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Xir2 Unv Designer Guide En

Xir2 Unv Designer Guide En

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Sections

  • Overview
  • Designer and universe fundamentals
  • How do you use Designer to create universes?
  • Who is the universe designer? 1
  • Who is the universe designer?
  • Introducing the universe development process
  • Designer example materials 1
  • Designer example materials
  • Starting Designer
  • Importing a universe
  • Opening a universe
  • Exporting a universe 2
  • Exporting a universe
  • Saving a universe
  • Closing a universe
  • Creating a universe
  • Printing a universe
  • What is a schema?
  • Inserting tables
  • Using derived tables
  • Defining joins
  • Using the Join SQL Editor
  • ANSI 92 support for joins in a universe
  • Defining specific types of joins
  • Restrictions for the use of outer joins
  • Using cardinalities
  • Optimizing automatic cardinality detection
  • Checking the universe
  • Resolving join problems in a schema
  • What is a join path problem?
  • Defining aliases
  • Defining contexts
  • Resolving loops
  • Resolving Chasm Traps
  • Resolving Fan Traps
  • Using Multiple SQL Statements for Each Measure
  • Detecting join problems graphically 4
  • Detecting join problems graphically
  • Building universes
  • Introduction to universe building
  • What types of objects are used in a universe?
  • Using the Universe pane 5
  • Using the Universe pane
  • Basic operations on classes, objects, and conditions
  • Defining classes
  • Defining objects
  • Defining hierarchies
  • Using cascading lists of values for hierarchies
  • Using lists of values
  • Creating a basic universe automatically
  • Using the Quick Design Wizard
  • Testing the universe
  • Generating OLAP universes from OLAP cube sources
  • Generating OLAP universes from OLAP cube sources
  • Creating a OLAP connection
  • Creating a OLAP universe
  • Saving and exporting a OLAP universe 6
  • Saving and exporting a OLAP universe
  • Updating OLAP universes
  • OLAP to universe mapping
  • Dimensions
  • Characteristics
  • Hierarchies
  • BW variables
  • Hierarchy node variables
  • Formula variables
  • Currency variables
  • Keydate variables
  • Generating universes from metadata sources
  • Selecting a metadata source
  • XML metadata sources
  • Universe to DBCV2 metadata mapping
  • Mapping specific SQL expressions
  • Oracle Analytic Workspaces
  • Create a view only
  • Using universes to build metrics
  • Enterprise metrics
  • Creating the universe on a target fact table
  • Creating a measure
  • Defining a self join and @prompt functions
  • Defining a filter
  • Exporting the universe to Performance Management
  • Creating the metric
  • Configuration of universes for Process Analysis charts
  • Designing universes for set based metrics
  • Using aggregate tables
  • Using @Functions
  • @Aggregate_Aware
  • @Prompt
  • @Select
  • @Where
  • Using external strategies to customize universe creation
  • Creating Help text for external strategies
  • Verifying that the external strategy file is declared
  • How is the strategy file (STG) structured?
  • Using analytic functions
  • IBM DB2 UDB and Oracle
  • Verifying and Adding Analytic Function Support to the PRM File
  • RedBrick (RISQL functions)
  • Teradata (OLAP functions)
  • Inserting syntax automatically in Select statements
  • Managing universes
  • Deploying universes
  • Setting access restrictions on a universe
  • Working with multiple designers
  • Linking universes
  • Including one universe within another
  • Managing users and logins 10
  • Managing users and logins
  • Optimizing universes
  • The Club database
  • Documentation and information services
  • Documentation
  • Customer support, consulting and training
  • Useful addresses at a glance
  • DBUser / DBPass

Designer’s Guide

BusinessObjects XI Release 2 Windows

Patents

Business Objects owns the following U.S. patents, which may cover products that are offered and licensed by Business Objects: 5,555,403; 6,247.008 B1; 6,578,027 B2; 6,490,593; and 6,289,352. Business Objects and the Business Objects logo, BusinessObjects, Crystal Reports, Crystal Xcelsius, Crystal Decisions, Intelligent Question, Desktop Intelligence, Crystal Enterprise, Crystal Analysis, WebIntelligence, RapidMarts, and BusinessQuery are trademarks or registered trademarks of Business Objects in the United States and/or other countries. All other names mentioned herein may be trademarks of their respective owners. Copyright © 2007 Business Objects. All rights reserved. Business Objects products in this release may contain redistributions of software licensed from third-party contributors. Some of these individual components may also be available under alternative licenses. A partial listing of third-party contributors that have requested or permitted acknowledgments, as well as required notices, can be found at: http://www.businessobjects.com/thirdparty

Trademarks

Copyright Third-party contributors

Contents
Chapter 1 Introducing Designer 7 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Designer and universe fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 How do you use Designer to create universes? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Who is the universe designer? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Introducing the universe development process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Designer example materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Chapter 2 Doing basic operations 23

Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Starting Designer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Importing a universe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Opening a universe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Exporting a universe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Saving a universe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Closing a universe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Creating a universe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Setting universe parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Using the Designer user interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Using Find and Replace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Organizing the table display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Selecting schema display options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Printing a universe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Chapter 3 Creating a schema with tables and joins 101

Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 What is a schema? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Inserting tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Using derived tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

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Contents

Defining joins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Defining specific types of joins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 Using cardinalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 Checking the universe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 Chapter 4 Resolving join problems in a schema 167

Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 What is a join path problem? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 Defining aliases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 Defining contexts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 Resolving loops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 Resolving Chasm Traps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 Resolving Fan Traps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 Detecting join problems graphically . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 Checking the universe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 Chapter 5 Building universes 235

Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236 Introduction to universe building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236 Using the Universe pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 Basic operations on classes, objects, and conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 Defining classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 Defining objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 Defining hierarchies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283 Using cascading lists of values for hierarchies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 Using lists of values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290 Creating a basic universe automatically . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306 Testing the universe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314 Chapter 6 Generating OLAP universes 317

Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318 Generating OLAP universes from OLAP cube sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320 Creating a OLAP connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321 Creating a OLAP universe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324

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Contents

Saving and exporting a OLAP universe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327 Updating OLAP universes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327 OLAP to universe mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329 Chapter 7 Creating universes from metadata sources 339

Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340 Generating universes from metadata sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340 Selecting a metadata source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342 XML metadata sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344 Oracle Analytic Workspaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356 Chapter 8 Creating universes for use as metrics 371

Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372 Using universes to build metrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373 Enterprise metrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376 Configuration of universes for Process Analysis charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381 Designing universes for set based metrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385 Chapter 9 Optimizing universes 389

Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390 Using aggregate tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390 Using @Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404 Using external strategies to customize universe creation . . . . . . . . . . . . 413 Using analytic functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426 Chapter 10 Managing universes 439

Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440 Deploying universes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440 Setting access restrictions on a universe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441 Working with multiple designers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450 Linking universes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451 Including one universe within another . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462 Managing users and logins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463 Optimizing universes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465

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Contents

Appendix A

Using the sample materials

469

Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 470 The Club database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 470 Appendix B Business Objects information resources 477 Documentation and information services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478 Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478 Customer support, consulting and training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479 Useful addresses at a glance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480 Appendix C Post-release additions 483

Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484 DBUser / DBPass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484 Index 485

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Designer’s Guide

Introducing Designer

chapter

1

Introducing Designer Overview

Overview
This chapter gives you a general introduction to Designer, the tool you use to build universes. It describes universes, what they contain, how they are created, and the role that universes have in your business environment. The typical universe development cycle is described, with best design practices recommended. The demonstration databases and universes shipped with this release are also described. Note: $INSTALLDIR variable in this guide In this guide the variable $INSTALLDIR is the install root path for the data access files used by Designer and Web Intelligence. This is the Business Objects installation path with the operating system sub directory that contains the Designer executable and the data access drivers. Under Windows$INSTALLDIR = \\...\Business Objects\BusinessObjects Enterprise 11.5\win32_x86. For example C:\Program Files\Business Objects\BusinessObjects Enterprise 11.5\win32_x86.

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Designer’s Guide

Introducing Designer Designer and universe fundamentals

1

Designer and universe fundamentals
Business Objects Designer is a software tool that allows you to create universes for Web Intelligence and Desktop Intelligence users.

What is a universe?
A universe is a file that contains the following:

• •

Connection parameters for one or more database middleware. SQL structures called objects that map to actual SQL structures in the database such as columns, tables, and database functions. Objects are grouped into classes. Objects and classes are both visible to Web Intelligence users. A schema of the tables and joins used in the database. Objects are built from the database structures that you include in your schema. The schema is only available to Designer users. It is not visible to Web Intelligence and Desktop Intelligence users.

Web Intelligence users connect to a universe, and run queries against a database. They can do data analysis and create reports using the objects in a universe, without seeing, or having to know anything about, the underlying data structures in the database.

What is the role of a universe?
The role of a universe is to provide an easy to use and understand interface for non technical Web Intelligence users to run queries against a database to create reports and perform data analysis. As the universe designer, you use Designer to create objects that represent database structures, for example columns and database functions, that users need to access and query, to get the information necessary to meet their business requirements. The objects that you create in the universe must be relevant to the end user business environment and vocabulary. Their role is to present a business focussed front end to the SQL structures in the database.

Designer’s Guide

9

1

Introducing Designer Designer and universe fundamentals

The following diagram shows the role of objects as the mapping layer between a database schema and the Query work area in Web Intelligence, that users use to create queries to run against database tables.
objects database schema

Result Objects pane in Web Intelligence

database

What does a universe contain?
A universe contains the following structures:

• •
Classes

Classes Objects

A class is a logical grouping of objects within a universe. It represents a category of objects. The name of a class should indicate the category of the objects that it contains. A class can be divided hierarchically into subclasses.

Objects
An object is a named component that maps to data or a derivation of data in the database. The name of an object should be drawn from the business vocabulary of the targeted user group. For example, objects used in a universe used by a product manager could be Product, Life Cycle, or Release Date. A universe used by a financial analyst could contain objects such as Profit Margin, and Return on Investment.

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Designer’s Guide

product. or time. needed by users for their analysis and report creation. A schema is shown below for the sample universe Beach. but is only visible and accessible in Designer. or measure. detail. Object type Dimension Description Parameters for analysis.unv. objects are qualified as one of three types: dimension. For example Sales Revenue Detail Measure Objects infer SQL structures displayed in a schema The objects that Web Intelligence users see in a universe infer SQL structures that you have inserted into a database schema. but are not the focus for analysis. You create the schema in the Structure pane of the Universe window. For example Last Name and City_Id Provide a description of a dimension. You. as the universe designer. For example Phone Number Convey numeric information which is used to quantify a dimension object. create this schema based on the tables and joins that are required to return the data. Dimensions typically relate to a hierarchy such as geography. The schema is a part of the universe file.Introducing Designer Designer and universe fundamentals 1 Types of objects In Designer. Columns Tables Joins Designer’s Guide 11 .

Each object type is shown below. copy. You use the object explorer to create. delete. view. Universe pane Structure pane 12 Designer’s Guide . detail object dimension object measure object Viewing the universe window The Universe window in Designer is shown below. It contains both the Universe pane (also visible in Web Intelligence) and the Structure pane (visible only in Designer).1 Introducing Designer Designer and universe fundamentals How are objects presented in a universe? Objects are displayed as nodes in an tree explorer view in the Universe pane. and move classes and objects.

Designer allows you to distribute universes by importing and exporting universes to the Crystal Management System (CMS) repository. This database connection is saved with the universe. Designer provides a graphical interface that allows you to select and view tables in a database. but only one connection can be defined for each universe. Designer’s Guide 13 . You can create multiple connections with Designer. The definition of each object infers a Select statement. create joins that link the tables. Web Intelligence users manipulate these objects to run queries against a database. You use the explorer tree to create objects that map to the columns and SQL structures that are represented in the schema view. Designer provides an object explorer view.Introducing Designer How do you use Designer to create universes? 1 How do you use Designer to create universes? Designer provides a connection wizard which allows you to connect to your database middleware. How do objects generate SQL? Web Intelligence users create queries by dragging objects into the Query work area. Web Intelligence users do not see this schema. create alias tables. contexts. The database tables are represented as table symbols in a schema diagram. and solve loops in your schema. When a query is run. a Select statement and optional Where clause for all the objects is run against the target database. You can use this interface to manipulate tables.

the universe designer. These objects have been created by you. The connection to the database is defined in the universe. 14 Designer’s Guide . The tables that are included in the From clause and the Joins in the Where clause. The access to data is in turn restricted by the objects that are available in the universe. How are universes used? Universes are used by Web Intelligence users. a Group By clause containing the content of those dimension and detail objects is automatically added to the Select statement. An end user connects to a universe from a web browser. including all those shown below. What types of database schema are supported? Designer can support most types of database schema. The universes are stored in the Crystal Management System (CMS) repository. so by connecting to the universe.1 Introducing Designer How do you use Designer to create universes? When a user chooses to include dimension and/or detail objects with a measure object in the Query work area. based on the user needs profile for a defined user group. the end user automatically has access to the data. You do not need to redefine or optimize your database before using Designer. are inferred from the table schema that you build in the Structure pane.

and Department Information. For example. a universe can contain objects that represent the data needs of the Marketing or Accounting departments in a company. A universe can also represent the data needs of a section within a department or any set of organized procedures such as a payroll or inventory system.Introducing Designer How do you use Designer to create universes? 1 Representing a targeted data need A universe can represent the data needs of any specific application. Attendance Information. An example of the types of classes that could be used in a human resources universe is shown below: Employee Information Attendance Information Vacation Days Accrued Sick Days Taken Total Absences Department Information HUMAN RESOURCES UNIVERSE Examples of classes in the universe depicted above are Employee Information. Designer’s Guide 15 . or group of users. system.

Each object maps to a part of the database structure. The universe should provide them with classes and objects relevant to their business domain. 16 Designer’s Guide . The SALES universe contains a class called STATISTICS which contains two objects. CUSTOMER UNIT PRICE PRODUCT STATISTICS .Current Value .1 Introducing Designer How do you use Designer to create universes? Universes and the database schema The following example shows sections of a database schema that have been used to create three universes.Out of Stock ITEM NUMBER SALES universe PERSONNEL universe INVENTORY universe Who uses universes? Web Intelligence users use universes for reporting and analysis. PERSONNEL. INVENTORY. and SALES.Average Revenue . Each universe contains classes and objects. Average Revenue and Total Profit.Total Profit EMPLOYEE ADDRESS SALARY BONUS STOCK .

Within a company. and the type of data stored in company databases A working knowledge of SQL is necessary Database knowledge Stuctured Query Language (SQL) Designer’s Guide 17 .Introducing Designer Who is the universe designer? 1 Who is the universe designer? Universes are created by a universe designer using Designer. a project manager. an applications manager or developer. the person designated as the universe designer may be the database administrator. There is no standard profile for a universe designer. department or functional area. Universe design teams There can be more than one universe designer in a company. These needs include report creation and query results that are suitable for analysis Universe designer needs to have a good working knowledge of the company’s database management system (DBMS). project. or a report creator who has acquired enough technical skills to create universes for other users. The number of universe designers depends on the company’s data requirements. one universe designer could be appointed for each application. how the databases are deployed. the logical database structure. For example. Required skills and knowledge A universe designer should have the following skills and level of technical knowledge: Skill/Knowledge Ability to analyze user needs Description Universes are created to meet a user need for data. and to develop universes that meet the needs of the user community. The universe designer must have the skills to conduct user needs analyses to create classes and objects that are relevant to the user vocabulary.

and three implementation phases: • • • • Analysis of business problem and planning the universe solution Designing a schema Building the universe Distributing the universe to users Each implementation phase is based on an assumption that you have completed an initial planning phase. and will not be useful to your target users. A poorly planned universe that is not based on a study of user reporting needs will be difficult to design. and describe how universe creation fits into a typical universe development cycle. and is the decisive phase for the success or failure of your universe.1 Introducing Designer Introducing the universe development process What are the tasks of the universe designer? The universe designer is normally responsible for the following tasks: • • • • Conducting user needs analysis Designing and creating the universe Distributing the universe Maintaining the universe Introducing the universe development process The following sections give an overview of how you manually create a universe. maintain. Each of these phases is described as follows: 18 Designer’s Guide . Universe design methodology The universe design methodology described in this manual consists of one planning stage. The planning phase can be done without using Designer. implement.

