IRC:6-2010

STANDARD SPEClFICATIONS AND CODE OF PRACTICE FOR ROAD BRIDGES
SECTION: II LOADS AND STRESSES
(Fifth Revision)

STUP LIBRARY
VASHIOFFICE ACC. NO. 2-"'<:>5 k» DATE: ~(). L ,. J_o~ CALL NO. 2c),

C

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NOVEMB-ER - 2010

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December, 1958 May, 1962 September, 1963 October, 1964 Metric Units: October, 1966 October, 1967 November, 1969 March, 1972 (incorporates Amendment No. t-Nov. 1971) February, 1974 (incorporates Amendment No.2-Nov. 1972) August 1974 (incorporates Amendment No. 3-April1974 and No.4-August 1974) July, 1977 (Incorporates Amendment No.5-October, 1976) September, 1981 (Incorporates the changes as given in detail in the last two sub-paras of introduction at page 3) November, 1985 September, 1990 January, 1994 January, 1997 March, 1999 December, 2000 April, 2002 (Incorporates amended Fig. 5 at page 23) August, 2004 (Incorporates uptodate Amendments) August, 2005 April,2006 September, 2009 (Incorporates Amendment No.6) November, 2010

1

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Printed at India Offset Press, New Delhi - 64 (500 Copies)

CONTENTS
Page No.
, Personnel of the Bridges Specifications and Standards CbmmiUee (i)

1 2 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223

Introduction Scope Classification Loads, Forces and Stresses Dead Load Live Loads Reduction in the Longitduinal Effect on Bridges Accommodating more than Two Traffic Lanes Footway, Kerb, Railings, Parapet and Crash Barriers Tramway Loading Impact Wind Load Horizontal Forces due to Water Currents Longitudinal Forces Centrifugal Forces Buoyancy Earth Pressure Temperature Deformation Stresses (for steel bridges only) Secondary Stresses Erection Stresses and Construction Loads Seismic Force Ship/Barge Impact on Bridges Snow Load Vehicle Collision Loads on Bridge and Flyover Supports Indeterminate Structures and Composite Structures

1 2 3 4 5 8 14 15 19 20 23 30 33 36 37 37 38 42 43 43 44 55 55 56 57

ANNEXURES

Director General.IRC:6-2010 PERSONNEL OF THE BRIDGES SPECIFICATIONS AND STANDARDS COMMITTEE (AS ON 26TH OCTOBER.). 21. . Agrawal. New Delhi Chief Engineer (Retd. Banerjee. STUP Consultants Ltd. Basa.1 . STUP Consultants Ltd.L.. MOST.K. 17.N. New Delhi Addl. Ministry of Road Transport & Highways.G. L&T. AN. New Delhi Ministry of Road Transport & Highways. New Delhi Managing Director. Gurgaon DG(RD) & AS (Retd. 15.).. Noida Chief Engineer. Mumbai ADG(B) (Retd. T.. New Delhi Director (Tech. S. 19.). 7. Kand. Prof. STUP Consultants Ltd.R. T. Ltd. S. AV (Co-Convenor) Sharma. 13. P. . RDSO. S. K. 18. Kolkata Director (Engg. Lucknow Director and Vice-President. Ram DG(W). Noida E-in-C (Retd. .. Kolkata Advisor. P. Arun Kumar (Member-Secretary) Director General (RD) &. NHAI. A Joglekar. Core).. Span Consultants (P) Ltd. CPWD (Retd. Consulting New Delhi Engg.Spl. Chakraborty. Noida Chief General Manager. and Consultant. Ashok Bandyopadhyay. 11. Bhubaneswar Joint Director General Growth.C. Dr.). Singh.B. Dr.). Ministry of Road Transport & Highways. NHAI (Retd. Dr. C. MORT&H.. Mahesh Ghoshal.).) MOST. MP PWD. CV Koshi. New Delhi Chief Engineer (B) S&R.S. Bhasin. Minis~ry of Road Transport & Highways. Institute for Steel Dev.). Dhodapkar. 22. UP PWD.. -. Bongirwar. Prafulla Kumar. Executive Director (B&S). Gupta. Vijay Kumar. 10. 2. Engineers & Builders Ltd. 8. 14. (Retd. Nirmal Jit (Convenor) Sinha. B. 6. 16. Ghaziabad Chairman Mumbai & Managing Director. Services (I) Pvt. 2009) 1. Ninan Kumar. 20. AK. Mumbai ChieLEngineer.). Member (T). New Delhi Members 4. Ministry of Road Transport & Highways. Chakraborti. Banerjee.). (Retd... 5. 3. 9. Secretary. Alimchandani. 12.P. New Delhi (i) . Bhopal DG(RD) & AS (Retd.

V. Ltd. MORT&H.). New Delhi Chief Technical Advisor. New Delhi Bureau of Indian Standards. P.P. Bagish. MORT&H. G. 1. 36. P. 39. New Delhi Member (Technical).Y. Past Secretary General. President. 30. Tandon Consultants (P) Ltd. Puri. M. 34. New Delhi DG (W) (Retd. 32. 31. Maharashtra PWD. CPWD. D.B.K. V.. 29. Patankar. V.) Indian Roads Congress. Mumbai C-2/2013. L&T. G. (Retd. Dr. RS.). 3. M. Consulting New Delhi Engg. Chennai A-181.L. 40. New Delhi Directorate General Border Roads.). Maharashtra Airport Development Authority. Rajagopalan. Ltd.P. New Delhi Executive Director. New Delhi National Highways Authority of India. Mumbai Chief Engineer (Retd. New Delhi DG(RD) & SS. 0. Tandon. Director General (Dr. Dr. Ashok Manjure. Sinha. MORT&H. MORT&H. A. Yadav) Chief Engineer. IRC Director General(RD) & Spl. Prof. Chief Engineer. B.v.K. Construma Consultancy (P) Ltd.). Noida Chief Engineer (Retd. Opp. Mumbai (Singh. Sharan. N. MORT&H. New Delhi ( ii ) . Sharma.C. Nirmal Jit) Ministry of Road Transport & Highways.P. Roy. 37. Saha. RP. 41. New Delhi Corresponding Members 2. New Delhi Ministry of Road Transport & Highways. Principal Secretary (Retd. 27.. New Delhi Executive Director. Secretary Secretary General (Deshpande. N'V.B..K.).). IRC. Merani..K. MORT&H. Mukherjee. 28. New Delhi DG(RD) & AS (Retd. 26. 33. B.S.IRC:6-2010 23. Director. 24. 38.). Kumar. New Delhi DG(RD) & SS. Mumbai Managing Director.) Addl. 35. Rao. Sarita Vihar. (Retd. Ninan. Director & Head (Civil Engg.).8. 2. New Delhi DG(RD) & SS. Narain. Dr. Services (I) Pvt. RS. New Delhi (Indoria. Mahesh Velayutham. N.) Advisor. Dr. S. Vasant Kunj.D. (Retd. Ministry of Road Transport & Highways. Vijay. Freyssinet Prestressed Concrete Co. New Delhi Ex-Officio Members 1. 25..

ap-art from the new Clause 222 on Seismic Force for design of bridges. all the comments received till then on the different clauses of this Section were disposed off finally and a drafting Committee consisting of S/Shri S.1 and 214. Antia and S. 1 L .3. as discussed at Jaipur Session of the Indian Roads Congress in 1946.2(a). This Committee at its meeting held at New Delhi in September 1958 and later through correspondences finalized Section II of the Bridge Code. The Fourth Revision of Section II of the Code (2000 Edition) included all the amendments.1. 208. K.222.6 of November 2006 relating to Sub-Clauses 218. was considered further in a number of meetings of the Bridges Committee for finalisation.207. In the years 1957 and 1958.2 and again reprinted in 2006 with Amendment Nos. which was printed in 1958 and reprinted in 1962 and 1963.IRC:6-2010 STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS AND CODE OF PRACTICE FOR ROAD BRIDGES 1 INTRODUCTION The brief history of the Bridge Code given in the Introduction to Section I "General Features of Design" generally applies to Section II also.7. additions and alterations made by the Bridges Specifications and Standards (BSS) Committee in their rneetinqs held from time to time. 214. reprinted in 2004 with Amendment No.2. The draft of Section II for "Loads and Stresses".K. 3.1. 209.5. Nambiar.5.4 and Appendix-2. Amendment No. As approved by the BSS Committee and IRC Council in 2008. Joshi.5 and Combination of Loads for limit state design of bridges has been introduced in Appendix-S. Amendment No. The Bridges Specifications and Standards Committee and the IRC Council at various meetings approved certain amendments viz. and alterations made by the BSS Committee in their meetings held from time to time.K. The current Fifth Revision of Section II of the Code IRC:6 . In the Bridges Committee meeting held at Bombay in August 1958.201 0 includes all the amendments. B. The Second Revision of Section II of the IRC:6 Code (1964 edition) included all the amendments.7 of February 2007 relating to Sub-Clauses of 213. Note 4 of Appendix-I and 218. 4 and 5. additions and alterations made by the BSS Committee in their meetings held from time to time and was reprinted in 2002 with Amendment No.8 of January 2008 relating to Sub-Clauses 214.7 and 218.3. Ghosh was appointed to work in conjunction with the officers of the Roads Wing of the Ministry for finalising this Section.9 of May 2009 incorporating changes to Clauses 202. the work of finalising the draft was pushed on vigorously by the Bridges Committee.F. K.5.2 and new Clause 212 on Wind load. the Amendment No. The Executive Committee of the Indian Roads Congress approved the publication of the Third Revision in metric units in 1966. Amendment No.

Corresponding Members Bhattacharya. Lego.5.4. Vinay Heggade. Dr. IRC Director General (RD) & Special Secretary. Ex-officio Members President.) (Singh.IRC:6-2010 The Bridges Specifications and Standards Committee in its meeting held on 26th October. M.G. T Convenor Co-Convenor Member-Secretary 2 . 222. A. V. Chakraborti. Dr.N.K. G. Parameswaran. K. G. Table 8. Table 1 and deletion of Clause 213. Dr. S. S.8. Saha.3. The personnel of the Loads and Stresses Committee (B-2) is given below: Banerjee. 2009 at Patna approved publishing of the Fifth Revision of IRC:6.7.) Dr. S. 222. G.B. Gupta.9. Rajan Khedkar.P. Alok. A. Dr.) Mukherjee.P.L.K.K.1.5. Kanhere. Nirmal Jit) ((Indoria. YS.5. in its meeting held on 31st October.209. IRC (Deshpande. o.P. Achintya Pandey. S. Sharan.P' Surana. Mukhopadhyay. 209. Thakkar. Sharma. The Convenor of B-2 Committee was authorized to incorporate these modifications in the draft for Fifth Revision of IRC:6.N.8. Huda. (Mrs. Verma. 205. 202.222. M.G. S. Note below Table 8. Kataria.S.2 and Note below para 8 of Appendix-3. Dr. Aditya Viswanathan.K. Atop Jain. 2009 further approved certain modifications to Clause 210.B. and the IRC Council in its 189th meeting held on 14thNovember. C. Dr. in the light of the comments of some members.1. 2009.209. Joglekar. Note below Clause 208.K. 214. Tamhankar. Lakshmy Members Bhowmick. S. Thandavan. Alok Dhodapkar.1.K. MORTH Secretary General. R. The Executive Committee. O.

2. 201 CLASSIFICATION 201. . as under certain conditions. in certain existing or contemplated industrial areas. 201. in other specified areas. Annex A gives the essential data regarding the limiting loads in each bridge's class.2 Existing bridges which were not originally constructed or later strengthened to take one of the above specified I. Bridges designed for Class AA Loading should be checked for Class A Loading also.IRC:6-2010 2 SCOPE The object of the Standard Specifications and Code of Practice is to establish a common procedure for the design and construction of road bridges in India.3 Individual bridges and culverts designed to take electric tramways or other special loadings and not constructed to take any of the loadings described in Clause 201. IRC Class 70R Loading: This loading is to be normally adopted on all roads on which permanent bridges and culverts are constructed. This publication is meant to serve as a guide to both the design engineer and the construction engineer but compliance with the rules therein does not relieve them in any way of their responsibility for the stability and soundness of the structure designed and erected by them. 3 _L .1 shall be classified in the appropriate load class indicated in Clause 201. and forms the basis for the classification of bridges. IRC Class A Loading: This loading is to be normally adopted on all roads on which permanent bridges and culverts are constructed. .R. see Clause 204. For particulars of the above four types of loading. The design and construction of road bridges require an extensive and through knowledge of the science and technique involved and should be entrusted only to specially qualified engineers with adequate practical experience in bridge engineering and capable of ensuring careful execution of work.C. Bridges designed for Class 70R Loadi"ng should be checked for Class A Loading also as under certain conditions. heavier stresses may occur under Class A Loading. and along certain specified highways. IRC Class AA Loading: This loading is to be adopted within certain municipal limits. Loadinqswill be classified by giving each a number equal to that of the highest standard load class whose effects it can safely withstand. 201.1 Road bridges and culverts shall be divided into classes according to the loadings they are designed to carry. IRC Class 8 Loading: This loading is to be normally adopted for timber bridges. heavier stresses may occur under Class A Loading.

FORCES AND STRESSES 202.IRC:6-2010 202 LOADS. forces and stresses to be considered in designing road bridges and culverts are: 1) Dead Load Live Load Snow Load (see note i) Impact factor on vehicular live load Impact due to floating bodies or vessels as the case may be G Q 2) 3) Gs • 4) 5) o.1 The loads. 4 . F. if existing. if any Gb F ep 12) Earth pressure including live load 13) Temperature effects (see note ii) 14) I r.im Ve 6) Vehicle collision load Wind load Water current Longitudinal forces caused by tractive effort of vehicles or by braking of vehicles and/or those caused by restraint of movement of free bearings by friction or deformation 7) 8) 9) W F we F /F/Fr Fer 10) Centrifugal force 11) •I • Buoyancy surcharge. Fd Fs F er F eq F wp Ge Deformation effects 15) Secondary effects 16) Erection effects 17) Seismic force 18) Wave pressure (see note iii) 19) Grade effect (see note iv) NOTES: i) The snow loads may be based on actual observation or past records in the particular area or local practices.

