. Ohio. having made its first trial flight on 23 September 1931 at 24 March The Army Air Corps. and from then until 1941. These squadrons. first of the Marine air World War II.82 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1931—Continued 3 November The rigid dirigible Akron (ZRS-4) made a 10-hour flight out of Lakehurst. the through periodic operations afloat. flight clothing were given a practical test. was begun at NAS Lakehurst.. N.J. units assigned to carriers. and the effectiveness of protective get ship Pittsburgh (Armored Cruiser No. 1932 9 January The Secretary of the Navy informed the 7 October Evaluation of the experimental K Class Secretary of War of work being conducted at the Naval airship.. 27 October The rigid airship Akron (ZRS-4). When VS-8A. tion of the method was in air warning systems for ship designed especially for the Navy until that time. radio and suggested that since one obvious applica- foot envelope. sight in trials against Pittsburgh (Armored Cruiser No. with Lieutenant Commander Charles E. which made it the largest non-rigid air. only squadron remaining in the area. and by individuals carried into the air by a single craft. commitment for the Navy-developed sight that was to respectively. It Research Laboratory in detecting ships and aircraft by featured an enclosed all-metal car and a 320. carrier aircraft. carrying aloft powder catapults on hangar decks. 9 December Langley completed nine days of opera- tions off the New England coast in which the cold 7 October In a bombing demonstration conducted weather operating capabilities of carrier deck gear and from an altitude of 5. requested the Navy to pro- 2 November Marine Scouting Squadrons VS-14M vide it with 25 Mk XV sights. was commissioned at NAS Lakehurst. The development was 207 persons. the end of 1932 the Naval Aircraft Factory had successful- ly launched an O2U-3 landplane with this latter gear. the Army might be interested in undertak- ing further work.


1932—Continued near Vilna and established a new world distance
record of 963.123 miles for balloons in three cate-
the following June, aviation in the Asiatic Fleet was gories of volume.
reduced to the observation aircraft on board cruisers.
10 November A contract for 125 sets of GF radios
2 May The Bureau of Aeronautics directed that was issued to the Aviation Radio Corporation. This
hydraulic cylinder type arresting gear be installed on was the first production order for radio equipment
Langley to replace weight type gear used earlier. This suitable for installation in single-seat fighters.
decision resulted from operational experience of
Langley with two sets of hydraulic gear installed in 22 November Following tests of the OP-1 autogiro
June and September 1931. in Nicaragua, Major Francis P. Mulcahy, USMC, report-
ed that the autogiro’s chief value in expeditionary duty
18 May With enough qualified students on hand to was in inspecting small fields recommended by
fill several classes at Pensacola, Fla., the practice insti- ground troops as landing areas, evacuating medical
tuted in 1930 of waiving the requirement of two years “sitting” cases, and ferrying important personnel.
of sea duty before assignment to elimination flight
training was discontinued. In effect, this marked the
beginning of almost a year in which no new prospec- 1933
tive aviators were enrolled.
4 January A new plan for postgraduate work was
1 June The resignation of the Assistant Secretary of approved which combined the existing programs for
the Navy for Aeronautics David S. Ingalls was accept- specialists and for the General Line, and extended the
ed by the president and it was announced that, as an aeronautical engineering program to three years.
economy measure, the appointment of a successor Under the new plan, all officers selected for postgrad-
was not contemplated. The office remained vacant uate work began with one year in the School of the
until 1941. Line. Those demonstrating ability and interest in
advanced technical specialties were given a second
30 June Los Angeles (ZR-3) was decommissioned for year in that area of study and, in the third year, were
economy reasons at NAS Lakehurst, N.J., after eight sent to a civilian institution for work, in most instances
years of service and over 5,000 hours in the air. leading to a Master of Science degree.

1 July The requirement of an earlier law that 30 per- 25 January The Bureau of Navigation announced
cent of the Navy’s pilots be enlisted men, was reduced that the assignment of naval officers to flight training
to 20 percent as an amending act became effective. at Pensacola, Fla., would be resumed in May or June,
The restrictive nature of the requirement was modified or almost a year since the last group had been
by an additional provision that it was applicable assigned.
except when, in the opinion of the Secretary of the
Navy, it was impracticable to obtain the required num- 16 February The president presented to Colonel
ber of enlisted pilots. Nathan D. Ely, USA (Ret), the Distinguished Flying
Cross, awarded posthumously to Colonel Ely’s son,
28 July Research into the physiological effects of Eugene B. Ely, for extraordinary achievement as a pio-
high acceleration and deceleration, encountered in neer aviator and for significant contribution as a civil-
dive bombing and other violent maneuvers, was initi- ian to the development of aviation in the Navy when
ated through a Bureau of Aeronautics allocation of in 1910 and 1911 he demonstrated the feasibility of
funds to the Bureau of Medicine and Surgery for this operating aircraft from ships.
purpose. The pioneer research, pointing to the need
for anti-G or anti-blackout equipment, was performed 1 April Fleet Aviation was reorganized and assigned
at Harvard University School of Public Health by to two principal commands each exercising type func-
Lieutenant Commander John R. Poppen, MC, under tions within his Force, and one of whom, Commander
the direction of Dr. C. K. Drinker. Aircraft, Battle Force, served as type commander for
all fleet aircraft. Carriers, with their aircraft, were
25–27 September The International Balloon Race, assigned to Battle Force and all tender-based air and
held at Basel, Switzerland, was won by Lieutenant Fleet Air Bases at Pearl Harbor, T.H., and Coco Solo,
Thomas G. W. Settle and Lieutenant Wilfred Bushnell C.Z., were assigned to Base Force. The command
in a flight which ended on the Polish-Latvian border Aircraft Scouting Force was abolished.


1933—Continued Calif. The device resembled a cargo net fitted with a
wood spreader at its forward edge and canvas under-
4 April The rigid airship Akron (ZRS-4) crashed in a neath which, when towed by the ship, rode the sur-
severe storm off Barnegat Light, N.J. Among the 73 face forward and was slightly submerged aft so that
fatalities were Rear Admiral William A. Moffett, Chief, the seaplane could taxi on it and catch the net with a
Bureau of Aeronautics, and Commander Frank C. hook on the bottom of its pontoon. Recovery over the
McCord, Commanding Officer of Akron (ZRS-4). stern was successful on the first attempt. An alongside
recovery, necessary for ships with cranes amidships,
18 April Lieutenant George A. Ott piloting an O2U was tried next. With the net trailing from a boom, the
seaplane, with Lieutenant (jg) Bruce A. Van Voorhis as seaplane again caught the net but then swung into the
passenger, made the first operational test of a device, ship and crumpled its wing. In spite of the partial fail-
later called the Plane Trap, installed on the stern of ure, the possibilities of the plane net were apparent
Maryland (BB 46). Proposed by Lieutenant Lisle J. and later adjustments corrected the initial deficiencies.
Maxson, the device was a V-shaped float attached to
the stern of the ship by a system of struts which per-
23 June Macon (ZRS-5), having made its first flight
mitted it to ride at an even depth in the water. In
on 21 April, was commissioned at Akron, Ohio, with
operation, the seaplane taxied toward the float push-
Commander Alger H. Dressel as commanding officer.
ing a knobbed probe on the nose of its pontoon into
the V-float which engaged the probe and held the sea-
plane in position for hoisting aboard. The device was
an immediate success and proposals were made to
install the same gear on five additional battleships.

29 April The Bureau of Aeronautics recommended
resumption of postgraduate instruction in aerology
which had been suspended in 1929. By the end of the
year, arrangements were completed for a two-year
course at the Postgraduate School and a third year at a
civilian university.

6 June Two Franklin gliders were received at NAS
Pensacola, Fla., for use in a test to determine whether Macon ZRS-5 prepares to take protective fighters on board. There was
inclusion of glider training in the student flight syl- space for five planes in the hangar 4284422
labus would replace or simplify elimination flight
training and thereby reduce dual instruction time. 8 August Commander, Aircraft Battle Force, request-
Instructor training in the new craft began immediately ed authority to use variable-pitch propellers during
under the direction of Lieutenant Ralph S. Barnaby, forthcoming exercises on six Boeing F4B-4s of VF-3,
and glider training, as an experimental feature of the based aboard Langley, and on one F4B-4 of VF-1,
training program, continued into 1936. based aboard Saratoga. This request, which stemmed
from successful trials conducted by VF-3 aboard the
13 June A contract for the development of special Langley, marked the initial service acceptance of the
radio equipment for making blind landings aboard variable-pitch propeller.
carriers was issued to the Washington Institute of
Technology. 9 August Commander Battle Force, commenting on
tests of the plane net made by Maryland (BB 46),
16 June Under the terms of the National Industrial pointed out that construction of the net and pontoon
Recovery Act, the president allotted $238 million to the hook were well within the capacity of ships company
Navy for the construction of new ships, including two and directed that all battleships under his command
aircraft carriers. In less than two months, contracts experiment with, and attempt to develop, techniques
were awarded for carriers Nos. 5 and 6, eventually for underway recovery.
commissioned as Yorktown and Enterprise.
2–4 September The Navy balloon of Lieutenant
22 June A new underway recovery device, pro- Commander Thomas G. W. Settle and Lieutenant
posed by Lieutenant George A. Ott, senior aviator on Charles H. Kendall took second place in the Gordon
Maryland (BB 46), was tested at sea off Point Firmin, Bennett International Balloon Race at Chicago with a



The Boeing F4B-4 carrier fighter of the 1930s 462618

distance of 776 miles, and their 51 hours in the air set requalification course for Naval Aviators and Naval
new world records for duration in three categories of Aviation Pilots, who had been on nonflying duty, was
volume. directed toward the same end.

7–8 September Six Consolidated P2Y-1 flying boats 24 October Development of anti-blackout equip-
of Patrol Squadron 5F, under the command of ment was initiated with an authorization to the Naval
Lieutenant Commander Herman E. Halland, flew non- Aircraft Factory to develop and manufacture a special
stop from Norfolk, Va., to Coco Solo, C.Z., making a abdominal belt in accord with specifications prepared
record distance formation flight of 2,059 miles in 25 by Lieutenant Commander John R. Poppen, MC, for
hours 19 minutes. use by pilots in dive bombing and other violent
12 October The rigid airship Macon (ZRS-5) depart-
28 October A contract was issued to Consolidated
ed NAS Lakehurst, N.J., bound for her new home on
for the XP3Y-1 flying boat, marking the initiation of
the west coast at NAS Sunnyvale, Calif. Following the
Navy sponsored development of the PBY Catalina
Atlantic coast down to Macon, Ga., and then westward
series of flying boats.
over the southern route to the west coast, the airship
arrived at Sunnyvale in the afternoon of the 15th, com- 17 November The sum of $7,500,000 was allotted to
pleting the 2,500 mile nonstop flight in approximately the Navy from funds provided under the National
70 hours. Industrial Recovery Act of 16 June 1933, for the pro-
curement of new aircraft and equipment, thereby per-
17 October In an effort to prevent a shortage of mitting the Bureau of Aeronautics to maintain its
pilots as a result of the curtailment in training, addi- 1,000-plane program, to equip operating aircraft with
tional instruction was authorized for specially recom- modern navigation instruments and radios, and to
mended student Naval Aviators, who had failed to make other improvements in naval aircraft and their
qualify on their first attempt or whose training had accessories which were not possible under the annual
been interrupted. In the next month, authorization of a appropriation.


1933—Continued the bearing. As compared to the beat in a continuous
radio wave, a technique which had been under devel-
20 November Lieutenant Commander Thomas G. opment at the Naval Research Laboratory for nearly
W. Settle and Major Chester L. Fordney, USMC, flying a four years, the pulse technique promised to be of
600,000 cubic foot free balloon, set a world’s altitude much greater utility because it would provide range
record of 61,237 feet in a flight into the stratosphere and bearing as well as detection and because the
with departure from Akron, Ohio, and landing near entire apparatus could be installed aboard a single
Bridgeton, N.J. ship. The feasibility of the pulse technique was based
upon new developments of the radio industry includ-
20 December To effect the organization of the avia- ing the cathode ray tube, high power transmitting
tion element of the newly formed Fleet Marine Force, tubes and special receiving tubes.
Aircraft Squadrons East Coast Expeditionary Forces
was redesignated Aircraft One, Fleet Marine Force, and 27 March An act of Congress, approved by the pres-
Aircraft Squadrons West Coast Expeditionary Forces ident and popularly known as the Vinson-Trammell
became Aircraft Two, Fleet Marine Force. Act, established the composition of the Navy at the
limit prescribed by the Washington and London Naval
Treaties. The act authorized construction of a number
1934 of ships, including one aircraft carrier of about 15,000
10–11 January Six Consolidated P2Y-1s of Patrol tons, and in other matters relating to aviation autho-
Squadron 10F, Lieutenant Commander Knefler rized the president to procure naval aircraft for ships
McGinnis commanding, made a nonstop formation and naval purposes in numbers commensurate with a
flight from San Francisco, Calif., to Pearl Harbor, T.H., treaty Navy. It also provided that not less than 10 per-
in 24 hours 35 minutes, thereby bettering the best pre- cent of the authorized aircraft and engines be manu-
vious time for the crossing, exceeding the best dis- factured in government plants. Under the authoriza-
tance of previous mass flights, and breaking a nine- tion, Wasp was laid down in 1936.
day-old world record for distance in a straight line for
Class C seaplanes with a new mark of 2,399 miles. 28 April The equipment and techniques of along-
side recovery by plane net had developed to the point
that Commander, Cruisers Battle Force, issued a direc-
tive describing the method that would be used by all
ships of his command. The success of the method was
such that the only plane trap in use, that on Maryland
(BB 46) was removed in June and underway recovery
of seaplanes by battleships and cruisers soon became

1 May Lieutenant Frank Akers made a hooded land-
ing in an OJ-2 at College Park, Md., in the first
demonstration of the blind landing system intended
P2Y-1s of Patrol Squadron 10-F made first non-stop formation flight
from San Francisco to Pearl Harbor 426937 for carrier use and under development by the
Washington Institute of Technology. In subsequent
flights, Lieutenant Akers took off from Anacostia,
14 March Dr. A. Hoyt Taylor, head of the Radio D.C., under a hood and landed at College Park, Md.,
Division of the Naval Research Laboratory, authorized without assistance.
a project for development of pulse radar (as it was
later called) to detect ships and aircraft. The basic con- 22 May The NS-1, a single-engine biplane trainer,
cept, which had been proposed by Leo C. Young, was ordered from Stearman Aircraft Company,
involved special sending, receiving and display equip- Wichita, Kans.
ment all mounted in close proximity. This equipment
would send out pulses of radio energy of a few 4 June Ranger was commissioned at Norfolk, Va.,
microseconds in duration separated by time intervals Captain Arthur L. Bristol commanding.
that were tens to thousands of times longer than the
duration of a pulse. Reception of an echo would indi- 21 June First landings and takeoffs were made
cate a target; time of travel to the target and back, the aboard Ranger by the ship’s aviators led by Lieutenant
distance; and directional sending or receiving antenna, Commander Arthur C. Davis. After completing normal



operations, the ship went full speed astern and aircraft
landed using the bow arresting gear.

30 June A contract was issued to Douglas for the
XTBD-1 torpedo bomber. This aircraft was the proto-
type for the TBD Devastator which remained in opera-
tional use through June 1942.

Curtiss F9C-2s with airship hoop-on gear 441982

Devastator torpedo plane 1061904 F9C-1 being hoisted into hangar of Akron 441980

18 July Fourteen Naval Academy graduates, Class craft on this first flight without landing gear, it became
1933, reported at Pensacola, Fla., for special training standard operating procedure to fly Macon (ZRS 5)
toward qualification as Naval Aviators. Their designa- planes from the trapeze in this configuration.
tion in January 1935 climaxed a series of events over
the somewhat devious route of an honorable dis- 1 August Lieutenant (jg) Charles H. Kendall and
charge upon graduation in 1933; because of lack of Lieutenant (jg) Howard T. Orville, in a 206.4-mile flight
vacancies in the Navy, enrollment and training as from Birmingham, Ala., to Commerce, Ga., won the
Flying Cadets in the Army Air Corps; acceptance of the National Elimination Balloon Race and qualified for
Navy offer of a commission in either the Navy or the international race.
Marine Corps; and finally, completion of the special
course at Pensacola. 1 November The Naval Aircraft Factory was autho-
rized to manufacture and test a flush-deck hydraulic
19 July Lieutenant Harold B. Miller and Lieutenant (jg) catapult, Type H Mark I. This catapult was designed to
Frederick N. Kivette, flying F9C-2s without their wheel launch landplanes from aircraft carriers and was the
landing gear, dropped from the trapeze of Macon (ZRS- Navy’s initial development of a hydraulic catapult, a
5) to scout for Houston (CA 30) returning from a cruise type which was to prove capable of extensive refine-
in the Pacific with President Franklin D. Roosevelt on ment and which eventually was to be accepted as a
board. Because of the improved performance of the air- primary means of launching landplanes from carriers.


1934—Continued 14 December Reinflation of the rigid airship Los
Angeles (ZR-3) was completed, and she became air-
15 November Plans to install hydraulic flush deck borne in the hangar at NAS Lakehurst, N.J., after near-
catapults aboard carriers were formalized in a Bureau ly three years of decommissioned status. Although not
of Aeronautics request that space be reserved on flown again, she continued in use as a test and exper-
Yorktown and Enterprise for two bow catapults on the imental ship for another five years and, after having
flight deck and one athwartships on the hangar deck. served that purpose, was stricken from the inventory
on 29 October 1939. Dismantling was completed in 7
18 November A contract was issued to the weeks.
Northrop Corporation for the XBT-1, a two-seat Scout
and l,000-pound dive bomber. This aircraft was the 15 December The Secretary of the Navy approved
acceptance of the XO3C-1, a single-engine biplane
initial prototype in the sequence that led to the SBD
observation seaplane; subsequently converted to the
Dauntless series of dive bombers introduced to the
XSOC-1. Aircraft of this type were operated from bat-
fleet in 1938 and used throughout World War II.
tleships and cruisers from late 1935 through World
War II.

21 December Flight test of the NS-1, Stearman
biplane trainer, was completed at NAS Anacostia, D.C.

5 January The Bureau of Navigation stated that
Lieutenant Commander John R. Poppen, MC, would
be ordered to the Naval Dispensary, Philadelphia Navy
Yard, with additional duty at the Naval Aircraft
XBT-1, heavy dive bomber, forerunner of SBD 1053784 Factory, to observe pilots, conduct their annual physi-

Curtiss SOC-
1 catapulted
from heavy


1935—Continued 15 April Passage of the Aviation Cadet Act created
the grade of Aviation Cadet in the Naval and Marine
cal examinations and work on hygienic and physiolog- Corps Reserves. The act set up a new program for
ical aspects of research and development projects. pilot training in which otherwise qualified college
This was the first assignment of a Flight Surgeon to the graduates between the ages of 18 and 28 would be
Naval Aircraft Factory other than as part of a specific eligible for one year of flight instruction, benefits of
project. pay, uniform gratuities and insurance; and would,
after serving three additional years on active duty, be
14 January Squadrons assigned to Ranger made the commissioned as Ensigns or Second Lieutenants, be
first of a series of cross-country flights from Norfolk, paid a bonus of $1,500, and be returned to inactive
Va., to Hartford, Conn., and Buffalo, N.Y., to test the duty as members of the Reserves.
functioning of carrier aircraft, special equipment, and
flight clothing under the exacting conditions to be 1 May A new pilot training syllabus was issued
encountered in cold weather. When the tests were com- requiring completion of about 300 hours of flight
pleted on 2 February, the lessons learned were used in instruction and 465 hours of ground school in a total
preparing for tests aboard Ranger the next winter. time of one year. The new course made no differentia-
tion between student Naval Aviators and Student
22 January The Federal Aviation Commission, Aviation Pilots, but specified an additional 90 hours of
appointed by the president as provided in the Air Mail indoctrination courses for members of the Reserve.
Act of 12 June 1934, submitted its report which in
essence set forth a broad policy covering all phases of 5 June The designation of specially qualified offi-
aviation and the relation of the government thereto. A cers for the performance of aeronautical engineering
major share of its recommendations referred to com- duty only (AEDO) was authorized by an act of
mercial and civil aviation and in general stressed the Congress. The appointment of a board in September
needs for a strong air transport, for expanding airport to select the first officers for this AEDO designation
facilities, for improving provisions for aviation in gov- and the subsequent approval of its report by the
ernment organization, and for supporting the welfare Secretary brought about the assignment of 11 officers
of the aviation industry, particularly through the estab- of the line and 33 from the Construction Corps to this
lishment of more realistic procurement practices and new specialist category.
policy. For military aviation, the commission recom-
mended: continued study of air organization toward 20 July The first class of Aviation Cadets to report
more effective employment of aviation and closer for flight training convened at NAS Pensacola, Fla.
interservice relationships, expansion of experimental First of the group to become a Naval Aviator was
and development work and its close coordination Elliott M. West who was designated on 12 June 1936
through the NACA, expansion of the Reserve organiza- and assigned number 4,854.
tions and larger appropriations to support them, and a
modification of personnel policies to permit assign-
ment of officers with special engineering ability and
industrial experience to continuous duty related to
their specialty.

9 February The XN3N-1, prototype of the Yellow
Peril primary trainer, was ordered from the Naval
Aircraft Factory.

12 February After encountering a severe gust of
wind which caused a structural failure, the rigid air-
ship Macon (ZRS-5) crashed off Point Sur, Calif., with
two fatalities.

12 March The Navy issued a contract to Pitcairn
Autogiro Company to remove the fixed wings from
the XOP-1, thereby converting it to the XOP-2 which
thus became the Navy’s first heavier-than-air aircraft
without fixed wings. XN3N, Yellow Peril, training plane built at NAF 1061654


1935—Continued 5 October The first G Class airship, the G-1, was
delivered to NAS Lakehurst. This airship, formerly the
30 July The first blind landing aboard a carrier was Defender of Goodyear’s commercial fleet, was used by
made by Lieutenant Frank Akers, who took off from the Navy for training purposes.
NAS San Diego, Calif., in an OJ-2 with hooded cock-
pit, located Langley underway in an unknown posi- 14–15 October Lieutenant Commander Knefler
tion, and landed aboard catching the number four McGinnis, Lieutenant (jg) James K. Averill, NAP
arresting wire. Lieutenant Akers subsequently received Thomas P. Wilkinson, and crew of three flew an
a Distinguished Flying Cross for this flight. XP3Y-1 Consolidated patrol plane, powered with two
825-hp Pratt & Whitney engines, from Cristobal
26 September The president approved a joint Harbor, Canal Zone, to Alameda, Calif., in 34 hours 45
Army-Navy proposal for the transfer of air station minutes and established new world records for Class C
properties, climaxing several years of study and dis- seaplanes of 3,281.383 miles airline distance and
cussion of the joint use of aviation facilities in certain 3,443.255 miles brokenline distance.
areas. By this approval and a subsequent Executive
Order, the Army agreed to turn over to the Navy:
Rockwell Field on North Island, Calif., Luke Field on
Ford Island, T.H., and Bolling Field at Anacostia, D.C.,
while the Navy agreed to turn over to the Army the
Naval Air Station at Sunnyvale, Calif. In this exchange,
it was understood that the Army would construct new
fields at Bolling adjoining its previous location, and
Hickam Field on Oahu, T.H.

XP3Y-1 commanded by K. McGinnis set 3443-mile record on flight
from Panama to Alameda, October 1935 1053771

15 November The Chief, Bureau of Aeronautics,
approved recommendations from a fighter design
competition and thereby initiated development of the
Grumman XF4F-1 biplane and the Brewster XF2A-1
monoplane. The developmental sequence thus set in
Naval Air Station Anacostia (foreground), old Bolling Field (back- motion, although it included many subsequent
ground) prior to acquisition by Navy 1061655 changes and modifications, provided prototypes of the
Navy’s first-line fighters in
use when the United States
entered World War II.

20 January The Bureau of
Engineering, acting in
response to a request from
the Bureau of Aeronautics,
initiated naval support to the
Bureau of Standards for the
development of radio mete-
orographs. These instru-
ments, later renamed
radiosondes, were to be
First production monoplane fighter, Brewster F2A 16054 attached to small free bal-


1936—Continued installation of larger engines in both, which promised
a top speed of 300 mph.
loons and sent aloft to measure pressure, temperature
and humidity of the upper atmosphere, and to trans- 21 July Lieutenant Commander Delmer S. Fahrney
mit this information to ground stations for use in received orders to report to the Chief of the Bureau of
weather forecasting and flight planning. Aeronautics and the Director of the Naval Research
Laboratory for duty in connection with an experimen-
22 January Ranger, with 23 aircraft on board, tal project. This marked the initial step in implementa-
arrived in Cook Inlet, Alaska, and began three weeks tion of a recommendation made by the Chief of Naval
of operational tests to study the effects of cold weath- Operations the preceding May that radio controlled
er on operating efficiency and to determine material aircraft be obtained for use as aerial targets. Fahrney,
and other improvements necessary for increasing carri- in his subsequent report, not only proposed a proce-
er capabilities under extreme weather conditions. dure for developing radio controlled target planes but
also recognized the feasibility of using such aircraft as
18 March The flight test of the XN3N-1, prototype guided missiles.
of the Yellow Peril, a primary trainer biplane, was
completed at NAS Pensacola, Fla. 23 July A contract was awarded to Consolidated for
the XPB2Y-1 four-engined flying boat. This aircraft
1 April The Marine Corps Aviation Section, which had been selected for development as a result of a
had been set up independently under the design competition held late the previous year, and in
Commandant in the previous year, was established as later configurations, it became the Navy’s only four-
a Division. With the change, the Officer-in-Charge was engined flying boat to be used as a patrol plane dur-
given the title Director of Aviation and as such contin- ing World War II.
ued to serve in the dual capacity of advisor to the
Commandant on aviation and head of the Marine 7 August A change in the flight syllabus was
Corps organization in the Bureau of Aeronautics, approved which placed more emphasis on instrument
under an arrangement which had been in effect since flying. The new course, which was inserted between
the establishment of that Bureau. the service seaplane and fighter courses, was given by
a new instrument flying unit formed at Pensacola, Fla.,
28 April R. C. Guthrie and Robert M. Page, at the for the purpose, and included six hours in Link train-
Naval Research Laboratory, began testing a laboratory ers, nine hours of modified acrobatics in NS aircraft,
model of a pulsed radio wave detection device (pulse and two hours radio range flying under the hood.
radar). As tests proceeded, aircraft were detected at
distances up to 25 miles. 19 August Lieutenant Boynton L. Braun, pilot and
ACOM W. B. Marvelle completed test bombing against
6 May Construction of the facility, which was later the submarine R-8 off the Virginia Capes. Flying a
named the David W. Taylor Model Basin, was autho- T4M-1 at an altitude of 2,500 feet, they dropped
rized by legislation, providing buildings and appli- twelve 100-pound bombs in a 2-day period and
ances for use by the Bureau of Construction and obtained four near-misses with a cumulative effect
Repair in investigating and determining shapes and which caused the submarine to sink.
forms to be adopted for U.S. vessels, including aircraft.
15 September Langley, first aircraft carrier of the U.S.
11 June In an effort to adapt commercial airplane Navy, was detached from Battle Force and assigned to
maintenance techniques to naval use, the Bureau of Commander, Aircraft Base Force, for duty as a seaplane
Aeronautics authorized Commander, Aircraft Base tender. After a brief period of operation, she went into
Force, to provide patrol squadrons with an extra air- the yard for conversion, from which she emerged early
craft for use as a rotating spare to replace squadron in 1937 with the forward part of her flight deck removed.
planes that were undergoing maintenance inspection.

10 July The Chief, Bureau of Aeronautics, approved
a program of improvements to the F4F and F2A fight- 27 February Expansion of the Working Committee
ers being developed by Grumman and Brewster. Most of the Aeronautical Board and the extension of its
important were the conversion of the Grumman functions to include work in aeronautical standardiza-
design from a biplane to the monoplane XF4F-2 proto- tion, were approved by the Secretaries of the War and
type for the F4F Wildcat of World War II, and the Navy Departments. By this decision, interservice


1937—Continued 9 August The contractor’s demonstration flights of
the XOZ-1 rotary-winged aircraft, which included a
efforts in standardization changed from a part-time water takeoff, were completed at the Naval Aircraft
program of annual conferences to one employing a Factory. Pennsylvania Aircraft Corporation had modi-
joint staff of officers and civilians on a full-time basis. fied this aircraft from an N2Y-1 trainer into an experi-
mental gyroplane by installing a new engine and a
15 March The Bureau of Aeronautics assigned dis- rotary wing with cyclic control.
tinguishing colors to each aircraft carrier for use as tail
markings by all squadrons on board, thereby changing 9 September The XPBS-1, a four-engined mono-
the existing practice of assigning colors to squadrons plane flying boat built by Sikorsky Aircraft, made its
and eliminating the confusion resulting when first flight. This aircraft, constructed as a long-range
squadrons transferred from one carrier to another. patrol plane, was later used as a transport.

21–22 June Patrol Squadron 3, with 12 PBY-1 30 September Yorktown was commissioned at
Catalinas under the command of Lieutenant Robert W. Norfolk, Va., with Captain Earnest D. McWhorter in
Morse, flew nonstop from San Diego, Calif., to Coco command.
Solo in the Canal Zone, completing the 3,292-mile
flight in 27 hours and 58 minutes. 1 October Patrol aviation with its tenders was trans-
ferred from Base Force and assigned to the reestab-
30 May A contract was issued to the Martin lished type command, Aircraft Scouting Force. With
Company for the XPBM-1 two-engined flying boat the change, five Patrol Wings, numbered 1 through 5,
patrol plane. The aircraft was the initial prototype in were established as separate administrative commands
the PBM Mariner series of flying boats used during over their assigned squadrons.
and after World War II.
17 December The XPTBH-2, a twin-float seaplane
1 July The system of designating squadrons was designed by Hall Aluminum Aircraft Company, Inc. for
revised to provide for numbering each carrier patrol and torpedo attack, was accepted by the Navy.
squadron according to the hull number of its carrier, This was the last twinfloat torpedo plane developed
each battleship and cruiser squadron the same as the for the Navy.
number of its ship division, each Marine Corps
squadron according to its Aircraft Group, and patrol 23 December A successful unmanned radio-con-
squadrons serially without regard to assignment. The trolled flight was made with a JH-1 drone, at the
change also abolished the use of suffix letters to indi- Coast Guard Air Station, Cape May, N.J. Takeoff and
cate organizational assignment, except for Naval landing were made using a landbased radio set; for
District and Reserve squadrons, and interposed the M flight maneuvers, control was shifted to an airborne
for Marine Corps squadrons between the V prefix and TG-2.
mission letters.

2 July The Navy agreed to accept transfer of Army
airships and lighter-than-air equipment. Included in 21 April The delivery of the XF2A-1 to the Langley
the transfer were the airships TC-13 and TC-14, used Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory of the National
for antisubmarine patrol in the early stages of World Advisory Committee for Aeronautics marked the initia-
War II. tion of full-scale wind tunnel tests to determine means
of decreasing aerodynamic drag and thereby increas-
15 July The Ship Experimental Unit was placed in ing high speed. These tests, conducted at the recom-
operating status at the Naval Aircraft Factory and made mendation of Commander Walter S. Diehl, indicated
responsible for development and testing of equipment that the speed of the XF2A-1 could be increased 31
and techniques for carrier landings. This unit consisted mph over the 277 mph already achieved, and led to
of officers and men which were transferred from NAS the utilization of this technique in other high-perfor-
Norfolk, Va., where this function had been performed mance aircraft, by both the Army and the Navy. The
since 1921. data thus obtained was also directly applicable to the
design of new aircraft.
6 August A contract was issued to Goodyear for
two new non-rigid airships, the L-1 for training pur- 12 May Enterprise was commissioned at Newport
poses, and the K-2 for coastal patrol. News, Va., Captain Newton H. White commanding.



Enterprise, CV-6 preparing to get underway with all planes of her air group on the flight deck 13554

17 May The Naval Expansion Act, among its provi- 23 August A contract was issued to Martin for the
sions for Naval Aviation, authorized an increase in XPB2M-1 four-engine flying boat. Initially intended as
total tonnage of underage naval vessels amounting to a patrol plane, this craft was later converted to the
40,000 tons for aircraft carriers, and also authorized PB2M-1R Mars transport and served as a prototype for
the president to increase the number of naval aircraft the JRM series of flying boats.
to “not less than” 3,000. Carriers built as a result of this
authorization were Hornet and Essex, laid down in 24 August In the first American use of a drone tar-
1939 and 1941, respectively. get aircraft in anti-aircraft exercises, Ranger fired upon
a radio-controlled JH-1 making a simulated horizontal
1 June The routine use of radiosondes (or radio bombing attack on the fleet. This not only heralded a
meteorographs, as they were then called) to obtain
new departure in anti-aircraft practice, but also indicat-
data on weather conditions in the upper atmosphere
ed that radio-controlled aircraft could be used as a
was initiated at NAS Anacostia, D.C. By the close of
training device in the fleet.
the year, California (BB 44) and Lexington were also
outfitted to use radiosondes.
14 September A radio-controlled N2C-2 target
8 June After over two years of evaluation by fleet drone engaged in a simulated dive-bombing attack
squadrons and various shore-based naval air activities, against the battleship Utah (BB 31) in test firing of
the antiblackout or abdominal belt, intended for use antiaircraft battery. The proponents of guided missile
by pilots in dive bombing and other violent maneu- development view this as the first demonstration of
vers, was returned to a developmental status with a the air to surface missile.
finding by the Commander, Aircraft Battle Force, that
the advantages of this belt were not sufficient to offset 15 October A new specification prescribing color
its disadvantages. for naval aircraft was issued. Trainers were to be fin-
ished in orange-yellow overall with aluminum colored
8 June By policy established by the Secretary of the floats or landing gear. The color of service aircraft
Navy, the provisions for maintenance of aircraft remained essentially as prescribed in 1925, aluminum
aboard carriers and aircraft tenders were limited to overall with orange-yellow on wing and tail surfaces
those required for upkeep and minor repairs. that were visible from above.

1 July New command billets titled Commander, 2 November A revision of the pilot training syllabus
Carrier Air Group, were authorized, and carrier was approved instituting minor adjustments in the
squadrons were organized into groups each desig- flight program and changes of greater significance in
nated by the name of the carrier to which it was the ground program. A special course was added for
assigned. flight surgeons, celestial navigation was added for


1938—Continued Navy, was the prototype for the PBY-5A which was
widely used in World War II.
enlisted students, and gameboard problems were
introduced as a practical approach to instruction in 15 May A contract was issued to Curtiss-Wright for
scouting and search. the XSB2C-1 dive bomber, thereby completing action
on a 1938 design competition. The preceding month,
1 December The Hepburn Board, appointed by the Brewster had received a contract for the XSB2A-1. As
Secretary of the Navy in accordance with the act of 17 part of the mobilization in ensuing years, large pro-
May, reported on its survey of the aviation shore duction orders were issued for both aircraft, but seri-
establishment. Recognizing the demands that would ous managerial and developmental problems were
have to be met if the approach of war should precipi- encountered which eventually contributed to discard-
tate a great expansion, the Board recommended for ing the SB2A and prolonged preoperational develop-
aviation the enlargement of 11 existing stations and ment of SB2C. Despite this, the SB2C Helldiver would
the erection of 16 new ones, including Oahu become the principal operational carrier dive bomber.
(Kaneohe), Midway, Wake, Guam, and five other
Pacific Islands. 27 May Lieutenant Colonel Alfred A. Cunningham,
first U.S. Marine Corps aviator, died at his home in
16 December The K-2 airship was delivered to NAS Sarasota, Fla. He reported for flight training at
Lakehurst, N.J., for trials. This was the prototype for Annapolis, Md., on 22 May 1912, a day now celebrat-
the World War II K Class patrol airships, of which 135 ed as the birthday of Marine Corps aviation; and in a
were procured. relatively short aviation career, served with distinction
in many capacities. During World War I, he organized
and commanded the first Marine aviation unit, was
among those proposing operations later assigned to
the Northern Bombing Group and was commanding
officer of its Day Wing. In the postwar period, he
served as the first administrative head of Marine Corps
aviation and then commanded the First Air Squadron
in Santo Domingo.

13 June Saratoga and the tanker Kanawha (AO 1)
completed a 2-day underway refueling test off the
coast of southern California, thereby demonstrating
the feasibility of refueling carriers at sea, a technique
which was to prove vitally important to operations in
areas where bases were not available.

13 June The Aviation Cadet Act of 1935 was revised
to provide for the immediate commissioning as
The non-rigid airship K-2, prototype for World War II LTA fleet 1053773 ensigns or second lieutenants of all cadets on active
service and the future commissioning of others upon
completion of flight training. The law also extended
1939 the service limitation to seven years after completion
27 March Following the successful experimental of training of which the first four would be required,
refueling of patrol planes by the submarine Nautilus and provided for promotion to the next higher grade
(SS 168), the Commander-in-Chief U.S. Fleet (CIN- on the basis of examination after three years of ser-
CUS), directed that Submarine Division Four and vice. A reduction in the bonus payment upon release
Patrol Wing Two conduct refueling tests at frequent to inactive duty was made with the provision that avi-
intervals and carry out an Advanced Base problem ation cadets already serving in the fleet be given the
each quarter to develop to the utmost the possibilities option of remaining on the old pay scale with the
for refueling patrol planes under various conditions. $1,500 bonus or of accepting commissioned pay and
the new $500 discharge payment.
7 April An amphibian version of the PBY flying boat
was ordered from Consolidated. This aircraft, the first 1 July A standard system of numbering patrol
successful amphibian patrol plane procured by the squadrons in reference to wings was adopted by which


1939—Continued 24 August The Acting Secretary approved the
detailing of a medical officer to the Bureau of
the first digit of a squadron designation number Aeronautics for the purpose of establishing an Aviation
became the same as the wing to which it was attached. Medical Research Unit.

1 July By Executive Order, the Aeronautical Board, 30 August Lieutenant Commander Thurston B. Clark,
the Joint Board (later Joint Chiefs of Staff), the Joint flying a twin-engined XJO-3 equipped with tricycle
Economy Board and the Munitions Board all previ- landing gear, made 11 landings aboard and take-offs
ously functioning by an understanding between the from Lexington off Coronado Roads, thereby demon-
Secretary of War and the Secretary of the Navy, strating the basic adaptability of twin-engined aircraft
began functioning under the direction and supervi- and of tricycle landing gear to carrier operations.
sion of the president as Commander-in-Chief of the
Army and Navy. 5 September The president proclaimed the neutrali-
ty of the United States in the European War and direct-
13 July A Fleet Air Tactical Unit was authorized by ed that the Navy organize a Neutrality Patrol. In com-
the Chief of Naval Operations to provide research and plying therewith, the Chief of Naval Operations
advisory activities relating to operational use of new ordered the Commander, Atlantic Squadron to estab-
aircraft. lish combined air and ship reconnaissance of the sea
approaches to the United States and West Indies for
4 August Yorktown and Enterprise made successful the purpose of reporting and tracking any belligerent
launchings of SBC-3 and O3U-3 aircraft from flight air, surface, or underwater units in the area.
deck and hangar deck catapults in the first practical
demonstration of launching aircraft from carriers by 8 September The president proclaimed the exis-
means of a hydraulic flush-deck catapult and in the tence of a limited national emergency and directed
first demonstrations of catapulting aircraft from the measures for strengthening national defenses within
hangar deck. the limits of peacetime authorizations.

Scout-Observation O3U-1 amphibious version 1061651


1939—Continued 14 October The Naval Aircraft Factory was autho-
rized to develop radio control equipment for use in
11 September In the first redeployment of patrol remote controlled flight-testing of aircraft so that dives,
squadrons on the Neutrality Patrol, VP-33, equipped pullouts, and other maneuvers could be performed
with Catalinas, transferred from the Canal Zone to near the aircraft’s designed strength without risking
Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, for operations over the the life of a test pilot.
Caribbean. Two days later, the Catalinas of VP-51
arrived at San Juan, P.R., from Norfolk, Va., to patrol 1 December Ensign A. L. Terwilliger was designated
the southern approaches to the Caribbean through the a Master Horizontal Bomber, the first Naval Aviator in
Lesser Antilles. a fleet squadron to so qualify.

21 September VP-21, with 14 PBY aircraft, took off 8 December To effect a higher degree of coordina-
from Pearl Harbor, T.H., for the Philippines via tion in research, the Secretary of the Navy directed that
Midway, Wake and Guam, and with its arrival became the Bureaus of Aeronautics and Ordnance acting sepa-
the first patrol unit in the Asiatic Fleet since 1932. This rately, and the Bureaus of Engineering and Construction
squadron and another which arrived later the next and Repair, acting as one unit, designate an officer to
year, were the nucleus of Patrol Wing 10, formed in head a section in the respective Bureaus devoted to sci-
ence and technology and also to act as a liaison officer
the Philippines in December 1940.
with the Naval Research Laboratory and as a member of
the Navy Department Council for Research. By the
1 October To achieve an immediate expansion of
same order, the duties performed in the Office of the
pilot training, the syllabus was revised to set up a pro-
Chief of the Naval Operations concerned with research
gram of concentrated instruction which reduced the
and invention were transferred to the Office of the
length of the training period from 12 to 6 months. The
Secretary and placed under the administration of the
new program provided a primary course in landplanes Director, Naval Research Laboratory.
and a basic phase in service landplanes and instru-
ment flying for all students, and restricted each student 20 December A contract was issued to Consolidated
in the advanced program to specialization in either for 200 PBY type aircraft to support an increase in
patrol and utility aircraft, observation planes, or carrier patrol plane squadrons growing out of Neutrality
aircraft. Ground school was similarly concentrated and Patrol requirements. This was the largest single order
shortened from 33 to 18 weeks. for naval aircraft since the end of World War I.

OS2U Kingfisher used on shipboard and for inshore patrol 407887 The landing signal officer waves off an SB2U 1053782


SB2U-1 ready for take-off from Saratoga 105378

Lexington, Yorktown,
Ranger and Enterprise

98 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 Camera man in SU-1 shoots oblique photograph 458706 Curtiss SBC-4 Marine Corps Scout dive bomber 16455 Vought SBU-1 Scout dive bomber 1061653 .

UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 99 Curtiss XF11-C was later redesignated XBF2C-1 46266 The Douglas RD-2 amphibian in executive colors 5206 .

the base for aircraft squadrons. Quantico.100 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 Marine Corps field. 1931. east coast expeditionary force 1053789 .

all doubts as to the the fleet. Exploding depth charge and line of splashes from machinegun bul- sives. Its military forces trained the land. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 101 PART 5 World War II 1940–1945 T hirty years after the Navy had acquired its first air- plane. These offensives were made unnecessary as the lets bring the end of German submarine 44360 101 . planes and equipment. drove them from strategically located bases. That our own forces had the kernel of a simi. aircraft carrier. and then carry- ing out the bitterly contested task of driving him homeward across the broad expanse of an island-dot- ted sea. Navy and Marine pilots Air operations on the Atlantic side. CAP. and only 19 years after it had acquired its first awesome destructive power of the atom was released upon Hiroshima and Nagasaki. When it was called upon to carry the fight to fought entirely in the air without opposing surface the enemy. in a few short months. words like air support. offense. and placed the allied forces in position to launch final air and amphibious offen. In the Pacific. naval engagements were of war.000 enemy aircraft in the air and on pation in three amphibious operations. CIC. power. tronics. But aided by its distance from the enemy and fortunate in its industrial power. bogie. lar potential was demonstrated on a much smaller Refueling and replenishment at sea were developed to scale as carrier forces struck the first retaliatory blows. were essential- ly a blockade and a campaign to protect ships deliver- ing raw materials to our factories and war munitions and reinforcements to our Allies. The country was hardly ready for either campaign. advances in technology. New words and phrases ahead to become the very backbone of fleet striking entered the aviator’s lexicon. 5. effort in both the development of specialized equip- inated a major portion of the Navy’s heavy surface ment and in the application of scientific principles to power. a high art and increased the mobility and staying The geographic position of the United States put it power of fleet forces.233 aircraft of all types includ- ing trainers. scramble and If it had not already been shown in combat before splash.900 pilots and 21. it not only carried out its tasks. it was a matter of stopping an enemy advance which. destroyed over 15. the United States built the ships. 5.678 enlisted men. particularly in elec- potency of naval air power were removed by the infa. cut off their raw materials. had spread over all the western and parts of the south and central Pacific. The scientist contributed directly to the war when Japanese carrier aircraft in one swift stroke elim. sea and air forces that ultimately beat down the enemy. operational tactics. yet skillfully executed attack on Pearl Harbor. JATO. improved the defense and added power to the mous. and a few advanced air bases. hunter-killer. 5 patrol wings and 2 Marine aircraft wings. The Navy and Marine Corps air arms could muster only 7 large and 1 small aircraft carriers. but forged forces sighting each other. squarely between two wars that had little in common. except for partici. Radar pierced the night and gave new eyes to the United States entered the war. Logistics took on new importance. In the course of the war. Naval Aviation faced the supreme test For the first time in history.

theories. Croft close air support for troops. including 13 24 February The Bureau of Aeronautics issued a submarines. but carrier speed. operations conducted at anchor on 15 May. sank 447 Japanese contract for television equipment. but radio-controlled aircraft be converted to offensive the Navy’s air arm did not play an entirely indepen.S. Charles H. sank 174 Japanese warships. As an epilogue to preliminary armor and self-sealing fuel tanks.000 tons of war and 200.000 tons and. Jr. Fleet activities were ments in the tradition of Trafalgar and Jutland was no authorized to apply additional National Star Insignia doubt as great as that of the air power theorists who on the sides of the fuselage or hull of aircraft so had seen their predictions go awry. Lieutenant . Mass. vulnerability. (In combina. noting that reports on air operations in the 25 April Wasp was commissioned at Boston. This board 4 January Project Baker was established in Patrol was established incidental to legislation directing the Wing 1 for the purpose of conducting experiments War Department to undertake governmental develop- with blind landing equipment. and in providing merchant ships and another six Japanese and 20 target and guidance information necessary should German submarines. striking power. tigating these forms of protection for two years. was attractive because it promised to combine a high The bombing tests of the 1920s proved to some that navies were obsolete and that no ship could again speed of near 500 mph with a very low takeoff operate within the range of land-based air. 15 February Commander-in-Chief. but such support was at the University of Iowa. was hoisted formal statement of need gave added impetus and over the side for takeoff and was recovered by the accelerated procurement and installation of both ship while underway. Although the Noa (DD 343) reported on successful operations con- Bureaus of Aeronautics and Ordnance had been inves. It ated at the Naval Aircraft Factory with the establish- had also become clear that neither could exert as ment of a project for adapting radio controls to a tor- much force by itself as it could with the aid of air pedo-carrying TG-2 airplane. operation. contributing its full share to 27 February Development of the “Flying Flapjack. had become exceedingly clear that neither an Army nor a Navy could either survive or achieve an objec. This design. in the transmitter. to investigate the possibili- proven not only possible but indispensable. and receiver. based upon the research of war on the effect of air power on naval operations a former NACA engineer. 22 March Development of guided missiles was initi- tive in war without first achieving air superiority. The disappointment 19 March To assist in the identification of U. O. ducted off the Delaware Capes in which an XSOC-1. Many of the opinions expressed before the prototype). including camera. but generalities are often scale flying model (as distinguished from a military misleading. Such equipment promised to be useful both tion with other agents. as an inte- gral part of naval forces. recommended that naval aircraft be equipped with leak-proof or self-sealing fuel tanks and 20 May The Commanding Officer of the destroyer with armor for pilots and observers.. this piloted by Lieutenant George L.600. U. Advocates of independent air power 29 February The Bureau of Aeronautics initiated questioned both the possibility and the usefulness of action that led to a contract with Professor H. weapons.000 tons of radio-controlled structural flight tests.102 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 the ground.) It was a creditable record.S.000 tons. By test of war it employed. who questioned the importance of the airplane to navies were equally off the mark. task force operations in the war gave little credence to such conclusions. destroyed 63 German U-boats.. Zimmerman. ment of rotary-wing aircraft. Reeves. Aviation had indeed come of age.” the power of the fleet and to the achievement of its a fighter aircraft with an almost circular wing. were shown up as misconceived. merchant ships totaling 1. It operated as it had developed. Fleet (COM- INCH). initiated with notice of a contract award to Vought- Many have said that World War II witnessed the full Sikorsky Aircraft for the design of the V-173—a full- development of aviation. Those ties of a turbojet propulsion unit for aircraft. air- of naval officers who visualized decisive fleet engage. Heap. was mission in controlling the sea. European War stressed the need of reducing aircraft Captain John W. Navy and Marine air helped in transmitting instrument readings obtained from sink another 157. if not false. craft on the Neutrality Patrol. totaling 746. 23 April Commander Donald Royce was designated 1940 to represent the Navy on an Army Air Corps Evaluation Board for rotary-wing aircraft. dent role. commanding. that was capable of airborne Atlantic.