The structures that you use to create the schema should be based on a clearly defined user need to access the data contained in those tables and columns. which may occur in the structure by using aliases or contexts. • Designing a schema You create a schema for the underlying database structure of your universe. but identify columns that match an object that you have already identified from your user needs analysis. by exporting them to the Crystal Management System (CMS) repository. You should have a clear idea of the objects that you need to create before you start using Designer. and eventually for production. You should also perform tests by running reports in Web Intelligence. Designer’s Guide 19 . This schema includes the tables and columns of the target database and the joins by which they are linked. you should spend up to eighty percent of the time allotted for the universe creation project. multidimensional analysis. chasm traps. The building phase is described in the chapter Building universes. You test the integrity of your universe structure. In this guide. the designing a schema phase is described in the chapters Creating a schema with tables and joins and Resolving join problems in a schema. Do not create objects by looking at the columns available in the database. and fan traps. planning the universe. You test the integrity of the overall structure. Distributing the universe You can distribute your universes to users for testing. You should note the following points: • You must analyze the data analysis and reporting needs of the target audience for the universe. These are objects that you have identified from an analysis of user reporting needs. This phase is described in the chapter Managing universes. You may need to resolve join problems such as loops. and optimize query performance.Introducing Designer Introducing the universe development process 1 Plan the universe before you start using Designer Before starting the first phase. You organize these objects into classes. You can create many types of objects to enhance user reporting capabilities. Building the universe You create the objects that infer Select statements based on the components of your schema.

You use Designer to design and build a universe. Understand the joins.1 Introducing Designer Introducing the universe development process Universe development cycle Universe development is a cyclic process which includes planning. how many universes should be created and which ones should have the capacity to be linked and to what level. Identify the cardinality. for example is the user group structured by department or by task. This section presents an overview of a universe design methodology that you can use to plan and implement a universe development project. Identify the user population and how it is structured. Familiarize yourself with their business terminology so that you can name objects sensibly. Analyze Plan Implement Identify a project strategy. • Test Test frequently during the build process for validity and reliability of inferred SQL. Know what is possible. Ask the users to perform thorough tests simulating live usage of the universe(s). however. • Build the universe using Designer. Form a small group of Web Intelligence power users who have some knowledge of what information they expect to get from the universe. 20 Designer’s Guide . the actual use of the design tool. Know what data is contained within each table of each of the target databases. Identify what standard reports they require. and maintenance phases. The table below outlines the major phases in a typical universe development cycle: Development phase Prepare Description • • • • • • • • • Identify the target data source and become familiar with its structure. building. For example. This manual covers this part of the universe development cycle. distribution. Identify what information the users need. designing. the usability of any universe is directly related to how successfully the other phases in the development cycle interact with each other.

Designer example materials The following samples are shipped with Designer: Demonstration databases Most of the examples in this guide are based on the Club database built with Microsoft Access 2000.mdb. This database is used by the sales manager of the fictitious business. Evolve Note: Universe design should always be driven primarily by user requirements and NOT the data source structure. Designer’s Guide 21 . Implementation will be very quick and easy if the first three stages are carried out properly.Introducing Designer Designer example materials 1 Development phase Deploy Description Distribute the universe by exporting universe to the Crystal Management System (CMS) repository. Update and maintain the universe as the data sources and user requirements change and grow. You can find the database file. to perform sales and marketing analysis. where it can be accessed by end users. Optimizing universe planning and implementation time The analysis of user requirements and design are the most important stages in the process. Users must be heavily involved in the development process if the universe is going to fulfil their needs both with the business language used to name objects and the data that can be accessed. Club. Island Resorts. in the Databases subfolder in the Business Objects installation path. You can spend up to 80% of the time allocated to the development of a universe on the first three stages: • • • Preparing Analyzing Planning If you have spent the time in the laying the foundation for your universe. the other 20% of the time spent actually using Designer to build your universe will be much more productive than if you have not spent the necessary time in planning and analysis.

000 rows of sales information on a weekly basis. 1 in Canada). which were set up with aggregate navigation. You can use this universe to learn how to build specific objects and classes with Designer. This MS Access 2000 database tracks 211 products (663 product color variations). Two aggregate tables. Designer also comes with the efashion universe built using the efashion database.unv is delivered in the Universes subfolder of the Samples folder in the BusinessObjects installation path. over 3 years. sold over 13 stores (12 US. A second fact table containing promotions. refer to the appendix at the back of this guide. The efashion database is also shipped with this release. Demonstration universes A complete demo universe called beach. The database contains: • • • A central fact table with 89. 22 Designer’s Guide . It was built with the Club database described above.1 Introducing Designer Designer example materials For more information on the structure of this database.

Doing basic operations chapter .

For example C:\Program Files\Business Objects\BusinessObjects Enterprise 11. modify. and update universes. save it with a secure connection and export it to the repository. Under Windows$INSTALLDIR = \\.5\win32_x86. You then import the universe to make updates and export updated versions.\Business Objects\BusinessObjects Enterprise 11. Once you start Designer you can open a universe in one of the following ways: 24 Designer’s Guide .. This is the Business Objects installation path with the operating system sub directory that contains the Designer executable and the data access drivers.2 Doing basic operations Overview Overview This chapter describes the basic operations you perform in Designer to create.5\win32_x86. If you are starting Designer for the first time and want to work on an existing universe. This ensures that the CMS and the local universe versions are synchronized. you need to open the universe directly first.. The following topics are covered: • • • • • • • • • • • • Starting Designer Importing a universe Opening a universe Exporting a universe Saving a universe Creating a universe Setting universe parameters Using the Designer user interface Using Find and Replace Organizing the table display Selecting schema display options Printing a universe Note: $INSTALLDIR variable in this guide In this guide the variable $INSTALLDIR is the install root path for the data access files used by Designer and Web Intelligence. Starting Designer Designer can only be used with a Central Management System (CMS) repository. You must log in to the repository before starting Designer.

Designer Click the Start button on the taskbar. then exporting the updated universe is the most common way of working with Designer. You are prompted to log into the CMS before Designer starts. See the section “Saving a universe” on page 33 for more information. Point to the Programs menu. Designer’s Guide 25 . 2.Doing basic operations Starting Designer 2 • • • Create a new universe Import a universe from the CMS repository Open a universe directly from the file system A universe is only available to Web Intelligence users when it is exported to the repository. making changes. You start Designer from the task bar by clicking the Designer icon in the group of installed Business Objects products for this release. It ensures that the CMS (repository) version is synchronized with the file version. Importing a universe. 3. Note: You can save a universe to the file system. You do this when you want to share the universe with other users who may not have a connection rights to the target CMS. Starting Designer To start Designer: 1. The login box for the CMS appears. Click the Designer program from the BusinessObjects command.

Your security level 5. and an empty Designer session opens. Your repository user name. the Quick Start universe design wizard can start automatically when you start Designer. Type the following information. User and CMS name Note: Depending on options set for Designer. The Designer startup screen appears. Login information Description System User Name Password Authentication Name of the CMS server.2 Doing basic operations Starting Designer 4. For more information on disabling other wizard options.Click Cancel to close the wizard. then you can refer to the section “Using the Quick Design Wizard” on page 307 of the . This information is normally provided for you by the BusinessObjects administrator. Click the OK button. 26 Designer’s Guide . Your repository password. The user name and CMS name appear in the title bar. If you want to use the Quick Design wizard. see the section “Disactivating the Quick Design wizard” on page 27.

This check box is already cleared if you have cleared the Run this Wizard at Startup check box from the Startup Wizard Welcome page. Clear the Show Welcome Wizard check box. see the section “Disactivating the Quick Design wizard” on page 27. If you want to make a universe available to all users. however. Giving all users access to a universe You can make a universe accessible to all Designer users in both workgroup and enterprise mode.Doing basic operations Starting Designer 2 Using the Quick Design Wizard appropriately When you start a Designer session for the first time. a Quick Design wizard appears by default. building. 4. and maintenance information and procedures in this manual assume that you have disabled the Quick Design wizard. Using the Quick Design wizard is covered in the section “Using the Quick Design Wizard” on page 307. Select Tools > Options. You can prevent the wizard appearing automatically when you create a new universe as follows: To disactivate the Quick Design wizard: 1. It is recommended that you disable the Quick Design wizard. Note: You can activate the Quick Design Wizard at any time by selecting the above check boxes from the General page of the Options dialog box. For information on disabling other Quick Design wizard options. The Options dialog box opens to the General page. you must save the universe with an unsecured connection. except for the chapter “Using the Quick Design Wizard” on page 307 which deals specifically with using the wizard. or to familiarize yourself with Designer. a Quick Design wizard appears by default. and use it only as a means to familiarize yourself with Designer. it is not an appropriate tool for creating a complete universe that responds to end user reporting requirements. Click OK. and not use it to design universes. Disactivating the Quick Design wizard When you first start a Designer session. You can use the wizard to quickly create a universe. The connection for the universe cannot be a secured connection. Clear the File/New Starts Quick Design Wizard check box. Designer’s Guide 27 . All the universe design. by saving a universe in workgroup mode. 3. 2.

When you import a universe. 28 Designer’s Guide . then the universe on the repository file system is replaced by the version in the CMS. a message box appears asking if you want to replace the universe in the folder. the universe is made available to Designer. Secured connections are required to export universe to the CMS. 4. If the version is identical. Click OK. 3. If the universe version on the repository file system is more recent than the CMS version.2 Doing basic operations Importing a universe To make a universe accessible to all Designer users: 1. Importing a universe You can import one or more universes stored in a universe folder in the repository. Select File > Save As. See the section “Defining and editing connections” on page 41 for more information. Verify that the universe that you want to make available to all users does not have a secured connection. If a universe has a secured connection. 2. Select Save for all users 5. A File Save box appears. Select the Save For All Users check box. select or create a new shared connection. the CMS checks the universe version on the repository file system. If you answer Yes. You can only import a universe that has already been exported to the repository.

6. Select a universe folder from the drop down list box. 4.Doing basic operations Importing a universe 2 Importing a universe from the repository 1. Click OK. The Import Universe dialog box appears. To unlock a universe. 5. 2. To import a universe from the repository Select File > Import. Or Click the Browse button and select a universe using the folder browser. You want to import a universe from this folder. The universe is imported to this folder. double-click it again. Click a universe name. A locked universe appears with a padlock symbol. double-click the universe name. Verify the file path for the import folder in the Import Folder box. This is the universe that you want to import. 3. If you want to lock the universe. Designer’s Guide 29 .

To open a universe directly Select File > Open. you are opening a version on the local file system. A File Open box opens to the directory designated as the default universe file store. When you have finished modifying the universe. the current version available in the repository is made available to Designer.2 Doing basic operations Opening a universe What is the difference between opening and importing? You can open a universe directly from the file system. 2. Select a universe file and click Open Or Double click the universe file. 1. Opening a universe You open a universe using the menu commands or by clicking the Open button. When you import a universe. The Universe opens in the current Designer window. it is saved only to the file system. You can set this directory in the Save page of the Options dialog box (Tools > Options > Save). When you save this universe. 3. browse to the directory that contains the universe file (. If necessary. The CMS is updated with the latest changes. that may not correspond to the latest version in the CMS. 30 Designer’s Guide . Updates in this universe are not available to Web Intelligence users. you export it to the repository.UNV). it is not updated in the CMS. When you open a universe directly without importing.

unv The universes stored in the CMS server are used for version control. This is the default root folder for universes for a user. Designer’s Guide 31 . The subfolders that store universes are created under the universes folder. See the section “What is the difference between exporting and saving?” on page 33 for more information. Note: Saving a universe is not the same as exporting a universe. Example: Universe folders on the repository file system The following diagram shows the universe folders on the repository file system for a user designer1.Doing basic operations Exporting a universe 2 Exporting a universe You make a universe available to Web Intelligence users and other designers by exporting a universe to the repository. but not the CMS repository version of the universe. Your universes are saved by default in the universes folder in your user profile path as follows: \\Documents and Settings\<user>\Application Data\Business Objects\Business Objects 11. Each time the universe is exported to the repository. When you export a universe the universe is: • • moved to the selected universe folder on the repository file system and created in the Central Management System (CMS). the universe version in the CMS is updated. Saving updates the universe on the repository local file system. You work on the universe version on the local file system. When you export an updated universe to the repository. This is the version that is available to Web Intelligence users. the updated universe is copied to the CMS server. How are universes organized on the repository file system? The repository stores universes on the local file system and in the CMS server. The local file system is the server on which Designer is installed.5\universes\@<repository name>\universe folder\<universe>.

2. double-click it again. To unlock a universe. The Export Universe dialog box appears. 4. 6. A locked universe appears with a padlock symbol.j Exporting a universe to the repository 1. click the Add Universe button. 3. All universe folders for designer1 are under the subfolder @VITRE. The Universes list box shows the names of the active universes.2 Doing basic operations Exporting a universe The user designer1 has rights to the repository VITRE. 32 Designer’s Guide . Click a group in the Groups list box. Click a universe in the Universes list box. If you want to lock the universe. double-click the universe name. You want to export the universe to this folder. Select a universe folder from the folder drop down list box. To export a universe to the repository Select File > Export. If you want to export other universes that are not open. 5. and then use the browser to select the other universes. This is the user group that uses the exported universe. Or Click the Browse button and select a universe folder in the folder browser.

Each universe in the repository is assigned a system identifier. Designer stores it as a file with a . the changes are not saved to the CMS.unv file name: Name type Universe name . Saving a universe You should regularly save your universes throughout a work session. the CMS is not updated. What is the difference between exporting and saving? When you save a universe. In Web Intelligence. You must export the universe to the CMS when you have completed updating a universe. Click OK. You can export only a universe defined with a secured connection. the update of the version in the repository file system is synchronized with the update of the universe in the CMS. This does not update the CMS version. If you save a universe and do not export the updated version. You can use the following maximum characters in the universe name (the long name) and . Refer to the section “Identifying a universe in the repository” on page 441 for more information in identifiers. You can not export a universe if it has been locked in the repository by another designer. you update the version in the repository file system. a user identifies the universe by the universe name (long name).Doing basic operations Saving a universe 2 7.unv name Maximum number of characters 100 Operating system maximum Designer’s Guide 33 .UNV extension on the local file system. When you export a universe. The saved universe is not available to other users. When you save a universe. When you save a universe.

linked universes. and the graphical table schema. conditions. the new universe is not associated in the CMS. tables.unv name. Component lists: lists of components in the universe including objects. To save universe information as a PDF file: 1. hierarchies. If you change the filename. joins. conditions. tables. and contexts. When you use Save As to save the universe under new name. You can use the following methods to save a universe: To save a universe Select File > Save from the menu bar Click the Save icon Press CTRL+S from the keyboard • • • Saving a universe definition as PDF You save the universe information as an Adobe PDF file. Select File > Save As 34 Designer’s Guide . will not point to the universe once its name has been changed. These options are described in the section “Setting print options” on page 98. hierarchies. and contexts in the universe. You must export the new universe to the CMS to create a version of the new universe.2 Doing basic operations Saving a universe Universe file names as identifiers You should not change the universe filename .unv after reports have been created based on that universe. Saving a universe The universe name can be different from the . joins. You can select what components that you want to appear in the PDF from the Print Options dialog box (Tools > Options > Print). You can save the same information that you can print out for a universe. Component descriptions: descriptions for the objects. any report built on the universe with the old name. This information includes: • • • General information: parameters.

6. The Save page appears. 4. Type a file path in the Default Universe Folder text box. Setting default save options By default. Click the Save tab. If you want to specify an automatic save time. You can specify another default save folder as follows: 1. The Options dialog box appears. 2. 5. Designer’s Guide 35 .Doing basic operations Saving a universe 2 2. 3. 3. Click OK. Select portable Document Format (PDF) from the Save as type drop down list box. Click Save. select the Save Automatically check box and select or type a time period number from the Minutes value select box. Or Browse to a folder that contains . Select Tools > Options.unv files. Designer stores the files that you save in the Universe subfolder in the Business Objects path.

You define universe parameters from the Universe Parameters dialog box (File > Parameters) when you create a universe. The database connection is the only parameter that you must manually select or create when you create a new universe. and set the controls on the use of system resources. You can also define other parameters that determine how Designer creates objects. To close a universe: • • • Select File Close from the menu bar Click the close window button at the top right corner of the universe window Press CTRL+W from the keyboard. When you create a new universe file.unv file. you must define a connection parameter to allow the universe to access your database middleware. What are universe parameters? Universe parameters are definitions and restrictions that you define for a universe that identify a universe and its database connections. links from the current universe to other universes. you must firstly create a new universe file. specify the type of queries that can be run using the universe. You save the new universe as a . Creating a universe Before you can build a universe. 36 Designer’s Guide .2 Doing basic operations Closing a universe Closing a universe You can use the following methods to close a universe. The new universe contains no classes and objects. You create these during the universe development process by designing a table schema and then creating objects that map to database structures. and query restrictions.