However. For calculating stresses in members using working stress method of design the load combination shown in Table 1 shall be adopted. an allowance shall be made for the longitudinal and transverse components of the vertical loads on the bearings. iii) iv) 202. For bridges built in grade or cross-fall.3 Combination of Loads and Forces and Permissible Increase in Stresses The load combination shown in Table 1 shall be adopted for working out stresses in the members. The permissible increase of stresses in various members due to these combinations are also indicated therein. the bearings shall normally be set level by varying the thickness of the plate situated between the upper face of the bearing and lower face of the beam or by any other suitable arrangement. piers etc. The wave forces shall be determined !2__y suitable analysis considering drawing and inertia forces etc. where the bearings are required to be set parallel to the inclined grade or cross-fall of the superstructure. Besides temperature. effect of environment on durability shall be considered as per relevant codes. forces and stresses that can co-exist and all calculations shall tabulate distinctly the various combinations of the above loads and stresses covered by the design. The following unit weights of materials shall be used in determining loads. in which case the actual weights as thus determined shall be used. unless the unit weights have been determined by actual weighing of representative samples of the materials in question.- --~------------- IRC:6-2010 ii) Temperature effects (Fte) in this context is not the frictional force due to the movement of bearing but forces that are caused by the restraint effects. These combinations of forces are not applicable for working out base pressure on foundations for which provision made in relevant IRC Bridge Code shall be adopted. 5 . In case of group of piles.2. The load combination as shown in Annex 8 shall be adopted for limit state design approach as and when limit state design method is introduced. . Clause 221 shall be referred for combination of snow load and live load.2 All members shall be designed to sustain safely most critical combination of various loads. NOTES 1) * Where Snow Load is applicable. on single structural members based on rational methods or model studies. ( 203 DEAD LOAD The dead load carried by a girder . 202.. proximity effects shall also be considered.or member shall consist of the portion of the weight of the superstructure (and the fixed loads carried thereon) which is supported wholly or in part by the girder or member including itsown weight.

:l):>lwslas ('0....- ...- 0 ....-e-- ..:1)aAlpeJl . M U...- .- ....- .- ....- ..... · 0- -e-' ...:l) spaJJa A....- (") 0(") .... u....- .to 0 .- to ci .- u.......E C)" • ..en ...- -e-- co U.....- M 0 C) ..- . ...:l )e6nJ!Jlua~ ('. U (JO..- ci . " .- . ~ N 0 N C) (%) SaSSaJlS a)qlsslWJad 0 0 to .:I 6upeas ci ....- 0 to ..to .- .:1)aJnleJadwal (d0.- ..to 0 ci .- .....- .0 II) II) ...... ~ '" a '<t ..! pedw) (WI ) joadun a):ll4aA 0 (s~) peol (0) peol MOUS all!1 (o) peao .J I: 0 -e- u..- -e--' ci .......- .- .....to 0 .- ..~ .... "C I: (!J II) Q) -e- e- u.- o co ... "" <0 e- u.....- '<t .- ..- en Q) 10........:I) uOlPP.- a.-e-- .. · c- (b0...to .....- .ipuo:>as ( P...........- E 10. ....- to (") (") . ~ ......- -r- .....- .- ...- <0 (WI.........oI!I I: :..to . -....- 1O 0 1O ..:1) spaJJ3 uOlpaJ3 (S.- .- ....:- (M)PUlM (oA) peol apl4aA ... I .... II) Q) II) II) Q) -e-- '" u.- .... . (!J o ~ (q... N e- C)~ (' e) A:>ueOAns ..- to 0 o N Q) II) ..IRC:6-2010 Service Condition s>tJewa~ N N Construction Condition 0 to 0 to (") (") (") (") . .- · (o~) paJH apeJ~ .- ." ll ..- ............-~ -c en -< > s-ss - x - 6 ...- . ~ >" E u.- :0 U ..- E o (!J !:!:..:I) salpos 6uneo).... u..- ..- C"l 0 ... °· c (e ...:I) sl:>aJJ3 uoueuuojaq (0'.- to "C 0> • (0"'.....- N peol ..- . ~ (d".:1)uaJJn~ JaleM l .._ uOlslllo~ .- ... .- .........- ::J U (!J u..- to ci ..............:l) 6upteJS .- ...- ...:I) .....- .:I)aJnssaJd aAeM .- .. .- .a:>Jo.- ...:l) aJnssaJd 4lJe3 ... ------.. U.....- (") (") .i' M N 0> .

and Fe') shall be considered corresponding to the associated fraction of live load. Q.5.7 2.6 2. Whenever a fraction of live load 0.5 shown in the above Table is applicable only when the full design live load given in Table 2 is considered. wind and/or earthquake acting independently or in combination. 4) The gradient effect due to temperature is considered in the load combinations IIBand IIIB. However for F.2 1.IRC:6-2010 2) Any load combination involving temperature. the load combination shall be project-specific..4 1.5 shown in the above Table under column Q is specified. the associated effects due to live load (Oim' Fa' Fb. When the gradient effect is considered.9 5) 6) Brickwork (pressed) in cement mortar Brickwork (common) in cement mortar ? 7 L . due to overall rise or fall of temperature of the structure shall also be considered.5.un being a factor of live load as shown as 1. maximum permissible tensile stress in Prestressed Concrete Members shall be limited to the value as per relevant Code (IRC:18). it is shown as 1. 3) Use of fractional live load 0. if any.5 cm to 7. . and Fe') are also shown as 0. .7 2. 2. loose): a) b) Granite Basalt 1. The reduced live load (0) is indicated as 0. 5) Seismic effect during erection stage is reduced to half in load combination IX when construction phase does not exceed 5 years. the effects. 6) The load combinations (VIII and IX) relate to the construction stage of a new bridge.5cm guage.4 Ballast (stone screened. F. as 0. since it has effects of dead load besides reduced live load. For repair. broken.6 2. rehabilitation and retrofitting. Its effects (Fa' Fb. Materials Weight (t/rn") 1) 2) 3) Ashlar (granite) Ashlar (sandstone) Stone setts : a) b) 4) Granite Basalt 2. The structure must also be checked with no live load.5 stands for the reduced live load to be considered in this case.

2 Within the kerb to kerb width of the roadway.4 2.9 2.8 2.8 14) .plain with plums) Concrete (cement-reinforced) Concrete (cement-prestressed) Concrete (lime-stone aggregate) Earth (compacted) Gravel Macadam (binder premix) Macadam (rolled) Sand (loose) Sand (wet compressed) Coursed rubble stone masonry (cement mortar) Stone masonry (lime mortar) Water Wood Cast iron Wrought iron Steel (rolled or cast) 1. 204.5 2. 8 . The trailers attached to the driving unit are not to be considered as detachable. 1 to 3 and Annex A. 1 to 3.6 2. the standard vehicle or train shall be assumed to travel parallel to the length of the bridge and to occupy any position which will produce maximum stresses provided that the minimum clearances between a vehicle and the roadway face of kerb and between two passing or crossing vehicles.R.8 2.1.1 Details of !.1. L .4 1.5 2.2 2.1 For bridges classified under Clause 201. Loadings 204.C.6 1.0 0.5 1.5 2. are not encroached upon.2 1.1. 204.0 1. shown in Figs.. the design live load shall consist of standard wheeled or tracked vehicles or trains of vehicles as illustrated in Figs.7 7.9 2.1.3 For each standard vehicle or train.1 2.4 1.2 7. all the axles of a unit of vehicles shall be considered as acting simultaneously in a position causing maximum stresses.IRC:6-2010 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) Brickwork (common) in lime mortar Concrete (asphalt) Concrete (breeze) Concrete (cement-plain) Concrete (cement .Concrete (lime-brick aggregate) 204 UVE LOADS 204.8 7.

850 1 10 1. load combinations as given in Table 2 shall be adopted. ~~----l I I : I I -~~ ~ ~i0150 PLAN ~ WHEELED VEHIGLE Fig. TRACKED VEHICLE I c 0.1.~QQ CARRWGEWAY WIDTH 0.900 35 TRACKED VEHICLE 6. 1 Class AA Tracked and Wheeled Vehicles (Clause 204. Min. Where IRC Class AA loading is specified it shall be used in place of Class 70R but nose to tail distance shall be as specified in Note No.~5 6. 2) For multi-lane bridges and culverts. 9 .~5 ~.IRC:6-2010 Min.1) NOTES: 1) The nose to tail spacing between two successive vehicles shall not be less than 90 m.850 I 35 ~.

300 1.7 11.8 2.300 3.3 m 5) Axle loads in tonne. C.3 1. Linear dimensions in metre.8 ~ 6.7 2.000 6.7 Class A Train of Vehicles Fig.1) 10 .4 ~ 6.800 m~t-----fI I -1fr- ..2 m centres.p 1.Lane Bridges Upto width of 5.7 2.IRC:6-2010 3) 4) The maximum loads for the wheeled vehicle shall be 20 tonne for a single axle or 40 tonne for a bogie of two axles spaced not more than 1.8 2..8 6.200 1 20 4. 1.4 11. Minimum value of C (m) 0..200 3. The minimum clearance between the road face of the kerb and the outer edge of the wheel or track.fr- -J--.800 1 SECTION ON p. 2 Class 'A' Train of Vehicles (Clause 204. >- I P L-e---~eI 1 ..200 4.3 m Multi-Lane Bridges More than 5. shall be as under: Carriageway width Single .~tgl u.000 3.000 3.800 1.2 I.: ~ 1 1 1 i5 o I I I mt ~ ~-----s1 1 ~ PLAN DRIVING VEHICLE 8.8 6.

0.P< II I .IRC:6-2010 NOTES: 1) 2) 3) The nose to tail distance 18.~. f.5 m.300 J I.. between successive trains shall not be less than For single-lane and multi-lane bridges live 10aQcombinations as given in Table 2 shall be followed. g.2 m f 150 mm for all carriageway widths 5.Lf ~~.I !_ 0.300 The minimum clearance.4 W(mm) 250 200 150 500 380 6. linear dimensions in metre.300 0.l I_ 0...4~Jl.5 m to 7.5 m Axle loads in tonne.300 . The ground contact area of the wheels shall be as under: Axle load (tonne) Ground contact area B (mm) 11.5 m Above 5) 7. I . between the outer edges of passing or crossing vehicles on multi-lane bridges shall be as given below:Clear carriageway width g Uniformly increasing from 0.2 m 1. 11 . ~~~~~jl.8 2. ill' J rn-f-Jrl ~. between outer edge of the wheel and the roadway face of the kerb and the minimum clearance.LcF 9 i J 4) 1_ .. i1l1 Jl..4 m to 1..7 /--- 200 II-II CLEAR CARRIAGEWAY WIDTH .

1.1) NOTES :. 12 .800 T 1· 1. 3 Class '8' Train of Vehicles (Clause 204.1 4.200 4. PLAN DRIVING VEHICLE 8.200 4..6 6..WL..86.300 TT 1.IRC:6-2010 I. .1 1.W. 1) The nose to tail distance between successive trains shall not be less than 18. -1---~II I I I I i= ~ u- r P L -e--.6 1.8 4.800 I SECTION ON P-P ~Ft---+ •• 1.6 Class B Train of Vehicles Fig.1 4.1 4.5 m.[eI I I I 0 ~ i= I I I I I o o N M p ~ I ~~ ~-----EI I ..1 1.800 4..800 .6 1.

5 m to 7.2 Dispersion of Load through Fills of Arch Bridges The dispersion of loads through the fills above the arch shall be assumed at 45 degrees both along and perpendicular to the span in the case of arch bridges.300 4) The minimum clearances.8 4.4.4 m to 1.4. i I _I 1_ 0. 13 . 20. between outer edge of the wheel and the roadway face of the kerb and the minimum clearance.4. 20.300 _ J.5 m Above 7.1.300 0. g. between the outer edges of passing or crossing vehicles on multi-lane bridges shall be as given below:Clear carriageway width 5. 3) The ground contact area of the wheels shall be as under:Axle load (tonne) 6. 20. I.5 m g Uniformly increasing from 0.IRC:6-2010 2) No other live load shall cover any part of the carriageway when a train of vehicles (or trains of vehicles in multi-lane bridge) is crossing the bridge. Linear dimensions in metre.2 m widths f 150 mm for all carriageway 5) Axle loads in tonne.1 1.5 The spaces on the carriageway left uncovered by the standard train of vehicles shall not be assumed as subject to any additional live load unless otherwise specified in Table 2.2 m 1.4 Vehicles in adjacent lanes shall be taken as headed in the direction producing maximum stresses.1. 0. t.300 0.6 Ground contact area B (mm) 200 150 125 W(mm) 380 300 175 CLEAR CARRIAGEWAY WIDTH I i~ iIl__ lD::~~&_lt:r _j J.

6 m and above but less than 20. if any. OR one lane of Class A for each lane.1 m 2 3) 3 4) 13.6 m 16.1 m and above but less than 16.3 m and above but less than 9.3 Combination of Live Load This Clause shall be read in conjunction with Clause 112.3 m One lane of Class A considered to occupy 2.5 m as per Clause 112. 2) See Note 2 under Clause 204. Table 2 Live Load Combination SI. of the two-lane carriageway shall be 7.6 m 9.6 m and above but less than 13.1 m 20. 5) 5 6) 6 NOTES: 1) The width of IRC:5.. One lane of Class 70R OR two lanes of Class A One lane of Class 70R for every two lanes with one lane of Class A on the remaining lane OR 3 lanes of Class A.No Carriageway width Number of lanes for design purposes 1 Load combination 1) Less than 5.1 m and above but less than 23.1 of IRC:5. 2) 5.3 m. 205 REDUCTION IN THE LONGITUDINAL EFFECT ON BRIDGES ACCOMMODATING MORE THAN TWO TRAFFIC LANES Reduction in the longitudinal effect on bridges having more than two traffic lanes due to the low probability that all lanes will be subjected to the characteristic loads simultaneously shall 14 J .3 regarding use of 70R loading in place of Class AA Loading and vice-versa. The carriageway live load combination shall be considered for the design as shown in Table 2.IRC:6-2010 204.6 m 4 One lane of Class 70R for every two lanes with one lane of Class A for the remaining lanes. The remaining width of carriageway snail be loaded with 500 kg/m2.1.1.

it should be ensured that the reduced longitudinal effects are not less severe than the longitudinal effect.2 Kerbs. If kerb width is less than 0. Longitudinal effects mentioned above are bending moment. Where crowd loads are likely to occur. When crowd load is considered. No reduction 10% reduction 20% reduction 20% reduction However. PARAPET AND CRASH BARRIERS The horizontal force specified for footway. kerb. RAILINGS. on bridges located near towns. KERB. In the case of separate sub-structure and foundations. no live load shall be applied in addition to the lateral load specified above. applied horizontally at top of the kerb. shall be designed for the above loads and for a local lateral force of 750 kg per metre. 206. which are either centres of pilgrimage or where large congregational fairs are held seasonally. 206 FOOTWAY. the intensity of footway loading shall be increased from 400 kq/m? to 500 kq/rn".6 m or more in width. parapet and crash barriers in this section need not be considered for the design of main structural members of the bridge. 0.1 For all parts of bridge floors accessible only to pedestrians and animals and for all footways the loading shall be 400 kg/m2.. 206. 2) The above Table is applicable for individually supported superstructure of multi-Ianed carriageway. be in accordance with the Table shown below: Number of lanes For two lanes For three lanes For four lanes For five or more lanes NOTES: 1) IRC:6-2010 Reduction in longitudinal effect . the connection between kerb/railings/papa pet.6 m. In the case of combined sub-structure and foundations. shear force and torsion in longitudinal direction. the total number of lanes for both the carriageway is to be considered while working out the reduction percentage. However. railings. 15 . such as. the bridge should also be designed for the case of entire carriageway being occupied by crowd load. crash barrier and the deck should be adequately designed and detailed. resulting from simultaneous loads on two adjacent lanes. the number of lanes supported by each of them is to be considered while working out the reduction percentage.

