Voith Torque Converter starting system for gas turbines
Reliability & Availability: Choosing the Right System is Important
The combination of an induction motor with a Voith torque converter is synonymous with trouble free start-ups, high reliability, and long service life. More than 3,500 gas turbine starters worldwide is outstanding evidence of our experience and know-how in this area. We believe no other starting system or method equals the reliability and availability of the Voith torque converter starting system. Our exceptionally high MTBF (mean time between failure) leads to a statistical reliability of 99.97%. We also know of no other starting system that matches the 35year design life of the Voith torque converter; and this comes with a guaranteed availability of parts and service matching the life of our machines. The compact and rigid design offers trouble free operation while maintenance expenses are at a minimum.
Gas turbines are often started several times a day.
Choosing the right starting system will affect the startup reliability of the gas turbine. Voith supplies torque converters to all leading gas turbine manufacturers and its licensees, to start gas turbines ranging in power from 20 to 270 MW.
Starter System Generator
Voith torque converters are designed and built to meet customer requirements. consequently.
Selection Chart 600 400 200
10 Converter input power Pp [MW]
4 2 1
0. “No-load starting” condition on the starting motor by decoupling the motor from the load through the “working oil shut-off valve” feature.4 400 600 1000 2000 4000 6000 8000 Converter input speed nP [min-1] Torque converter for gas turbine starting Synchronization converter
Selection Chart. Smooth and step-less output speed & torque adjustment of the torque converter. Torsional vibration dampening and shock free power transmission.
The Voith torque converter decouples the starting motor from the gas turbine train during gas turbine operation without the need for a mechanical clutch through our exclusive “working oil shut-off valve” feature. no stress applied to connected equipment thus delivering long service life.
Low maintenance expenses. based on the application and specification the appropriate torque converter size can be defined. No other torque converter manufacturer offers this service.
That means an overload of the driver (motor or engine) is not possible through the hydraulic circuit. the torque requirement of the pump (input) remains constant at a given guide vane setting. The guide vanes absorb the torque differential between the turbine (output) and the pump (input) and transfer it to the foundation. Commonly. output torque decreases (see graph to the right).
nT = 0
nT = nTmax
n opt. and a guide wheel with adjustable guide vanes (see picture to the right). The mechanical energy of the motor is converted into hydraulic energy through the pump wheel.
MT = Turbine torque MP = Pump torque = Efficiency 1 = Turbine wheel 2 = Pump wheel 3 = Mass flow (oil) 3 1
nT = n Tm
. the power transmission is at its maximum. above: Basic design hydrodynamic torque converter Depending on the design of the blade shape. This is combined in a common housing filled with hydraulic oil. At low speed. nT = 0
. the starter motor or engine is disconnected from the gas turbine. At closed guide vanes (small mass flow) the power transmission is at its minimum.Torque Converter Function and Design
The heart of Voiths’ hydrodynamic torque converter is its hydraulic circuit. ax
MT MP η MT
Fig. Because of the change in mass flow (due to the adjustable guide vanes) the turbine wheels’ speed is variable and can be adjusted to match the various operating points of the gas turbine. With the guide vanes completely open (large mass flow). independent of the load on the turbine (output). By placing the guide vanes upstream of the pump wheel. turbine. In the turbine wheel the same hydraulic energy is converted back into mechanical energy and transmitted to the gas turbine/generator shaft. When the hydraulic fluid is removed from the torque converter circuit. consisting of a pump. the pump (input) is „uncoupled“ from the turbine (output) and consequently. a constant speed driver such as an induction motor or a diesel engine drives the pump wheel (input shaft of the torque converter). the turbine (output) torque at the break-away (nT = 0) point is two to ten times that of the pump (input) torque. The adjustable vanes of the guide wheel regulate the mass flow in the circuit. the turbine develops its highest torque. With increasing turbine speed.
Typical Gas Turbine Start-Up Curve
Typical gast turbine start-up curve Typical high speed setting Typical low speed setting
Through its characteristic of high torque at low output speed. multiple hold points and acceleration speeds can easily be part of the control logic. the gas turbine can be quickly accelerated to and above its self-sustained speed. Firing speed Acceleration resistance to self-sustained speed 6 Self-sustained speed
Start Up Break-away of the gas turbine through the torque converter or the Acceleration to purge speed Acceleration to firing speed Assisting the gas turbine to and above self sustained speed Uncoupling the starting system from the gas turbine
2 Typical Starter System P&I Diagram 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
integral turning gear
6 0% Speed 100%
Other Functions Turning the gas turbine by means of the integral turning gear for slow-roll functions Indexing the gas turbine for inspections Fast spin-cooling of the gas turbine for rapid maintenance availability Extended gas turbine water-wash cycles
9 10 11
Torque converter Torque converter housing Fill and drain valve Control valve (Filling and draining) Guide vane adjustment Orifice plate Working oil supply Lube oil and cooling oil supply Working oil return Lube oil and cooling oil return Lube oil tank of gas turbine
1 2 3 4 5
Breakaway Unfired resistance Purge point (air exchange). high temperature gas turbines. the torque converter is the ideal gas turbine starter. With the abundant acceleration torque available.