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Select the Distinct Values check box if you want to show only distinct values. 4. Modifying the default value for number of returned rows You can modify the default value for the number of rows returned when you view table or column values. 3. Type or select a number using the up and down arrows from the Table and Column Values list box.Doing basic operations Selecting schema display options 2 A content dialog box for the column appears listing the column values. Select Tools > Options. Click Close. 2. The Options dialog box appears. so you can restrict the returned values to a smaller number. 3. Click the Database tab. The Database page appears. Designer’s Guide 93 . To modify the number of rows fetched for a table: 1. This can be useful if you only want to view a small sample of the values in a table.

which is based on table weight.2 Doing basic operations Selecting schema display options The Database page below has 20 rows specified to be returned when values are viewed for a table or column. Displaying number of rows in tables To display the number of rows in each table: 1. or you can set a fixed number of rows for a selected table to optimize query performance. This is described in the section “Modifying the row count of a table” on page 96. You do this in two stages: • • Activate the graphic option Show Row Count (Tools > Options > Graphics). Select Tools > Options. Refresh the row count for all tables by selecting View > Number of Rows in Table. Click OK. This allows you to control the order of tables in a From clause. 94 Designer’s Guide . You can display the number of rows in each table in the database. Viewing the number of rows in database tables You can display the number of rows in each table. Note: Displaying the number of rows in a table is not the same as setting the number of rows that are returned to view table or column values. 4.

Doing basic operations Selecting schema display options 2 The Options dialog box appears. 4. a topic covered in the next section. Modify manually Lets you modify the row count for either selected tables or tables row all the tables in the Structure pane. If you do not click in the Structure pane before selecting a menu item. Note: When you click in the Structure pane. 3. Select View > Number of rows in Table. As a result. Select the Show Row Count check box. Enter the new value in count the text box beside the option. Select one or more tables. or all the tables in the Structure pane. The options in this dialog box are described below: Option Refresh row count for all tables Description Refreshes the display of the row count for selected tables. This option is used for optimizing queries. 2. Designer’s Guide 95 . only the menu items that apply to the Universe pane are available. The Graphics page appears. 5. Or Click anywhere in the Structure pane and select Edit > Select All to select all the tables in the structure pane. you activate the menu items that relate to the components in the Structure pane. Refresh Displays the row count of tables that were previously not undefined table selected. Click the Graphics tab. 6. all the tables in the Structure pane row count only appear with their row count. Click OK. The Table Row count box appears.

The row count for each selected table appears under the bottom left corner of each table symbol in the Structure pane. By modifying the row count of tables. For example. The Table Row count box appears. To modify row count of one or more tables: 1. Select Tools > Options.. Select the Refresh Row Count for All Tables radio button. you can change their order in the FROM clause. 5. The Graphics page appears. 6. Select View > Number of rows in Table. Select the Modify Manually Tables Row Count radio button. Click the Graphics tab.2 Doing basic operations Selecting schema display options 7. Tables with many rows appear before tables with fewer rows. 2. 8. Modifying the row count of a table You can modify the row count of tables. 96 Designer’s Guide . The Options dialog box appears. Select one or more tables. Optimize queries Description Query optimization is based on the order of the tables in the FROM clause of the generated SQL. Or Click anywhere in the Structure pane and select Edit > Select All to select all the tables in the structure pane.. Two reasons for doing this are as follows: Modify row count to. Click OK. 4.000 rows. Click OK. 3. This order can be important especially for RDBMS that lack an optimizer feature. Select the Show Row Count check box. 7. you can work with a test table having a row count of 100 even though the table will contain 50. Adapt row count to a You can modify the row count of a table when the row subsequent change count does not reflect the number of rows a table is to in data capacity hold.

You can also control the way the components and information appear on a printed page. You can print out the schema. and joins in the Structure pane. Designer’s Guide 97 . 9.Doing basic operations Printing a universe 2 8. See the section “Saving a universe definition as PDF” on page 34 for more information. Type the number of rows that you want to display for the table. Note: You can print out a PDF version of the universe definition and schema by saving the universe as a PDF> file. columns. Printing a universe Designer provides all standard Windows print facilities. then printing the PDF file. Click OK. The row count for each selected table appears under the bottom left corner of each table symbol in the Structure pane. as well as lists of the tables.

The Print options that you set. General information Information on the following: • Universe parameters • Component lists Component descriptions Linked universes The graphical structure of the schema in the Structural pane. joins. hierarchies.. The Options dialog box appears. Descriptions for the following components: objects. For an object. conditions. 98 Designer’s Guide . Lists of components in the universe grouped by one or more of the following types: objects. also apply to the options that are saved to a PDF file when you save the universe definition as PDF. Select Tools > Options. this information can include the SQL definition. and contexts. tables. 2. Click the Print/PDF tab. To set print options for a universe: 1.. and contexts. qualification and security access level. You can select the scale for this graphic. hierarchies.2 Doing basic operations Printing a universe Setting print options You can select print options from the Print page of the Options dialog box (Tools > Options > Print). joins. You can select the following print and PDF options: Print option Prints out. conditions. The description includes detailed information on the properties of the component. tables.

Using Print Preview You can preview your universe before printing in two ways: • • Print Preview Select File > print Preview. 2. Click OK. 3. Specifying Page Setup To specify page setup options: 1. Designer’s Guide 99 . The Page Setup sheet appears. 3. Click OK. 4. Select or type page setup options. Click the Print Preview button. Select print option check boxes as required.Doing basic operations Printing a universe 2 The Print page appears. Select File > Page Setup.

2 Doing basic operations Printing a universe Printing the Universe You can print your universe in two ways: • • Print Select file > Print. 100 Designer’s Guide . Click the Print button.

Creating a schema with tables and joins chapter .

you can verify the schema using an automatic integrity check. Under Windows$INSTALLDIR = \\.5\win32_x86.3 Creating a schema with tables and joins Overview Overview This chapter describes how you can create a schema that contains all the SQL structures necessary to build the objects that Web Intelligence users use to build reports. In Designer you create a schema for the part of the database that your universe represents.. This is the Business Objects installation path with the operating system sub directory that contains the Designer executable and the data access drivers. 102 Designer’s Guide . Note: $INSTALLDIR variable in this guide In this guide the variable $INSTALLDIR is the install root path for the data access files used by Designer and Web Intelligence. You create joins to link the tables. The joins link the tables so that the correct data is returned for queries that are run on more than one table. columns. When you have designed the schema for your universe. For example C:\Program Files\Business Objects\BusinessObjects Enterprise 11. These SQL structures include tables. Building a correct schema is the basis for building a universe that meets all its end user reporting requirements.\Business Objects\BusinessObjects Enterprise 11. You design the schema in the Structure pane by selecting tables from the target database using the Table Browser.. The tables contain columns that you eventually map to objects that end users use to create reports. The schema contains tables and joins. and database functions.5\win32_x86. joins. What is a schema? A schema is a graphical representation of database structures.

Schema design and the universe creation process Creating a schema is the first phase of the implementation stage of the universe development cycle.Creating a schema with tables and joins What is a schema? 3 A schema for the example Beach universe appears as follows: Table Column Cardinality indicator Join Schema design is the basis for a successful universe Good schema design is essential to good universe design. You should be looking at the database for tables that allow you to create these necessary objects. however. The user analysis and planning phases can all be done without using Designer. You populate the schema with tables based on the columns that correspond to the objects that end users need to create reports. creating your schema is the first step using Designer to build your universe. These objects should be defined from a user needs analysis. Designer’s Guide 103 .

The Table Browser is an independent window that shows a tree view of the tables available in the target database. You use the Table Browser to select insert tables into your schema.3 Creating a schema with tables and joins Inserting tables The following diagram indicates where the schema design phase appears in a typical universe development cycle: What are the stages of schema design? This chapter covers the following stages of schema design: • • • • Inserting and organizing tables. For more information on this topic. and fan traps. you can indicate strategies that you wish to use to help create your universe. Inserting tables You start designing a schema by selecting tables from the target database and inserting symbols that represent the tables in the Structure pane. see “Selecting strategies” on page 51. 104 Designer’s Guide . Note: Before selecting tables. chasm traps. In Designer. Creating joins and setting cardinalities Resolving join problems such as loops. the table symbols are referred to simply as tables. Testing the integrity of your schema.

• Designer’s Guide 105 . Click to add table(s) Refreshes the display of tables tables Activating the Table Browser The Table Browser is not visible by default. You use the Table Browser to view and select tables in your database that you want to insert into your schema. The Table Browser window appears in the Structure pane. Or Click the Table Browser button. To activate the Table Browser: • • Table Browser Select Insert > Tables. Or Double click an empty space in the Structure pane.Creating a schema with tables and joins Inserting tables 3 Using the Table Browser The Table Browser is an independent window that shows a tree view of the tables and columns in your target database. You must activate the Table Browser when you want to add tables to the Structure pane. The Table Browser is shown below. You can activate the Table Browser using any of the methods listed below. You expand the node next to a table name to display the columns for the table.

106 Designer’s Guide . Inserting multiple tables To insert multiple tables: 1. Or Drag the tables into the Structure pane. Hold down CTRL while you click individual tables. Or Right click a table and select Insert from the contextual menu. 3.3 Creating a schema with tables and joins Inserting tables Inserting Tables From the Table Browser You can use any one of the following methods to insert one or multiple tables using the Table Browser: Inserting a single table To insert a single table: • • • • Click a table and click the Insert button. Each table including all of its columns appears in the Structure pane. Or Right click the selected tables and select Insert form the contextual menu. Multiple tables are selected. Click the Insert button. Or Hold down SHIFT while you click the first table and last table in a continuous block of tables. Or Double click a table. In the Table Browser any table that you insert in the universe is displayed with a check mark beside its name. 2. The table appears in the Structure pane. Or Click a table and drag it into the Structure pane.

Or Select View Column Values from the contextual menu. Tip: If columns are to narrow to see complete row values. 2. To view data from the Table Browser: 1.Creating a schema with tables and joins Inserting tables 3 Viewing data from the Table Browser You can use the Table Browser to view the data contained in a table. Select View Table Values from the contextual menu. A box appears listing the data contained in the table or column. or in an individual column. Designer’s Guide 107 . Right click a table in the Table Browser Or Expand a table node in the Table Browser and right click a column for the table. you can widen columns by pressing the key combination CTRL-SHIFT and the ’+’ key on the numeric keypad.

Automatically arranging tables in the Structure pane To automatically arrange tables: • Select View > Arrange Tables 108 Designer’s Guide . Extract Joins With Tables Detect Cardinalities in Joins Click OK. Create a connection to the new warehouse. Designer queries the system catalog. Arranging Tables in the Structure Pane You can automatically arrange your tables in the Structure pane to tidy up your initial schema before you start manually rearranging the tables to create your joins. Building a data warehouse using the tables that you want to insert in a separate database account.. Optimize table insertion by. The Options dialog box appears. so when the catalog is very large. You are automatically inserting joins and checking cardinalities with the tables that you are inserting. There are a large number of tables in your database. Select Tools > Options. 2. Inserting tables only. retrieving tables can be slow. 3...3 Creating a schema with tables and joins Inserting tables Optimizing Table Browser Performance The time taken for a table to be inserted in the Structure pane from the Table Browser can vary depending on the following factors: Table insertion slow because. You do this as follows: 1. The Database page appears. Click the database tab. Clear the following check boxes: • • 4..

Creating a schema with tables and joins Using derived tables 3 The tables are arranged in an orderly manner. which saves time and reduces the need for complex analysis of large amounts of data at the report level. These operations are performed before the result set is returned to a document. Designer’s Guide 109 . replace statistical tables that hold results for complex calculations that are incorporated into the universe using aggregate awareness. Derived tables can. Derived tables can return the same data and provide real time data analysis. Derived tables have the following advantages: • Reduced amount of data returned to the document for analysis. You can include complex calculations and functions in a derived table. • Reduced maintenance of database summary tables. with the advantage that the SQL for a derived table can include prompts. A derived table is defined by an SQL query at the universe level that can be used as a logical table in Designer. Using derived tables Derived tables are tables that you define in the universe schema. in some cases. These aggregate tables are costly to maintain and refresh frequently. You create objects on them as you do with any other table. Derived tables are similar to database views.

Adding. 3. and deleting derived tables is described in the following sections. 2. 5. Type the table name in the Table Name box. editing. editing.3 Creating a schema with tables and joins Using derived tables Adding. Build objects based on the derived table columns in exactly the same way you do with regular tables. but the workflow for creating them is different. You can type the SQL directly or use the Tables and Columns. 110 Designer’s Guide . Click OK. The derived table appears in the schema with the physical database tables. 4. Operators and Functions boxes to build it. and deleting derived tables Derived tables appear in your Designer schema in exactly the same way as normal database tables. Build the table SQL in the box beneath the Table Name box. Adding a derived table To add a derived table: 1. The Derived Tables dialog box appears. Click Derived Tables on the Insert menu.

The Derived Tables dialog box appears. Type serverinfo in the Table Name box.Creating a schema with tables and joins Using derived tables 3 Editing a derived table To edit a derived table: 1. You create two objects. Select Derived Tables on the Insert menu. 2. Designer’s Guide 111 . You do this as follows: 1. Click OK. 2. Note: You must provide aliases in the SQL for all derived columns. then click OK. @@VERSION as version in the SQL box. Type the SQL Select @@SERVERNAME as servername. Example: Creating a derived table to return server information In this example you want to create objects that allow the user to add information about the database server to their reports. Designer uses these aliases to name the columns of the derived tables. that return the values of the in-built variables @@SERVERNAME and @VERSION in a universe running on an SQL Server database. Press the Delete key. The derived table serverinfo appears in the Designer schema. Select the derived table in the Designer schema. 3. Deleting a derived table 1. Right-click the table in the Designer schema and select Edit Derived Table from the shortcut menu. 2. Edit the derived table. servername and version. 4.

region r where r. Create a class called Server Info and add two dimension objects beneath the class.region_id) as number_of_regions from country c. Note that the serverinfo table appears in the list of tables like any ordinary database table. Example: Showing the number of regions in each country In this example you create a table that shows the number of regions in each country. based on the servername and version columns of the serverinfo derived table. The SQL is as follows: select country. Designer uses these aliases as the column names in the derived table.country_id = c. and its columns appear in the list of columns like ordinary table columns. In this case the table has two columns: country and number_of_regions. The user can now place the servername and version objects on a report.3 Creating a schema with tables and joins Using derived tables 5. 112 Designer’s Guide .country_id group by country It is important in this case to alias the column that contains the calculation. count (r.

In Designer. Why use joins in a schema? You use joins to ensure that queries returning data from multiple tables do not return incorrect results. For example. In a production universe. you need to create joins between related tables. so are not considered by Designer’s Guide 113 . as they allow you to combine data from multiple tables in a meaningful way. A join between two tables defines how data is returned when both tables are included in a query. This prevents result data being returned that contains information from columns that have no sense being matched. Cartesian products quickly become unmanageable. joins are represented as lines linking tables in a schema. are created at run time. the database returns a result set that contains all possible combinations of the rows in the query tables. Web Intelligence users may want to run queries that combine a number of different objects (each inferring a column) returning data from any combination of tables. If a query does not contain a join. Each table in a schema contains data in one or more columns that correspond to user requirements. Joins that are not created from the Structure pane. What is a join? A join is a condition that links the data in separate but related tables. The tables usually have a parent-child relationship. Joins limit column combinations between tables to matching or common columns. for example a join manually defined in the Where clause for an object. In large databases or queries involving many tables. Joins are as important as the tables in a schema. Linking all tables in the schema with joins ensures that you restrict the number of ways that data from columns in different tables can be combined in a query. the Cartesian product of a query referencing two tables with 100 and 50 rows respectively has 5000 rows. Such a result set is known as a Cartesian product and is rarely useful. Note: You should always create joins in the Structure pane.Creating a schema with tables and joins Defining joins 3 Defining joins Once you have inserted more than one table in the schema.

ANSI 92 support is described in the section “ANSI 92 support for joins in a universe” on page 129. So. if four tables are being combined. The result of a query run including two tables linked by a join is a single table with columns from all the combined tables. 114 Designer’s Guide .3 Creating a schema with tables and joins Defining joins Designer for integrity checks and context detection. ANSI 92 support If the target RDBMS supports ANSI 92. Contexts and universe integrity are covered later in this chapter. You can also select the objects that are inferred by columns to be included in the FROM clause. When a universe supports the ANSI 92 standard for joins. Each row in this table contains data from the rows in the different input tables with matching values for the common columns. then you can set a universe parameter (File > Parameters > Parameter) ANSI92 to Yes to activate ANSI 92 support for joins created in your schema. newly created joins are specified in the FROM clause. Normally there is one WHERE clause for each pair of tables being joined. The information for these processes is required at design time. What SQL does a join Infer? By default Designer specifies a join implicitly in a WHERE clause through a reference to the matching or common columns of the tables. three WHERE conditions are necessary.