such as.~. the permissible working stresses shall be increased by 25 percent to meet this provision. based on Sub-Clause 206. 400 kg/m2 or 500 kg/m2 as the case may be. such as. to produce the worst effects on the member under consideration: a) For effective span of 7. The design loads for two basic types are given below:i) Type: Solid/partially filled in parapet continuously cantilevering along full length from deck level. or other members supporting the footways shall be designed for the following live loads per square metre for footway area. and p L W = the effective = width of the footway in m 206.3 In bridges designed for any of the loadings described in Clause 204. truss or a main girder. truss or arch in m. based on Sub-Clause 206. distributed over a contact ares 300 mm in diameter.accordinq to the equation: b) P c) = P'_ (40L~300~ For effective spans Qf over 30 m. which shall be deemed to include impact.W) P' = 400 = the kg/m2 or 500 kg/m2 as the case may be.1. arches. For effective spans of over 7.5 The Pedestrian/Bicycle Railings/Parapets The pedestrian/bicycle railings/parapets can be of a large variety of construction.1. the main girders. the intensity of load shall be determined .IRC:6-2010 206.4 Each part of the footway shall be capable of carrying a wheel load of 4 tonne. the loaded length of footway taken in each case being. the intensity of load shall be determined according to the equation: p= (p1where 260+ 48 L OO) (16.5 m but not exceeding 30 m. the reduction mentioned in this clause will not be applicable. This provision need not be made where vehicles cannot mount the footway as in the case of a footway separated from the roadway by means of an insurmountable obstacle.1. NOTE: A footway kerb shall be considered mountable by vehicles. live load in kg/m2 span of the main girder. ~6 .When crowd load is considered for design of the bridge. trusses.5 m or less. 206.

resist horizontal load of 150 kg/m2. or 15 kN vehicle at 110 km/h. supported between any two horizontal rails and vertical rails should be designed to.6 Crash Barriers Crash barriers are designed to withstand the impact of vehicles of certain weights at certain angle while travelling at the specified speed. Loading: Each horizontal railing designed for horizontal and vertical load of 150 kg/m2. The rails may be simply supported or continuous over the posts. Due to the complexities of the structural action. 17 . whereas the 'rigid' concrete type suffer comparatively negligible deflection. and equivalent 20° angle of impact All other bridges except bridge over railways At hazardous and high risk locations. Application Containment for P-1: Normal Containment P-2: Low Containment P-3: High Containment E -t i . A certificate from such laboratory can be the only basis of acceptance of the semi-rigid type. The efficacy of the two types of barriers is established on the basis of full size tests carried out by the laboratories specializing in such testing. acting simultaneously over the rail. suffer large dynamic deflection of the order of 0. They are expected to guide the vehicle back on the road while keeping the 'level of damage to vehicle as well as to the barriers within acceptable limits. constructed using metallic cold-rolled and/or hot-rolled sections. 15 kN vehicle at 80 km/h and 20° angle of impact 300 kN vehicle at 60 km/h and 20° angle of impact The barriers can be of rigid type. ii) Type: Frame type with discrete vertical posts cantilevering from the curb/deck with minimum two rows of horizontal rails (third row bring the curb itself. over busy railway lines. or curb replaced by a low level 3rd rail).2 m impact. Following are the three categories for different applications: Category . Bridges carrying expressway. The filler portion. complex interchanges. or of flexible type. The metallic type. the value of impact force cannot be quantified. The posts to resist horizontal load of 150 kg x spacing between posts in metres acting on top of the post. using cast-in-situ/precast reinforced concrete panels. 206. called semi-rigid type.IRC:6-2010 Loading: Horizontal and vertical load of 150 kg/m2 acting simultaneously on the top level of the parapet.9 to 1. etc. in which case all the design details and construction details tested by the laboratcry are to be followed in toto without modifications and without changing relative strengths and positions of any of the connections and elements.

5 kN/m of joint Not applicable 8) NOTES: 900 mm 900 mm 1550 mm i) The base of wall refers to horizontal sections of the parapet Within 300 mm above the adjoining paved surface level.75 kNmlm 6) 22.0 m from ends of the crash barrier and intermediate sections extending along remainder of the crash barrier. in absence of testing/test certificate. distribution steel equal to 50 percent of the main reinforcement shall be provided in the respective faces. or at vertical joints made between lengths of in-situ crash barrier. No. Table 3 Minimum Design Resistance SI. 1) Shape Requirement Types of Crash Barrier P-2 In-situl P-3 In-situ P-1 In-situl Precast Precast Shape on traffic side to be as per IRC:5. For design purpose the crash barrier Type P-3 shall be divided into end sections extending a distance not greater than 3.IRC:6-2010 For the rigid type of barrier.5 kNmlm 3.25 kNmlm Not applicable 7) 44 kN/m of joint 22. or New Jersey (NJ) Type of 'F' Shape designated thus by AASHTO M-40 MAO M-40 175 mm 15 kNmlm 175 mm 7. the minimum design resistance shown in Table 3 should be built into the section.5 kNmlm 250 mm 100 kNmlm for end section and 75 kNmlm for intermediate section [see note (iii)] 40 kNmlm 2) 3) 4) Minimum grade of concrete Minimum thickness of R C wall ( at top) Minimum moment of resistance at base of the wall [see note (i)] for bending in vertical plane with reinforcement adjacent to the traffic face [see note (ii)] Minimummomentofresistance for bending in horizontal plane with reinforcement adjacent to outer face [see note (ii)] Minimum moment of resistance of anchorage at the base of a precast reinforced concrete panel Minimum transverse shear resistance at vertical joints between precast panels. the same method is acceptable.5 kNmlm 11. in items 4 & 5 above. Minimum height 5) 7. However. The minimum moments of resistance shall reduce linearly from the base of wall value to zero at top of the parapet. 18 ii) iii) . In addition to the main reinforcement.

---------.7 Vehicle Barriers/Pedestrian Railing between Footpath and Carriageway - Where considerable pedestrian traffic is expected.1 When a road bridge carries tram lines. ~/'?" I i I. 206. rigid type of reinforced concrete crash barrier should be provided separating the vehicular traffic from the same. For any other type of rigid barrier. the steel is required to be placed on both sides.6.1) 19 .506~:::_)·.2 A nose to tail sequence of the tram cars or any other sequence which produces the heaviest stresses shall be considered in the design. ! 1 i I 4 I! l J:l I I ~'l i I i---J. 207 TRAMWAY LOADING 207. 207. 4 Average Dimension of Tramway Rolling Stock (Clause 207. \:»:: -- 5. For areas of low intensity of pedestrian traffic. a minimum horizontal transverse shear resistance of 135 kN/m shall be provided.6OO '-------9.-I d5- i i I II ~-L-~----l' i ! I I I ! !! . such as. the strength should be equivalent to that of rigid RCC type. ~_ ! i Ld6~ ' 4. 4 shall be computed and shall be considered to occupy a 3 m width of roadway. I '. in/near townships.200 ! . which suffers large deflections can be adopted.60 d -- lJ i SINGLE TRUCK (SINGLE DECK) Fig.900 LLl_-->+::f+t-f-}-_-L-. semi-rigid type of barrier. In case of P-3 In-situ type. The design and construction details should be as per Clause 206.Lj r-----4. the live load due to the type of tram cars sketched in Fig. Il "".:00 I I ~ 1\ ~._il ! ! 113.IRC:6-2010 iv) v) If concrete barrier is used as a median divider.'.

1). ROLLING STOCK WEIGHT Description Single truck (Single deck) Bogie car (Single deck) Bogie car (Double deck) Loaded weight (tonne) 9. this impact percentage shall be determined from the curves indicated in Fig. 208.0 21.3 Stresses shall be calculated for the following two conditions and the maximum thereof considered in the design.IRC:6-2010 NOTES: 1) Clearance between passing single deck bogie cars on straight standard 2.S.2 For Class A or Class B Loading In the members of any bridge designed either for Class A or Class B loading (vide Clause 204. The impact fraction shall be determined from the following equations which are applicable for spans between 3 m and 45 m.5 6+L ii) Impact factor fraction for steel bridges =--- 9 13.5 207. a) Tram loading.1 without any tram cars. tracks laid at 2) Clearance between passing double bogie cars on straight tracks laid at standard 2.1 together with that standard loading on the traffic lanes 208 IMPACT 208. followed and preceded by the appropriate not occupied by the tram car lines.75 m track centres shall be 300 mm.1 Provision for impact or dynamic action shall be made by an increment of the live load by an impact allowance expressed as a fraction or a percentage of the applied live load. Unloaded weight (tonne) 7.2 16.5+L 20 . b) The appropriate standard loading specified in Clause 204. standard loading specified in Clause 204.75 m track centres shall be 450 mm.6 ~ 1'.9 12. i) Impact factor fraction for reinforced concrete bridges 4. 3) Linear dimensions in metre.

2) 21 .4 60 55 No impact allowance shall be added to the footway loading specified in Clause 206.IRC:6-2010 Where L is length in metres of the span as specified in Clause 208. 5 for spans in excess of 12 m. '" '" Q. 5 for spans in excess of 40 m.BPERCENT FOR SPANS OF 45m OR MORE Fig.§ 20 15. 50 PERCENT FOR SPANS OF 3m OR LESS 50 45 40 '" "E 35 11.5 208. 25 percent for spans upto 12 m and in accordance with the curve in Fig. 25 percent for spans upto 5 m linearly reducing to 10 percent for spans of 9 m 25 percent The value of the impact percentage shall be taken as follows:- (b) For spans of 9 m or more: 2) Wheeled vehicles ii) Steel bridges 3) 4) Tracked vehicles Wheeled vehicles 1 I 208. 10 percent for all spans 25 percent for spans upto 23 m and in accordance with the curve indicated in Fig. 5 Impact Percentage for Highway Bridges for Class A and Class B Loading (Clause 208.4 PERCENT FOR SPANS OF 45m OR MORE Ii 15 10 5 0 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 39 42 45 48 51 54 57 Span in Metre B. Cl Curve for Concretel Bridges Curve for Steel Bridges u 30 tl ~ 25 . 5 for spans in excess of 23 m.3 For Class AA Loading and Class 70R Loading a) For spans less than 9 m : 1) 2) i) for tracked vehicles for wheeled vehicles Reinforced concrete bridges 1) Tracked vehicles 10 percent upto a span of 40m and in accordance with the curve in Fig.

2 or the spans mentioned in clause 208.IRC:6-2010 208. etc. for the design of piers abutments and structures.6 In any bridge structure where there is a filling of not less than 0. the impact percentage to be allowed in the design shall be assumed to be onehalf of what is specified in Clauses 208. For bridges having cantilever arms without suspended spans .5 decreasing uniformly to zero zero b) c) For calculating the pressure on the portion of the structure more than 3 m below the bed block 22 . the effective length of the suspended span for loads on the suspended span and the effective span between supports for load on the main span.5 0. full value of the appropriate impact percentage shall be allowed. For bridges having cantilever arms with suspended span .2 and 208.6 m including the road crust. the value of L mentioned in Clause 208.2 and 208. a cross girder or deck slab. generally below the leve! of the top of the bed block.7 For calculating the pressure on the bearings and on the top surface of the bed blocks.5 The span length to be considered for arriving at the impact percentages specified in Clause 208. 208. the effective overhang of the cantilever arm plus half the length of the suspended span for loads on the cantilever arm. But.3.3 shall be as follows: a) For spans simply supported or continuous or for arches the effective span on which the load is placed. 208. the appropriate impact percentage shall be multiplied by the factor given below: a) For calculating the pressure at the bottom surface of the bed block For calculating the pressure on the top 3 m of the structure below the bed block 0. the effective overhang of the cantilever arms reduced by 25 percent for loads on the cantilever arms and the effective span between supports for loads on the main span.3 shall be the effective span of the member under consideration". b) c) NOTE: "For individual members of a bridge. such as.

the terrain of surrounding area. percentage shall be taken the same as that applicable. hangers in a bowstring girder bridge and in the design of member subjected to direct compression. the height of bridge above the ground. The intensity of wind force shall be based on hourly mean wind speed and pressure as shown in Table 4. _ 209 WIND LOAD 209. 208. horizontal dimensions and cross-section of bridge or its element under consideration. the local topography.1. All structures shall be designed for the following wind forces. For all other bridges including cable stayed bridges.2 The wind speed at the location of bridge shall be based on basic wind speed map as shown in Fig. In addition to applying the prescribed loads in the design of bridge elements.1 This clause is applicable to normal span bridges with individual span length up to 150 m or for bridges with height of pier up to 100 computation of design wind load.IRC:6-2010 208. stability against overturning. uplift and sliding due to wind shall be considered. the impact as. 209. suspension bridges and ribbon bridges specialist literature shall be used for acting on a bridge depends on the geographical locations. vibration and fatigue shall be considered. 209. with a flat topography. the dynamic effects. The maximum pressure is due to gusts that cause local and transient fluctuations about the mean wind pressure. The hourly mean wind pressure shall be appropriately modified depending on the location of bridge for other 23 . the fetch of terrain upwind of the site location. direct tension. 6. such as. for bridges situated in plain terrain and terrain with obstructions.1 The wind pressure J11. The hourly mean wind speed and pressure values given in Table 4 corresponds to a basic wind speed of 33 mis. such such as.9 These Clauses on impact do not apply to the design of suspension bridges. spandrel columns or walls in an open spandrel arch. In cable suspended bridges and in other bridges where live load to dead load ratio is high.8 In the design of members subjected to among other stresses. return period of 100 years. to the design of the corresponding member or members of the floor system which transfer loads to the tensile or compressive members in question. These forces shall be considered to act in such a direction that the resultant stresses in the member under consideration are maximum.