S. erally known as the Tizard Mission after its senior rization for an increase in aircraft carrier tonnage of member Sir Henry Tizard. and a information was expected on matters concerning avia- revision of authorized aircraft strength to 4. ning 1 July. of exchange actually achieved surpassed expectations so that the coming of the Tizard Mission served as a 15 June Congress revised its previous action and set benchmark in the interchange of scientific and techni- the aircraft ceiling at 10. dential approval. and not more than 48 use- ful airships. and plane handling equipment.000 useful airplanes. Division 14 devel- Naval Hospital. Hutchins. Mission of scientific and technical information con- borne radar. plans for an expanded flight training program calling for the assignment of 150 students per month begin. Willis. Although research on the problems of rockets. Shortcomings in craft carrier limits set the previous month. to the time. 17 August Section T (so called for its Chairman. National Defense 300 per month within a year. two of his associates.000 useful planes. Philadelphia. Research Committee. free exchange of 79. and a new the plane hoisting gear led to removal of the aviation aircraft ceiling of 15. lished general ground rules for exchange of scientific and technical information with a British mission.000 tons in the air- Leutze. In October 1943. Del. after limit. and representa- 14 July The initial meeting of what became the tives of the U. E. or John A. Dr. Loomis. The act also equipment from the first three ships prior to their join. Army and Navy including Lieutenant National Defense Research Committee’s Division 14. for the research that culmi- war. including air. Among its members were officers of the War and nated in the radio VT fuze for anti-aircraft guns and Navy Departments appointed by the respective both radio and photoelectric VT fuzes for bombs and Secretaries. 19 July Authorization for a further expansion of the 481. Bowles and Hugh H. some time and the decision to undertake development followed receipt from the Tizard Mission of reports of 25 June The Chief of Naval Operations promulgated British progress. L. this organization made substantial contributions in various 29 August The exchange with the British Tizard fields of importance to Naval Aviation. Eight days later. Stevens. and Navy provided an increase of 200. this group defined its mission as “to obtain the most effec- Heap made an emergency flight transferring a stricken tive military application of microwaves in minimum seaman from Noa in Harbor of Refuge. (AEDO) designation was abolished and all men of proximity fuzes with particular emphasis on anti-air- appointed to that special duty were designated for craft use. oped airborne radar used in the Navy for aircraft inter- ception. In general. Halford. was attended by Alfred L. In this niques for detecting German bombers but touched . cerning radar began at a conference attended by Sir Henry Tizard. including cal information regarding World War II weaponry. plane.500 tons over the limits set 17 May 1938. gen- 14 June The Naval Expansion Act included autho. The degree airplanes. 850 for the Naval Reserve. Stanly. including the field later called radar. tial conference dealt primarily with the British tech- Ralph Bowen. Carnegie scientific research on the mechanisms and devices of Institution of Washington. a contract was issued to Defense Research Committee to correlate and support the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism. was established to examine the feasibility of various approaches to developing a prox- 27 June The president established a National imity fuze. 12 August The Bureau of Ordnance requested informally that the National Defense Research 25 June The Aeronautical Engineering Duty Only Committee sponsor development. The ini- Radar Division. were selected subsequently. Moreno of the Bureau of Aeronautics. destroyers of the DD 445-class be equipped with cata- pult. Pringle. airborne early warning and other more spe- 27 May The Secretary of the Navy directed that six cialized applications.. ed aircraft operations by Stevens and Halford.” In carrying out this mission. DDs 476. allowed further increases in aircraft strength on presi- ing the fleet in early 1943. on a priority basis. flight was specifically excluded from its functions. and a regular increase to an entry rate of Merle A. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 103 1940—Continued and subsequent meetings with other scientists. Such fuzes had been under consideration for Engineering Duty Only (EDO). aviation equipment was ordered removed from them and plans 5 August The Chief Of Naval Operations estab- for its installation on Leutze were canceled.500 useful tion. Tuve) of Division A. Pa.

was in addition to Nautilus (SS 168) which had demonstrated her ability to refuel patrol planes and 15 November Naval air operations began from had conducted a successful test dive to 300 feet with Bermuda. Patrol Wings Patrol Force. First to operate were the planes of Patrol aviation gasoline aboard. Jamaica. Rear Admiral Harold G. as principal scientific and developmental mobilizing the aviation squadrons. Bowen. St. first of recommendation by the General Board. Commander. was commissioned at authorized submarines be equipped to carry aviation Philadelphia. aircraft could cover strategically important sea aviation was transferred from Scouting Force to Patrol approaches to our coast and to the Panama Canal. 24 October An administrative command for patrol sure growing out of this exchange of particular impor. Force. Antigua. except those United States for a period of 99 years. was to become instru- one third to be ordered to active duty by 7 November mental in many aspects of airborne radar develop- and all by 1 January 1941. surface Scouting Force under the combined command vessel detection (ASV) and aircraft identification (IFF). Atlantic Squadron. Badger (DD 196). In variety of British radio echo equipment (radar). Fleet and Commander. 28 October The Chief of Naval Operations reported that aircraft with some form of armor and fuel protec- 2 September In exchange for 50 four-stack destroy. 5 October The Secretary of the Navy placed all divi- sions and aviation squadrons of the Organized Reserve 11 November The first general meeting of the on short notice for call to active duty and granted Radiation Laboratory was held at the Massachusetts authority to call Fleet Reservists as necessary. Pa. ment. which called for agency of Division 14 of NDRC.S. 16 November The Bureau of Aeronautics estab- lished a catapult procurement program for Essex class 11 October The Technical Aide to the Secretary of carriers. Trinidad. Argonaut (SF 7) which were being altered to carry 19. rized use of the abbreviation. by formal agreement ceded to the that within a year all fleet aircraft. This commanding. In addition to identification 18 November The Chief of Naval Operations autho- equipment and ship-based radar. sites for naval assigned Patrol Wing 2. British developments of shipboard and airborne radar were also discussed. aviation in the Atlantic Squadron was set up under the tance for airborne radar application was the cavity title. which was formed in place of the Atlantic Squadron as a fleet command parallel to Scouting 3 October The Chief of Naval Operations requested Force. “Patrol Wings. One flight deck catapult and one athwartships the Navy. and British Guiana. the Bureau of Navigation announced plans for Laboratory. and extended 1 November A reorganization of the fleet changed similar rights freely and without consideration for the administrative organization of aviation by dividing bases in Bermuda and Newfoundland. (radar) which formed the basis for the Navy’s pre-war development program. Acquisition of the forces between two oceans.. proposed a hangar deck catapult were to be installed on each of program for development of radio ranging equipment 11 carriers.” in unclassified ed an airborne radar for surface search. “Aircraft. and air bases in the Bahamas. that 24 of the two ships of her class.” on meetings. includ. correspondence and conversation and directed that . Patrol Wings U.104 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1940—Continued 23 October Within the Atlantic Squadron. a tube capable of generating high power radio waves of a few centimeters in length. and set up under Commander. Great Britain. In the Atlantic. Aircraft Scouting Force.000 gallons of aviation gasoline each. tled.” magnetron. On the Institute of Technology (MIT). This was the begin- these sites advanced our sea frontiers several hundred ning of the independent development of forces miles and provided bases from which naval ships and according to strategic requirements. A British disclo. Commander Samuel P. Aircraft Patrol the Naval Attaché in London to obtain samples of a Force and Commander. Ginder gasoline for delivery to seaplanes on the water. an admin- istrative command was set up for carrier aviation enti- upon means of identifying friendly aircraft. and to Narwhal (SC 1) and Squadron 54 based on George E. The Radiation 24th. the Pacific. Atlantic Squadron. 9 October The Secretary of the Navy approved a 15 November The seaplane tender Curtiss. Patrol Wings remained attached to ing aircraft installations for interception (AI). Lucia. would have such protection. In follow. tion were just beginning to go into service use. and ers. this program includ. “RADAR.

. to those of least radio control had been successfully flight-tested contrast to the background. in Vienna. thus initiating a Lend-Lease pro. white and blue rudder 26 April The Naval Aircraft Factory project officer stripes mandatory. was estab. 28 March The Commanding Officer of Yorktown patrol planes were to be light gray except for surfaces after five months operational experience with the seen from above which were to be blue gray. Radio Detection Equipment. which by one radioman from each of five patrol wings. The demonstra- tion. ored tail markings. markings added National Star Insignia to both sides of led Section T of the National Defense Research the fuselage or hull and eliminated those on the upper Committee to concentrate upon the radio-proximity right and lower left wings. Price commanding.” No change (Glomb) was initiated at the Naval Aircraft Factory. ment landing equipment which was being procured for all patrol aircraft and their bases. the Naval Aircraft of the United States. Atlantic Fleet. discontinued the use of col. by a powered aircraft. and had been fired from a 37-mm pack howitzer. or sonde. or Pulse Radio Equipment. reported that aircraft had been tracked at a distance of 100 miles and recommended that friendly aircraft be equipped with electronic identifi- 1941 cation devices and carriers be equipped with sepa- 1 February The Atlantic and Pacific Fleets were rate and complete facilities for tracking and plotting established. that radio tubes and batteries could be construct- 26 February An extensive modification of aircraft ed sufficiently rugged to withstand firing from a gun. and guided by radio control in its attack. CXAM radar. 11 March The president was empowered by an act of Congress to provide goods and services to those 30 April In an initial step towards establishing a nations whose defense he deemed vital to the defense glider development program. of the target to the control plane. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 105 1940—Continued 1941. Va. Atlantic Fleet. using radio instru. Va. beyond the safe bounds of piloted flight and that the information thus obtained had been of great value in 1 March Support Force.and 24-place . was made in the Pacific Fleet aviation organization at The Glomb was designed to be towed long distances this time. Atlantic 19 April Development of a Guided Glider Bomb Fleet” and “Patrol Wings. Its component patrol squadrons were placed under a Patrol Wing established at the 28 April Pocomoke. that fleet aircraft be painted in non-specular colors. the phrase. be used in lieu of terms such as Radio Ranging 17 March The Chief of the Bureau of Aeronautics Equipment. released in the vicinity of the target. As and implements of war were delivered to our allies. ous November and changing the titles of aviation commands in the Atlantic Fleet to “Aircraft. radio transmissions during its flight. work progressed and requirements were further clari- Archer (BAVG 1) was transferred on 17 November fied. completing the division begun the previ. It was 10 February As an initial step in training patrol equipped with a television camera to transmit a view plane pilots to make blind landings. committee to review promptly the status of jet propul- sion and recommend plans for its application to flight 30 December The Bureau of Aeronautics directed and assisted takeoff.. except the National Insignia. overcoming flutter encountered at various speeds and lished for operations on the convoy routes across accelerations. made by two radiomen from each of five Naval Air Stations. all radar targets. Radio Echo approved a proposal for establishing a special NACA Equipment. Ship-based aircraft were to be light gray all over. fuselage bands and cowl markings. was commissioned at Portsmouth. as a radio oscillator. Radio Detection and Ranging Equipment. Commander John D. the North Atlantic. development was initiated for 12. as the first of 38 escort carriers transferred to the United Kingdom during the war. Factory was requested to undertake preliminary design gram under which large quantities of the munitions of a personnel and equipment transport glider. This ponents of a radio-proximity fuze was made at a farm was attended by one pilot from each of 13 squadrons. reported that an unmanned O3U-6 airplane under ings. fuze for anti-aircraft guns. and changed the color of all mark. first of two seaplane tenders of same time. a one-month 20 April The first successful test of electronic com- course of instruction began under Project Baker. made removal of vertical red. her class.

. patrols over the North Atlantic convoy routes. directed that the metal-clad airship. 2 May Fleet Air Photographic Unit. Originally designated AVG 1. and was the Navy’s first 30 April Commanding Officer. on the basis of readiness to repel any and all acts or able for use in radio-controlled assault drones. 3 May Project Roger was established at the Naval Aircraft Factory to install and test airborne radar equip- ment. 15 May The seaplane tender Albemarle arrived at Argentia. This marked the craft. threats of aggression directed toward any part of the Western Hemisphere. of newly developed jet-assisted takeoff (JATO) 415346 8 May The establishment of Aviation Repair Units 1 development program. takeoff unit for use on patrol planes. Wing. preceding by one day the establishment of a similar unit in the Atlantic Fleet under Commander. and civilian defenses be put America for the development of a radio altimeter suit.. Navy’s entry into the field that later came to be called jet assisted takeoff (JATO). be sal- vaged and the car complete with engines. a dramatic demonstration of the utility bombing and in radio control of aircraft. Md. Aircraft Battle Force. N. ZMC-2. directed towards utilizing jet repair and maintenance personnel ready for overseas reaction for aircraft propulsion. Patrol Wings Atlantic.106 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1941—Continued 21 May The Bureau of Aeronautics requested the Engineering Experiment Station. had been flown over 2. The ZMC-2. naval. deployment as advanced bases were established. Support Force operations and to prepare for the Navy. was convert- ed from the cargo ship Mormacmail 26567 . to amphibian gliders to be constructed of wood or plastic undertake development of a liquid-fueled assisted by firms not already engaged in building military air. 27 May The president proclaimed that an unlimited 10 May The Naval Aircraft Factory reported that it national emergency confronted the country. NAS Lakehurst. requiring was negotiating with the Radio Corporation of that its military. Pacific. other than jet exhaust from and 2 was directed to provide a nucleus of aircraft reciprocating engines. Navy. completed in August 1929. first escort carrier of the U.S. Duncan commanding. was commissioned at Newport News. Annapolis.250 hours. air. Long Island was a flush- Long Island. the first squadron to fly Commander Donald B.. instruments and appurtenances be assigned to the Lighter-Than-Air Ground School at Lakehurst.S. Va. Newfoundland. was established under Commander. imminent arrival of VP-52.J. Its principal assignment involved support of the Radiation Laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Naval Research Laboratory in vari- ous radar applications including search and blind Launching a PBM Mariner. to establish a base for Patrol 2 June Long Island. first escort carrier of the U.

Va. Hunsaker served as coordinator until Medical Research. Navy to under Commander. Jerome C. Its squadrons operated from Norfolk. and the craft in Patrol Wing 7 squadrons.S. Iceland during the last months of the neutrality patrol. Ships. Commander John D. with a Navy contract 17 July The organization for development of prox- to Northrop Aircraft for the design of an aircraft gas imity fuzes was realigned so that Section T could turbine developing 2.. and a Naval armament installations of increasing complexity. which retained its original name. to test and evaluate the cognizance of the Bureau of Ships. Iceland. and catapult launch. It was the first of its type in the Marine Corps and the first of five wings 4 June The Naval Aircraft Factory reported that organized during the war period. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 107 1941—Continued 7 July The First Marine Aircraft Wing. was placed PBY-5 of VP-71. 11 June An Aircraft Armament Unit was formed at 12 July The Naval Research Laboratory was trans- NAS Norfolk. takeoff.215 pounds. in May to fit out new patrol aircraft and installation of identification equipment (IFF) was made to indoctrinate new crews in their use. Va. Lieutenant Colonel Louis E. Calif. 18 July Aviation was given representation on the 3 July The Seaplane tender Barnegat. Initial Norfolk. to Section E of the National Defense Research ing from an escort carrier were made aboard Long Committee at the National Bureau of Standards. Aircraft Scouting Force. Research and Development Board was established in the Office of the Secretary of the Navy composed of 28 June To strengthen the provisions for utilizing representatives of the Chief of Naval Operations and science in war. In mid-September radar was and set up as separate commands. Price commanding. Newfoundland and and established as Patrol Wing 7. Va.I. 4 July Planes of Patrol Squadron 72. to cover the arrival the carrier-plane phase of flight training be given time of Marine Corps garrison units from the United States. were expanded about the same time.. was redesignated advanced bases on Greenland. based on Goldsborough (DD 188). and shortly thereafter for other air- under Commander. flew protective patrols from 21 July The requirement that all students assigned to Reykjavik. Davis as Officer-in-Charge. VP-72.. Commander Felix L. was commissioned at Bremerton. Captain Henry M. Support Force.. in each of the three basic aircraft types was abolished. Island. Va.500-hp at a weight of less than devote its entire effort to radio-proximity fuzes for 3. December when he was relieved by Rear Admiral Julius A. Responsibility for photoelectric and radio fuzes for bombs and rockets was transferred 1 July The first landing. of the Joint Board was revised to include the Deputy Wash. Ordnance. Va. until the 17th. and 1 July Patrol Wing. by Lieutenant Commander William D. R. Patrol Wings Atlantic. Thereby the Wing Norfolk unit became Operational Training Squadron became the first operational unit of the U. development of airborne television had progressed to the point that signals transmitted by this means could 8 July Patrol Wing 8 was established at Norfolk. The San Diego issued for five additional PBM-1s of VP-74 and one Unit. Chief of Staff for Air and the Chief of the Bureau of Aeronautics. reported that British type 1 July The Test. anti-aircraft projectiles. and Scientific Research and Development and included in Yards and Docks. Senior Support Force Staff Officer. be used to alter the course of the transmitting plane.. commanding officer of VS-201. Carney. with Lieutenant Commander William ferred from the Office of the Secretary of the Navy to V. composed of a Headquarters Squadron and Marine Air Group 1... Baker commanding. the president created the Office of the Bureaus of Aeronautics. under command of cargo ship Mormacmail. first of 26 highest of the Army and Navy boards as membership ships of her class. and VP-73 and two PBM-1s of VP-74. and led by a civilian scientist with its organization the National Defense Research the title Coordinator of Research and Development. and 71.. Quonset Point. Mullinix commanding. . was deck carrier converted in 67 working days from the organized at Quantico. Furer. Acceptance and Indoctrination Units ASV radar has been installed in one PBY-5 each of VP- that had been established at San Diego. 30 June Turboprop engine development was initiat- ed as a joint Army-Navy project. Anderson. Woods. be supplied with radar-equipped aircraft. 18 July Commander James V. Committee and a newly established Committee on Dr.

Operational radars which were of the Bureau of Aeronautics and the Bureau of developed from this equipment were capable of Supplies and Accounts. Radiation Laboratory the National Defense Research Committee and the scientists operated the radar and devised modifications Naval Research Laboratory to develop an interceptor while naval personnel from Project Roger (usually radar suitable for installation in single engine. would be installed in some F4Us and a British AI Mk nated Transition Training Squadron. to establish within er direction centers. the Chief of Naval Operations a “Tentative Doctrine for Fighter Direction from directed that action be taken as expeditiously as prac. 6 August In recognition of the radical change which radar was causing in the method of using fighters to 28 July To establish a continuing organization for protect the fleet. Indicator (PPI) was given its initial airborne test in the XJO-3 at Boston Airport. Pa. Short range primary task of providing familiarization. and to Long range search radar (British ASV or American assign a number of patrol squadrons in each fleet the ASA) was to be installed in patrol planes. radar-guided approaches 1 October The Aviation Supply Office was estab- against simulated enemy aircraft were achieved at lished at Philadelphia. Bureau of Aeronautics issued a indoctrinate newly designated Naval Aviators in the preliminary plan for installing radar in naval aircraft. were loaded aboard Wasp at Norfolk. for transport to Reykjavik. pedo plane in each section commencing with the TBF while space needed for search radar was to be 28 July The Operational Training Squadron of the reserved in new scout-dive-bombers and scout-obser- Atlantic Fleet. Naval Aviator No. and San Diego. scout bombers or torpedo radar applications to guided missiles. surface vessels were detected at ranges up to 40 miles. This marked the initiation of training in either fighters. indoctrina. 6 August Patrol Squadrons 73 and 74 initiated rou- 25 July Thirty P-40s and three primary training tine air patrols from Reykjavik. Gates. Iceland. to provide centralized control searching a circular area and included the ASG for K. Army Air Forces. Va. respectively. Kullberg) piloted the aircraft. cal materials regularly maintained in the general stock. Advanced Carrier Training groups to 7 August The Chief. and recognition equipment in all installation of a Radar Plot aboard carriers as “the service airplanes. Calif. which 9 September The Bureau of Aeronautics requested continued through 16 October. Atlantic and IV radar was being installed in an SBD with a view to Pacific. seat fighters such as the F4U. its use as an interim interceptor. ships equipped with radar immediately organize fight- ing in the pilot training program. over North planes of the 33rd Pursuit Squadron. and the Test. 1 August The Bureau of Aeronautics requested the 8 October Organizational provision for guided mis- Naval Research Laboratory to develop radar guidance siles was made in the fleet by the establishment of .. search radar (British Mk II ASV modified for Fleet Air tion. Iceland. During the test flights. 65 and member of the First Yale Unit of World War I. Va. operation of current model carrier aircraft. brain of the organization” protecting the fleet from air attack. both to relay target information to a control operator and to serve as auto- and the practice of assigning students to specialized matic homing equipment. the Atlantic and Pacific Fleets at Norfolk. Interception equipment.5 miles. structure of Hornet. planes began. The first installation was planned for the island 5 September Artemus L. Indoctrination Unit of the Pacific Fleet were redesig. Aircraft Carriers” and directed that carriers and other ticable to provide additional gunnery and tactical train. under the joint cognizance ranges up to 3. The plan also includ- ed installation of appropriate radio altimeters in patrol 29 July The Secretary of the Navy approved the and torpedo planes. single Chief Aviation Pilot C.. when available. advanced gunnery and tactical training for new Arm or American ASB) was to be installed in one tor- flight crews.108 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1941—Continued equipment for assault drones. Atlantic convoy routes. over the procurement and distribution of all aeronauti- type airships and the AN/APS-2 for patrol planes. Acceptance and vation planes. During the tests. the first to hold the office since the Radiation Laboratory and featuring a Plan Position the resignation of David S. the Chief of Naval Operations issued training flight crews.. took the oath of office as Assistant Secretary of the 1 August A Microwave (AI-10) radar developed by Navy for Aeronautics.. L. Ingalls in 1932.

operate as a part of the Navy subject to the orders of the Secretary of the Navy. ed to shore-based airplanes except trainers. 1941.. The three aircraft carriers of the Pacific Fleet were not Va. R. just out of overhaul. the president or “aerial torpedo”—to be flown into enemy bomber directed that. Captain Marc A. Quonset Point. aircraft burning from attack by Japanese Carrier- based air 19948 . E. a 3-cm aircraft intercept radar was completed. 13 October The Bureau of Aeronautics directed that all fleet aircraft be painted non-specular light gray 18 November Doctor L.I. first of two aircraft fer- 20 October Hornet was commissioned at Norfolk. was the at San Diego. commanding. DuBridge of the except for surfaces seen above which were to be blue. The tests were carried Thomas U. Saratoga. although it was not yet apparent. 26 November Kitty Hawk. with Lieutenant Commander R. located the submarine S-48. Assignment of these aircraft.. was the first move “Special Project Dog” in Utility Squadron 5. a PBY from NAS Quonset Point. Mitscher commanding. Rogers Va. was moored the British and painted with British markings. Calif. actually destined for present. this color scheme was extend.. until further orders the Coast Guard formations and exploded. December 7. A. In late December. VJ-5 was also directed to develop a radio-controlled fighter plane—“aerial ram” 1 November By Executive Order. a planned full complement of PBO-1s at NAS Norfolk. Radiation Laboratory reported that the initial design of gray. ries. Lexington was at sea about 425 beginning of what became an extensive use of land miles southeast of Midway toward which she was Pearl Harbor Sunday morning. train personnel in their use. 29 October Patrol Squadron 82 received the first of and on the military and air installations in the area. Hawaii. out in cooperation with the National Defense Research Committee. Commander C. was commissioned. Sisson as prospective commanding officer. 7 December Japanese carrier aircraft launched a devastating attack on ships at Pearl Harbor.I. to test and toward the eventual elimination of the flying boat operate radio-controlled offensive weapons and to from patrol aviation. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 109 1941—Continued planes by patrol squadrons during the war and. 21 October In tests with MAD gear (Magnetic 1 December Patrol Wing 9 began forming at Airborne Detector).

and specialist personnel to (under the designation XAT) for installation in dive naval activities and fleet forces all over the world. combatant ship sunk by United States aircraft during ering a Marine Fighter Squadron there. began withdrawal from the Philippines. Before the Hawaiian Islands. launched early in the morning to land at Ewa Airfield. used to scout the Hawaiian area in connection with Enterprise was also at sea about 200 miles west of the Pearl Harbor attack and was the first Japanese Pearl Harbor. Brazil. equipped with Catalinas operating from Natal. Atlantic were initiated by Patrol Squadron 52. 10 December Aircraft from Enterprise attacked and with its two patrol squadrons and four seaplane ten- sank the Japanese submarine I-70 in waters north of ders. Her Scouting World War II. 14 December Patrol Wing 10 departed Cavite and. returning from Wake Island after deliv. Hawaii. arrived during the attack and 10 December Antisubmarine patrols over the South engaged enemy aircraft. This radar had Operations to provide rapid air delivery of critical been developed by the Naval Research Laboratory equipment. spare parts. bombers and torpedo planes. This was one of the submarines reaching Australia it operated from various bases along . known as “The Big E” was in almost continuous action during World War II 704377 headed to deliver a Marine Scout Bombing Squadron. 9 December The Secretary of the Navy authorized the Bureau of Ships to contract with the RCA 12 December The Naval Air Transport Service Manufacturing Company for a service test quantity of (NATS) was established under the Chief of Naval 25 sets of ASB airborne search radar. Squadron 6.110 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1920—Continued Enterprise.

patrols from Johnston Island. 15 December Patrol Wing 8 transferred from 25 December Two-plane detachments from Norfolk. sage was printed in several languages. advance through the Netherlands East Indies. Shilling. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 111 1941—Continued chits was the “Barter Kit. and hence the effectiveness. “blood chits” were planes of Patrol Squadron 23 began daily searches of developed. Lieutenant Commander Raymond F. to Alameda. with PBY-5 squadron that was en route to Midway on 7 December Catalinas. Another item similar to blood Ground. led by a PBY of Patrol Wing 1. the first aboard Lexington when reports of the attack on Pearl aviation reinforcements from the Central Pacific to Harbor forced the carrier to turn back short of her reach southwest Pacific Forces opposing the Japanese goal. covering display sible to use a single antenna for both transmission of of National Insignia on aircraft. 18 December Following an operational loss of an American Volunteer Group (Flying Tigers) aircraft and 16 January To protect the advance of Task Force 8 the ensuing confrontation between the pilot. coast. The duplexing switch made it pos. Dahlgren. Va. 17 December Seventeen SB2U-3 Vindicators of 11 January Saratoga. volunteer the waters between their temporary base at Canton group formed by Major General Claire L. returned the star to the the radar pulse and reception of its echo. Eriksen for its strike against the Marshall and Gilbert Islands. and a group of Chinese. useful planes was approved by the president. N. The bat patrols by aircraft in the South Pacific. completing the rine torpedo and forced to retire for repairs. in the Korean and Vietnam wars proximity fuzes were test fired at the Naval Proving and in Desert Storm. Hawaii. first blood chits were printed on silk by Chinese Intelligence and stitched on the back of the 23 January The first naval aircraft to operate in the American’s flight jackets. etc . Calif. Airship Patrol Group 1. was hit by a subma- Midway Island from Oahu. thereby. Calif. Chennault Island and Suva in the Fijis. and 52 percent of the fuzes . Va. 45 minutes. Hawaii.. OS2Us of VS-1-D14. a principal staging base to the South Pacific. 5 January A change in regulations. . The Flying Tigers were a U..500 airborne radar. longest mass flight by single-engine aircraft then on record in 9 hours. while operating at sea 500 VMSB-231. including Balikpapan. The mes. arrived at miles southwest of Oahu.” It was issued during the Cuban Missile Crisis and Vietnam and included the way. Soerabaja.S.000 pilots annually by mid-1943. based in Hawaii. began scouting Service Units (CASU) from four small Service Units. joined Patrol Wing 10 at Ambon. . previously established in the Hawaiian area. Hawaii. if downed. It was the same 11 January Patrol Squadron 22. existed. and Airship Squadron 17 December The Naval Research Laboratory 12. was approved. were established at NAS Lakehurst. of World War II. Mills commanding.J. Marine Corps reinforcements from San Diego. It showed the flag and Samoan Islands. to barter for assistance in the Netherlands East Indies. the upper right and lower left wing surfaces and revised necessity for cumbersome “yagi” antenna no longer rudder striping to 13 red and white horizontal stripes. of World War II 7 January Expansion of Naval Aviation to 27. duplexing antenna switch had been conducted with satisfactory results. a factor which contributed substantially to the reliability. Blood chits were later used by the fast carrier groups in the Pacific 29 January Five-inch projectiles containing radio- during World War II. 18 December Two-plane detachments from Patrol 14 January The formation of four Carrier Aircraft Wings 1 and 2. and Ambon gold coins. . Tyler com- reported that flight tests in a PBY of radar utilizing a manding. Commander George H.500 per month thereby leading to 2 January The first organized lighter-than-air units a production of 20. watches. 16 December The Secretary of the Navy approved an expansion of the pilot training program from the existing schedule of assigning 800 students per month 1942 to one calling for 2. began patrols from Palmyra Island. arrived with promised a reward for assisting the bearer. These were the first com- for operations in the China-Burma-India theater. for duty on the west squadrons at Pearl Harbor and Kaneohe..

112 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1942—Continued Jaluit.S. in 17 February Commander-in-Chief. three and one half months in Intermediate and two or three months in Operational Training. and was divided into three months at Induction Centers. to begin operations from what became a enemy installations on the islands of Wotje. 1 February First U. Carrier Offensive—Task Forces 8 (Vice Admiral William F. 16 February A Navy developed Air-Track blind land- 1 February The Secretary of the Navy announced ing system was in daily use in Iceland for landing fly- that all prospective Naval Aviators would begin their ing boats.. Calif. Halsey) and 17 (Rear 21 February The seaplane tender Curtiss and Admiral Frank J. Halsey) composed of the carrier Enterprise with cruiser and destroyer screen. the University of Georgia and St. 23 February The Bureau of Aeronautics outlined a comprehensive program which became the basis for the wartime expansion of pilot training. gated an advanced base program using the code tion lot. and in July added “Oaks” and “Acorns” for avia- craft batteries and led to immediate small scale pro. Fletcher). Other blind-landing systems were in various training with a three months’ course emphasizing phases of development. and at Del Monte. Mass. depending on type aircraft used. This performance. (Vice Admiral William F. and work on the Ground physical conditioning and conducted by Pre-Flight Controlled Approach system had progressed to the Schools to be established at universities in different point that Navy personnel had made talk-down land- parts of the country. 12 February The Chief of Naval Operations promul- obtained with samples selected to simulate a produc. equipment. rized removal of athwartships hangar deck catapults from Wasp. principal Navy base in the South Pacific during the first year of the war. . 26 February The Navy’s Coordinator of Research and Development requested the National Defense Research Committee to develop an expendable radio Attacking Japanese torpedo plane is shot down by antiaircraft fire sonobuoy for use by lighter-than-air craft in antisub- from carriers raiding Marshall Islands 201986 marine warfare. functional components which developed as the war progressed and which provided planners and com- 30 January The Secretary of the Navy authorized a manders with a means of ordering standardized units glider program for the Marine Corps consisting of of personnel. functioned satisfactorily by proximity to water at the end of a 5-mile trajectory. New Enterprise and Yorktown. Calif. in much the same manner as training and transportation of two battalions of 900 ordering from a mail-order catalogue. U. confirmed that the radio-proximity fuze names “Lion” and “Cub” to designate major and minor would greatly increase the effectiveness of anti-air. and Mili in the Marshall and Gilbert Islands. Yorktown. In place of the existing 7-months course. The training began at the ings at the East Boston (Commonwealth) Airport.. tion bases. in January 1943. and material to meet any small and large types in sufficient numbers for the special need in any area. the new program required eleven and one half months for pilots of single or twin-engine aircraft and twelve and one half months for four-engine pilots. Fleet autho- June. Makin.S. attacked Wake Island. This was the beginning of a concept of duction of the fuze. men each. Universities of North Carolina and Iowa in May. built around the carriers Patrol Squadron 14 arrived at Noumea. Enterprise and Hornet. 24 February First Wake Island Raid—A striking force. Kwajalein. three months in Primary. bases. Mary’s College. bombed and bombarded Caledonia.

on 17 February. Research Committee directly to the Office of Scientific Newfoundland.000 miles of Japan to launch air 29 March The forward echelon of Marine Fighter attacks on Marcus Island. Squadron 212 arrived at Efate to construct an air strip from which the squadron initiated operations in the 7 March Patrol Wing 10 completed withdrawal from New Hebrides on 27 May. . to Squantum. television camera mounted in the drone. 300 feet directly astern of the target and passed lished under the Naval Air Transport Service during under it. had arrived at Bora Bora.. launched from type commands for ships and aviation. Aircraft Repair Units 1 and 2 were by the K-5 blimp and the S-20 submarine. piloting a transfer of Section T from the National Defense Lockheed Hudson. under command of Johns Hopkins University agreed to operate a labora- Commander William D. This was one of several important steps in of the practice of naming air groups for the carriers to the transition of the radio-proximity fuze from devel- which they were assigned. which 483) steaming at 15 knots in Narragansett Bay... 10 April A reorganization of the Pacific Fleet abol- ished the Battle and Scouting Forces and set up new 10 March A carrier air strike. formerly Salamaua. and established headquarters in Perth. was redesignated Carriers.000-foot Owen Stanley Mountains on Carriers. inaugurated Taylor utilized a view of the target obtained by a air operations from the Society Islands. Pacific. PBO. the Philippines and the Netherlands East Indies. Washington to the Applied Physics Laboratory at Silver Spring. Va. made a torpedo attack on Aaron Ward (DD 8 March Inshore Patrol Squadron VS-2-D14. and radio reception aboard the blimp was satisfactory up to five 9 April A radio controlled TG-2 drone. Va. and a cargo ship were sunk and other attack 74 miles from her destination while ferrying 32 ships damaged. The buoy merged to form the Advanced Base Aviation Training could detect the sound of the submerged submarine’s Unit (ABATU) at Norfolk. Taylor of Project Fox. Navy. 7 March The practicability of using a radio sono. and Patrol Wings. as part of Navy. With the Lexington and Yorktown in the Gulf of Papua. USNR. control pilot Lieutenant Moulton B. Java. Anderson. Va. and direct- ed the attack so that the torpedo was released about 9 March VR-1. operations along the west coast of Australia. forces in World War II. 10 March A contract with the Office of Scientific 1 March Carrier Replacement Air Group 9 was Research and Development became effective whereby established at NAS Norfolk. AAF P-40s to Tjilatjap. World War II. for patrol 6 April The administrative command Aircraft. Pacific. 7 April To provide aviation maintenance men with buoy in aerial anti-submarine warfare was demonstrat. directed by miles. Australia. Atlantic Fleet. Halsey). advanced bases. flew change. Other steps taken within the next 6 weeks included the organizational 1 March Ensign William Tepuni. opment to large scale production. Atlantic Fleet. Task Force 16 (Vice Admiral William F. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 113 1942—Continued the tip of New Guinea to hit Japanese shipping engaged in landing troops and supplies at Lae and 27 February The seaplane tender Langley. Wildman commanding. a large first carrier of the U. titles of the aviation type commands became over the 15. air units operating over the sea to protect shipping and conduct antisubmarine warfare was vested in the 4 March First Raid on Marcus—Enterprise. One converted light cruiser. the first of 13 VR squadrons estab. moved to within 1. propellers at distances up to three miles. was sunk by enemy air minesweeper. Commander Cyril K. of VP-82 based at Argentia. 2 March Regularly scheduled operations by the Naval Air Transport Service were inaugurated with an 26 March Unity of command over Navy and Army R4D flight from Norfolk. Mass. Va. attacked and sank the U-656 south.S. was established at Norfolk. Conn. It was the first tory which became known as the Applied Physics numbered Air Group in the Navy and marked the end Laboratory.S.. Research and Development and the relocation of most west of Newfoundland—the first German submarine of the Section T staff from the Carnegie Institution of sunk by U. Md. special training required to support air operations at ed in an exercise conducted off New London.

using a BG-2 drone equipped with a television landing troops in Tulagi Harbor. 1942 1061486 18 April Raid on Tokyo—From a position at sea 668 20 April Wasp on special ferry duty out of Glasgow. bombed Japanese transports engaged in Va. Fletcher) with the car- by Project Fox from CAA intermediate field. Hornet sortied from Alameda. Ginea. Halsey) north of the Hawaiian Islands.. Lively. made rendezvous with Enterprise and other twice?” ships of Task Force 16 (Vice Admiral William F. and proceeded across the 24 April A new specification for color of naval air- Pacific to the launching point without making port. Fla. it was the occasion for Winston the Japanese homeland. Fla.. “Who says a Wasp cannot sting Calif. Fitch) with the carrier Lexington south of towed at a speed of eight knots. Utility Squadron VJ-5. naval units including Task Force 11 (Rear Admiral Taylor directed the drone’s crash-dive into a raft being Aubrey W. by turning back the covering carrier force. and Banana River. as night fighter directors.I. When the operation was dupli- Colonel Jimmy H. crash-dived a BG-1 drone into the making contact. Fla. and after stationing an attack . Advanced established to be located at NAS Quonset Point. Key West. damaging several and camera to provide a view of the target. the wreck of San Marcos and Japanese attempt to land at Port Moresby. the carrier Hornet launched 16 B. 19 April Two tests of the feasibility of utilizing drone aircraft as guided missiles were conducted in 4–8 May Battle of Coral Sea—In the first naval Chesapeake Bay. In one. Flying in a sinking one destroyer (4 May). engagement in history fought without opposing ships ing visual direction. joined other Allied control plane 11 miles distant. rier Yorktown. originally named Project Argus was renamed glossy orange yellow on wing and aileron surfaces vis- Project Affirm to avoid confusion with the electronic ible from above while primary trainers were to be fin- element (Argus Unit) of an advanced base. R. Affirm’s official purpose was development and test of night fighter equipment for Navy and Marine Corps 30 April The Air Operational Training Command was aircraft. New a live bomb exploder in the drone failed to detonate. the Louisiades (5 May). Fla. utiliz. Doolittle. Scotland. Task The second and more successful test was conducted Force 17 (Rear Admiral Frank J. craft went into effect. in addition it developed tactics and trained established with headquarters at Jacksonville. Four officers and men for early night fighter squadrons and days later the Naval Air Stations at Jacksonville. for the first attack on cated on 9 May. entered the Mediterranean and launched 47 25s of the 17th AAF Air Group led by Lieutenant RAF Spitfires to Malta.114 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1942—Continued Hornet with B-25 bombers on board enroute to launching point for the first Tokyo raid. Project ished glossy orange-yellow with gray landing gear. Miami. USA. Churchill’s message. 2 April. and their satellite fields were assigned to the new command. The color of service aircraft remained non-specular light gray with non-specular 18 April A Night Fighter Development Unit was blue-gray on surfaces visible from above. miles from Tokyo. Lieutenant Moulton B. trainers were to be finished in glossy aircraft gray with This unit... United States carrier forces stopped a water beyond its target. Papua.

Carrier aircraft located and sank the light carri. The office was craft attacked Task Force 17. 15 May The design of the National Star Insignia was revised by eliminating the red disc in the center of the star.C. which damaged the carrier aviation functions already being performed in his Shokaku. to and was sunk (8 May). McCain reported for duty as Commander. Hawaii. Alaska. on the third and once on the fourth and doing consid- . using five British antiaircraft solid at 7. initiated air transport service in the Pacific. cut F2A-3. abolished in mid-June 1942. 19 raids on Dutch Harbor. a new 10 May The possibility of increasing the range of command established to direct the operations of ten- small aircraft. at their engines and were towed for an hour at 180 knots NAS Anacostia. and use of horizontal red and white rudder strip- ing was discontinued. for operations with the 10th AAF. 10 May Ranger. by operating them as towed gliders. The reduction in takeoff dis- tance was 49 percent. South Pacific. while serv- ing in any capacity in or with the Army. Marine Corps. propellant rocket motors. the subsequent Midway area. on a transatlantic ferry trip. May 1942 17422 15 May The Chief of Naval Operations ordered that an Assistant Chief of Naval Operations (Air) be estab- group in the probable track of the enemy transports. 11 May The president ordered that an Air Medal be established for award to any person who. hitting twice January 1943. McClure and 26 May The feasibility of jet-assisted takeoff was Robert W. P-40 Warhawks of the Army Air Force to Accra. Aircraft.. demonstrated at the Naval Aircraft Factory when Lieutenant Commanders William H. India. from Wash. dive bombers attack the Japanese aircraft carrier Shokaku during the battle of the Coral Sea. Aleutian Islands. Karachi.. scoring hits which dam. office into a new Division of Aviation. The next as would serve the interest of the order. to the North Pacific began with the arrival of which point they were flown in a series of hops to Commander. S. Calif. distin- guishes or has distinguished himself by meritorious achievement while participating in aerial flight. aged Yorktown and set off uncontrollable fires on Lexington. lished to deal with aviation matters directly under the moved northward in search of the enemy covering Vice Chief of Naval Operations and that the Chief of force. piloted by Lieutenant (jg) C. Kodiak. pation of Port Moresby by sea was deferred and finally abandoned. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 115 1942—Continued 10 May VS-4-D14 (Inshore Patrol Squadron) arrived in the Tonga Islands with the base construction and garrison convoy and set up facilities to conduct anti- submarine patrols from Nukualofa Harbor on Tongatabu. U. 20 May Rear Admiral John S. the Bureau of Aeronautics fill the new office as addi- er Shoho covering a convoy (7 May). Denbo hooked their F4Fs to tow lines demonstrated in a successful flight test of a Brewster streamed behind a twin-engined BD (Army A-20). and 24 February 1943.000 feet. the Vice Chief day the Japanese covering force was located and of Naval Operations subsequently concentrated the taken under air attack. Almost simultaneously enemy carrier air. a Japanese carrier force launched small launches being accomplished on 19 July 1942. Fink Fischer. Navy. This was the first of four ferry trips made by Ranger to 3–4 June In an attempt to divert forces from the deliver AAF fighters across the Atlantic. or Coast Guard after 8 September 1939. reached a position off the African Gold Coast and launched 60 27 May The transfer of Patrol Wing 4 from Seattle. In complying with a further provision of aircraft hit the separately operating attack group and the order that such readjustment of functions be made sank one destroyer and one fleet tanker. was der and shore-based aviation in the South Pacific area. as a result of which she was abandoned 15 May A VR-2 flight from Alameda. aircraft.. the first transoceanic flight by NATS the Japanese. Although the score favored Honolulu. while Japanese tional duty. they retired from action and their occu. D.

and Soryu. carrier air hit the Mobile Force again. PBYs located the car- riers on the fourth but attacks by 11th AAF bombers were unsuccessful. supported by heavy units of the Main Body (First Fleet) and covered by a diver- sionary carrier raid on Dutch Harbor in the Aleutians. sinking carrier aircraft. Kaga. horizontal. 258 aircraft. and of the Mobile Force (4 June) as it sent its aircraft against defensive installations on Midway. and dive bombing attacks.116 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1942—Continued erable damage to installations ashore. Spruance) with Hornet and Enterprise. was led by a four-carrier Mobile Force. and Task Force 16 (Rear Admiral R. the Japanese carriers were caught unprepared for the carrier air attack which began at 0930 with the Formation of Grumman TBF Avengers 417667 heroic but unsuccessful effort of Torpedo Squadron 8. pilots. 3–6 June The Battle of Midway—A strong Japanese thrust in the Central Pacific to occupy Midway Island. Fletcher) with Yorktown. A severely damaged. which sank 6 and 7 June respec- action. the tively. and by Navy. In the late afternoon. The deci- Japanese retired under the attack of Midway-based air. Planes from Midway located and attacked ships of the Japanese Occupation Force 600 miles to the west (3 June). sive defeat administered to the Japanese put an end to craft (5 June) and of carrier air (6 June) in which the their successful offensive and effectively turned the heavy cruiser Mikuma was sunk and the Mogami tide of the Pacific War. damaged Yorktown with bombs and torpedoes so and a large percentage of their experienced carrier severely that she was abandoned.S. later. the destroyer Hammann (DD 412) and Hiryu. Japanese losses totaled two heavy Japanese counter attack at noon and another 2 hours and two light carriers. and were hit in full force at 1030 when dive bombers hit and sank the carriers Akagi. With control of the air irretrievably lost. This attack was met by a greatly outnumbered United States carrier force composed of Task Force 17 (Rear Admiral Frank J. the fourth and last of the Japanese carriers in the carrier Yorktown. the result of a single submarine attack. A. Marine Corps. one heavy cruiser. United States losses were 40 shore-based and 92 U. and Army air units based on Midway. Concentrating on the destruc- tion of Midway air forces and diverted by their torpedo. .

Erickson. Vannevar Bush. radar beam reflected from the target. Principal scouting and patrol airship with 50 percent greater developmental efforts were being carried out by the range and volume (625. Four model M airships were procured and placed in fense Research Committee. Pierce. beyond the 13 June Long Range Navigation Equipment line of sight.I. in an shipboard processing and display equipment. The test culminated with the first LORAN homing from a distance 50 to 75 miles offshore during which the 27 June The Naval Aircraft Factory (NAF) was LORAN operator. ed by VR-2.J. A. but was not successful J. (LORAN).) than the K Class. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 117 1942—Continued 17 June The development of Pelican. radar had proceeded to the point that the Coordinator for Research and Development requested develop- 11–13 June PBY Catalinas. i..” The success of these sponsored earlier work on pressure suits. Sikorsky’s from Maritime Commission hulls. testing and associated work on Magnetic Airborne Detectors (MAD gear). 200 sets of MAD gear were then being 25 June Preliminary investigation of early warning procured. Naval Ordnance Laboratory and the National De. Lieutenant Commander Frank A. first of 10 escort carriers of the Bogue Class converted 29 June Following an inspection of Igor I. and life-saving. was commissioned at Puget Sound Navy Yard. Interest intense 48-hour attack which exhausted the gasoline in early warning radar had arisen when Admiral Ernest and bomb supply aboard Gillis. USCG. copters be obtained for antisubmarine convoy duty ship strength of the Navy to 200 lighter-than-air craft. the earlier order establishing an aviation organi- taken place on the 7th. zation in the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations was revised to the extent that the Director of the 10 June A formal organization. J. ment be initiated of airborne early warning radar plane tender Gillis in Nazan Bay. In view of the promising service during World War II. was Aviation Division became responsible directly to the established at NAS Quonset Point. Aleutian Islands. The NAF tests led to immediate action to obtain operational expanded its endeavors in the field of high altitude LORAN equipment. for airborne Vice Chief of Naval Operations. “We that they could be tailored and fitted for use in weren’t [just] headed for the hangar.e. 17 June A contract was awarded to Goodyear for oped to detect submarines by the change that they the design and construction of a prototype model M induced in the earth’s magnetic field. ing. Farrell command. N. accurately determined position ations between the west coast and Alaska were initiat- when the airship was over various identifiable objects. We were headed flight. King remarked to Dr. ft. Atka Island. that Navy ships need to see over the hill. 10 June Patrol planes of Patrol Wing 4 discovered 17 June Following the abolition of the newly creat- the presence of the enemy on Kiska and Attu. chamber. recommended that heli- 16 June Congress authorized an increase in the air. VS-300 helicopter on 26 June. Dr. Ordnance sponsorship. an antisubma- rine guided missile. The receiver was mounted in the K-2 airship and. hit ships including automatic airborne relay and associated and enemy positions on Kiska. equipment which then included design of a pressure cabin airplane and construction of an altitude test 15 June Copahee. in a flight from 26 June Scheduled Naval Air Transport Service oper- NAS Lakehurst. The Navy thus joined the Army which had for the middle of the hangar. Office of Scientific Research and Development. results of early trials made with airships and an Army B-18. This device consisted of a began its combat career with attacks on the Japanese glide bomb which could automatically home on a Fleet during the Battle of Midway. gave instructions to directed to participate in the development of high the airship’s commanding officer which brought them altitude pressure suits with particular emphasis upon over the shoreline near Lakehurst on a course that testing existing types and obtaining information so caused the commanding officer to remark. head of the in driving the Japanese from the island. was undertaken by the National 4 June The TBF Grumman Avenger flown by pilots Defense Research Committee with Bureau of of a shore-based element of Torpedo Squadron 8.. R. This device was being devel.000 cu. Aleutian ed office of the Assistant Chief of Naval Operations Islands—the first news of Japanese landings that had (Air). Captain John G. . Project Sail. operating from the sea. was given its first airborne test.

with Enterprise. in Task production and limit its orders for PBYs to avoid inter. Pacific was orga- nized at San Diego. South Pacific (Rear Admiral John S. McCain) Technology. Calif. and would relinquish its production cognizance of the Wasp was sunk by a submarine (15 Sep) while escort- Boeing Renton plant to the Army for expanded B-29 ing a troop convoy to Guadalcanal. Aug). Battle of Rennel Island (29–30 Jan) in which two escort carriers also participated. bombing of enemy posi- tions. Navy patrol advanced base in Nazan Bay. Naval Battle for Guadalcanal (12–15 Nov). and by Navy. The rocket. 7 August Marine Aircraft Wings. carries amphibious landing of World War II was provided by retro-rockets for antisubmarine warfare 700504 three carriers of Air Support Force (Rear Admiral Leigh Noyes).. fought in Headquarters Squadrons were authorized for each the Battle of Santa Cruz (26–27 Oct) in which she was wing to furnish administrative and maintenance ser. Hean. hit targets ference with B-24 production. in the Buin-Tonolei-Faisi area (5 Oct). Marine. Fleet Marine Force. scored the first Coast Guard kill of an enemy submarine with the sinking of the German U- 166 off the passes of the Mississippi. destroyed a concentration of seaplanes the mobility and flexibility of patrol aviation. Pacific Fleet. Also. 3 July In the first successful firing of an American rocket from a plane in flight. all support to the campaign during which they partici- pated in several of the naval engagements fought over 7 July An agreement was reached between the Army the island. Geographic areas of paign. and cover for surface force bombardments. Ryujo in the Battle of the Eastern Solomons (23–25 er to the Navy a specified number of B-24 Liberators. Carrier forces withdrew from direct airborne detector with Patrol Squadron 63 receiving support (9 Aug) but remained in the area to give over- the first service installation in February 1943. to squadrons flew search. Gunnery Officer of Transition Training Directive calling for procurement of four Sikorsky heli- Squadron. attacked beached Japanese transports and supply dumps on 12 July Patrol Wings were reorganized to increase Guadalcanal. White of Coast Guard Squadron 212. Atka. rescue. designed to be fired aft with a velocity equal to the 1 August A J4F Widgeon. Group 17 (Rear Admiral George D. Hornet.000 tons of war and cargo ships. which provided that the Army would deliv. Pacific. Enterprise took part in the last stages of the responsibility were assigned to each wing. 7 August 1942–9 February 1943 Capture of Guadalcanal—Air support for the U. based at Houma. Aleutian Islands. amphibious version of the Catalina flying boat. Murray).. Enterprise was hit by carrier-based bombers (24 B-25 Mitchells. Ashore. In final carrier actions of the cam- vices to attached squadrons. and perma. and thus to fall verti- C. Saratoga sank the Japanese light carrier and Navy. Guard aviation forces. In September 1944.118 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1942—Continued included antishipping search. the Navy submarine torpedo (31 Aug) and forced to retire. sunk by air attack. Rowell for the administrative control and logistic support of Marine Corps aviation units assigned to the Pacific Fleet. Calif. Marine Fighter . La. and.S. under command of Major General Ross E. at Rekata Bay (16 Oct). operating from bases on New Caledonia and in the et became a weapon complementary to the magnetic New Hebrides. and B-34 Venturas to meet the Navy’s Aug) and forced to retire. Following successful tests. air forces in 19 July The seaplane tender Casco established an great variety provided direct support. Marines’ first PBY-5A. Saratoga was damaged by a requirement for long range landplanes. and Army units of cally. fired a retro-rocket from a copters for study and development by Navy and Coast PBY-5A in flight at Goldstone Lake. assisting in nent assignment of squadrons was abolished in favor sinking 89. which from sheltered coves and harbors. the retro-rock. was designed at the California Institute of Aircraft. Lieutenant Commander 24 July The Bureau of Aeronautics issued a Planning James H. piloted by Ensign Henry forward velocity of the airplane. this command was renamed Aircraft. and offensive missions support seaplane operations against Kiska. and in the of assignment as the situation required.

Saratoga in the background. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 119 1942—Continued Escort carriers taking station to provide amphibious troops with close air support during an invasion 1053753 An SBD over Enterprise. 1942 .

Carriers Pacific. Va. Captain William D. Fitch commanding.. and Commander. Alameda. Norfolk. which replaced 6 September The first Naval Air Transport Service the Fleet Air Tactical Unit. This ship and Sable (IX 81). Squadron be established about 30 September 1942 at NAS Anacostia. Navy Yard. Va.Y. offensive missions against shipping. and began a survey flight to the South 20 August The designation of escort carriers was Pacific as a preliminary to establishing routes between changed from AVG to ACV.. converted for aviation training and as such they oper- ated for the remainder of the war on the inland waters 1 September U.. and Brisbane. for operations under the Caribbean Sea Frontier. by other elements as the campaign progressed.C. They provided flight decks upon Admiral Aubrey W. N.120 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1942—Continued 24 August Santee. these forces flew intercep. was to conduct experiments flight to Argentia. Sample com- manding. Until the Army forces and the establishment of an advanced island was secure (9 Feb). aboard ship. initiated Sangamon Class converted from Cimarron Class fleet operations from Henderson Field on Guadalcanal (20 oilers.S. Aug) and were joined within a week by AAF fighter elements and dive bombers from Enterprise.S. D. Brazil. Aleutian Buffalo. Hawaii. replacing the offices of Commander. This squadron. . Rear of Lake Michigan. established a detachment at Pearl Harbor. Patrol Wings Pacific. Fairlamb com. conducting support opera- manding. Calif. 12 August Wolverine (IX 64) was commissioned at shipping lanes to that island and to Attu. Michael com- manding. and by 30 August The occupation of Adak. and Fleet Air Alameda were established at that an Aircraft Experimental and Developmental the same time. demonstrated effectiveness of the radio-proximity fuze against aircraft by destroying three radio-controlled drones with four proximity bursts fired from her five inch guns. Marine air units carrying the major air support burden accounted for 427 enemy aircraft during the campaign. marked the begin- with new aircraft and equipment in order to determine ning of air transport expansion along the eastern their practical application and tactical employment. based at P. U. This successful A PBY Catalina flying over the Aleutians near Adak 405443 demonstration led to mass production of the fuze. Fleet 13 August Commander-in-Chief. Newfoundland.R. The tender Casco. Naval Air Forces. was placed in commission at the Norfolk Squadron 223 and Scout Bombing Squadron 232. put North tor patrols. operating in the Chesapeake Bay. Commander Stanley J. Alaska. was damaged by a submarine the following May. and Pacific forces within 250 miles of occupied Kiska and close air support for the Marines and for Army troops in a position to maintain a close watch over enemy relieving them (13 Oct).. 12 August Cleveland (CL 55). seaplane base there by the tender Teal. 10 August The headquarters of Patrol Wing 3 shift- ed within the Canal Zone from NAS Coco Solo to Albrook Field for closer coordination with the Army Air Force Command in the defense of the Panama Canal. commissioned tions from Nazan Bay. San Francisco. Five days later the Wing moved to San Juan. Calif. Pacific. were Great Lakes excursion ships torpedo and temporarily beached. the first of four escort carriers of the delivered by the escort carrier Long Island. Pacific their first practical experience in handling aircraft (CINCPAC). Commander George R. Australia. The subordinate commands Fleet Air West Coast. was estab- which hundreds of Student Naval Aviators qualified for lished for the administrative control of all air and air carrier landings and many flight deck crews received service units under the Commander-in-Chief. seaboard that during the month extended briefly to Iceland and reached southward to the Canal Zone and 15 August Patrol Wing 11 was established at Rio de Janeiro. 7 September Air Transport Squadron 2.. Fleet directed Air Seattle. Islands.