123 123 456 456 789 BILL_CHARGED 50.00 30.00 What tables do not have to be joined? You should join all tables in the schema that are inferred in the SQL generated by objects in Web Intelligence queries run against the universe.00 750.DATE_DISCHARGED.NO PATIENT_NO.00 825.00 500.00 750.Creating a schema with tables and joins Defining joins 3 An example of a join operation on two tables is shown below: PATIENT_NO.BILLED.BILL_CHARGED PATIENT. 123 123 456 456 789 DATE_DISCHARGED 05/20/01 05/20/01 06/05/01 06/05/01 07/18/01 RESULT OF JOIN BILL_CHARGED 50. The only exceptions to these are the following types of tables: • Base tables from the schema that have been aliased for each use.PATIENT_NO=BILLED.PATIENT.00 500.00 30.00 825. or join problem resolution reasons. 123 456 789 DATE_DISCHARGED 05/20/01 06/05/01 07/18/01 PATIENT_NO. These are the original tables for which you have created aliases either for renaming. Tables that are the target of table mapping for Supervisor. • Designer’s Guide 115 .00 BILLED SELECT PATIENT FROM WHERE PATIENT.BILLED PATIENT. These base tables are typically not used in any object definition.

You need to understand how each key is constructed in your database. The key columns appear underlined in each table that contains keys. The ability to display key columns as underlined depends on primary keys being defined in the target database. Multi column keys can affect how you set cardinalities for joins. You can also create a join between two primary keys. It is very unusual for at least one side of a join to not include the primary key of the table. and this can affect how you set up contexts in your schema. When you select the option to display keys. For example the two aggregate tables in the sample efashion universe shown below are not joined to any table in the schema: aggregate tables Joining primary and foreign keys You normally create a join between the primary key in one table and the foreign key of another table. you must refresh the structure before keys appear underlined. 116 Designer’s Guide . Detecting and Using contexts is described in “Detecting and Solving Join Problems” on page 170 Displaying keys You can display primary and foreign keys in all tables in the Structure pane.3 Creating a schema with tables and joins Defining joins • Tables that are the target of aggregate awareness syntax (although this has to be taken on a case-by-case basis).

each time it is imported. Select View > Refresh Structure. You have to re-display keys for a universe. You need to refresh the structure before key columns appear underlined. The Options dialog box opens to the General page. The key columns in your schema are underlined as shown below: Designer’s Guide 117 . Click the Graphics tab. 2. This information is lost when you export a universe to the Central Management Server (CMS) repository. The database structure is refreshed. Underline Keys 4. Select the Underline Keys check box in the Columns group box. To display keys: 1. 3. Click OK.UNV file. the information is stored in the . The Graphics page appears. Select Tools > Options.Creating a schema with tables and joins Defining joins 3 Note: When you display underlined key columns. 5.

The pointer appears as a hand symbol. Designer can automatically detect and set cardinalities. 118 Designer’s Guide . Setting and using cardinalities is described in the section “Using cardinalities” on page 150. 3. Position the pointer over a column that you want to be one end of a join. Drag the mouse to the column in another table that you want to be the other end of the join. Selecting automatically detected joins. taking into account the nature of the keys that are joined. but you should always manually check the cardinalities. To create a join by tracing manually: 1. Click and hold down the left mouse button.3 Creating a schema with tables and joins Defining joins Understanding the cardinaltity of a join Cardinalities further describe a join between 2 tables by stating how many rows in one table will match rows in another. Creating joins You have several approaches to creating joins in Designer: • • • • Tracing joins manually in the schema. This is very important for detecting join problems and creating contexts to correct the limitations of a target RDBMS structure. Defining join properties directly. Each of these approaches is described in detail below. Automatically creating joins on table insertion. 2. Tracing joins manually in the schema You can graphically create individual joins between tables by using the mouse to trace a line from a column in one table to a matching column in another table. You should set cardinalities for each join in the schema. The column is highlighted.

7. Designer’s Guide 119 . are described in the section “Join properties” on page 124. 8. the pointer is transformed into a pencil symbol. 4. Click OK. Position the pencil symbol over the target column.Creating a schema with tables and joins Defining joins 3 As you drag. The target column is highlighted. The join between the two tables is created. 6. Release the mouse button. Double click the new join. Enter and select properties for the join. The properties that you can set for a join. including cardinality and join type. It lists join properties. The Edit Join dialog box appears. 5.

3 Creating a schema with tables and joins Defining joins Defining join properties directly You create a join by directly defining join properties in the Edit Join dialog box. The Edit Join dialog box appears. 120 Designer’s Guide . Click the name of the column that you want to be at one end of the new join. 3. To create a join directly: 1. 4. Or Insert Join Click the Insert Join button. Select Insert > Join. Select a table from the Table2 drop-down list box. 5. Select a table from the Table1 drop-down list. The columns for the selected table appear in the list box under the table name. 2. Click the name of the column that you want to be at the other end of the new join. The columns for the selected table appear in the list box under the table name.

Designer’s Guide 121 . or accept all. A strategy is a script file that automatically extracts structural information from the database. The new join appears in the schema linking the two tables defined in the Edit Join dialog box. and other join columns do not have the same name across different tables. How are joins automatically detected? The joins are detected based on the Joins strategy that appears in the Strategies page of the Parameters dialog box (File > Parameters > Strategies tab). Designer identifies column names across tables in the target database and proposes candidate joins for the tables in your schema. Using automatic join detection appropriately Detecting joins automatically is useful to help you quickly create joins in your schema. You should be aware that there may be other joins necessary that have not been detected. Join strategies used to detect candidate joins match column names from the database. Designer will not pick up these columns. However. There may be instances in the target database when primary. You can select which join strategy you want to apply when you use automatic join detection. Note: Refer to“Selecting strategies” on page 51 for more information on using strategies. 7. These are listed in drop-down list boxes on the Strategies page of the Parameters dialog box. cardinality. excluding key information. you need to be aware of the limitations of automatic join detection when designing your schema. including the join operator. Click OK. There are a number of inbuilt strategies that are shipped with Designer.Creating a schema with tables and joins Defining joins 3 The properties that you can set for a join. and join type are described in the section “Join properties” on page 124 6. Selecting automatically detected joins You can use the Designer feature Detect Joins to automatically detect selected joins in the schema. You should always verify manually each join that you accept to be created that has been automatically detected. Enter and select properties for the join. proposed joins you want to be created. foreign keys. The default automatic join detection strategy detects joins based on matching column names. You can then select which.

The Candidate Joins dialog box appears. You can select one or more joins by holding down CTRL and clicking individual tables. Verify that the join strategy that you want to use to detect joins is selected in the Joins drop down list box on the Parameters dialog box. Select File > Parameters and click the Strategies tab. The joins are inserted in you schema. You can select multiple tables by pressing SHIFT while clicking each table. Select Tools > Automated Detection >Detect Joins. 3. Select multiple tables in the Structure pane. Or Click the Detect Joins button. or holding down SHIFT and clicking the first and last join in a continuous block. Click Insert to create all candidate joins.3 Creating a schema with tables and joins Defining joins To create a join using automatic detection: 1. Detect Joins 4. Or Select one or more joins and click Insert. or you can select all tables in a zone by clicking in an empty space. 122 Designer’s Guide . Click Close. 6. Select the strategy that you want to use to detect joins from the Joins drop-down list box and click OK. 5. and dragging the cursor to define a rectangular zone that includes any number of tables. It lists candidate or proposed joins for the selected tables. You can verify this as follows: • • 2. The candidate joins also appear as blue lines between selected tables in the Structure pane.

Click OK. The Database page appears.Creating a schema with tables and joins Defining joins 3 Inserting joins automatically with associated tables You can choose to insert joins automatically in the schema at the same time as the tables that use the joins are inserted into the structure pane. Designer’s Guide 123 . You should not use this technique to create joins in a production universe. so columns common to more than one table that have been renamed in the database will not be picked up. 2. in which you will then carefully validate each join after insertion. 4. To create a join automatically with an associated table: 1. the references between tables are automatically inserted as joins between appropriate tables. This option is on the Database page of the Options dialog box. Instead. Select Tools > Options. The default creation option Extract Joins With Tables must be selected to allow the automatic creation of joins with their associated tables. Click the Database tab. The Options dialog box appears. 3. The joins are inserted based on the database structure. or as a quick way to build a universe. use it for demonstration purposes. Now when you insert a table that has columns referencing other columns in tables that have already been inserted into the Structure pane. but it can lead to serious design faults with your schema. Verify that the join strategy that you want to use to detect joins is selected on the Strategies page of the Parameters dialog box. Limitations when inserting joins automatically Inserting joins automatically into your schema with associated tables is a quick way to get joins into your schema. Select the Extract Joins With Tables check box. Automatic join creation is determined by two processes: • • The active join strategy determines the column information used to detect the join. 5.

Operator that defines how the tables are joined. When selected. See the section “ANSI 92 support for joins in a universe” on page 129 for information on activating ANSI 92 support for join syntax. Table at the right side of the join.3 Creating a schema with tables and joins Defining joins Join properties You define join properties in the Edit Join dialog box. You can select the objects to be included in the FROM clause. The operators available to a join are described in the section “Join Operators” on page 124. Outer joins are described fully in the section “Outer joins” on page 141. determines which table contains unmatched data in an outer join relationship. You can define the following properties for a join: Property Table1 Table2 Operator Description Table at the left end of the join. Defines the join as a shortcut join. The operator allows you to define the restriction that the join uses to match data between the joined columns. Outer Join Cardinality Shortcut Join Expression Advanced Join Operators You can select an operator for a join from the drop-down list box between the Table1 and Table2 boxes. When clicked. opens a second join properties box that lists the objects built on columns for the two tables in the join. Columns are listed for the table selected in the drop-down list box. When selected. Columns are listed for the table selected in the drop-down list box. Shortcut joins are described in the section “Shortcut joins” on page 146. Available when ANSI 92 support is activated for the universe. allows you to define the cardinality for the join. Defining and using cardinalities is described in the section “Using cardinalities” on page 150. 124 Designer’s Guide . WHERE clause that is used to restrict the data that is returned when the two joined tables are included in a query.

For more information on using this editor. If the parse is successful. you receive an error message indicating the source of the problem. Designer’s Guide 125 . Modify join SQL syntax directly using the formula bar. Parse The Parse button starts a parsing function that verifies the SQL syntax of the join expression. and functions used in the join. operators. refer to the section “Using the Join SQL Editor” on page 127. You can use this graphic editor to modify the syntax for tables. Modify join SQL syntax directly using the Join SQL Editor. columns.Creating a schema with tables and joins Defining joins 3 You can select the following operators for a join: Operator = != > < >= <= Between Complex Description is equal to is not equal to is greater than is less than is greater than or equal to is less than or equal to is between (theta joins) complex relationship Edit and Parse The Edit Join dialog box also has two features available that allow you to edit and verify the join syntax: Edit The Edit button opens an SQL editor. you receive a result is OK message. Each of these methods is discussed in this section. If Designer encounters an error. Editing a join You can use any of the following methods to edit a join: • • • Modify join properties from the Edit Join dialog box.

Double click a join in the Structure pane. Join properties are described in the section “Join properties” on page 124. Select an operator from the drop-down list box between the tables. The Edit Join dialog box appears. If you are defining a join with ANSI 92 syntax. To edit a join using the Edit Join dialog box: 1.3 Creating a schema with tables and joins Defining joins Using the Edit Join dialog box You can use the Edit Join dialog box to define and edit join properties. See “Using the Join SQL Editor” on page 127 for more information. 3. 5. Click OK. Select other properties as required. Or Click a join and select Edit > Join. 4. then click the Advanced button. 126 Designer’s Guide . You can also access the Join SQL Editor to edit join syntax directly from this dialog box. Tip: You can edit the SQL directly for the join by clicking the Edit button and using the Join SQL editor. 2.

.. Change a column at either join end Then do the following. You can use the editing features to modify or add SQL syntax as follows: You want to. Or Click a join and select Edit > Join.. Click the join expression in the edit box at the place where you want to add or modify the SQL syntax. To modify a join using the Join SQL Editor: 1. • • Expand a table node in the Tables and Columns box.Creating a schema with tables and joins Defining joins 3 Using the Join SQL Editor You can use a graphical editor to directly modify the SQL expression for a join. Click the Edit button. 3. Designer’s Guide 127 . The Edit Join dialog box appears.. You access this editor from the Edit Joins dialog box. The SQL expression for the join appears in the text box. Double click a join in the Structure pane. 2. Double click a column name. The Join SQL Definition box appears.

. Double click an operator in the Operators box. Using the Formula bar The Formula bar is a text box above the Universe window that shows the formula or expression of any selected join in the Structure pane. or clicking the Undo button. Click a join that you want to edit. If you want to undo any individual modifications. 4. clicking the Cancel button returns the expression to its original state. To modify a join using the Formula Bar: 1. operator. or click the Undo button.. If you make several changes to a join expression without validating the changes. you should use the Edit > Undo. Double click a function. The column. Validate expression. Open Edit Join dialog box for selected join. • • Expand a function family node. or function appears in the join definition. 128 Designer’s Guide . To display the Formula bar: • Select View > Formula Bar The Formula Bar appears above the Universe window.. or selected object in the Universe pane. Change an operator used by the join Use a function in the join Then do the following. You can undo changes after validation by using Edit > Undo. You can use three editing buttons placed to the left of the Formula bar: Edit button Description Cancel last modification that has not been validated. This applies any changes to the join expression. Click OK..3 Creating a schema with tables and joins Defining joins You want to.

Press the Return key to quit the formula bar. Designer’s Guide 129 . you can choose to use ANSI 92 syntax for joins in the universe. Click the join expression in the Formula Bar at the place you want to modify the syntax. This parameter is listed on the Parameter page of the universe parameters dialog box (File > Parameters > Parameter). 4. Modify the expression as required. Join expression Editing buttons Formula Bar Selected join 2. 5. Ensure that you verify that the target RDBMS supports ANSI 92 before using the syntax in joins. Activating ANSI 92 support in the universe and defining a join using ANSI 92 syntax are described below.Creating a schema with tables and joins Defining joins 3 The formula for the join appears in the Formula Bar. ANSI 92 support for joins in a universe Designer supports ANSI 92 syntax for joins. Or Click anywhere outside of the Formula bar. Click the Validate button to apply the changes. ANSI 92 is not supported by default. Once activated. 3. You must activate support by setting the SQL universe parameter ANSI92 to YES.

'YYYY') Activating ANSI 92 support in a universe To activate ANSI 92 support for joins: 1. 'FY'+Format(Sales.sl_id) INNER JOIN Invoice_Line ON (Invoice_Line. 'FY'+Format(Sales.days * Invoice_Line. 'FY'+Format(Sales.resort.sl_id=Service_Line.3 Creating a schema with tables and joins Defining joins Example: Comparing default join syntax and ANSI 92 syntax Join syntax for two joins is shown below.'YYYY').nb_guests * Service. 'FY'+Format(Sales.inv_id=Invoice_Line. Invoice_Line.nb_guests * Service.resort_id=Service_Line. Service_Line WHERE ( Sales. the second shows the same join in the FROM clause using the ANSI 92 standard.inv_id ) AND ( Invoice_Line.resort_id) INNER JOIN Service ON (Service.invoice_date.invoice_date.resort_id ) AND ( Service.resort.resort. 130 Designer’s Guide .service_id=Service. Select File > Parameters.'YYYY') ) Same join using the ANSI 92 standard SELECT Resort. sum(Invoice_Line.service_id) INNER JOIN Sales ON (Sales.price) FROM Resort.invoice_date. Service.sl_id ) GROUP BY Resort.invoice_date. The Universe Parameters dialog box appears. Default join syntax SELECT Resort.'YYYY').days * Invoice_Line.sl_id=Service_Line. Sales.price) FROM Resort INNER JOIN Service_Line ON (Resort.resort.service_id AND ( Resort. The first shows the default behavior where the join is defined in the WHERE clause.resort_id=Service_Line.inv_id) GROUP BY Resort.service_id=Service.inv_id=Invoice_Line. sum(Invoice_Line.

Creating a schema with tables and joins Defining joins

3

2.

Click the Parameter tab. The Parameters page appears. It lists certain SQL generation parameters that you can set at the universe level to optimize SQL generation for the current universe. These are parameters that were included in the PRM file for the target RDBMS in previous versions of Business Objects products. Certain RDBMS specific parameters are still contained in the PRM files, but many standard SQL parameters are now listed in the Parameter page. See the chapter “Setting SQL generation parameters” on page 61 for a complete list of the available parameters.

3. 4. 5. 6.

Click the ANSI92 parameter in the list. Type YES in the value box. Click Replace. Click OK. The ANSI 92 standard can now be applied to join definitions for the current universe. When you click the Advanced button on the Edit Join dialog box, the Advanced Join box appears. You can define a filter to determine which dimensions you want to include in the FROM clause for a join.

Defining a join with ANSI 92 syntax
You can use ANSI 92 syntax to define a join from the Edit Join properties dialog box. You can do this by using an advanced editing box that allows you to select objects to be included in a join definition. To define a join using ANSI 92 syntax: 1. 2. 3. Activate ANSI 92 support for the universe. See the section “Activating ANSI 92 support in a universe” on page 130 for information. Double click a join in the schema. The Edit Join box for the join appears. Click the Advanced button.

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The Advanced Joins Properties dialog box appears.