Plain terrain refers to open terrain with no obstruction or with very well scattered obstructions having height up to 10m.20 37::-'. (Le.50 265.40 34. 6.20 30. the hourly mean wind speed shall be obtained by multiplying the corresponding wind speed value by the .70 512. 33 m/sec).20 659.40 392. trees forests etc. If the topography (hill.30 693. the hourly mean wind pressure shall be taken as 70 percent of the value calculated as stated in Note 4 and 5. ridge escarpment or cliff) at the structure site can cause acceleration or funneling of wind.80 19.30 31.20 26.90 27.80 29.20 Pz (N/m2) 190. the wind pressure shall be further increased by 20 percent as stated in Note 4..20 475.50 550. 6) Bridge situated in H (m) Plain terrain Terrain with obstructions Vz (m/s) Up to 10 m 15 20 30 50 60 70 80 90 100 . For other values of basic wind speed as indicated in Fig.00 Vz (m/s) 17.!RC:6-2000 basic wind speed as shown in Fig.30 = = = the average height in metres of exposed surface above the mean retard)ng surface (ground or bed or water level) hourly mean speed of wind in m/s at height H horizontal wind pressure in N/m2 at height H NOTES: 1) 2) Intermediate values may be obtained by linear interpolation. forests or trees upto 10m in height with few isolated tall structures or terrain with large number of high closed spaced obstruction like structures.90 25. For construction stages.80 433. 24 3) 4) 5) 6) j I .80 24. Terrain with obstructions refers to a terrain with numerous closely spaced structures.10 33. ratio of basic wind speed at the location of bridge to the value corresponding to Table 4.90 412.20 729.90 35. 6 and used for design(see Table 4 Hourly Mean Wind notes below Table 4).40 33.50 230. Pressure Speed And Wind (For a basic wind speed of 33 m/s as shown in Fig.) The hourly mean wind pressure at an appropriate height and terrain shall be obtained by multiplying the corresponding pressure value for base wind speed as indicated in Table 4 by the ratio of square of basic wind speed at the location of wind to square of base wind speed corresponding to Table 4 (Le..60 26. 33 m/sec.00 22.60 21. H Vz Pz Pz (N/m2) 463.60 34.00 34.30 312.60 711.20 676.50 28.60 590.30 454.00 147.60 27.

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3 Design Wind Force on Superstructure 209. i.1 The superstructure shall be designed for wind induced horizontal forces (acting in the transverse and longitudinal direction) and vertical loads acting simultaneously. For other type of deck cross-sections Co shall be ascertained either from wind tunnel tests or. When the deck is supported by two or more plate girders.3.3 if bid 2: 6.3 and acting on the area calculated as follows: .3 The transverse wind force FT (in N) shall be taken as acting at the centroids of the appropriate areas and horizontally and shall be estimated from: f t I FT = Pz X A1 X G x Co where. i• I J_ 27 . for the combined structure Co shall be taken as 2(1 +c/20d). For highway bridges up to a span of 150 m. where c is the centre to centre distance of adjacent girders. J I For bridge decks supported by single beam or box girder.3.3. For construction stages The area at all stages of construction shall be the appropriate unshielded solid area of structure.0.3. A1 is the solid area in m2 (see Clause 209. For deck supported by single plate girder it shall be taken as 2. however the value shall not be less than 1. and d is the depth of windward girder. gust factor shall be taken as 2. 209. 209.. For intermediate bid ratios Co shall be interpolated. For open and solid parapets. which are generally not sensitive to dynamic action of wind. The assumed wind direction shall be perpendicular to longitudinal axis for a straight structure or to an axis chosen to maximize the wind induced effects for a structure curved in plan.5 times Go for the single beam or box.3. Co shall be taken as 1.50 for bid ratio of 2 and as 1. For deck supported by two or more beams or box girder it shall be taken as 1.2 The transverse wind force on a bridge superstructure shall be estimated as specified in Clause 209. "I :.3.2.1. For truss girder superstructure the drag coefficients shall be derived as given in Annex D. I I b) c) For truss structures: Appropriate area as specified in Annex C shall be taken. if available. a) For a deck structure: The area of the structure as seen in elevation including the floor system and railing. Pz is the hourly mean wind pressure in N/m2 (see Table 4). less area of perforations in hand railing or parapet walls shall be considered. crash barriers and railings.e bid 2: 10 shall be taken as 1.2). the solid area in normal projected elevation of the element shall be considered. G is the gust factor and Co is the drag coefficient depending on the geometric shape of bridge deck. The drag coefficient for slab bridges with width to depth ratio of cross-section.:It I IRC:6-2010 209. for similar type of structure. I. specialist literature shall be referred to. but not more than 4.

3.3.8 209.3 except that Co against shall be taken as 1. The exposed frontal area of live load shall be the entire length of the superstructure seen in elevation in the direction of wind as defined in clause or any part of that length producing critical response. For piers. box. Areas below the top of a solid barrier shall be neglected. given in Clause 209. multiplied by a height of 3.75 for normal type of -:. if available. Loads for wind directions both normal and skewed to the longitudinal centerline of the superstructure shall be considered.0 m above the road way surface. for all superstructures shall be derived from: Fv= PZxA3x where Pz is the hourly mean wind pressure in N/m2 at height H (see Table 4) is the area in plan in m2 is the lift coefficient which shall be taken as 0. 209. CD shall be ascertained either from wind tunnel tests or. shall be computed using expression in Clause 209.3.5 An upward or downward vertical wind load tv (in A3 CL G 209. other loads defined in clause 218.3. Both loads shall be applied simultaneously acting at 1.7 The bridges shall not be considered to be carrying any live load when the wind speed at deck level exceeds 36 m/s.3 Gx CL 209. for similar type of structure. No allowance shall be made for shielding.3.3. The transverse wind load per unit exposed frontal area of the live load shall be computed using the expression F.3.3.6. is the gust factor as defined in 209. For other type of deck cross-sections CL shall be ascertained either from wind tunnel tests or.4 The longitudinal force on bridge superstructure FL (in N) shall be taken as 25 percent and 50 percent of the transverse wind load as calculated as per Clause 209.2. I ] 209. for 28 . if available. The longitudinal wind load on live load shall be taken as 25 percent of transverse wind load as calculated above.:ab.IRC:6-2010 209. N) acting at the centroid of the appropriate areas.3 for beam/ box/plate girder bridges and truss girder bridges respectively.3.3 shall also be taken in to consideration.5 m above the roadway.3.3.5 for notations) on bottom soffit area shall be assumed on stabilizing cantilever arm in addition to the transverse wind effect calculated as per Clause 209. F. CD shall be taken from Table 5. In addition to the above. Specialist literature shall be referred to. In case of cantilever construction an upward wind pressure of Pz x CL X G N/m2 (see Clause 209. For piers with cross-section dissimilar to those given in Table 5.3.4 Design Wind Forces on Substructure The substructure shall be designed for wind induced loads transmitted to it from the superstructure and wind loads acting directly on the substructure.3 with A1 taken as the solid area in normal projected elevation of each pier. I-girder and plate girder bridges.

2 ~4 0.5 0.3 1.8 2.2 1 1.7 CIRCLE WITH SMOOTH SURFACE HERE tV~6m2/S z 0.8 0.3 0.2 29 [I .5 0.9 1.0 1.7 1.5 0.4 1.9 0.0 1.2 1.9 0. specialist literature shall be referred to Co shall be derived for each pier.8 0.4 1.6 1.0 2.8 2.9 0.1 1.9 0.0 1.4 1.9 2.5 1. 1! 2 1.8 0.5 1.5 1.0 1.IRC:6-2010 similar type of structure. 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.4 1.2 ~ ~ ~ D D 2 3 1.3 1.3 1.1 1. OCTAGONAL I 3 0.4 1.3 1.8 0. Table 5 Drag Coefficients Co For Piers CD FOR PIER PLAN SHAPE HEIGHT BREADTH RATIOS OF • WIND t b 1 2 4 6 10 20 40 ~ ~b <-4 1 3 1 2 1 1..1 1.9 1.2 1.9 1.9 1.3 1.1 1.4 ~ 0 0 Q Q LJt SQUARE OR _.8 0.8 0.5 1.6 0. without shielding.8 .3 1.8 2.6 1.0 2.1 C--" _ /J I 1.8 0..5 0.3 1.5 CIRCLE WITH SMOOTH SURFACE WHERE tV>6m2/S z CIRCLE WITH ROUGH SURFACE OR WITH PROJECTIONS 0.0 1.0 1.1 ~ D CJ I I I 1.5 1.7 ~ ~ 2 0.0.8 0.4 1.2 1.4 12 SIDE POLYGON 0.4 1.6 1.9 1.2 1.6 0.6 1.

whichever is greater. 210. For a pier with triangular nosing. After construction of the superstructure ratio of 40. in metre per second.50 30 .5 Wind Tunnel Testing Wind tunnei testing by established procedures shall be conducted for dynamically sensitive structures such as cable stayed. the value of Co derived from Table 5 shall be multiplied by (1-1.2 On piers parallel to the direction of the water current.50 0. CD shall be derived for height to breadth • 2) 3) 4) 209.1 Any part of a road bridge which may be submerged in running water shall be designed to sustain safely the horizontal pressure due to the force of the current. 7 i) Square ended piers (and for the superstructure) ii) Circular piers or piers with semi-circular ends iii) Piers with triangular cut and ease waters.5.5 rib) or 0. in kg/m2 the velocity of the current at the point where the pressure intensity is being calculated. Mean values of t and b for each unit height shall be used to evaluate tlb. The overall pier height and mean breadth of each unit height shall be used to evaluate height/breadth.IRC:6-2010 NOTES: 1) For rectangular piers with rounded corners with radius r. For pier tapering with height. CD shall be derived as for the rectangle encompassing the outer edges of pier. CD shall be derived for each of the unit heights into which the support has been subdivided. including modelinq of appurtenances. the intensity of pressure shall be calculated from the following equation: P = 52KV where P = intensity of pressure due to water current.66 v= K = 0.. 210 HORIZONTAL FORCES DUE TO WATER CURRENTS 210. suspension bridges etc. the angle included between the faces being 30° or less 1. and a constant having the following values fordifferent shapes of piers illustrated in Fig.

the angle included between the faces being 60 to 90 degrees Piers with cut and ease waters of equilateral arcs of circles Piers with arcs of the cut and ease waters intersecting at 90 degrees Fig.70 0. 7 Shapes of Bridge Piers (Clause 210.45 0. the angle included between the faces being more than 30 degrees but less than 60 degrees Piers with triangular cut and ease waters.70 to 0.90 0. the angle included between the faces being more than 30° but less than 60° v) -do. the angle included between the faces being 30 degrees or less Piers with triangular cut and ease waters.50 .2) 31 .60 to 90° vi) Piers with cut and ease waters of equilateral arcs of circles vii) Piers with arcs of the cut and ease waters intersecting at 90° 0.IRC:6-2010 iv) Piers with triangular cut and ease waters. D Piers with square ends Circular piers or piers with semicircular ends Piers with triangular cut and ease waters.50 to 0.

= U2 = -2 2V X H 210. piers intended to be parallel to the direction of current shall be designed for a variation of 20 degrees from the normal direction of current and piers originally intended to be inclined at 8 degree to the direction of the current shall be designed for a current direction inclined at (20±8) degrees to the length of the pier. 210. the velocity of the current shall be resolved into two components . spaced closer than three times the width of piles/columns across the direction of flow.4 When the current strikes the pier at an angle.3 The value of V2 in the equation given in Clause 210. The pressure of the current. normal to the pier and acting on the area of the side elevation of the pier. and the constant K as 1. allowance shall be made in the design of piers for an extra variation in the current direction of 20 degrees that is to say.2 shall be assumed to vary linearly from zero at the point of deepest scour to the square of the maximum velocity at the free surface of water.66 b) 210. a) The pressure parallel to the pier shall be determined as indicated in Clause 210.6 In case of a bridge having a pucca floor or having an inerodible bed. Free surface of water POINT OF DEEPEST SCOUR Square of velocity at a height 'X' from the point of deepest Scour where V is the maximum mean velocity.one parallel and the other normal to the pier. except in the case of circular piers where the constant shall be taken as 0.2 taking the velocity as the component of the velocity of the current in a direction parallel to the pier.7 When supports are made with two or more piles or trestle columns. 210.5.IRC:6-2010 210.5 To provide against possible variation of the direction of the current from the direction assumed in the design. The maximum velocity for the purpose of this sub-clause shall be assumed to be -12 times the maximum mean velocity of the current. shall be calculated similarly taking the velocity as the component of the velocity of the current in a direction normal to the pier. the effect of cross-currents shall in no case be taken as less than that of a static force due to a difference of head of 250 mm between the opposite faces of a pier. the group shall be 32 J .

1 Simply Supported and Continuous Spans on Unyielding Supports Simply supported spans on unyielding supports 211. horizontal forces at the bearing level in the longitudinal direction shall 33 . 211. . the distribution may be assumed as given below in Clause 211. the change in the vertical reaction at the bearings should . both parallel and normal to the pier. the train loads in one lane only being considered for the purpose of this subclause. Where the entire first train is not on the full span. and Frictional resistance offered to the movement of free bearings due to change of temperature or any other cause. flexing of the supports and rotation of the foundations. 211. If such piles/columns are braced. In the case of bridges having more than two-lanes: as in (a) above for the first two lanes plus five per cent of the loads on the lanes in excess of two. 211. While transferring the force to the bearings.5. For spans resting on stiff supports. Braking effect resulting from the application of the brakes to braked wheels.be taken into account.1 For a simply supported span with fixed and free bearings (other than elastomeric type) on stiff supports. the braking force shall be taken as equal to twenty percent of the loads actually on the span or continuous unit of spans. 211. irrespective of the spacing of the columns.2 m above it.5 211.25 for calculating pressures due to water currents. then the group should be considered as a solid pier.1. For spans resting on flexible supports.5. provision shall be made for longitudinal forces arising from any one or more of the following causes: a) b) c) Tractive effort caused through acceleration of the driving wheels. distribution of horizontal forces may be carried out according to procedure given below in Clause 2-11.IRC:6-2010 treated as a solid rectangle of the same overall length and width and the value of K taken as 1.4 The distribution of longitudinal horizontal forces among bridge supports is effected by the horizontal deformation of bridges. NOTE: Braking effect is invariably greater than the tractive effort.3 The force due to braking effect shall be assumed to act along a line parallel to the roadway and 1. 211 LONGITUDINAL FORCES 211.5.6.2 The braking effect on a simply supported span or a continuous unit of spans or on any other type of bridge unit shall be assumed to have the following value: a) In the case of a single lane or a two lane bridge: twenty percent of the first train load plus ten percent of the load of the succeeding trains or part thereof.1 In all road bridges. b) NOTE: The loads in this Clause shall not be increased on account of impact.

3 0.05 whichever is governing 0.5.4 0. The structure under the fixed bearing shall be designed to withstand the full seismic and design brakinq/tractive force.05 d) NOTE: a) b) For design of bearings.03 0.1. Force at each end F =_}l_+VI 2 r tc Vr ltc = shear rating of the elastomer bearings = movement of deck above bearing. 211.~ (Rg + Rj ___/!_ or where.1. other than that due to applied forces 34 . horizontal force in the longitudinal direction at the bearing level shall be Fh 2 or ~R whichever is greater 9 211.2 In case of simply supported small spans upto 10 m resting on unyielding supports and where no bearings are provided. 2 + ~ (R +Rj 9 = R= R= ~= Fh 9 q Applied Horizontal force Reaction at the free end due to dead load Reaction at free end due to live load Coefficient of friction at the movable bearing which shall be assumed to have the following values: i) ii) iii) For steel roller bearings For concrete roller bearings For sliding bearings: a) b) c) Steel on cast iron or steel on steel Gray cast iron Gray cast iron (Mechanite) Concrete over concrete with bitumen layer in between Teflon on stainless steel 0.5 0. the corresponding Codes.IRC:6-2010 be greater of the two values given below: Fixed bearing i) Free bearing ~ (Rq+Rj ~ (Rg + Rj Fh .5. forces may be taken as per relevant IRC Unbalanced dead load shall be accounted for properly.03 and 0.3 For a simply supported span siting on identical elastomeric bearings at each end resting on unyielding supports. ii) t.