1942—Continued was authorized to construct two 19A axial flow turbojet
powerplants. Thereby, fabrication was initiated of the
16 September Patrol Wing 12 was established at first jet engine of wholly American design.
Key West, Fla., Captain William G. Tomlinson com-
manding, for operations under the Gulf Sea Frontier. 28 October Procurement of the expendable radio
sonobuoy for use in antisubmarine warfare was initiat-
19 September Commander, Patrol Wing 1 departed ed as the Commander-in-Chief, U.S. Fleet directed the
Kaneohe, Hawaii, for the South Pacific to direct the Bureau of Ships to procure 1,000 sonobuoys and 100
operations of patrol squadrons already in the area. associated receivers.
Headquarters were first established at Noumea, New
Caledonia, and subsequently at Espiritu Santo, 31 October Air Transport Squadrons Pacific was
Guadalcanal, and Munda. established over the NATS squadrons based in the
Pacific and those on the west coast flying the main-
1 October Airship Patrol Group 3, Captain Scott E. land to Hawaii routes.
Peck commanding, was established at Moffett Field,
Calif., to serve as the administrative command for air- 1 November Patrol Wings were redesignated Fleet
ship squadrons operating on the west coast. Air Wings, and to permit the organization of patrol
aviation on the task force principle, the practice of
1 October Three functional training commands assigning a standard number of squadrons to each
were established for Air Technical Training, Air Wing was changed to provide for the assignment of
Primary Training, and Air Intermediate Training, with any and all types of aircraft required by the Wing to
headquarters initially at Chicago, Ill., Kansas City, Mo., perform its mission in its particular area.
and Pensacola, Fla., respectively.
1 November Airship Patrol Group 1 at NAS Lake-
12 October Naval Air Centers Hampton Roads, Va., hurst, N.J., was redesignated Fleet Airship Group 1.
San Diego, Calif., Seattle, Wash., and Hawaiian Islands,
and Naval Air Training Centers Pensacola, Fla., and 2 November NAS Patuxent River, Md., was estab-
Corpus Christi, Tex., were established to consolidate lished to serve as a facility for testing experimental air-
under single commands the complex of Naval Aviation planes, equipment and material, and as a NATS base.
facilities that had become operational in the vicinity of
certain large air stations. 2 November Fleet Air Wing 6, Captain Douglas P.
Johnson commanding was established at NAS Seattle,
15 October Patrol Wing 14, Captain William M. Wash.
McDade commanding, was established at San Diego,
Calif., for operations under the Western Sea Frontier 8–11 November Invasion of North Africa—Carrier
and for duties concerned with equipping, forming, aircraft from Ranger and escort carriers Sangamon,
and establishing patrol squadrons. Suwannee, and Santee of Task Group 34.2 (Rear
Admiral Ernest D. McWhorter) of the Western Naval
17 October Inshore Patrol Squadrons (VS), engaged Task Force, covered the landings of Army troops near
in coastal antisubmarine reconnaissance and convoy Casablanca, Morocco, (8 Nov) and supported their
duty under the Sea Frontiers, were transferred to operation ashore until opposing French forces capitu-
Patrol Wings for administrative control. lated (11 Nov). The escort carrier Chenango accompa-
nied assault forces to the area and launched her load
19 October The initial installation and deployment of of 78 AAF P-40s (10–11 Nov) for operations from the
the ASB-3 airborne search radar was reported. This field at Port Lyautey, Morocco.
radar, developed by the Naval Research Laboratory for
carrier based aircraft, had been installed in five TBF-1s 13 November Patrol Squadron 73 arrived at Port
by NAS New York, N.Y., and five SBD-3s by NAS San Lyautey, Morocco, from Iceland via Bally Kelly,
Pedro, Calif. One aircraft of each type was assigned to Ireland, and Lyncham, England. Supported by the sea-
Air Group Eleven (Saratoga) and the others shipped to plane tender Barnegat, the squadron began antisub-
Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. Remaining sets on the initial con- marine operations from French Morocco over the
tract for 25 were to be used for spare parts and training. western Mediterranean, the Strait of Gibraltar, and its
approaches. Patrol Squadron 92 also arrived at Port
22 October Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Lyautey on the same day via Cuba, Brazil, Ascension
Company, by amendment to a design study contract, Island, and West Africa.


1942—Continued provided trained civilian electronics specialists to
fleet units throughout the war and into the postwar
16 November Naval Aviation’s first night fighter period.
squadron, VMF(N)-531, was established at MCAS
Cherry Point, N.C., with Lieutenant Colonel Frank H. 31 December Essex, Captain Donald B. Duncan
Schwable in command. After initial training with SNJs commanding, was placed in operating status at
and SB2A-4s, the squadron was assigned twin- Norfolk, Va.; the first of 17 ships of her class commis-
engined PV-1 aircraft equipped with British Mark IV sioned during World War II.
type radar.

23 November The VS-173, a full-scale model of a
fighter aircraft with an almost circular wing, made its 1 January Naval Reserve Aviation Bases (NRAB)
first flight at the Vought-Sikorsky plant, Stratford, engaged in Primary Flight Training in all parts of the
Conn. A military version of this aircraft, the XF5U-1, country were redesignated Naval Air Stations (NAS)
was constructed later but never flown. without change of mission. This was the end of the
NRABs except for Anacostia, D.C., which was abol-
1 December Fleet Air Wing 15, Captain George A. ished on 7 July 1943, and Squantum, Mass., which
Seitz commanding, was established at Norfolk, Va., for became an NAS on 1 September 1943.
operations under the Moroccan Sea Frontier.
1 January Air Force, Atlantic Fleet, was established,
1 December Fleet Airship Wing 30, Captain George Rear Admiral Alva D. Bernhard commanding, to pro-
H. Mills commanding, was established at NAS vide administrative, material, and logistic services for
Lakehurst, N.J., to administer Atlantic Fleet Airship Atlantic Fleet aviation in place of the former separate
Groups and their component squadrons. commands Fleet Air Wings, Atlantic, and Carriers,
Atlantic, which were abolished. By the same order
1 December Airship Patrol Group 3 at NAS Moffett Fleet Air, Quonset, was established as a subordinate
Field, Calif., was redesignated Fleet Airship Wing 31. command.

26 December The Chief of Naval Operations 1 January Ground Controlled Approach equipment
approved the merger of the Service Force Aviation (GCA) was called into emergency use for the first time
Repair Unit and Advanced Cruiser Aircraft Training when a snowstorm closed down the field at NAS
Unit, established in October 1941 and June 1942 Quonset Point, R.I., a half hour before a flight of PBYs
respectively, to form a Scout Observation Service Unit was due to arrive. The GCA crew located the incom-
(SOSU) with a mission to maintain battleship and ing aircraft on their search radar, and using the control
cruiser aircraft and to indoctrinate pilots in their spe- tower as a relay station, “talked” one of them into
cialized operations. This SOSU, the first of three estab- position for a contact landing. This recovery was made
lished during World War II was established 1 January only 9 days after the first successful experimental
1943. demonstration of GCA.

27 December Santee, first of 11 escort carriers 5 January The first combat use of a proximity fuzed
assigned to Hunter-Killer duty, sortied Norfolk with Air projectile occurred when Helena (CL 50) off the south
Group 29 on board for free-roving antisubmarine and coast of Guadalcanal, destroyed an attacking Japanese
anti-raider operations in the South Atlantic. dive bomber with the second salvo from her 5-inch
31 December After pointing out that the need for
airborne radar was so apparent and urgent that 7 January A change in the pilot training program
peacetime methods of procurement and fleet intro- was implemented by the opening of Flight Preparatory
duction could not be followed, the Chief of the Schools in 20 colleges and universities in all parts of
Bureau of Aeronautics requested the Naval Research the country. Under the new program, students began
Laboratory to continue to provide personnel capable their training at these schools with three months of
of assisting fleet units in the operation and mainte- academic work fundamental to ground school sub-
nance of radar equipment until a special group of jects, then proceeded to War Training Service courses
trained personnel could be assembled for that pur- conducted by the Civil Aeronautics Administration at
pose. This special group developed within a few universities for two months training in ground subjects
months into the Airborne Coordination Group which and elementary flight under civilian instructors; then to


1943—Continued 1 February Bombing Squadron, VB-127, was estab-
lished at NAS Deland, Fla., with Lieutenant
the Pre-Flight Schools for three months of physical Commander William K. Gentner in command. The
conditioning; and finally to Navy flight training begin- squadron was equipped with PV-1 Venturas and,
ning at one of the Primary Training Bases. although not the first land plane patrol squadron in
the Navy, was the first to have the VB designation.
7 January Development of the first naval aircraft to
be equipped with a turbojet engine was initiated with 1 February A new specification prescribing color
the issuance of a Letter of Intent to McDonnell Aircraft and marking of naval aircraft became effective. A
Corporation for engineering, development, and tooling basic camouflage color scheme was provided for use
for two VF airplanes. Two Westinghouse 19-B turbojet on fleet aircraft which consisted of semigloss sea blue
engines were later specified and the aircraft was desig- on surfaces viewed from above and non-specular
nated XFD-1. It became the prototype for the FH-1 insignia white on surfaces viewed from below. The
Phantom jet fighter. terminology “basic non-camouflage” and “maximum
visibility” were introduced for the color schemes
10 January Fleet Air Wing 15 headquarters was described in April 1942, and used on intermediate
transferred from Norfolk, Va., to Port Lyautey, French and primary trainers.
Morocco, to direct patrol plane operations in the
Mediterranean and Gibraltar Strait area. 1 February Regulations governing display of
National Insignia on aircraft were again revised by the
12 January The Chief of Naval Air Operational order to remove those on the upper right and lower
Training directed that aircraft operating from stations
left wing surfaces.
under his command be marked for identification pur-
poses with letters and numerals in three groups sepa-
11 February A contract was issued to the Ryan
rated by a dash. The first group provided a letter iden-
Aeronautical Corporation for the XFR-1 fighter. This
tification of the station, the second a letter identifying
aircraft incorporated a conventional reciprocating
the unit type and the third the number of the aircraft
engine for use in normal operations and the turbojet
in the unit. The order also provided that when more
for use as a booster during takeoffs and maximum
than one unit was on board a station, a number be
performance flights. Development and production
added to the station letter. Thus J2-F-22 identified the
were handled on a crash basis to equip escort carrier
aircraft as from Jacksonville, Fla., OTU #2 Fighter
Training Unit, plane number 22. squadrons at the earliest possible date. However,
numerous bugs were encountered which prevented
14 January Independence, Captain George R. the FR-1’s assignment to combat.
Fairlamb, Jr., commanding, was placed in commission
at Philadelphia, Pa.; the first of nine light carriers of 11 February The Vought F4U Corsair was flown on
her class constructed on Cleveland Class cruiser hulls. a combat mission for the first time when 12 planes of
VMF-124 based on Guadalcanal escorted a PB2Y
15 January Captain Spencer “Seth” H. Warner, Head Dumbo to Vella Lavella to pick up downed pilots. The
of the Flight Statistics Desk of the Bureau of flight was uneventful. Its first combat action came two
Aeronautics, introduced Grampaw Pettibone, in the days later when pilots from the same squadron ran
BuAer News Letter. Pettibone, a cartoon character into air opposition while escorting PB4Ys of VP-51 on
drawn by Lieutenant Robert Osborn, was produced as a daylight strike against enemy shipping in the Kahili
a safety feature in the hope of cutting down on pilot- area of Bougainville.
error accidents. Gramps went on to become famous
through the postwar decades as Osborn, after leaving 13 February The Naval Air Transport Service was
the Navy, continued to contribute his character to reorganized and the establishment of Wings was
Naval Aviation News magazine. directed for the Atlantic and west coast squadrons.

17 January Following tests conducted at NAS San 15 February Commander-in-Chief, U.S. Fleet
Diego, Calif., by six experienced pilots flying F4U-1s, assigned responsibility for sea-going development of
the commanding officer of VF-12, Commander Joseph helicopters and their operation in convoys to the Coast
C. Clifton, reported that anti-blackout suits raised their Guard and directed that tests be carried out to deter-
tolerance to accelerations encountered in gunnery run mine if helicopters operating from merchant ships
and other maneuvers by three to four Gs. would be of value in combating submarines.



The landing signal officer bringing in a F4U 41221

16 February Fleet Air Wing 16, Captain R. D. Lyon ning with the unopposed landing in the Russells (21
commanding, was established at Norfolk. Va. Feb), these forces leapfrogged through the islands
establishing bases and airfields as they went.
17 February Lighter-than-air operations over the Moving into Segi of the New Georgia Group (21
Caribbean were initiated from Edinburgh Field, Jun), through Rendova, Onaivisi, Wickham
Trinidad, by the K-17 of Airship Patrol Squadron 51. Anchorage, Kiriwini and Woodlark (30 Jun), Viru (2
Jul), Zanana (2 Jul), Rice Anchorage (5 Jul), Vella
19 February A Letter of Intent was issued to Vega Lavella (15 Aug), Arundel (27 Aug), and Treasury
Airplane Company for two XP2V-1 patrol planes, Islands (27 Oct), they reached Bougainville where
thereby initiating development of the P2V Neptune landings on Cape Torokina were additionally sup-
series of land-based patrol aircraft. ported by carrier air strikes (1, 2 Nov) on the Buka-
Bonis airfields.
21 February–1 November Advance up the
Solomons Chain—In a series of amphibious opera- 24 February The Naval Photographic Science
tions, directly and indirectly supported by Marine Laboratory was established at NAS Anacostia, D.C.,
Corps, Navy and Army units of Aircraft, South under the direction of the Bureau of Aeronautics to
Pacific, and Aircraft, Solomons, Central Pacific Forces provide photographic services to the Navy and to
moved from Guadalcanal up the Solomon Islands develop equipment and techniques suitable for
towards the Japanese naval base at Rabaul. Begin- fleet use.



1 March Air Transport Squadrons, West Coast, was
established at NAAS Oakland, Calif., with control over
all NATS squadrons west of the Mississippi except
those on the mainland to Honolulu, Hawaii, run.

1 March A revision of the squadron designation
system changed Inshore Patrol Squadrons to
Scouting Squadrons (VS), Escort Fighting Squadrons
(VGF) to Fighting Squadrons (VF), Escort Scouting
Squadrons (VGS) to Composite Squadrons (VC) and
Patrol Squadrons (VP) operating land type aircraft to
Bombing Squadrons (VB). This revision also redesig-
nated carrier Scouting Squadrons (VS) as VB and VC
and as a result the types of squadrons on Essex Class
carriers was reduced to three. In spite of this
change, the aircraft complement of their Air Groups
remained at its previous level of 21 VF, 36 VSB and
18 VTB.

1 March Fleet Airship Group 2, Captain Walter E.
Zimmerman commanding, was established at NAS
Richmond, Fla., and placed in charge of lighter-than-
air operations in the Gulf Sea Frontier. Rocket weapons, being installed on a plane 468849

4 March Changes to the characteristics of Essex Class
carriers were authorized by the Secretary of the Navy, 29 March Tests of forward firing rockets projectiles
including installation of a Combat Information Center from naval aircraft were completed at the Naval Proving
(CIC) and Fighter Director Station, additional anti-air- Ground, Dahlgren, Va., using an SB2A-4 aircraft.
craft batteries, and a second flight deck catapult in lieu
of one athwartships on the hangar deck. 29 March Air Transport Squadrons, Atlantic, was com-
missioned at Norfolk, Va., to supervise and direct opera-
5 March Bogue, with VC-9 on board, joined Task tions of NATS squadrons based on the Atlantic seaboard.
Group 24.4 at Argentia, Newfoundland, and began the
escort of convoys to mid-ocean and return. Although 1 April Aircraft Antisubmarine Development
Santee had previously operated on hunter-killer duty, Detachment, Commander Aurelius B. Vosseller in com-
Bogue was the center of the first of the hunter-killer mand, was established at NAS Quonset Point, R.I.,
groups assigned to convoy escort. under Air Force, Atlantic Fleet, to develop tactical train-
ing programs and techniques that would make full use
15 March Fleet Air Wing 4 headquarters moved of newly developed countermeasures equipment.
westward on the Aleutian chain from Kodiak to Adak,
Alaska. 1 April The first Navy night fighter squadron, VF(N)-
75, was established at Quonset Point, R.I., Commander
20 March Forty-two Navy and Marine Corps William J. Widhelm, commanding.
Avengers, on a night flight from Henderson Field,
mined Kahili Harbor, Bougainville. A coordinated 4 April The Naval Aircraft Factory reported that, in
attack on Kahili airfield by AAF heavy bombers con- tests of an automatic flying device for use on towed
tributed to the success of this, the first aerial mining gliders, the LNT-1 had been towed automatically with-
mission in the South Pacific. out assistance from the safety pilot.

23 March The Training Task Force Command was 14 April Fleet Air Wing 16 transferred from Norfolk,
established with headquarters at NAS Clinton, Okla., to Va., to Natal, Brazil, to direct patrol plane antisubma-
form, outfit and train special units for the operational rine operations under the Fourth Fleet in the South
employment of assault drone aircraft. Atlantic.


1943—Continued 18 May The program for the use of gliders as trans-
ports for Marine Corps combat troops was canceled,
21 April Captain Frederick M. Trapnell made a flight thereby returning the Navy’s glider development to an
in the Bell XP-59A jet Airacomet at Muroc, Calif.—the experimental basis.
first jet flight by a U.S. Naval Aviator.
22 May Grumman Avengers of VC-9, based on
3 May Air Transport Squadron 1 (VR-1), based at Bogue, attacked and sank the German submarine U-
Norfolk, Va., extended the area of its operations with a 569 in the middle north Atlantic scoring the first sink-
flight to Prestwick, Scotland, via Reykjavik, Iceland. ing of the war by escort carriers on hunter-killer patrol.
This was the first R5D operation in the Naval Air
Transport Service. 24 May Special Project Unit Cast was organized at
NAS Squantum, Mass., to provide, under Bureau of
4 May The first regular patrols began from Aeronautics direction, the services required to flight
Amchitka, Aleutian Islands, extending the search cov- test the electronics equipment being developed at the
erage by Fleet Air Wing 4 beyond Attu toward the Radiation and Radio Research Laboratories.
Kurile Islands.
7 June The establishment of NAF Attu, within 1
4 May To expedite the evaluation of the helicopter week of its capture from the Japanese, brought Fleet
in antisubmarine operations, the Commander-in-Chief, Air Wing 4 bases to the tip of the Aleutian chain, near-
U.S. Fleet directed that a “joint board” be formed with ly 1,000 miles from the Alaskan mainland and 750
representatives of the Commander-in-Chief, U.S. Fleet; miles from Japanese territory in the Kuriles.
the Bureau of Aeronautics; the Coast Guard; the
British Admiralty and the Royal Air Forces. The result- 7 June Commander-in-Chief, U.S. Fleet established a
ing Combined Board for the Evaluation of the Ship- project for airborne test, by Commander, Fleet Air, West
Based Helicopter in Antisubmarine Warfare was later Coast, of high velocity, “forward shooting” rockets.
expanded to include representatives of the Army Air These rockets, which had nearly double the velocity of
Forces, the War Shipping Administration and the those tested earlier at Dahlgren, Va., had been devel-
National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. oped by a rocket section, led by Dr. C. C. Lauritsen, at
the California Institute of Technology under National
7 May Navy representatives witnessed landing trials Defense Research Committee auspices and with Navy
of the XR-4 helicopter aboard the merchant tanker support. This test project, which was established in
Bunker Hill in a demonstration sponsored by the part on the basis of reports of effectiveness in service
Maritime Commission and conducted in Long Island of a similar British rocket, completed its first airborne
Sound. The pilot, Colonel R. F. Gregory, AAF, made firing from a TBF of a British rocket on 14 July and of
about 15 flights, and in some of these flights he land- the CalTech round on 20 August. The results of these
ed on the water before returning to the platform on tests were so favorable that operational squadrons in
the deck of the ship. both the Atlantic and Pacific Fleets were equipped with
forward firing rockets before the end of the year.
11–30 May Occupation of Attu—Air support for the
landing of Army troops (11 May) and for their operations 10 June Lieutenant Commander Frank A. Erickson,
ashore was provided by Navy and Marine units on the USCG, proposed that helicopters be developed for
escort carrier Nassau (11–20 May), and by the Navy and antisubmarine warfare, “not as a killer craft but as the
Army units of North Pacific Force (11–20 May). This was eyes and ears of the convoy escorts.” To this end he
the first use of CVE based aircraft in air support in the recommended that helicopters be equipped with radar
Pacific and the debut of a Support Air Commander afloat. and dunking sonar.
His team consisted of three officers and a radioman and
his post was a card table aboard Pennsylvania (BB 38). 15 June President Franklin D. Roosevelt approved a
Colonel W. O. Eareckson, USA, an experienced Aleutian ceiling of 31,447 useful planes for the Navy.
pilot, was in command of the unit.
28 June A change in the design of the National Star
15 May The Naval Airship Training Command was Insignia added white rectangles on the left and right
established at Lakehurst, N.J., to administer and direct sides of the blue circular field to form a horizontal bar,
lighter-than-air training programs at the Naval Air Centers, and a red border stripe around the entire design. The
Lakehurst and Moffett Field, Calif., and to direct the following September, Insignia Blue was substituted for
Experimental and Flight Test Department at Lakehurst. the red.


1943—Continued enough to force her return to base, and after surviving
two other attacks on the way, was finally sunk by
29 June NAS Patuxent River, Md., began functioning British bombers in the Bay of Biscay.
as an aircraft test organization with the arrival of the
Flight Test unit from NAS Anacostia, D.C. 19 July The Naval Aircraft Factory was authorized to
develop the Gorgon, an aerial ram or air-to-air missile
29 June Elements of VP-101 arrived at Brisbane powered by a turbojet engine and equipped with
from Perth, Austrailia, thereby extending the patrol radio controls and a homing device. The Gorgon was
coverage of Fleet Air Wing 10 to the east coast of later expanded into a broad program embracing turbo-
Australia and marking the beginning of a northward jet, ramjet, pulsejet, and rocket power; straight wing,
advance of patrol operations toward the Papuan swept wing, and canard (tail first) air frames; and visu-
Peninsula of New Guinea. al, television, heat-homing, and three types of radar
guidance for use as air-to-air, air-to-surface and sur-
5 July The first turbojet engine developed for the face-to-surface guided missiles and as target drones.
Navy, the Westinghouse l9A, completed its 100-hour
endurance test. 22 July Since there had been no operational need
for arresting gear and related equipment for landing
8 July Casablanca, first of her class and first escort over the bow of aircraft carriers, the Vice Chief of
carrier designed and built as such, was placed in com- Naval Operations approved its removal.
mission at Astoria, Oreg., Captain Steven W. Callaway
commanding. 23 July Patrol Squadron 63, the first U.S. Navy
squadron to operate from Great Britain in World War
14 July The Secretary of the Navy issued a General II, arrived at Pembroke Dock, England, to assist in the
Order forming the Naval Air Material Center, consisting antisubmarine patrol over the Bay of Biscay.
of the separate commands of the Naval Aircraft
Factory, the Naval Aircraft Modification Unit, the Naval 2 August Fleet Airship Wings 4 and 5, Captain
Air Experimental Station and the Naval Auxiliary Air Walter E. Zimmerman and Commander John D. Reppy
Station. This action, effective 20 July, consolidated in commanding, were established at Maceio, Brazil, and
distinct activities the production, modification, experi- Edinburgh Field, Trinidad, for antisubmarine and con-
mental, and air station facilities of the former Naval voy patrols in the South Atlantic and souther n
Aircraft Factory organization. approaches to the Caribbean.

15 July New designations for carriers were established 4 August The Chief of Naval Air Intermediate
which limited the previous broadly applied CV symbol Training directed that Aviation Safety Boards be estab-
to Saratoga, Enterprise and carriers of Essex Class, and lished at each training center under his command.
added CVB (Aircraft Carriers, Large) for the 45,000 ton
class being built and CVL (Aircraft Carriers, Small) for 5 August COMINCH directed the use of Fleet Air
the 10,000 ton class built on light cruiser hulls. The same Wing commanders in subordinate commands of Sea
directive reclassified escort carriers as combatant ships Frontiers and suggested their assignment as Deputy
and changed their symbol from ACV to CVE. Chiefs of Staff for Air.

15 July The airship organization of the U.S. Fleet 15 August The arrival of Aircraft Experimental and
was modified. Fleet Airship Wings 30 and 31 were Development Squadron (later Tactical Test) from NAS
redesignated Fleet Airships, Atlantic, and Pacific Anacostia, D.C., to NAS Patuxent River, Md., complet-
respectively. Airship Patrol Groups became Airship ed the transfer of aircraft test activities.
Wings. Airship Patrol Squadrons became Blimp
Squadrons, and the addition of two more wings and 15 August The landing of U.S. Army and Canadian
the establishment of Blimp Headquarters Squadrons in troops on Kiska, Aleutian Islands, by a Naval Task
each wing was authorized. Force made the first use in the Pacific of Air Liaison
Parties (ALP) with forces ashore. Although the enemy
18 July The airship K-74, while on night patrol off had deserted the island, the landing provided opportu-
the Florida coast, attacked a surfaced U-boat and in nity to prove that the principle of the ALP was sound
the gun duel which followed was hit and brought and that rapid and reliable voice communications
down—the only airship lost to enemy action in World between front line commanders and the Support Air
War II. The German submarine, U-134, was damaged Control Unit afloat were possible.



K-class airship on escort duty in Atlantic protects a convoy of mer-
chantmen against German submarines 428465

18 August To give Naval Aviation authority com-
mensurate with its World War II responsibility, the
Secretary of the Navy established the Office of the
Deputy Chief of Naval Operations (Air), charging it
with responsibility for “the preparation, readiness and
logistic support of the naval aeronautic operating
forces.” By other orders issued the same day, five divi-
sions were transferred from the Bureau of Aeronautics
to form the nucleus of the new office and Vice
Admiral John S. McCain took command as the first
DCNO (Air).

21 August Headquarters, Fleet Air Wing 7 was
established at Plymouth, England, to direct patrol
plane operations against submarines in the Bay of
Biscay, the English Channel and the southwest
approaches to England.

29 August The formation of combat units for the
employment of assault drone aircraft began within the
Training Task Force Command as the first of three
Special Task Air Groups was established. The compo-
nent squadrons, designated VK, began establishing on
23 October. VAdm. John S. McCain, USN 236837



Essex and Independence class carriers, the fast carrier task forces were built around ships of these types 301754

30 August Second Strike on Marcus—Task Force 15 1 September Two light carriers of Task Group 11.2
(Rear Admiral Charles A. Pownall), built around Essex, (Rear Admiral Arthur W. Radford) and Navy patrol
the new Yorktown and Independence launched nine bombers from Canton Island furnished day and night
air cover for naval units landing occupation forces on
strike groups in a day-long attack on Japanese installa-
Baker Island, east of the Gilberts.
tions on Marcus Island, the first strikes by Essex and
Independence Class carriers, and the first combat use 15 September Fleet Air Wing 17, Commodore
of the Grumman F6F Hellcat. Thomas S. Combs commanding, was established at

Grumman F6F
Hellcat laden
with rockets
and droppable
fuel tank tak-
ing off from


1943—Continued at Ascension Island to join AAF units on antisubmarine
barriers and sweeps across the narrows of the South
Brisbane, Australia, for operations in the Southwest Atlantic.
Pacific area.
1 October Air Force, Atlantic Fleet, was reorganized
15 September French Patrol Squadron 1 (VFP-1), and Fleet Air, Norfolk, and Fleet Airships, Atlantic,
manned by “Fighting French” naval personnel trained were established as additional subordinate commands.
under U.S. Navy control, was established at NAS
Norfolk, Va. 1 October The authorized complement of fighters
in Essex Class carrier air groups was raised, increas-
18 September A three-carrier task force (Rear ing the total aircraft normally on board to 36 VF, 36
Admiral Charles A. Pownall), attacked Tarawa, Makin, VB and 18 VT. The authorized complement for CVL
and Abemama Atolls in the Gilbert Islands. groups was established at the same time as 12 VF, 9
VB and 9 VT and revised in November 1943 to 24
18 September Training was assigned as a primary VF and 9 VT and remained at that level through
mission to Fleet Air Wing 5 at Norfolk, Va., and Fleet the war.
Air Wing 9 assumed responsibility for all patrol plane
operations in the Eastern Sea Frontier. 4 October In conjunction with her duties in protect-
ing North Atlantic convoy routes to Russia, Ranger
27 September The beginning of airship operations launched two strikes against German shipping in
in the South Atlantic was marked by the arrival of the Norway—one in and around Bodo Harbor; the other
K-84, of Blimp Squadron 41, at Fortaleza, Brazil. along the coast from Alter Fjord to Kunna Head.

30 September An advance detachment of Bombing 5 October Coast Guard Patrol Squadron 6 was
Squadron 107, equipped with PB4Y Liberators, arrived established at Argentia, Newfoundland, Commander

PB4Y-1 Liberator, a long-range patrol plane 65159


1943—Continued 31 October Lieutenant Hugh D. O’Neil of VF(N)-75,
operating from Munda, New Georgia, destroyed a
D. B. MacDiarmid, USCG, commanding, to take over Betty during a night attack off Vella Lavella, the first
the rescue duties being performed by naval aircraft in kill by a radar-equipped night fighter of the Pacific
Greenland and Labrador. Fleet. Major Thomas E. Hicks and Technical Sergeant
Gleason from VMF(N)-531 provided ground-based
5–6 October Second Wake Raid—Task Force 14 fighter direction.
(Rear Admiral Alfred E. Montgomery), composed of
six new carriers, seven cruisers, and 24 destroyers, 1 November A detachment of Bombing Squadron
making it the largest carrier task force yet assembled, 145, equipped with Venturas, began operations from
bombed and bombarded Japanese installations on Fernando Noronha Island, extending the area of Fleet
Wake Island. In the course of the two-day strike, ship Air Wing 16 antisubmarine patrols over the South
handling techniques for a multicarrier force, devised Atlantic toward Ascension Island.
by Rear Admiral Frederick C. Sherman’s staff on the
basis of experience in the South Pacific, were tested 1 November First Rabaul Strike—A two-carrier task
under combat conditions. Lessons learned from oper- force (Rear Admiral Frederick C. Sherman) delivered
ating the carriers as a single group of six, as two an air attack on the naval base at Rabaul damaging
groups of three, and as three groups of two, provided several warships of the Japanese Second Fleet.
the basis for many tactics which later characterized
carrier task force operations. 8 November The Chief of Naval Operations directed
that Aviation Safety Boards, similar to those in the
6 October The Naval Airship Training Command at Intermediate Training Command, be established in the
Lakehurst, N.J., was redesignated the Naval Airship Primary and Operational Training Commands.
Training and Experimental Command.
8 November The Naval Ordnance Test Station,
12 October The Bureau of Ordnance established a Inyokern, California, was established for research,
production program for 3,000 Pelican guided missiles development and testing weapons and to provide pri-
at a delivery rate of 300 a month. mary training in their use. It initially supported the
California Institute of Technology which, through the
16 October The Navy accepted its first helicopter, a Office of Scientific Research and Development, was
undertaking the development and testing of rockets,
Sikorsky YR-4B (HNS-1), at Bridgeport, Connecticut,
propellants and launchers.
following a 60 minute acceptance test flight by
Lieutenant Commander Frank A. Erickson, USCG.
11 November Second Rabaul Strike—Three heavy
and two light carriers organized in two carrier task
forces (Rear Admirals Frederick C. Sherman and Alfred
E. Montgomery), hit Japanese naval shipping at Rabaul
sinking one destroyer and damaging ships, including
two cruisers. In this attack SB2C Curtiss Helldivers
were used in combat for the first time.

13–19 November Army and Navy aircraft of Task
Force 57 (Rear Admiral John H. Hoover), based on
islands of the Ellice, Phoenix, and Samoan Groups
and on Baker Island, conducted long-range night
bombing attacks on Japanese bases in the Gilbert and
Marshall Islands as a preliminary to the invasion of
the Gilberts.

18–26 November Occupation of the Gilbert
Islands—Six heavy and five light carriers of Task Force
50 (Rear Admiral Charles A. Pownall) opened the cam-
paign to capture the Gilberts with a two-day air attack
Coastguardsmen test capability of Navy’s first helicopter, HNS-1, for on airfields and defensive installations in the islands
air-sea rescue at NAS New York 1061902 (18–19 Nov), covered the landings of Marines and



Flight deck
crew prepar-
ing to release
SB2C from
arresting gear
and clear the
deck for

Army troops on Tarawa and Makin Atolls (20 Nov) attack. The first attempts at night interception from
and on Abemama (21 Nov), and supported their oper- carriers were made during the campaign by a team of
ations ashore (21–24 Nov). Eight escort carriers, oper- two Hellcats and one radar-equipped Avenger operat-
ating with the Attack Forces, covered the approach of ing from Enterprise and led by the Air Group
assault shipping (10–18 Nov), flew antisubmarine and Commander, Lieutenant Commander Edward H.
combat air patrols in the area, and close support mis- (Butch) O’Hare. In operation the fighters flew wing on
sions on call (19–24 Nov). After the islands were the Avenger and after being vectored to the vicinity of
secure (24 Nov), one carrier group remained in the the enemy aircraft by the ship’s fighter director relied
area for another week as a protective measure. The on the Avenger’s radar to get within visual range. On
first unit of the garrison air force, VF-1, took off from the first occasion (24 Nov) no intercepts were made
escort carriers Barnes and Nassau (25 Nov) and land- but on the second (26 Nov) the enemy was engaged
ed on Tarawa airstrip. One escort carrier, Liscome Bay in the first aerial battle of its type which so disrupted
was lost (24 Nov) to submarine attack, and the light the attack that the flight was credited with saving the
carrier Independence was damaged (20 Nov) by air task group from damage.

O’Hare, Ace and night
fighter 1061488


1943—Continued by Aircraft Delivery Units in ferrying new aircraft from
contractor plants and modification centers to embarka-
27 November The first of the Martin Mars flying tion points for ultimate delivery to the fleet.
boats was delivered to VR-8 at NAS Patuxent River, Md.
4 December At the close of the Gilberts Campaign,
30 November On her first operational assignment, two groups of Task Force 50 (Rear Admiral Charles A.
the Martin Mars, in the hands of Lieutenant Com- Pownall), composed of four heavy and two light carri-
mander W. E. Coney and crew of 16, took off from ers and screening ships, bombed airfields and ship-
Patuxent River, Md., carrying 13,000 pounds of cargo ping at Wotje and Kwajalein Atolls in the Marshall
that was delivered at Natal, Brazil, in a nonstop Islands.
flight of 4,375 miles and of 28 hours 25 minutes
duration. 8 December A striking force of two carriers, six bat-
tleships, and 12 destroyers bombed and bombarded
30 November A department of Aviation Medicine enemy installations on Nauru, to the west of the
and Physiological Research was authorized at the Gilberts.
Naval Air Material Center, to study physiological fac-
tors particularly as related to design of high speed and 15 December Observation Fighter Squadron 1
high altitude aircraft. (VOF-1), first of three of its type brought into exis-
tence during World War II, was established at Atlantic
1 December Aircraft, Central Pacific, Rear Admiral City, N.J., with Lieutenant Commander William F.
John H. Hoover commanding, was established Bringle in command.
under Commander, Central Pacific, for operational
control of defense forces and shore-based air forces 17 December Commander, Aircraft, Solomons,
in the area. joined in the air campaign to reduce the Japanese
Naval Base at Rabaul with a fighter sweep of Navy,
1 December The Naval Air Ferry Command was Marine Corps, and New Zealand planes led by Marine
established as a Wing of the Naval Air Transport ace Major Gregory Boyington. Intensive follow-up
Service. It assumed the functions previously performed attacks through February 1944 assisted in the establish-

Marine’s top
ace, Pappy
reads an order
to pilots of his
squadron in
the South


1943—Continued N.J., where the plasma was administered to survivors
of an explosion on the destroyer Turner (DD 648). In
ment of encircling allied bases. Rabaul remained this, the first helicopter lifesaving operation,
under air attack until the war’s end, the last strike Commander Erickson took off from Floyd Bennett
being delivered by Marine Corps PBJs on 9 August Field, N.Y., flew to Battery Park on Manhattan Island
1945. to pick up the plasma and then to Sandy Hook. The
flight was made through snow squalls and sleet which
18 December On the basis of his belief that tests grounded all other types of aircraft.
indicated the practicability of ship-based helicopters,
the Chief of Naval Operations separated the pilot train- 11 January The first U.S. attack with forward-firing
ing from test and development functions in the heli- rockets was made against a German U-boat by two
copter program. He directed that, effective 1 January TBF-1Cs of Composite Squadron 58 from the escort
1944, a helicopter pilot training program be conducted carrier Block Island.
by the U.S. Coast Guard at Floyd Bennett Field, N.Y.,
under the direction of the Deputy Chief of Naval 16 January Lieutenant (jg) S. R. Graham, USCG,
Operations (Air). while en route from New York, N.Y., to Liverpool,
England, in the British freighter Daghestan made a 30
20 December The Naval Air Training Command was minute flight in an R-4B (HNS-1) from the ship’s 60 by
established at Pensacola, Fla., to coordinate and direct, 80-foot flight deck. Weather during the mid-winter
under the Chief of Naval Operations, all Naval crossing of the North Atlantic permitted only two addi-
Aviation training in the activities of the Primary, tional flights and, as a result, the sponsoring
Intermediate, and Operational Training Commands. Combined Board for Evaluation of the Ship-based
Helicopter in antisubmarine warfare concluded that
20 December Two Catalinas of Patrol Squadron 43, the helicopter’s capability should be developed in
at Attu, flew the first Navy photo reconnaissance and coastal waters until models with improved perfor-
bombing mission over the Kuriles. mance became available.

20 December Commander Frank A. Erickson, 18 January Catalinas of VP-63, based at Port
USCG, reported that Coast Guard Air Station, Floyd Lyautey, Morocco, began barrier patrols of the Strait of
Bennett Field, N.Y., had experimented with a heli- Gibraltar and its approaches with Magnetic Airborne
copter used as an airborne ambulance. An HNS-1 heli- Detection (MAD) gear and effectively closed the strait
copter made flights carrying, in addition to its normal to enemy U-boats during daylight hours until the end
crew of a pilot and a mechanic, a weight of 200 of the war.
pounds in a stretcher suspended approximately 4 feet
beneath the float landing gear. In further demonstra- 29 January–22 February Occupation of the Marshall
tions early the following year, the stretcher was Islands—Six heavy and six light carriers, in four
attached to the side of the fuselage and landings were groups of Task Force 58 (Rear Admiral Marc A.
made at the steps of the dispensary. Mitscher), opened the campaign to capture the
Marshalls (29 Jan) with heavy air attacks on Maloelap,
25 December Aircraft from a two-carrier task group Kwajalein, and Wotje. On the first day the defending
(Rear Admiral Frederick C. Sherman) attacked ship- enemy air forces were eliminated and complete con-
ping at Kavieng, New Ireland, as a covering operation trol of the air was maintained by carrier aircraft during
for landings by the Marines in the Borgen Bay area of the entire operation. Eight escort carriers, attached to
New Britain on the following day. the Attack Forces of the Joint Expeditionary Force,
arrived in the area early the morning of D-day. Aircraft
31 December Fleet Air Wing 17 departed Australia from the carriers flew cover and antisubmarine patrols
and set up headquarters at Samarai on the tip of the for attack shipping and assisted two fast carrier
Papuan Peninsula of New Guinea. groups, providing air support for landings on
Kwajalein and Majuro Atolls (31 Jan), Roi and Namur
(1 Feb), and for operations ashore. The AGC com-
1944 mand ship, used for the first time during this cam-
3 January Helicopter Mercy Mission—Commander paign, provided greatly improved physical facilities for
Frank A. Erickson, USCG, flying an HNS-1 helicopter, the Support Air Commander. Here, the Support Air
made an emergency delivery of 40 units of blood plas- Commander first assumed control of Target Combat
ma from lower Manhattan Island, N.Y., to Sandy Hook, Air Patrol, previously vested in carrier units, and a


1944—Continued supported by aircraft from one fast carrier group and
one escort carrier group. Covering operations were
Force Fighter Director on his staff coordinated fighter provided by the First Strike on Truk (17–18 Feb), car-
direction. Two fast carrier groups to the west kept ried out by the Truk Striking Force (Vice Admiral R.
Eniwetok Atoll neutralized until the initial objectives A. Spruance), built around three fast carrier groups.
were achieved. Their early achievement permitted In a two-day attack, the carriers launched 1,250 com-
the second phase of the campaign, Seizure of bat sorties against this key naval base and exploded
Eniwetok, earlier than the planned date of 10 May. the myth of its impregnability with 400 tons of
The landings (17 Feb) and the ground action were bombs and torpedoes, sinking 37 war and merchant
ships aggregating 200,000 tons and doing heavy dam-
age to base installations. In this action the first night
bombing attack in the history of U.S. carrier aviation
was carried out by VT-10 from Enterprise with 12
radar equipped TBF-1Cs. The attack, delivered at low
level, scored several direct hits on ships in the har-
bor. In a brief enemy air attack on the same night,
Intrepid was hit by an aerial torpedo. For the cam-
paign, night fighter detachments of VF(N)-76 and
VF(N)-101 (assigned F6F-3s and F4U-2s equipped
with AIA radar) were assigned to five carriers and,
while not widely used, were on occasion vectored
against enemy night raiders.

30 January To effect the neutralization of Wake
Island during the Marshalls operation, two squadrons
of Coronados from Midway Island made the first of
four night bombing attacks. Repetitions of the 2,000-
mile round trip mission were completed on 4, 8, and 9

2 February The last of the World War II ceilings for
Navy aircraft, calling for an increase to 37,735 useful
Adm. Marc Mitscher planes, was approved by the president.

Invasion of the Marshalls. Japanese airstrip at Engebi burning after attack by U.S. carrier based planes 221248

. was approaches to the Strait of Gibraltar. 15. sank it. announcing on Jaluit. Forward Area. on a MAD barrier patrol of the Central Pacific (Rear Admiral John H. Gilbert.000 pilots respectively. their intention to issue consecutively numbered bul- letins concerning the safe operation of naval aircraft. hit targets on Saipan. and fixed at 20. 4 March A reduction in flight training was visualized 20 February On completion of the strike on Truk. 1 was issued six destroyers (Rear Admiral John W. Calif.500. 23 February Two carrier groups of Task Force 58 (Rear Admiral Marc A. Rota. Tinian. 1945. Cloud cover ground. the K-29 of Blimp during the night. and with the assistance of two forces and naval forces assigned to the Ellice. and 1946 were small unit composed of Enterprise. and Marshall Islands. The combined 4 February The first photo reconnaissance of Truk efforts of pilots and antiaircraft gunners accounted for was made by two PB4Ys of VMD-254 on a 12-hour 67 enemy aircraft shot down and 101 destroyed on the night flight from the Solomon Islands. Reeves) separat- jointly by the Deputy Chief of Naval Operations (Air) ed from the main force and launched two air strikes and the Chief of the Bureau of Aeronautics. 24 February The first detection of a submerged enemy submarine by the use of MAD gear was made 15 February A new command. prevented complete coverage but the information acquired was useful in planning the carrier strike which hit later in the month. Hoover). Mitscher). after successfully 4 February In a test of refueling operations with fending off a series of determined enemy air attacks Altamaha off San Diego. and Guam for the dual purpose of reducing enemy air rigid airship. Squadron 31 made the first carrier landing by a non.000 and 10. a as the total outputs for 1944.136 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1944—Continued Loading torpedoes on SB2C for strike on ships 1053796 3 February Flight Safety Bulletin No. . strength in the Marianas and to gather photo intelli- gence for the impending invasion. by Catalinas of VP-63. They attacked the established to control the operations of shorebased air U-761 with retrorockets. ships and aircraft from two other squadrons. one cruiser.

formed in the Pacific Fleet to provide rescue and lage surfaces. Tanahmerah Bay.000 tons sunk.000 miles south of Ceylon. was modified slightly to pro. planes and bombed the islands in a diversionary action.. was taken into combat for the first time Pacific Fleet Operations. Mitscher) with 11 carriers. 22 March A new specification for color of fighter aircraft went into effect. a strong Fifth Fleet force. launched a series of NATS transcontinental hospital flight between attacks on Palau. photo-equipped Liberators of VD-3 18 March Task Group 50.10 (Rear Admiral Willis A. patrols over ships of the Attack Group during the approach and provided support for the amphibious 30 March–1 April Strikes on the Western assault at Aitape. was primary trainers became glossy orange yellow overall. D. Fleet. Tinian. photo intelligence for future campaigns. assigned to temporary duty with the Eight escort carriers of Task Force 78 (Rear Admiral Royal Navy. 18 April In preparation for the campaign to occupy the Marianas. It directed that fighters be 21–24 April Landings at Hollandia—Task Force 58 painted glossy sea blue on all exposed surfaces. 28 ships of 108. Cassady) and supported troop movements ashore (23–24 April). (Vice Admiral Marc A. in its naval career in an attack on Rabaul by pilots of Marine Bombing Squadron 413. 15 April Air-Sea Rescue Squadrons (VH) were vide for use of non-specular sea blue on upper fuse. PBJ. operating with the British Eastern for the occupation of Emirau. was squadrons. This was the first mission by shore-based air- 20 March Two escort carriers provided cover and craft over the Marianas. The maximum visibility color scheme used on 16 April Carrier Transport Squadron. estimated 6 weeks. Carrier aircraft accounted for the Carolines—In an operation designed to eliminate destruction of 30 enemy aircraft in the air and 103 opposition to the landings at Hollandia and to gather on the ground. established for administrative and operational control over escort carriers assigned to deliver aircraft. and were so effec. all aluminum. and Humboldt Bay. launched preliminary strikes tive in destroying enemy interceptors that later mis. 8. specified for general use on aircraft not in the combat theater. was the first such mission by 26 April Headquarters of Fleet Air Wing 4 was carrier aircraft and the first large scale daylight mining established on Attu. A new basic as an additional duty by regularly operating patrol non-camouflage color scheme. The attacks accounted for Aleutians. participated in the carrier strike on enemy instal- lations at Sabang in the Netherlands East Indies. B-24s of the AAF flew escort for the photo Mili in the Marshalls. joined the British Eastern Fleet in the Indian Ralph E. two battleships. For the 13-hour flight from Eniwetok destroyer screen. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 137 1944—Continued 157 enemy aircraft destroyed. Davison) flew cover and antisubmarine Ocean approximately 1. obtained complete coverage of Saipan. remained semigloss sea blue and other surfaces visible Prior to this time the rescue function was performed from below. and 27 March Saratoga (Captain John H. Sawar (21 April). Mitscher) supported the land- ings of Southwest Pacific Forces in the Hollandia- 26 March Corsairs of VMF-113 from Engebi flew the Aitape section of the north New Guinea coast. airspot for the battleship and destroyer bombardment of Kavieng and nearby airfields in a covering action 19 April Saratoga. and 16. and aviation personnel in direct support of Mitchell. and Lee). airfoil surfaces visible from above emergency services as necessary in the forward areas. The basic camouflage scheme. spare 15 March The twin-engined North American parts. and Woleai. used with fleet aircraft. covered the landings (22 April) at Aitape. and shipping Washington.C. and March Field. semigloss insignia white. Aerial mining of Palau Harbor by Torpedo Squadrons 2. craft went into effect. The first fighter escort for AAF B-25s on the 360 mile force of five heavy and seven light carriers orga- bombing mission against Ponape. Pacific. bombed and bombarded bypassed and return. and a Aguijan Islands. . built around Task Force 58 (Vice Admiral 23 April VR-3 operated the first regularly scheduled Marc A. and denial of the harbor to the enemy for an 6 March A new specification for color of naval air. Calif. Ulithi. in the area. three destroyers. nized in three groups. western most island of the operation of the Pacific war. Yap. on airfields around Hollandia and at Wakde and sions over the island were unmolested. composed of Lexington.

detached from the main force on the second copters were established as a separate type designated day. to collaborate with aeronautical organization through the use of factors the Sperry Gyroscope Company in making an auto- and allowances for pools. and R for observation.138 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1944—Continued paign in Italy and the invasion of southern France. N. Naval Forces. was essentially a plan tial to the safety of assault shipping during the involving the assignment of new planes to combat Normandy invasion. was personnel trained in the use of electronics counter- dissolved and its functions assumed by Commander. approved the assignment of nine Naval Aviators from Cruiser Scouting Squadron 8 (VCS-8) to the 111th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron (TRS) of the 12th Army Air Force for flight training and combat operations in North American P-51C Mustangs. the retirement of second tour aircraft before 17 May The Bureau of Aeronautics authorized maintenance became costly. and recondition. flew protective cover for a cruiser bombardment H. ditioning and reassignment after specified combat tours. launched a 2-day attack on enemy installations and supply 13 May To distinguish between fixed and rotary dumps at Truk. The previous mission letters thus became classes of Satawan. Material and Supply. the Chief of Naval Air Technical Training 4 May A board headed by Rear Admiral Arthur W. was commissioned at Tacoma. and on 1 May supported bombardment of designated O. training and Ponape with air cover and bombing and strafing transport respectively. Mitscher). the helicopter class desig- small ships were sunk and 145 enemy aircraft nation VH plus a mission letter (i.. The Integrated Aeronautic Program for was made by NATS aircraft to the United Kingdom to Maintenance. Previous combat experience with Curtiss SOC Seagulls and Vought OS2U Kingfishers being used in air spot- ting and reconnaissance missions proved both types were vulnerable to enemy fighters and antiaircraft fire. matic pilot installation in a HNS-1 helicopter. ing kept realistic by frequent appraisal. measures equipment. On 2 September 1944 all Naval Aviators assigned to the 29 April–1 May Second Carrier Strike on Truk— 111th returned to their ships. Central Pacific.1 (Rear Admiral Joseph J. latter part of the war and. the Chief of Naval Operations Marshalls Sub-Area. pipelines. Wash. directed that on 1 June. Commander Raymond R. Lyons in command. Task Group 58. completed 23 May. located initially at NAAS San Clemente that had a direct effect on aviation planning during the Island. In addition to damage ashore. and the support of the CGAS Floyd Bennett Field. The higher performance of fighters such as the P-51 was expected to result in a reduction of casualties on these missions. with modifications to fit the needs of peacetime. which evolved deliver 165. tion and VHN for training) was abolished and heli- Clark). first of four ships of the class. Calif. three wing heavier-than-air craft. attacks. 8 May Commander. N. extended its influence long after 15 May The first of 16 special transatlantic flights the war. The delivery was successfully units.000 pounds of minesweeping gear essen- from its recommendations. ending a four month Task Force 58 (Vice Admiral Marc A. long association between the 111th TRS and VCS-8. or as soon thereafter as prac- ticable. VHO for observa- destroyed. return.Y. ing to Majuro from the Hollandia operation. Northwest African Waters.. 8 May The seaplane tender Kenneth Whiting. submitted a report School for Air.e. 13 May To meet the needs of the fleet for aviation 1 May The command Aircraft. recovery by a cruiser 299540 . A total of 11 Naval Aviators participat- ed in combat operations from the cockpits of P-51s An OS2U Kingfisher is taxied onto the plane net for an underway while assigned to the 111th TRS in support of the cam. establish a school to be known as Special Projects Radford and known by his name. return of aircraft to the United States for recon.

. Newfoundland. Mich. Hawaii. Training Task Force was directed to establish on 1 June. strafing and rocket strikes.145 23 May Third Wake Raid—Carrier Task Group 58. carrier lost in the Atlantic. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 139 1944—Continued 31 May Commander. Md.. Block Island. at Patuxent River. 1 June Airships of ZP-14. assigned to antisubmarine Montgomery) hit Marcus with a predawn fighter operations around Gibraltar. and ended at Port Lyautey. 1 June Air Transport Squadron 9 (VR-9) was formed 29 May The only U. Mass. Morocco.6 nautical miles in 58 hours. May from South Weymouth. Montgomery) shifted from Argentia. 19–20 May Third Raid on Marcus—Planes from a three-carrier task force (Rear Admiral Alfred E. Java. Airships of ZP-14 from South Weymouth arrive Port Lyautey. NATS Atlantic and the Azores area. and VR-12 at Honolulu. a detachment to be known as of the British Eastern Fleet on the Japanese base at Special Weapons Test and Tactical Evaluation Unit to Soerabaja. for ASW patrols over Gibraltar 232195 . NATS Pacific. and the Azores. The flight began 29 consecutive days. covering a distance of 3.S. French Morocco.. completed the first crossing sweep and strafed and bombed the island for two of the Atlantic by non-rigid airships. their area of operations across the Atlantic in 80 hours. Including time for stop overs at (Rear Admiral Alfred E. was torpedoed and sunk by a German to function as headquarters and maintenance squadrons U-boat while engaged in hunter-killer operations in for their respective commands. within his command at NAS 17 May Saratoga participated in the carrier air strike Traverse City. the airships moved Marcus to hit Wake with five composite bombing. conduct such tests of special weapons and other air- borne equipment as were assigned.