4.

Select one of the following FROM clause filters from the drop down list. Description Default syntax for joins is applied. Joins are defined in the WHERE clause. All objects defined on columns in the tables on the right and left side of the join are included in the FROM clause. No objects are included in the FROM clause. Only objects selected in the Advanced Join Properties tree view of the join tables are included in the FROM clause.

FROM option Default behavior All objects in FROM

No objects in FROM Selected objects in FROM 5. 6. 7. 8.

Select objects to be included in the FROM clause if you selected the Selected objects in FROM filter. Click OK. Enter any other join parameters in the Edit Join box. Click OK.

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Deleting joins
To delete a join: 1. 2. Click a join. The join is selected Do any of the following:

• • •
3.

Press the backspace key on your keyboard Press the Delete button on your keyboard Right click the join and select Clear from the contextual menu. A confirmation box appears asking to you to confirm the join deletion.

Click Yes. The join is deleted.

Note: Ensure that you are aware of all the consequences in both the schema and universe when you delete a join. Verify that deleting the join does not affect a context. If you try to delete a join, Designer warns you if the join is used in one or more contexts. You need to manually verify which context, and access the effect on the universe if the context is affected by the join deletion.

Defining specific types of joins
You can define the following types of joins in Designer: Join type Equi-Joins (includes complex equijoins) Description Link tables based on the equality between the values in the column of one table and the values in the column of another. Because the same column is present in both tables, the join synchronizes the two tables. You can also create complex equi-joins, where one join links multiple columns between two tables. Link tables based on a relationship other than equality between two columns. Link two tables, one of which has rows that do not match those in the common column of the other table.

Theta Joins (conditional joins) Outer Joins

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Join type Shortcut Joins

Description Join providing an alternative path between two tables, bypassing intermediate tables, leading to the same result, regardless of direction. Optimizes query time by cutting long join paths as short as possible. Single table join used to set a restriction on the table.

Self restricting joins

Each join type is described fully in its respective section in this chapter. You use the same method to create each type of join; however, you must define different properties for each join in the Edit Join box at join creation.

Creating Equi-joins
An equi-join links two tables on common values in a column in table 1 with a column in table 2. The restriction conforms to the following syntax: Table1.column_a = Table2.column_a In a normalized database the columns used in an equi-join are usually the primary key from one table and the foreign key in the other. For information on keys, see the section “Joining primary and foreign keys” on page 116. When you create a new join, it is an equi-join by default. Most joins in your schema should be equi-joins.

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Example: Equi-join restricts data When a Select statement is run in the example below, the Select and From clauses create a Cartesian product. However, before any data is returned, the Where clause applies a restriction so that only rows where there is a match between the Country ID column in both the tables are returned.

Creating a new equi-join
To create a new equi-join:

Create a join between two tables. The default new join is an equi-join.

Tip: The different methods you can use to create joins are described in the section “Creating joins” on page 118.

Creating an equi-join from an existing join
To create an equi-join from an existing join: 1. 2. 3. 4. Double click an existing join. The Edit Join box appears. Select a column in the Table1 list box. Select the matching column in the Table2 list box Select = from the Operator drop-down list box.

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The Edit Join box below shows an equi-join between the tables Customer and Reservations.

Note: Common columns do not always have the same name. You need to verify primary and foreign key column names in the database. Different tables may use the same key columns, but have them renamed for each table depending on the table role in the database. 5. Click the Parse button to check the join syntax. If you receive an error message, check to see that the column is common to both tables. 6. Click OK.

Creating complex equi-joins
You can also create a complex equi-join. This is a single join that links multiple columns between two tables. You can create complex equi-joins by using the Complex operator for a join in the Edit Properties sheet for a join.

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The sample eFashion universe contains a complex join shown below.

Using a complex equi-join instead of multiple single equi-joins between joined columns has the following advantages:

• •

Only one cardinality to detect. This can save time when detecting cardinalities, and also keeps the schema uncluttered and easier to read. You can view the SQL for all the joins between two tables in the Expression text box in the Edit Properties box for the join. When you use multiple single equi-joins between two tables, you have a one expression for each join. Double click an existing join. The Edit Join box appears. Select multiple columns in the Table1 list box. Select the matching columns in the Table2 list box Select "Complex" from the Operator drop-down list box.

To create a complex equi-join: 1. 2. 3. 4.

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The Edit Join box below shows a complex equi-join between the tables Article_Color_Lookup and Shop_facts.

5.

Click the Parse button to check the join syntax. If you receive an error message, check to see that the column is common to both tables.

6.

Click OK.

Theta joins
A theta join is a join that links tables based on a relationship other than equality between two columns. A theta join could use any operator other than the “equal” operator. The following example and procedure show you how to create a theta join that uses the “Between” operator.

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Example: Theta join The Age_Group table below contains age range information that can be used to analyze data on the age of customers.

You need to include this table in the universe, but there is no common column between the Customer table and the Age_Group table, so you cannot use an equi-join. You create a theta join using the operator “Between” for maximum age range and minimum age ranges. By using a theta join, you infer that a join exists where the value in a row of the Age column in the Customer table is between the values in a row for the Age_Min and Age_Max columns of the Age_Group table. The join is defined by the following expression: Customer.age between Age_group.age_min and Age_group.age_max The diagram below shows the joins between Age max, Age min, and Age, and the result set that is returned when the theta join is used in a query run on both Age_Group and Customer tables.

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Creating a theta join
To create a theta join using range columns: 1. 2. 3. 4. Create a join between two tables. An equi-join is created by default. Double click the join. The Edit Join dialog box appears. Click a column in the Table1 column list box. Press and hold down the CTRL key and click two columns from the Table2 column list box. The example below shows the two columns age_min and age_max selected. The Between operator automatically appears in the operator drop-down list.

5.

Click the Parse button to test for the validity of the join. If you receive an error message, check to see that you have correctly selected the columns.

6.

Click OK.

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The outer table contains the column for which you want to return all values. and you can select the tables on either side of a join to be outer tables. or a right outer join depending on which side of the join the outer table is designated. You specify the outer table from the Edit Join dialog box for the selected join. Designer’s Guide 141 . Example: Outer join The tables Resort_Country and Resort below are linked by an equi-join. one of which has rows that do not match those in the common column of the other table. Outer joins An outer join is a join that links two tables. even if they are unmatched. Full outer joins By default you can create either a left outer. You define an outer join by specifying which table is the outer table in the original equi-join. Refer to the section “Defining a full outer join” on page 144 for information on creating full outer joins. This is achieved by setting a universe SQL parameter ANSI 92 to YES (File > Parameters > Parameter).Creating a schema with tables and joins Defining specific types of joins 3 The join is created in the Structure pane. You can also create a full outer join by activating ANSI 92 support for joins in the universe. This allows the universe to support ANSI 92 syntax for joins.

{ oj Resort_Country LEFT OUTER JOIN Resort ON Resort_Country. despite having no match in the Resort column.3 Creating a schema with tables and joins Defining specific types of joins Each resort belongs to a country. If not. would also have to have to use outer joins. Resort. The treatment of outer joins is RDBMS specific. then a NULL returned by the original outer join. the result set of a query would only show information on the countries that have a resort.country_id=Resort. so any one-to-many joins following the table Resort.country.country_id } Note: The example above uses Microsoft Access. you may wish to show all countries irrespective of an equivalent value in the foreign key of the Resort table. Resort. as shown below: The syntax (Microsoft Access) for the outer join is as follows: SELECT Resort_Country. However. Australia. and the US. but each country may not have a resort. If you use an equi-join. 142 Designer’s Guide . See also the section “Restrictions for the use of outer joins” on page 145 for more information on restrictions using outer joins. To achieve this you define an outer join so that all counties are returned. France. so refer to your RDBMS documentation for information.resort FROM Country Resort_Country. will not be taken into account if there is no matching NULL returned by following joins.

4. Designer’s Guide 143 . Click OK. Click the Parse button to validate the join syntax. check to see that you selected the columns correctly. Designer displays the join in the Structure pane. Select the Outer Join check box for the table that returns all values in a query. you want to return all values for Resort_Country. 3. Double click an existing equi-join. The Edit Join dialog box appears. 2. The outer join is indicated by a small circle on the opposite side of the join to the table that returns unmatched values.Creating a schema with tables and joins Defining specific types of joins 3 Creating an outer join To create an outer join: 1. In the example below. If you receive an error message.

you can select the tables on both sides of the join to be outer tables. Note: For information on setting this parameter and other SQL generation parameters for the universe. you must ensure that your target RDBMS supports the ANSI 92 syntax for outer joins. This parameter is available on the Parameter page (File > Parameters > Parameter). you must set the ANSI 92 parameter to YES. refer to the section “Setting SQL generation parameters” on page 61. The Edit Join dialog box appears. This allows you to specify a full outer join.3 Creating a schema with tables and joins Defining specific types of joins Defining a full outer join You can define an outer join using the ANSI 92 standard for defining outer joins. Double click a join in the schema. See the section “Activating ANSI 92 support in a universe” on page 130 for information. Designer displays the join in the Structure pane. To define a full outer join: Both Outer join check boxes selected 4. 3. To use the ANSI 92 standard for outer joins. Before setting this parameter. Click OK. The full outer join is indicated by two circles on the join link between two tables. Select the Outer Join check box for both tables included in the join as shown below. Use the Edit join dialog box to define the full outer join. 144 Designer’s Guide . Activate ANSI 92 support for the universe. Activate ANSI 92 support for outer joins for the universe. When the ANSI 92 parameter has been set to YES. 2. You define a full outer join in two phases: • • 1.

a database error is returned advising the user to create a separate query that performs the first join. When you run a query with the three tables. a self restricting join joins. but you should be aware of the following performance and implementation issues: Issue Description Performance can be More rows are returned and some databases will not slower use indexes when outer joins are involved. This is necessary when using a self on the use of outer restricting join. This type of error could be confusing to many users. could return all rows where TYPE=10 or Type is NULL. For example. and then include that query in the SQL statement. as TYPE=10 will never be true when the type code is NULL. Designer’s Guide 145 . whereas NULL values are generated by the outer join. In the example above. or to complete the path with outer joins. in the Microsoft Access sample Club. If not.Creating a schema with tables and joins Defining specific types of joins 3 Restrictions for the use of outer joins Using outer joins can be very useful. so large amounts of data could slow query performance. all one-to-many joins following the outer join in the join path must also be defined as outer joins. so it is preferable in such cases to either not use outer joins. For example. ‘TYPE_CODE=10’. Incomplete query hierarchy path for tables after the outer join (RDBMS dependent) You should verify how your target RDBMS processes outer joins to avoid incomplete query paths after the original outer join. the original outer join will be ignored by the resulting query. the join between Resort and Service_Line ignores the NULL values returned by the outer join between Resort_Country and Resort.mdb database. Database limitations Not all databases allow control over outer joins in the WHERE clause.

3 Creating a schema with tables and joins Defining specific types of joins Shortcut joins A shortcut join is a join that provides an alternative path between two tables. shortcut joins improve the performance of a query by not taking into account intermediate tables. Example: Shortcut join In the following example the column Article_code appears in both the tables Product_Promotion_Facts and Shop_Facts. The join path comprises several different tables in the same context. A common use of shortcut joins is to link a shared lookup table to another table further along a join path. However. The value of Article_code is the same for both tables. if you set the cardinality for a shortcut join you avoid receiving the message 'Not all cardinalities are set' when detecting contexts. so the same value exists at all the levels being joined. 146 Designer’s Guide . Note: Designer does not consider shortcut joins during automatic loop and context detection. The normal path for a query using Article_code from Product_Promotion_Facts and Shop_Facts. Shortcut join The shortcut join directly linking Product_Promotion_Facts and Shop_Facts allows the query to ignore the intermediary table Article_Lookup. optimizing the query. and so shortening a normally longer join path. the shortcut join is only effective when the value being looked up has been denormalized to lower levels in a hierarchy of tables. is to pass through the intermediary table Article_Lookup. In such a case.

4. 3. Identify the two tables in a join path that can be linked directly. 2. The shortcut join appears joining the two tables. Self restricting joins A self restricting join is not really a join at all. Select or type other join properties as required. but a self restriction on a single table. The Edit Join dialog box appears. Create a join between the two tables. Double click the new join. Click OK. A shortcut join is shown as dotted line in the Structure pane. Shortcut join check box 5. 6. You can use a self restricting join to restrict the results returned by a table values using a fixed value. Select the Shortcut join check box.Creating a schema with tables and joins Defining specific types of joins 3 Creating a shortcut join To create a shortcut join: 1. Note: You should set the cardinality of a shortcut join to the same cardinality as the join path it replaces. Designer’s Guide 147 .

down list box. 2. as long as it is set. This ensures that any object based on the Sales table. You should set cardinality as one-to-one consistently. R = car rental). Click the column that you want to use to define the restriction from the column drop-down list box. The self restricting join restricts the data returned from Sales to Sale_Type = S. would produce query results covering only car sales. Creating a self restricting join To create a self restricting join: 1. Select Insert > Join. although the actual setting is not important.3 Creating a schema with tables and joins Defining specific types of joins Example: Self restricting join The Sales table shown below contains rows of data for cars both sold and rented. Tip: Setting the cardinality for a self restricting join helps to prevent receiving the message 'Not all cardinalities are set' when detecting contexts. 3. Without the self restricting join. Select the table that you want to set the self restricting join against from the Table1 drop. The Edit Join dialog box appears. the results set of the query would produce rows where the Sale_Type column is equal to either 'S' or 'R'. 148 Designer’s Guide . or joins passing through that table. The columns for the selected table appear in the table column list. The Sale_Type column is used as a flag to indicate the type of transaction (S = car sale.

The expression for the join appears in the Expression text box. 6. Select the same table that you selected from the Table1 drop-down list box.Creating a schema with tables and joins Defining specific types of joins 3 4. Replace the operand value in the join expression with the restriction value that you want to set on the join column. Click the same column that you selected in the Table1 column list box. Designer’s Guide 149 . 5.

Family_code after the = sign with ’F3’ as shown below: 7. 8.3 Creating a schema with tables and joins Using cardinalities For example. The self restricting join appears as a short line displayed against the column on which the self restricting join is defined. 150 Designer’s Guide . Using cardinalities Cardinality is a property of a join that describes how many rows in one table match rows in another table. Click the Parse button to verify the syntax. Click OK. you replace Article_lookup. if you want to restrict the returned values from the Family_code column to ’F3’.

You use contexts to resolve join problems that can return too many or too few rows because of the way that tables are linked in the target database. or N. Contexts are described in “Detecting and Solving Join Problems” on page 170. A join represents a bidirectional relationship. 1. The minimum and the maximum number of row matches can be equal to 0. so it must always have two cardinalities. Designer’s Guide 151 .N) (1. The cardinalities in the above join can be expressed as follows: Description For each customer. that have matching rows in the column at the other end of the join. Example: Cardinality of a join The two tables Customer and Reservations are linked by a join. A context is a collection of joins which provide a valid query path. However. there can be one and only one customer Notation (1.1) How are cardinalities used In Designer? The cardinality of a join does not have a role in the SQL generated when you run a query. one for each end of the join.Creating a schema with tables and joins Using cardinalities 3 Cardinality is expressed as the minimum and maximum number of rows in a column at one end of a join. Designer uses cardinalities to determine contexts and valid query paths. there can be one or more reservations For each reservation.

3 Creating a schema with tables and joins Using cardinalities Contexts affect the SQL generated for a query as they either direct the end user to take a particular join path. If cardinality is 1. Arity. 3.1 then an arrow head is shown at each join end. Parity 1. or solve a join path problem. 2. Click OK. Displaying cardinalities You can display cardinalities in the Structure pane using the following symbols: Cardinality symbol Arrow Example Description Arrow indicates the “one” direction of the join. Cardinality is shown as a ratio at each end of the join.: You need to verify that cardinalities are correctly set for all joins in your schema to ensure that you have the correct contexts. or 1. Crow’s foot indicates the “many” end of the join. Click the Arrow.1. Select Tools > Options. and to graphically identify potential join path problems in your schema.N To display cardinalities: 1. and that you have valid join paths. Setting cardinalities can also help you understand how tables are related in the database. The Graphics page appears. Click the Graphics tab. The Options dialog box opens to the General page.n radio button. 152 Designer’s Guide . then a straight line is shown. 4. If cardinality is 1.

expect one and only one row in table 2 For every row in table 1.1) many-to-many (N. and ensure that you understand the relationship between the tables.N).N) many-to-one (N.1) one-to-many (1. This helps you to become aware of potential join path problems in your schema. You may not find these problems if you only select automatically detected cardinalities. Why set cardinalities manually? When you set cardinalities manually. for example.N) cardinalities. you must consider each individual join. Both methods are described in the following sections. Setting cardinalities manually You can manually set cardinalities for joins by defining cardinality for a join in the Edit Join box for a join.N) Description For every row in table 1. or use the automatic cardinality detection tool in Designer. causing slower performance and potentially inaccurate results. Many-to-many cardinalities are rare in relational databases and will return duplicate rows. expect one or multiple rows in table 2. You can set cardinalities manually. but the direction for the row match is opposite. Designer’s Guide 153 . you should re-check the concerned joins.Creating a schema with tables and joins Using cardinalities 3 What cardinalities can be set for a join? You can set the following cardinalities for a join: Cardinality one-to-one (1. For each one or multiple rows in table 1. expect one or many rows in table 2 Same as for one-to-many (1. or excessive primary keys where not all columns are required to ensure uniqueness. If you have (N. isolated one-to-one joins at the end of a join path.

primary key of Table 2. Column or combination of columns whose values are required to match a primary or another unique key in another table.3 Creating a schema with tables and joins Using cardinalities Understanding keys You determine cardinalities for most join cases by evaluating the primary and foreign keys in each table. 154 Designer’s Guide . Foreign keys implement constraints such as 'you cannot create a sale for a customer if that customer hasn't yet been created'.. Each table has only one primary key.1).. The primary key guarantees row uniqueness in a table. Foreign Example: What are the criteria for setting cardinalities? You evaluate the relationship between primary and foreign keys to determine the cardinality for a join as follows: If join links. Complete primary key of Table 1 with complete One-to-one (1. Cardinality is likely to be... For example: Only one row from each table will be returned for each primary key value. Primary and foreign keys are described as follows: Key Primary Description Single or combination of columns in a table whose values identify each row in the table. Each table can have multiple foreign keys.