3 4 1 Using a multi-position guide vane actuator. an important requirement of the state-of-the-art.
controlled by solenoid valves or an electric actuator.5 YFG 2.0 2. the various operating points of the gas turbine are easily obtained. the torque converter becomes a true variable speed drive with peak precision.2 EL 10 YFG 6.0 Torque/Speed Characteristics 4.270 3.0
Selection of EL. Input power (kW) Input speed (min-1) EL 6.200 3.500 3.2 nT/nP 0.0 1.5 0 0.500 3.000 2.5
0. Examples of other options for turning the gas turbine are: Installing a “pony” motor at the ODE of the starting motor
MT/MP 1.8 YFG 1. With the powerful hydraulic guide vane system.5 1.6 1.000 6.000 MP Lx = Guide vanes open MP = Input torque MT = Output torque nP = Input speed nT = Output speed η = Efficiency 0..8
n P = constant
0.5 0 0 0. When combining the actuator with a 4-20 mA feedback system.5 3.0 2. The hydraulic fluid for the torque converter can be supplied by the gas turbine lube-oil system or through a complete packaged starter version including an oil reservoir system as available from Voith.5
or installing a separate turning gear.Torque Converter Model EL.Y with its single stage turbine offers a torque multiplication factor of 4.600 1.600 3.Y Starter Model Max.. Its balance of features and torque characteristics in combination with an integral turning gear makes it the ideal starter for a broad range of gas turbines.0 Lx Lx Lx Lx Lx =100% = 75% = 50% = 25% = 0%
3.Y the classic design
The model EL.700 3.600 870 3.5 EL 7..
Simplified longitudinal section of Torque Converter Type EL 10 YFG 6.5 EL 7.8 YFG 1.5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Input shaft Pump wheel Turbine wheel Output shaft Adjustable guide vanes Adjusting mechanism Filling and draining valve Working oil supply Working oil return Lube oil return Axial bearing Radial bearing Hydraulic cylinder Guide vane actuator
10 10 7 8 9
Type EL 10 YFG 6.5
323 360 690 1651 900
Type EL 6.5 YFG 2.2
8 0.800 3.. For various operation points of the gas turbine.Z Starter Model EL 10 ZFG 2 1 0 0 nT/nP 0. with its double stage turbine.4 0. Input power (kW) Input speed (min-1)
Torque/Speed Characteristics 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 Selection of EL..5 MP Lx = Guide vanes open MP = Input torque MT = Output torque nP = Input speed nT = Output speed η = Efficiency 0 0 0.Torque Converter Model EL.6 0. in this case. By activating a simple solenoid valve the torque converter operating fluid is emptied from the torque converter circuit and thus. Turning can be done using an integral or separate turning gear or a pony
Max. the guide vane adjustment is equipped. it offers a torque multiplication factor of 10! It is used in applications with high break-away torque.000
n P = constant 1.8 Lx Lx Lx Lx Lx =100% = 75% = 50% = 25% = 0%
motor.4 0. with an electric actuator.2
.2 0. The hydraulic fluid for the torque converter can be supplied by the gas turbine lube-oil system or through a complete packaged starter version including an oil reservoir system as available from Voith.6 0. uncouples the starting system from the gas turbine.0
0.Z the mighty one
We call it the mighty one because.