A Navy seaplane squadron VP-16. 4–5 Aug). Naval Aviators taken from aviation units on battleships Garrison aircraft were ferried in by escort carriers to and cruisers were assigned to bombardment duty as operate from captured airfields. kept the area isolated with attacks Boats from the destroyer escort Pillsbury (DD 133) on airfields and shipping in the Bonin and Volcano and the carrier reached the submarine before scuttling Islands to the north (15–16. offensive missions. After organized resistance beaches from D-Day until 26 June. and prepared the way for the amphibious assault of Saipan five destroyer escorts. composed of the in the immediate area on succeeding days. force of 11 escort carriers attached to Attack Forces. and successfully defended the operation against an Navy found itself with a prize of war. 24 Jun. with VC-8 aboard. built three groups of Task Force 58 left the area temporarily around seven heavy and eight light carriers. Gallery). moved into the area 6 June Allied Invasion of Normandy—Seventeen (16 Jun) and began operations from the open sea. Task Force 58 (Vice Admiral Marc A. sinking the directed the establishment of similar boards in other carrier Hiyo and two fleet oilers.140 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1944—Continued late afternoon fighter sweep (11 Jun) that destroyed one-third of the defending air force. 47’s (22 Jun). attack by major fleet forces in the Battle of the Philippine Sea (19–20 Jun). established in shore bases. the campaign to occupy the Marianas Islands with a Yap. and Marine Corps Night Fighter ting missions in RAF Spitfires over the Normandy Squadron 532 (12 Jul). and the one large command. troops landed on Guam (21 Jul) and on Tinian (24 Jul). Marianas Campaign 238363 . forcing it to surface. flying gunfire spot. this force escort carrier Guadalcanal. 3–4 Jul. destroying 402 enemy planes. Mitscher). ended on Saipan (9 Jul). They operated with units of the British Marine observation planes of VMO-4 (17 Jun). AAF P- Fleet Air Arm and Royal Air Force.S. Africa. opened for strikes on the Western Carolines (25–28 Jul). First to arrive were part of VCS-7. charges could accomplish their purpose and the U. Palau. supported operations ashore with daily on the German submarine U-505. had in one-quarter of operation next day (20 Jun) launched an air attack late in the reduced the fatal accident rate by 47 percent. carried out a determined attack (15 Jun). 11 June–10 August Occupation of the Marianas— As the campaign neared successful completion. In bombing and 4 June Off Cape Blanco. commands outside of advanced combat areas and the Air cover for assault and close air support for opera- appointment of a flight safety officer in each tions ashore was provided by aircraft from an initial squadron. a hunter-killer strafing attacks on shore installations and on shipping group (Captain Daniel V. Ulithi and other islands were taken under attack A Japanese plane shot down during an attack on the escort carrier Kitkun Bay. On the first day (19 Jun) 5 June The Deputy Chief of Naval Operations (Air) TF 58 repelled a day-long air attack from carriers and reported that Aviation Safety Boards. He afternoon on the retreating Japanese Fleet.

large carrier air group. was relo. by BuAer and Douglas engineers. and VC.Y. A. and testing of parachutes and survival gear. for research. composed of car- efforts in guided missile development and quantity riers Saratoga and Ranger. with while photographic planes obtained intelligence of Commander James A. Charger. course in Pre-Flight schools expanded to 25 weeks..223 aircraft destroyed. Air Group 1 arrived in the Russell Islands in the South Pacific. and execute flight of training and the retention of enough to maintain a safety programs. to plan. groups of the fast carrier force retired 6 July The Bureau of Aeronautics authorized in turn to advanced fleet bases for brief periods of rest Douglas to proceed with the design and manufacture and replenishment.J. Fleet Air Wing 7 for the fourth side of the campaign on the Bonins and in Europe. a Flight Safety Council was estab- plans which provided for a drastic reduction in the lished by the joint action of the Deputy Chief of Naval pilot training program. Pearl Harbor. al of surplus students was instituted by the Chief of made the first strike on Iwo Jima by shore-based planes. was estab- 29 June The Parachute Experimental Division was lished under British command at Lajes Airfield in the established at Lakehurst. launching sites with PB4Y-1s converted to assault carrier aircraft had accounted for 110. develop. 31 July The Accelerated Field Service Test Unit at 29 June Carrier Air Groups were standardized for all Patuxent River. Evans commanding. The program of “deselection” and voluntary withdraw. CVG. Pa. where facilities for intensified Gardner commanding. 27 July Fleet Air Wing 17 headquarters moved to continuance of the War Training Service Program in Manus in the Admiralty Islands. ships of her class. established as a separate department. By the time Guam was secure (10 Aug). 14 July PB4Y Liberators of VB-109. conducted 44 miles offshore from NAS New York. elements of Special Task attack planes. Md. This required the transfer of Operations (Air) and the Chief of the Bureau of some students already in Pre-Flight. This unit was to attack German V-1 and V-2 Volcanoes. escort carrier air nized into First and Second Fast Carrier Task Forces. Atlantic Fleet (COMAIRLANT). thus initiating a practice that of 15 XBT2D airplanes. The single-seat divebomber became standard operating procedure during all future and torpedoplane thus initiated. Officer-in-Charge. Philadelphia. for enemy defenses. CVLG. light carrier air group.. coordinate. Azores Islands for antisubmarine operations. Morocco. Mitscher and Vice Admiral John S. Smith. Captain William A. these aircraft 12 June In the first deployment of a guided missile became the prototypes for the AD Skyraider series of unit into a combat theater. based at Saipan. . was the first in the U. This done.. Air Force. two of the four launched against the 26 June Seaplane tender Currituck.. was commissioned at Philadelphia. McCain. Hawaii. Naval Air Training early in the next month. escort carrier air 5 August The Fast Carrier Task Force was reorga- group (Sangamon class). was redesignated Service Test and commands under the following designations: CVBG. August. and prior stages Aeronautics. N. first of four target ship James Longstreet were hits. the groups steamed north transfer without delay to Commander. cated at Johnsville. closing the Flight Preparatory Schools in September and the release of training stations which 29 July In the first successful test of the Pelican began in September. was designed jointly extended periods of action. guided missile.000 tons of drones. In this campaign. Pa.S. CVEG. ment. medium carrier air group. Navy specifically established for night operations. enemy shipping sunk and 1. 14 July To achieve economy of effort and unity of purpose by coordinating all safety functions through a 24 June The Chief of Naval Operations promulgated central organization. commanded respectively by Vice Admiral Marc class). N. Rear Admiral Matthias B. Through subsequent development and model redesignation. This division. 30 June The Naval Aircraft Modification Unit of the 7 August Carrier Division 11 was established at Naval Air Material Center. and Casablanca Pacific. modification of service airplanes were available. Bogue.. group (Long Island. Pa. The result- ing reductions were directly responsible for the dis. 29 July A detachment of Liberators of Bombing Squadron 114 from Port Lyautey.. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 141 1944—Continued 6 July A Special Air Unit was formed under Com- mander.

and moved against the Philippines with transferring personnel and equipment to and from fighter sweeps over Mindanao airfields (9–10 Sep) underway boats was demonstrated. 24 VB and 18 flung operations of four carrier groups of Task Force VT with the provision that four night fighters and two 38 (Vice Admiral Marc A. 31 August–30 September Occupation of Palau and Morotai—Simultaneous landings by Central and 10 August The operating aircraft complement of Southwest Pacific Forces were preceded by wide- Carrier Air Groups was revised to 54 VF. 10 August Naval Air Bases commands were estab- lished within each Naval District. Davison) opened the campaign with installed on an HNS-1 helicopter at CGAS Floyd Bennett attacks on the Bonin and Volcano Islands (31 Aug-2 Field. . Agaur (17 Sep).1 aircraft and Company submitted a brief report of the trial installa. The landings were preceded by bombing and strafing attacks and 11 August Dr. which overcame basic disadvantages of (Vice Admiral John S. and advancing up the Rhone Valley. and for Marine Corps Bases. Klein. the lat.7 (Rear Admiral Ralph A. Its southern Mindanao to Leyte and advancing the assault component squadrons VF(N)-43 and VT(N)-43. military installations. by Southwest Pacific Forces (15 Sep). into the Philippines. TG 38. operational readiness of aviation facilities in their respective areas.5 hours duration.142 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1944—Continued ter the first of the night torpedo squadrons. in Sep). liminary carrier air attacks (12–14 Sep) from TG 38. During the ensuing four day test period. made destructive attacks on enemy concentra. N. McCain) separated to hit the electric hoist.I. Sample). carrier planes destroyed the airship’s crew was relieved every 12 hours and its 893 enemy aircraft and sank 67 war and merchant engines were operated continuously. and ship- feasibility of refueling and replenishing airships from ping in the central Philippines (24 Sep) before retir- aircraft carriers. Landings on Peleliu by (cyclic pitch control) in an HNS-1 at CGAS Floyd Central Pacific Forces (15 Sep) were preceded by pre- Bennett Field.1 rejoined the command of Lieutenant Commander Frederick N. Calif. In this month of action.Y. leaving TG 38. had arrived 24 September. Corps land-based units from Peleliu.. N. support for the latter including strikes by Marine France. to support the advance of Southwest Pacific coordination of matters affecting the development and Forces on the Philippines. In one evolution.4 and from four CVEs of Carrier Unit One (Rear Admiral 15–29 August Landings in Southern France—Two William D. Here TG 38. Continued support was given by United States and seven British escort carriers of the the same fast carrier group (15–18 Sep) and until the Naval Attack Force (Rear Admiral T. Ulithi (23 Sep). under Following the action at Morotai. Six weeks later. changed plans for reentry 24 August The first night carrier air group. 20–23 August The nonrigid airship K-111. The entire Fast Carrier Force hit the Palau area which flights were conducted over Jamaica Bay.4 (Rear 11 August An electric powered rescue hoist was Admiral Ralph E. TG 38. Bates of the Sperry Gyroscope were supported (15–16 Sep) by TG 38. VMF(N)-541. shifting the assault point from CVLG(N)-43. ships totalling 224.000 tons. Mitscher). Mindanao (14 Sep) and to support landing on Morotai leading to its adoption for service use. area. was established at Charlestown. M. Enemy weakness in the central Philippines.4 to maintain the neutraliza- feasibility of rescuing personnel from the water and of tion of Palau. a and strikes in the Visayas (12–14 Sep). F. ing. shore movement from Peleliu to Ngesebus (28 Sep) ed Allied troops landing between Toulon and Cannes. additionally by six escort carriers of TG 77. In this operation of 72. and the shore-to- tions and lines of communication and otherwise assist. Sprague).1 hydraulic hoist. H. uncov- ered by carrier air action. demonstrated the Sep) and hit airfields. the first of which.1 (Rear tion and flight test of a helicopter automatic pilot Admiral Thomas L. Australia. and were Perth. date from mid-November to 20 October. Ofstie). Carrier air support was also provided for landings on sions. were established the same day. the (6–8 Sep). which committed photo planes be included among the 54 VF. R. the airship remained on deck for 32 minutes. flew close support mis. was installed and successfully tested. the Training 24 August Fleet Air Wing 10 moved forward from Command. spotted for naval gunfire. only part of its strength in direct support and operat- ed principally in covering action. end of the month by a total of 10 escort carriers oper- RN) supplied defensive fighter cover over the shipping ating in TG 32.Y. Troubridge. main body of Fast Carriers which then launched operating in conjunction with the Escort Carrier strikes on airfields and shipping around Manila (21–22 Makassar Strait off San Diego. to Los Negros in the Admiralty charged with the military direction and administrative Islands.

Fleet Air Wing 1. based M. how. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 143 1944—Continued Fire spreads from napalm dropped by Marine fighter flying air support during Peleliu invasion USMC 97976 1 September Project Bumblebee (as it was later 6 September A contract was awarded to McDonnell known) came into being as the Bureau of Ordnance Aircraft Corporation for development of the Gargoyle. this decision was one carrier. set radio control and parachuted to ground. Despite reasonable success 3 September Fourth Wake Raid—A strike group of during the preceding six weeks. pletion of the preliminary investigation. the OSRD and Applied Physics Laboratory of Operations (Air). Liberator from an airfield at Feresfield. lems involved in its use. . tion program was terminated and the project returned to a developmental status. completed withdrawal. transferred from Espiritu Santo in the sought to hit submarine pens on Helgoland Island. England. a Flight Safety Section was upon the guided missile phase of the anti-aircraft established in the Office of the Deputy Chief of Naval problem. Upon com. with cruisers and destroyers. 9 September Fleet Air Wing 17 moved forward to the Schouten Islands to direct patrol plane operations 3 September Lieutenant Ralph Spaulding of Special supporting the occupation of Morotai by Southwest Air Unit. In order to concentrate program was enlarged. the final alignment and relying only upon the drone’s television picture of the terrain hit the barracks and 18 September The Pelican guided missile produc- industrial area of an airfield on nearby Dune Island. anti-aircraft weapon. a develop- mental program was approved in December by the 6 September As the scope of the aviation safety Chief of Naval Operations. in December. also supervision of the aviation safety program. planes against enemy ships. guided. logistic and technical prob- positions on Wake. reported that a group of scientists from Section T of or LBD-1. flew a torpex-laden drone Pacific Forces. controlling the Liberator’s flight from a PV. on Hamlin. Simpson. South Pacific to Guam to direct the operations of ever. hit enemy made because of tactical. a radio controlled low-wing gliding bomb the Office of Scientific Research and Development fitted with a rocket booster and designed for launch- were investigating the practicability of developing a ing from carrier-based dive-bombers and torpedo jet-propelled. he lost view of the plane in a rain shower during patrol squadrons in the Central Pacific. Ensign James 11 September Commander. from the proximity fuze program which thus came completely under the Bureau of Ordnance. Fleet Air Wing 7. and was assigned the direction and Johns Hopkins University.

semigloss blue opposed by a combined air and ship action in the above and nonspecular white below. Central. Sprague).144 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1944—Continued in the Manila area (15 Oct). trainers and utility aircraft. This force. against antiaircraft Battle for Leyte Gulf (23–26 Oct). two applied to patrol and patrol bombing types and to destroyers. from its base on staging areas and effectively cleared the air for the Stirling in the Treasury Islands. Fast Carrier Force aircraft (24 Oct) hit the Southern Force in the Sulu Sea. two out of four and Northern Forces. or white all over—were prescribed Force met the Northern Force in the Battle Off Cape with the selection dependent upon prevailing weather Engano. was to be Battle Off Samar (25 Oct). At the same time the Fast Carrier white on bottom. Kahili airstrip on South Bougainville. Southern Force in a brief intensive action before day- ification went into effect which provided seven differ. such markings preferably to be applied with temporary paint.000 bombing squadrons (VB) were renamed and redesig. sinking the heavy carrier Zuikaku and light conditions (this had been used by COMNAVAIRLANT since 19 July 1943). began a combat landing (20 Oct) of Southwest Pacific Army troops on demonstration of the TDR assault drone. Halsey) and by surface and by radio and directed the final assault by means of a air elements of the Seventh Fleet (Vice Admiral picture received from a television camera mounted in Thomas C. The Japanese and use. was specified for tar- get drones. converged on Leyte Gulf from as TDRs struck the target ship. in three elements identified as Southern. under air attack resulting in the loss of Princeton. Another new scheme. on Formosa (12–14 Oct). All aluminum was to be used on landplane transports and trainers and landplane and amphibian utility aircraft. destroying 438 enemy air- craft in the air and 366 on the ground in 5 strike days. light in the Battle of Surigao Strait (25 Oct). a control opposed by the Fast Carrier Force of the Third Fleet operator in an accompanying TBM guided the drone (Vice Admiral William F. sinking the 63. and one destroyer escort were sunk by helicopters. Kinkaid) in three related actions of The the drone. Battle for Leyte Gulf 47012 . The most basic change was the use of glossy Central Force made a night passage through San sea blue all over on carrier based aircraft and on sea. ton battleship Musashi and a destroyer. as Special Task Air Group 1. For A major disruptive effort by the Japanese Fleet was combat against heavily defended targets. sinking ent color schemes for aircraft depending upon design two battleships and three destroyers. In the initial attack. and was itself nated patrol bombing squadrons (VPB). The drones Leyte. For antisubmarine warfare. attacked the 1 October Patrol Squadrons (VP) and multi-engine Central Force in the Sibuyan Sea. 10 October–30 November Occupation of Leyte— The opening blow of the campaign was struck (10 Oct) by Task Force 38 (Vice Admiral Marc A. two special enemy gunfire and three Japanese heavy cruisers were camouflage schemes—gray on top and sides and sunk by carrier air. in which Gambier Bay. Fast carrier support of the ground campaign had been delivered to the Russell Islands by surface was supplemented (18–23 Oct) by the action of 18 shipping and flown 45 miles to bases in the Northern CVEs organized in three elements under TG 77. Bernardino Strait and at daylight took under fire six plane transports. and armed with bombs of up to 2. built around 17 carriers hit airfields on northern Luzon (11 and 14 Oct). and was non-specular camouflage color scheme. The basic escort carriers and screen of TG 77. Orange-yellow was to be used upon target-towing aircraft and primary trainers. 27 September Guided missiles were used in the These and other strikes concentrated on reinforcement Pacific.4. 7 October Provision was made for the optional use by tactical commanders of special identification mark- ings on combat aircraft. Seventh Fleet surface elements turned back the 7 October A new Bureau of Aeronautics color spec. glossy red.000 pounds. many directions.4 (Rear Solomons where they were stripped for pilotless flight Admiral Thomas L. Mitscher) against airfields on Okinawa and the Ryukyus. and Attack on Japanese cruiser. As the Japanese emplacements in a beached merchant ship defending Fleet.

Lo and damaging Sangamon. carrier aircraft destroyed 1.046 enemy aircraft. Zuiho. to bring Japanese battle losses to 26 major combatant ships totaling over 300. David McCampbell 258198 against air and submarine attack (19–28 Nov) and another group performed the same services (14–23 Nov) for convoys from Ulithi. Kalinin Bay. White Plains. Off Leyte.000 tons. Santee. Direct air support in the Leyte-Samar area was assumed by Allied Air based at Tacloban (27 Oct) and 2 days later the escort carriers retired. Requirements for continued carrier air support for Kamikaze barely misses the carrier Sangamon 700580 the campaign caused cancellation of a planned Fast . Later one group operated at sea to protect convoys from the Admiralties Navy Ace. and Luzon airfields and shipping in Manila Bay (29 Oct). (26–27 Oct) carrier aircraft sank a light cruiser and four destroyers. and Chitose. The Fast Carrier Force also continued support for 2 days attacking airfields on Luzon and in the Visayas (27–28 Oct). As remnants of the Japanese Fleet limped homeward through the Central Philippines. sinking St. In supporting operations during October. hit the escort carriers. Kamikaze pilots. Suwannee (AO 33). and Kitkun Bay. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 145 1944—Continued carriers Chiyoda. the latter with the assistance of cruiser gunfire. shipping near Cebu (28 Oct). in the first planned suicide attacks of the war.

Fleet Marine Manila area (13–14 Nov) and sank a light cruiser. being prepared for attack 1053775 . aged the carriers Intrepid (29 Oct). During these actions. operating at advanced bases. and 20 merchant and auxiliary ships. other ships. and Task Force 38 (now under Vice Admiral John S. was directed to form mobile Air States and Hawaii retained the original title.E. Franklin and Belleau Wood (30 Oct). four of enemy aircraft destroyed. were redesignated Combat Aircraft Service Units (Forward).146 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1944—Continued patrol plane operations in support of the occupation of Leyte. was established under Aircraft. Support Training Units to train Carrier Air Groups and Marine Corps squadrons in the technique of close air 26 October The last attack in a month long demon- support operations. of which 29 TDR-1. Fleet Air Wing 17 moved to hit Luzon and Mindoro airfields and strike shipping to Morotai. 25 October In recognition of the difference in func- Intrepid. while those in the continental United Command. shifted to Luzon and the Groups. 21 October A new command.. and Cabot (25 Nov)—two seriously enough tions performed. tion as replacement and training groups. Fleet Air Wing 10. Carrier Strike on Tokyo.I. assault drone. Carrier Aircraft Service Units and Patrol to require Navy Yard repairs. Aircraft Service Units. Marine Carrier Air ing all but one destroyer. sinking a heavy cruiser and tions against the Philippines. During the demonstration Currituck. to support Southwest Pacific opera- in Manila Bay (5–6 Nov). Current plans called for the heavy cruiser and several auxiliaries. on guided missile in the Pacific. Pacific to direct the formation and training of destroyers. the them to be assigned to escort carriers and two to func- force was under several Kamikaze attacks which dam. Lexington (5 Nov). N. McCain) sortied from Ulithi 19 October Commander. 14 October The Amphibious Forces Training short title CASU(F). sinking another support escort carriers. hit a reinforcement convoy of four trans- ports and five destroyers in Ormoc Bay (11 Nov) sink. stration of the TDR assault drone was made by Special Task Air Group. and wound up formation of six Marine Carrier Air Groups. Essex. four Force. each com- the month’s operations with an aerial score of 770 posed of a fighter and a torpedo squadron. hit Marine Corps squadrons destined to operate from air the same areas again (19 and 25 Nov). Pacific. thereby concluding the first use of the 17 October Commander. arrived in Philippine waters and directed a total of 46 drones were expended.

On the night of D-day Navy seaplanes joined 27 November Commencement Bay. Army version of the German V-l Buzz Bomb. N. which spread an aerial blanket over was reflected in a revision of the aircraft comple. first of her class with operations from Mangarin Bay. reached the target areas: two attacked a lighthouse on Cape St. 15 enemy aircraft on the island and accounted for a VB and 15 VT. Turbine Test Station. this became the Loon. Stump) and Marine Corps shore- based air flew cover for the passage of transport and 23 November Training Task Force Command was assault shipping through the Visayas (12–14 Dec). a Pacific. personnel and equipment escort carriers provided direct support for landings by reallocated. navigation. making one hit which 7 December Chourre was commissioned as the first demolished the structure. including four light carriers of Task Force 38 and four escort carriers of the replenishment group. aged. for the Air Group Commander and to include four VF(N). with seven heavy and six light carriers. McCain). to train person- nel of the Airborne Coordinating Group as instructors 30 December The specification on aircraft color was in the operation of all newer types of airborne elec. port duty. beginning with the assign. 30 November Fleet Air Wing 10 headquarters became shore based on Jinamoc Island in the 28 December Marine Corps Fighter Squadrons 124 Philippines. were overtaken by an unusually severe ment of Marine fighter squadrons in December and typhoon which formed nearby. was established for admin- that technical studies were underway to determine the istrative control over all escort carriers operating in the feasibility of launching an adaptation of the JB-2. from escort carriers for attacks on enemy surface ves- sels and shore targets. Trenton.. established at NAS Willow Grove. the first to operate from fast carriers in com- bat. and 18 attacked other targets in the Shortlands and Rabaul areas making 11 hits. 11 December The steady decline in U-boat activity in the Caribbean during the year permitted a reduction 6 November Recognition of the future importance of blimp operations over the southern approaches. port of Task Force 38 (Vice Admiral John S.J. escort carrier design.. Captain Roscoe L. The covering sup- built from the last U. The fighter complement was to be major share of the 341 enemy aircraft destroyed in filled by two squadrons of 36 planes each plus one the brief campaign. Wash. Captain Andrew emplacements on beached ships achieving six direct H. Luzon (14–16 Dec) and effectively pinned down all ment of Essex Class Carrier Air Groups to 73 VF. Admiral Felix B. The dissolved and its facilities. This initiated action established in the Pacific from Air Sea Rescue Squadron which led to the establishment of the Naval Air elements already providing evacuation services. Three destroyers cap- continued with the establishment of VBF squadrons sized in the high seas and several ships were dam- the following month. was com. of Aeronautics to request the Naval Air Material Center to study requirements for a laboratory to develop and 12 December Three Evacuation Squadrons (VE) were test gas-turbine powerplants. Durgin). Philippines. As Mindoro—Six escort carriers of Task Unit 77. and ordnance radar. fighter sweeps over Luzon airfields (14 Dec) and continued with successive combat air patrols relieved 29 November The changing character of the war on station. 13 December Escort Carrier Force.1 (Rear subsequently developed. reported for their first tour of carrier duty aboard 1 December Electronics Tactical Training Unit was Essex in Ulithi. George. The change to the 18 December Third Fleet units. Pacific (Rear 17 November The Bureau of Aeronautics reported Admiral Calvin T. missioned at Tacoma. Modifications visualized includ. 14–16 December Support of the Landings on ed installation of radio controls and a radar beacon. amended to provide that patrol and patrol bombing . Pa. hits and two near misses. refueling east of the new figures was gradual.12. Bergeson commanding. Navy. began with Bowman commanding.S. nine attacked anti-aircraft aviation repair ship of the U. two VF(P) and two VF(E). New Ireland. identifi- cation. Army troops (15 Dec) and in the assault area (16–17 Dec). and of turbojet and turboprop powerplants led the Bureau Fleet Airship Wing 5 at Trinidad was disestablished.S. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 147 1944—Continued tronics apparatus including search.S. and 213. excepting those assigned to training and trans- U.

Strikes sea blue. As inclement weather 2 January Eighteen Fighter Bomber Squadrons persisted. Durgin) and indirectly by the development of a ram-jet powered. Task siles eventually emerged. covered the approach of the Luzon Attack Force against serious 29–31 January Six escort carriers of Task Group enemy air opposition from Kamikaze pilots which 77. a two day attack on Luzon (6–7 Jan) and on Central Pacific Force. covered the landings in entrance to Manila Bay (31 Jan). Fleet Air Wing 2 be equipped to employ the SWOD with seven heavy and four light carriers in three Mark 9 (Bat) glide bomb in combat. and Okinawa against changed combat requirements in the Pacific. 20 passenger and cargo vessels and numer- 1 January Carrier Training Squadron. the Pescadores. Fleet Air Wing 17. Lingayen Gulf (9 Jan). Luzon Strait followed by the Replenishment Group faces of wings and on all horizontal tail surfaces. antiaircraft fast carriers in Task Force 38 (Vice Admiral John S. following a period of training at NAS Kaneohe were the escort carriers Kadashan Bay and Kitkun Bay. 123. over 420 miles of the Indo-China coast. It conducted preliminary strikes in the the same area (30 Jan) and at Nasugbu. area damaging enemy shore installations and sinking another 62. week of preliminary action. and Salamaua (13 Jan). targets at Hong Kong. with 17 escort carriers.4 (Rear Admiral William D. and Formosa ers employed in training Carrier Air Groups out of (15 Jan) and next day concentrated on the Hong Kong Pearl Harbor and San Diego. 16 February–16 March Capture of Iwo Jima—The tions during the entire month. the force hit Pacific Fleet to provide operational control over carri. and Tartar mis- McCain) of Third Fleet and Central Pacific Forces. ous small combatant ships. 3–22 January Invasion of Luzon—Southwest Pacific 11 January The Bureau of Ordnance assigned the Force operations against Luzon were directly support. con. was established in the Moving northward to evade a typhoon. based Ryukyus the next day to finish off three weeks of on Tangier. the China Coast. During the night (9–10 Specifically. Pacific. Sample) provided air sank Ommaney Bay (4 Jan).4. com. on Grande Island in Island (5 Jan).000 tons of shipping.000 tons of enemy shipping sunk. tons of merchant and small combatant ships in one al similar to that prescribed for carrier based airplanes. weapon from which the Talos. first task on Project Bumblebee to the Applied Physics ed by Seventh Fleet escort carriers in Task Group 77. In spite of almost continuous bad weather which hampered flight opera.000 landplanes received a color scheme that was in gener. Terrier. and damaged several cover and support for landings by Army troops at San ships including escort carriers Manila Bay and Savo Antonio near Subic Bay (29 Jan).148 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1944—Continued fields in the Formosa-Pescadores-Ryukyus area (9 Jan). the patrol and patrol bombers were to be Jan) Task Force 38 made a high-speed run through painted semigloss sea blue on top and bottom sur. groups and one heavy and one light carrier in a night group. the force left the South China Sea with an (VBF) were established within existing Carrier Air after dark run through Balintang Channel (20 Jan) and Groups to adjust their composition to the needs of hit Formosa. sinking 1945 12 tankers. Group 77.000 tons. enemy air opposition which damaged Ticonderoga and Langley (20 Jan) and repeated the attack in the 2 January Headquarters. Transport Service was disestablished and its squadrons centrated on the destruction of enemy air power and reassigned to the Pacific and Atlantic Wings. and supported the inland advance of troops ashore (9–17 Jan). guided. The first of these was Task Force . and 124 of Bay (8 Jan). and accompanied by a Replenishment Group 15 February The West Coast Wing of the Naval Air with one hunter-killer and seven escort carriers. totaling 149. Among the ships 6 February The Chief of Naval Operations directed damaged by Kamikaze pilots opposing the landings that. (12 Jan). destroyed and 325. thus formally establishing the program for (Rear Admiral Calvin T. this force launched Marine Corps assault of 19 February was preceded and offensive strikes on Formosa and the Ryukyus (3–4 supported by two separate carrier elements of the Jan). Task Force 38. air installations in surrounding areas. reached south to Saigon and caught ships in the harbor and in coastal convoys with devastating results. other which passed through Balintang Channel. directed patrol plane support of the action with an aerial score of over 600 enemy aircraft Lingayen Gulf operations from San Pedro Bay. posed of two carrier divisions. Hawaii. south of the assault area (7–9 Jan). for tail surfaces and the fuselage were to be non-specular Operations in the South China Sea (9–20 Jan). destroying over 100 enemy aircraft and sinking 40.4 Laboratory. VPB Squadrons 109.

Army fighters first designations are used throughout. The Group’s shore-based aircraft con. Fleet Air Wing 17 was established ashore at Clark Field on Luzon. They also flew offensive based patrol squadrons. A. Piasecki as pilot and impending Marine Corps landing. preliminaries. for naval forces. Iwo Jima (28 Feb–8 Mar). On Training Command. the most violent of the major in the Marianas. under Commodore Dixwell Ketcham. which arrived on CVEs and on Halsey) took place.) were flown in from Saipan on 6 March. 17 March Responsibility for evacuating wounded Fleet were functional and noteworthy.. Director in the Air Support Commander’s organization. based in the immediate area and by Army and Navy Similar operations were carried out by patrol planes of air units based in other areas. On 21 February a Kamikaze raid upon conducted off Cape May. observed on 21 Mar) retaliated with attacks which seri- . was launched from a PBY-5A and achieved an estimat- In counter attacks. and did minor damage to Lunga Point. Lieutenant Commander Moulton B. fully.. 58 under Vice Admiral Marc A.000 tons of merchant from an XHOS-1 helicopter had been tested success- shipping sunk.S. to operate groups. the Japanese were not entirely ed speed of 550 mph in its first powered test flight.2 under Rear Admiral Calvin T. and two heavy carriers in a night group. they Marc A. 25 February. he returned for a second strike on Tokyo. On 28 May a change in Fleet Air Wing 1 from tenders anchored in the lee of overall command from the Fifth Fleet (Admiral R..2 began the campaign with nine escort carriers. Iwo Jima was secured on 16 March. began operations designations from the 50s to the 30s. built under Navy contract by P-V Engineering Admiral Durgin carried out air strikes on Iwo Jima’s Forum made its first flight at the contractor’s plant at shore defenses to reduce their resistance to the Sharon Hill. from Iwo Jima airfields on 27 February. Squadrons 4 and 5. During these sea aboard Hamlin to direct patrol squadrons in sup. Other U. and Baka flying bombs (first area until the island was secure. by tender- between Japan and Iwo Jima. Fleet Air Wing 1 went to pre-assault strikes on Okinawa (23 Mar). and began 19 February Commander. Marine Corps Observation Spruance) to the Third Fleet (Admiral William F.. his forces supported 3 March The Naval Air Technical Training Marine Corps landings and operations on Iwo Jima Command was incorporated into the Naval Air and flew neutralization strikes against the Bonins. was based last and. Kamikaze pilots. copter. under the direction of Task Group 52 sank the escort carrier Bismarck Sea. Task Group 18 March–21 June The Okinawa Campaign—The 50.Y. 11 March he flew missions in direct support of Marine Corps ground operations and neutralized airstrips in 8 March A rocket powered Gorgon air-to-air missile the Bonins. reported that a dunking sonar suspended enemy aircraft destroyed and 30. Calif. Mitscher) began the attack. under the immediate direction of COMINCH and CNO. On 16–17 February Mitscher moved against ganized and established as a Fleet Command with Japan with nine heavy and five light carriers in four headquarters at NAAS Oakland. with Frank N. N. operations deserve mention. seriously damaged Saratoga. leaving in his wake 648 Field. amphibious campaigns of World War II was supported ducted shipping reconnaissance and air-sea rescue by three separately operating carrier forces.S.5. On 1 March he struck at Okinawa and the Ryukyus 7 March Commanding Officer. Towson as copilot. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 149 1945—Continued 26 February Headquarters. CGAS Floyd Bennett and then retired to Ulithi. they included the personnel was assigned to the Naval Air Transport altitude-determining radar on LSTs and a Night Fighter Service. On 16–18 February. employing convention- port of the Iwo Jima campaign and remained in the al aircraft. and Marine The fast carriers of Task Force 58 (Vice Admiral Corps Torpedo Squadron 242 arrived on 8 March. this force air support upon the departure of the last CVEs on 11 launched neutralization strikes on Kyushu. N. the second was Task Group 52. Japan March. which changed all task number LSTs equipped with Brodie gear. From 19 February to George N. (18–22 Mar). bombs. Carrier aircraft hit Japanese air bases in the Tokyo plains. Taylor. Mitscher. destroying 482 enemy aircraft by air attack and another 46 by ship’s gunfire. by Marine and Army air units screens for carrier raids and expeditionary forces.J. Pa. With an original flew day and night combat air patrols and provided all strength of 10 heavy and six light carriers. unsuccessful. it was later augmented by two more 7 March The tandem rotor XHRP-X transport heli- escort carriers and one night CV. From 19 to 23 February. 3 March The Naval Air Transport Service was reor- Durgin. Task Group 52. But new air defense elements in the U. (In this account.

leaves a trail of fire 313866 . (25–26 Mar). origi- four others. Okinawa (27–29 Mar) and. For the next three months the fast carrier nally 18 escort carriers strong. ashore until the island was secure (21 Jun). Durgin). from a fairly restricted fields. conducted pre-assault force operated continuously in a 60-mile-square area strikes and supported the occupation of Kerama Retto northeast of Okinawa and within 350 miles of Japan. The arrival A Japanese bomber.1 (Rear Admiral C. supported the tions. furnished close air support for ground opera. operating area southeast of the island. T. hit by antiaircraft guns while attack- ing an Essex class carrier.150 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1945—Continued Marine F4U in rocket attack on Okinawa USMC 129356 ously damaged the carrier Franklin and scored hits on Task Group 52. joined in the pre-assault strikes on from which position it neutralized Amami Gunto air. intercepted enemy air raids. and on occasion landings and flew daily close support for operations moved northward to hit airfields on Kyushu.

a sive scale than any previous amphibious campaign. the Japanese expended some 1. (11 Apr) Intrepid (16 Apr) Bunker Hill (11 May). based on (3 Apr). Only four Japanese destroyers survived the board marked the combat debut in Marine Air Support encounter. and captured Yontan airfield the Fairchild.800 tons Subject to frequent suicide attacks. Bureau of Aeronautics awarded a contract for 100 ern shores (1 Apr) against light opposition. Supporting shore-based air moved in behind the landings led by the OY-1 spotting planes 26 March Commander. to direct patrol plane oper- squadron began operations from Ie Shima (13 May). Intrepid. principally against naval forces supporting the campaign. the first of a series of mass suicide attacks involving some 400 aircraft. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 151 1945—Continued sortie by the Japanese Navy and was beaten decisively by carrier aircraft in the Battle of the East China Sea (7 in May of two CVEs with Marine Carrier Air Groups on Apr). and Natoma Bay (6 Jun). Opposition from Japanese naval surface forces was brief and ineffective. and blasted (26 Mar–20 Apr and 3–25 May). same day.S. based on sea. and Enterprise (14 May). the world’s largest battleship. were also damaged. in the first aircraft. Palawan. all four carriers of bombs and 15. British task force built around four carriers equipped Fast and escort carrier planes flew over 40.500 tons of bombs and 50. Yorktown (18 Mar). A Navy landplane patrol squadron joined forces ashore (22 Apr) and extended the range 14 April Commander.516 enemy aircraft. Fleet Air Wing 1. Wasp (19 Mar). from which position it enemy positions with 8. logged by Essex.000 action with armored flight decks. interspersed 23 April PB4Ys of Patrol Bombing Squadron 109 with smaller scattered ones. Carrier air support was on a larger and more exten- Task Force 57 (Vice Admiral H. Rawlings. the most outstanding was assault forces from enemy surface force interference. Sangamon (4 May). San Jacinto (6 Apr). A task force made up of Yamato. the U. arrived at of seaplane search operations. air support mission. arrived at Kerama Retto to direct the opera- elements of the Tactical Air Force began local air tions of patrol squadrons assigned to support the defense patrols (7 Apr) and shortly started their close assault and capture of Okinawa. conducted long-range active combat area that were marked up by the carri- antishipping search over the East China Sea to protect ers during the campaign. Marine Corps Hamlin. Although Task Force 58 lost no carriers during the campaign. but all remained sions. with 79 consecutive days. flew antisubmarine patrols in the immediate area. took part in what was to be the last Bat. Hancock (7 Apr) Enterprise.000 neutralized airfields on Sakishima Gunto and Formosa. Franklin. ations against the shipping in the South China Sea and Strong Japanese air opposition developed (6 Apr) in along the Indo-China coast. another 506 Japanese aircraft and expended 1.865 rockets on close air support mis- took hits in the course of their action. carriers. rockets. WWII automatic homing Navy missile 701606 . Borneo. Fleet Air Wing 10. RN). one light cruiser. and an Army fighter Puerto Princessa. Wake Island (3 Apr). Marine Corps squadrons ashore destroyed and intercepted air raids headed for the assault area. Navy took the heaviest punishment in its history. operated south of Okinawa sorties. destroyed 2. was initiated as the Army and Marine Corps troops landed on the west. Task Force 58’s time on the line (18 Mar–10 Jun) operational. during the critical period launched two Bat glide bombs against the enemy (6 Apr–28 May). established experimental Larks to the Ranger Engine Division of a firm beachhead. was surpassed by the escort carriers (24 Mar–21 Jun). As ground opposition stiffened. one light and eight heavy carriers were hit: Enterprise. In the three month’s struggle against the humanly guided missiles of the Kamikaze force. Patrol squadrons of Fleet Air Wing 1. Three escort carriers of Task Force 52. Essex. In seven mass raids. but of several records for continuous operations in an plane tenders at Kerama Retto. and provided air-sea rescue services for carrier operations 21 March The development of a rocket-powered from D minus 1 day to the end of the campaign. B.500 shipping in Balikpapan Harbor. and eight destroyers. surface-to-air guided missile.

area. 9 May U-249. shifted to airfields and Norfolk. test and developmental activities and to supervise and administer all Navy Department 10 July–15 August Carrier operations against action relating to patents. war and merchant shipping. Japan—Task Force 38 (Vice Admiral John S. Fla. a ship-to-air 30 June–3 July Landings at Balikpapan—Marine guided missile powered with a standard JATO unit. royalty payments. to provide. were supplemented (after 16 Jul) by operations of ment of seven Patrol Squadrons to the Pacific. Rear Admiral Marshall R. was disestablished. 27 June Fleet Air Wing 16 was disestablished at 10 May In a crash program to counter the Japanese Recife. raised Group 12. the Naval Aircraft Modification Unit was authorized to develop Little Joe. the first large Carrier Air Group in nearly double that of similarly launched.. Corps and Navy squadrons. Maine. experimental. proce- 4 May Fleet Air Wing 18.4 (Rear Admiral Ralph E. RN) composed of four carriers and a screen. flying a HNS-1 helicopter rescued 11 15 June Experimental Squadrons XVF-200 and XVJ- Canadian airmen that were marooned in northern 25 were established at Brunswick. functions formerly assigned to NAS Patuxent River. naval bases and military installations from Kyushu in the south to 5 June Cognizant commands and offices were Hokkaido in the north. the Naval Research Laboratory and the Special one other later in the period. The ramjet unit was bomb to be used in World War II. was established at Guam to take particularly those concerned with defense against the over the operational responsibilities in the Marianas Kamikaze. Operations were supported by a patrol aviation which called for the disestablishing of replenishment group and an antisubmarine group. Mass. rights. shipping in the northern Honshu-Hokkaido area (14- . Jennings) launched the black surrender flag to a PB4Y of Fleet Air Wing 7 five strikes against enemy positions on Wake Island. and both with escort carriers in their complement. and seven Composite Squadrons. flight facilities for evaluating and testing tactics. Brazil. British Carrier Task Force 37 (Vice Admiral H.152 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1945—Continued 13 June A ramjet engine produced power in super- sonic flight in a test conducted by the Applied Physics combat employment of the only automatic homing Laboratory at Island Beach. Patuxent River. cold units. Baka (suicide) bomb.S. Halsey. launched by a booster of four 5-inch high velocity air- craft rockets and achieved a range of 11. 10 June After the close of hostilities in Europe. USCG. By this initially composed of 14 carriers and augmented by order. Va. dure. Labrador about 125 miles from Goose Bay. Morocco. research. and equipment for use in special defense tasks Greer commanding. provided close air support. 8 May V-E Day—The president proclaimed the end was established to be responsible for aviation test of the war in Europe. McCain). aboard three escort carri- ers of Task Group 78. bureaus full information with respect to all naval Borneo. N. copy. fields.4 (Rear Admiral William D. five Inshore Patrol. Md. 20 June Fifth Wake Raid—Three carriers of Task der after the cessation of hostilities in Europe. Rawlings. the first German submarine to surren.J. near the Scilly Islands off Lands End. and for the redeploy. in support coordinate. for the future employment of Atlantic overall command. permitted by the cessation of hostil. and strikes on military installations. 2 May First Helicopter Rescue—Lieutenant August Kleisch. was established at NAAF Otis Field. and from time to time to disseminate to all of landings by Australian troops (1 Jul) at Balikpapan. B. Navy. under the direct operational control of COMINCH.000 yards. trademarks. 1 May CVBG-74. local combat air established in the Office of the Secretary of the Navy to patrol. The force was a part of Third informed of plans.. Fleet The attack began with heavy air strikes on airfields in Air Wing 15 departed from Port Lyautey.. Fleet under Admiral William F. who was in ities in Europe. and similar matters. for the Tokyo plains area (10 Jul). England. inventions. 19 May The Office of Research and Inventions was Sample). four Wings and 23 Patrol. for duty on Midway. 16 June Naval Air Test Center. the U. 15 June Fleet Airship Wing 2 at Richmond. previously held by Fleet Air Wing 1. operated against the Devices Division of the Bureau of Aeronautics were Japanese homeland in a series of air strikes on air- transferred to the newly established office.

Barnaby. After moving southward 1.000 tons. and returned to Tokyo targets (17 Jul) and offensive air operations. merchant ships totaling 285. the first carrier strike of the naval shipping at Yokosuka (18 Jul). 28 and 30 Jul). northern Kyushu (24 Jul).000 were on the ground. and then repeated aircraft destroyed 1. carrier Osaka area and to Nagoya (25 Jul). ward to clear the Hiroshima area for the atomic bomb drop and hit the Honshu-Hokkaido area (9–10 Aug). reported Planes of the Third Fleet attack camouflaged carriers in assault on Japanese naval base at Kure.223 enemy aircraft of which over the sweep (25. 13 July Captain Ralph S. The attack hit day had already hit Tokyo and the second was Inland Sea shipping in the Kure area and airfields on approaching the coastline as it was recalled. On 15 August at 0635. July 1945 490162 . the force moved north. when Johnsville Naval Aircraft Modification Unit. swept up the Sea to the In this final carrier action of World War II. and sank 23 war and 48 (1 Aug) to evade a typhoon. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 153 1945—Continued Admiral Halsey sent a message to his forces announc- ing the end of hostilities and ordering the cessation of 15 Jul). commanding the and Tokyo (13 Aug).

Japan. and transferred com- composed of one carrier. Fleet Air Wing 1. operation and maintenance of their equipment. N. in September. satellite program. thereby demonstrating that it was potentially capable of carrying out its mission. launched strikes on shipping in the West. Fla. Va. up for Personnel.. one battleship and destroyer mand of the operating forces to the Chief of Naval screen. Wing headquarters was established on Wash. 24 July Marine Corps pilots. bombed buildings and gun positions on Wake series of 14 test flights including two at service weight. Durgin). Fleet. Hawaii. covering a cruiser force operating in 14 July Fleet Air Wing 12 was disestablished at Key the East China Sea. aircraft was added to the basic designation system. Calif. the Yellow Sea. and directed patrol plane operations 14 August Japan accepted the terms of uncondition- over the East China Sea. to operate and maintain air transport support of establishments and 18 July Sixth Wake Raid—Wasp returned to action units in the Western Pacific and Asiatic theaters. first of the 45. on board Missouri (BB 63) in Tokyo Bay. aircraft carriers. Va. The weapon was released by a B- 29 over Nagasaki. disestablished. 2 September The formal surrender of Japan.000 ton class Island Beach. Operations and Logistics on the same level as the existing Deputy 28 July Fleet Air Wing 15 was disestablished at Chief of Naval Operations (Air). which was the 15th coastal waters of Japan from that location until the end in the Western Pacific. attacked Japanese positions 10 October The Office of Chief of Naval Operations on Pagan Island in the Marianas. abolished 1 August Seventh Wake Raid—Task Group 12. Norfolk. 20 July Fleet Airborne Electronics Training Units (FAETU) were established in the Atlantic and Pacific 3 October As the initial attempt to establish an earth Fleets to train airborne early warning crews in the the. 6 August Escort carriers from TG 95. N. Guam. Va.S. Norton Sound set up his command base in Chimu Wan. missile. Administration. Va. hostilities ceased.154 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1945—Continued 6 August Eighth Wake Raid—Intrepid.. Early after battle repairs and overhaul at Puget Sound. while en route from Pearl Harbor. Okinawa.Y. Fleet Air Wing 7. launched air strikes against targets on Wake. or Gargoyle. The reorganization. a rocket-propelled surface-to-air and the end of World War II. and on 15 November trans- ferred to NAB Agana. Naval Air Transport 15 July Fleet Airship Wing 4 at Recife. lished a committee to evaluate the feasibility of space rocketry. 19 July Fleet Air Wing 9 was disestablished at NAS New York. Commander-in-Chief. Ashworth had supervised 14 July Commander. operating from the escort carrier Vella Gulf. was established at NAS Oakland. participated in the delivery of the sec- headquarters to the United States at Norfolk. England.3. with Captain Joseph F. Luethi in command. for transfer of Ashworth. Captain Carl F. marked V-J Day 20 July Little Joe. made two successful flights at Applied Physics Laboratory (Johns Hopkins University) test station at 10 September Midway. 4 August Fleet Air Wing 7 was disestablished at 17 October A type designation letter K for pilotless Norfolk. which was by direction of the Secretary of the Navy and in accord with Executive Order. Albemarle at Avonmouth.. and the al surrender and on the same day. 14 July Commander. 21 August The Asiatic Wing.3 (Rear Admiral Calvin T. aboard and coordinated the field tests of the atomic bomb. Island. . to join forces off that the LBD-1. and two days later was reorganized and four new Deputy Chiefs were set hit Rota in the same island group. had made five satisfactory runs. Operations. Brazil. USN. U. harbor at Tinghai. China. Bolger in command. embarked on 9 August Naval Aviator Commander Frederick L. was Service.J. of the war. was placed in commission at Newport News. the Bureau of Aeronautics estab- ory. Samar in the Philippines. in a Japan. bombed and bombarded Wake. ond atomic bomb. air-to-surface missile.

UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 155 1945—Continued Training ceased to exist and the facilities of the former Naval Air Primary Training Command were incorporated replacing the previous Class designation VK. Classes into Basic Training or absorbed by the Reserve Program. This airbase was vitally important during the Guadalcanal Campaign 45345 . and a newly formed Naval Air 28 December The president directed that the Coast Reserve Training. Calif. embarked on Wake Island for carrier qualifications with the FR-1. ground tar. Naval Air Basic Training. A. the first jet landing aboard an Earth Satellite Vehicle. and ships respectively. 5 November Ensign Jake C. Advanced Training. Aeronautics to issue contracts to one university and three companies for theoretical study. Naval Air Technical Training. and preliminary 29 November The Special Weapons Test and design of a launch vehicle and for determining by Tactical Evaluation Unit was redesignated Pilotless actual test the specific impulse of high energy fuels Aircraft Unit and in the next month was transferred to including liquid hydrogen-oxygen. Marine fighters on Henderson Field. forcing him Feasibility of Space Rocketry recommended that to start his aft jet engine. Wash. with VF-41 gets.. West. 1 December Fleet Air Wing 6 was disestablished at and the following subordinate commands: Naval Air NAS Whidbey Island. Calif. MCAS Mojave. lost power on the forward radial 29 October The Committee to Evaluate the engine of his FR-1 shortly after take-off. This led the Bureau of a carrier. Fla.. G and S within the type were assigned for pilotless aircraft intended for attack against aircraft.. 1 November The Naval Air Training Command was reorganized with headquarters at NAS Pensacola. as necessary. and directed to operate detach- ments at NAF Point Mugu. He returned to the ship and detailed studies be made to determine the feasibility of made a successful landing. By this change the titles Naval Air Guard be transferred from the Navy and returned to Operational Training and Naval Air Intermediate the jurisdiction of the Treasury Department.

Normal servicing was performed from boats 428461 .156 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 PV-1. Medium range land-based patrol plane 41693 Hoisting PBM Mariner aboard tender.

UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 157 Loading ammo in fighter 1061656 Bombs on plane frame carrier 1053797 Navy night fighters. a flight of F6F Hellcats painted black 407243 .

158 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 Navy Ace C. Hornet. Harriss receives DFC from ADM Mitscher 297413 USMC Ace Joe Foss tells how one almost got away 35197 Fighter direction team for com- bat air patrol 428460 The fleet at Ulithi with fast carriers Wasp. Yorktown. Hancock and Ticonderoga anchored in a row 294129 . E.

yet lessons of war and the careful examination of the vari- old. turned to an advantage. Within mal. but which were still in embryonic develop. continual adaptation in force organiza- demands that arose before the forces required for tion. designed to carry Navy long-range attack 159 . however. This time the whipping boy was of transition. of defense. partly in size but particularly in not the battleship. expensive. problems for the Navy. There peace could be organized. not lessened by the realization of the truly destructive iar task of supporting the nation’s policy in areas on power that was now available to mankind. At the top there were problems of adjusting to mittee was reminiscent of the Morrow Board and a new departmental organization formed by what Lampert Committee of 1925. At the ment among the services on their respective missions bureau and office level there were problems of and functions. There was also dispute. and ed missiles which had been introduced during World entirely unable to live up to its billing. B-36—which was equally vulnerable. was no time to sit back for deliberate study of the The unsettled international situation raised new. proving once again that after the not used in that fashion their use was too limited to machine was developed navies had the additional warrant their existence. the degree of difficulty was increased zational readjustment and an uneasy international situ. Ships were retired to a It was a period in which changes occurred at an mothball fleet. There was the same clamor for a the years passed became a fixture in that sea. but force in the western Pacific provided the same tangi. The study of aviation and national air policy Organizational readjustment took place at several by a president’s commission and a congressional com- levels. They were weapons and tactics developed either as a result of said to be too expensive and too vulnerable. There was new agree- was really only compromise agreement. with criticism of the newest long-range bomber—the Superimposed were new concepts based upon guid. the period was a repeti- one or two carriers cruised the Mediterranean and as tion of the twenties. and repeated revision of tactical doctrine. and. Carrier supporters retaliated problem of finding the means of taking it to sea. It was a period of constant readjust- wartime force remained to carry new operational ment in plans. sought larger shares of a decreasing budget. Their combat experience or of technological advances. In the fleet there were problems declared obsolete. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 159 PART 6 Postwar Years 1946–1949 T he years following the greatest war in history were highlighted by the problems of demobilization. A task force built around In other respects. new and greater advances ter of the World War II peak. aircraft were placed in storage. The capability to perform so-called strategic missions was introduction of jet aircraft posed special problems for supposedly a duplication of effort. Within months fleet ele. this time both were successfully accomplished in the ble symbol of American might and determination to unification of three services into a single department support the free peoples of the world. of Defense canceled the carrier already under con- ment and which required additional efforts in all struction. A similar separate air force and for a merger of the services. There existed an urgency that was occupation forces were given the additional and famil. by the need to complete the transition without even ation not in itself related to the outcome of the war. almost before they could be for the men of Naval Aviation fell to a mere one-quar. Shore ever accelerating rate and came to be accepted as nor- stations at home and abroad were deactivated. Technological and scientific advances built rapid- a year after the end of hostilities the on-board figures ly upon each other. and if they were carrier operations. opposite sides of the world. Only a skeleton of the had been made. old ments of technical and administrative units to meet charges of duplication were raised. navies were again new requirements. but the aircraft carrier. In all of these. As the services reducing staffs and of realigning the functional ele. organi- areas from design through operational deployment. ous possibilities to determine the most favorable ments assigned to areas for the purpose of supporting course of action. Demobilization was rapid. The Secretary War II. a temporary loss of combat effectiveness.