6. 35 .J.6 Simply Supported and Continuous 'Spans on Flexible Supports 211.JR J.IRC:6-2010 1.JL) ve Fh acting in -ve direction + If Fh > 2 IJL Fh .respectively = the total horizontal force developed at the free bearings to the left or right of the fixed bearing respectively = the net horizontal force developed at anyone of the free bearings considered to the left or right of the fixed bearings ~Rx NOTE: In seismic areas.(J. flexibility of the support and rotation of the foundation. For continuous bridges with one fixed bearing or other free bearings: Fixed (~R .IJL) whichever is greater nL or nR ~L or ~R = number of free bearings to the left or right of fixed bearings. 211.J.JR Fh .(J. < 2J.g.JR J.4 The substructure and foundation shall also be designed for 10 percent variation movement of the span on either side.JL) + Free bearing If F.JRx r.5.1 Shear rating of a support is the horizontal force required to move the top of the support through a unit distance taking into account horizontal deformation of the bridges.JR IJL) + If Fh < 2IJL Fh 1+ InL + (IJR. 1. The structure under the fixed bearing shall be designed to withstand the full seismic and design braking/tractive force. wind etc. the fixed bearing shall also be checked for full seismic force and braking/ tractive force..JL) Fh acting in +ve direction +ve If Fh > 2 J. The distribution of 'applied' longitudinal horizontal forces (e. seismic.) depends solely on shear ratings of the supports and may be estimated in proportion to the ratio of individual shear ratings of a support to the sum of the shear ratings of all the supports. braking. (~R .

IRC:6-2010 211. shrinkage. in tonnes. and The radius of curvature in metres. rigid frames.6. in tonnes per linear metre. in tonnes. 212. the distribution of applied and self-induced horizontal force and the determination of the point of zero movement may b"e made as per recognized theory for which reference may be made to publications on the subjects. etc. 212. 212 CENTRIFUGAL FORCES 212. 211.3 The centrifugal force shall be considered to act at a height of 1.7 The effects of braking force on bridge structures without bearings. such as. all portions of the structure affected by the centrifugal action of moving vehicles are to be proportioned to carry safely the stress induced by this action in addition to all other stress to which they may be subjected. 36 . 211.1 Where a road bridge is situated on a curve.4 No increase for impact effect shall be made on the stress due to centrifugal action.) depends not only on shear ratings of the supports but also on the location of the 'zero' movement point in the deck. etc. Live load (1) in case of wheel loads. arches.2 The distribution of self-induced horizontal force caused by deck movement (owing to temperature. W= vR = 212. each wheel load being considered as acting over the ground contact length specified in Clause 204. creep.2 m above the level of the carriageway. and (2) in case of a uniformly distributed live load. elastic shortening. shall be calculated in accordance with approved methods of analysis of indeterminate structures. The design speed of the vehicles using the bridge in km per hour..8 The effects of the longitudinal forces and all other horizontal forces should be calculated upto a level where the resultant passive-earth resistance of the soil below the deepest scour level (floor level in case of a bridge having pucca floor) balances these forces.2 The centrifugal force shall be determined from the following equation: WV2 C=-127R where C = Centrifugal force acting normally to the traffic (1) at the point of action of the wheel loads or (2) uniformly distributed over every metre length on which a uniformly distributed load acts. The shear rating of the supports.

a shallow pier or abutment pier founded at or near the bed level.1 In the design of abutments.4 In case of submersible bridges. All abutments and return walls shall be designed for a live load surcharge equivalent to 1. b) 214 EARTH PRESSURE 214. is located at an elevation of 0. however.g. the full buoyancy effect on the superstructure shall be taken into consideration. When the member under consideration displaces water and also silt or sand.1 Structures designed to retain earth fills shall be proportioned to withstand pressure calculated in accordance with any rational theory. subject to the modification that the centre of pressure exerted by the backfill.IRC:6-2010 212. the effects of buoyancy shall also be considered assuming that the fill behind the abutments has been removed by scour. e..2 To allow for full buoyancy a reduction is made in the gross weight of the member affected. the buoyancy effect through pore pressure may be limited to 15 percent of full buoyancy. when considered dry. 213 BUOYANCY 213. especially those of submersible bridges.2 m earth fill. Coulomb's theory shall be acceptable. be designed to withstand a horizontal pressure less than that exerted by a fluid weighing 480 kg/m3.5 The overturning effect of the centrifugal force on the structure as a whole shall also be duly considered. i) Full hydrostatic pressure due to a depth of water equal to the difference in levels between the free surface of water and the foundation of the member under consideration.2 Reinforced concrete approach slab with 12 mm dia 150 mm clc in each direction both at top and bottom as reinforcement in M30 grade concrete covering the entire width of 37 . No structures shall. a deep pier or abutment pier passing through strata of sand and silt and founded on similar material.g. e. 213. 213. the free surface being taken for the worst condition. in the following manner: a) When the member under consideration displaces water only. the reduction in weight shall be equal to that of the volume of the displaced water.3 In the design of submerged masonry or concrete structures. and ii) Upward pressure due to the submerged weight of the silt or sand calculated in accordance with Rankine's theory for the appropriate angle of internal friction.33 of that height. 214. the upward pressure causing the reduction in weight shall be considered as made up of two factors: .42 of the height of the wall above the base instead of 0.. 213.

flexible pier. portal frame. 214.5 m into the approach shall be provided. Over a prescribed period there will be a minimum and a maximum. together with a range of effective bridge temperature. or pipe drains. bearing ii) b) Differences in temperature between the top surface and other levels through the depth of the superstructure. cause the Daily and seasonal fluctuations following: a) Changes in the overall temperature of the bridge. resulting from variations in the Provisions shall be made for stresses or movements temperature.2 Range of Effective Bridge Temperature Effective bridge temperature for the location of the bridge shall be estimated from the isotherms of shade air temperature given on Figs. 8 and 9.4 The pressure of submerged soils (not provided with drainage arrangements) shall be considered as made up of two components: a) b) Pressure due to the earth calculated in accordance with the method laid down in Clause 214. elastomeric bearings) referred to as temperature restraint. the unit weight of earth being reduced for buoyancy.1. etc. and Friction at roller or sliding bearings referred to as frictional restraint. referred to as temperature difference and resulting in associated loads and/or load effects within the structure.3 All designs shall provide for the thorough drainage of backfilling materials by means of weep holes and crushed rock or gravel drains.1 General in shade air temperature. 215. or perforated drains. Minimum and maximum effective bridge temperatures would be lesser or more respectively than the corresponding minimum and maximum shade air temperatures in concrete bridges. resulting in loads and/or load effects within the bridge due to: i) Restraint offered to the associated expansion/contraction by the form of construction (e. 214. In determining load effects due to tempera_ture_restraint in concrete bridges the effective bridge temperature when the structure is effectively restrained shall be taken as datum in calculating the expansion up to the maximum effective bridge temperature and contraction down to the minimum effective bridge temperature.g.IRC:6-2010 the roadway. with one end resting on the structure designed to retain earth and extending for a length of not less than 3. solar radiation. referred to as the effective bridge temperature. 38 .. arch. and Full hydrostatic pressure of water 215 TEMPERATURE 215.

© Government of India Copyright 1993 Responsibility for the correctness of internal details rests with the publishers. Fig. The territorial waters of India extend into the sea to a distance of twelve nautical miles measured from the appropriate base line. 8 Chart Showing Highest Maximum Temperature 39 ..IRC:6-2010 68 68 72 76 80 84 88 SHOWING 92 HIGHEST 96 MAXIMUM MAP OF INDIA TEMPERATUREISOPLETHS 'C BASED ON DATA UP TO 1958 SUPPLIED BY INDIA METROLOGICAL DEPARTMENT 68 32 32 28 24 20 16 12 8 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 . Based upon Survey of India map with permission of the Surveyor General of India.

Based upon Survey of India map with permission of the Surveyor General of India © Government of India copyright 1993. § 11 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 The territorial waters of India extend into the sea to a distance of twelve nautical miles measured from the appropriate base line. Fig. Responsibility for the correctness of internal details rests with the publishers.IRC:6-2010 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 98 SHOWING L WEST MAXIMUM TEMPERAT B RE ISOPLETHS DC 32 SED ON DATA P TO 1958 SUPPLIED BY INDIA ETROlOGICAl DEP RTMENT PROJECTION: LAMBERT CONICAL ORTH MORPHIC 88 88 I 12 1---1i I 'tt. 9 Chart Showing Lowest Minimum Temperature 40 .

8 and 9.IRC:6-2010 The bridge temperature when the structure is effectively restrained shall be estimated as follows: Bridge location having difference between maximum and minimum air shade temperature > 20°C < 20°C Bridge temperature to be assumed when the structur.3h > 0. Conversely.25 m h J 41 h2 = 0. e is effectively restrained Mean of maximum and minimum air shade temperature ± 10°C whichever is critical Mean of maximum and minimum air shade temperature ± 5 °C whichever is critical For metallic structures the extreme range of effective bridge temperature to be considered in the design shall be as follows: 1) 2) 215.35°C to + 50°C For other areas (Maximum air shade temperature + 15°C) to (minimum air shade temperature .8° 10.3 Snowbound areas from .15 m h. Fig. = 0.15 m = h3 = 0. h2 = h. 10 (a). Positive Temperature Differences Reverse Temperature Differences 17. Positive and reverse temperature differences for the purpose of design of concrete bridge decks shall be assumed as shown in Fig.25h Fig. reverse temperature differences are such that heat is lost from the top surface of the bridge deck as a result of re-radiation and other effects. Temperature Differences Effect of temperature difference within the superstructure shall be derived from positive temperature differences which occur when conditions are such that solar radiation and other effects cause a gain in heat through the top surface of the superstructure.25 m .3h < 0.2h < 0. Air shade temperatures are to be obtained from Figs. h. So far as steel and composite decks are concerned. 10 (b) may be referred for assessing the effect of temperature gradient. = 0. These design provisions are applicable to concrete bridge decks with about 50 mm wearing surface. < 0.6° l h.3h < 0. 10 (a) Design Temperature Differences for Concrete Bridge Decks .10 m < 0.25 m h3 = 0.1ODC).

manufactured and erected in a manner such tnat the deformation stresses are reduced to a minimum.4m T. be provided to control the thermal cracking. 6. 216.2 All steel bridges shall be designed.4 Material Properties For the purpose of calculating temperature effects. 42 .IRC:6-2010 50 mm surfacing ! H (m) h.0 x 101°C.= O. PSC and steel structures may be taken as 12.4 0.5 Permissible Increase in Stresses and Load Combinations Tensile stresses resulting from temperature effects not exceeding in the value of two third of the modulus of rupture may be permitted in prestressed concrete bridges. deformation stresses may be ignored.Sh h. T1 may be interpolated. 215. eC) = 0.2 0.5 is not applicable for Limit State Design of Bridges. Sufficient amount of non-tensioned steel shall. In the absence of calculation. 216 DEFORMATION STRESSES (for steel bridges only) 216. deformation stresses shall be assumed to be not less than 16 percent of the dead and live loads stresses. NOTE: Permissible increase in stresses and load combinations as stated under Clause 215.3 18 20. O. 10 (b) Temperature Differences Across Steel and Composite Section 215. No other stresses are included in this definition.3 In prestressed girders of steel. the coefficient of thermal expansion for -6 RCC.2 4. however. Increase in stresses shall be allowed for calculating load effects due to temperature restraint under load combinations.5 h (m) 0. 216.8 Fig.1 A deformation stress is defined as the bending stress in any member of an open web-qirder caused by the vertical deflection of the girder caused by the vertical deflection of the girder combined with the rigidity of the joints.3 NOTE: For intermediate slab thickness.

217.1 a) STRESSES ~ . such as. Secondary effects.2 A detailed construction procedure associated with a method statement shall be drawn up during design and considered in the design to ensure that all aspects of stability and strength of the structure are satisfied. floor beam loads applied at intermediate points in a panel. the shrinkage coefficient for purposes of design .3 Examples of Typical Construction Loadings are given below. and unbalanced effect of modules that may be required for cantilever segmental construction of a bridge. if any. Thermal effects during construction due to temporary restraints. emanating construction.2. rigidity of end connection or loads applied at intermediate points of trusses or restrictive shrinkage of concrete floor beams. resulting from causes.. Examples: a) b) c) However. Construction loads are those which are incident upon a structure or any of its constituent components during the construction of the structures. 218. each Loads of plant and equipment including the weight handled that might be incident on the structure during construction. Unbalanced effect of a temporary structure. For reinforced concrete members. 218 ERECTION STRESSES AND CONSTRUCTION 218.. and stresses due to the movement of supports. 218. b) Steel structures: Secondary stresses are additional stresses brought into play due to the eccentricity of connections. 217. Reinforced Concrete structures: Secondary stresses are additional stresses brought into play due either to the movement of supports or to the deformations in the geometrical shape of the structure or its member. one span dislodged condition need not be considered in the case of slab bridge not provided with bearings. lateral wind loads on the end-posts of through girders etc. Temporary super-imposed loading caused by storage of construction material on a partially completed a bridge deck.1 LOADS The effects of erection as per actual loads based on the construction programme shall be accounted for in the design..3 All bridges shall be designated and constructed in a manner such that the secondary stresses are reduced to a minimum and they shall be allowed for in the design. individual case shall be investigated in complete detail.IRC:6-2010 217 SECONDARY 217. This shall also include the condition of one span being completed in all respects and the adjacent span not in position. 4 may be taken as 2 X 10. cross girders being connected away from panel points. Loading on individual beams and/or completed deck system due to travelling of a launching truss over such beams/deck system. if any. 43 d) e) f) from the system and procedure of ~- . However.

areas covered within 10 km from the known active faults are classified as 'Near Field Regions'. subject to the minimum values specified for relevant seismic zones.1. For special effects.IRC:6-2010 g) h) Loading due to any anticipated soil settlement.2 Special investigations should be carried out for the bridges of following description: a) b) c) d) e) f) 1) Notes for special investigations: 2) 3) 44 1 j . etc. unequal gust load and for special type of construction. long span bridges specialist literature may be referred to. except those exempted in Clause 219. In all seismic zones. such as extradosed. characteristics and reliability of seismic isolation and other special seismic resistant devices. Special investigations should include aspects such as need for site specific spectra.SEISMIC FORCE 219. i) 219. and not exempted below in the category (a) and (b). pier bents and arches. independency of component motions. 219. Seismic effects on partially constructed structure as per Clause 219. special investigations should be carried out.1 Applicability 219.1. For all bridges located within Near Field Regions.1 All bridges supported on piers. wherever its need is established in the special investigation. spatial variation of excitation. such as. such as. The foHbwing types of bridges need not be checked for seismic effects: a) b) Culverts and minor bridges up to 10m span in all seismic zones Bridges in seismic zones II and III satisfying both limits of total length not exceeding 60 rnand spans not exceeding 15 m Bridges more than 150 m span Bridges with piers taller than 30 m in Zones IV and V Cable supported bridges. need to include soil-structure interaction. are to be designed for horizontal and vertical forces as given in the following clauses.1. given in Fig. directly or through bearings. 11. Wind load during construction as per Clause 209. dampers etc. Bridges using innovative structural arrangements and materials. cable stayed and suspension bridges Arch bridges having more than 50 m span Bridges having any of the special seismic resistant features such as seismic isolators. suitable methods of structural analysis in view of geometrical and structural non-linear effects. shall be used. The information about the active faults should be sought by bridge authorities for projects situated within 100 km of known epicenters as a part of preliminary investigations at the project preparation stage.1. Site specific spectrum.