Simplified longitudinal section of Torque Converter Type EL 10 ZFG 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Input shaft Pump wheel Turbine wheel Output shaft Adjustable guide vanes Adjusting mechanism Filling and draining valve Working oil supply Working oil return Lube and cooling oil return
10 7 8 9
Type EL 10 ZFG
720 111.8 864
Turning can be done using an integral or separate turning gear or a pony motor.0 1.2 0 nT/nP 0. where power meets speed
With its single stage turbine and its torque multiplication factor of ~ 2.4 0. model offers over-synchronous output speed. The hydraulic fluid for the torque converter can be supplied by the gas turbine lube-oil system or through a complete packaged starter version including an oil reservoir system as available from Voith..000 3.25 0 0. The robust. the various operating points of the gas turbine are easily obtained.4 MT Lx Lx Lx Lx Lx =100% = 75% = 50% = 25% = 0% Torque/Speed Characteristics
6.2 1.00 1.Torque Converter Model EL. the EL.0-50 EL 10 GTM 7.25 1.000
6..5-86 0.6 0.500 3.8 1.600
MP 1.50 0.2 0
2.75 1.4 0..75 0.0 EL 9 GTM 6. Input power (kW) Input speed (min-1) Turning speed (min-1) Breakaway Torque (Nm) EL 9 G 6.00 3.000 3.50 MP η 50.000 86.2 0.8 Lx = Guide vanes open MP = Input torque MT = Output torque nP = Input speed nT = Output speed η = Efficiency 0.000 0.50 1.25 0 0.6 0.0 2.600
7.400 3. controlled by solenoid valves or an electric actuator. modular housing is designed for various torque converter sizes as well as alternate torque converter configurations. MT/MP Starter Model Max.00 Selection of EL. With the powerful hydraulic guide vane system.
337 1006 1700 1260
Type EL 10 GTM 7.1
6 5 3
Simplified longitudinal section of Torque Converter Type EL 9 G 6.5-86
357 540 880 2150 1260 1195
.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Input shaft Pump wheel Turbine wheel Output shaft Adjustable guide vanes Adjusting mechanism Hydraulic cylinder for guide vane adjusting Guide vane actuator Housing Fill and drain valve Operating oil supply Operating oil return
Type EL 9 G 6.
With this modular design. Among the advantages of this design are space savings and reduced cost through the elimination of an additional coupling and subsequently.. A large number of this model torque converter are in operation worldwide with integrated turning gears from 3.YGTM with integral continuous turning gear
Like many of Voiths’ torque converters.5 YGTM 2.600
Turning speed (min-1) Breakaway Torque (Nm)
2.000 ft-lb (110.YGTM EL 7. an electro-pneumatic turning device is available for connection to the turning gear drive motor accessory shaft for ultra-slow indexing of the gas turbine.600
10. The turning gear is designed for longlife with emphasis on high break-away torque and long periods of low-speed turning over the design life of 35 years. The same turning gears are also available as stand alone units.5 YGTM 10-110
Starter Model Max.000 3. reduced assembly and alignment work. Input power (kW) Input speed (min )
Selection of EL.4
6.2-86 EL 10.000 Nm).Torque Converter Model EL.0
86.600 ft-lb (5000 Nm) to 80. In addition.200 3. this powerful unit is equipped with an integrated turning gear connected to the output shaft with an over-running clutch. The turning gears are available with either AC or DC drive motors.000
110. a large number of system combinations are available (different turning gear and torque converter sizes) permitting a high degree of customization.
5 YGTM 2.2-86
174 600 600 1726 720
.5 YGTM 2.1
Type EL 7.2-86 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Input shaft Output shaft Pump wheel Turbine wheel Adjustable guide vanes Housing Filling and draining valve Control valve for filling and draining Working oil supply Working oil return Overrunning clutch Worm gear Electric motor Bevel gear
Simplified longitudinal section of Torque Converter with integral turning gear
Type EL 7.
ZGTM with integral hydraulic turning device
This Voith torque converter with integrated hydraulic turning device is a well-proven design with hundreds of installations worldwide. the guide vane adjustment system is equipped.000 45° intermittent 46. in this case.ZGTM Starter Model Max.600 45° intermittent 35. With its double stage turbine the torque converter offers a torque multiplication factor of 10. Input power (kW) Input speed (min )
EL 7. the gas turbine is turned 45 degrees.. with an electric actuator with various limit and position switches. Hydraulic cylinders produce the output torque.000 3..000
Turning speed (min-1) Breakaway Torque (Nm)
.800 3. With each forward piston stroke.5 ZGTM
EL 10 ZGTM-46
1.Torque Converter EL.
Selection of EL. For the various operating points of the gas turbine. which is transmitted to the output shaft via an overrunning clutch.