In the period 7–22 March. The argument raged and the whole affair conversion of two submarine hulls into guided-missile seemed out of hand as it reached the fantastic situa.160 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 planes. Cusk (SS 348) and Carbonero (SS tion in which one service was publicly deciding for 337) were later selected for this conversion. and Lark be continued as high priority and guided missiles. and that Kingfisher.000 air- craft of types in operation were to be stored against future needs and an additional 360 F6F-5s for future conversion to drones.. missile developments. 25 March The XHJD-1. 1 February A major reorganization of the Bureau of 15 March The Chief. and Dove be limited to test and guided missile test facilities and staff to operate at the research vehicles. Army Air groups according to function. and the HNS-1 helicopter. Bureau of Aeronautics formally Aeronautics aligned the technical divisions into two proposed to the Commanding General. national appreciation of the necessity for adequate military forces in an era when survival of the free 11 March A modification of the class designation of world was at stake. the first twin engine heli- whose staff divisions were also strengthened by the copter. the combination prop and jet FR-1 Fireball. made a hovering flight. and the Secretary of the Navy resigned in 5 March The Secretary of the Navy approved the protest. 12 March In a reorientation and consolidation of under the cognizance of the Bureau of Ordnance and Navy guided-missile developments. launching vessels. Va. transfer from Johnsville of all Bureau of Ordnance Gorgon III-A. this helicopter Assistant Chief. Gorgon II-A. new location with a mission to perform tests and mod- that the Bat be completed.. under command of Rear Admiral John H. An additional Assistant Chief was estab- lished over each group and the former Assistant Chief. Gorgon II-C. left Norfolk. Cassady to conduct cold weath- er tests in Davis Strait. and Services. Designed for the Navy reorganization. and the other Material for development of an earth satellite. was given the title of Deputy and by the McDonnell Aircraft Corporation. that the Loon be continued as a launching test vehicle and a possible interim weapon. The F8F Bearcat. another not only how its mission should be carried out but what was needed to do it. and support. But the whole affair 7 March The Chief of Naval Operations directed that came to a halt after Congressional hearings gave the Ground Controlled Approach equipment (GCA) be Navy a chance to be heard and when war in Korea adopted as the standard blind landing system for the provided more immediate problems and a greater Navy. one titled Research Forces that a joint Army-Navy project be established Development and Engineering. the Chief of Naval under the air station for administration and logistic Operations directed that Glomb. This change was responsible for the subsequent 2 January FAW-17 was disestablished in Japan. Va. ifications as necessary to develop aviation ordnance Bumblebee. The establishing order also provided for the Little Joe be discontinued. and accompanied by three destroyers. redesignation of most BT2D and BTM aircraft as AD and AM. 2 March The Chief of Naval Operations established an aircraft storage program whereby up to 6. was intended for experimental use in a flight develop- 1 March Operation Frostbite—Midway with ele- ments of Air Group 74 on board. these units operated as a carrier task force off the coast of Labrador and above the Arctic Circle. a popular post-war fighter 277123 . 26 January The Naval Aviation Ordnance Test Station was established at NAAS Chincoteague. that Gargoyle. conducting flight operations with World War II type aircraft and the newer F8F Bearcat. naval aircraft eliminated the VB and VT used for bomber and torpedo aircraft and set up VA to identify aircraft with a primary mission of attacking surface tar- 1946 gets.

an early step in the adaptation of the guided missile to the submarine 402800 .000-ton- class carriers. was placed in commission 10 September 1945 362123 Carrier trials of Ryan FR-1 Jet and propeller fighter 1053774 Carbonero launches the Loon. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 161 1946—Continued Midway. first of the 45.

rescue operations. Graham. for the design and construction of three A twin-jet F3D Skynight on carrier approach 652827 . During a three-month period in which the tests were conducted. J. USCG. Coop. Lieutenant Stewart R. geographical exploration. Aviation.162 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1946—Continued 104 of the Atlantic Fleet and VP-115 of the Pacific Fleet and directed transfer to VP-104 of all PB4Y-2s already modified to operate the Bat missile. J. Coffee. 6 June The Joint Research and Development Board 3 April A contract was issued to Douglas for the was created by charter of the Secretaries of War and design and construction of the XF3D-1 night fighter. Dr. piloted the helicopter and Lieutenant Commander Roy Rather. V. and Mr.. Navy for the purpose of coordinating all research and development activities of joint interest to the two 15 May The designation of patrol squadrons reverted departments. USCG. C. electronics. atomic energy. Scott operated the sonar which provided good sonic and supersonic listening ranges and a high degree of bearing accuracy against both conventional and snorkel type submarines. and Ensign William H. 22 May The initial operational tests of an XCF dunking sonar carried by in HO2S helicopter were completed off Key West. geophysical sciences and guided missiles. nautics. Its several committees embraced aero- to its prewar status with the change from VPB to VP. Inc. 29 May The Aeronautical Board acted upon the Bureau of Aeronautics proposal for a joint Army- Twin rotor XHJD-1 designed for helicopter flight development 395920 Navy earth satellite project by approving the estab- lishment of an Earth Satellite Subcommittee to coor- ment program and for tactical use in utility and air-sea dinate projects already underway. Fla. 21 May The Chief of Naval Operations outlined a program for the operational introduction of the Bat 24 June A contract was issued to North American (SWOD Mk 9) which called for its assignment to VP.

11 July To establish clear-cut relationships for air- ducted at Bikini Atoll in the Pacific. A Aircraft Service Squadrons (FASRON) by 1 January. issues of applicable handbooks and technical orders. with ly that the knot and the nautical mile be adopted by 21 Reserve activities already in operation. thereby beginning active development contaminated that she was no longer fit for use. Among them were promote higher standards and greater uniformity and the aircraft carriers Saratoga. dropped from a B-29 at 30. effects of nuclear blasts and a sound technical basis for craft. an XFD-1 Phantom piloted by Lieutenant Commander James Davidson. powered with ment whereby the damage of such attacks against a twin turbojet engines. to the ering nuclear weapons. In the first test. charts. 21 July In the first U. sunk in shallow water on efficiency in aircraft maintenance.000 directed the disestablishment of all CASUs and other feet on ships anchored in the lagoon. sank five of maintenance units and their replacement by Fleet them outright and did heavy damage to nine others. the Chief of Naval Operations Nagasaki-type bomb. and designed for carrier opera. the terms be specified in all future procurement of air to study and evaluate the adaptability of helicopters to speed indicators. activated under the Naval Air Training Command. tion. This was a tailless. Although these tests had broad national impact. F7U-1 a tailless twin-net fighter by Vought 419488 Davidson landed FH on CVB 1053757 . test of the adaptability of jet aircraft to shipboard operation. related equipment. shallow underwater burst on the 25th raised the total The new FASRONs were to be of three kinds accord- number sunk directly or indirectly to 32 of the 83 ing to aircraft types serviced. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 163 1946—Continued the 25th after 19 years of active service. Navy and to Naval Aviation they not only made clear the importance of nuclear weapons in control of the 25 June A contract was issued to Chance Vought for sea but they also provided much detailed data on the the development and construction of three XF7U-1 air. naval task force could be held to a minimum. and Independence..Y. and future naval purposes. 3 July FAW-8 was disestablished at NAS Alameda. the Army Air Forces and Navy as standard aeronautical units of speed and distance. intensification of efforts to develop tactics and equip- equipped with tricycle landing gear. 1 July The Naval Air Reserve Program was formally 26 June The Aeronautical Board agreed unanimous. high performance fighter. which was so heavily damaged and XAJ-1 aircraft.S. and were designed to ships of all types used in the tests. and directed that use of 1 July VX-3 was established at NAS New York. of a long-range carrier-based bomber capable of deliv. N. a craft maintenance. 1 July Operation Cross Roads—Tests to determine effects of atomic bombs on naval targets were con.

Personnel completing their flight training and desig- 1 August An act of Congress established the Office nated a Naval Aviator were not automatically commis- of Naval Research in the Navy Department to plan. Holloway when he to active during the Korea War. Of the 3.800 were designated Midshipmen Program. it all types developed by the Navy. usually received their commission. Roosevelt. After a peri- nation of the Office of Research and Inventions which od of service in the fleet these “flying midshipmen” had been established by Secretarial order in May 1945. The new midshipman and were ordered to the fleet. Many Aviation Midshipmen were recalled issued by Vice Admiral James L. serving as office came into being on 21 August 1946 by redesig. They remained as aviation foster and encourage scientific research. The “Flying Mid- shipmen” program was replaced by the Naval Aviation 13 August Congress approved the Hale Plan. also Cadet program in early 1950. sioned at the same time. The program was designed to provide the Navy with qualified pilots in 14 August The Chief of Naval Operations standard- the post-World War II period following the loss of a ized missile terminology within the Navy to the extent large segment of experienced Naval Aviators returning that he directed the term “Guided Missiles” be used for to civilian life. For those who joined the program. pilots but not as a commissioned officer. was Chief of Naval Personnel. It was part of the program Naval Aviators.000 Aviation known as the “Flying Midshipmen” or Aviation Midshipmen. Roosevelt 1053790 made successful landings and takeoffs (deck-launched offered to pay for two years of college and training as without catapults) on board Franklin D.164 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1946—Continued Phantom on Franklin D. a naval aviator in exchange for a service obligation. approximately 1. Past practice was .

Australia to Columbus. flew from Perth. Ohio.235. for the purpose of determining the means by which the instrument flight proficiency of pilots could be improved.6 miles. Reid and Lieutenant Commander Roy H. Eugent P.” 15 August An Instrument Flight Standardization Board was established at NAS Anacostia. however. Rankin.C.. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 165 1946—Continued continued. An Air Planning Group was also set up on the DCNO (Air) staff to facilitate planning on the top policy level and to coordinate and direct the work of all divisions toward the same goals. Davies. Walter S. 29 September–1 October The Truculent Turtle. Australia to Columbus 703094 . Personnel. in 55 hours 17 minutes. and Air Logistics. Davies commanded the Turtle 703095 The Truculent Turtle flew nonstop Perth. and in the description of missile classes. under the operational control of the Deputy Chief of Naval Operations (Air). D. and broke the world’s record for distance without refueling with a flight of 11. 1 September A reorganization of the Office of the Deputy Chief of Naval Operations (Air) placed its divi- sions into four groups titled Plans. the Bureau of Ordnance term “Special Weapons Ordnance Device (SWOD)” and the Bureau of Aeronautics term “Pilotless Aircraft (P/A). in that authorization was given to continue as model designations. Readiness. a Lockheed P2V Neptune (bureau number 89082). manned by Commanders Thomas D. Tabeling.

Roosevelt. Fighter and Attack. thereby reflecting a deci. a wide orange stripe around consider the steps required to adapt the Integrated the fuselage. Walton in command. Air Groups of four types were designated according to sion to abandon development of the XF9F-1 four.. Patrol squadrons 30 October Under a project conducted by NAMC were redesignated to show in addition to the VP. Recommenda- change issued the following month (12 Dec). commanding. Carrier squadrons were limited to of a Rolls Royce Nene engine for Westinghouse 24Cs. .. Many 8 November The Office of the Deputy Chief of touched on areas so critical that action was taken Naval Operations (Special Weapons) was disestab. took off in a distance of 115 feet from a stand- ing all Navy and Marine aircraft. His first catapult launches March 1946. Naval Operations (Guided Missiles) and a Guided Missiles Aviator No. sweep- Bureau of Aeronautics that the designation XF9F-2 be ing changes were made in air unit designation. including those of the ing start and climbed to 10. left Lakehurst. and its proper evaluation. the receipt of complete information from the field. Herbster. to his retirement on 1 July 1936. VPP replaced the Facility. units were not affected by the change. forward of the empennage. both established under DCNO (Air). Ohio.166 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1946—Continued were on 1 November. N. Md. USMC. Md. the tions were largely concerned with measures to assignment of letters to carriers was discontinued and improve program administration such as providing for the letters were assigned instead to Carrier Air Groups exact planning. The flight. their assigned ship.. rigid adherence to schedules and and to Marine squadrons operating on CVEs. evaluation of guided missiles and components. N. Davenport 7 November A letter identification system for mark. VB and an action that led to American production of the Nene. to Cuba. an Philadelphia. completing a flight of 170. CVLG for Light Carrier and CVEG fighter. St. Material and Supply Program placed on all aircraft of the Naval Reserve. over the Gulf of Mexico and back toward NAF Glynco. as VP-MS-1 for made a successful ejection from a JD-1. at Annapolis. N. 4. to Florida. Glynco.. Marine Corps 27 October. groups and squadrons not assigned to carrier Rear Admiral Thomas S. Combs and established to operations. with Lieutenant changed to the same system but were assigned con- Harold R. thus abolishing the VBF. then seaward to the Bahamas. parent ship division but suffix letters B or C were added to differentiate between battleship and cruiser 3 November The airship XM-1 landed at Naval Air units. and VPM replaced hours. Albans. The VJ for utility became VU. Ga.J. he launches. followed the Atlantic coast to Savannah.. Furtek abbreviation of their aircraft class. Lieutenant (jg) Adolph J. Involved in this decision was the substitution for Escort Carrier. Carrier adopted in lieu of XF9F-1.000 feet in 94 seconds. Pa.3 VD for photographic squadrons. flying at about Patrol Squadron 1 operating medium seaplanes. died at the Naval Hospital. as CVBG for Battle Carrier. In addition. complements. He served continuously in aviation from 8 November 1911.000 feet over Lakehurst.. Calif. Perkins. was approved. These operations were part of an extensive investigation of the carrier suitability of jet 1 October Naval Air Missile Test Center. Ga. before final approval. and were assigned suffix letters to indicate their carrier type assignment. a world record for duration in self-sufficient VPW for meteorological squadrons. flying a jet propelled P-80A made two catapult Upon his return to active service in August 1940. training command and the Naval Air Reserve. VT designations. was established to conduct tests and delivery of a P-80A to NAS Patuxent River. Letters were assigned to all carriers and to 25 November The report of a board. on secutive numbers of a higher series. an F8F Grumman Bearcat with Lieutenant Commander Merl W. four free take-offs and five arrested landings again served in aviation until his final retirement on 29 aboard Franklin D. Carl. headed by wings. Division. It was the Observation squadron numbers again followed the Navy’s first live test of an ejection seat. CVG engine night fighter in favor of a single engine day for Attack Carrier.Y.J. Point aircraft which had begun on 29 June 1945 with the Mugu. 250 knots at 6. was adopted. 20 November At Cleveland. Reserve units were flight for any type aircraft. when he reported for flight training 11 November Lieutenant Colonel Marion E. 15 November To correct the results of demobiliza- tion which had left squadron numbers all out of 2 October A recommendation was made by the sequence and a system of no apparent order. By a to postwar conditions. as pilot. lished and its functions relating to guided missiles were reassigned to a new Assistant Chief of Naval 6 December Captain Victor D. was ordered Aeronautic Maintenance. Captain Albert N.

around the continent of Antarctica. Operation Highjump. 1 March The development of titanium alloys for aeronautical applications was initiated by a Bureau of Aeronautics contract with P. Thus a surface-to-air missile was des- Insignia. was added to the National Star ter M for missile. be relocated and redesigned U. . for study 1947 of methods of producing titanium metal and alloys 2 January Unit identification letters. 1. Iowa. new aircraft carrier characteristics to be incorporated ed for flight training at Annapolis. three letters A (Air). the U. odd for Army and even for Navy. second Pensacola. AAMs for other winged crea- America the first of six R4D transport aircraft which tures. November. Byrd as a passenger. orange yellow was similarly retained for primary train. This basic designation was followed by a model number. Pre-Flight. Pacific. Special color schemes included land camouflage (olive drab above and light gray below) for Marine 30 April A standard system of designating guided observation planes. ers.500. SAMs for mythological terms.000 pounds. National Research 12 February The Loon guided missile was launched Laboratory (NRL). then involved in the program were directed toward a capa- transferred to the Marine Corps Reserve and returned bility for operating aircraft of up to 40. followed by the let- white horizontal bar. required relocation of several standard markings on based on seaplane tenders. utility of coastline. Mallory & Co. and 5. This placement Antarctic ended.S.000 square miles of the interior. From 24 December 1946. For 29 January From a position 660 miles off the popular names. R. Md. when he report. Fla. and from 9 February. lished and its personnel. which had been established 1 from Cusk (SS 348) off Point Mugu in the first firing of September at NATC Patuxent River. in an improvement program titled “Project 27A”. The basic des- orange-yellow wings. was piloted by 20 May The Secretary of the Navy directed that Commander William M. and glossy sea blue fuselage ignation adopted was a two-letter combination of the with glossy insignia-red wing bands and rudder. The first plane off. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 167 1946—Continued to active duty in World War II. Smith. as a part of astronomical terms or bodies. Marine and sixth naval aviator. or the equivalent of about half the area of planes and advanced training planes. From 18 September 1912. Naval School. he was a member of the Naval Reserve. by nation on 20 January 1920. Pre-Flight at NAS Ottumwa. target towing aircraft were to have glossy adopted for use by the Army and Navy. operated in the open seas aircraft. assigned in and of determining their essential properties. during which he again served with distinction until his retirement in 31 December Special Unit Project Cast was disestab. S (Surface). which was also the first carrier takeoff for an R4D. and Gulf coasts combined. and SSMs for she had ferried from Norfolk. died from injuries received when his car was hit by a train at Coral 4 June The Chief of Naval Operations approved Gables. centered on the and the second letter its objective. Navy Admiral Richard E. and glossy the United States and its entire coastline—Atlantic.S. in which the first letter indicated the origin of the missile 14 January A horizontal red stripe. it was agreed that ASMs would be Antarctic Continent.. NAS 2 February Colonel Bernard L. material and functions trans- ferred to the Air Support Division.500 miles aluminum was retained for landplane transports. glossy insignia red for target missiles and assigning them popular names was drones. Md. six R4Ds operated ashore from the airstrip at 2 January A new specification for aircraft color was Little America. to provide the a guided missile from a submarine. The principal changes 1931–37. For six years ments in aircraft and weapons. Hawkes and carried Rear within the period 1 June–1 August 1947. Va. were ordered displayed on both sides of the vertical fin and rudder and on the upper right and 4 March Operation Highjump—Air operations in the lower left surfaces near the wing tips. Together these aircraft logged 650 issued providing for the use of glossy sea blue on all hours on photographic mapping flights covering shipboard and water based aircraft and all helicopters.. Philippine Sea launched to Little named for birds of prey. U (Underwater). NRL with flight test services as necessary to its elec- tronics equipment research and development program. he served with Marine and which Essex Class carriers were modified to meet the Navy aviation elements in a variety of duties including new operating requirements resulting from develop- intelligence assignments overseas. until his resig. ignated SAM. six PBMs. December 1946.

. ated as the Bureau of Aeronautics authorized Douglas Aircraft (El Segundo) to undertake design of a bomb 25 August Major Marion E. began Engineering Duty Only (AEDO) designation abolished conversion at the New York Naval Shipyard on 1 in 1940.796 mph over the three-kilometer course overcome the aircraft buffeting which was induced by at Muroc. machine guns. Caldwell. Calif. the Navy subsequently initiated 20 August Commander Turner F. 26 July The National Security Act of 1947 became law providing the most basic reorganization of defense activities since the creation of the Navy Department in 1798. Within the National Military Establishment it estab. Calif. Point. Air Force. This development was undertaken to record of 650. Calif. guided missiles and avia- for design study and engineering data for a delta tion armament. powered by a subsonic ram-jet engine. 7 June FAW-10 was disestablished at NAB Sangley 13 August Naval Air Development Station.168 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1947—Continued lished a third service. organic therein. was established replacing the Naval Aircraft Modification Unit. set a new world’s speed subsonic speeds. first of 7 August An Act of Congress restored the Aeronautical nine carriers modernized under this project. including those designated EDO. etc. The basic goal was 25 August Tests of the Douglas low drag bomb development of an external store shape which could shape were begun at the Southern California house conventional bombs. Its mission was develop- 17 June The Navy awarded a contract to Douglas ment of aircraft electronics. On the basis of the technical informa- tion thus obtained.S. set 1947 speed record 704422 . Philippines. flying the release system with smooth flight characteristics at Douglas Skystreak D-558-1. winged fighter. kilometer course at Muroc. It also defined the United strengthening the flight deck and clearing it of guns. 24 July The adaptation of the helicopter to amphibi- ous warfare was initiated when the Chief of Naval Operations established a requirement for a type capa- ble of transporting assault troops from an escort carrier and setting them down ashore along with their neces- sary combat equipment and supplies. the National Security Resources Board. cers of the line. States Navy as “including such aviation as may be increasing elevator capacity and adding special provi. and the Munitions Board. piloting development of the XF4D-1. broke the world’s speed record flying at 640. and be adapted to use as an external fuel tank. D-558-1 research airplane. the Central Intelligence Agency. The law established the National Security Council. USMC. the National Military Establishment and the Office of Secretary of Defense. 9 July A Gorgon IV (PTV-2). the Research and Development Board and included installation of two H-8 catapults. rockets. was air-launched from a P-61C and made a 28-second free flight at the Naval Air Missile Test Center. Point Mugu. in the Marianas. the U. conventional bombs when carried externally at three- quarters the speed of sound. by authorizing the assignment of qualified offi- October 1947. the Joint Chiefs of Staff. 30 June FAW-18 was disestablished at NAS Agana. Carl. the Douglas Skystreak D-558-1. Johnsville. Calif. Pa. increased fuel capacity and jet fuel mixers. Oriskany. Cooperative Wind Tunnel at Pasadena.” sions for jet aircraft such as blast deflectors.663 mph over the three- 26 June Development of low drag bombs was initi. Guam.

which superseded the Joint The Viking research rocket. 17 September James V. planning and direction... Calif. the feasibility of the operation was demonstrated and considerable experience was gained. 28 November Norton Sound was assigned to the Operational Development Force for use as an experi- mental rocket-firing ship. Pa. Secretary of the Navy. to NAS El Centro. Carl set speed record USMC 11986 6 September A V-2 rocket was successfully launched from the flight deck of Midway in the first firing of a large bombardment rocket from a ship at sea. fired from Norton Sound. beginning the following March. Vannevar Bush took office as Chairman. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 169 1947—Continued dealing with research and development coordination. Research and Development Board. Naval Parachute Unit moved from NAS Lakehurst. N.J. Necessary alterations were performed at the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard. 30 September The Research and Development Board was formally set up in the National Military Establishment as Dr. This board. 1 November The U.S. Col. one of two Navy members being the Deputy Chief of Naval Operations (Air). May 1950. While the missile behaved abnormally after take- off. functioned in areas reached an altitude of 106 miles 415261 . Forrestal. took the oath of office as first Secretary of Defense. At its first meeting. development and testing of parachutes. parachute recovery systems and ejectable seat capsules. Navy and Air Force were constituted as integral parts of the National Military Establishment. 19 December. Its mission was research. the credentials of all members were accepted by the Board. The following day the National Security Act of 1947 became effective and the Departments of the Army.

FJ-1 Fury. The report. engineering and techniques of flight testing. to instruct experienced fleet pilots in aeronautical Air Age. Its 1948 mission was to develop techniques and tactics for the various uses of helicopters in amphibious operations. Ten years ation in terms of the proven effectiveness of air power later this Division became the U. Dyer commanding.. the Naval Air Advanced Training of development projects to the Chief of Naval Subordinate Command was established at NAS Corpus Operations.S. encouraging a progressive research and development Elder of VF-5A. Aurand and Lieutenant Commander Robert M. although differing in some respects with the earlier report submitted by the President’s Air Policy Commission. Chairman. Colonel Edward C. of the atomic bomb. Thomas K. to NAS Pensacola. Finletter. 30 December The President’s Air Policy Commission. lished at the Naval Air Test Center. Fla. was a general reit- 19 December The Research and Development eration of its conclusions in regard to the effect of air Board directed its Committee on Guided Missiles to power on the national security and the need for a coordinate the Earth Satellite Vehicle Project. Research and Development Review Board consisting of the Chief of Naval Research and officers in the 1 March The Congressional Committee on National Office of the Chief of Naval Operations responsible for Aviation Policy. development. Va. submitted its report which.. submitted 4 March A Test Pilot Training Division was estab- its report based on extensive hearings covering a peri.. with urgency of building up strong military aviation with its a number of landings and takeoffs by Commander supporting industry and civil air transport. 1 January The headquarters of the Naval Air Basic Training Command was transferred from Corpus 19 December A New Development Board was Christi. od of over three months. This Board was replaced in May 1948 by a Christi.” was a broad review of the international situ. “Survival in the Md. 10 March The carrier suitability of the FJ-1 Fury jet sion dangerous and particularly emphasized the fighter was tested on board Boxer off San Diego. The report stressed the need to maintain military forces large enough to make aggres.. thereby national policy that would build a strong military air taking this function over from the Aeronautical Board. Patuxent River. At bureaus and offices and to recommend the priorities the same time. Corpus Christi was disestablished. Tex. 1 December HMX-1 was established at MCAS Quantico. headed by Senator Owen Brewster. Naval Test Pilot and its added potential for destruction with the advent School.170 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1947—Continued program to maintain the existing margin of superiority held by the United States. force supported by a healthy aircraft industry and civil aviation.and Naval Air established to review the programs of the various Training Bases. early design of an all- jet fighter 1053785 . and of Evan P.

double that of the K class airship of World War II. China Lake was dedicated. Davies and Lieutenant 4 June To establish and maintain close relationships Commander John P. guided it over a 46-mile course and rized the Naval Air Missile Test Center to train. ence and continuing advice of reservists who had held Through subsequent contractual action which was ini- key positions while on active duty during the war. 18 June The Chief. were assigned to squadrons one through six respectively of each carrier air group. forces and the Joint Chiefs of Staff. 30 March The establishment of a Naval Air Reserve Advisory Council was approved by the Secretary of the 18 May A contract was issued to Goodyear Aircraft Navy.. the Chief of BuAer.. Wheatley. from Coral Sea. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 171 1948—Continued 8 May The Michelson Laboratory of the U. Va. such air logistic 21 April The Secretary of Defense issued a memo.000 cubic feet. The colors insignia red. the Air Force’s First Experimental Guided Missile Group in the operation of the Lark 5 May VF-17A. Corporation for design of an ASW airship with an posed of 50 aviation Reserve officers appointed from envelope volume of 825. Candidates were . 25 May Two Support Wings were established and was established at NAS Lakehurst.S. N. would be required for internal administration and the attaching a paper defining the functions of the armed fulfillment of the Navy’s mission. made it mandatory for carrier squadrons to use distin- guishing colors on propeller spinners and across the top 4 June The Airborne Coordinating Group was of the vertical fin and rudder. Based on the poli- cy embodied in the National Security Act. with DCNO (Air). off Norfolk.S. renamed U. this size and weight. Transport Service (MATS) as a unified element of the National Military Establishment under the command 27 April In the first carrier launchings of planes of and direction of the U. light blue. Commander placed under Commander. were consolidated to form the Military Air the Key West agreement. Naval Ordnance Test Station. with at least two years of col- Group 17 were qualified with a minimum of eight lege. noninterfering basis. and (NAESU). made JATO takeoffs between the operating forces and planning agencies. 5 May The submarine Cusk (SS 348) launched a Loon missile off the Naval Air Missile Test Center. equipped with 16 FH-1 Phantoms. light green. light yellow. tiated in September.S. to study the various aspects of rocketry and guided missiles. two P2V-2 Neptunes. S. guided missile. which was com. all squadron pilots plus Commander. Naval Aviation Electronics Service Unit insignia white. Navy. vided that helicopter pilots previously trained by the Coast Guard or VX-3 would retain their qualification.S. In three days of operations aboard Saipan 22 June Flight training was opened to men between (CVL 48). became the first carrier qualified jet squadron in the U. arrangements were made for an Air Board to meet quarterly. one ZPN airship was ordered. was to make available to the Navy the experi. black outlined in white. Peters commanding. The 11 June The Chief of Naval Operations issued stan- changes also required that arresting hooks be painted in dards for training aviators as helicopter pilots and pro- alternate four-inch bands of black and white. Calif. piloted by Commander Thomas D. Bureau of Aeronautics autho- Point Mugu. on a splashed it within 100 yards of its target. under a plan that was in essence a reactivation takeoffs and landings each.J. Air the ages of 18 and 25. the first of its type in the U. 1 May Changes in aircraft marking specifications ComAirLant and ComAirPac as principal members. Navy. support services over routes of sole Navy interest as randum for the Secretaries within his Department. 1 April HU-1. to provide. The 29 March The Technical Evaluation Group of the opening of this laboratory was a major step in the Research and Development Board noted that an earth transition of the station from a rocket test range to a satellite was feasible but recommended that none be research and development activity specially equipped constructed until utility could be clearly established. subsequent to the merger of Navy and Air Force air transport commands. Begg Rock. Wings. The purpose of the Council. Air Force. this was the 1 June The Naval Air Transport Service and the Air first functions paper drawn up by the services after Transport Service of the Air Force Air Transport their reorganization and was commonly referred to as Command. Fleet Logistic Support Maurice A. of the Aviation Cadet program. approximately civil life.

a long- range patrol plane 1053755 required to serve on active duty for four years after zation. Although AEW aircraft had operated from carri- assist in the transfer of Navy units to the new organi. were established in the Pacific and Atlantic Fleets with responsibilities for 1 July The Naval Air Transport Service. but a limited number were to be given the opportunity to remain on active duty 1 July The importance of rockets in the future of with possibilities for transferring to the regular Navy. Stringent accuracy develop a 250-pound bomb on the lines of the requirements were based upon needs growing out of Douglas shape and a container to the same lines that World War II carrier operational experience. contracts bombs. Lake reported for training in the latter part of August. development were initiated as the Chief of Naval er that were capable of determining the direction of Operations requested the Bureau of Ordnance to the aircraft from the surface station. was disestablished after 61⁄2 years of distin- which they would be returned to inactive duty as guished service. similar in function to the Air Force 29 June Development of TACAN (tactical air naviga. A year could carry a number of conventional 250-pound later. ers at an earlier date and a land based squadron. members of the Reserve. were issued to the same company for development of equipment that would also measure distance. which had organizing and training AEW teams for carrier opera- remained in being after the establishment of MATS to tions. 6 July VAW-1 and VAW-2. tion system) was initiated by a Bureau of Ships con- tract to the Federal Telecommunications Laboratory for 3 July Ordnance aspects of the low drag bomb development of a surface beacon and airborne receiv. following tests of the initial model.S. Denmark.J. Calif.172 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1948—Continued The P4M Mercator. Rocket Test Facility at Muroc. N. Naval Aeronautical Rocket Laboratory. Naval Aviation was emphasized by the establishment First of the new Aviation Cadets under this program of the U. . It provided a rocket testing facility on the east coast.

in a private shipyard. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 173 1948—Continued 29 July The president approved the construction..) 28 August The Caroline Mars. squadron aircraft com. those squadrons were the had been provided in the Naval Appropriation Act 1949. had assigned most of its functions to other boards and some duplication appeared to exist. and the reloca- tion of the Naval Air Advanced Training Command 1 September The system of group and squadron based at NAS Jacksonville. a JRM Naval transport. the Chief of the Bureau of Aeronautics of his intention plements were slightly reduced. The plan included reactivation from Honolulu.000-pound payload. to help support minutes. Overhaul and Repair Departments (O&R. and Mayport. Fla. first to be organized specifically for the AEW mission and the first to provide the fleet with AEW services 1 August Because the National Security Act of 1947 from carriers. 12 of Cecil Field. 23 July The Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Air landed at Chicago with 42 persons on board and a approved a plan to develop the Jacksonville area as a 14. thus adding one fighter squadron to each group.748 miles in 24 hours. was sim- The Philippine Mars. and requested that 22 July Assembly and Repair Departments (A&R) at the Bureau institute a vigorous program to outfit patrol Navy and Marine Corps air stations were renamed planes in service with the necessary equipment. subsequently named United States. the air groups assigned to the Center. the Aeronautical 20 July The Chief of Naval Operations directed that Board was dissolved after over 30 years as an interser- the standard composition of Carrier Air Groups be vice agency for cooperation in aviation. Hawaii. makes jet-assisted take-off at Alameda en route to Honolulu 1053758 . to assign antisubmarine warfare as a primary mission to most of the patrol squadrons. after a record nonstop flight Fleet Aviation Center. Fla.000-ton aircraft carri- VPW-1. of a flush-deck 65. in effect since November 1946. of 4. for which funds secondary mission of AEW. changed to three fighters and two attack squadrons.. had been established on 1 April 1948 with a er. designations. a JRM-2 flying boat. To 17 August The Chief of Naval Operations informed compensate for this increase.

Germany. in accordance with plans to convert the Jacksonville area into a fleet aviation 3 February The Lockheed R6O Constitution. accommodate helicopters. inau- gurated her transcontinental service. This marked the Navy’s continued interest in cold weather tests. run. Calif. Calif. 9 November Navy transport squadrons. on a 390-mile flight from Patuxent River. Tex. the 92-ton Aircraft Factory for design of Mark 7 high energy plane crossed the continent in 9 hours and 35 minutes. Mass. carried a 68. while others became VFN or VAN to reflect all-weather capability.000 pounds at speeds as record for personnel carried on a transcontinental high as 105 knots.. Patrol missile experimental test ship. Calif. the heaviest payload ever lifted in an aircraft. to Washington. 5 September The JRM-2 Caroline Mars of VR-2. and suffix letters were dropped. . The flight was of 2 23 January Palau completed a 12-day test period off hours 41 minutes duration and the passengers were the New England coast developing the capability of the officers and men of Air Group 15 on a routine carriers to conduct air operations under cold and transfer of station. launched its first mis- squadrons reverted to the simple VP designation. 27 October Operation Vittles—VR-6 and -8 of the Norton Sound.282-pound cargo.C.174 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1948—Continued severe weather conditions. became VR.. for transatlantic airlift in support of Operation Vittles. to Frankfurt. fires a Loon 415146 from their Pacific bases to Germany to take part in the Berlin Airlift. VF and VA were assigned two or three digit numbers. to NAS Corpus Christi. sile. VR-3 was switched from flying the domestic routes to 4 March The Caroline Mars. transferred broke the world record for passenger lift by transport- from the Pacific to assist in Operation Vittles. and broke it again the same day on the return flight with a load of 218 men. set a new record for persons carried aloft by transporting 263 passengers and a crew of six on a Fleet Logistic Air Wings flight from 1949 San Diego. With 78 passengers and 18 crewmen. as VRF Point Mugu. the nation’s first guided- group. Calif. Fla.. Some VC squadrons became VAW to reflect their air warning mission. and after a brief shakedown she was placed in operation as the Navy’s first guided missile experimental and test ship.. Ohio. Carrier Air Groups became CVG without strated on the Langley in the same area 18 years regard to their carrier assignment. began ing 202 men from NAS Alameda to San Diego. missioned the day before at NAS Alameda. flying cargo into Berlin. Calif. These loads were in addition 17 December To meet the mounting requirements to a four-man crew. com- center. were ordered to move guided missile ship. the Loon. 25 February The Caroline Mars. to Alameda. 27 January The Chief of Naval Operations autho- 1 November The Naval Air Advanced Training rized conversion of all new-construction cruisers to Command was transferred from NAS Jacksonville. carrier squadrons before. from Moffett Field. Md. to Cleveland. first demon- plified. the first of which was the same as the parent air 26 January Norton Sound.. Special designations for transport squadrons. 5 November To meet the requirements of landing Calif. D. and VRU. a project was initiated at the Naval flight. by establishing a new aircraft weighing up to 50.. absorption arresting gear. 1 October Modification of the seaplane tender Norton Sound was completed at the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard. a JRM-2 flying boat of the Westover. Transport Squadron 2. converted from a seaplane tender to the Navy’s first Military Air Transport Service... off the Naval Air Missile Test Center. a JRM-2 flying boat.

15 July Douglas pilots flying an XF3D-1 completed an initial flight evaluation of the low drag external store shape at Edwards AFB. It further provided that the Berlin Airlift ended.990 arately administered and that Naval Aviation would hours. pilot’s billet in his new assignment. The pilotless aircraft and aviation armament. began with the exchange of 18 of the Center was development of aircraft electronics. these squadrons flew a total of 45. carried 129. trinate selected Air Force and Navy pilots (including Johnsville. within the established a record of payload efficiency and aircraft Department of the Navy. was made 7 March A P2V-3C. type of aircraft operated by the unit to which they taining to the human centrifuge. . Pa. flew across the continent to drop its load on the west coast and returned nonstop to land at NAS Patuxent River.475 tons of cargo to the city. by Lieutenant Jack L. 31 March The best monthly total of the Berlin Airlift to date was made as U.. 5 April The disestablishing of the last of the obser- vation squadrons. 10 August The National Security Act of 1947 was pound bombs and 22 knots greater than with two 150. S.” utilization at the unparalleled figure of better than 10 hours per day per plane for the entire period.000. pilots from each service for the period of 1 year.S. and daily utilization of 12. 1 October In accordance with an interservice agree- ment reached in July.C. VR-8 set an all-time airlift record of 155 per- cent efficiency for the month. 19 May The JRM-1 Marshall Mars broke the record for number of people carried on a single flight when 301 passengers and a crew of seven were flown from Alameda. marked the end of one era and the beginning of another as a plan to use heli- copters in place of fixed-wing aircraft aboard battle- ships and cruisers was put into effect. Carrying two of F2H Banshee McDonnell Fighter 1053787 these shapes. Fruin of VF-171 from an F2H-1 Hayward of VC-5 was launched from Coral Sea off the Banshee while making over 500 knots in the vicinity Virginia Capes with a 10. These functions were were assigned and that each would occupy a regular performed by four laboratories appropriately named. During their eight months in three military departments would continue to be sep- Germany. an exchange program to indoc- 1 August The Naval Air Development Center. Md. was established and the Naval Air the Marines) in the operational and training activities Development Station was disestablished. The mission of each other’s service. the aircraft had a top speed of 51 knots greater than when carrying two conventional 2. piloted by Captain John T. 23 April Construction on United States was halted by order of the Secretary of Defense Louis Johnson. Calif.2 hours per aircraft. amended providing for a limited increase in the gallon external fuel tanks. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 175 1949—Continued 9 August The first use in the United States of a pilot-ejection seat for an emergency escape. with the changeover scheduled for completion by 30 June. authority of the Secretary of Defense and replacing the National Military Establishment with the 31 July The participation of VR-6 and -8 in the Department of Defense. Calif. . . aircraft delivered 154. to San Diego. VO-2. In making its contribution to the total. Calif. bombs.000-pound load of dummy of Walterboro. and “be integrated with the naval service . and research agreement provided that all pilots be qualified in the and development in the field of aviation medicine per.989 tons of cargo into Berlin.


1949—Continued the existing distance record for helicopters with a
flight of 755 miles.
5 October In a demonstration of naval air capa-
bilities, a Neptune P2V-3, piloted by Commander 1 December In a reorganization of air transport ser-
Frederick L. Ashworth, took off from the carrier vices, the Atlantic and Pacific Fleet Logistic Support
Midway at sea off Norfolk and flew to the Panama Wings ceased to exist and all air transport units were
Canal, then northward over Corpus Christi, Tex., consolidated under a single command — the Fleet
and on to NAS San Diego, Calif., completing a Logistic Air Wing.
4,800-mile nonstop, nonrefueling flight in 25 hours
and 40 minutes. 9 December A reorganization of the Naval Air
Reserve was completed in which 128 Fighter, 41
30 October Lieutenant Guiseppe A. Rullo and M. Attack, 25 Composite, 29 Patrol, 26 Transport, 57
D. Kembro, CAP, flew a Sikorsky helicopter, HO3S, Service, and 5 Blimp Squadrons were placed under
from NAS Seattle, Wash., to NAS Alameda, Calif., in command of 27 Air Wings established at as many
10 hours and 50 minutes and unofficially bettered Reserve Air Stations spread throughout the country.

P2V Neptune JATO take-off from Midway 407668


Firing Lark surface to air missile, at Pt. Mugu 400916 The Aerobee, high altitude sounding rocket 408012

Skyraider displays its
capacity and versatility


P5M-1 Marlins show new shape of boat hulls 1053754


F6F fires Tiny Tim, rocket with a heavy punch 705452

The XF5U-1, the first short
take-off fighter 1053786


F7F Tigercat twin engine fighter by Grumman USMC 44731

The AM-1 Mauler carries 9000 lb. payload 706902

Flight test of an early jet fighter, F6U-1, Pirate 419467

Flight deck of Coral Sea portrays activity with jets, props, and
helicopters as F2H Banshees fly over 626130


embark in
HRP-1s for
landing on

HRP-1, Tandem rotor trans-
ports of Marine Experimental
Helicopter Squadron 1, take-
off from Quantico 1053788

HTLs taking off from carrier 424773

The landing signal officer
directs an HO3S helicopter
landing aboard Franklin D.
Roosevelt 1053756


Three converted Essex-class carriers are moored at North Island in this 1955 view of a modern air station 1053798

Ships on a leash, Essex-class carriers and other element of the reserve Fleet mothballed at Puget Sound 428458



Korean Operations

T he outbreak of war in Korea caught U.S. military
services in the midst of a transition. The establishment
developed into a monotonous, although serious, rou-
tine. It was a battle described by Commander Task
of the Department of Defense in 1947 and its reorgani- Force 77 in January 1952 as “a day-to-day routine
zation in 1949 required readjustments within the ser- where stamina replaces glamour and persistence is pit-
vices to which none had become completely acclimat- ted against oriental perseverance.”
ed. Successive decreases in the military budget and Compared to World War II, Korea was a small war.
the prospect of more to come had reduced the size of At no time were more than four large carriers in action
all services, and a reorganization of operating forces to at the same time. Yet in the three years of war, Navy
keep within prescribed limits was in process. New and Marine aircraft flew 276,000 combat sorties,
weapons and equipment had not been completely dropped 177,000 tons of bombs and expended
integrated, and tactical doctrine and new operating 272,000 rockets. This was within 7,000 sorties of their
techniques for their most effective employment were World War II totals in all theaters and bettered the
still being developed. This was particularly apparent in bomb tonnage by 74,000 tons, and the number of
Naval Aviation, where the introduction of jet aircraft rockets by 60,000. In terms of national air effort, the
had created a composite force in which like units action sorties flown by Navy and Marine Corps aircraft
were equipped with either jet or propeller-driven air- rose from less than 10 percent in World War II to bet-
craft having wide differences in performance charac- ter than 30 percent in Korea.
teristics, maintenance and support requirements, and There was another and perhaps greater difference
tactical application. between the two wars. Support of forces in Korea
Combat requirements in Korea were quite different required major attention from the planners and of
from those of the island-hopping campaign of World units assigned to logistic supply, but action in Korea
War II. Only the landings at Inchon, two and a half was only a part of the total activity of the period.
months after the shooting began, followed the familiar Outside the combat area fleet forces continued their
pattern. The UN’s intention to confine the battle area training operations on the same scale as before, and
to the peninsula resulted in a limitation of air opera- fleet units were continuously maintained on peaceful
tions in support of troops. This was a normal enough missions in the eastern Atlantic and in the
mission for carrier air, but the need to sustain it for Mediterranean. Research and development, although
extended periods over an extremely large landmass accelerated, did not shift to emphasize projects having
made quite a difference. Carrier forces also flew deep direct application to the war effort but continued on
support missions; attacked enemy supply lines; longer range programs directed toward progressively
roamed over enemy territory looking for targets of modernizing fleet forces and their equipment with
opportunity; bombed enemy bridges; interdicted high- more effective weapons. New facilities for test and
ways and railroads; attacked refineries, railroad yards evaluation were opened. Advances in guided missiles
and hydroelectric plants; and escorted land-based reached new highs indicating their early operational
bombers on special missions. All were carried out status, and ships to employ them were being readied.
effectively, but were new experiences for units trained Firings of research missiles like Loon, Lark and Viking
to interdict enemy sea-lines of communication and from shore installations and from ships provided both
ward off attack by enemy naval forces. useful data and experience. Terrier, Talos, Sparrow,
The see-saw action on the ground as the battle line Sidewinder, and Regulus passed successive stages of
shifted and as action flared up and quieted again development. Research in high-speed flight, assisted
required great flexibility of force and demanded the by flights of specially designed aircraft, provided data
ability to carry out a variety of missions, but after the leading to new advances in aircraft performance. The
first six months of the war, the overall air campaign carrier modernization program continued and was



revised to incorporate the steam catapult and the nium alloy for use in jet aircraft engines. The alloy was
angled deck, together representing the most significant described as being as strong as high-strength steel and
advance in aircraft carrier operating capability since only half as heavy, highly resistant to corrosion, and
World War II. so composed as to retain its basic properties at high
In a period when Naval Aviation was called upon temperatures.
to demonstrate its continuing usefulness in war and
its particular versatility in adapting to new combat 22 March The submarine Cusk (SS 348), from a
requirements, it also moved forward toward new position off the Naval Air Missile Test Center, NAMTC
horizons. Point Mugu, Calif., launched a Loon guided missile
and, at the midway point of a 50-mile flight, surren-
1950 dered control to the guidance station on San Nicolas
Island. This station completed the first successful
10 January Norton Sound departed Port Hueneme operation involving transfer of guidance by splashing
on a 19-day cruise in Alaskan waters where it the missile 360 yards from the center of the target,
launched two Aerobees, one Lark, and one Loon, and Begg Rock.
tested an auxiliary propulsion system for the Lark
under severe conditions. In addition to its crew, the 1 April The Naval Air Rocket Test Station, Lake
ship carried 27 observers representing the Army, Navy, Denmark, N.J., was established, superseding the Naval
and Air Force, including 8 scientists connected with Aeronautical Rocket Laboratory, for the purposes of
the Aerobee upper atmosphere research program. testing and evaluating rocket engines, components
and propellants, and training service personnel in han-
13 January In the first successful automatic homing dling, servicing and operating rocket engines.
flight of a surface-to-air guided missile, a Lark, CTV-N-
10, launched at the Naval Air Missile Test Center, 8 April A PB4Y Privateer of VP-26, with 10 men on
NAMTC Point Mugu, Calif., passed within lethal range board, was lost over the Baltic Sea after being attacked
of its target, an F6F drone, making the simulated inter- by Soviet aircraft.
ception at a range of 17,300 yards and an altitude of
7,400 feet. 18 April The experimental model of the Consoli-
dated Vultee P5Y, a 60-ton seaplane, passed its initial
7 February In a demonstration of carrier long-range flight test at San Diego, Calif. The plane was
attack capabilities, a P2V-3C Neptune, with equipped with four Alison T-40 turboprop engines,
Commander Thomas Robinson in command, took off each rated at 5,500 hp and each turning 15-foot contra-
from Franklin D. Roosevelt off Jacksonville, Fla., and rotating propellers.
flew over Charleston, S.C., the Bahamas, the Panama
Canal, up the coast of Central America and over 21 April The first carrier takeoff with the AJ-l heavy
Mexico to land next day at the Municipal Airport, San attack plane was made from Coral Sea by Captain
Francisco, Calif. The flight, which covered 5,060 miles John T. Hayward, commanding VC-5.
in 25 hours, 59 minutes, was the longest ever made
from a carrier deck.

8 March Operation Portrex, the largest peacetime
maneuvers in history and the first to employ airborne
troops in an amphibious operation, was brought to a
climax with a combined amphibious and airborne
assault on Vieques Island. The Joint Armed Service
Exercise, which began 20 February and extended
through 14 March, was staged to evaluate joint service
doctrine for combined operations, to service test new
equipment under simulated combat conditions, and to
provide training for the defense forces of the
Caribbean Command.

10 March The Secretary of Defense announced that
the Bureau of Aeronautics, under a research program
begun in 1946, had developed a new lightweight tita- The AJ-1, carrier-based heavy attack plane 197506


1950—Continued USAF to bomb military targets in North Korea, the use
of Army ground troops in action to support ROK
21 April The heaviest aircraft ever launched from a forces, and had directed a naval blockade of the entire
carrier, a P2V-3C, piloted by Lieutenant Commander Korean coast.
Robert C. Starkey of VC-6, took off from Coral Sea
with a gross weight of 74,668 pounds. 3 July Carrier aircraft went into action in Korea for
the first time. Valley Forge with Air Group 5, and HMS
3 May The submarine Cusk (SS 348) launched a Triumph operating in the Yellow Sea, launched strikes
Loon guided missile, and after submerging, tracked on airfields, supply lines and transportation facilities in
and controlled the missile’s flight to a range of 105 and around Pyongyang, northwest of Seoul. This was
miles. the first combat test for the Grumman F9F Panther and
the Douglas AD Skyraider. It was also the occasion for
11 May A Viking missile was successfully launched the first Navy kills in aerial combat during the war and
from Norton Sound near Christmas Island, south of the first shoot-down by a Navy jet, as F9F pilots of VF-
Hawaii. It was the first Viking launched from a ship 51 Lieutenant (jg) Leonard H. Plog and Ensign Elton
and set a new altitude record for American-built sin- W. Brown, Jr. shot down two Yak-9s on the first strike
gle-stage rockets of 106.4 statute miles. over Pyongyang.

15 May The Navy announced the completion of a 8 July To obtain maximum effectiveness in the
new test chamber at the Ordnance Aerophysics employment of all air resources in the Far East
Laboratory, Daingerfield, Tex., making it possible for Command and to ensure coordination of air efforts,
the first time to conduct tests of full-scale ramjet Commander in Chief, Far East approved and adopted
engines up to 48 inches in diameter at simulated alti- as policy the agreement of Commander, Naval Forces,
tudes up to 100,000 feet. Far East and Commanding General, Far East Air
Forces. Under it, the Navy controlled the operations of
19 June The Caroline Mars (JRM-2) completed the its carrier aircraft whenever they were on missions
2,609-mile flight from Honolulu, T.H., to San Diego, assigned to Commander, Naval Forces, Far East and of
Calif., with 144 men aboard for the largest passenger its shore-based aircraft whenever they were on naval
lift over the Pacific on record. missions. On all other missions, the operations of
naval aircraft, both carrier and shore-based, were
25 June The U.S. Government asked for an emergen- under the Air Force. For shore-based Marine air this
cy meeting of the UN Security Council to consider the control was direct, but for naval aircraft the control
invasion of the Republic of South Korea launched by was of a coordination type. The selection of targets
North Korean forces early in the morning of the 25th and their priority by a General Headquarters Joint
(Korean time). The council, meeting later the same day, Service Target Analysis Group ensured that the air
adopted a resolution calling for the cessation of hostili- campaign was coordinated with the overall objectives.
ties and the withdrawal of North Korean forces above
the 38th parallel, and also calling on all members to 12 July The command Naval Air, Japan was set up
assist the UN in the execution of the resolution. in Tokyo to provide an interim staff to administer the
expanding aviation forces in the Far East, and on 9
27 June The president announced that he had August was formally established as Fleet Air, Japan,
ordered sea and air forces in the Far East to give sup- with Rear Admiral George R. Henderson in command.
port and cover to Republic of Korea forces and had
ordered the Seventh Fleet to take steps to prevent an 16 July Fleet Air Wing 1 headquarters moved from
invasion of Formosa. Guam to Naha on Okinawa to direct patrol squadron
operations in the Formosa Strait.
27 June In a night meeting the UN Security Council
adopted a resolution calling upon all its members to 18 July Valley Forge and HMS Triumph returned to
assist the Republic of Korea in repelling the armed action with strikes on airfields, railroads and factories
attack on its territory. at Hungham, Hamhung, Numpyong, and Wonsan, and
did particularly heavy damage to the oil refinery at
30 June President Truman announced that, in keep- Wonsan, North Korea. For the remainder of the
ing with the UN Security Council request for support month, this force struck deep behind enemy lines and
to the Republic of Korea (ROK) in repelling the flew close support missions as required while shifting
invaders and restoring peace, he had authorized the entirely around the peninsula from the Sea of Japan to



AD Skyraider prepares to take off on close support mission 428637

the Yellow Sea, in operations intended to relieve the
pressure on UN forces which were fighting a delaying
action while withdrawing toward Pusan.