For example: Cardinality is likely to be. Foreign key values of a table are not guaranteed to be unique and so can return many matching values for a single value of the primary key on the original table. The Edit Join dialog box appears. For example: To set cardinalities manually: 1. One-to-many (1. Complete primary key of one Table 1 with corresponding foreign key of Table 2.. Select the Cardinality check box. 3. Designer’s Guide 155 . Complete primary key of Table 1 with part of primary key of Table 2.. Double click a join. 2.N). Or Click a join and select Edit > Properties.Creating a schema with tables and joins Using cardinalities 3 If join links. The incomplete primary key match can return many matching values for a single value of the primary key on the original table.. One-to-many (1.. Select the 1 or N radio button for Table1.N).

It can be very useful to quickly get all the cardinalities detected in the schema. 5.3 Creating a schema with tables and joins Using cardinalities 4. 156 Designer’s Guide . there are a number of structural problems inherent in many relational databases which can lead to incorrect cardinality detection. Select the 1 or N radio button for Table2. Note: You should use automatic cardinality detection appropriately. These include incomplete primary joins. cardinalities are implemented automatically on detection. These are discussed in the section “Using cardinalities to resolve database limitations” on page 160. however. Detecting cardinalities automatically You can use the Designer feature Detect Cardinalities to automatically detect cardinalities for the following situations: • • • • Selected joins All joins At join creation From the Edit Join box When using automatic cardinality detection. Click OK. and over engineered primary keys.

Right click a join and select Detect Cardinalities from the contextual menu. Detecting cardinalities automatically for all joins To automatically detect cardinalities for all joins: 1. you receive a message indicating that no join is selected. Automatically detecting cardinalities on join creation To automatically detect cardinalities on join creation: 1. If you select Tools > Detect Cardinalities directly without selecting a join. The cardinality is displayed with the crow’s foot at the many end. All joins in the Structure pane are shown with cardinalities. 2. The Options dialog box opens to the General page. Click the Database tab.Creating a schema with tables and joins Using cardinalities 3 Detecting cardinalities automatically for selected joins To automatically detect cardinalities for a selected join: • • Click a join and select Tools > Detect Cardinalities. and asking if you want to detect cardinalities for all joins. Or Click the Detect Cardinalities button. Select Tools > Options. The Database page appears. Select Tools > Automated Detection >Detect Cardinalities. 2. Designer’s Guide 157 . Detect Cardinalities A message box appears asking if you want to detect cardinalities for all joins. Click Yes.

5. Select the Cardinality check box. improving the performance of the algorithm. 3. the cardinality is automatically detected and displayed on the join. Double click a join. The two cardinalities are also expressed in sentence form. Select the Detect Cardinalities in Joins check box. 4. When you create a new join. There is a PRM file for each supported RDBMS. The Edit Join dialog box appears. Optimizing automatic cardinality detection You can improve the response time of cardinality detection by modifying a parameter in the PRM file of the target RDBMS. 2. Click OK. PRM files are located in the database folders under <INSTALLDIR>\win32_x86\dataAccess\ConnectionServer\ 158 Designer’s Guide . 4. Click the Detect button. Click OK.3 Creating a schema with tables and joins Using cardinalities 3. The cardinality radio buttons are automatically selected for the detected cardinality. Automatically detecting cardinality from the Edit Join box To automatically detect cardinality from the Edit Join box: 1. This directs the detection algorithm to read two instead of three SQL statements. The PRM file is a text file that lists parameters used to configure universe creation and SQL query generation in Web Intelligence.

The details of your connection appear in a drop down message box. 6. You return to the Parameters dialog box. Optimizing cardinality detection using the PRM file To optimize cardinality detection using the PRM file: 1. Scroll down the message box to the line that starts with PRM. The PRM files are stored in the Data Access folder in the Business Objects path. 4. automatic cardinality detection is optimized. 3. Save and close the PRM file. Select File > Parameters. The Test Connection message box appears. 5. 2. Open the PRM file for your target database in a text editor. Designer’s Guide 159 .Creating a schema with tables and joins Using cardinalities 3 Verifying which PRM file is used by a connection To verify which PRM file is used by a universe connection: 1. Click the Details button. Click OK. The next time you open the universe. 2. Click the Test button. 3. Click Cancel. Set the LIGHT_DETECT_CARDINALITY parameter to YES. The Parameters dialog box appears. This line indicates the file path and name of the PRM file currently used by the active universe.

lookup. or when a universe is opened. Manually 160 Designer’s Guide . If you are the DBA for the target database. which is much more difficult with a multi column primary key. Checking the universe As you design your universe. you can change the multi column primary key to a single column alpha numeric identifier. This would allow the table to take a “one” side of a join.3 Creating a schema with tables and joins Checking the universe Using cardinalities to resolve database limitations You can use the following criteria for determining cardinalities in special join situations. This ensures the uniqueness of values in the primary key of the lookup table. could lead to errors in your schema design: Problem Primary key of a lookup table has two columns. The cardinality of the join at the lookup table is now one. which if untreated. you could raise this point with your administrator. Joins with each fact table are many-to-many as the primary key in both joins is incomplete. Solution Change a “many” end to a “one” for join at lookup table end. If you are not the DBA. you should test its integrity periodically. so not all columns in a primary key are needed to guarantee uniqueness. Each column is joined to a different fact table. Do this as follows: Add a self restricting join (one-to-one) on the lookup table of the type. You run Check Integrity to check selected universe structures. Primary key is excessive. universe export.pk_column = pk_column value. You can verify universe integrity as follows: Check universe Automatically Description You can set Designer options to check the SQL syntax of universe structures at creation.

Checking universe integrity manually You can use Check Integrity to test to verify if the design of your active universe is accurate and up-to-date. Send check integrity Designer displays a warning each time you attempt to export an unchecked universe. Setting automatic universe check options To set automatic universe check options: 1. joins. Check Integrity detects the following: • • • • Errors in the objects. Any necessary contexts. Click OK. conditions. Select Tools > Options. universe export. and cardinalities of your universe. and joins at creation. Check universe integrity at opening All universes are checked automatically when opened. conditions. The Options dialog box opens to the General page. 2. and universe opening: Automatic check option Automatic parse upon definition Description Designer automatically checks the SQL definition of all objects. 3. Changes to the target database.Creating a schema with tables and joins Checking the universe 3 Checking universe integrity automatically You can set the following integrity check options in Designer to parse SQL structures at creation. It is applied when you click OK to validate structure creation. Designer’s Guide 161 . Select or clear check boxes for appropriate universe automatic check options in the Integrity group box. Loops in join paths.

or join. It carries out the same action for columns. If the connection is not valid.3 Creating a schema with tables and joins Checking the universe Before examining the elements of the universe against those of the database. Check Integrity marks any tables or columns not matching those in the list as not available. See the section “Refreshing the Universe Structure” on page 165. If there is ambiguous or missing data. In the Structure pane. Loops Isolated tables Isolated joins Loops within contexts Missing or incorrect cardinalities How does Check Integrity determine changes in a connected database? The Check Integrity function sends a request to the database for a list of tables. refer to the section “Optimizing automatic cardinality detection” on page 158. Note: The option Check Cardinalities can be slow to run with large amounts of data. the function checks whether the connection to the database is valid. If you do use this option. It then compares this list with the tables in the universe. Select Tools > Check Integrity. Types of errors detected by Check Integrity Check Integrity can detect: • • • • • • Invalid syntax in the SQL definition of an object. results can also be inaccurate. For more information. 162 Designer’s Guide . the function stops and returns an error message. If your database is large. then you can optimize the cardinality detection by modifying the PRM file. Verifying universe integrity with Check Integrity To verify universe integrity: 1. These are tables or columns that may have been deleted or renamed in the database. and may have incomplete data entries. condition. then you should not select the option Check Cardinalities. Or Check Integrity Click the Check Integrity button.

4. Clear check boxes for components not to be verified. 3.Creating a schema with tables and joins Checking the universe 3 2. The Integrity Check dialog box appears. Click OK. Select check boxes for components to be verified. 5. Designer’s Guide 163 . Select the Quick Parsing check box to verify only the syntax of components. Or Select Thorough Parsing check box to verify both the syntax and semantics of components. This allows you to verify the universe structure without checking cardinalities which may take a long time depending on the database. 6. Note: You can select Check Cardinalities independently of the Check All option.

You can double click an item in the list to highlight the corresponding components in the Structure pane. it displays “OK” beside each error type. 7.3 Creating a schema with tables and joins Checking the universe A message box displays the universe check progress. Click the plus sign (+) beside the error type to view the list of components in which the error occurred. 164 Designer’s Guide . If Check Integrity encounters no errors.

A message box appears informing you of a change in the database. or that no update is needed if no changes have been made. the function erroneously identifies loops in the joins. You should rename these tables to match those in the database. No changes were made to the database To refresh the universe structure: • • Select View > Refresh Structure. Otherwise. 9. If the names still do not match. Displays a message that says it no longer recognizes the corresponding tables in the universe. ensure that the cardinalities of joins have already been detected. Designer returns a message stating that the renamed tables do not exist in the database. Displays a warning message indicating the columns and associated joins you should delete. Designer’s Guide 165 . Displays a warning message indicating the tables and associated joins you should delete. Click OK. Displays a message informing you that no update is needed. Click the Print button to print the window contents. Refresh Structure can modify the universe structure to comply with changes in the database as follows: If Columns were added to tables Columns were removed from tables Tables were removed from the database Tables were renamed in the database Then Designer does the following Adds the columns to the corresponding tables in the universe. Refreshing the Universe Structure If Check Integrity indicates that the database of your universe connection has been modified.Creating a schema with tables and joins Checking the universe 3 8. you can use Refresh Structure to update the contents of the Structure pane. Note: Before selecting the Check for Loops check box.

3 Creating a schema with tables and joins Checking the universe 166 Designer’s Guide .

Resolving join problems in a schema chapter .

you typically create joins between lookup tables and fact tables. This section briefly defines lookup and fact tables. contexts (a defined join path)... 168 Designer’s Guide . and other Designer features to resolve join path problems in your universe schema. This is the Business Objects installation path with the operating system sub directory that contains the Designer executable and the data access drivers. It explains how you can use aliases. The three major join path problems that you encounter when designing a schema are the following: • • • loops chasm traps fan traps You can solve all these problems by creating aliases (a copy of a base table). contexts. and using features available in Designer to separate queries on measures or contexts.4 Resolving join problems in a schema Overview Overview This chapter describes the types of problems that can arise as you create joins between the tables in your schema. and describes the types of join path problems that you can encounter using these tables.5\win32_x86. Under Windows$INSTALLDIR = \\.5\win32_x86. It explains how you can detect and resolve these join problems to ensure that the join paths taken by queries run on the universe return correct results Note: $INSTALLDIR variable in this guide In this guide the variable $INSTALLDIR is the install root path for the data access files used by Designer and Web Intelligence. In Designer. What is a join path problem? A join path is a series of joins that a query can use to access data in the tables linked by the joins.\Business Objects\BusinessObjects Enterprise 11. For example C:\Program Files\Business Objects\BusinessObjects Enterprise 11. Join path problems can arise from the limited way that lookup and fact tables are related in a relational database.

For example. A fact table is characterized by the following join cardinality structure: FACT What Types of Join Paths Return Incorrect Results? Queries can return incorrect results due to the limitations in the way that joins are performed in relational databases. In a universe. In Designer.Resolving join problems in a schema What is a join path problem? 4 What is a Lookup Table A lookup (or dimension) table contains information associated with a particular entity or subject. most but not all. a lookup table can hold geographical information on customers such as their names. A lookup table has the following join cardinality structure: DIMENSION What is a Fact Table A fact table contains statistical information about transactions. it may contain figures such as Sales Revenue or Profit. For example. or too many rows. measures are defined from fact tables. Depending on how the lookup and fact tables in your table schema are related. dimension and detail objects are typically derived from lookup tables. Designer’s Guide 169 . join paths can produce instances where a query returns too few. telephone numbers as well as the cities and countries in which they reside.

Serial many to one Too many rows joins Detecting and Solving Join Problems Designer provides a number of methods for detecting and solving join problems. This type of fanning out of one to many joins can lead to a join path problem called a fan trap. Each of these methods is fully described in its corresponding section. A one to many join links a table which is in turn linked by a one to many join.4 Resolving join problems in a schema What is a join path problem? The following types of join paths can produce incorrect results: Type of Join Path Loop Converging many to one joins Returns Too few rows Too many rows Description Joins form multiple paths between lookup tables. This type of join convergence can lead to a join path problem called a chasm trap. Many to one joins from two fact tables converge on a single lookup table. • • • • • Detect Aliases Detect Contexts Detect Loops Check Integrity Visual analysis of schema 170 Designer’s Guide . You can use the following methods to detect and solve join path problems: Join Problem Loop Detected by Solved by Creating aliases and contexts to break loops.

Using Multiple SQL Statements for Each Measure. Designer’s Guide 171 . but the different name "tricks" the SQL of a query to accept that you are using two different tables. Solved by • • • Creating a context. However. Creating an alias. • • Most join path problems can be solved by creating an alias or implementing a context. you have to be able to visually analyze the schema and create aliases and if necessary contexts manually. The data in the table is exactly the same as the original table. Creating multiple universes (Web Intelligence only). to resolve fan traps. You can use the automatic loop detection tools in Designer to identify loops in the schema. creating a context using the alias. with a different name. Defining aliases Aliases are references to existing tables in a schema. Using the feature Multiple SQL statements for each measure.Resolving join problems in a schema Defining aliases 4 Join Problem Chasm trap (converging many to one joins) Detected by Visual analysis of table schema. then building affected measure objects on the alias. Fan trap (serial many to one joins) Visual analysis of table schema. and automatic context detection to identify where Chasm traps occur. An Alias is a table that is an exact duplicate of the original table (base table).

A loop is a set of joins that defines a closed path through a set of tables in a schema. not the original base tables. • Tip: Another possible use of aliases is to create an alias for each table as it is inserted into the schema. and Sponsor for Customer. You then build the schema using the alias tables. and includes using aliases to solve loops and fan traps. This allows you to give meaningful names to tables. This is the main reason for using aliases. Resort_Country and Sponsor: Resort_Country is an alias for Country Sponsor is an alias for Customer How are Aliases Used in a Schema? You use aliases for two main reasons: • To use the table more than once in a query. Loops occur when joins form multiple paths between lookup tables 172 Designer’s Guide . To abbreviate the table name to save typing when writing freehand SQL. The example Beach universe contains 2 aliases.4 Resolving join problems in a schema Defining aliases The Beach universe schema appears below. You place the base tables together away from the main universe structure. It contains two alias tables. Using aliases to solve loops The most common use of aliases in universe development is to solve potential loops in the use of common tables. and prevents the need to rebuild major sections of a universe structure should a base table need to be aliased at a later stage. Resort_Country for Country.