St o i o i o N ... cr: 0 ..0 0 ~ 0 0 N C') 0 0 ~ ~ 0 N ill I i U . o N ~ ..

.- o «) <::f-- ~z 0- zO _0. 0 N 0 0 N ~ .......E "- '" ~ CD ..I - 0 N Z 0 Z 0 N cc Q) 0 CO ~ if) ~ ~ -ro "'0 C '+- >.. ~ r» c ro 0 t co - ~ UJ > W E Q) u Q) ro '- Z UJ o UJ ...... ....N ~~ ro Q) -0 ... z o N ....c c .0 -0 C ro if) if) E '" 5 ~ ~ 0 C :....... C") Q') .... 0 :. s: .. c» co ..... 0) u...q- 0 C/) ro-O i (l) Ole<D c c ~ C N o C/) 0 eo .... 0 .......:::. o o N ....0 '" ......c if) if) ro <D ~ -• J 0 Z 0 C 0 0 I ...- «) .... --o. . w ... 0 £ 0- eo 0 Q) 2 ....c C ::J oS:: <l> 0 0) .. 0 . 0 -0 \.. (l. if) c if) Q) -0 0 0 E (l) 0 .o o CD ..) L!? ..- N .

Table 6 Zone Factor (Z) Zone No.10 V 'V "' II 219. shear forces.24 0. distance of epicenter and characteristics of the path through which the seismic wave travels.3 Components of Seismic Motion The characteristics of seismic ground motion expected at any location depend upon the magnitude of earthquake. In zones IV and V the effects of vertical components shall be considered for all elements of the bridge.2 Seismic Zones For the purpose of determining the seismic forces. and torsion) 47 . axial force.16 0. The random ground motion can be resolved in three mutually perpendicular directions. the Country is classified into four zones as shown in Fig.1. The design seismic force resultants (i. bending moments. and vertical component is taken as two third of horizontal component.e.3 Masonry and plain concrete arch bridges with span more than 10m shall be avoided in Zones IV and V and in near field region. 219. 11.IRC:6-2010 219. The effect of vertical component may be omitted for all elements in zones II and III. but independently and their method of combination is described in Clause 219. Zone Factor (Z) 0. The components are considered to act simultaneously. depth of focus.36 0. For each Zone a factor IZ' is associated. except for the following cases: a) b) c) d) e) prestressed concrete decks bearings and linkages horizontal cantilever structural elements for stability checks and bridges located in the near field regions of Component Motions 219.4 Combination 1) The seismic forces shall be assumed to come from any horizontal direction.4. Two horizontal components are taken as of equal magnitude. For this purpose two separate analyses shall be performed for design seismic forces acting along two orthogonal horizontal directions. the value of which is given in Table 6.

3r1±r2±0. 12 Combination of Orthogonal Seismic Forces Moments for ground motion along X-axis Moments for ground motion along Z-axis X u.3Mz Mz = O.3r3 ± 0.3 r2 ± r3 ± r1 ± 0.3r3 ±0. Mx and Mz are absolute moments about local axes. Design Moments +O. = u.3 r1 ± 0. r2= 2) Force resultant due to full design seismic force along z direction.3Mx x +Mz x Where.3Mz X + Mz z z M x =O. the design seis:nic force resultants at any cross section of a bridge component shall be combined as below: a) b) c) ±r1±0.3r1 ± r2 where r1 and r2 are as defined above and r3 is the force resultant due to full design seismic force along the vertical direction. 48 . t Bridge Plan Global X -Z axes z x (Local x-x and z -z axes) Fig.IRC:6-2010 at any cross-section of a bridge component resulting from the analyses in the two orthogonal horizontal directions shall be combined as below (Fig.12).3r2 ± 0. a) b) where r1= Force resultant due to full design seismic force along x direction. +O.3Mx Z X Mz = M.3r2±0. When vertical seismic forces are also considered.

.1 Horizontal seismic force .0 ~~~ « « 0:: ~ U w c. g..J 1.. by the structure as a whole. ~ .5.. continuous bridges.0 \\ \ . bridges with large difference in pier heights.IRC:6-2010 Analysis of bridge as a whole is carried out for global axes X and Z and effects obtained are combined for design about local axes as shown. 0.. shall be computed as follows: F eq = Ah (Dead Load + Appropriate Live Load) 49 .0 2.. These modal forces are combined by following appropriate combinational rules to arrive at the design forces. --. 2) 3.J 0 ~ 0::: W U U . elastic seismic acceleration method is adequate. which are to be resisted. suitable for more complex structural systems (e. 1.5 3..5 Fig.1.... W u 0 2. 0.5 u:: u.5. 13. In this method. This acceleration is applied to all parts of the bridge for calculation of forces as per Clause 219.1 Elastic Response Spectrum Method: This is a general method..-::---=. upon the For most of the bridges.0 PERIOD T (Sees) 2. 1.5.0 0.5 -. The horizontal seismic forces acting at the centers of mass. etc). Reference is made to specialist literature for the same... Computation of Seismic Response Following methods are used for computation of seismic response depending complexity of the structure and the input ground motion.. the first fundamental mode of vibration is calculated and the corresponding acceleration is read from Fig. -.... 13 and Clause 219.. in which dynamic analysis of the structure is performed to obtain the first as well as higher modes of vibration and the forces obtained for each mode by use of response spectrum from Fig.------ . CJl " '...5 N > 30 .. ....... .. \ \~ TYPE TYPE III (SOFT II (MEDIUM SOIL) SOIL) N < 10 z w .0 3.5 1.. 1) . 13 Response Spectra 219.5 . bridges which are curved in plan.0 ~ z U w 2.

67 0.5. Type II soil with 10 < N S { 2. AO O s 30 OAO :::.50 } g3 1. Type I soil with N > 30 S { 2. 4.4 Prestressed concrete.8 1. Type III soil with N < 10 S { 2.IRC:6-2010 where Feq = seismic force to be resisted Ah= horizontal seismic coefficient = (Z/2) \(1) x (8/g) Appropriate live load shall be taken as per Clause 219.36 I T 0. and taking gross uncracked section for moment of inertia.00 In the absence of calculations of fundamental period for small bridges.50 } -: 1.0 Reinforced Concrete elements ! 10 0. 13 which is based on the following equations.2 Z I T = Zone factor as given in Table 6 Factor (see Clause 219.0 < T :::.) for horizontal vibrations = Importance = Fundamental Fundamental time period of the bridge member is to be calculated by any rational method of analysis adopting the Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete as per IRC: 21.0 < T::::.00 For soft soil sites.5. T:::.00 T For medium soil sites.1. 4.55 0. For rocky or hard soil sites.1) period of the bridge (in sec.67:::.5.55 < T ::::. 0. Damping % Factor Application 2 5 1.50 } -: 1.67 IT NOTE: 0. the value of S/g may be taken as 2. The fundamental period of vibration can also be calculated by the method given in Annex D 8/g = Average response acceleration coefficient for 5 percent damping of load resisting elements depending upon the fundamental period of vibration T as given in Fig. For damping other than 5 percent offered by load resisting elements.001T 0. Steel and composite steel elements Retrofitting of old bridges with RC piers 50 . the multiplying factors as given below shall be used. < 4.0 < T < 0.

2 While checking for seismic effects during construction. a) b) c) d) e) Extent of disturbance to traffic and possibility of providing temporary diversion. due to damage or failure from seismic events.5.IRC:6-2010 219. Cost of repairs and time involved. ii) iii) NOTE: The reduced percentages of live loads are applicable only for calculating the magnitude of seismic design force and are based on the assumption that only 20 percent of the live load is present over the bridge at the time of earthquake. Live load components i) The seismic force due to live load sha II not be considered when acting in the direction of traffic.'I' 1 1. The horizontal seismic force in the direction perpendicular to the traffic shall be calculated using 20 percent of live load (excluding impact factor). 51 . which depend on the extent of damages.5. Availability of alternative routes.5 NOTE: 219. or other higher or lower magnitude of forces. the importance factor of 1 should be considered for all bridges in all zones. Combination of factors considered in assessing the consequences of failure and hence choice of factor '1'. Indirect economic loss due to its partial or full non-availability. The level of design force is obtained by multiplying (Z/2) by factor '1'. Importance factors are given in Table 7 for different types of bridges.2 Large critical bridges in all Seismic Zones 1. but shall be considered in the direction perpendicular to the traffic. and time involved in reconstruction in case of failure.1. depending on the consequences of their partial or complete non-availability.include inter alia. The vertical seismic force shall be calculated using 20 percent of live load (excluding impact factor). Table 7 Importance Factor Seismic Class Normal bridges Important bridges Illustrative Examples All bridges except those mentioned in other classes a) River bridges and flyovers inside cities b) Bridges on National and State Highways c) Bridges serving traffic near ports and other centers of economic activities d) Bridges crossing railway lines a) Long bridges more than 1km length across perennial rivers and creeks b) Bridges for which alternative routes are not available Importance Factor. Cost of replacement. minor or major.. which represents seismic importance of the structure.1 Seismic importance factor (I) Bridges are designed to resist design basis earthquake (OBE) level.

0 When connectors and stoppers are designed as additional safety measures in the event of failure of bearings. 219. For river bridges.5 Design forces for elements of structures and use of response reduction factor The forces on various members obtained fromslhe elastic analysis of bridge structure are to be divided by Response Reduction Factor given in Table 8 before combining with other forces as per load combinations given in Table 1. hydrodynamic forces act on the submerged part of the structure and are transmitted to the foundations.A R without ductile detailing 2. The flood level for calculating hydrodynamic force and water current force is to be taken as average of yearly maximum desiqn floods.5.0 to 2. The allowable increase in permissible stresses should be as per Table 1.3 Water current and depth of scour The depth of scour under seismic condition to be considered for design shall be 0. Also. average may preferably be based on consecutive 7 years' data. R value specified in Table 8 for appropriate substructure shall be adopted.0 3.0 Connectors and Stoppers (Reaction blocks) Those restraining dislodgement or drifting away of bridge elements. additional earth pressures due to earthquake act on the retaining portions of abutments. abutments (ii) RCC short plate piers where plastic hinge cannot develop in direction of length and RCC abutments (iii) RCC long piers where hinges can develop (iv) Column (v) Beams of RCC portal frames supporting bearings Bearings Factors R with ductile detailing N.0 1. Table 8 Response Reduction Bridge Component Superstructure Substructure (i) Masonry/PCC piers.0 4.3 3. For values of these loads reference is made to IS 1893.9 times the maximum scour depth. or on local enquiry in the absence of such data. R value shall be taken as 1.0 4.0 2.5 3.IRC:6-2010 219. Additional earth pressure forces described above need not be considered on other components such as wing walls and return walls since these elements are easily repairable at low cost. When connectors and stoppers are designed to withstand seismic forces primarily.0 2. 219.5.3 1. These forces shall be considered in the design of bridges in zones IV and V. 52 .4 Hydrodynamic and earth pressure forces under seismic condition In addition to inertial forces arising from the dead load and live load.5.

219. or excessive total and differential settlements. Base Isolation. 14 to 16 are only indicative and suitable arrangements will have to be worked out in specific cases. Alternatively. international practices. Seismic . When elastomeric bearings are used to transmit horizontal seismic forces. etc.0 for masonry and PCC substructure.5 for Ree substructure and as 1.. to prevent dislodgement of severe ground-shaking.7 Liquefaction In loose sands and poorly graded sands with little or no fines. the seismic loads should be taken as 1. Response reduction factor is not to be apptied for calculation of displacements of elements of bridge and for bridge as a whole. 219. so as to provide sufficient margin to cover the possible higher forces transmitted by substructure arising out of its over strength. the vibrations due to earthquake may cause liquefaction. are treated as part of sub-structure element.Fuse. Founding bridges on such sands should be avoided unless appropriate methods of compaction or stabilisation are adopted. to prevent dislodgement of superstructure. Reference should be made to the specialist literature for analysis of liquefaction potential.25 times the forces transmitted to it by substructure. The examples of seismic features shown in Figs. may be -provided based on specialized literature. satisfactory testing etc. to firm strata. 219. special seismic devices such as Shock Transmission Units. 53 .IRC:6-2010 NOTES: i) ii) iii) Those parts of the structural elements of foundations which are not in contact with soil and transferring load to it. "reaction blocks" (additional safety measures in the event of failure of bearings) or other types of seismic arresters shall be provided and designed for the seismic force (Fe/R). Lead Plug.8· Foundation Design For design of . the bridges in seismic zones IV and V may be specifically detailed for ductility for which IS 13920 or any other specialist literature may be referred to.6 Fully Embedded Portions Parts of structure embedded in soil below scour level need not be considered to produce any seismic forces.9 Ductile Detailing Mandatory Provisions i) In zones IV and V. the response reduction factor (R) shall be taken as 1. 219. Provisions ii) Recommended i) In order to mitigate the effects of earthquake forces described above.foundation. the foundations should be taken deeper below liquefiable layers. Pier and abutment caps shall be generously dimensioned. To improve the performance of bridges during ~~earthquakes.