20 July Fourteen squadrons of the Organized
Reserve were activated for duty with Naval Aviation
forces. Included were eight carrier-fighter and two car-
rier-attack squadrons, one antisubmarine squadron,
two patrol squadrons, and one Fleet Aircraft Service

22 July Badoeng Strait arrived at Yokosuka, Japan,
with elements MAW-1 on board. Four days later, Sicily
arrived at the same port with a load of ammunition,
and on 1 August, Philippine Sea reported to
Commander, Seventh Fleet in Buckner Bay, Okinawa.
These were the first carrier reinforcements to arrive in
the Far East and the beginning of carrier deployment
to the combat area that, by the war’s end, totalled 11
attack, one light and five escort carriers sent into
action—some for two or three tours.

23 July Boxer arrived in Yokosuka, Japan, with a
load of 145 P-51 and 6 L-5 Air Force aircraft, 19 Navy
aircraft, 1,012 passengers, and 2,000 tons of additional
Wonsan refinery after carrier strike 707876 cargo, all urgently needed for operations in Korea. In


1950—Continued 5 August Valley Forge and Philippine Sea began
what was to become almost three years of continuous
making this delivery, Boxer broke all existing records fast carrier operation, with attacks on enemy lines of
for a Pacific crossing, steaming from Alameda, Calif. to communication in southwestern Korea and close sup-
Yokosuka in 8 days and 16 hours. port missions on the Pusan perimeter.

27 July To meet the requirements of supporting 7 August ZP2K-1 (subsequently redesignated ZSG-
combat forces in Korea, Fleet Logistic Air Wing, Pacific, 2), a K-class airship modernized and equipped with
was established as a unit of the Pacific Fleet and inde- inflight refueling equipment and attachments for pick-
pendent from the existing Fleet Logistic Air Wing. ing up sea water as ballast, was delivered to the Navy.

3 August Elements of VMO-6, equipped with HO3S 7 August Flight of a helicopter under automatic
helicopters and OY observation planes, began opera- control was made at Mustin Field, Philadelphia, Pa.,
tions in Korea, supporting the First Provisional Marine using an HO3S-1 helicopter equipped with a single
Brigade in the vicinity of Changwon. Among the ser- axis automatic pilot. Successful test of this instrument
vices rendered by the helicopters on their first day in a confirmed the feasibility of a helicopter automatic pilot
combat area were the delivery of rations and water to which was being developed under the leadership of L.
troops on a mountain and the evacuation of the more S. Guarino at the Aeronautical Instrument Laboratory,
severe heat casualties. Naval Air Material Center.

3 August VMF-214, operating from the escort carrier 24 August In a test conducted at the Naval
Sicily in Tsushima Strait, began the combat operations Ordnance Test Station, Inyokern, Calif., a Terrier sur-
of the First Marine Aircraft Wing in Korea with a rock- face-to-air guided missile intercepted an F6F drone at
et and incendiary bomb attack on Chinju. Badoeng a range of more than 11 miles from the point of
Strait, with VMF-323 on board, joined the action three launch.
days later and thus began a long service of close air
support by Marine squadrons from light and escort 31 August Pilots of VC-5 completed carrier qualifi-
carriers. cations on board Coral Sea in the AJ-1 Savage, mark-
ing the introduction of this long-range attack bomber
4 August FAW-6 was established at Tokyo, Japan, to carrier operations.
under Acting Commander Captain John C. Alderman,
and assigned operational control over all United States 15 September Landings at Inchon—Under heavy
and British patrol squadrons in the Japan-Korea area. support by naval gunfire and aircraft, elements of the

Heavily armed Corsair on pre-dawn launch 419929


1950—Continued instrument flying proficiency of Naval Aviators and
Naval Aviation pilots and to supervise and coordinate
First Marine Division landed on Wolmi Island at 0630 the instrument training of all pilots attached. It was
and, after landing craft were regrouped and the tide further directed that, with certain exceptions, all
was again favorable, followed up with a successful Group I Naval Aviators maintain a valid instrument rat-
assault of the mainland at Inchon. ing after 18 months from date.
Beginning 12 September carrier support was pro-
vided by two carriers in preliminary strikes in the 29 October The fast carrier force retired to Sasebo,
objective area and on highways leading into Seoul, Japan, as the advance of UN forces toward the Yalu
and was augmented by two escort carriers the day River rapidly reduced the area which could be
before the landing and by the arrival of Boxer on D- attacked and there was no further need for its services.
day. The HMS Triumph, operating with the Blockade
and Covering Force, provided air defense for the 31 October The National Advisory Committee for
assault forces enroute. As the troops advanced inland, Aeronautics (NACA) issued a report on tests at the
carrier support continued until 3 October with close Langley Aeronautical Laboratory in which a wind tun-
air support missions and strikes against enemy lines nel was used to determine the characteristics of a fully
of communications. submerged, high-speed submarine. The interrelation-
ships of basic naval sciences dealing with aeronautics
18 September Fleet Logistic Air Wing was replaced and naval architecture were thus reemphasized.
by Fleet Logistic Air Wing, Atlantic/Continental, and
assigned status parallel to that of the previously estab- 6 November As enemy opposition stiffened, the fast
lished Fleet Logistic Air Wing, Pacific. carrier forces returned to action, attacking targets in
their assigned area east of the 127th meridian. Two
19 September Two days after the capture of Kimpo days later, the force was given a primary mission of
Airfield by troops working inland from Inchon, the cutting off Chinese Communist reinforcements from
first elements of MAW-1 arrived from Japan, and early Manchuria by destroying the international bridges
the next morning began air operations from Kimpo across the Yalu River.
with strikes supporting troops advancing on Seoul.
9 November The initial strikes against bridges cross-
23 September An HO3S-1 helicopter, equipped ing the Yalu River at Sinuiju were opposed by enemy
with an automatic pilot developed by the Aeronautical MiG-15s. In this, the first encounter of Navy jets with
Instruments Laboratory, was successfully flown with
three axis automatic control at Mustin Field,
Philadelphia, Pa.

2 October The Bureau of Aeronautics authorized
the establishment of Project Arowa (Applied Research:
Operational Weather Analysis) at Norfolk, Va., for the
purpose of developing basic meteorological research
data into practical weather forecasting techniques.

10 October The carrier force moved into action off
the east coast of Korea with strikes and sweeps from
Wonsan to Chongjin in preparation for amphibious
landings at Wonsan. When a heavy concentration of
mines in the harbor delayed the scheduled landings,
the carrier attack shifted northward and inland to assist
the advance of UN forces which, by the time the land-
ings were made on the 26th, had swept past the
intended objective area and were advancing toward
the Yalu River.
28 October The Chief of Naval Operations directed Navy’s
that each station, air group, wing, and squadron estab- first MiG
lish a permanent Instrument Flight Board to check the 421821


1950—Continued landed on board Sicily off Hungnam without a break
in its close air support operations.
MiGs, the commanding officer of VF-111, Lieutenant
Commander William T. Amen, in an F9F Panther, 17 December The light carrier Bataan, with VMF-
scored one kill and became the first Navy pilot in his- 212 embarked, joined forces in the Sea of Japan pro-
tory to shoot down a jet aircraft. tecting the evacuation of troops from Hungnam and
other ports. Bataan was pressed into service after
10 November The Naval Guided Missile Training delivering replacement aircraft to Japan and her
Unit No. 21, under training to operate Terrier missiles, squadron was one of those which evacuated from
was relocated from the Naval Ordnance Test Station Yonpo early in the month.
Inyokern, China Lake, Calif. to Norton Sound, and
redesignated a fleet activity under Commander, Air 18 December VP-892, the first all-Reserve squadron
Force, Pacific Fleet. to operate in the Korean war zone, began operations
from Iwakuni, Japan.
29 November Emergency conditions on the front
lines, created by the deep penetration of a communist 19 December President Truman proclaimed a
offensive, required a shift of emphasis in fast carrier national emergency.
operations from bridge strikes to close air support. As
the situation worsened, support operations of carrier
forces were intensified through December to cover the
withdrawal of troops toward east coast ports and their 16 January As a step in the implementation of a
evacuation by ships, and continued into January as the program providing for early service evaluation of the
Communist advance rolled past the 38th parallel and Terrier and Sparrow 1 air-defense missiles, together
was slowly brought to a halt. with the development of production engineering infor-
mation and the establishment of production facilities,
6 December Five days after arriving from Korea, an advance order was placed with the Sperry
Valley Forge sailed from San Diego under emergency Gyroscope Company for 1,000 Sparrow 1 air-to-air
orders to return to action in Korea. missiles.

7 December As the southward advance of commu- 29 January Task Force 77 began a series of air
nist forces required the evacuation of airfields in attacks against rail and highway bridges along the east
northern Korea, VMF-214 took off from Yonpo and coast of northern Korea. With the additional assign-

A Corsair
bomb in
close sup-
port of


1951—Continued 29 March A Regulus XSSM-N-8 test vehicle, operat-
ing under airborne command, took off from the lake
bed at Edwards AFB, Muroc, Calif., circled the field,
and landed successfully.

31 March A program for development of a pro-
peller-driven vertical takeoff fighter was initiated with
issuance of a contract to Convair for the XFY-1. A
somewhat similar aircraft, the XFO-1 (later redesignat-
ed XFV-1), was ordered from Lockheed three weeks
later as an alternate solution to the design problems.

2 April Two F9F-2B Panthers of VF-191, each loaded
with four 250- and two 100-pound general-purpose
bombs, were catapulted from Princeton for an attack
on a railroad bridge near Songjin, North Korea. This
was the first Navy use of a jet fighter as a bomber.

Sparrow I air-to-air missiles on wing of F3D 1023526

ment of bombing highways and lines of communica-
tion in northeast Korea, its responsibilities for interdic-
tion would occupy a major share of its attention until
the end of the war.

1 February The first of two heavy attack wings,
HATWING-1, was established at Norfolk, Va., Captain
Robert Goldthwaite commanding. Its first squadron,
VC-5, reported for duty the next day.

5 February Six AJ-1 and three P2V-3C aircraft of VC-
5 departed Norfolk for Port Lyautey, French Morocco,
via Bermuda and the Azores. Completion of the flight Test of Regulus I surface-to-surface missile, JATO launches Bird and
on the 8th by all but one AJ, which was grounded at main engine provide long range 1053792
Lajes, Azores, by lack of spare parts, was the first
transatlantic flight by carrier-type aircraft.

8 February Marine fighter squadrons returned to
Korea after a period in Japan, and began support
operations from the airfield at Pusan, South Korea.

6 March A Talos missile, powered by a ramjet
engine, was launched by the Naval Ordnance Test
Station, and operated two minutes in the longest full-
scale ramjet flight yet achieved.

29 March CVG-101, composed of Reserve
squadrons called to active duty from Dallas, Tex.;
Glenview, Ill.; Memphis, Tenn.; and Olathe, Kans.,
flew its first combat missions from Boxer—the first car-
rier strikes by Reserve units against North Korean
forces. A submarine fires a Regulus I guided missile 636833

. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 191 1951—Continued ADs destroy Hwachon Dam in only aerial torpedo Deflector diverts jet exhaust on F9F takeoff 423763 in use in Korea 428678 8–15 April When reports indicated the possibility of an amphibious attempt on For mosa from the China coast. Task Force 77 left the Korean area temporarily to make a show of strength in the Formosa Strait. 1 May In the first and only use of aerial torpedoes in Korean combat. 1 June MAW-1 inaugurated the policy of basing one squadron immediately in the rear of the First Marine Division to provide ground alert aircraft which were on call through the Joint Operations Center for close air support missions. 8 Skyraiders and 12 Corsairs from Princeton made an attack on the Hwachon Dam. From 11 to 14 April the force steamed off the China coast and flew aerial parades outside the inter national limit of f the mainland. Destruction and damage to the flood gates released the waters of the reservoir into the Pukhan River and prevented Communist forces from making an easy Preparing Skyraider for strike 428982 crossing.

Korea. 1 July The Naval Air Turbine Test Station was estab- lished at Trenton. 7 August A Viking high-altitude sounding rocket..M. the aircraft became the XF2Y-1. Thus began many trying months in which negotiations were alternately suspended and reopened while hos- tilities continued unabated. was such that the practice of 25 August F2H Banshees and F9F Panthers from assigning specially equipped patrol aircraft for this Essex. Bridgeman. to Pusan. aircraft.. South Korea. developed by the Naval Research Laboratory and launched at the White Sands Proving Grounds. aboard Sitkoh Bay and redesign. operating with Task Force 77 in the Sea of purpose was continued. com- pleted its first flight at St. On this strike. contract was issued to Convair for development of a delta-winged.3 miles. Mo. . 7 August The McDonnell XF3H-1 Demon. headed by Vice Admiral C. assault. to fly launched her planes in combat. ramjet. veteran of World War II and first of the postwar converted carriers to go into action. 8 August The Secretary of the Navy established the classification AVM for Auxiliaries. N. Bridgeman. Calif. Japan. the Navy’s sonic research plane. equipped with HRS-1s. Japan. set an unofficial world speed record of 1. for armistice discussions with Communist leaders. Louis. the D- 558-2 Skyrocket. 12 June Two PB4Y-2s of VP-772 were transferred joined Task Force 77 off the east coast of Korea and from NAS Atsugi. Guided Missiles Ships. jet-pro. Turner Joy. reached 79. provided fighter escort for Air Force B-29s on a high altitude bombing mission against the marshalling 17 June Postwar research on high-speed. F2H-2 flare dropping missions for Marine Corps night attack Banshees flown by pilots of VF-172 went into action for the first time. flew ashore prepared to perform transport.192 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1951—Continued 18 June The ZPN-1 airship made its first flight. hydroski-equipped research seaplane 2 September HMR-161. an exper- imental model of a Navy shipboard jet fighter.238 mph over Muroc. piloted by William B. pulsejet engines and accessories and components. Its mission was test and evalua- tion of turbojet. 10 July The UN military representatives. South Korea. which was con- ducted as an experiment. achieved an altitude of 135. turboprop.494 feet over Muroc.J. Arming F9Fs 20mm guns 1030116 23 August Essex. piloted by Douglas test pilot William B. with fighter characteristics. yards at Rashin on the extreme northeast border of pelled seaplanes had progressed to the point that a Korea. 7 August The Navy’s sonic research plane. The success of the operation. N. Through subsequent arrived Pusan. Calif. the highest altitude achieved by man to that date. arrived at Kaesong. 15 August The Douglas Skyrocket D-558-2. and changed the designation of Norton Sound from AV 11 to AVM 1.

13 September it began its support of the First Marine flew its first combat mission.S. This was the first of bat test of transport helicopter capabilities. the Fast Carrier 19 December A test of emergency assembly capabil- Task Force was relieved of its close air support duties ities with nuclear weapons was conducted aboard and ordered to concentrate its attack on railroad tracks Philippine Sea at San Diego. surface-to-air missile was fired from Norton Sound and These temporary groups. 1952 4 January The new classifications CAG and CLG 6 November A Neptune patrol bomber of VP-6 were established for heavy and light cruiser guided failed to return from a weather reconnaissance mission missile ships and Boston (CA 69) and Canberra (CA 70) over international waters off Siberia after Soviet planes were changed to (CAG 1) and (CAG 2). Va. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 193 1951—Continued F2H Banshees from Essex seek out North Korean targets 433959 and supply missions for the First Marine Division. Temporary withdrawal of one squadron from each group scheduled for deployment 7 September In its first shipboard launching. established and existed from 1951 to early 1959. a Terrier provided the units from which ATGs were formed. In this initial com. On 11 December ATG-1. which were not formally simulated an interception of an F6F target drone. this activity was redesig. capacity of deck operating equipment. Changes gram and to direct specific effort toward maintaining included use of more powerful arresting gear. operating from Valley Forge. Watson. 21 September As activity on the front quieted down and the lines remained fairly stable. equipped with a Boeing YB-502 turbine engine. sored development was the first demonstration of the adaptability of gas-turbine engines to helicopters. 3 October HS-1. under the Chief of version program which provided an increase in the Naval Operations to promote the aviation safety pro. at NAS Key West. Naval Aviation Safety Activity proved a modification of the Project 27A carrier con- was established at Norfolk. and bridges in northeast Korea. Conversion of three Essex class carri- . was established under the man. fired upon it. This Navy-spon- El Centro.. consisting of Navy and Air 12 December The Kaman K-225 helicopter. In April 1955. the the ATGs formed after experience in Korea had squadron lifted one day’s supplies for the First Marine demonstrated that five squadrons then in Carrier Air Battalion on a seven-mile carry from its base to the Groups could not be operated effectively in combat forward area. Jr. greater capacity. 1 February The Chief of Naval Operations ap- 1 December The U. from Essex class carriers. and successful introduction of special weapons in the Pacific fleet. 15 September The Department of Defense Joint Parachute Test Facility. Calif. Calif. Conn. first of its kind in the Navy. respectively. As many as eight were in existence by 1955. Fla. marking the initial as a part of the interdiction program. made agement control of the Bureau of Aeronautics at NAAS its first flight at Windsor Locks. Force parachute units.. was established under the command of Commander Joseph T. performance catapults and a replacement of the num- out the Navy. higher the highest practicable level of aviation safety through. ber three centerline elevator with a deck-edge type of nated the Naval Aviation Safety Center. attacking coastal rail lines Division with Operation Windmill I.

194 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1952—Continued 20 June A contract was issued for the construction of a 7-foot-by-10-foot slotted throat transonic wind ers incorporating these modifications was completed tunnel at the David Taylor Model Basin. NAS Jacksonville. Va. Fusen and oped steam catapult would be adopted for use on U. world’s largest. The Naval Air Guided sion was to provide air gunnery training on an individu. Philadelphia. the first of the 1914. Hungnam. Virginia Beach.. Albuquerque. which involved over aircraft carriers. Boxer. wind tunnel was disestablished at the Naval Gun Factory. Navy. the Naval Guided Missile School was estab- an integral part of the operating forces of the Pacific lished at the Fleet Air Defense Training Center. lated angled deck aboard Midway by Naval Air Test thereby providing for naval participation in various Center pilots and Atlantic Fleet pilots.S. using both jet programs involved in the application of nuclear and prop aircraft. 11–12 July In one of the major coordinated air gram and permitting emphasis to be shifted to produc. naval aircraft were 1 July To provide the fleet with officers and enlisted launched by this device from HMS Perseus. This laboratory. Va. Yorktown. 26–29 May The feasibility of the angled-deck con. Norfolk. The entire car- . was designed and con. which featured a human cen.200 sorties. from all the U. launched an explosive-laden F6F-5K drone trifuge with a 110-foot arm capable of producing under control of two ADs against a railroad bridge at accelerations of up to 40 Gs. tion of the first tactical model.. San Diego. Navy 1 April Guided Missiles Service Unit No. services fighting in Korea. Air Force. efforts of the war. the 8-by-8-foot wooden tunnel served the Navy 59. Guided Missile Unit 90. 211 was and Marine Corps virtually destroyed the electric formed at the Naval Mine Depot. F6F-5K target drones and each destroyed its target. was the largest single air effort since the This decision followed tests conducted during the first close of World War II and the first to employ planes three months of the year at the Naval Shipyard. the Naval Operating Base. and at sea. Kyosen. N.. with the first installation on Hancock. Fla. and British air elements launched a round-the-clock attack on the railroad yards and industrial facilities at 26 May The Navy’s first. Manchuria. This. Washington.900-ton aircraft carriers. 23–24 June Combined elements of Air Force. Missile School (advanced) was also established at the al and tactical unit basis for units of the Pacific Fleet. On the 23d. and submarine-launched guided 8 May The Fleet Air Gunnery Unit was established as missiles. Marine. thereby culminating the Terrier developmental pro. around-the-clock raid on Pyongyang. Australian. 40 miles up the Yalu River from Antung. and for many years the Pyongyang. D. This two-day attack. the main effort Training Unit No.S. 1. Va. 28 August In the first of six attacks on North ratory was dedicated at the Naval Air Development Korean targets.S. 1 August The Naval Air Special Weapons Facility cept was demonstrated in tests conducted on a simu.Mex. based aboard Center. was laid at the Newport for over 30 years as an aerodynamic laboratory for News Shipbuilding and Drydock Company. in 1954 under Project 27C (Axial Deck). The attacks continued the next day with more atten- 28 April The Navy announced that the British-devel. maintenance and control of surface. Corporation.. Va. Naval Air Technical Training Center. Its mis. Neck.C. Completed in 14 July The keel of Forrestal. personnel trained in the operation. 2 at the Consolidated Vultee Aircraft was directed against the hydroelectric plant at Suiho. weapons to aircraft. was established at Kirtland AFB. to provide aviation personnel trained in the main- 16 May Two Terrier missiles were fired separately at tenance of air-launched guided missiles. Newport research in aircraft design. was made up of military targets which had been bypassed through personnel who had been trained by Guided Missiles almost two years of war. power potential of North Korea with attacks on prime the first of six scheduled Terrier units. Pa. during which U. News. Calif. tion being given to the plants at Chosen. structed as a research tool for investigating pilot reac- tions to accelerations encountered in high-speed flight 29 August The new UN philosophy of mass air at various temperatures and altitudes and later also attack was again demonstrated in the record-breaking proved useful in the astronaut training program. 17 June The Aviation Medical Acceleration Labo. Pacific Fleet. Dam Fleet under Commander Air Force.

UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 195 1952—Continued 1 October Aircraft carriers designated CV and CVB were reclassified as Attack Carriers and assigned the rier air force of Task Force 77 teamed up with 5th AF. the training program was to be Range of the Naval Air Missile Test Center (NAMTC). 18 November The feasibility of using a helicopter as an aerial minesweeper was demonstrated in the first of a series of tests conducted by VX-1 pilots flying an 8 September Deputy Chief of Naval Operations HRP-1 helicopter off Panama City. The Bureau of Per. Antietam. 15 September VX-4 was established as a unit of Air Force. The squadron’s initial test 12 January In the initiation of test operations assignment was to assist with tests of Sparrow I. fitted with Terrier surface-to-air missiles at the Norfolk Naval Shipyard. F9F Panther takes off from Antietam during the operational suitability tests of angled flight deck 477063 . 3 November A Regulus Assault Missile (RAM) was trations in and about the city. designed especially for carrier-based operation. at NAS Lakehurst. Nicolas Island. aboard the Navy’s first angled deck carrier. Fla. launched from Norton Sound off the Naval Air Missile Test Center (NAMTC) and landed on San Nicolas Island in the 1 September Mississippi (EAG 1). designation CVA. having been out. Regulus assault missile. operating in the Sea Test siles. MAW-1. at the Naval Air Missile Test Center (NAMTC) to conduct operational evaluation tests of 1953 air-launched missiles. However. first shipboard demonstration of the RAM missile system. The airship was a modernized anti- submarine configuration of the K model and was 3 September The Naval Ordnance Test Station. thereby initiating an extensive period of developmental testing.. (Air) became responsible for all phases of basic and technical training of personnel for air launched mis- 16 December Princeton. Sidewinder air-to-air missile. where they transferred control to other pilots who successfully landed the missile. reported to Commander 12 November The final configuration of the ZP3K Operational Development Force to participate in the (later ZSG-3) nonrigid airship was flown and accepted missile’s evaluation. Pacific Fleet. Calif. fired the first fully configured K-class airships were so configured. administered through the Commander Naval Air catapulted F2H-2P control planes and then launched a Technical Training Command. The pilots of the control sonnel had formerly been responsible for all individ. planes guided the missile to a target point on San ual training. Thirty Inyokern. Republic of Korea Air Force and British air elements to spread destruction on the supply concen.

Calif. Lieutenant Commander Whisler departed NAS North aged the hydroelectric plant at Chosen and four days Island. to launch Corsairs to Kimpo to operate under the 5th AF for an Regulus surface-to-air missiles. Mitchell.. Far East Air Forces lished at South Weymouth. was commissioned. by fuel and pilot. The airship was the produc.. outfitted at the Mare Island 25 June Task Force 77 deployed four F4U-5N Naval Shipyard. 30 June The Research and Development Board and three other activities of the Department of Defense 20 March The ZP2N-1 (later ZPG-2) airship made its were abolished as the president’s Reorganization Plan first flight at Akron. completely ravaging the industrial section of the city. craft Carrier (CVS) was established for attack carriers assigned to antisubmarine warfare. Texas.000 cubic feet. 7 of them from the P2V crew. Lieutenant Commander Whisler departed 13 February The first full guidance flight of a NAS Norfolk. During the next four Task Force 77 and the naval air campaign featured days. Va. Calif. 6 March Tunny (SSG 284). . After 50 minutes on the ground 1 March Aircraft from Task Force 77 heavily dam.. It was originally designed for mid. Va. The purpose was to intercept night attacks being made on the field by aircraft flying too 19 March Task Force 77 launched a heavy strike slowly to be intercepted by jets. with a bomb load of 10. the latter causing the Coast Guard rescue plane 7–19 June The major effort of carrier air was directed on to crash on takeoff. North Korea. against the city of Chongjin.500 pounds. Tex.196 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1953—Continued action and to prevent augmentation of their air arm preceding the date of a possible armistice.. Whisler. Va. six of 975. San Fransico Bay. through Songjin to Chongjin was launched by the car. the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff was given tions and contained provisions for inflight refueling. 6 became effective. Mass. its total useful load of 14. in an F3D-2 Skyknight (BuNo 127076) later repeated the attack. night landings.. A total of 17 of these air- ships were procured in ASW and AEW configurations. No. 10 July The Naval Air Development Unit was estab- 3 May Commanding General. assigned the new mission were redesignated effective wing jet seaplane equipped with hydroskis. and takeoffs in winds of varying force and direction. Jr. made its one month from date. 9–10 February A maximum effort strike against sup- ply concentrations and transport targets from Wonsan 23 June Lieutenant Commander George H. Rescue operations was 3. six aircraft models made landings. landings. to participate in listed 30 major North Korean airfields to be main. an experimental delta. 0905 local time. reprovisioning and servicing. Total losses from the incident a round-the-clock basis against the Communist front line were 11 men. cutting the penstocks and headed for NAS Norfolk. The functions of these activi- tion model of the nonrigid N class but with an envelope ties were assigned to the Secretary of Defense. and Webb AFB. local time. China. were hampered by shore battery gunfire and high seas. Calif. and arrived at NAS Norfolk. after stops at NAS Memphis. Captain Samuel G. and ocean antisubmarine warfare and convoy-escort opera.491 pounds Communist Chinese antiaircraft fire. Tenn. first flight at San Diego. Calif.. the ship’s commanding Responsibility for six of these fields was assigned to officer. development and testing of equipment designed for tained unserviceable in order to limit Communist air antisubmarine warfare and air defense. managerial control of the Joint Chiefs. while attached to VR-31. Ohio. indefinite period. at Missile Test Center.. 8 July The designation Antisubmarine Support Air- The AEW configured airships were designated ZPG-2W. transcontinental round-trip solo flight between sunrise and sunset. completed the first riers of Task Force 77. and supporting positions to counter an apparent effort by the enemy to gain ground prior to a possible armistice. new Assistant Secretaries of Defense were created. conducting patrol of Combined with the weight of its guns. touch-and-go periodic attacks upon them until the end of the war. and five CVAs 9 April The XF2Y-1 Sea Dart. 21 May An AD-4 Skyraider took off from NAS Dallas. He refueled at NAS Dallas destroying sections of the main power plant. 18 January A P2V of VP-22. at 1921. landed aboard in an SNJ.143 pounds more than the weight of the aircraft. ammunition.. at 0518 in an F9F-6 Cougar (BuNo Sparrow III missile was conducted at the Naval Air 127432) and landed at NAS North Island. Formosa Strait. was shot down off Swatow..

1 railroad tunnel. downed his fifth (EAG 1). high speed research aircraft in which LtCol. with airfields a secondary target. the first submarine launching of a Regulus. 25 July Pilots of Task Force 77 flew 538 offensive and 62 defensive sorties—their record for one day of operations in the Korean War. the missile was fired from Mississippi 11 July Major John F. The attacks destroyed or damaged 23 railroad cars. Carl. record of 83. bringing hos. was completed with a simulated attack after which the missile was successfully recovered on San Nicolas Island. and numerous buildings. Carl tilities to a halt in Korea. Marine Ace Major Bolt USMC 348324 15 July Tunny (SSG 284) launched a Regulus missile off Naval Air Missile Test Center (NAMTC). Force in Korea. made flights at 1. Bolt. 27 July On the final day of the Korean War. becoming the first Naval Aviator to USMC. Task Force 77 expended its major effort on transportation facilities. and sixth MiGs while operating with the Fifth Air 20 August Lieutenant Colonel Marion E. 11 railroad bridges.143 mph and 83. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 197 1953—Continued 12 August In the first successful shipboard launching of a fully guided Terrier. 27 July United Nations and Communist representa- tives signed an armistice at Panmunjom. Calif. This. piloted the D-558-2 Skyrocket to a new altitude attain five victories in jet aerial combat.235 feet 651837 . USMC. and hit its target.235 feet over Edwards AFB. Marion E. 9 highway bridges. D-558-2. an approaching F6F drone.

of microelectronics and solid state circuitry. was credited York Naval Shipyard.943 mph over a 3-kilometer course was set by announced that under a joint project with the code the F4D Skyray at Muroc. N. Pa. Rahn. flown nents to ceramic wafers and to build the wafers up by test pilot R.” changes were the same as those for the angled-deck version of Project 27C but with the addition of a modi. Speedster Verdin in Skyray 630092 . O.. this was the first carrier the automatic manufacture of electronics equipment aircraft to establish this record in its normal combat and that a sonobuoy assembled by this method was in configuration. Sidewinder air-to-air missile. fied C-11 steam catapult in the angled-deck area. 3 December The Steam Catapult Facility. Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Air. a launching of F9F and AD aircraft. Long Island. complete units. broke the 100-kilometer into modules which could be readily assembled into closed course speed record at 728. Calif. Its importance at the time was viewed as breaking an electronics production bottleneck.114 mph. Verdin.Y. was established by Hon. test fired at the Naval Ordnance Test Station. was promulgated. In a 19 November The Chief of Naval Operations en. dynamic principle. sent an F6F 3 December The first successful test of super circu- drone down in flames. John Attinello. broader view it was a step towards the development dorsed the common utilization of the Fleet Air Gun. an F9F-4 Panther. Smith.. a conversion plan for and standardization in the combat employment of air- Midway-class carriers. the last of nine Essex class carri- with developing this practical application of the aero- ers modernized under Project 27A. James H. NAMC. Philadelphia. production. took place at the Grumman 1 October Hornet completed conversion at the New Aircraft Corporation field at Bethpage. 3 October A new official world speed record of 19 December The Navy and Bureau of Standards 752. Inyokern. lation (boundary layer control) on a high-speed air- plane. Basic craft armament.198 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1953—Continued nery Unit by the Pacific and Atlantic Fleets and the Marine Corps “as a step towards increased emphasis 2 September Project 110. Piloted by Lieutenant name “Tinkertoy” methods had been developed for Commander James F. Calif. a BuAer engineer. Tinkertoy was a technique for utilizing automatic machinery to attach basic electronic compo- 16 October A Douglas F4D-1 carrier fighter. with the 11 September In its first successful interception.

Helicopters were used to fly battle casualties from the front to rear area hospitals 420530 Landing in a rice paddy USMC 131109 HTLs preparing to takeoff from Valley Forge in western Pacific 424772 . UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 199 Helicopter supplies outpost 433345 Wings for medics.

200 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 Interdiction. Repeated attacks denied railroad to stubborn foe 1053759 Locomotive. a high speed long-range air-to-air rocket. but no railroad 1053760 An AD Skyraider test fires the Mighty Mouse. at NOTS Inyokern 707573 .

Vought’s tailless twin-jet fighter. taking off from Midway during carrier evaluation 432148 . UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 201 F9F Panther jets dump reserve fuel before landing on Princeton upon return from air strike over Korea 429191 Two Petrels. suspended beneath the wings of a P2V Neptune patrol plane 687387 The P5M-2 Martin Marlin fea- tures a “T” tail 1053791 XF7U-1 Cutlass. air-to-surface guided mis- siles.

202 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 AJ-1 Savage landing aboard Lake Champlain 630663 F2Hs en route to target pass Lake Champlain 630627 Early version of Lockheed WV. on seaward exten- sion of Dewline 1053793 At the end of a patrol flight a P5M-2 Martin Marlin sets down at NAS Sangley Point in the Philippine Islands 676502 . radar picket plane for long- range patrol.

naval forces the merger of two bureaus. provided com- to menaced nations. Air defense silery. a series of crises in the Accompanying the intensive application of techno- Middle East. the orbit of man-made satellites be- an interceptor missile was introduced into flight train. and Naval Aviation passed through a change greater All these advances in technology and all the im- than any in their previous history. provements in weapons and equipment created a new ploitation of these advances enhanced the speed. and Within months. peace in the world re- mained on unsteady footing. provided support improvement of antisubmarine tactics. Fla. Polaris. Carrier forces. hostility became open. On different occasions these forces evacuated aviation. strengthened by these additions and improve- ments. operated a whole new family of aircraft with 1954 high performance capabilities. Events of the latter part of the 1950s were largely vestigation. Within months. strated the feasibility of retrieving objects from orbit A new class of carriers was built and the basic car. As tension grew. missiles were assigned to the Naval Air Reserve. and re- the oppressed. ening situation in the Far East. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 203 PART 8 The New Navy 1954–1959 I n spite of the truce in Korea. fire. to train cadres in 203 . As a new age evidence of its future effect on surface operations. loomed upon the horizon. logical advances were extensive reorganizations within tional relations gave new importance to the traditional the Navy Department by which greater emphasis was practice of deploying naval forces to trouble spots of placed on research. New provisions were made for the world. rier modernization program was completed. set up special task groups for the progressive refugees. sea and air tional role in controlling the sea. and mobility of naval. The effective ex. and a general deterioration in interna. scientific attainment. adaptation of nuclear power to aircraft was under in. utilizing developments in space. The successful applica- tion of nuclear power to ships of several types 1 January The Naval Air Weapons Systems School reached a new height by the construction of a new was established at Jacksonville. The fleet ballistic missile. Air-to-air missiles became stan. a ground-support gram. was deployed space began to take on realistic form as tests demon- on nuclear. Successful orbits by Explorer I and Vanguard missiles were on board operating ships. the power remained the Navy’s basic tasks.. Air-to-surface provided the first of a number of convincing answers. came almost commonplace and the fantasy of man in ing. and capability to deliver nuclear weapons was increased. and presented a physical symbol pletely equipped mobile amphibious squadrons ready of freedom as a bulwark between the aggressor and to operate in the new tactics of vertical assault. and of its commerce. and an astronaut training program was launched.powered submarines. Guns were being replaced by guided missiles. and the relative position of its progress in mis- type was deployed by fleet squadrons. and an increased knowledge of space gave dominated by the space program. versatility. readiness in time of war to destroy any active enemy aircraft speeds jumped from sub. and closely related and as international maneuverings led to incidents and activities in technical fields were brought together by demands which threatened world peace. Defense of the nation forces. the quality of its educational pro- dard equipment on interceptors.to supersonic. Navy which paradoxically continued to play its tradi- power. questions were raised and Guided missiles of several types were perfected and investigations made regarding the state of the nation’s placed into operation. vised the Reserve program to provide units trained The period was also marked by technological and and equipped to perform specific tasks immediately scientific advances of such magnitude that the Navy upon mobilization. patrolled troubled waters. deterrence of aggression. Similar adjustments in the were called upon to represent the nation in critical fleet provided a more uniform organization for carrier areas. the wors- carrier utilizing the advantages of this newfound source of power.

and mak. which Material Center was established at Johnsville.438-mile flight from San Diego. As tests continued MiG aircraft and forced to ditch off the Siberian coast.J.. with aerial refueling over Hutchinson. areas. F2H-4... 31 October Ensign Duane L. N. Rich made it in 3 hours 48 minutes even. Calif. to Cecil tivities in the Fourth Naval District. in an S2F-1. Commander Eppes was awarded the Distinguished Ohio. For his achievement on this flight. Pa. Trenton. and Lieutenant W. First operation of steam catapult. development. .900-mile nonstop. landed at NAS Key West. Pa. attackers. surfaces. nonrefueling. 27 May The Chief of Naval Operations approved 26 July Two AD Skyraiders of Air Group 5 from Project 125 of the carrier improvement program which Philippine Sea were attacked by two LA-7 type air- in general provided for installing an angled deck.. Johnsville. 1 April The first transcontinental flights in less than four hours were made by three pilots of VF-21 in F9F Cougars in a 2. ranged over the Atlantic Admiral Selden B. Commander. Brady made the crossing in 3 hours 45 minutes 30 sec- onds.. Eppes. to Floyd Bennett Field. missile external control equipment.1 hours Lakehurst. after a record breaking flight of 200. en. 1 June Commander Henry J. was attacked by two test of the C-11 steam catapult. Lieutenant (jg) John C. Fla.. F7U-3 one went down with the plane.J. Pa. but made with the S2F. N.204 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1954—Continued maintenance of air-launched guided missiles. and F3D-2.J. N. Hancock launches an S2F-1 638785 25 May A ZPG-2 airship. Varner of VF-34 com- 15 June To coordinate and guide the extensive pleted a 1. The AD pilots returned fire and splashed both that had completed the earlier Project 27A. airliner shot down three days before off Hainan ing other changes to further modernize the carriers Island. a total of 254 launchings were Nine of the crew escaped and were later rescued. Fla. the envelope designation letters “K” and “N” were replaced by manufacturer’s letters. and bomb directors.. 4 September A P2V of VP-19.. Akron. and Banshee. 19 April Model designations for airships were modi- fied to conform with designations for heavier-than-air aircraft. N. in 3 hours and 58 minutes in an F2H-2 Philadelphia. commanded by Commander Marion H. Barrow took 3 hours 46 minutes and 49 seconds. Kans. F2H-3. aircraft armament control systems. throughout the month. the Naval Air Development and or more than eight days in the air. transcon- aeronautical research. on routine reconnais- was catapulted from Hancock in the initial operational sance over international waters. designed as a replacement for the Flying Cross and later the 1955 Harmon International K Class airship. first flight at Goodyear Aircraft Corporation. AD-5. The flight. Official timers were not present. craft while searching for survivors of a Cathay Pacific closing the bow to improve seaworthiness. Lieutenant Commander Francis X. Basically. stan- dard suffix numbers and letters were uniformly ap- plied and the patrol class of airships was divided into patrol and antisubmarine classes. Spangler. This airship. out to Bermuda and Nassau and southward over the Caribbean and Gulf of 22 July The XZS2G-1 (formerly XZP5K-1) made its Mexico. tinental flight from Los Alamitos. FJ-2. Jackson.Y... Rear began at NAS Lakehurst.. Calif. including the Field. as far north as Nova Scotia. was fitted with inverted “Y” control Trophy for Aeronauts. Thus the ZPN be- came the ZPG-1 and the ZP2K became the ZSG-2. and material ac.

F. made a successful flight at NAS Moffett Field. made its first flight at the Hiller plant in Palo Alto.2 seconds at NAS Oceana. The first free vertical takeoff had been made on 1 August. Although the flight oc- curred during ground tests and was therefore acciden- tal. Md. set a new unofficial climb mark by reaching 10. Calif. consisting of vertical takeoff. For his contribu- tion to the art of flying in testing the XFY-1. 1955 17 January VX-6 was established at NAS Patuxent River. Tracker anti- submarine search and at- tack plane. Jr. Manby. 21 January The Flying Platform. transition to horizontal flight and return to vertical position for landing. Calif.. Va. Coleman was later awarded the Harmon International Trophy for 1955. XFY-1.. comes in for a landing on Valley Forge 1053776 2 November The XFY-1 delta wing experimental fighter.. a one-man heli- copter of radical design. of VF-33.000 feet from a standing start in 73. piloted by J. This squadron provided ser- vices for parties based ashore on Antarctica and made courier flights between that continent and New Zealand. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 205 1954—Continued The S2F. it was successful in all respects. 27 January A North American FJ-3 Fury. Coleman. piloted by Lieutenant Commander William J. experimental vertical take-off fighter 709126 . for operations with Task Force 43 in Operation Deep Freeze.

” which had been used vari- Dufek commanding. engine gray 2 May The Navy announced the Aviation Officer and insignia red for target drones and target tow air. Pacific Fleet. Upon his retire- trainer scheme was changed to international orange ment from active duty on 1 December 1947. but the advanced Commander in Chief. The 57 passengers and 9 crew members lost in ships of her class in the western Pacific. a high- participation in the International Geophysical Year speed seaplane transport equipped with four Allison 1957-58. set the unofficial ing for aviators transferring from shore to sea duty in record for climb to 10. His long and distinguished career had begun was changed to light gull gray on top and glossy white on 26 June 1911. 1 February VP-23 left Tarragona.” and “flamed. for service suitability evaluation and trials. forces from bases in Spain. used on all new Navy and Marine Corps aircraft begin- ning 1 July 1955 and applied on all currently operating 30 April Admiral John H. month preflight course. when he reported for flight instruc- below for carrier aircraft. Captain George J. was completed fighter. made at Edwards AFB. Midway re. 15 ported to Commander Task Force 77 for operations in miles northwest of Honolulu.000 military and civilian personnel of the Republic of China from the 25 March The Chance Vought XF8U-1. offered a com- the fourth unofficial climb record set by Navy carrier mission as Ensign. this plane was also suitable for use ing at the Spanish Military Air Base at Reus. and extended through many important aviation and copters.. The new program paral- leled the Aviation Cadet Program insofar as flight train- 23 February An F4D Skyray. he was and insignia white. turboprop engines. the rank of commander and below.206 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1955—Continued 24 February The Chief of Naval Operations directed that the term “angled” be used in lieu of “canted. Kans. Commander. off the China coast. Candidate Program. of military cargo. to provide student train- McDonnell test pilot C.. piloted by Douglas test ing was concerned. O. rier air of the Seventh Fleet. The familiar sea blue 3. The mission of the keel. this tragedy made it the worst heavier-than-air crash in naval aviation history. Orange-yellow re.Y. a jet carrier Tachen Islands. the latter having in addition Aeronautics. Morocco. Md. V. but in recognition of the higher pilot R. Hammondsport. open to college graduates be- craft.000 feet at 71 seconds. assigned to MATS. a solar heat reflecting white top.” 1 February Task Force 43. 24 February The first R3Y-1 Tradewind. This marked the first operation of board. Other changes were olive drab serving as Chairman of the General Board. Rahn. unit was responsible for training pilots making the structions describing new color schemes that would be transition from prop to jet type aircraft. the force on its first expedition was to build facilities and airstrips and deliver supplies in support of U. piloted by lished at NAS Olathe. killing all on the China Seas. died.S.000 feet in 56 seconds.S. above and glossy white below for land observation types and a combination of orange-yellow. water based aircraft and all-over light gull gray for heli. Air Force Pacific. without incident under cover of surface ships and car. tween the ages of 19 and 26. This was as a personnel or troop transport and for the air evac- the first operation of U. all-over seaplane gray for tion at the Curtiss Flying School. Pacific around the Cape of Good Hope. 6 February After steaming from the Atlantic to the 22 March A Navy R6D of VR-3. “slanted. upon completion of the four fighters in less than a month. for NAS Intended for the long-range over-water transportation Port Lyautey. reached 10. USNR. scholastic attainment of its candidates. was delivered to NATC Patuxent River. .. Spain. Bare aluminum was retained for utility types fleet commands including Chief of the Bureau of and land plane transports. Naval Aviator No. N. crashed and exploded at 0203 on Pali Kea Peak. In addition to pro- viding refresher training for these “desk pilots. 4 April The Jet Transitional Training Unit was estab- 13 February An F3H-1N Demon. aircraft within the next two years. after six days of intensive train.” the 16 February The Bureau of Aeronautics issued in. 12 February The evacuation of 24. was activated to plan Antarctic ously in describing the deck of aircraft carriers in operations scheduled to begin in the fall under the which the landing runway was offset from the line of code name Operation Deep Freeze. Towers. uation of wounded. Hawaii. Second Carrier Task Force and mained the color for primary trainers. exceeded the speed of sound on its first flight. Commander. Braun.

UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 207 1955—Continued Vought F8U-2N Crusader. all-weather fighter is equipped with heat-seeking air-to-air missile Sidewinder 1061492 F8U steam catapult launch from Hancock 1053762 .

10 October Saipan with HTU-1 aboard. 14 July The Martin P6M Seamaster. 12 September The Navy announced that all fighters in production would be fitted with gear for inflight re- 22 June A P2V-5 Neptune of VP-9. The squadron’s favorable report formed the basis for a decision to procure the mirror landing sys- 1 June VQ-1. Designed for minelaying and reconnaissance tasks. Commanding Officer Commander Robert G. 5 May VP-1. com. 11 October The Navy announced achievement of the initial step toward an eventual goal of monitoring The XP6M-1 Seamaster.208 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1955—Continued corporating a new hull design. shore stations. Fla. Two days later Lieutenant Commander Harding Helicopter Aircraft Carrier and CVU for Utility Aircraft C. which in- 1 July Thetis Bay. During these oper- ations. returning and adaptable to other missions. left Tampico. Va. the first of four ships of her seaplane powered with four J-71 jet engines and in. Mexico. area into a Fleet Aviation Center. a swept-wing 1 October Forrestal. were assigned to the Aircraft Carrier and redesignated CVHA 1.439 persons marooned on rooftops. Johnson in command. fly- 12 May The classification of naval vessels was re. new water-based aircraft 1053800 surface weather in uninhabited portions of the world . while on patrol fueling. There were no fatalities. Captain Roy L. 22 August As VX-3 began operational evaluation of the-world flight by a Navy squadron. near 16 September Guided Missile Group ONE Gambell. was placed in commission at the Norfolk Naval Shipyard. GMGRU-2 Jacksonville.. thus earning the commendation of the Task Group Commander and the best wishes of a thankful people. with Lieutenant Commander Eugene R. operational procedure. MacKnight made the first night landing in an F9F-8 Carrier. First aircraft assigned were P4M-1Q Mercators. was established at Chincoteague. (GMGRU-1) was established at San Diego. thus establishing the technique as a standard in the Aleutian area. and demonstrated great promise for the offensive potential North Africa. the first squadron of its type in the tem for installation on aircraft carriers and at certain U. arrived at NAS Whidbey Island. Navy. Europe. Wash. Hall in com- mand. Japan. Calif. was reclassified as an assault Helicopter Defense portion of the program. after a week of disaster relief opera- tions for the inhabitants of the area.. Va. the mirror landing system installed on Bennington. with 12 P2V-5 Neptunes. side the airstrip. class. in the process of conversion to its cluded technical management of the Department of new mission. Ten days later. to provide the Mayport provided docking facilities for carriers along- same services in the Atlantic Fleet. was established at NAS Iwakuni. ing an FJ-3 Fury. the helicopters rescued 5. this was the first round.017 pounds of food and medical supplies. Fla... was established. Lawrence Island. The carriers were redesignated one month later. of the operating forces. made its first flight. with plans to launch an earth satellite during the International Geophysical Year (1957–1958). was attacked by two MiG-15s. Portsmouth. assault missile from aircraft carriers and to support the employment of the Regulus on cruisers and sub- pleting the program begun in 1948 of converting the marines of the Pacific Fleet.. and delivered 183.S. trees and other retreats. made the first landing with the de- vised to provide the designation CVHE for Escort vice. Cougar. Dose. this plane initially from duty in the Far East by way of Asia. which set fire to the starboard engine and forced the Neptune to crash on St. thus permitting the rapid loading or unloading of special equipment and personnel and the 27 September Navy responsibilities in connection easy movement of carrier air units ashore or afloat. Although a tour of duty separated the Pacific Ocean leg from the rest of the flight. Chief of Naval Research. to provide trained detachments to operate the Regulus 1 July NAAS Mayport.

Douglas A4D-1 Skyhawk. for both shipboard and land-based operations. and thereby providing improved weather forecasting 14 November The flagship of Rear Admiral George for use in both flight and surface operations. Air Force con- transmission beginning in 1964. one of which in September 1960 provided the first alert on 1 December An element of Fleet All Weather tropical storm Ethel. was placed in commission at the Philadel- phia. . Martell commanding.. developed by the Norfolk. Jupiter.163 mph at Muroc. trol. Captain Charles B. Terrier missile ship and the world’s first guided-mis- sile cruiser. Va. Operating under the code name north of Puerto Rico and provided continuous weather Operation Deep Freeze. cluded a moored automatic weather station. Forrestal. sailed from Automatic meteorological stations. for New Zealand to rendezvous with the Office of Naval Research and the Bureau of ships of the task force for the southward voyage to Aeronautics. unit stations on Antarctica. Calif. in order to adapt it for use as a fleet bal- listic missile. evaluate the all-weather capabilities of airships. being de- veloped at the Redstone Arsenal. Naval Shipyard. broke the Class C world speed record for 500 kilometers with a speed of 4 December On one flight of a project set up to 695. 8 November The Secretary of Defense established a National Ballistic Missile Program. Commander. the mission of this force was data on tropical storm Janet. When FAWTUPAC was disestablished on 2 May 1958. Ala. was assigned to tially in 1956 but more successfully in 1960. were set adrift in the hurricane lanes Antarctica. ini- Training Unit. J. involving joint Army-Navy development of an intermediate range ballistic missile. Dufek. was designed especially for operation of jet aircraft 709972 and 1957. to establish bases on Antarctica for geophysical stud- ies during the coming year. this element was given squadron status and 15 October Lieutenant Gordon Gray. Pacific (FAWTUPAC). piloting a designated VF(AW)-3. Task Force 43. the Continental Air Defense Command to operate as clear energy power as a source for data collection and a fighter-interceptor group under U. This resulted in Navy support for the Army’s liquid-propel- lant missile. 9 November The Chief of Naval Operations informed the Chief of the Bureau of Ships of his intention to equip each angled-deck carrier with mirror landing systems and requested that equipment for 12 installations be procured during the fiscal years 1956 First carrier of a new class..S.. and nu. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 209 1955—Continued 1 November Boston (CAG 1). Pa. Subsequent progress in.