You need to create an alias manually to solve a fan trap. The Creating an Alias box appears. This use of aliases is discussed in the section “Resolving Chasm Traps” on page 214. 2. The automatic detection and creation of aliases to solve loops is described in the section “Detecting and creating an alias” on page 198. It prompts you to enter a name for the new alias. or let Designer automatically detect potential aliases that will solve a join path loop. Click the table that you want to use to create an alias. You also create aliases manually if you are creating a schema using only aliases and not the base tables. or keep the one proposed. Using aliases to solve fan traps Aliases are also used to solve potential fan traps. 3. Select Insert > Alias Or Insert Alias Click the Insert Alias button. Enter a new name for the aliased table.Resolving join problems in a schema Defining aliases 4 You use an alias to break a loop by providing alternative table for an original lookup table that is being used for multiple query paths. Designer’s Guide 173 . This use of aliases is discussed in the section “Resolving loops” on page 187. Creating Aliases You can create aliases manually. Creating an alias manually To create an alias manually: 1. These can occur in a serial one-to-many join path that can return inflated results when aggregates are summed at the "many" end of the joins.

and then select the Aliased Name check box. Tip: To avoid confusing base tables with aliases. Resort Country is used for queries returning data for resort countries. Alias Base table 5. Renaming an alias directly To rename an alias directly: 1. you can display the alias with the name of the base table it represents in the table title as follows: Select Tools > Options > Graphics. The aliased table appears in the Structure pane. the base table Country is used in queries returning data for customer countries. Alias and table naming conventions are RDBMS dependent. or from a list of aliases in the universe. Create any joins necessary between the alias and other tables in the schema. You can rename an alias directly by renaming the table. Click OK. For example. Click a table and select Edit > Rename Table. 174 Designer’s Guide . 4. Renaming an alias You can rename an alias at any time.4 Resolving join problems in a schema Defining aliases Note: The name that you give to an alias should be relevant to the role of the alias to distinguish it from the base table. Resort country is an alias for Country. Or Right click a table and select Rename table from the contextual menu.

3. then you can modify these as necessary. The List of Aliases appears. If they are active.Resolving join problems in a schema Defining aliases 4 The Rename Table dialog box appears. It lists all the aliases in the active universe. 4. Deleting an alias You delete an alias in the same way that you delete a table. 3. 2. you must modify these objects before you delete the alias. 5. or delete the objects if they are no longer necessary. 6. Click an alias name in the list. 2. Or Select the Lower case check box if you want the alias name to be shown as all lowercase. Click OK. so that they use another table. Renaming an alias from a list To rename an alias from a list: 1. Click OK. Designer’s Guide 175 . Type a new name for the selected alias in the New Name text box. If you have defined objects using the alias. 4. Select Tools > List of Aliases. Click Apply. Type a new name in the Table Name box. The availability of the Owner and Qualification fields is database specific. Select the Upper case check box if you want the alias name to be shown as all uppercase.

Defining contexts Contexts are a collection of joins which provide a valid query path for Web Intelligence to generate SQL. Click an alias and select Edit > Clear. 2. To delete an alias: 1. queries using those objects will generate errors in Web Intelligence. Assisting in detecting incompatibility for objects using aggregate awareness.4 Resolving join problems in a schema Defining contexts If you do not modify or remove the objects using a deleted alias. Click Yes. If any objects use the alias. 176 Designer’s Guide . Or Click an alias and press the DELETE key. Solving chasm traps. Assisting in some solutions for fan traps. you do not receive a confirmation box. How are Contexts Used in a Schema? You can use contexts in a universe schema for the following purposes: • • • • Solving loops. Or Right click an alias and select Clear from the contextual menu. The alias is deleted immediately. the following message appears: If no objects use the alias. The alias is deleted from the Structure pane.

Resolving join problems in a schema Defining contexts 4 Using contexts to solve loops The most common use of contexts is to separate two query paths. for solving a fan trap (another join path problem). Creating a context automatically To create a context automatically 1. You use contexts to direct join paths in a schema which contains multiple fact tables. The automatic detection of contexts for loop resolution is described in the section “Resolving loops” on page 187. If you are using a context to resolve a loop or a chasm trap. and the other query returns data for another fact table. or you can create contexts manually. Aliases are not appropriate in such schema. Using contexts to solve chasm and fan traps Contexts are also used to solve potential chasm traps. The following procedures describe how you can create a context automatically and manually. all joins must be included in one or multiple contexts. Contexts can split out the query so that the correct number of rows are returned for the dimension. Contexts can also be used with aliases to solve fan traps. These can occur when two many-to-one join paths converge on a single table. so that one query returns data for one fact table. Multiple rows can be returned for a single dimension causing inflated results. from being used in a query with the aggregate aware object. Creating a Context You can let Designer automatically detect contexts. This use of contexts is covered in the section “Resolving loops” on page 187. you should always let Designer detect the contexts. Using contexts to determine AggregateAwareness incompatibility You can use contexts to exclude objects that are not compatible with an object using the @AggregateAware function in its definition. Select Tools > Automated Detection >Detect Contexts. These uses of contexts are discussed in the section “Resolving Chasm Traps” on page 214. If a table is linked by a join that is not included in a context. Note: When you create one or more contexts. This use of contexts is discussed in“Generating OLAP universes” on page 317. However. the join will not be considered when a query is run. you may have to manually build a context. Designer’s Guide 177 .

you can rename a context as follows: Click a context and click the Rename button. 4. 2. as chasm traps exist at the branch where two contexts meet. Click a context in the Candidate Contexts list and click the Add button. Type the new name and click OK.4 Resolving join problems in a schema Defining contexts The Candidate Contexts box appears. Note: Once you have added the candidate context to the Accepted Contexts list. It proposes candidate contexts for your schema. Click OK. Contexts appear here in List Mode Context join path for Reservation_Line 178 Designer’s Guide . Repeat step 2 for each candidate context in the list. These candidate contexts may be necessary to solve either loops or a chasm trap. An edit box appears. The context for invoice Line is shown below. 3. The contexts are listed in the Contexts pane when List mode (View > List Mode) is active.

The context for Invoice_Line is shown below. Or Click the Insert Context button.Resolving join problems in a schema Defining contexts 4 5. Insert Context The New Context box appears. Designer’s Guide 179 . Context join path for Reservation_Line Creating a context manually To create a context manually: 1. Select Insert > Context.

This is the help text that a Web Intelligence user sees when they run a query that takes the context path. and contexts in the Structure pane. Click OK. joins. Editing a context You can use a context editor to modify the following properties of a context: • • • Name Joins included in the context Description You can also check the context for any unresolved loops. 8. 180 Designer’s Guide . 5. 6. Editing context properties To edit context properties: 1. The context is created. 3. Click the Check button. Select all the joins defining the context in the Current Context Joins list. The List pane appears above the Structure pane. You have the following options when creating the context: Click the Detect button to show the joins making up a suggested context with context name. 7. Double click a context name in the Contexts list pane. Select View > List Mode. Type a name for the context in the Context Name text box. Type a description of the data the context returns. It contains list boxes for all the tables. This text should be useful to the end user. Designer checks the selected joins for any loops. Select the Show Selected Only check box to see only selected joins. 4. 2.4 Resolving join problems in a schema Defining contexts 2.

you should delete the context before making the modification to the table or join. 6. If you are adding or deleting a table or join within a context. or use Detect Contexts to automatically detect a new context if it is being used to resolve a loop. you can either manually recreate the context if it is being used to solve a chasm trap. Once the modification is complete. Designer’s Guide 181 . Refer to the section“Detecting and creating a context” on page 200 for information on detecting contexts. Type a new name in the Context Name box if you want to change the context name. 4. Or Click a join that is not highlighted to add it to the context.Resolving join problems in a schema Defining contexts 4 The Edit Context box appears. Ensure that List mode is active (Select View > List Mode). 5. 3. Click OK. Type a description for the context. Click a highlighted join to remove it from the context. Deleting a context from the Context list To delete a context from the context list: 1. Deleting a context You can delete a context at any time from the Context list in the List pane. The modifications appear in the context.

If you have made only a simple change to the structure. if you have made significant changes to the universe structure. Join Paths that Prevent Context Detection A one-to one-cardinality positioned at the end of a join path can prevent Context Detection in Designer from detecting a context. It is joined by a one-to-one join to the Sales table. Right click a context name in the Contexts list box and select Clear from the contextual menu. or if you add or remove any joins. Or Click a context name in the Context list box and select Edit > Clear. The context is removed from the list.4 Resolving join problems in a schema Defining contexts 2. If you add or remove any tables to the structure. Updating contexts Contexts are not updated automatically when the universe structure is changed. You resolve this problem by changing the cardinality of the table at the end of the join path to one-to-many. you can update the joins that are included in each context manually using either the Edit Context box or the List pane. you must update all the contexts. you should delete the current contexts and re-create them. Example: One-to-one cardinality preventing context detection The schema below shows a table Sales_Extra_Info that contains particular information about each sale. However. 182 Designer’s Guide .

a reservations context. The schema below now has a one-to-many join at the end of the join path. Changing cardinality to allow the context detection You solve this problem by setting the cardinality of the join linking Sale_Extra_Info to Sales to one-to-many. you receive the following message: Designer has not considered the one-to-one join at the end of the join path in the context detection. and a sales context. When you run Detect Contexts. there are clearly two contexts in this schema. the important factor is not to have the one-to-one join at the end of the join path. so does not consider that there are two contexts.Resolving join problems in a schema Defining contexts 4 When you visually examine the join paths. However. It can also be many-to-one. when you automatically detect contexts on this type of join path (Tools > Automated Detection >Detect Contexts). the two contexts are detected as shown below: Designer’s Guide 183 .

This occurs when a query includes objects that when used together do not give enough information to determine one context or the other. a dialog box appears asking the user to choose a context. or services paid by age group. Customer. Resort. Age_group. the following SQL is generated: SELECT Service. contexts can lead to three types of queries being run: • • • Ambiguous queries Inferred queries Incompatible queries You can run these types of queries in Web Intelligence to test the SQL generated by the contexts. 184 Designer’s Guide . Age_group. Web Intelligence displays a dialog box that prompts the user to select one of two contexts.service. you need to analyze the concerned join paths. or returns incorrect data. the corresponding tables and joins are inserted into the SQL query.age_range. When a query is ambiguous. When the user selects a context.4 Resolving join problems in a schema Defining contexts How do Contexts Affect Queries? Depending on how you allow Web Intelligence users to use the objects defined on schema structures. Ambiguous queries An end user is prompted to choose between one query path or another. Resort. If any of these query types produces an error.resort FROM Service. in this case either the Reservations or Sales context: The user must choose if they want information for services reserved by age group. If they select the Reservations context. Example: Running an ambiguous query A Web Intelligence user runs the following query: Give me the services used by each age group of visitors for each resort: When the query is run.

sl_id=Service_Line.sl_id ) AND ( Customer. Designer’s Guide 185 .age_min and Age_group.service_id ) The joins referenced by the other context (Sales) do not appear in the SQL. For example.age_max ) AND ( Customer.res_id ) AND ( Reservation_Line.service_id=Service. Incompatible queries Objects from two different contexts are combined in a query. Service_Line WHERE ( Resort. Reservation_Line. the data is returned without prompting the user to select a context.Resolving join problems in a schema Defining contexts 4 Reservations. Web Intelligence infers that the Reservation context is the one to use for the query.cust_id ) AND ( Reservation_Line. Example: Running an incompatible query A Web Intelligence user runs the following query: Give me the total number of guests company wide by age group and the months that reservations were made. The query contains enough information for the correct context to be inferred. The two Select statements are synchronized to display returned data in separate tables.cust_id=Reservations.resort_id ) AND ( Service. Inferred queries A Web Intelligence query is run without prompting an end user to choose a context.age between Age_group.resort_id=Service_Line. which is part of the Reservations context. The Future Guests object is a sum on the Reservation_Line table.res_id=Reservations. a user runs the following query: Give me the number of future guests by age group for each available service: When the query is run.

Web Intelligence combines the results (using Age Group). It then displays the results in two tables in the same report as followst. 186 Designer’s Guide . To allow incompatible queries to be run in Web Intelligence. This is described in the following section. no prompt appears as Web Intelligence infers the use of both the Sales and Reservations contexts.4 Resolving join problems in a schema Defining contexts When the query is run. you must select the Multiple SQL statements in Designer for each context option. The Select statements for both contexts are synchronized as follows: The query is split into two parts: • • Age Group and Number of Guests Reservation Month When retrieving the results of the two queries.

Resolving loops In a relational database schema. Designer’s Guide 187 . The SQL page appears. The Universe Parameters dialog box appears. Click OK. Click the SQL tab. 4.Resolving join problems in a schema Resolving loops 4 Selecting Multiple SQL statements for each context To select Multiple SQL statements for each context: 1. An example of a loop is shown below. Loops occur when joins form multiple paths between lookup tables. What is a Loop? A loop is a set of joins that defines a closed path through a set of tables in a schema. a common type of join path that returns too few rows is called a loop. 3. Select the Multiple SQL statements for each context check box. Select File > Parameters. 2.

It is also often difficult to determine the problem when you examine the results. and country where the customer lives. so fewer rows are returned than expected. However. How Does a Loop Affect Queries? If you created a universe based on the above structure. services for each service line. multiple paths between tables may be valid and implemented to meet specific user requirements. 188 Designer’s Guide . Customer These two sets of information are linked in a common join path forming a loop. When each path is included individually in a query it returns a distinct set of results. the schema that you design in Designer often needs to allow queries that include more than one path. Resort the following information is linked Available service lines. The lookup table Country can be the country where a resort is situated. the sales for the customer. so the information returned can be incorrect. and the country where the resort is situated. The city. region. The rows that are returned are an intersection of the results for each path. Why loops in a universe schema and not in the database? In a database. which a relational database may not be designed to handle. invoice information for each service. and the invoice information for each sale. This double restriction on the shared lookup Country table returns fewer rows than expected. or the country in which a customer lives.4 Resolving join problems in a schema Resolving loops The schema contains two linked sets of information: For each. any query run against the tables in the loop would return only results where the country values for resorts and the country values for customer origin are equivalent...

and US visitors staying in resorts in those countries. when you run the query using the universe containing the loop. Japanese. However. You would expect the following type of result: For the resorts in France and the US. give me the number of guests from each country that stay at each resort.Resolving join problems in a schema Resolving loops 4 Example: Loop returns incorrect results You create the following objects using the schema that contains the above loop: You run the following query in Web Intelligence: For each resort country. you receive the following results: Designer’s Guide 189 . you have the number of German.

The Where clause created by the loop is shown below: WHERE ( Country. In a loop. the joins apply more restrictions than you anticipate. but the different name “tricks” SQL into accepting that you are using two different tables.sl_id=Service.4 Resolving join problems in a schema Resolving loops This suggests that only visitors from the US stayed in resorts in the US. and the data returned is incorrect. Lookup for the customer country of origin.service_line = 'Accommodation' ) The following two joins are both applying a restriction to the Country table: • • • • Country. How does an alias break a loop? An alias breaks a loop by using the same table twice in the same query for a different purpose.country_id Lookup for the resort country. No other visitors came from any other country.service_id ) AND ( Sales.country_id ) AND ( Service_Line. Depending on the nature of the loop.country_id=Region. What is the loop doing to the query? The joins in the Structure are used to create the Where clause in the inferred SQL of a query. The alias is identical to the base table with a different name. Country is serving two purposes: This creates a restriction so that data is returned only when the resort country is the same as the customer country. or a context to separate the two join paths so that a query can only take one path or the other.country_id ) AND ( Resort.country_id=Resort.inv_id ) AND ( Customer. The resulting report shows only the number of visitors from the US who visited resorts in the US.resort_id ) AND ( Service_Line.inv_id=Invoice_Line. The purpose of the joins is to restrict the data that is returned by the query.city_id=Customer. you can resolve the loop in Designer using either an alias to break the join path.country_id=Resort.region_id=City.region_id ) AND ( Country.country_id=Region.cust_id=Sales. 190 Designer’s Guide .service_id=Invoice_Line.city_id ) AND ( Region. The data in the alias is exactly the same as the original table.sl_id ) AND ( Service.cust_id ) AND ( City.country_id Country.resort_id=Service_Line.

Example: Breaking a loop with an alias The schema below is the same schema that contained the loop in the previous section. Designer’s Guide 191 . so it can be used for the following two purposes in the join path: • • Countries for resorts Countries for customers You create an alias for Country and rename it Country_Region.Resolving join problems in a schema Resolving loops 4 Note: You can resolve the loop satisfactorily by creating only one alias table in the example we have been using. It shows a join path in which the Country lookup table receives only the "one" ends of two joins. while the Showroom join uses the alias table. However. this is necessary. In some relational database systems. Country_Region is joined to the Region table. The Region join uses the original Country table. you could create a separate alias table for each join in the original table. The two "one" ended joins are now separated as follows: • • Country keeps a join to the Resort table.

give me the number of guests from each country that stay at each resort.service_line = 'Accommodation' ) There is now one join applying a restriction on the Country table and another join applying a restriction on the Resort_Country table.sl_id ) AND ( Service_Line.inv_id=Sales.sl_id=Service_Line.city_id=Customer.resort_id ) AND ( Service.cust_id ) AND ( Invoice_Line. The Where clause for this query is now: WHERE ( City.service_id ) AND ( Resort. The loop has been broken.region_id=Region.region_id ) AND ( Country.country_id=Region.inv_id ) AND ( Invoice_Line. 192 Designer’s Guide .service_id=Service.cust_id=Sales.country_id=Resort.country_id ) AND ( Customer.4 Resolving join problems in a schema Resolving loops The schema now appears as shown below: When you run the same query that produced too few rows in the previous example: For each resort country.country_id ) AND ( Resort_Country.resort_id=Service_Line.city_id ) AND ( City.