=~:tI====1:tI==::. monolithic). 14 Example of Seismic Reaction Blocks for Continuous Superstructure REACTION BLOCK Fig.. Where elastomeric bearings are used.e.. REACTION BLOCKS . if not unsuitable otherwise.. i. ~ BOX GIRDER iii) A1J:1. a separate system of arrester control in both directions shall be introduced to cater to seismic forces on the bearing.Il A2 P2 P3 FREE RESTRNNED FREE FREE ELEVATION c w z c w z t- c w z t- c z w ~ tIII W ~ ~ 0: III W HALF PLAN OF PIER CAP P2 HALF PLAN OF PIER CAP P3.. 15 Example of Seismic Reaction Blocks for Simply Supported Bridges 54 . can possibly provide high ductility leading to bvetter behaviour durinq earthquake. AL. A2 II II 0: III W ~ tIII 0: w 0: Fig.IRC:6-2010 ii) Continuous superstructure (with fewer number of bearings and expansion joints) or integral bridges (in which the substructure or superstructure are made joint less.

inspite of fenders being provided..1. For larger ships in navigable waterways.50 m over the deck shall be taken into consideration while designing the structure for tracked vehicle. such as. piers shall be protected by building independently supported energy absorbing structures adjacent to the piers of sufficient capacity to absorb the energy before the vessel hits the pier. Other suitable protection measures.1 II . Specialist literature may be referred for assessment of these forces. The ship impact forces and their points of application to the piers shall be assessed on the basis of design vessels and their speeds. The design impact force shall atleast be 100 t acting at a height of 1 m above HTLlHFL. bi .5L + 10 H mm L = SPAN IN METERS H = AVERAGE COLUMN HEIGHT IN METERS Fig.. can also be adopted.25 m over the deck shall be taken into consideration while designing the structure for wheeled vehicles. b) 221 SNOW LOAD The snow load of 900 kg/m3 where applicable on the bridge deck shall be taken in the following three conditions to be checked independently: a) b) A snow accumulation of 0. The design impact forces shall be established for the collision with bridge piers and pier shafts head on by the vessel bow or sideways by the vessel head. AT ARTICULATIONS AT ABUTMENTS AT PIERS WHERE: N = N1 == N2: 305 + 2. etc. fenders. sacrificial caissons. IRC:6-2010 ' I' L l1 'II' L2 . 16 Minimum Dimension for Support 220 SHIP/BARGE a) IMPACT ON BRIDGES The bridge portion located in navigable water (as well as other portions where possibility of vessels reaching the same exists) shall be designed for ship/barge impact. islanding. A snow accumulation of 0. 55 .

3. foundations and bearings. the collision loads shall be considered separately for each level.3.1.1. For multilevel carriageways. 222.i ! . j 56 .5 m above carriageway level At the most severe point between 1 m and 3 m above carriageway level 25 50 222..IRC:6-2010 c) In case of snow accumulation exceeding 0. Table 9 Nominal Vehicle Collision Load normal to the carriageway below (Ton) Loads on Supports of Bridges Point of application bridge support on Load parallel to the carriageway below (Ton) 10Q" . In case of vehicles travelling at lesser velocity.1 General . .5 m and shall also not be combined with principal Jive loads on the carriageway supported by the structural members subjected to such collision loads. columns or the frames built in the median or in the vicinity of the carriageway supporting the superstructure shall be designed to withstand vehicle collision loads.1 The nominal loads given in Table 9 shall be considered to act horizontally as ! I j ' Vehicle Collision Loads. 222 VEHICLE COLLISION LOADS ON BRIDGE AND FLYOVER SUPPORTS 222.1.50 m maximum snow accumulation based on actual site observation shall be considered without live load. Bridge piers of wall type.I ~I I! I Main load component Residual load component 50 At the most severe point between 0.1 222.3. as well as wind or seismic load.2 Increase in Permissible Stress The permissible stresses in both steel and concrete shall be increased by 50 percent and the safe bearing capacity of the founding strata increased by 25 percent when considering the effect of collision loads. The effect of collision load shall also be considered on the supporting elements. the loads may be reduced in proportion to the square of the velocity but not less than 50 percent.2 The effect of collision load shall not be considered on abutments or on the structures separated from the edge of the carriageway by a minimum distance of 4.2 The loads indicated in Clause 222. 222. such as. 222. Supports shall be capable of resisting the main and residual load component acting simultaneously.75 and 1. Loads normal to the carriageway below and loads parallel to the carriageway below shall be considered to act separately and shall not be combined. are assumed for vehicles plying at velocity of about 60 km/hour.3 Collision Load 222.

shrinkage and temperature.IRC:6-2010 222. if protected with suitably designed fencing system taking into account its flexibility. having a minimum height of 1. should be considered for statically indeterminate structures or composite members consisting for steel or concrete prefabricated elements and cast-in-situ components for which specialist literature may be referred to. etc.3.5 m above the carriageway level. 223 INDETERMINATE STRUCTURES COMPOSITE STRUCTURES AND Stresses due to creep. Creep and shrinkage produce permanent stresses and hence no relaxation in permissible stresses shall be allowed. 57 .3 The bridge supports shall be designed for the residual load component only.

:.4t 9.2t 4.~.St 17.70 5 Length 7920 Nose to toil 840 2900 1-i~~I'lf+-_'39802!!!!.j (CI. TRACKED Closs VEHICLES Width of track b Width over track Four wheelers Six wheelers a c d e 2.J-~ t-.:IJO=-1.70 5 760 2840 100 t 36 t 19.5t 9R 2740 Nose to toil Length 4270 12.0 t Axle spacing 1070 III!hllllllfll!i!iIIIHIiI!ll1 70t 70R .' ~!<.~rt-.4 .Ot 8. 12.42t 1.71. Length 4880 19t 1IIIIIiIIllllllllljlllli!!tlllI Nose to toil 300 2290 7.5t 1111111111111111111111111111111 300 2130 5.6t 18. .St lS.::.5 t Axle spacing 1070 1111111111111111111111111111111 60R .'.70 2 610 2790 17.Jo::'~·°--l.5t 1 i 5R 1[111111111111111111111111 1990 Nose to toil Length 3660 1lIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIiliillll!lill 230 1980 3..7tt 360 18R 3050 Length 5490 2St 1111111111111111111111111111111 Nose to toil 2360 20t 7.1 t 9 h 1.2t Length 5490 1Ii1111111111i11111!IIII!!l!liI Nose to toil 30t 360 2440 12.~ 4270·v~1 .2:..IIJ70:::.2t 24R 3660 21..0 t Axle spacinQ 20 t 1220 55 t 5S0 2740 40R 3660 26 t 16.5 t c.0t 12R 2740 ..::...1.0 t Axle spacing Length 7329 50t SOR Nose to toil Length 7540 60t Nose to toil Length 7920 Nose to toil 1070 32 t 1IiIllullllllillilillilililill ..:..I''IJnI7!1100~4=~:'::''~~ Y. ploj·· I 12t 9...4 t 2.'7_.L _~_fi.0t j 3 5.·_12_~.5t 7.8 t 3.~+.Ot 30R 3660 Length 6440 40t !llIlllIlllllIlIlIjjjlilllllllJ Nose to toil 410 2590 14.r I lUI 20 t 40 t .

(k) 360x610 5.230 x510 BA.230 x 510 760.d2JO [fJ DIT TO 5.273 kg/cm Actual max. 250 x 510 BA.300 x 510 L..55 t on col. tyre load 5. n 0 Minimum wheel spacing and tyre sizes of critical (Heaviest) axles.75 t on 41Ox610 ~ 88 .oor SA.'. 8 8 530 x 610 460 x 610 2510 8 SA. SA.5'0 2«0 6.230 x 510 SA. 220 x 510 2790 5'~ 2790 SA. for (f) 410x610 SA. BA.9 t on col.L.190 x510 BA. BA.360 x510 BA.273 2 kg/em SA.273 2 kg/em 360 x 510 350 x 510 88 88 88 7~l..273 2 kg/em ~l!tlO 88 ~ 2590 0 I~O 0 SH10 x610 8I\. for (f) 410x610 8 2130 .410 x 610 0 0~ 0 0 51.410 x 610 SA..__~ BA.150 i<510 BA.__~ BA.273 2 kg/em I for (f) J60x510 8 2080 8 SA. (k) 530x610 on 530x610 single axle cot.8 8 1780 SA.38 t on 410x610 88 2e70 0 ~O 0 5.360 x610 BA.UOO x510 for (f) SA.d_200 SA. The ength of vehicle mov be assumed 2440 5.j50 2130 lA. I m Max.2) IRC:6-2010 • k WHEELED VEHICLES . (k) 250x510 3.460 SA.230 x510 for (I) SA.. for (f) 220x510 . 230 x510 BA.230 x510 8A. 22~ x510 oollllllm \ L. for (f) JOOx51 0 8 +80.410 x610 81\. on min.230 x 510 2«0 SA.00t on col.190 x510 s. 410 x 610 410 x 610 2440 SA.(k) for wind effect.d200 SA.220 x510 for (I) SA. SA.220 x510 BA. (k) 410x610 2«0 5.3SO x '610 .. (k) 410x610 110 4.190 x510 BA..273 2 kg/em ~~ SA.150 x410 (f)&:(h) BA. 5.410 x610 BA.Q~ SA.190 x 510 2670 OIT TO SA.300 x510 for (I) SA.410 x 610 .300 x 610 Actual max.273 2 kg/cm 5.tyre load ._ill.. 230 x 510 I DIT TO Actual max.410 x610 81\.46O 0.190 x 510 51~ . (k) 150x410 150 x 410 2. 250 x 510 v.230 x 510 2510 SA. 150 x 410 89 1780 88 1. Max.tyre size.410 x610 BA.190 x 510 2510 oomllllll 7.7 t on col.230 x510 for {I) SA. tyre load 5.tyre pressure p Remarks q B SA.75t on col. (k) 220x410 2. 230 x 510 88 51~~ 1910 88 88 88 88 88 88 88 88 88 0 O@O 0 S.410 ~ 610 JRo rn SA.. BA.190 x510 BA..218 2 kg/em SA. 230 x 510 BA. "530 x 610 460 X 610 88 2510 0 O~O 0 SU60 xSl0 8I\.220 x 510 680A"0 2210 5..410 x610 BA..273 kg/ cm2 4. 8 SA.d200 5.0 t on 410x610 .00t on col.00t on col.150 x 510 2OeO 5..46 kg/cm2 SA. BA.273 2 kg/em 8 81\.JOO x 510 00 III III III SA.190 x 510 2590 00 III III III L. 370 8 8 J60_. I' r: I nnex A use 201.360 0 0~ 0 0 x510 L. tyre load 2 4. SA. 190 x 410 190 x 410 Ig10 SA.

IRC:6-2010 AnnexA (Clause 201.2) HYPOTHETICAL VEHICLES FOR CLASSIFICATION OF VEHICLES AND BRIDGES (REV~SED) NOTES FOR LOAD CLASSIFICATION CHART 1) The possible variations in the wheel spacings and tyre sizes, for the heaviest single axles-cols. (f) and (h), the heaviest bogie axles-col. U) and also for the heaviest axles of the train vehicle of cols. (e) and (g) are given in cols. (k), (I), (m) and (n). The same pattern of wheel arrangement may be assumed for all axles of the wheel train shown in cols. (e) and (g) as for the heaviest axles. The overall width of tyre in mm may be taken as equal to [150+(p-1) 57], where up" represents the load on tyre in tonnes, wherever the tyre sizes are not specified on the chart. 2) Contact areas of tyres on the deck may be obtained from the corresponding tyre loads, max. tyre pressures (p) and width of tyre treads. 3) The first dimension of tyre size refers to the overall width of tyre and second dimension to the rim diameter of the tyre. Tyre tread width may be taken as overall tyre width minus 25 mm for tyres upto 225 mm width, and minus 50 mm for tyres over 225 mm width. 4) The spacing between successive vehicles shall not be less than 30 m. This spacing will be measured from the rear-most point of ground contact of the leading vehicles to the forward-most point of ground contact of the following vehicle in case of tracked vehicles. For wheeled vehicles, it will be measured from the centre of the rear-most axle of the leading vehicle to the centre of the first axle of the following vehicle. 5) The classification of the bridge shall be determined by the safe load carrying capacity of the weakest of all the structural members including the main girders, stringers (or load bearers), the decking, cross bearers (or transome) bearings, piers and abutments, investigated under the track, wheel axle and bogie loads shown for the various classes. Any bridge upto and including class 40 will be marked with a single class number-the highest tracked or wheel standard load class which the bridge can safely withstand. Any bridge over class 40 will be marked with a single class number if the wheeled and tracked classes are the

61

IRC:6-2010 same, and with dual classification sign showing both T and W load classes if the T and W classes are different. 6) The calculations determining the safe load carrying capacity shall also allow for the effects due to impact, wind pressure, fongitudinal forces, etc., as described in the relevant Clauses of this Code. 7) The distribution of load between the main girders of a bridge is not necessarily equal and shall be assessed from considerations of the spacing of the main girders, their torsional stiffness, flexibility of the cross bearers, the width of roadway and the width of the vehicles, etc., by any rational method of calculations. 8) The maximum single axle loads shown in columns (f) and (h) and the bogie axle loads shown in column U) correspond to the heaviest axles of the trains, shown in columns (e) and (g) in load-classes upto and including class 30-R. In the case of higher load classes, the single axle loads and bogie axle loads shall be assumed to belong to some other hypothetical vehicles and their effects worked out separately on the components of bridge deck. 9) The minimum clearance between the road face of the kerb and the outer edge . of wheel or track for any of the hypothetical vehicles shall be the same as for Class AA vehicles, when there is only one-lane of traffic moving on a bridge. If a bridge is to be designed for two-lanes of traffic for any type of vehicles given in the Chart, the clearance may be decided in each case depending upon the circumstances.

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IRC:6-2010 Annex B (Clause 202.3) COMBINATION OF LOADS FOR Ury1ITSTATE DESIGN 1. Loads to be considered while arriving at the appropriate combination for carrying out the necessary checks for the design of road bridges and culverts are as follows: 1) 2) 3) Dead Load Snow load (See note i) Superimposed dead load such as hand rail, crash barrier, foot path and service loads. 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Surfacing or wearing coat Back Fill Weight Earth Pressure Primary and secondary effect of prestress Secondary effects such as creep, shrinkage and settlement. Temperature including restraint and bearing forces.

10) Carriageway live load, footpath live load, construction live loads. 11) Associated carriageway forces. 12) Accidental effects such as vehicle collision load, barge impact and impact due to floating bodies. 13) Wind 14) Seismic Effect 15) Erection effects 16) Water Current Forces 17) Wave Pressure 18) Buoyancy live load such as braking, tractive and centrifugal

63

3. if existing ii) The wave forces shall be determined by suitable analysis considering drawing and inertia forces etc. accidental and seismic The following principles shall be followed while using these tables for arriving at the combinations: i) All loads shown under Column 1 of Table 3. 64 . combinations of loads. In case if the variable loads produce favourable effect (relieving effect) the same shall be ignored. The structural strength under ultimate limit state shall be estimated in order to avoid internal failure or excessive deformation.2 or Table 3. sliding and uplifting) shall always be less than the stabilizing or restoring actions. All other variable loads shall be considered as accompanying loads. Combination Principles The equilibrium and the structural strength shall be checked under basic. Combination of loads for the verification of equilibrium and structural strength under ultimate state Loads are required to be combined to check the equilibrium and the structural strength under ultimate limitstate. piers etc. on single structural members based on rational methods or model studies. In case of group of piles. sliding and uplift. It shall be ensured that the disturbing loads (overturning.4 shall be combined to carry out the relevant verification.1 or Table 3. only one variable load shall be considered as the leading load at a time. the traffic load on the upper deck of a bridge (when collision with the pier due to traffic under the bridge occurs) shall be treated as the leading load. proximity effects shall also be considered. In all other accidental situations the traffic load shall be treated as the accompanying load. iv) v) During construction the relevant design situation shall be taken into account.3 or Table 3. iii) For accidental combination.IRC:6-2010 NOTES: i) The snow loads may be based on actual observation or past records in the particular area or local practices. ii) While working out the combinations. 2. These combinations are not valid for verifying the fatigue limit state.. The equilibrium of the structure shall be checked against overturning.