. 1956 Fla. equipped with F7U-3M Cutlass air- craft and Sparrow I missiles. N. Thereby an or- made a ground-controlled approach landing in a man. was renamed the Naval Air Engineering Facility (Ships Installations) and its mission revised to include research. Renfro commanding. ship-based ballistic missiles. The division was responsible for advising the Chief of 7 March Fleet assignment of the F3H-2N Demon.210 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1955—Continued 12 March VA-83. Research and Development established a titanium Mills piloted his airship. design. and supporting and assisting the Office of Naval 2Ns to VF-14 at NAS Cecil Field. the P2V-6Ms of VP-24. other than fis- cal. satellite launching program) within OPNAV was as- tack. alloy sheet rolling program and designated the returned to the field under instrument conditions. to McMurdo Sound. 23 April Cognizance of Project Vanguard (an earth tinental United States and Hawaii against surprise at. aircraft against shipping. Pa. development. Hawaii. Redesignation ceremonies on 1 June marked the pass- ing of a name prominent in Naval Aviation since An F3H-2N firing air-to-air Sparrow III missiles 1061490 World War I. pro. In spite of heavy airship icing. to VAH-1 at NAS Jacksonville. Va. Harmon International Trophy for Aeronauts.J.. in an ice-accreting experiment unparalleled in lighter- than-air history. uniformity on this and other flights during the evaluation. was established at NAS Lakehurst. . 12 March The Assistant Secretary of Defense for peller icing.. Mass. New Zealand. arising within the Navy Department and at missile test activities of other services. Mack com. approved a Navy program Skymasters of VX-6 forged the first air link with the for development of solid-propellant motors for use in continent of Antarctica with a flight from Christchurch. 3 April The Navy announced that the Petrel.. all-weather fighter. and Bureau of Aeronautics as coordinator.—the first lighter-than-air unit of its type. Pacific. an air- to-surface guided missile designed for use by patrol 10 January Airborne Early Warning Wing. was in operational use from Captain Edward C. Mills operated a aboard Intrepid for duty in the Mediterranean in the ZPG airship in the vicinity of South Weymouth. manding. first overseas deployment of a naval missile squadron. 25 April The Chief of Naval Operations announced that mirror landing systems would be installed in the near future at all principal Naval Air Stations for im- provement of air traffic control and reduction of land- ing accidents. directed the collection of data. to supervise and direct units flying defensive patrols protecting the con. completing the first delivery of Skywarriors to a 3 January ZW-1. and lim- ited manufacturing of devices and equipment for launching and recovering aircraft and guided missiles. 31 March Five A3D-1 aircraft were ferried from NAS Patuxent River. began with the delivery of six F3H. fleet unit. Research in the resolution of problems. Commander John L. Md. was estab. Naval Operations on general aspects of the program. ganized effort of the armed services and the titanium ner that retained a maximum amount of ice on the industry was established to improve titanium alloys ship for analysis on the ground. Office of 20 December Two P2V Neptunes and two R5D the Secretary of Defense. 26 April The Naval Aircraft Factory at Philadelphia. signed to the Guided Missiles Division of DCNO (Air). engineering. 20 March The Ballistic Missile Committee. departed Norfolk. Lieutenant Commander Charles A. lished at NAS Barbers Point. severe vibration and flying ice particles.. For his achievement with particular emphasis upon strength. and fabricating characteristics for use in aircraft and Lieutenant Commander Mills was awarded the 1956 missiles.

development. and repair of aviation fire control equipment Research and Development. Six teams.S. Its redesignation com- pleted an internal Navy realignment whereby the Bureau of Ordnance had received complete responsi- bility for solid propellant rocket motors and the Bureau of Aeronautics had received complete respon- sibility for aviation fire control equipment. Naval Avionics Facility. selected from Navy and Marine Corps shore-based fighter units and composed of the squadron commander and three pilots. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 211 1956—Continued An A3D-2 aerial tanker. refuels an F4H-1 1042033 development and production of aviation ordnance in- cluding the Norden bombsight. for patrol duty to provide for use of the suffix “N” to identify vessels along the Pacific Distant Early Warning Line of the propelled by nuclear energy. a facility devoted to research. 27–28 June The first annual Fleet Air Gunnery Meet was held at NAAS El Centro. a reorganization of the Office of Assistant Chief for duction. divisions with closely related functions were re- cility had been established early in World War II for grouped under appropriately titled officers. 7 July VW-12 and Maintenance Squadron 2 were es- 29 May The ship designation system was modified tablished at NAS Barbers Point. Bureau of Aeronautics. 25 June U. and individual honors to Equipment development encompasses all phases of Naval Aviation. Indianapolis. Calif. whereby various technical was redesignated U. Top team honors and the Earle Trophy went to VF-112 of AirPac. competed with two firings each at 15. approved Ind.000 and 25. Hawaii. mirror landing system brings in A3D 698382 Lieutenant (jg) H.. pro. Naval Ordnance Plant. Thereby a . This fa.S. Wellman of VF-43 of AirLant. 12 July The Chief. N. Continental Air Defense System.000 feet.

.015. of 1. and a recognition of the need for closely coordi- equipped with FJ-3s. was the first opera- Marine helicopter squadron HMR-362 demonstrates rescue at sea while operating with Thetis Bay 1053795 . demonstrated the perfor- initiated a year earlier. Va.200-mile nonstop..428 mph over the 15-kilometer course at Formerly CVE 90. with an average speed of 570 mph. Formed by a merger of the Electronics and Sidewinder missile unit. equipped with F9F-8s.212 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1956—Continued 31 July An A3D Skywarrior. Windsor. commanding. Thetis Bay was converted to operate Naval Ordnance Test Station. both the direct result of a rapid expansion of electron- Deployment of the Sidewinder was extended to the ics techniques in aviation armament and air naviga- western Pacific the following month as VF-211. flown by Lieutenant Commanders P. Thompson Trophy with a new national speed record Calif.” each under an 15 August The Avionics Division was established in Assistant Chief. China Lake. N. Captain Thomas W. on Randolph for opera. Commander Robert W. Services group into two groups titled “Procurement” and “Maintenance and Support. 21 August An F8U-1 Crusader. VA-46. the first helicopter as. and reorganization of the entire bureau. Sweeney as 14 July In the initial overseas deployment of a Director. departed the west coast on Bon nated effort for their most effective application. Miears.. Airborne Equipment Division. nonrefueling flight from Programs with a concomitant strengthening of plan.000 Marine combat production model carrier fighter. Armament Divisions and the Navigation Branch of the departed from Norfolk. Calif. Henson. which had been Lieutenant Roy R. Honolulu.. Mex. in 5 hours ning functions and a division of the Material and and 40 minutes. was commissioned at San Francisco. This included mance capabilities of new carrier jet attack aircraft the establishment of an Assistant Chief for Plans and with a 3. Jr. piloted by 20 July Thetis Bay (CVHA 1). Homme Richard for operations with the Seventh Fleet. was completed. tion. non and dummy ammunition. This helicopters and to accommodate 1. captured the sault carrier. its establishment was tions with the Sixth Fleet in the Mediterranean. Harwood and Alton R. Hawaii to Albuquerque. South II. equipped during its troops to be flown ashore in the vertical development record performance with full armament of 20mm can- tactics of amphibious assault. the Research and Development Group of the Bureau of Aeronautics with Captain William E.

Oklahoma City. Calif. Windsor in F8U-1 1061494 only seconds before. and the bod- ies of two crew members. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 213 1956—Continued Furies of VF-24 took off from Shangri-La at sea off the Pacific coast of Mexico and flew nonstop. Okla. W.000 mph. In completing the 1. Japan. Blackburn. N. Okla. after a flight from Honolulu. With this flight a 3-day demonstration of carrier mobility was completed.. the China coast. Carson flying an F3H-2N Mars aircraft. Grosshuesch. Demon of VF-124 captured the McDonnell Trophy with a nonstop.. 21 September An F11F-1 Tiger. Lieutenant (jg) R. The Air Coordinating Committee action resulted in the installation of ground beacons on the civil airways that served both civilian and military air- craft. piloted by Captain John T.557 mph. 1. 30 August The Air Coordinating Committee ap- proved a common military-civil short range air naviga- tion system called VORTAC.. Frohne. 1 September In the race for the North American Trophy.. without refueling. and was not heard from again.7 sec- onds for an average speed of 606.436 miles in 2 hours 32 minutes 13. ering the 1. Calif.. R.848 mph.45 sec- tack by aircraft over international waters. set down the Marianas Mars (JRM) on waters off NAS Alameda. Captain Blackburn was awarded the Douglas Trophy.6 seconds for an average 22 August Lieutenant Commander Virgil Solomon speed of 537. each using their own specialized equipment.. supersonic fighter 1011277 . The win- 1. while on night patrol off San Francisco. in which Shangri-La had launched aircraft to the same destination from widely sepa- rated points while moving from Mexico to Oregon. reported that it was under at. were launched from Shangri-La off the Oregon coast. with a time of 2 hours 13 minutes 38. 2 September On the second day of the National Air and completed the last scheduled passenger run for Show. by running into 20mm projectiles it had fired Cdr. searching for the plane. four FJ-3 Test model of Grumman F11F-1.543. cov- out of Iwakuni. Hawaii. shot itself down while conducting test firings off eastern Long Island. Fla. nonrefueling flight from Shangri-La 22 August A P4M Mercator.198 miles tionally equipped jet plane in history to fly faster than to Oklahoma City. This system consisted of a combination of the Navy developed TACAN (Tactical Air Navigation System) with the Civil Aeronautic Authority’s VOR (Very High Frequency Omnirange di- rection finder). and land-based air and surface ships. K. an event of the National Air Show. commanding Heavy Attack Wing 1 (HATWING-1).3-mile leg from the Shangri-La to Oklahoma City in 2 hours 32 minutes 39. to Oklahoma City. 32 miles off onds for an average speed of 566.007 mph. flew across a finish line at the National Air Show. piloted by Grumman test pilot Tom Attridge. ner was Lieutenant (jg) D. found wreckage. and Commander Charles T. and con- tinued on to Jacksonville. empty life rafts. without refueling. Okla..Y. Carrier 3 September Two A3D Skywarriors.

England.000 Navy reached it in January 1912. 8 November A Navy Stratolab balloon. manned by zens from the area. Dufek. Rear Admiral George J. Cordiner. reactor components for a nuclear-powered aircraft fare and all major fleet units were sent to sea under carrier. Haifa. in the Mediterranean. Israel. Tel Dakota on a flight designed to gather meteorological. 31 October 1956. piloted by Major Roy L. Lieutenant John with 50 passengers and 9 crewmembers on board. P. M. The Sixth Fleet. N. and cosmic ray. Dufek. AT2. on a scheduled MATS flight from Lakenheath..000 feet over the Black Hills of South port squadrons went into Alexandria. at Windsor Locks. Anderson.200 persons by 3 November. Swadener. AT2 William Cumbie. Shinn. 11 October An R6D-1 of Air Transport Squadron 6 Antarctica. Lcdr. Robinson and Donald Mitchie. she was in more action during World War II than any other carrier. Calif. L. Hawkes. William M. For this record ascent. Shinn. AD2.O. School at NAS Corpus Christi. Aircraft provided cover and heavy Lieutenant Commanders Malcolm D. Hess of VF-144.. Hawkes. and never returned to active service. 2 November The Navy announced award of a con- tract to Westinghouse Electric to design and furnish 29 October The Suez crisis erupted into open war. and other scientific data necessary to im- evacuated some 2.S. Scott of the Royal payload of 11. C. she was laid up with the Reserve Fleet at Bayonne. The seven men were: feet. the first graduates of the Navigator-Bombardier the spot.J. Lt. in an elapsed time of 10 hours 49 min. International Forces which arrived in the area in November. pilot. included the logistic support of the first UN Trophy for Aeronauts. radioman. in the area for several the men were awarded the 1957 Harmon International weeks. began a 3-day assault on world records. Although better than the existing Capt Douglas L. 5 October Three Cougar jets. Conrad S. Decommissioned in the demobilization period follow- ing the war.Y. Ross and M. N. conditions of maximum readiness. with fueling stops each way at Crew of the first plane to land at South Pole. Lee combatant ships stood by while ships and destroyers Lewis. setting Skytrain on the ice at the South Pole—the first to stand three new marks as follows: 9 November. made a round trip transcontinental flight from Miramar. Jordan. Task Force 43 and Commander. the flight was not officially observed and therefore not officially recognized. navigator.. 9 November A Sikorsky HR2S helicopter.214 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1956—Continued 2 October Enterprise was ordered stricken from the Navy list and put up for sale as scrap. USMC. Commander.050 pounds to an altitude over 12. Strider. but no survivors.. carried a at the spot since Captain Robert F. and Ensign Ronald K. 31 October Seven Navy men landed in an R4D Conn. was ordered to evacuate U. Egypt. Capt. bettered the existing world altitude record by of the amphibious group and units of Air Force trans. carried 13. L. Tex.. co-pilot. Cordiner 805653 record of 11 hours 18 minutes 27 seconds. and utes 11 seconds. which began 26 May. Naval Support Forces. Amman. Syria. George J. J. piloted by Commanders Gerald A. and Damascus. crew chief. Kans. 10 November.. to Long Island. Operations by Sixth Fleet. John P. and was recipient of both the Presidential Unit Citation and the Navy Unit Commendation. Aviv. Strider. at the pole for 49 minutes setting up navigational aids to assist the future delivery of materials and equip- 16 October Five students received Naval Observer ment for constructing a scientific observation station at Wings.. RAdm. was a pioneer in night combat opera- tions. Launched just 20 years before and commissioned 12 May 1938. VX-6. AD2 Olathe. The party remained days found debris from the plane.250 pounds to over . proved safety at high altitudes. and Extensive search by ships and aircraft for the next 14 William Cumbie. citi. John Swadner. Captain Douglas L. disappeared over the Atlantic Commander Conrad S. soaring to 76. Captain William. Lieutenant to Lajes in the Azores.

participation in the liquid-propellant Jupiter program. This directive. which was implemented on 1 July 1957. 29 November The ZSG-4. Air Force as its operating agency. set a speed record of marine-launched weapon system and to terminate its 162. equipment. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 215 1956—Continued HR2S assault helicopter can lift three jeeps USMCA 150310 7. in a test of launching Lakehurst. the first for the Vanguard earth satellite.J.S. and designated the Military Air Transport Service of the U.. was commissioned at the New York Naval Shipyard. N.000 feet.7 mph over a three-kilometer course. Fla. tracking. and telemetry instruments intended 3 December Compass Island (EAG 153). required that the Navy transfer to this agency all of the transport aircraft it was operating under MATS and all four-engine land transports of the Fleet Logistic Air Wings except for 30 which could be retained for fleet service and administrative airlift. Gyatt (DD 712) was commissioned at Boston. made its first flight at NAS fired at Cape Canaveral. On the same day the first Terrier missile de- stroyer. 7 December The Secretary of Defense directed that air transport operations be placed under a Single Manager Service. Firing a Polaris from George Washington 1053794 . Mass. ship converted to support the Fleet Ballistic Missile Program. first airship fitted with a 8 December A Martin Viking rocket was successfully dacron envelope. and 11 November. 8 December The Secretary of Defense authorized the Navy to proceed with the development of the solid-propellant Polaris Fleet Ballistic Missile as a sub.

flight at the Grumman plant.. was established as a full the Deputy Secretary of Defense Reuben B. 1 February Lieutenant Commander Frank H.. to develop and evalu. first naval aircraft equipped for 17 December The WF-2 Tracer.. Long Island. ZPG airships of ZW-1. the development of capability. Philadelphia. the services were taking specific New England coast through some of the worst storms action to correct a number of problems. electronics jamming. Md. issued its final report. Peconic River. Mass. a PBY-6A of that assignment to all billets of commander level and NARTU Atlanta.. steps taken by the Navy were establishing program The WF-2. above would be filled by aviators and nonaviators in the ratio of their respective numbers on board. a carrier- based early warning plane 1033433 . completed the Test Pilot Training Program at 1957 NATC Patuxent River.. command at Panama City. as either the senior or next senior officer of each im- portant policy generating and administrative billet and 3 January The last operational Catalina. made its first at San Diego. committee concluded that through streamlining man- agement and administrative processes and thereby 14–24 January In an evaluation of their all-weather eliminating wasted motion. chaired by charge on 31 August 1956. Austin. maintained continuous cantly less time than had been required since World radar patrol over the North Atlantic 200 miles off the War II. was disestablished and consolidated aviators and nonaviators would be assigned alternately with the NAMC. Jr.. and formed to study means of shortening the time ate aviation systems. a carrier early warn. operating in relays weapon systems could be accomplished in signifi- from South Weymouth. materials.Y. To this end. and techniques for required to develop aircraft. N. Pa. were first received by VA(AW)-35 ing plane adapted from the TF-1 design. 10 January The Naval Air Mine Defense Development Unit. Jr. established under an officer in 9 February The Robertson Committee. 1 January The Naval Air Experimental Station. Among the experienced in the area in years. and became the first Navy Flight Surgeon to qualify as a test pilot. Fla. The mine countermeasures. was ordered retired from service. Calif. Robertson. one of the four subcommands 4 February The Chief of Naval Operations set forth grouped together to form the Naval Air Material Center a new policy for billet assignment which provided that (NAMC) in 1943.216 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1956—Continued 18 January TF-1Qs. MC.

UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 217 1957—Continued managers for each weapon program within the Bureau of Aeronautics and a Long Range Objectives Group in the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations. VF-32. 21 March An A3D-1 Skywarrior. to New York. For his accomplishment in commanding the airship on this flight. OP-533. 7 March A turbo-catapult. 21 February In recognition of the increasing impor- tance of weather information to naval operations. all-American engineering test pilot.. N. the Naval Aerology Branch. The airplane. with delivery of the last mis- sile on order. 15 March A ZPG-2 airship.. Cdr. piloted by Commander Dale W. Best individual score of the meet was made by Commander Alexander Vraciu. one for the round trip from Los Angeles.400 pounds and piloted by Joseph Barkley. Cox. 13 April Aviation officer distribution functions.448 statute miles and remaining airborne 264 hours 12 minutes with- out refueling. weighing 16. and circled over the Atlantic Ocean toward Portugal. Commanding Officer of VF-51 and Navy Ace in World War II. in the record time of two years after the first flight of the experimental model.24 seconds. covering 9. Hunt briefing ZPG-2 crew 1009749 Mass. 5 April In the Second Annual Naval Air Weapons Meet.Y.. Del.. launched its first aircraft at Georgetown. was launched at a speed of 90 knots in a run of 210 feet. powered by the exhaust of six jet engines and designed primarily for use by Marine Corps expeditionary forces. and the other for the east to west flight in 5 hours 12 minutes 39. after a flight that began 4 March at South Weymouth. Bristol. per- ZPG-2 departs South Weymouth on a nonstop 11-day flight 1009746 formed by the Office of Deputy Chief of Naval . Fla. in 9 hours 31 min- utes 35. and VA-26 took the Kane Trophy for best in the air-to-ground competition. Calif. Commander Hunt was awarded the 1958 Harmon International Trophy for Aeronauts.. the African coast and back for a new world record in distance and endurance. landed at NAS Key West.. Jr. Hunt. Tenn. an AD-4NA.4 seconds. 12 April Scheduled production of the Sparrow I air- to-air missile was completed by the Sperry Farragut Company. VMF-314 won the Earle Trophy for first place in air gunnery. 25 March The first F8U-1 Crusader was delivered to a fleet unit. broke two transconti- nental speed records. was given status as the Naval Weather Service Division. OP-58. commanded by Commander Jack R.

1 May A two-part rocket. made its first flight at Akron. 21 April Antietam reported for duty to the Chief of Naval Air Training at Pensacola. in which a piloted HUL-1 carried Mk 43 torpedoes in 30 April The Naval Aviation Medical Center at flights to and from Mitscher. was decommissioned at flight training. USN. 27 June Lieutenant Commander Malcolm D. 28 May In a reorganization of the Naval Air Reserve program. This. the last escort carrier in command with its first angled deck carrier for use in service with the fleet. Fla. Fla. the balloons carried instruments which reported pressure and temperature every two hours. These tests and Communist threat to the independence of Jordan. Mass.218 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1957—Continued successful test of the Vanguard earth satellite launch- ing vehicle. operated from the fantail of Mitscher (DL 2) in strength supporting the President’s warning against the the vicinity of Narragansett Bay. ascending from the top of Mount Withington near Socorro. N. demonstrated the feasibil- Pensacola. carrying a safety Mediterranean. Set to float at 30. Moore of the Arthur D. 30 June A program to gather daily weather data over the Pacific. and the Atlantic by the use of transosonde balloons was inaugurated with the release of the first balloon from NAS Iwakuni. into the towering cumulus cloud above the mountain. 6 May ZPG-2W. Japan. large radar antenna mounted within the envelope. Ohio. Wash. combining under a ity of assigning torpedo carrying drone helicopters to single command the clinical.000 feet. Operations (Air) since its formation in 1943 and by the Bureau of Aeronautics prior to that time. remaining for a week in a show of pilot. others.. 25 April The Sixth Fleet sailed to the eastern 23 May A drone HTK-1 helicopter. was ered to the Naval Air Advanced Training Command at launched from Cape Canaveral. and research destroyers and led to the development of the Drone functions of the Naval School of Aviation Medicine Anti-Submarine Helicopter (DASH) which was later and the Pensacola Naval Hospital. conducted in February off Key West. providing that 17 May Badoeng Strait. were trans.. Fla. and Charles B. Ross. the first carrier-to-carrier transconti- nental flight. made up from the first 27 May The first T2V-1 Sea Star jet trainer was deliv- stage of a Viking and a prototype of a third stage. The duration of each flight was . The flight was the first of a series conducted during the summer under the sponsorship of the Office of Naval Research and the Bureau of Aeronautics. successfully completed a Stratolab balloon flight to in- vestigate the interior of a thunderstorm. in the second Corpus Christi. training.. an early-warning airship with a ferred to the Bureau of Naval Personnel. was completed by the F8Us in 3 hours 28 minutes and by the A3Ds in 4 hours 1 minute... Launching Vanguard. Fla. Little Co. Bremerton. Mex. 6 June Two F8U Crusaders and two A3D May 1957 709847 Skywarriors flew nonstop from Bon Homme Richard off the California coast to Saratoga off the east coast of Florida.. North America. the Chief of Naval Operations directed that the 73 Auxiliary Air Units located throughout the country be disestablished during the next six months. was established. embodied in the QH-50C. Tex.

course instead of the 2 years previously required. to Floyd Bennett Field. 27 August The Navy announced that all Naval N.. 16 July Two A3D Skywarriors. in 3 hours 22 minutes 50. a solid-propellant rocket-powered target drone. were retitled to become Naval Air Force. Carrier Landing System. from an F9F-8T flying just above the ground at 120 mph. at sea off Pensacola. made the Installations) was established at NAS Lakehurst. was decommissioned. under the mainland to Hawaii time with a control-tower to . tion point somewhere in the Atlantic. commanding.. Hawaii. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 219 1957—Continued joint Army-Navy contract. Calif. Fla. the new ship was designed to provide fuel. Glenn. AVB 1.. A successful ejection was made by Lieutenant Sydney Hughes. and Air Force. Manager for Airlift Service. USMC. N. of England. 30 July Air Force. to Honolulu. This was the first upper at. Antietam. Ltd. flight training after 1 January 1958 would be obligated mosphere supersonic flight from the West Coast to the to serve 31⁄2 years on active duty after completing the East Coast. to with Commander Richard M. Maj. broke the transcontinental speed record with a cross- ing from Los Alamitos. 30 July The first pilotless helicopter flight was made 11 October An A3D Skywarrior of VAH-4 bettered at Bloomfield. spare parts. Aviator candidates. Atlantic Fleet. was landed on Tactical Support Squadrons (VR) and reassigned to op. Tunnell. This landing began the first shipboard test of the system designed to bring planes aboard in all weather conditions without help from the 16 July An F8U-1P Crusader (bureau number pilot. Calif. Hawaii. Pacific Fleet. J. converted from LST 32. short of the European coast. Built by Kaman Aircraft. with Lieutenant to the Single Manager Service were redesignated Fleet Commander Don Walker aboard. by the Automatic erate directly under the control of Fleet commanders. entering age speed of 723. mentally under Navy contract using a modified HTK. was redesignated an Advance Aviation Base ship... the new helicopter was de- signed on the basis of principles developed experi- planned for from five to eight days with the termina.517 mph. Atlantic Fleet. and Naval Air Force. piloted by Major John H. Jr. The first of her class. automatic landings were completed. the Fleet Logistic Air Wings were abolished and transport squadrons not assigned 12 August An F3D Skynight. 15 July After the establishment of the Single Pacific Fleet.. 28 September Alameda County. to support their development. except Aviation Cadets. was demonstrated at NAS Patuxent River. and under evaluation by Grumman Aircraft for the Navy. Glenn crossed the continent at supersonic speed 1061493 30 September Saipan.05 seconds for an aver. In the period 12–20 August more than 50 fully 144608). 3 September The XKDT-1.Y. H. Pacific flight from NAS Moffett Field. made its first flight in a launch from an F3H Demon over NAMTC Point Mugu. Md.. last of the light carriers. Conn. designed and developed by the Martin-Baker Aircraft Co. 28 August The ground level ejection seat.J. in the record time of 4 hours 45 evaluate aircraft launching and recovery systems and minutes. on a routine flight to 1 October The Naval Air Test Facility (Ship join VAH-2 at NAS Barbers Point. Calif. technicians and facilities necessary to establish and operate an airstrip for patrol and carrier aircraft in locations where there were no base facilities. RAF.

accepted from Lockheed and assigned to the Naval Air . was ac. 4 February The keel of the world’s first nuclear pow- ered aircraft carrier. ended seven days of relief operations for flood victims in Ceylon.. The en- Weather Research Facility. was laid at Newport 13 November The l. and two destroyers from the Seventh Fleet and Duxbury Bay from the Middle East Force. 9 January Princeton. After a 48-minute flight. This action and the assignment of systems tion at the White Sands Proving Ground and possible management responsibilities to the airframe contrac- use at Army anti-aircraft installations. Norfolk. L. or following. in which it 1 March An early warning WV-2E prototype. tor marked important steps in the implementation of the management concepts recommended by the 16 October Lake Champlain. in 4 hours 29 minutes 55 seconds. ap- pointed a Weapons System Team to accelerate devel- control-tower flight from San Francisco. Va. was sion of Guided Missile Unit 11. in its first launch with rocket boosters. Cummings. supersonic surface-to-air missile 710376 3 February The Chief. Airborne Equipment and Power Plant E. Bureau of Aeronautics. completed two weeks training at NAS Chincoteague. which had tire Naval Air Reserve was incorporated into the new been established the preceding month. arrived at Valencia. Va. missile was fired at Edwards AFB. a land-based from Production. to give aid to thou- sands made homeless by a flood. Maintenance and Contracts version of the Talos shipboard missile system and de. Calif. Va. Chief of Army Ordnance. severely damaged by typhoon Ophelia.. signed to launch Talos missiles automatically. organization. 22 November The first Reserve Squadron to fire 14 February Operational evaluation of the air-to-air guided missiles as a part of its regular training. This team was under the chairmanship of the program manager and staffed with representatives 15 October The Talos Defense Unit. The latter representative. VP-834 Sparrow III began as VX-4 fired the first missile. the R&D Project Officer (or cepted from the Radio Corporation of America by Rear class desk officer). craft. rotodome radar antenna mounted on the fuselage. was also chairman of an R&D Admiral Frederick S. for evalua. Hawaii. with HMR-262 em. with Navy and Marine Corps air- craft embarked.. Chief of the Bureau Project Team which included representatives of of Ordnance. N. the overall Reserve Organization to provide fully trained and equipped forces and units for direct and 21 November Project Arowa was terminated and its immediate deployment to specific active duty assign- personnel and records were transferred to the Navy ment upon the commencement of hostilities.Y.000-mile Regulus II bombardment News. Calif. It was turned over to Lieutenant General Avionics. barked. Divisions and the Research and Development Group. to opment and fleet introduction of the A2F (A-6) air- Honolulu. Vanguard. Withington. 1958 9 January Pacific Fleet air units began delivery of emergency supplies to inhabitants of several islands in the Marshalls.. Test of Talos. Enterprise. the 11-ton 13 February A selected Reserve was set up within missile was returned to the field by control aircraft.. from NAS Floyd Bennett Field. Spain. Robertson Committee.220 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1957—Continued 9 December Cognizance of research and develop- ment programs for space vehicles was transferred from DCNO (Air) to ACNO (Research and Development) and responsibilities for what was formerly Project Vanguard were broadened to include all space vehicle programs prosecuted by the Office of Naval Research in the extension of. with a fired Petrel air-to-surface missiles under the supervi. Divisions.

Calif.. Calif. 2 April An important step in the development of the Drone Anti-Submarine Helicopter for operation from destroyers was taken as an existing Bureau of Aeronautics contract with Gyrodyne for the RON-1 ro- tocycle (one man helicopter) was amended to provide for the development. Calif. tisubmarine warfare equipment 1048502 .. The new organization also provided for a perma. 8 April Airborne firing tests of HIPEG (High Performance External Gun) in F3H-2N aircraft com- menced at Naval Aviation Ordnance Test Station. formed in the Development Unit at NAS South Weymouth. Admiral Thach is also remem- 7 March Grayback (SSG 574). 21 April To clarify command relationships and to permit the closer integration of Navy units into the 17 March A 31⁄4 pound earth satellite was placed in orbit by a Vanguard rocket fired from Cape Canaveral. Task group alpha on parade portrays diversity and complexity of an- able with other aviation ordnance. Fla. VF-213 in air-to-air (all-weather). Va. in a test of the system designed for launching earth satellites for the International Geophysical Year. air-to-air (day). VA-126 in signment to ships. commissioned at Mare Island. installation and flight test of re- mote control equipment.. beginning its operational evaluation. and VAH-5 in heavy attack. ators. Calif. nent replacement Air Group to be established on each piloting an F11F-1F Tiger at Edwards AFB. 18 April Lieutenant Commander George C.000 years. in which 15 specially selected squadrons reorganization of carrier aviation that would create uni.” an aircraft tactic which built from keel up with guided-missile capability. high-speed 20mm aircraft machine gun was developed for a pod installation on aircraft. proved that the earth is slightly pear-shaped. designed and developed under supervision of the Office of Naval Research. This twin-barreled. Its solar-powered batteries continued to transmit for over 6 years and at last reports the satellite was ex- pected to remain in orbit for as long as 2. was he pioneered in World War II. Thach issued the first Operation Order to Task Group Alfa. provide a more permanent group as. and permit a reduction of assigned air-to-ground. units and aircraft without also reducing combat readi- ness. this time setting the mark at 76. three days. 23 March In the first practical test of the Fleet Ballistic Missile underwater launching apparatus.. 18 April In the Third Annual Naval Air Weapons Meet at 10 March The Chief of Naval Operations approved a El Centro. coast and made responsible for the indoctrination of broke the world altitude record for the second time in key maintenance personnel. The highly successful scientific satellite. 19 March VX-4 launched the first Bullpup missile. thereby making it interchange. Mass.939 feet. a dummy Polaris missile was sent into the air off San Clemente Island. the first submarine bered for the “Thach Weave. for Atlantic Fleet to accelerate the development of anti- preliminary evaluation. participated. and conducting special programs required for the introduction of new models of combat aircraft. Watkins. the tactical training of avi. submarine tactics and to improve fleet readiness in an- tisubmarine warfare. top honors in their class went to: VF-111 in form air groups. Chincoteague. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 221 1958—Continued 11 April Rear Admiral John S.

392. which a satellite could be safely fired into polar orbit. USMC. Louis. 26 May The HSS-1N helicopter. Control Center (RATCC) went into operation at NAS Chief Test Pilot for McDonnell Aircraft at the controls.222 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1958—Continued 28 May Galveston (CLG 3). Defense Dewline went into full operation. deliv- ered a J-34 engine to Yorktown 300 miles at sea. Calif. The F4H-1. in the Mediterranean. L. oped which began producing useful data in June 1959 and on 2 February 1960 established the existence of 17 May Four F3H Demons and four F8U Crusaders an unknown object in orbit and later identified it as completed nonstop trans-Atlantic crossings in the re-entry vehicle of Discoverer V which had been Operation Pipeline. Flint es- tablished a world altitude record of 98. the first Talos missile cruiser. 10 May Naval Missile Facility Point Arguello. for instruction Missile Range to be established and the first from in the T2V Sea Star. by Sikorsky test pilot Jack Stultz.095. provide range support to the Department of Defense and other government agencies in guided missiles. Little. Miramar. C. Single Manager Airlift Service. 111.000.000. a practical test of the speed with assumed lost.000 and 100. in Naval Air Transport Wings. Out of this request a pressure chamber at NAS Norfolk under conditions ex. first delivery of an aircraft engine by carrier-on-board loted an F4D-1 at NAMTC Point Mugu.. and 15. in which Cdr. modify its “Minitrack” system. 12.. development. the first Fleet night antisubmarine warfare under instrument flight Ballistic Missile Submarine Squadron. 20 June The Advanced Research Projects Agency was established as an activity of the National Pacific (ARPA) requested the Naval Research Laboratory to Missile Range. pi. 4 May Practical test of an all-jet program in basic satellite and space vehicle research. commanding. which carrier aircraft could be delivered from the East Coast to the Sixth Fleet. McDonnell Phantom II. Norvell G. under the Atlantic Fleet Submarine Force with Captain Tex. Pensacola. was established under Navy management to another for the Atlantic. and 156. Navy Space Surveillance System (SPASUR) was devel- isting between 80.. This was the third National Forrest Sherman Field.. the Chief of Naval Operations directed that Navy squadrons be organized 16 June The Pacific Missile Range. 26 June A TF-1 of VR-21 at San Diego. which had been devel- oped under Project Vanguard to produce a capability 11 May Lieutenant Commander Jack Neiman com.000. Calif. was placed in commission. Point Mugu. to five delivery (COD).000 feet.233 seconds. Mo. Fla. for detecting. one for the Pacific and Calif. in the 22–23 May Major Edward N.560 ft. world records in speed of climb to 3. Ward. was publicly flown at NAS Corpus Christi.025. 27 May The twin jet F4H all-weather interceptor 1 July The first joint CAA-Navy Radar Air Traffic made its first flight at St. 710526 . with R. Calif. 1 July The Pacific extension of the Continental Air 66. LeFaivre.. 9. was established conditions. training began as 14 students reported to ATU-206 at evaluation. and training. Calif...E.000. 90.000 meters with marks of 44. 6. identifying and predicting the orbits of pleted a 44-hour simulated high altitude flight in the nonradiating objects in space.224. capable of day and 1 July Submarine Squadron 14.

23–31 July The feasibility of creating or destroying cloud formations by release of carbon black into the atmosphere was established in tests conducted off the Florida coast by VW-4. support the Republic of China in a firm stand against signed from the respective services. Op-58. China Lake. amphibious units landed 1. Petersen made his that one of them be an Assistant Secretary for first flight in the X-15. the regulation of air cover from long range. intercepted an F6F drone. commanded by Commander Nicholas Brango. Florence W. Petersen’s notable area of spe- 19 August In its first successful flight a Tartar sur. limiting the number within each service department to three. Marine Corps. carriers.000 feet) at Mach + speed (as much as 4. Effective six months from this date. he made five X-15 flights The law also maintained the separate organization of and logged about forty minutes. responsible for aggression. . land. and for appeal to the area and order was maintained without untoward the President of disagreements concerning the location incident. and re. date and 30 January 1962.S. Defense from nine to seven. the Joint Chiefs of shelling of the Kinmen Islands and there were re- Staff and the respective service secretaries. The X-15 program each service under its own Secretary and defined the was a NASA effort to research the problems associated Navy Department as including Naval Aviation and the with controlled. for the establishment of unified or specified combat. under the overall direction of Dr. Ross and Lieutenant Commander M. Peterson was the Navy’s re- Financial Management. search pilot in the NASA X-15 program. carrying a record load of 5. In the days fol. the new law provided a more direct civilian control over military operations through the 24 August After Chinese Communists began heavy offices of the Secretary of Defense. units of the Seventh Fleet moved to the Taiwan area to ant commands. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 223 1958—Continued 23 August An act of Congress created the Federal Aviation Agency and assigned it broad responsibilities 15 July While aircraft from Essex and Saratoga flew involving operation of airways. manned aircraft flown at extreme alti- U.500 pounds and remaining in the air 341⁄2 hours. for military deviations from air lowing. van Straten of the Naval Weather Service Division. By October the tension vised the secretarial structure of the Department by lessened and the situation became somewhat stabi- reducing the number of Assistant Secretaries of lized. Agency’s functions. The primary purpose of the flight was to test and evaluate the sealed cabin system designed to carry an exter- nally mounted telescope for the observation of the at- mosphere of Mars and was thus an operational and lo- gistic rehearsal for coming events. and air reinforcements were sent to traffic regulations in an emergency. cialty in the program was exploration of the angle of face-to-air missile. were sent to the area.000 feet. to direct the operations of units as. provided newed indications of naval activity in Taiwan Straits. As tension remained high and warlike ac- the accomplishment of their military mission directly tion continued. heating and stability and control. specifying 25 August Commander Forrest S. Between this vision for an Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Air. Lee Lewis made a balloon ascension to 82. tude (as much as 250. vided for military participation in performance of the ment and to protect American lives. sea. ship reinforcements. of military airports. fired at the Naval Ordnance Test attack envelope to obtain information on aerodynamic Station. 6 August The Department of Defense Reorgani-za- Norton Sound launches surface-to-air Tartar 710498 tion Act of 1958 was approved. and ships of the Sixth Fleet traffic including military.093 mph). and revoked the statutory pro.800 Marines on ports and missile and rocket sites. including aircraft to the President and the Secretary of Defense. and the establishment of air- stood by. 29 July Commander Malcolm D. The Act also pro- the beach near Beirut to support the Lebanese govern.

fire control. Pa. 30 September Operation Deep Freeze IV began as 5 September A Coordinator. Rear Admiral George J. 10 November The first permanent Marine Aviation 16 September In its first launch at sea. National Aeronautics and Space Administration to be established the following day. Doolittle.224 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1958—Continued accelerated by a Nike missile booster. was fired from Point Defiance (LSD 31) near Puka Puka Island to 28 August As the situation in Lebanon was some. flight at Edwards Air Force Base. Antarctica. General James H. This series of test fir. in which he was subjected to 2 October To provide a highly mobile unit capable altitude conditions as high as 139. licopter squadrons and combat troops assigned. refueled from Air Force KB- duced a visible aurora and a radiation belt around the 50 tankers in the vicinity of Wake Island and from earth which extended 4. Designated Operation Cannonball. 10 October The terms “aerology” and “aerological officer” became obsolete as use of “meteorology” and 8 September Lieutenant Richard H. and. Lawrence be. and four LSDs Lawrence. where tension was 30 September The final annual report of the still high. Hines. completed a 72-hour simulated flight in the pressure chamber at NAS Norfolk. Commander Naval tablished on the staff of the Deputy Chief of Naval Support Force. the Secretary of the Navy. envelopment. Hawaii.. Missile Ranges. navigational. The 29 August The Lockheed Electra. F8U-3 Crusader. 28 September In a preliminary test of equipment to 5 December Observation Island (EAG 154) be used in IGY solar eclipse studies. and four of his staff arrived Operations (Air) to serve as his principal advisor on at McMurdo Sound aboard an R5D of VX-6. it was conducted for the Advanced Guam. and Rear was established at the Naval Air Development Center. under radio command. Jr. of employing Marine Corps helicopter squadrons and combat troops in the fast-landing concept of vertical 15 September Lieutenant William P. was on an evaluation equipped with helicopter platforms. Navy to the National Aeronautics and Space Admin-is- tration.000 miles into space and Navy AJs near Iwo Jima. MC. Final Navy members 1 September An Antisubmarine Warfare Laboratory were Vice Admiral William V. had included shots on 27 MCAS Kaneohe. launched the first full scale Vanguard earth satellite. squadron composed of Boxer. the project officer. Japan. Calif.000 feet. the highest altitude ever reached by a what eased.000 feet. . equipped with launching. Admiral Wellington T. fired its third and final atomic tipped rocket to 8 October FJ-4Bs of VMA-212 and -214 landed at an altitude of about 300 miles. Tabor. NASA successfully 6 September Norton Sound. made its first flight all facilities and employees would be absorbed by the in the external configuration of the P3V-1. flown inland tions necessary to support the operations of Marine he- in a simulated bombardment to Edwards AFB. the NACA would cease to exist and that long range antisubmarine warfare. with layovers at Midway and and 30 August. and provided highly signifi- cant scientific and military data. Atlantic Fleet came the first Naval Aviator to fly at twice the speed announced the formation of a new amphibious of sound in a fleet-type aircraft. Davis. Essex and four destroyers left the Sixth ship-launched rocket. and flight deck control func- California coast. The following 17 February. an ASP rocket. National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics was is- sued by its Chairman. The nuclear explosions pro. selected in April forwarding letters pointed out that at the close of busi- as the plane most closely meeting requirements for ness that day. lasted for several weeks. the Commander in Chief. after a trans-Pacific flight from ings. Fleet and transited the Suez Canal en route to join the Seventh Fleet forces off Taiwan. Dufek. was es. maintenance. the flight in Research Projects Agency. Johnsville. called Project Argus. and to coordinate the establishment of policies 1 October Project Vanguard was transferred from the relating to missile range use. two sections of 12 aircraft. tween the southern extremities of South America and Africa. “meteorological officer” in their place was directed by wearing a Goodrich lightweight full-pressure suit. Calif. the Regulus II Detachment afloat was activated on board Boxer to pro- was fired from the submarine Grayback (SSG 574). operating midway be. missile range matters. 800. off the vide supply. NAS Atsugi. to determine operating require- ments.

and placed under the military command of Commander. to Cherry Missile testing program. Midway and equipped with F3Hs.C. 24 February The operational deployment of the Talos missile was marked by its first firing at sea by Galveston 16 December The Intermediate Range Ballistic (CL 93) in the vicinity of Roosevelt Roads. Point Mugu. were among the seven men selected as prospective astronauts under 1959 Project Mercury—a basic program in the development of 21 January Tests at Indianhead. was inaugurated with the success. Project Hugo was Third Naval District. USMC. and its scope was expanded to include of 86 miles. made 13 March Aviation Cadet E. Fifty-five crews from selected Naval Air Reserve units and 36 P2V and S2F aircraft took part in an antisubma- 12 December The Secretary of the Navy directed ter. Schirra. as a measure necessary to achieve an overall balance in missile weapons systems within available resources... Clark soloed in a TT-1 homeless by a fire which swept through the town and Pinto. covering 2. Calif. Norfolk Naval Shipyard. medicines. the Seventh Fleet in the western Pacific.S. Warfield of MAW-2. N. movable nozzle for the Polaris. were diverted from opera- tions at sea to aid the people of Koniya. including Yorktown.. Jr. 15–22 April Elements of the Naval Air Reserve took listic missiles. the group delivered food. clothing. USN. and tents to the needy. of a new type space exploration and manned orbital flight. Pa. Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Air was abolished. Naval Missile dents also have HTA training. of the Navy pending an appointment to fill the newly air missile by a squadron deployed outside of the con. aboard Bon Homme Richard. 11 March The HSS-2 amphibian all-weather antisub- marine warfare helicopter made its first flight piloted 28 December Nine ships of an antisubmarine by Sikorsky test pilot R. Calif. Calif. was commissioned at the Point. Eleven days later. the Office of and constructed by New Mexico State University.R. conducted by the Office of Naval Research with assistance from Bureau of Aeronautics. nonrefueling and other devices called for in the Fleet Ballistic flight in A4D Skyhawks from El Toro. part in Exercise Slamex. obtained the first extremely high altitude pho. Lieutenant Colonel John assisted on the scene until Japanese relief agencies H. the first student in Naval Aviation history to solo destroyed most of its dwellings.. 10 March The Chief of Naval Operations approved ful firing of a Thor from Vandenburg AFB. Hugo. Glenn. Lieutenant Commander Alan B. VF-193. at Point Mugu. and Lieutenant Malcolm Scott Carpenter. Men from the group 9 April Four Naval Aviators. P. Japan. Missile (IRBM) portion of the Pacific Missile Range.S. blankets. Calif. and the cessation of the requirement that all LTA stu- Point Mugu.082 miles in 4 hours 25 minutes. conducted a 16–19 February Units of the Naval Air Reserve par- similar exercise. Lieutenant Commander Walter M. Within 24 hours of the a jet without previous experience in propeller aircraft. rine defense exercise on the West Coast with elements mination of the Regulus II bombardment missile program of the Pacific Fleet and the Canadian Navy. was redesignated Navy Terrier-type missile launcher at NASA’s pilotless Naval Air Research and Development Activities Aircraft Research Station at Wallops Island. 27 January The Naval Air Development and 5 December A sounding rocket.. . group. Shepard. Va. transfer of LTA training from the Naval Air Training Command to Commander Naval Air Force. Pacific Missile Range. was redesignated U. Atlantic 19 December The Naval Air Missile Test Center. Va. Center. Weather 5 February In accordance with the provisions of the Bureau and utilized a rocket camera package designed Defense Reorganization Act of 1958. conducted by Commander. R. Flynn and Captain Clifford D. Functions of the office were assumed by the Secretary 8 December The first firing of a Sparrow III air-to. NASA and the U. Both squadrons were deployed with ticipated for the first time in a full-scale fleet exercise. Md. aeronautical research and development activities in the tographs of a frontal cloud formation. Decker... could cope with the situation. created Office of Assistant Secretary for Research and tinental limits was conducted by VF-64. S. Johnsville. based aboard Development. made a nonstop. to a height Command. fired from a Material Command. disaster. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 225 1958—Continued 24 January Major John P. demonstrated a suc- cessful major advance in the directional control of bal.

with P2V and S2F aircraft. Quonset Point. Atlantic—their second 25 April Bullpup was first deployed overseas when participation in a fullscale fleet exercise since the orga. N. completed Bullpup air-to- surface missiles are carried by FJ-4B 710127 . Bullpup deployment to the Mediterranean. on board Lexington to join the Seventh Air Stations at Brunswick. 89) homeward bound from the Antarctic. logged 2. equipped with A4Ds sailed from the East Coast from 12 Reserve stations conducted round-the-clock aboard Saratoga to join the Sixth Fleet. Calif. and Fleet in the western Pacific. thus extending flight operations for seven days. Maine.. sailed from nization of the Selected Reserve. equipped with FJ-4B Furies. dent-free flight hours. 78 crews 34. VA-212. VA- Lakehurst. The following August.J. maintained an aircraft availabil- ity of better than 85 percent and reported 75 subma.800 acci.226 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1959—Continued The HSS-2 Sikorsky all- weather ASW helicopter 710394 Antisubmarine Defense Force. 26 April HU-2 pilots of the ice breaker Edisto (AG rine contacts. Operating from Naval Alameda.

The change was accompanied by of the Chief of Naval Operations. The attack wounded one crewman and so dam- lished and replaced by a new Deputy Chief of Naval aged the plane that it made an emergency landing at Operations (Development).) navigation to aircraft use. was changed to AKV. 16 June A P4M Mercator. MiGs. test. instituted after a lapse of 18 years as a class of 12 lished office of DCNO (Development). with both starboard engines and some of sibility to execute the research. on a routine flight over in- 28 April The office of the Assistant Chief of Naval ternational waters off Korea. (CVS) and seven light carriers (CVL) was changed to Auxiliary Aircraft Transport (AVT). and CVHE. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 227 1959—Continued 8 June The bombardment missile Regulus I. and the determination of of a unit which owed its beginning to the needs of requirements. and the flight controls inoperative. that it would participate fully in space technology and that astronautics would have 15 May The classification of four support carriers high priority in overall research and development. was the first of 12 designed to record radiation 150 15 May To centralize and strengthen the research miles up and also the first ballistic missile fired from and development program. with authority and respon. . fired from Naval Missile Facility. of air safety and to coordinate the planning and imple- its title was changed to “Operational Test and mentation of aviation safety programs throughout the Evaluation Force. who was 19 June A ZPG-3W. tims to safety. Japan. became the new for use in air warning patrol and largest nonrigid ever Deputy for Development. headed by a coordinator. CVU. and its Director MarCads began their preflight training course at NAS was designated Assistant Chief of Naval Operations Pensacola. was changed to a staff office. Cargo enunciated organizational responsibilities in the Office Ship and Aircraft Ferry. technical control and program guidance over the Operational Development Force were established in 15 July The Aviation Safety Division of DCNO (Air) the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations.S. N. Missile Ranges was disestablished and its to the unit having custody of the aircraft and for a functions assigned to a simultaneously established gradual elimination of FASRONS. was approved for Astronautics Division.. This change removed 14 July A two-stage Nike-Asp solid-propellant rocket the CVL designation from the Navy Vessels Register. delivered a package of Post Office mail of Uruguay during which they carried 277 flood vic. 5 May The Guided Missiles Division was transferred 11 July The Marine Aviation Cadet program was re- in its entirety from DCNO (Air) to the newly estab. prepared by A. with its functions and personnel. sion of the force was revised and broadened to in. including the for- 27 May As a reflection of the ever-broadening scope mulation of plans. was delivered to NAS Lakehurst. fired by the submarine Barbero (SS 317) 100 miles off the 10 days of rescue operations in the Montevideo area Florida coast. Point Arguello. Miho. Naval Aviation. the Naval Weather Service Division. which 22 July Within DCNO (Air). Fla. after a 22-minute flight. built. 13 July The Chief of Naval Operations approved the 7 May The classification of 36 escort carriers.. was transferred from 28 July The Naval Research Laboratory issued its ini- DCNO (Air) to DCNO (Fleet Operations and tial report indicating the feasibility of adapting Omega Readiness. policy recommendations of the Connolly Board that nated CVE. desig. (Development). to act as principal advisor to DCNO (Air) in all matters clude test and evaluation and. Fla. charged with assisting DCNO implementation. This report. Vice Admiral John T. Hayward. the Office of the provided for the assignment of responsibility directly Coordinator. 26 May A concept of aircraft maintenance. icy were that the Navy would use space to accomplish cort carrier as a combatant ship of the U. (Air) in performing his overall responsibility for direct- ing the Navy astronautic program. The mis. reflected the changes. first of four airships designed head of the disestablished office. development.J. policies.” Navy. was fired upon by two Operations (Research and Development) was disestab. Calif. more direct channels for the new facility. ashore at Mayport. Navy. evaluation responsibilities of the Chief of Naval Operations. naval objectives. Essentials of the pol- a change of hull numbers and marked the end of the es.

aviation combat readiness were transferred to DCNO ished upon transfer of all their functions. Training Command units and Reserve squadrons off Cape Canaveral. took the oath of office on 10 their F11F jets.000 pounds—the heaviest aircraft ever to take off six appropriately located shore based transmitters from a carrier. completed a week of relief operations in the disestablished division.540 pounds of cargo and 833 passengers on 898 missions. would receive Sidewinder air-to-air missiles. Commander Ed Decker took off at a gross weight of ing very low frequency radio waves of such range that 84. 18 August An act of Congress established the 18 September The Air Warfare Division of DCNO Bureau of Naval Weapons and provided that the (Air) was disestablished and its functions pertaining to Bureaus of Aeronautics and Ordnance would be abol. Rear began training operations carrying Sidewinders on Admiral Paul D. Atlantic Ocean. 27 August The ballistic missile Polaris was fired for 30 July The Navy announced that Advanced the first time from a ship at sea by Observation Island. September. A new branch was established in the Aviation Plans Division to perform 20 August Marine Helicopter Squadron 261. The first Chief of the new bureau. Stroop. (Fleet Operations and Readiness).228 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1959—Continued flood-stricken Taiwan during which it airlifted 1. Fla. operating planning requirement functions previously assigned to from Thetis Bay. was a theoretical analysis of the problems involved in designing an air. would provide world wide coverage. Sidewinder air-to-air missiles on F9F-8 Cougar 699330 3 August The first flight test of the antisubmarine 9 September Navy air and surface units located and missile Subroc was successfully completed by a recovered an Atlas boosted Mercury capsule in an area launch from a shore installation at NOTS China Lake. 700 miles short of the predicted point of impact in the Calif. F. at NAAS Kingsville. It also described Omega navigation as Independence an A3D piloted by Lieutenant a phase comparison radio navigation technique utiliz. Tex. The fol- lowing week the program was implemented when the 1 September The Bureau of Naval Weapons was Advanced Training Unit 203. Thornhill of the Radio Division. formed.600.. . 25 August During suitability trials on board borne receiver.

1 December The Bureaus of Aeronautics and Ordnance marked the end of the airship training program con. by 2nd Lieutenant David K. Dixon and Pensacola. Rear Admirals Robert E. and his instructor Lieutenant Commander Rieman A. Some 6. Naval Support Force Antarctica. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 229 1959—Continued USMC. Stroop relieves Chiefs BuAer-BuOrd.. 1 October An R5D Skymaster. 1 October Fleet Air San Diego was established with Rear Admiral Dale Harris in command. inaugurated use of the T2J 25 September The last class of LTA students also Buckeye in basic training. Henning of VX-6.000 pounds of supplies and medicines were delivered and over 17.000 per- sons were evacuated. MacDonell.000 typhoid and antibiotic shots were administered to prevent the spread of disease. Hall. Lakehurst. arrived at NAF McMurdo Sound.J. New Zealand.S. qualified in HTA. Reserve Training. completed training at NAS Glynco. were abolished as the Chief of the Bureau of Naval ducted for 12 years under the Chief of Naval Air Weapons Rear Admiral Paul D. on this first flight of the season marked the operational implementation of Operation Deep Freeze 60. after relief operations in the wake of a typhoon. Hubbard. Navy. Tyree. Antartica. N. Dixon and Miles H. after a flight from Christchurch. The last man to receive the dual designation was 30 November The Airship Training Group at NAS Ensign John B. Glynco. was disestablished ending lighter-than-air training in the U. piloted by Lieutenant Commander John A.. advanced trainer by North American 1061491 . Mosher. 2 November A student training flight at NAS WEPS Chief. Fla. 30 September Airship flights by the Reserves of Naval Air Reserve Training Unit. Ga. The arrival of Rear Admiral David M. 6 October Kearsarge left Nagoya. Commander. and the Bureau of Naval Weapons absorbed their functions. Ga. Hubbard 710604 The T2J-1. Stroop relieved their Chiefs. Japan. 200..

hydro ski fighter.230 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1959—Continued The XF2Y-1. the Douglas A4D-1 1006922 . during taxi trials 708780 An XF4D-1 lands aboard Coral Sea during trials 63014 A3D is launched by Forrestal’s steam cata- pult 1053799 Carrier light attack plane.

she was launched on 9 June 1959.. VA-85 the prop light attack. and VAH-4 the heavy attack. HUP demon.. Conn. A. strates air-sea piloting a McDonnell F4H-1 Phantom II powered by rescue 680099 two GE J-79 engines bettered the existing world altitude record by reaching 98. . USN. weapons meet. Top individual scorer was 1st Lieutenant G. VA-56 the Congress. designed to deliver weapons from high or low altitude 1039888 jet light attack. of VMF-232 competing in the Day Fighter shoot. bombing. Calif. Mass. in the championship round of the annual commission at Groton. and missile firing at MCAAS Yuma. Jr. 7 December Dewey (DLG 14). 4 December Crack teams from selected fleet squadrons completed four days of competitive gun. Flint. USMC. 6 December Commander Lawrence E. Davis. was commis- sioned at the Boston Naval Shipyard.560 feet over Edwards AFB. Commander George B. the first of a new class of guided missile destroyer leaders designed to employ the air defense missile Terrier III. rine George Washington (SSBN 598) was placed in Ariz. Vigilante. VF(AW)-3 took the all weather fighter Osborn commanding.. 30 December The first Fleet Ballistic Missile subma- nery. all-weather attack plane. The first of nine nuclear pow- title in the F4D Class and VF-41 won it in F3H Class. ered ballistic missile submarines authorized by VMF-232 won the day fighter competition. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 231 1959—Continued The A3J-1.