9 8 7
10 12 13
Type EL 7.5 ZGTM 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Input shaft Output shaft Pump wheel Turbine wheel Adjustable guide vanes Housing Filling and draining valve Control valve for filling and draining Working oil supply Working oil return Overrunning clutch Return stroke piston/cylinder Working stroke piston/cylinder
ø119 ø80 475
Simplified longitudinal section of Torque Converter with integral turning device
Type EL 7.5 720
450 3.. superior to other types of starters.000
Turning speed Breakaway Torque (Nm)
11.300/2. Input power (kW) Input speed (min )
E 5 WAT
E 6 WAT
E 6 YAT
E 7 WAT
280/300 3. Starter Model Max.. The design is purposely built for high reliability and has a proven availability. With its integral gear step. For black starters.6 MT MP 1 M 0 0 0. Economical savings are achieved through the compact and simple design. a hydraulic turning device can be integrated into this torque converter. where a diesel engine is used instead of an electric starting motor.Torque Converter Type E. torque converters with fixed guide vanes are available and in operation in a large international fleet.000 45° intermittent
n T/n P n P = constant
1.0 0. The output speed of this unit is controllable using a pressure reduction valve.6 0.0 1.2 0.600 45° intermittent 11.600 45° intermittent
460/460 2. Optionally. this torque converter can be easily matched to any gas turbine speed requirements.000 -
700 3.8 1.000
11.100 5 4 η 3 0.000
11.000/3.2 0 η
MP = Input torque MT = Output torque η = Efficiency
. with Fixed Guide Vanes the compact one
For gas turbines with a power of up to 45 MW.100 45° intermittent
700 3.4 0.
Selection of E.4 0. the torque converter is ideally suited to the diesel motor characteristic and offers a no-load engine start.
5 nP R nT 6
Simplified longitudinal section of Torque Converter Type E 7 WAT 1 Input shaft with connecting coupling
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Pump wheel Turbine wheel Fixed guide vanes Gear stage Output shaft Hydrostatic turning device Working oil supply Working oil return
Schematic diagram for oil circuit of Type E 7 WAT 1 Torque converter 2 Oil pump 3 Relief valve 4 Helical gear stage 5 Hydrostatic turning device 6 Overrunning clutch
Type E 6 WAT
Type E 7 W
Type E 7 W without turning device
Our engineers are eager to design and offer a system for your requirements. Due to the torque converter characteristic.600 rpm
1.000 Nm 33. and commissioning time is greatly reduced.5 YGTM 10-110
Cranking Power Speed Turning Speed Breakway Torque
1.600 rpm 2.0 rpm 110. site assembly.000 Nm 81. For more demanding requirements such as retro-fitting to older gas turbines.000 Nm 25.000 hp 3.800 ft-lbs
2.076 hp 800 kW 3. achieving an economical and space conscious design.0-50 EL 10 GTM 7.100 ft-lbs
12.5 YGTM EL 10 YGTM 2.000 rpm
1.755 hp 2.025 hp 3.
Voith engineers configure gas turbine starting packages specifically for your gas turbines.8 YFG EL 6.5 YGTM EL 7. This means the driver (motor) can be used above its continuous rating during the short start-up of the gas turbine. the design can include an integral oil tank for a self contained.0 rpm 110.
Gas Turbine Starters
GT Starter Modell EL 6.2 rpm
50.2-86 2.005 hp 750 kW 3.500hp 1.025 hp 3.3 rpm 46.3 rpm 36.000 rpm 3.8 YFG EL 7. the driver can be designed as a true starting motor.000 Nm 86. a complete-system solution
Torque converter. and all required accessory equipment are factory mounted on a common base.865 kW 3.060 hp 7.500 ft-lbs
2.5 YGTM EL 7.600 rpm 6. The components of the packaged starting system are selected to compliment each other. motor.600 kW 3.000 kW
4. onboard PLC system controls the various phases of the starting sequence. alignment.600 rpm
3.5-86 EL 10.2-36 2.Packaged Starter.600 rpm 45° Intermittent 35. The table shows examples of starters in worldwide operation.600 rpm 2.000 Nm 36.000 Nm 63.000 kW
10. With this all-inclusive solution.200 hp 896 kW 3.865 kW 3. An optionally available. Please call or send us an e-mail.874 hp 9.0 EL 9 GTM 6.0 rpm 2.400 ft-lbs
. and economical motor.600 rpm 3.400 ft-lbs
4.5-110 EL 9 G 6.0 EL 9 G 6.000 Nm 26.600 rpm 2. This results in a smaller.000 rpm 3.700 kW 3.600 kW 3.600 rpm 3. space saving. packaged starter.500 hp 1.800 ft-lbs 63.146 hp 1.5 ZGTM EL 7.2-46 6.4 rpm 86.000 Nm 81.100 ft-lbs
0 Package 1 Torque converter 2 Torque converter housing 3 Starting motor 4 Control valve for guide vane position 5 Guide vane actuator 6 Transducer 7 Filter for control oil 8 Filling and draining valve 9 Thermocouples 10 Cooling oil 11 Indicator for guide vane position 12 Working oil pump 13 Pressure gauge lube oil pressure
Type EL 9 G 6.0
3505 6180 366
2 10 12 3 1 9
8 4 6 5 11 7
Schematic diagram for oil circuit of El 9 G 6.
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