1 and for checking the structural strength. the partial safety factor for loads shown in Column No.4 under Table 3. 4.2 shall be adopted. 7. shrinkage creep effects and the permanent stress in concrete. 6. the partial safety factor for loads shown in Column No. Seismic Combination For checking the equilibrium of the structure. settlement and to estimate shrinkage and creep effects.3 under Table 3.1 Basic Combination For Checking the Equilibrium For checkinq the equilibrium of the structure.2 under Table 3.1 shall be adopted.be adopted. It shall be ensured that the design value obtained by using the appropriate combination shall be less than the limiting value of serviceability criterion as per the relevant code. Accidental Combination For checking the equilibrium of the structure.6 or 7 under Table 3. 5. the partial safety factor for loads shown in Column No. the partial safety factor for loads shown in Column No. The quasi-permanent combination of loads shall be used for checking the settlement.IRC:6-2010 4. 4.1 Rare Combination For checking the stress limits.2 shall. the partial safety factor for loads shown in Column No. vibration.2 under Table 3.3 shall be adopted. Combination of Loads for the Verification of Serviceability Limit State Loads are required to be combined to satisfy the serviceability requirements.2 or 3 under Table 3. crack width.4 or 5 under Table 3. 7. deflection.2 For Checking the Structural Strength For checking the structural strength.1 and for checking the structural strength.2 shall be adopted. The serviceability limit state check shall be carried out in order to have control on stress. vibration and crack width. The rare combination of loads shall be used for checking the stress limit. 65 . the partial safety factor for loads shown in Column No. the partial safety factor for loads shown in Column No. The frequent combination of loads shall be used for checking the deflection.

66 . partial safety factor for loads shown in column no.3 shall be adopted.IRC:6-2010 7.4 under Table 3. Combination for Design of Foundations For checking the base pressure under foundation and to estimate the structural strength which includes the geotechnical loads. settlement. creep effects and to estimate the permanent stress in the structure. partial safety factor for loads shown in Column No.3 Quasi-permanent Combinations For checking the crack width in RCC structures. resistance factor and the allowable bearing pressure for these combinations shall be as per relevant code. vibration and crack width in prestressed concrete structures. the partial safety factor for loads for 3 combinations shown in Table 3. 8.3 shall be adopted. 3 under Table 3. The material safety factor for the soil parameters.4 shall be used. 7.2 Frequent Combination For checking the deflection.

9 1.5 0 1.0 0 0 1.0 1. Snow load if present. SIDL except surfacing.0 1.0 1.0 Seismic Combination (6) Overturning or Sliding or Uplift Effect 1. (5) Restoring or Resisting Effect (7) Restoring or Resisting Effect 0.1 Partial Safety Factor for Verification of Equilibrium Loads (1) Basic Combination (2) Overturning or Sliding or Uplift Effect Permanent Loads: Dead Load.0 1. Backfill weight.0 0 0 0 1.5 0 0.50 1.20 0 0 0 1. centrifugal forces) and Pedestrian Live Load (a) As Leading Load (b) As accompanying Load (c) Construction Live Load The:mal Loads (a) As Leading Load (b) As accompanying Load Wind (a) As Leading Load (b) As accompanying Load Live Load Surcharge effects (as accompanying load) Accidental effects: i) Vehicle collision (or) ii) Barge Impact (or) iii) Impact due to floating bOd~es Seismic Effect (a) During Service (b) During Construction Construction Condition: Counter Weights: a) When density or self weight defined b) When density or self weight well defined c) Erection effects Wind (a) Leading Load (b) Accompanying Load Hydraulic Loads: (Accompanying Load): Water current forces Wave Pressure Hydrodynamic effect Buoyancy 1.75 0.0 0 0 0 0.0 (3) Restoring or Resisting Effect .05 0.0 1.0 1." )1 is well is not 1.0 1.0 67 .9 0 0 0.0 1.35 0 0 0 0.0 ~ ~- 1.0 1.0 1.2 1.0 1.50 0.8 0.0 1.05 Accidental Combination (4) Overturning or Sliding or Uplift Effect 1.0 1.0 0.IRC:6-2010 Table 3.0 1.35 1.0 1.0 1. creep and shrinkage effect Surfacing Prestress and Secondary effect of prestress (Refer Note 5) Earth pressure due to Back Fill Variable Loads: Carriageway Live Load.95 1.9 0.5 I"" 1>.0 1.95 1.20 1.0 1.5 1.2 1. settlement. tractive and . associated loads (braking.15 1.0 1.5 0.50 1.0 1.0 0 1.

Wherever Snow Load is applicable. rehabilitation specific. Wind load and thermal load need not be taken simultaneously. For Combination principles refer Para 3. Partial safety factor for prestress and secondary effect of prestress shall be as recommended in the relevant codes. Seismic effect during erection stage is reduced to half when construction does not exceed 5 years. Clause 221 shall be referred for combination of snow load and live load. For repair. the load combination phase position shall be allowed a variation 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) shall be project 68 . and retrofitting. is not valid for the design of bearing and expansion joint.IRC:6-2010 NOTES: 1) 2) 3) During launching the counterweight of ± 1 m for steel bridges. arch and elastomeric bearings). This combination however. Thermal effects include restraints associated with expansion/contraction due to type of construction (Portal frame. frictional restraint in metallic bearings and thermal gradients.

0 1.50 0.0 - 0.35 0.0 - 0.0 Accidental Effects: i) Vehicle Collision (or) } ii) Barge Impact (or) iii) Impact due to floating bodies Seismic Effect a) During Service b) During Construction - 1.5 1.IRC:6-2010 Table 3.50 1.2 1.0 1.0 1.35 1.0 0 0.0 1.15 69 .15 - 1.0 1.0 1.2 1. 1.15 - 1. SIDL except surfacing a) Adding to the effect of variable loads b) Relieving the effect of variable loads Surfacir.9 1.2 1.0 1. 2) Back fill Weight Earth pressure due to Back Fill a) Leading Load b) Accompanying Load Variable Loads: Carriageway Live Load and associated loads (braking.2 Partial Safety Factor for Verification of Structural Strength Ultimate Limit State Loads (1) Permanent Loads: Dead Load. Snow load if present.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.15 1.2 1. tractive and centrifugal forces) and Pedestrian Live Load: a) Leading Load b) Accompanying Load c) Construction Live Load Wind during service and construction a) Leading Load b) Accompanying Load Live Load Surcharge (as accompanying Erection effects load) Basic Combinatlon (2) Accidental Combination ( 3) Seismic Combination (4) 1.0 1.50 1.75 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.75 0.0 1.0 - 1.2 1.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 1.g: Adding to the effect of variable loads Relieving the effect of variable loads Prestress and Secondary effect of prestress (refer note no.0 1.0 .0 1.5 Hydraulic Loads (Accompanying Water Current Forces Wave Pressure Hydrodynamic effect Buoyancy Load): 1.0 1.0 - - - - 1.

15 - 0.5 0. Clause 221 shall be referred for combination of snow load and live load. SIDL including surfacing Back fill Weight Prestress and Secondary effect of prestress (refer note no.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 1.60 0.0 0. Partial safety factor for prestress and secondary effect of prestress shall be as recommended in the relevant codes. Snow load if present.0 a 1.0 1. Table 3.2 a - - Load 1.0 a 1. 4) Shrinkage and Creep Effects Earth Pressure due to Back Fill Settlement Effects a) Adding to the permanent loads b) Opposing the permanent loads Variable Loads: Carriageway Live Load and associated loads(braking.0 1.0 0.0 1.IRC:6-2010 NOTES: 1) 2) 3) For combination principles.0 1. (3) 1.0 0.80 a 1. Wherever Snow Load is applicable.75 0..0 0.0 1.0 1.6 0.50 a a - Live Load Surcharge (Accompanying Hydraulic Loads (Accompanying Water Current Forces Wave Pressure Buoyancy Load) Load): 0..5 Load 1.15 70 .75 0. tractive and centrifugal forces) and Pedestrian Live Load a) Leading Load b) Accompanying Load Thermal Loads a) Leading Load b) Accompanying Wind a) Leading Load b) Accompanying Limit State Quasi-permanent Combination (4) Rare Combination (2) Frequent Combination .6 0.3 Partial Safety Factor for Verification of Serviceability Loads (1) Permanent Loads: Dead Load.0 1.0 1.15 1.0 a 1. refer Para 3.0 1.60 0.0 1.

3 1.0 - 1.0 0.0 or a 1.0 1.9 1.0 0.5 1.2 0. 1.0 1.5 or 0 Load Load (if 1.0 1.15 -. Clause snow load and live load.4 Combination for Base Pressure and Design of Foundation Loads Combination Combination (2) Seismic I Accidental Combination (1 ) (1 ) Permanent Loads: Dead Load.3 0.15 0. frictional restraint in Thermal load includes restraints associated with expansion/ contraction due to type of construction (Portal frame.35 1.0 or a 1.0 0.0 0.0 0 0. bearings).0 or 0 1.0 (4) 1.50 1. Table 3. 71 .75 if applicable) 0.2 Live Load Surcharge as Accompanying applicable) Accidental Effect or Seismic Effect Seismic effect during construction Erection effects Hydraulic Loads: Water Current Wave Pressure Hydrodynamic effect Buoyancy: For Base Pressure For Structural Design 1.15 10 or 0 1.15 1. metallic bearings and thermal gradients.5 1.0 or a - 10 or 0 1.75 (2) (3) 1.0 1.0 0. arch and elastomeric the design of bearing and expansion joint. is not valid for 3) 4) 5) Wind and thermal loads need not be taken simultaneously.85 1. Snow load if present.IRC:6-2010 NOTES: 1) 2) For Combination principles. tractive and centrifugal) and pedestrian load a) Leading Load b) Accompanying Load Thermal Loads as accompanying Wind a) Leading Load b) Accompanying load SIOL except surfacing.0 1.90 1.80 (0.0 or 0 1. Partial safety factor for prestress recommended and secondary effect of prestress shall be as of in the relevant codes.0 or 0 1.5 0. 221 shall be referred for combination Where Snow Load is applicable.0 1. Back Fill earth filling SIDL Surfacing Prestress Effect (refer note 4) Settlement Effect Earth Pressure due to back fill a) Leading Load b) Accompanying Load Variable Loads: All carriageway loads and associated loads (braking.80 1. Ihis combination however.0 or 0 1.2 1.30 0.0 1. refer Para 3.0 or 0 1.

refer para 3. 5) Wherever Snow Load is applicable. Partial safety factor for prestress and secondary recommended in the relevant codes. effect of prestress shall be as 6) 7) Seismic effect during erection stage is reduced to half when construction phase does not exceed 5 years. Clause 221 shall be referred for combination of snow load and live load. 72 . For repair. rehabilitation and retrofitting the load combination shall be project specific. 3) 4) Wind and Thermal effects need not be taken simultaneously. Where two partial factors are indicated for loads. both these factors shall be considered for arriving at the severe effect.IRC:6-2010 NOTES: 1) 2) For combination principles.

3) Wind Load Computation on Truss Bridge Superstructure A-1. The area At for the deck shall be based on the full depth of the deck.3 Drag Coefficient a) Co for All Truss Girder Superstructures Superstructures without live load: The drag coefficient Co for each truss and for the deck shall be derived as follows: For a windward truss Co shall be taken from Table A-1. trusses etc.3. A-1. deck shielded by the windward truss.IRC:6-2010 Annex C (Clause 209. parapet etc. 73 .1 Superstructures without live load: The design transverse wind load F. The coefficient for all other trusses shall be taken as equal to this value. need not be derived considering the projected areas of windward parapet shielded by windward truss. parapets. or vice versa and leeward truss shielded by the deck. Where a superstructure has more than two trusses. the drag coefficient for the truss adjacent to the windward truss shall be derived as specified above. b) Superstructure with live load: The drag coefficient CD for each truss and for the deck shall be as for the superstructure without live load. Values of shielding factor ry are given in Table A-2. Except that F. The area At for the live load shall be derived usiriqthe appropriate live load depth: A-1. The area At for each truss. shall be derived separately for the areas of the windward and leeward truss girder and deck elements. The area At for the deck. shall be the solid area in normal projected elevation.1. shall be as for the superstructure without live load. drag coefficient shall be taken as ryCo.45. or vice versa. For Deck Construction. The solidity ratio of the truss is the ratio of the effective area to the overall area of the truss. the drag coefficient shall be taken as 1.2 Superstructures with live load: The design transverse wind load shall be derived separately for elements as specified in A-1 and also for the live load depth. For leeward truss of a superstructure with two trusses. CD for the unshielded parts of the live load shall be taken as 1.

5 0.7 0.0 1.1 Supercritical flow (dVz ~ 6m2/s) 0.4 0.85 0.6 1.3 0.70 0.1 0. 74 .80 0.95 0.IRC:6-2010 .5 NOTES: 1) 2) Linear interpolation between values is permitted.8 (cD) 0.80 0. Table A-1 Force Coefficients for Single Truss Drag Coefficient Co for Solidity Ratio Built-up Sections Rounded Members of Diameter (d) Subcritical flow (dVz< 6m2/s) 1.60 0.85 0.9 1.65 0.55 0.2 1.8 0.7 1.95 0.60 0.3 0.70 0.80 0.75 0.8 0.95 0.0 1.8 0.0 1.95 0.90 0. The truss spacing ratio is the distance between centers of trusses divided by depth of the windward truss.90 0.8 1.2 0.1 <1 1.0 1.0 0.2 0. The solidity ratio of the truss is the ratio of the net area to overall area of the truss Table A-2 Shielding Factor 1] for Multiple Trusses Value of 7] for Solidity Ratio Truss Spacing Ratio 0.45 0.1 1.50 0.4 0.65 0.90 0.70 2 3 4 5 6 NOTES: 1) 2) Linear interpolation between values is permitted.0 1.2 1.80 0.7 1.2 1.

IRC:6-2010 Annex D (Clause 219.. and the force to be applied at the top of the bearings for the earthquake in the longitudinal direction.5) The fundamental natural period T (in seconds) of pier/abutment of the bridge along a horizontal direction may be estimated by the following expression. T=2.0 where J10~OF o = Appropriate dead load of the superstructure and live load in kN Horizontal force in kN required to be applied at the centre of mass of superstructure for one rnm horizontal deflection at the top of the pier/abutment for the earthquake in the transverse direction. F= 75 .

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