232 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 Guided missile ship Mississippi fires Terrier surface-to-air missile 659363 HSL anitsubmarine helicopter 1053761 .

Sicily 1038502 . UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 233 Saratoga on duty with the Sixth Fleet in the Mediterranean. departs from August Bay.

a huge industrial complex linking shore to sea 1053763 Sinews of the Sixth Fleet. Intrepid and Independence prepare at Norfolk for duty in Mediterranean 1053764 . Midway and Hancock at NAS Alameda.234 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 Coral Sea.

It was a year filled with many nostalgic series of high-level studies directed toward clarifying lines of authority and responsibility. found naval forces ready to evacu- became victims of the relentless march of technology. New high-performance aircraft went into give aid to the stricken when hurricanes. the blimp and the Middle East. ating forces and the shore establishment. alike. Before the decade was out. missile crisis found a modern Navy fully capable of copters in vertical assault and replenishment. the burden of backgrounds—Naval Aviators made the first American the Navy’s air war was carried by aircraft of the suborbital and orbital flights. perhaps the greatest array of carrier-air might cept and other changes radiated outward to the oper- added during peacetime to any fleet in a single year. In Southeast manned orbital flight became a reality and a series of Asia. without change of their VQ letter designation. the Navy’s traditional role in con- had been commissioned and another was taking form trolling the sea remained unchanged. The requirement for sustained naval joined in the study of physiological effects of space action and support of operations ashore posed major flight. The craft were developed. Crises in Africa. The bureau sys- memories of past glories and also a year in which tem was abolished. as the action became progressively heavier Satellites developed by Navy scientists expanded our despite repeated attempts to halt the fighting and to knowledge of space. spacecraft upon their return to earth. On the other side of the ledger. typhoons. Vertical and short-takeoff-and-landing air. operation. Support of the space program was responsible for a number of organizational adjustments within the Navy 15 January The Naval Weather Service Division was Department as well as for formation of a Recovery transferred from the Office of DCNO (Operations & Force command in the fleet. one went into service. tionally powered attack carriers joined the operating New impetus was given to the project manager con- forces. and material support was central- Naval Aviation attained new stature as an effective ized under a strengthened Material Command placed fighting force. Broader and more basic Readiness) to the staff of the Vice Chief of Naval changes in departmental structure resulted from a Operations. Operating forces were near at hand to the fleet. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 PART 9 The Sixth Decade 1960–1969 T he year 1961 marked the golden anniversary of Naval Aviation. Caribbean nations. the ties. long-familiar figures in Naval Aviation. joined performing it. More than half the nation’s astronauts had Navy and the nation’s commitment increased. over Berlin and the threat of war in flying boat. One nuclear-powered and two conven. New round-the-world cruise of a nuclear-powered task types of missiles appeared and such old standbys as force and operations in the Indian Ocean carried the Sparrows and Sidewinders were given new capabili. and were 1 January Electronics Countermeasures Squadrons always on station to recover the astronauts and their were redesignated Fleet Air Reconnaissance Squadrons. two more attack carriers In other respects. Carriers or amphibious assault ships. retaliatory air strikes. Navy flight surgeons Seventh Fleet. ate American nationals and by their presence to reaf- Efforts to conquer space began in earnest as firm the Navy’s role in keeping the peace. and a Navy satellite navigation settle differences at the conference table. system gave to all nations an accurate means of travel- ing the earth’s oceans. the nation responded to aggressive actions with successes culminated in the first manned lunar land. and an Office of the U. and earthquakes struck in widely distant points. flag into many foreign ports. under direct control of the Chief of Naval Operations.S. Four new amphibious assault ships. As retaliation developed into war ing. Naval Weather 235 . Revival of the on the ways. were at sea in both oceans during all orbiting 1960 periods to cover an emergency landing. and old technique of naval blockade during the Cuban others built to exploit the unique capabilities of heli. A Navy space surveillance system helped forge problems for logistic planners and force commanders the necessary links for a continuous watch on space.

collided with a Brazilian airliner over Sugar 26 January The first of two giant unmanned bal. while and Defense officials by the Navy Mine Defense the second reached 113. The pro- agement control of the Chief of Naval Operations. Almost as high as a 50-story build. Hawaii. 29 February Navy and Marine Corps personnel from Port Lyautey were flown to the Agadir area of Morocco to aid inhabitants of the city razed by a severe earthquake. Point Mugu. Fla. . 1 March A ZPG-3W airship of ZW-1 returned to NAS Lakehurst. carrying mem- forces. bers of the Navy Band and a team of antisubmarine specialists. 18 March On the first firing test of Project Hydra. a 150- pound rocket was successfully ignited underwater and launched into the air. The ject was under the joint sponsorship of the National responsibilities of the new office included manage- Science Foundation (NSF) and the Office of Naval ment control of the integrated Fleet Weather Central Research (NRL). fired a Regulus I during training exercises off Valley Forge prepares to launch Skyhook balloon 1046721 Oahu. The balloons were tracked by early warn- ing aircraft from the carrier and shore bases. the second was equipment for transferring the minesweeping-gear towline from a surface minesweep- er to a helicopter. This new record for continuous patrol more than doubled the best time logged by its predecessor.J. Loaf Mountain. conducted at Naval Missile Center.000 feet and made a flight of Laboratory and the Navy Air Mine Defense Development Unit at Panama City.236 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1960—Continued 261⁄2 hours. N. Rio de Janeiro.. measures had been successfully demonstrated to Navy tude of 116. at sea south of lives of all 26 persons on board the airliner and all but the Virgin Islands.000 feet and remained aloft 8 hours. ing and with a cubic capacity greater than that of the rigid airship Akron. system and technical direction of meteorological mat- ters within the shore establishment and the operating 25 February A Navy R6D transport. the smaller ZPG-2W. The accident took the loons was launched from Valley Forge. from one helicopter to another. 29 February The Department of Defense announced including 800 pounds of emulsion sheets to record that two new developments in airborne mine counter- cosmic-ray activity. Wash. 3 of the 38 Navy men on board the R6D. Before rescue and relief operations were over. and the Service was set up as a field activity under the man- instruments were recovered by a destroyer. 25 March In the first launch of a guided missile from a nuclear powered submarine. The first balloon achieved an alti. Halibut (SSGN 587).3 hours and 58 hours in the air. The test demonstrated the feasi- bility of launching rockets while floating upright in the water and gave promise of eliminating the cost of launching pad construction and allowing greater free- dom in the choice of launching sites. or from a helicopter to a surface minesweeper. from an Air Defense Command barrier patrol over the North Atlantic after having been on sta- tion for 49. The first was air-portable minesweeping gear that enabled a heli- copter to become a self-sufficient aerial minesweeper. the balloons carried 2.500 pounds. a Navy-wide effort brought food and cloth- ing to the stricken people from Reserve and other units as far away as Seattle.

marking the com- a measurement of the signal’s doppler shift to deter. The 2A had an operating life of 21⁄2 years. Although the . 1 July In a successful demonstration of the operating capabilities of a drone helicopter designed for use in antisubmarine warfare from destroyers. River. with MOREST arresting gear. The 3.400-foot strip was 19 April The Secretary of the Navy established the surfaced with expeditionary airfield matting. homing torpedo. Fla. and F4Ds and F8Us used afterburners each under a commanding officer. Calif. the satellite emitted a radio signal West. N. Md. from a position off Key Physics Laboratory. airstrip on the south shore of Taiwan within 72 hours of the amphibious landing. 26 March Elements of MAW-1 participating in Thereby. Designed by the Applied 21 June Norfolk (DL 1). Va. Commander John H. placed into orbit by a Thor-Able-Star rocket launched from Cape Canaveral. pletion of a two-month technical evaluation. and supported by a portable fuel tank farm. Dahlgren. 1 July The first Carrier On-board Delivery squadron. ing squadrons (VT) and established as separate units. and provided measurements of high frequency cosmic noise requested by the Canadian Government. A Naval Research Laboratory Sol Rad I (Solar radiation) satellite. mounted pickaback. 3 June Test launchings of Bullpup air-to-surface mis- 1 April CVSG-53 and -59. Surface receiving stations used (ASROC) in a public demonstration. portable TACAN equip- ment. lower control 1 May Seventeen Basic Training Groups of the system. the feasibility of launching multiple satellites Exercise Blue Star established an operational jet with a single vehicle was demonstrated. an experimen- tal DSN-1 made an at-sea landing aboard Mitscher (DL Ground antenna for the navigation satellite 1105433 2). for takeoff. portable mirror landing system. 22 June The navigation satellite Transit 2A was placed into orbit by a Thor-Able-Star rocket launched from Cape Canaveral. or alternatively. was successfully separated and placed in its own orbit. each composed of one HS siles from a Marine Corps HUS-1 helicopter were suc- and two VS squadrons. conditions in the wake of Typhoon Mary. Fla. 500 carried out by the previously established replacement miles northwest of Manila. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 237 1960—Continued an uninstrumented satellite. Naval Air Training Command were redesignated train- A4D aircraft operated from the strip with the assis. Among other sile featured a rocket-powered airframe carrying a experiments performed in connection with this launch. provided critical measurements of the effect of the ionosphere on electromagnetic waves. the heli- copter took 25 men from the wreck and 28 more from 13 April The navigation satellite Transit 1B was Pratas Island inside the reef. was also placed in orbit. Crawford commanding. Philippines. a depth charge. This marked the beginning of a reorgani. were established at NAS North cessfully completed at Naval Air Test Center. equipped Naval Space Surveillance Facility. In addition to further develop- ing the Doppler navigation techniques. Under storm carrier air groups. VRC-40 was established at NAS Norfolk. off the coast of Long Island. This mis- mine their position with high accuracy. mounted pickaback. Patuxent Island. tance of JATO. fired an antisubmarine rocket missile at a precise frequency. Fla.Y. Transit 2A con- firmed the practicability of using satellites for precise geodetic survey. zation of antisubmarine aviation which called for the formation of nine CVSGs and for the assignment of an 10 June Seven helicopters of HS-4 from Yorktown additional replacement CVSG and a patrol squadron in rescued 53 merchant seamen from the British freighter each fleet to perform functions paralleling those being Shun Lee which was breaking up on Pratas Reef..

Recovery was made the pilot took command and made the final let down. Captain Richardson was the Navy’s first engineering test pilot. and one of the original members of had supplied a quarter of a million gallons of gasoline NACA.. Md.238 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1960—Continued Range.. Calif. Hawaii. the existing world record for the distance by more than 200 mph. S. USMC. piloted by 18 July The Navy terminated the Corvus air-to-sur. Indian Head. by Air Force planes which around the ship and into position for a landing before directed the ship toward the spot. ignited in the air and Argo D-8 rocket. 13. Md. less than three hours after the capsule hit the water. instrumented to study the ultraviolet spectrum Force Space Track System. averaged 1. the carrier flying boat hulls. Calif. 5 September An F4H-1 Phantom II.. supervised their construction and piloted one of them ders in the newly independent states of the Congo. 21 July The Navy announced that a contract for the 25 September An F4H-1 Phantom II. was disestablished and the land was 20 October The Department of Defense announced turned over to the Army for incorporation in Picattinny establishment. and the Naval service. Lieutenant Colonel Thomas H. and soared over 90 miles into the work. 1 July To support the operations of the Pacific 2 September Captain Holden C. Calif. The instrumented capsule reached an streaked more than 1.390.. be placed under the control of the North atmosphere. with a speed of wider scope of employment. its nose American Air Defense Command (NORAD) for military cone separated from the main section and was functions..300 miles down the Atlantic Missile Range. under Navy management. Lake Denmark. attainments. N. the helicopter was earth. Naval Missile Range.. Dahlgren. 15 November The Polaris Fleet Ballistic Missile 11 August In the first recovery of an object after it Weapon System became operational as George had been in orbit. A man of many was established at Eniwetok. a Pacific Missile Range Facility Aviator No. was one of the designers of the NC boats coast of Africa to support UN attempts to quiet disor. 1. Calif. Mex. the Naval the purpose of testing its suitability for air transport Propellant Plant. . recovered the instrumented capsule dis- charged by Discoverer XIII on its 17th pass around the drone was manned by a safety pilot. Davis. in support of the UN airlift. bettering issued to the Douglas Aircraft Corporation. each performing similar of the sun. As the rocket returned to earth. was launched at the White Sands Missile services over different sections of the surveillance net- Range. 10 November The Secretary of Defense directed 2 August A Naval Research Laboratory Aerobee that the Navy Space Surveillance System and the Air rocket. by an missile broke clear of the water. of an Army- Arsenal.C. Va. 20 July A Polaris ballistic missile was launched for 19 September The NASA Nuclear Emulsion the first time from George Washington (SSBN 598) Recovery Vehicle (NERV) was launched from the while submerged at sea off Cape Canaveral. range where it was recovered by Navy ships. N.. a Navy HRS-3 helicopter operating Washington (SSBN 598) departed Charleston. By on the transatlantic attempt. Marshall Islands. Calif.260 miles and landed 1. helped develop the Navy’s first 9 July Wasp sailed from Guantanamo Bay for the catapults.78 mph. piloted by development of the Missileer aircraft for launching the Commander John F. died at Bethesda.. from Haiti Victory (T-AK-238) off the Pacific Missile with a load of 16 A-1 tactical missiles. The capsule was located about 330 miles north- flown by remote control from shore and maneuvered west of Honolulu. set a new face missile program in order to permit increased world record of 500 kilometers over the triangular emphasis upon other weapons systems offering a course at Edwards AFB.216. The Naval Missile Facility. Fla. China Lake. Navy liquid rocket development projects were Navy-Air Force program to develop the prototype of transferred to other activities. Richardson. was a pioneer designer of the time of her departure in early August. Weapons Laboratory. Miller. 1 August The Naval Air Rocket Test Station.21 mph for Eagle long-range air-to-air guided missile was being 100 kilometers over a closed circuit course.000 miles toward its target down altitude of 1.J. parachuted to the ground.. primarily the Naval an operational vertical takeoff and landing aircraft for Ordnance Test Station. Point Arguello.

Despite this. President Eisenhower ordered a naval patrol 262 made an at sea recovery of a Mercury capsule. completing the emergency Constellation in the last stages of construction at the evacuation from Byrd Station. L. 6 March The Secretary of Defense estab- lished Defense policies and responsibilities for development of satellites. for manned space flight. 21 February The navigation satellite Transit 3B. This performance established ect since 1959. of Leonid New York Naval Shipyard. Calif. a Soviet exchange scientist who was suffer- in the blaze. Heath and Lt. space probes and supporting systems. Fifty civilian workers died Kuperov. The capsule was launched by a Redstone a carrier and destroyer force which remained in the rocket from Cape Canaveral. development. Heath. N. provisions were made for granting exceptions thereby leaving the door ajar to the possibility of the Navy developing a unique space capability. was established. Each Military Department was authorized “to conduct prelimi- nary research to develop new ways of using space technology to perform its assigned function. A. Va.. test and engineer- ing of Department of Defense space development pro- grams and projects were to be the responsibility of the Air Force.. car- rying Lofti (low frequency transionospheric satellite) pickaback. during the Transit’s 39 days in orbit. with 13 December An A3J Vigilante piloted by headquarters at the Naval Weapons Laboratory. Valley Forge rescued 27 men from the oiler SS Pine Ridge as she was breaking up in heavy seas 100 miles 21 April The Office of the Pacific Missile Range off Cape Hatteras.C. Hawaii. Commander Leroy A. antisatellites. Representative.450. piloted by NH 69962 Commander Loyd E. of Central American waters to intercept and prevent bearing the chimpanzee Ham. climbed to 91. the system which feet over Edwards AFB. Captain David G. By this action. with Lieutenant Henry L.000 feet 10 April C-130BL Hercules of VX-6. in a preliminary test area until recalled on 7 December. was put into orbit by a Thor-Able-Star rock- et.” Although research. ing from an acute abdominal condition. Monroe flew A3J to above 91. Newcomer and carrying a double crew of 16 and a special crew of five. Antarctica. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 239 1960—Continued 1961 17 November At the request of the threatened 31 January A Marine Corps helicopter of HMR(L)- countries. a new world altitude record with payload and sur- passed the existing record by over four miles. Fla. Monroe as bombardier-navigator. Improper burning of the second stage and its failure to separate from the payload prevented achievement of the planned orbital path. was redesignated . landed at 19 December Fire broke out on the hangar deck of Christchurch. L. while carrying a pay- had been functioning as an experimental research proj- load of 1. Cdr. fired from Cape Canaveral. Kaneohe. Fla. Dahlgren. prototype navigational messages containing ephemerides and time signals were inputted into its memory and reported back thereby providing the first complete demonstration of all features of the navigation satellite system.000 kilograms.8 Woosley commanding.. The round trip flight out of Christchurch was the first to pierce the 22 December Helicopters of HS-3 and HU-2 from winter isolation of the Antarctic Continent. became an operational command. after it had completed a any Communist-led invasion of Guatemala and 15-minute flight reaching 155 miles high and 420 miles Nicaragua from the sea. H. The patrol was carried out by down range. 1 February The Space Surveillance System. New Zealand.

His space cap- feet was reached in a two-place open gondola sule. Bringle commanding. attack carriers equipped with Terrier anti-air missiles. Pa. who fell the Hawaiian and Central Pacific areas. HMR(L)-262 which transported it and Commander Launched from Antietam off the mouth of the Shepard to Lake Champlain.739. Jr. Shepard. Kitty Hawk. Prather (MC). which was the largest ever employed on manned flight. Ala. Ross and and recovered at sea by an HUS-1 helicopter of Lieutenant Commander Victor A.9 down range from Cape Canaveral. was launched by a Redstone rocket Stratolab flight by Commander Malcolm D. Freedom 7. Fla. was commissioned at Philadelphia. the first of a new class of from the water.240 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1961—Continued Mississippi. This achievement was marred by ters for missile and satellite tracking stations located in the death of Lieutenant Commander Prather. reached its maximum alti- and established as the Pacific Missile Range Facility.. Shipyard. tude 2 hours and 36 minutes after takeoff 136 miles Hawaiian Area. first carriers of new class 1069225 .. to serve as the mid-Pacific headquar. from the sling of the recovery helicopter and died on board the carrier about an hour after being pulled 29 April Kitty Hawk. the balloon. south of Mobile. became the first American to go into space as he com- pleted a flight reaching 116 miles high and 302 miles 4 May A world record balloon altitude of 113. Naval 5 May Commander Alan B. Captain William F. USN.

9 mph over a 100-kilometer course between Milford and Westbrook. RIO. were ordered to stand by off southern Hispaniola when a general uprising seemed about to follow the assassination of President Trujillo of the Dominican Republic. Although Greb and Injun satellites riding pickaback did not separate from each other. set a new world class speed record of 192.J. Shangri-La. 47 minutes. 24 May Commander Patrick L. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 241 1961—Continued 1 June Ships of the Second Fleet. manned space flight NH69954 17 May An HSS-2 helicopter flown by Commander Patrick L. Gordon. Witherspoon. Witherspoon. N. and Lieutenant (jg) Bobbie R.421. 24 May Three F4H Phantom II fighters competing for the Bendix Trophy bettered the existing record for transcontinental flight from Los Angeles to New York. both operated satis- factorily. 29 June The navigation satellite Transit 4A was put into a nearly circular orbit at about 500 miles by a Thor-Able-Star rocket fired from Cape Canaveral.4 mile flight and set a new record of 2 hours. 10 July The first NATOPS (Naval Air Training and Operating Procedures Standardization) Manual was promulgated with the distribution of the HSS-1 manu- al.S. Sullivan and Witherspoon NH 69959 . including Intrepid. Conn. Windsor Locks. Transit 4A was the first space vehicle to be equipped with a nuclear powered generator. Young. pilot. The winning team of Lieutenant Richard F. Sullivan and Lieutenant Beverly W. Conn. aver- aged 870 mph on the 2. This manual prescribed standard operating proce- Shepard’s recovery completes first U. 21 June The Secretary of the Navy approved plans for terminating the lighter-than-air program that would disestablish all operational units by November. flying an HSS-2 helicopter set another new world class speed record with a mark of 174. Sullivan and Lieutenant Beverly W. put eight of the 10 remaining airships in storage and deac- tivate the Overhaul and Repair shop at Lakehurst.9 mph for 3 kilometers at Bradley Field. and Randolph.

world speed record. and landing signal officer Admiral F. which contained generalized instruc. air refuel. units of the Naval Reserve. and other manuals deal- ing with such subjects as carrier operations. instrument flight.. USMC. Brush. completed a 15 minute. the second 16 October The Astronautics Operations Division. points hit by the hurricane. D. It Berlin. Further publications included the Mex. of 17. Grissom. set a envelopment” concept of amphibious assault. the last operating units of the LTA branch of Naval by administrative responsibility for a tilting wing air. including five patrol was launched from an F4D Skyray to an altitude of 64 and 13 carrier antisubmarine squadrons of the Naval miles. One of Douglas’ designs had shown the HSS-1 and complemented the more technical sufficient promise that a contract had been issued for information contained in the HSS-1 Flight Manual (or a number of experimental and prototype units. water for the first time as Ethan Allen (SSBN 608) fired it 1. tude world speed record. J. Air Reserve. the new ship was 602 feet overall. Four designs of retarders (two made P. was mile high flight 303 miles down the Atlantic Missile transferred from the Office of DCNO (Air) to Op-76 of Range.3 mph in two runs over the 15 to 25-kilometer course at Edwards AFB. 11 September Task Force 135. Calif. 15 December 1963. to develop an economical research rock- et using a standard booster. Mugu.769 mph for a new low alti- NATOPS Manual. Helicopters. flooding of the capsule and made its recovery impossi- ble. . 118 Op-54. craft (later developed as the XC-142) was transferred from the Navy to the Air Force but with the three ser. RIO. averaging 1606. an attack transport and two fleet tugs. but Grissom was picked up from the water by a 23 October The Polaris A-2 was fired from under- second helicopter and delivered safely to Randolph. tions covering air operations. DePoix commanding. Wash.242 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1961—Continued by Douglas and two by NOTS) had been tested in flight.. USAF. NATOPS Flight Manuals were issued which consolidat. commanded by Rear ing. were disestablished at NAS Lakehurst. 21 July Captain Virgil I. Lake.500 miles down the Atlantic Missile Range. from VT-8 and HMR(L)- 26 August Iwo Jima was commissioned at 264. Pensacola after 4 days of relief operations following hurricane Hattie. Antietam. DeEsch. and ed flight and operating instructions with the handbook Lieutenant Earl H. and equipped to operate a helicopter squadron and an embarked 22 November Lieutenant Colonel Robert B. Stann Creek and other and built as such. American man-in-space. 28 August Lieutenant Hunt Hardisty. Called Sparro-air. flew an F4H Phantom information. flying an F4H-1 Phantom II. composed of Shangri-La and procedures. detachment of Marine combat troops in the “vertical Robinson. N. 3.. Captain T. water and medical Bremerton. As the NATOPS system developed. handbook). on the station’s rocket powered test sled. N. two destroyers. the 1 October In response to the call of the president as rocket was designed and built at Point Mugu by com. was ordered to the Galveston-Freeport area 18 July The first of a series of 10 unguided rocket of Texas for disaster relief operations in the wake of launches was made at Naval Missile Center. reported on tests of Snakeye I mechanical retardation devices which were being developed to 25 November The nuclear-powered Enterprise was permit low altitude bombing with the MK 80 family of commissioned at Newport News... Harris commanding. 3 August The Director of Defense Research and Engineering approved revisions to the tri-Service 31 October Fleet Airship Wing One and ZP-1 and ZP- Vertical Take-Off and Landing (VTOL) program where. the first being that for the F9F-8T dated II over the 3-kilometer course at Holloman AFB. 6 November Antietam left British Honduras for vices continuing to share the cost equally. a result of renewed tension over the divided city of bining two Sparrow air-to-air missile rocket motors. supplies and transported medical and other relief per- First of the amphibious assault ships to be designed sonnel to the people in Belize. 28 August The Naval Ordnance Test Station. pilot. Va. or in dures and flight instructions which were peculiar to the wind tunnel. Captain Vincent low drag bombs. with mission. carried over 57 tons of food. Calif. reported for active duty. and averaged 902. Premature blowoff of the hatch cover caused the Office of DCNO (Development). China Calif.J. Point Hurricane Carla.000 tons standard displacement. functions and personnel. Aviation.

B.3 mph record NH69958 . Robinson stands alongside F4H with which he set 1606. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 243 1961—Continued Iwo Jima built as amphibious assault ship NH 69957 Hancock ord- nanceman with Snakeye bombs 114345 Skyburner pilot R.

Lloyd and E. 5 December Commander George W. Jr.244 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1961—Continued Enterprise.5 mph.000 kilometers. Roulstone NH 69961 . and 1. Ellis piloted an F4H Phantom II on another world record. USN..8 feet over Edwards AFB. laid claim to three new world speed records over a course along Long Island Sound between Milford and Westbrook. 500. Shepard. and Captain Virgil I.443. with performances of 182. first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier. 179.8 mph.. surpass- ing the existing record for altitude sustained in hori- zontal flight with a height of 66. The new designs displayed a B.3 mph for 100. Conn. new wings were pinned on America’s first astronauts. Grissom. 6 December In a joint Navy-Air Force ceremony. Calif. and 175. USAF. respectively. Roulstone. flown by Captain Bruce K. Commander Alan B. Lloyd and Commander Don J. with planes spot- ted on flight deck 1063056 1 December An HSS-2 helicopter.

com- manding officer of the squadron. Hawaii. Crafton NH69960 . Iceland. Navy. Japan. Washington. one at Bermuda and the other in the Azores. The flight was led by Lieutenant Colonel Charles E. all 26 January To overcome deficiencies disclosed approach procedures were terminated and air traffic during operation of ships equipped with surface-to- facilities ceased operation. bettered its old three-kilometer world record at 199. Piloted by Lieutenant R.. was closed at 0500 hours. from MCAS El Toro. Conn. Stops were made at Kaneohe. for use in orientation courses preliminary to wings of the respective services. USMC. 30 December An HSS-2 helicopter flown by Commander Patrick L. over a course along the safety. the Chief of the Bureau of Naval station unique for the variety of its operations and Weapons designated an Assistant Chief for Surface services. 8 December The landing field at NAS Anacostia. Sea.01 mph. des- ignated F-110A by the Air Force. W.W.C.. Calif. the assignment of Phantom’s to units of the Air Force Tactical Air Command. Sullivan and Captain David A. 15 to 25 kilometers with a speed of 210. Commander Talley’s flights marked the start of Enterprise fleet operations. one with headquarters at Keflavik. Crew. Naval Air Force Atlantic. Keck and R. Va. arrived at Atsugi. USMC.S. all attack carriers had been Connecticut shore from Milford to New Haven. the system was useful for instruc- copter to exceed 200 mph in an officially sanctioned tional purposes and in the analysis of landing acci- trial. and Guam and air refueling was provided by GV-1 tankers.65 mph. 1962 1 January Three new Fleet Air Commands were established under Commander. 23 January The last of 18 F8U-2N Crusaders VMF(AW)-451. the equipped with PLAT and plans were underway for its installation in antisubmarine carriers and at shore antisubmarine helicopter broke the world record for stations. 17 January First air operations were conducted by Enterprise as Commander George Talley made an arrested landing and catapult launch in an F8U Crusader. and in terms of continuous operations. D. By early 1963.. Wake Island. K. arrived at Langley shooting star superimposed on the traditional aviator AFB. and direct all aspects of surface missiles within the Bureau and to act with the Chief of Naval Personnel 14 December Installation of the Pilot Landing Aid and the Bureau of Ships on matters involving these Television system (PLAT) was completed on Coral Bureaus. completing the first transpacific flight by a Marine Corps jet fighter squadron. the first carrier to have the system installed for operational use. at Windsor Locks. L. and dents making it a valuable tool in the promotion of Captain Louis K. USN. the Missile Systems who was to head a special task force fourth oldest in the U. Spurlock. Designed to provide a video tape 5 February An HSS-2 Sea King became the first heli- of every landing. Crafton. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 245 1961—Continued 24 January Two Navy F4H Phantom II fighters. ended the career of a air missiles. Although three TF Traders of VR-40 had taken off from her deck on 30 October 1961 to trans- port VIPs to the mainland after observing sea trials.. Thus. Keck.

manned orbital flights. by an Atlas rock- et. Glenn (NH69952) Carpenter (NH69951) Schirra made six orbits NASA62MA7-24 Glenn begins orbital flight NASA62MA6-112 .246 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1962—Continued Navy men on first astronaut team: 8 February A detachment of VP-11 at NAS Argentia. New Foundland. He was recovered some 166 miles east of Grand Turk Island in the Bahamas by Noa (DD 841) and then delivered by helicopter to Randolph. in Mercury spacecraft Friendship 7. Lawrence to aid in evaluating satellite readings of ice formations transmitted by Tiros 4 which was put into orbit the same day.S. began ice reconnaissance flights over the Gulf of St.. Fla. USMC. Glenn. was launched from Cape Canaveral. His three turns about the earth were the first U. Shepard (NH69953) 20 February Lieutenant Colonel John H.

as Lieutenant world records for climb to 3.000 1 March New world climb records to 9. Nordberg and Young set five F4H time-to-climb F4H-1 completed time-to-climb record sweep in project high jump records at NAS Brunswick 711031 1143454 .000 and 6.44 seconds at NAS seconds. Young pilot- Colonel William C. Longton piloted the plane on its respective record 31 March Lieutenant Commander F. Maine. to a new world time-to-climb record for 20. Commander John W. piloted the F4H-1 Phantom II at NAS Point Mugu.62 and 77. USMC.000 meters were established at NAS Brunswick. 12. Lieutenant to an altitude of 15. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 247 1962—Continued 3 March The F4H-1 continued its assault on time-to- 21 February The F4H-1 Phantom II established new climb records at NAS Brunswick. Calif.000 meters in 230.000 and meters with a time of 178. Nordberg piloted the Phantom II times of 34. reached those ed the F4H-1 to its seventh world time-to-climb record altitudes from a standing start in 61. Longton. Young and Commander David M.5 seconds.000 meters in 114. Maine. McGraw. when an F4H-1 piloted by Lieutenant 3 April Lieutenant Commander John W. Calif.15 by reaching 25. Point Mugu.78 seconds. respectively. Taylor Brown flights at NAS Brunswick.000 meters with Commander Del W. Maine..54 seconds.52 and 48. McGraw.

picked up by an HSS heli. died in Clifton Forge.. S. was established at the Pacific Missile Range Headquarters. His long and distin- Naval Air Test Center. 1 July The commands Fleet Air Patuxent and Naval Air Bases. fully fired from the same base on 7 August 1962. the new command was given responsibility for operating the Transit Navigational System being developed by the Navy for the Department of Defense.248 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1962—Continued 1 June The final report on the titanium alloy sheet rolling program was issued by the Materials Advisory 12 April The F4H-1 made a clean sweep of world Board of the National Research Council. Scott Carpenter in Aurora 7 was launched into orbit from 26 June The 1. on the second U. manned became operational as Ethan Allan (SSBN 608) depart- orbital flight. As had been called up in October 1961. Point Mugu. on a climb to 30. His capsule was retrieved by John R. number of aircraft including the A-7. he conducted inactive duty. Polaris. reducing the strength of the naval air many experiments. refractory metal sheet rolling program to develop met- als for use at extremely high temperatures. Calif. for a number of titanium alloys and familiarizing the straight up.995 officers made several record flights. USN lished and assigned as additional duty to Commander (Ret.400 miles by a Navy P2V.. guished career as Naval Aviator No. were released to one of the pioneers in Naval Aviation. 22 May The Navy’s first space satellite command. The success Third and Fourth Naval Districts was returned to the of this effort also led to the establishment of a similar Bureau of Naval Weapons. Md. rier.43 seconds. Md.. L. was the first successful head-on attack made by an air-launched weapon on a surface launched guided missile. 10 May A Sparrow III fired from an F4H-1 scored a direct hit in a head-on attack on a Regulus II missile while both were at supersonic speed. Achievements of the program during the six years Calif. assisted by para-rescue men. carrying 16 of the A-2 missiles. Jr. Quillen. after almost new bullet-nose shape to be used in the A-3 advanced three hours in the water. . the Navy Astronautics Group.000 meters in 371. returned to earth. aerospace industry with their properties and methods of fabrication. Bellinger. Fla. landing in the Atlantic 200 miles beyond the planned impact area. made in the test range of the Naval Air Missile Center at Point Mugu. and men. Calif. In addition to its other duties. W.C..500-mile-range Polaris A-2 missile Cape Canaveral. 8 began on 26 November 1912 when he reported for flight training at Annapolis. Nordberg piloted a Phantom II at Point Mugu.. The intercep- tion. Patuxent River. thereby termi- time-to-climb records as Lieutenant Commander Del nating this program as a formally organized effort.S.). later models of bility for overall management and coordination of the the F-4. and ended with his retirement 1 1 August Squadrons of the Naval Air Reserve that October 1947 while serving on the General Board. He was located 29 June A Polaris missile was fired 1. the Air Force SR-71 and in deep submergence aeronautical research and development activities in the vehicles used in oceanographic research. down range from Cape Canaveral. scored a number of “firsts” and operating forces by 18 squadrons and 3. A-7 attack plane carries bombs and missiles NH69970 2 4 M a y Lieutenant Commander M. carrying the dropped from an Air Force RC-54 and. under command of Commander James C. Potomac River Naval Command were estab- 29 May Vice Admiral Patrick N. The first flight model of the A-3 was success- copter from Intrepid and returned safely to the car. High strength. Pierce (DD 753). Fla. included acquiring metallurgical and engineering data Speed attained was better than 3 miles per minute.. heat-treated sheet alloys 30 April The Naval Air Research and Development developed under this program were soon utilized in a Activities Command was disestablished and responsi. Upon completing three orbits he ed Charleston. Va.

N. and development of VTOL/STOL aircraft and ASW search after nearly six orbits and a flight of over 160.000 kilogram load with a speed of 151. UF-2G. Klein. Provision was also made for indicating status of the aircraft and modifica.4 mph on a course from Floyd Bennett Field to Plattsburgh. piloting a Grumman Albatross. Ashe and Robert Shannon and the passen. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 249 1962—Continued tions of its basic mission by prefix letters. and set a new world altitude record for amphibians carrying a 1. Response to space stimuli is studied 110522 . Pilots on the last flight were Commanders miles. Thus the YF8U-1P became the YRF-8A symbolizing a prototype 31 August The passing of an era was marked at (Y) of the photoreconnaissance (R) modification of the NAS Lakehurst.. formerly designated F8U-2. Midway Island. M.J. dash. and return to Floyd Bennett Field. Rosendahl. and Captain Fred N. by the last flight of a Navy air. Dak. Under the system. and Lieutenant Charles Conrad. S. The three Navy men on the new team were: Lieutenant Commander James A. UF-2G. Jr.. F-8A aircraft. all existing aircraft were redesignated using a letter. Many lighter-than-air men from many parts of the country were on hand to observe and to lend a hand in docking the airship after its last flight. This ended a 45-year LTA saga that began with the DN-1. USN. Moore. 3 October Sigma 7. Lieutenant Commander Fred A. number. Jr. and letter to indicate in that order.000 kilogram load with a climb to 27. Franke... climbed to 29.). piloted by Commander Walter tinuance of the lighter-than-air program for use as air.. Jr.. and its place in the series of changes in its basic design. Hoffman. Schirra emerges from Mercury 8 on recovery ship Kearsarge NH69950 17 September Nine pilots selected to join the nation’s astronauts were introduced to the public at Houston.000 kilometer speed record for amphib- ians carrying a 1. was launched into orbit by a borne aerodynamics and research laboratories in the Mercury-Atlas rocket from Cape Canaveral. piloted by Lieutenant Commander Donald E. W. became the F-8C indicating the third change (C) in the eighth (8) of the fighter (F) series. 15 September Lieutenant Commander Richard A. USN (Ret. By it.460 feet over Floyd Bennett Field.. ship. 275 miles northeast of Walter D. Tex. On the same day.Y.380 feet.Y. the Crusader. Schirra. 18 September A joint Army-Navy-Air Force regula- tion was issued establishing a uniform system of des- ignating military aircraft similar to that previously in use by the Air Force. N. the Navy’s first airship. N. 12 September A Grumman Albatross. piloted the Albatross to a new record for amphibians with a 2. The flight also marked the end of a year’s service by the two airships kept in operation after the discon. its place in the series of that type. ed aboard Kearsarge. to Dupree. Lieutenant Commander John W.000 kilogram load.Y. N.000 systems. Helicopters dropped UDT men near gers included lighter-than-air stalwarts Vice Admiral the capsule and it and Commander Schirra were hoist- Charles E. Young. landed in the Pacific. Fla. set a new world 5. USN (Ret. the basic mission or type of air- craft.). Lovell.

equipped with F-4B and mapping program. blockade was discontinued and the ships at sea led the flight of 16 A-4C Skyhawks (A4D) which left resumed their normal operations. Minutes later the second nose-tow Cape Canaveral. flew the first low-level photo mission over Commander. After a brief layover. was launched into a Cuba which he had announced in his TV broadcast polar orbit by a four-stage Blue Scout rocket fired at two days earlier. all aircraft and tion in addition to the tilting wing XC-142 and the squadrons not required for air defense. Calif. and shore-based aircraft were in the air. VF-41. 1 December Two new commands. Phantoms. Ramsey was catapulted off 31 October The geodetic satellite Anna. overcrowding. Fla. For its outstanding accomplishment during this crisis. for con- 10 Marine KC-130F Hercules tankers of VMGR-252. was transferred from NAS Oceana. . The RH-46A (HRB-1) pilots and the inability of the Naval Air Training was initially designated for this conversion but the RH. 30 November The Bureau of Naval Weapons Refueling on both east and west flights was provided by issued a contract to the Bell Aerosystems Co. N. The position at sea.250 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1962—Continued three independent sets of instrumentation to validate geodetic measurements taken by several organizations 8 October To strengthen the air defense of the participating in the Anna worldwide geodetic research southeastern United States. in the time schedule allotted. 18 December Transit 5A. the flight returned to Cherry Point by way of Lajes in the Azores and Bermuda. Lieutenant Colonel Edwin A. Independence. service tours of all officers and enlisted men were extended indefinitely. developed Enterprise in the first shipboard test of nose-tow gear for the Department of Defense under Bureau of Naval designed to replace the catapult bridle and reduce Weapons management. by the president on 26 November 1962. Fleet Air 23 October VFP-62. Next day.J.. was renamed Naval Air Engineering Unit Commendation which was presented personally Center. coupled with an overall shortage of assignment to fleet squadrons. patrolling their assigned sectors. Point Arguello. N. Enterprise. this squadron was awarded the Navy Lakehurst. for duty with the U. in the period 15 October–26 14 December The Naval Air Material Center at NAS November 1962. to NAS Key West. which had been flying photo Caribbean and Naval Air Bases. struction and flight test of two VTOL research aircraft with dual tandem-ducted propellers. 19 December An E-2A piloted by Lieutenant Commander Lee M. squadrons began. Tenth Naval District. Essex and satellite’s radio failed after 20 hours in orbit and pre- Randolph. However.C. Rota. Fla. vented its utilization for navigation purposes. Spain. reconnaissance tilting engine X-19A both of which were administered and antisubmarine patrol were relocated to prevent by the Air Force. USMC. ships of the blockading force were in the Naval Missile Facility. On the same day the certain secondary experiments were successful.. a prototype of the Navy’s 24 October As the president imposed a blockade of operational navigation satellite. was placed into orbit from launching intervals..S. flew to Bermuda and directly to sions of service ordered in October were cancelled. Va. Harper. Cuban territory. reconnaissance over the missile sites in Cuba since the were established and assigned as additional duty to 15th. and NS removal of missiles and bombers from Cuba. Command to absorb the additional training load with- 3A (HSS-2) was later substituted. the naval Rota.. the exten- Cherry Point on the 8th.. a transition train- ing program in which some 500 Marine aviators quali- 16 October The Chief of Naval Operations directed fied in fixed-wing aircraft would be trained to operate that a few helicopters be converted to aerial helicopters. The Anna satellite contained launch was made by an A-6A. Thereby the tri- 19 October As operational units began moving to service VTOL program was expanded to include a tilt- patrol stations in Florida to counter the threat posed ing duct craft to be developed under Navy administra- by missiles and bombers in Cuba. as additional duty. Caribbean Sea Frontier. The need for the special program arose minesweepers for use in a mine countermeasures from the increased proportion of helicopters in the development and training program and eventual Marine Corps. Air Force in 5 November Two Marine Corps helicopter the North American Air Defense Command (NORAD). 17 October VMA-225 completed a two-way crossing 20 November As agreement was reached over the of the Atlantic between MCAS Cherry Point.

he set into motion a series of changes in lines of authority and responsibility that would be implemented during the year. a missile that sees 1112651 . medicines and emergency supplies were flown in and some 320 marooned persons were lifted to safety.000 pounds of food. Morocco. in the first demonstration of its automatic hom- ing feature. With this approval. NS Rota. 9 February The Secretary of the Navy approved with minor modification the recommendations of his Advisory Committee on the Review of the Management of the Department of the Navy. most of which were outlined in a General Order issued on 1 July 1963. common- ly known as the Dillon Board for its chairman John H. Over 45. 29 January A Walleye television glide bomb. Dillon. made a direct impact on its tar- get at the Naval Ordnance Test Station. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 251 E-2A is used for early warning and to control tactical aircraft 1143451 1963 7–13 January Helicopters from NAS Port Lyautey. released from a YA-4B.. Calif. Spain and Springfield (CLG 7) flew rescue and relief missions in the flooded areas of Beth and Sebou Rivers in Morocco. China Lake. 22 February An LC-130F Hercules of VX-6 made the longest flight in Antarctic history covering territory Walleye.

after his 22-orbit flight. adding a Naval Military Support Establishment 8 March The Department of Defense and National as a fourth part under a Chief of Naval Material.252 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1963—Continued both flight controls and throttles operated automatical- ly by signals from the ship. Replacement Air Groups (RAG) were redesignat. east of Midway.. was 8 May The Air Force announced that two squadrons launched from a nearly vertical altitude at 30. launched the first tions. Under it NASA task of providing material support to the operating assumed responsibility for determining the suitability of forces of the Fleet and the Marine Corps. Gordon day seedings appeared to have some effect. minutes. Fla. south beyond the South Pole to the Shackleton Mountain 20 June The last student training flight in the P-5 Range and then southeastward to the pole of inacces. 5 set forth new policies months and was turned off on signal from earth on 18 and principles governing the organization and admin- April 1961 when magnetic drag reduced the satellite’s istration of the Navy and directed their progressive spin to a level too low for useful scanning of the sun. sary to meet and support military requirements. The probe. aircraft were redesignated VMFA squadrons. Although the second 16 May Kearsage recovered Major L. Hupp. Honan commanding. Calif. Tex. piloted by Lieutenant Roger Bellnap. while the Navy retained its responsibility for overall technical 1 August VMF (AW) squadrons equipped with F-4B direction and for research and development as neces.. R. Barlow of VAH-11 seeded replacements for B-26 and T-28 aircraft employed Hurricane Beulah with silver iodide particles in an there by the 1st Air Commando Wing. of NATC Patuxent River. Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) responsible directly to the Secretary of the Navy and announced an agreement establishing working arrange. 80 miles south.. Captain John B. made “hands off” with necessary for effective management of the inactive air- . USAF. 2 August Shortly after midnight. The landings. an F-3B Demon 1 April To bring their title in line with their func. measure the ultraviolet radiation of the stars. marked sibility and returned to McMurdo in 10 hours and 40 the end of the seaplane in the flight training program. Launched 22 June 1960 with Transit 2A in Field. the first of the pickaback firings. and heavy seas off Cape Cod..470 mile flight from McMurdo Station. implementation. craft. Chew. Billings at NAS Quonset Point. It redefined the principal parts of the Navy. the student was Ensign Arnold J. Reedy among its passengers. followed field tests of two Skyraiders loaned by the Navy in mid-1962 and led to a further decision. Marlin by VT-31 at NAS Corpus Christi. with command responsibilities over the four material ments concerning the nonmilitary applications of the bureaus and major project managers and an overall Transit navigation satellite system. Flood. Mass. made the first fully automatic carrier landings with production equipment on board Midway off the 18 September To provide the continuing action California coast. This decision tude of 66 miles. of a series of five planned space probes designed to ed Combat Readiness Air Groups (CRAG). Jr. years of research and development and followed by ed by Commander William H. a two-stage solid-propellant Sparroair. experiment to determine whether the energy patterns of large storms could be changed. The plane which was pilot.I. and his Faith 7 capsule. a Navy A-3B Skywarrior piloted by 1964.. Md. The pilot and instructor was Lieutenant Phillip H. 23–24 August In a joint Weather Bureau-Navy project announced by the Secretary of the Air Force in May titled Stormfury. Transit equipment for nonmilitary purposes. rescued 28 workmen from and Robert S. the 3. that 75 Skyraiders would be sent to Vietnam as Commander John F. results were Cooper. the 42-pound satellite provided detailed data on solar storms for eight 1 July General Order No. highlighted almost 10 never before seen by man. Everett and carried Rear almost 6 years the first such carrier landing made with Admiral James R. 25 February The transmitter in the Navy-developed Solar Radiation I satellite was restarted after 22 months 29 June FAW-10 was established at NAS Moffett of silence. two Texas Towers oilwell platforms shaken by gales piloting an F-4A Phantom II and an F-8D Crusader air. 6 September Five SH-3A helicopters of HS-9 based 13 June Lieutenant Commanders Randall K. made test equipment. considered too indefinite to draw firm conclusions.000 feet of A-1E Skyraiders would be added to the 1st Air over the Pacific Missile Range and reached a peak alti- Commando Group at Hurlburt AFB.

21 and 22 November. including the carrier Lake with Rear Admiral David J. for several years. Pacific was established Four Navy ships. Naval Material Support and assumed supervision and command of the four material bureaus—Naval 28 February A helicopter piloted by Commander Weapons. for the purpose of placing Naval Aviation Observers in the same pay sta. USMC. a submerged submarine. 1 January Fleet Air Wings. However. and Captain from the experimental weather satellite Nimbus in Clifton C. transferred to Cruiser-Destroyer Force Atlantic. use of funds effective 1 July 1964. provided data for use by surface and sub- Naval Weapons. Champlain and the amphibious assault ship Thetis Bay. Pacific (COMASWFOR- on a carrier. Calif. made 21 full-stop landings and takeoffs in a designated Antisubmarine Warfare Groups 1. 17 February An Office of Antisubmarine Warfare tus as pilots. 15 January The commands Fleet Air Southwest 8 November During 8. the Bureau of operational. storage facility at Litchfield Park. Lieutenant James H.. through May 1964 and Bean. From this test the respectively and transferred from Commander. Naval Air. were of recommending the retention or disposal of specific redesignated Carrier Air Wings (CVW). Lieutenant Alan L. UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 253 1963—Continued 6 December Transit 5BN-2 was launched into polar orbit by a Thor-Able-Star rocket from Vandenberg craft inventory. and 5 C-130F Hercules on board Forrestal. an informal Review Board was estab. models. Lieutenant Commander Smokey Stovall and ADJ1 Ed 15 January Carrier Divisions 15. Williams. the first navigation satellite to become lished with representation from CNO. 25 October Navy ships and aircraft began departing from Port-au-Prince after nearly two weeks of relief 1964 operations in Haiti. Middle East Force. This was the start of an oper- those chosen were five naval aviators: Lieutenant ational investigation of shipborne readout equipment Commander Richard F. September 1964. Arizona. Naval Navy concluded that the C-130 could carry 25. Chaffee. launched for the first time from Andrew Jackson (SSBN this transfer was the final step in the phaseout of 619). laid waste by Hurricane Flora. the C-130 was considered too PAC) for administrative control. Gordon. off Cape Canaveral. Lieutenant Eugene A. were agencies. and the marine forces. 17. and provided other assistance to the strick. This. the Secretary of the Navy for duty as his assistant for programming and appraising. Lieutenant in which Saratoga continued to receive test readings Commander Roger B. Flatley III. Mission of the new risky for use in routine COD operations. in port and at sea. to review the inventory at least every six months for the purpose 20 December Carrier Air Groups (CVG). 3. the Aviation Supply Office. delivered nearly 375 tons of Commander. pounds of cargo and personnel 2. and his crew members. Fla. doctrine and operating procedures including 30 November The Secretary of Defense approved coordination with patrol aircraft operations. Greenwich Bay and Valcour. and 19 were Brennan. Ships. Fla. clothing and medical supplies donated by relief Duxbury Bay. AFB. Fisher of HU-1 made the first landing on the and Docks. food. cruising about 30 miles patrol seaplanes in the Atlantic Fleet. Jr. Programs was established under the Chief of Naval Operations to exercise centralized supervision and 2 December The Chief of Naval Material reported to coordination of all antisubmarine warfare planning. deck of the combat store ship Mars (AFS 1) during her . and Yards Dale W. Among moored at Mayport. 21 December Saratoga began receiving weather 18 October The selection of 14 men for a new pictures from the Tiros 8 weather satellite while astronautic team was announced by NASA. from Tiros. Pacific (COMNAVAIRPAC) to Commander. Atlantic (COMNAVAIRLANT). aided by Navy and Marine Corps cargo aircraft 1 January The last three seaplane tenders under from east coast stations. en populace. Although the employment of these ships as seaplane tenders had been secondary to their use as flagships 26 October The long range A-3 Polaris missile was for Commander. Supplies and Accounts. Pacific and Fleet Air Japan were disestablished. Welsh in command. groups was to develop antisubmarine carrier group tactics.500 miles and land Antisubmarine Warfare Force.000 Air. Cernan.

Instituted by the up at the Washington Navy Yard. Peru. from the Pacific and began a six-week cruise which RVAH. as Reconnaissance Attack Squadrons. Their helicopters were trans. newest antisubma- rine patrol aircraft NH 69967 . The training Model Basin Aerodynamics Laboratory commemorating was designed to simulate the operation of the Lunar the 50th anniversary of its establishment. namics authority of world repute. down the African Coast and into many ports along the way for 23 March Two Marine helicopter crews of VMO-1 goodwill visits.S. cept of vertical replenishment at sea had been dis. Captain Walter S. and C-54 Skymasters. Moore. days the ship provided power and heat to the severely forms had been installed on certain logistics ships damaged Naval Station at Kodiak while its crew served since then. Command. Shelton (DD 790). commissioning of Mars provided the first in many capacities to help people on shore. injured and wounded members of a road engineering party that had survived attacks by 23 April The Chief of Naval Operations broadened hostile Indians in the dense jungle of the Amazon the opportunities for Naval Aviators to qualify as heli- basin near Iquitos. the seaplane tender L. copter pilots by extending responsibilities for transi- ferred ashore in the Canal Zone from Guadalcanal tion training to commands outside the Flight Training and were airlifted to Iquitos by a U. commanded by Captain Paul earthquake struck in Alaska. Calif. the Concord Squadron composed of Bon Homme Richard.. and fleet oiler Hassayampa Heavy Attack Squadrons. 4 April Commanded by Rear Admiral Robert B. and had been in progress since 12 November 1963. Md.254 UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION 1910–1995 1964—Continued Salisbury Sound was underway from NAS Whidbey Island. 1 April The last of 15 astronauts completed a heli- copter flight familiarization program at Ellyson Field. VAH. Ruehrmund of VX-1. Air Force C-130.). to render assistance and P-3A Or