You often use contexts in schema that contain multiple fact tables (“multiple stars”) that share lookup tables. The statistics relating to each type of transaction are stored in the fact tables Sales and Reservations. the following table is returned: How does a context resolve a loop? A context resolves a loop by defining a set of joins that specify one specific path through tables in a loop. It ensures that joins are not included from different paths within the same SQL query. Designer’s Guide 193 . The schema contains a loop as a join path can follow the sales path or the reservations path to get service information.Resolving join problems in a schema Resolving loops 4 When the query is run. Example: Resolving a loop with a context The schema below contains statistical information about sales and reservations.

Reservations and Reservation_Line Sales and Invoice_Line Designer detects these contexts.. you break the loop. The only way to resolve this loop is to leave the loop in place. and create a context that specifies one or the other path around the schema. such as: Is the customer information needed from the perspective of sales or reservations? In the example..4 Resolving join problems in a schema Resolving loops If you created an alias for the Customer so that you had a Customer to Reservation join and a Customer_Sales to Sales join. Reservation_Line Sales_Line 194 Designer’s Guide . you can follow two different paths from the Customer table to the Service table: For this path.. but if you want to add a City table to the schema.. This ensures that queries answer questions for one transaction or the other. This is difficult to maintain. and also ends up proliferating the number of similar objects using each table in the universe. you end up with a loop again as shown below: You must continue creating aliases for each new table you add to the schema.

Both are arranged at the end of the one to many join paths. The Sales_Line context appears below: Designer’s Guide 195 .Resolving join problems in a schema Resolving loops 4 The Reservation_Line context appears below: These two tables are the source of the two contexts.

4 Resolving join problems in a schema Resolving loops You then create different sets of objects from the tables in the different contexts. Visually Identifying Loops You can use the following guidelines to help you analyze your schema to determine whether an alias or context is appropriate for resolving loops. Cardinalities must be set before detecting loops Before using the automatic loop detection and resolution features... You can set cardinalities in two ways: • • Manually.. If loop contains. Refer to the section “Using cardinalities” on page 150 for more information. but you should use Detect Aliases and Detect Contexts to formally identify and resolve loops. Use Detect Cardinalities. Refer to the section “Using cardinalities” on page 150 for more information. It is good design practise to either define cardinalities manually. Users can then run either Reservation queries or Sales queries. 196 Designer’s Guide . all cardinalities must be set for all joins in the schema. depending on the objects they select. Only one lookup table A look up table that receives only "one" ends of joins Two or more fact tables then loop can be resolved by. These can be useful to understand your schema.. Alias Alias Context Automatically Identifying and Resolving Loops You can use Designer to automatically detect loops and propose candidate aliases and contexts that you can insert in your schema to resolve the loops. See the section “Detecting and creating an alias” on page 198 and “Detecting and creating a context” on page 200 for more information. or manually validate each cardinality that Designer proposes when using the automatic routine.

You can insert and rename the alias directly from the box. 2. Run Detect Contexts after Detect Aliases to ensure that any contexts that you implement include any new aliases. Designer’s Guide 197 . It does not detect the need for an alias to resolve a fan trap. Detect Aliases Description Detects tables that can be aliased to solve a loop in the structure and proposes a candidate alias for each table. or to visualize the loop. Run Detect Aliases to identify if your schema needs an alias to solve any loops. Detects and highlights loops in the structure It proposes to insert an alias or context to resolve each loop. If not. Detect Contexts Detect Loops General method for identifying and resolving loops A general procedure for detecting and resolving loops is given below.Resolving join problems in a schema Resolving loops 4 Designer Features to Detect and Resolve loops You can use the following features in Designer to identify and resolve loops: Identify and resolve loop using.. The sections that describe the step in detail are also given. Detects contexts that can be used to solve a loop in the structure and proposes candidate contexts. you need to identify the context manually. 1. Use Detect Loops to run a quick check on the schema. It does not always detect the need for a context to resolve a chasm trap. Do not use it to identify and then resolve loops as you cannot edit or see the candidate alias before insertion. You can implement and rename each context directly from the box. You can implement the proposed alias or context directly from the Detect Loops box.. See the section “Using cardinalities” on page 150. You should run Detect Aliases before Detect Contexts to ensure that aliases that you create are included in any contexts that you implement. Verify that all cardinalities are set.

Select Tools > Automated Detection > Detect Aliases.4 Resolving join problems in a schema Resolving loops See the section “Detecting and creating an alias” on page 198 for more information. 6. Run Detect Contexts to identify if your schema needs a context to solve a loop that could not be solved with an alias only. 4. Insert the candidate aliases proposed by Detect Aliases. Test the resolved loop by creating objects and running queries. Note: If you are resolving loops for a schema that already has objects defined on the tables. See the chapter “Building universes” on page 235 for information on creating objects and testing the universe structures. To detect and create an alias: 1. Note: Before using Detect Aliases. to automatically detect and indicate the tables causing loops in the active universe. and insert in the schema. 3. verify that all the tables in schema are linked by joins. 5. Detect Aliases 198 Designer’s Guide . then you must redefine any objects that now use an alias and not the base table. Detect Aliases proposes candidate tables that you can edit. and that all cardinalities are set. Implement the candidate contexts proposed by Detect Contexts. See the section “Detecting and creating a context” on page 200 for more information. Detecting and creating an alias You can use Detect Aliases. Or Click the Detect Aliases button.

click the Rename button and enter a new name in the Rename box.Resolving join problems in a schema Resolving loops 4 The Detect Aliases dialog box appears. 3. If you want to rename the proposed alias. Click Close. Click the Create button. Click the OK button. The left pane lists the table or tables that need an alias. The right pane lists proposed aliases that can be inserted to break the loop. 5. 7. 4. Designer’s Guide 199 . The alias appear in the Structure pane/ Repeat steps 2 to 4 for any remaining tables. Select a table in the left pane. 6. A message box prompts you to confirm the creation of the alias. 2. A suggested name for the candidate alias is listed in the right pane.

4 Resolving join problems in a schema Resolving loops Detecting and creating multiple aliases Sometimes when you create an alias. Select Tools > Automated Detection > Detect Contexts. When using Detect Alias. Detecting and creating a context You can use Detect Contexts to automatically detect the need for a context. the following dialog box appears when you click the Create button. The proposed contexts appear in the left pane. Detect Contexts also proposes a candidate context. You can edit the candidate context before it is implemented. To detect and create a context: 1. if Designer detects the need for further aliases. In such a situation. two options are available to you: • • You can accept that only the first table proposed will be aliased. Detect Contexts The Candidate Contexts dialog box appears. 200 Designer’s Guide . Or Click the Detect Contexts button. you need to create additional aliases to accommodate new join paths. You can alias all the tables listed.

You can remove any context from the right pane by selecting it. It also proposes aliases and contexts to resolve detected loops. and then click the Rename button. and proposes either an alias or context to solve the loop. The recommended process for resolving loops is described in the section “General method for identifying and resolving loops” on page 197. 3. select it from the right pane. Click a context name. you should always give a name to the context resolving the loop that is easy for users to understand. Detect Loops is useful to run quick checks for loops in the schema. Designer’s Guide 201 . It should be clear to a Web Intelligence user what information path is represented by a context. The context name appears in the Accepted Contexts pane. The tables included in the candidate context are highlighted in the schema. if applicable. This is a feature that automatically checks for loops in the schema. 4. Repeat steps 3 and 4. 5. The contexts are listed in the Contexts box in the Universe window. Click the Add button. Click the OK button. you have less control over the order that the alias and contexts are created than if you used Detect Aliases and Detect Contexts to resolve a loop. 6. however.Resolving join problems in a schema Resolving loops 4 2. Type a new name. Note: If your universe contains a loop that could be ambiguous for a user. If you want to rename a context. and then clicking the Remove button. Automatically detecting loops You can detect loops in your universe using Detect Loops. to add the other contexts. The Rename Context dialog box appears.

To detect loops in a schema: 1. See the section “Checking Universe Integrity Manually” on page 230 for more information. cardinalities. and loops. Detect Loop The Loop Detection box appears. 2. including joins. It indicates how many loops have been detected and proposes a possible solution. Select Tools > Automated Detection > Detect Loops. Or Click the Detect Loops button. The detected join path that forms a loop is simultaneously highlighted in the Structure pane as follows: 202 Designer’s Guide . Check Integrity proposes solutions to any errors it discovers.4 Resolving join problems in a schema Resolving loops Note: You can also use Check Integrity to automatically check for errors in universe structures. Verify that you have set cardinalities for all joins in the schema.

Select Tools > Automated Detection > Detect Loops. You can choose to insert the candidate alias or implement the candidate context directly from the Detect Loops box. 3. Creating aliases and contexts automatically Designer proposes a candidate alias or a context to resolve a loop when you run Detect Loop. Click the forward button to display the next loop and proposed solution. It is joined to the table that table that is causing the loop in the schema. 2. Creating a context using Detect Loop To create a context using Detect Loops: 1. To create an alias using Detect Loop: 1. It indicates one or more loops detected in the schema. For each loop that Designer detects. and proposes a candidate alias or context for each loop. Click the forward arrow button until the following message appears for a detected loop: Designer’s Guide 203 . It indicates one or more loops detected in the schema. the join path is highlighted in the structure pane. Click the forward arrow button until the following message appears for a detected loop: This loop can be resolved with an alias. Select Tools > Automated Detection > Detect Loops. Click the Insert Alias button. An alias is automatically inserted in the Structure pane. Click Close. and proposes a candidate alias or context for each loop. The Detect Loops box appears. 4.Resolving join problems in a schema Resolving loops 4 3. The Detect Loops box appears. 2.

The context name appears in the Accepted Contexts pane. You can remove any context from the right pane by selecting it. to add the other contexts. 6. 3. 204 Designer’s Guide . Click a context name.4 Resolving join problems in a schema Resolving loops This loop is not covered by any context. Click Close. The tables included in the candidate context are highlighted in the schema. if applicable. Repeat steps 3 and 4. The contexts are listed in the Contexts box in the Universe window. 7. Click the Add button. and then clicking the Remove button. The Candidate Contexts dialog box appears. A context confirmation box appears. 5. 4. Click OK. 8. Click the Candidate context button.

Example: Create an alias to break a loop caused by shared lookup tables. Designer’s Guide 205 . which may not necessarily be the same as the customer’s country of residence. a customer residing in the UK can order a vehicle and then ask for it to be shipped to Brazil. These customers can: • • • Reside anywhere in the world Order products from the company Request that these products be shipped to a destination in any country For example. Each customer can place one or more orders for a product. The schema for this type of database is as follows: You can interpret this schema as follows: • • • Each customer comes from one country. They use a schema based on a Shipping company and show another perspective of certain loop resolution examples already shown in this chapter with the Beach universe.Resolving join problems in a schema Resolving loops 4 Examples of Resolving Loops The following are worked examples showing you how to do the following: • • • • • Create an alias to break a loop caused by shared lookup tables Create an alias to break a loop caused by shared lookup tables Determining when an alias is not appropriate to break a loop Creating a context to resolve a loop Using an alias and context together to resolve a loop These schemas are not based on the Beach universe. The company ships each product ordered to a destination country. A sales database holds information about products sold to customers on a worldwide basis.

COUNTRY.SHIP_COUNTRY=COUNTRY. COUNTRY. ORDERS. The customers who chose another country for shipment are not returned. 206 Designer’s Guide .LOC_COUNTRY=COUNTRY.CUST_ID) AND (ORDERS. ORDERS.ORDER_ID. ORDERS.ORDER_DATE. COUNTRY WHERE (CUSTOMERS.CUST_ID=ORDERS.COUNTRY_ID) When executed.LAST_NAME.COUNTRY_ID) AND (CUSTOMER.COUNTRY.4 Resolving join problems in a schema Resolving loops The tables and their columns are shown below: You run a query to obtain the following information: • • • • Names of customers Customer’s country of residence Dates of each order Destination country of the shipment The SQL to extract this data is as follows: SELECT CUSTOMERS. this SQL returns incomplete results. only those customers who requested a shipment to their country of residence are returned.COUNTRY FROM CUSTOMERS.

Example: Identifying multi-purpose lookup tables The COUNTRY table is used to look up both the customer’s country of residence and the shipment destination. You create an alias in the schema called DESTINATION. This is described in the following section. This type of table is called a shared lookup table.Resolving join problems in a schema Resolving loops 4 The returned rows are an intersection of both the customer’s country of residence and the destination country of the shipment. Designer’s Guide 207 . so the original name is suffixed with an alternative name. The first step in creating an alias is to identify the lookup table having more than one purpose in the database structure. Referencing the shared lookup table and alias in the FROM clause You now need to reference the table name twice in the From clause. the first time with its ordinary name and the second time with an alias. Instead of generating the full results shown below The SQL returns only these results: You can break the loop by inserting an alias. The three original joins still exist but the loop has been broken by the DESTINATION alias so there is no longer a closed join path.

In this database.” this type of table often appears in schemas automatically generated by CASE tools.ORDER_DATE DESTINATION. COUNTRY. only one lookup table (SYSLOOKUPS) was created with a code. ORDERS. the names of the countries and shippers have been normalized into lookup tables. The type field indicates the particular type of information the record holds.COUNTRY_ID) AND (CUSTOMER. COUNTRY DESTINATION WHERE (CUSTOMER. rather than two lookup tables.COUNTRY_ID) Example: Create an alias to break a loop caused by shared lookup tables A sales database holds information about customers living in different countries. These customers can place orders for goods that can be delivered by a number of couriers or shipping companies.NAME.NAME. for example. 208 Designer’s Guide . Normalization is a process that refines the relationships of tables by removing redundancies.CUST_ID) AND (ORDERS.CUST_LOC_ID=COUNTRY.4 Resolving join problems in a schema Resolving loops The resulting SQL is as follows: SELECT CUSTOMER. For structural reasons. ORDERS. description and type field. country or shipper.CUST_ID=ORDERS.SHIP_DEST_ID= DESTINATION. Referred to as a “flexible lookup.NAME FROM CUSTOMER. COUNTRY.

you can create two aliases. The resulting schema is shown below: Designer’s Guide 209 . Based on the two purposes that are represented in the SYSLOOKUPS table. COUNTRY and SHIPPERS.Resolving join problems in a schema Resolving loops 4 The schema and table layout are shown below: The SYSLOOKUPS table serves more than one purpose so you have to create as many aliases as the table has domains (distinct values for the type field).

However.SHIP_ID=SHIPPERS.ORDER_DATE. SHIPPERS.DESCRIPTION SHIPPER FROM ORDERS.4 Resolving join problems in a schema Resolving loops In Designer.DESCRIPTION. For example. 210 Designer’s Guide . In the Edit Join dialog box. For more information on creating self restricting joins. you set both Table1 and Table2 to SHIPPERS and enter the SQL expression SHIPPERS. Apply a new self restricting join to the COUNTRY alias. You can correct the error as follows: • • Apply a new self restricting join to the SHIPPERS alias.TYPE=’SHIP’.LOC_COUNTRY=COUNTRY. you would expect two rows to be returned. In the Edit Join dialog box. SYSLOOKUPS SHIPPERS WHERE (ORDERS. you set both Table1 and Table2 to COUNTRY and enter the SQL expression COUNTRY.TYPE=’CTRY’. Both “Man With a Van” and “USA” share code 1 while “France” and “Parcel Fun” share code 3.SHIP_ID=SHIPPERS.CODE ORDERS.ORDER_ID. the following SQL SELECT ORDERS. The corresponding joins would be: CUSTOMERS.CUST_ID. see the section “Self restricting joins” on page 147.CODE Using self restricting joins to restrict results Once you have defined the objects. if you wanted to know the names of the shippers who dispatched two orders to customer 101.DESCRIPTION and the object Shipper defined as SHIPPERS. you create the object Customer’s Country defined as COUNTRY. ORDERS.CODE) would produce the results below: The query has returned the names of countries and shippers. you now need to restrict each alias so that it returns only its own domain information and not that of the others. ORDERS.

If you run a simple query containing only the Shipper object. The aliases in this example resolve a loop by using one combined lookup table as two different lookup tables. If you are creating a number of objects on an alias that has many columns. • Summary In this example. you must also add the same restriction to every object built from the alias. 2. The following example describes why aliases are not appropriate. the restriction is not applied. Create a COUNTRY and SHIPPERS alias for the shared lookup table. this can produce the following problems: • When you add the restriction to the Where clause of an object. Designer’s Guide 211 . If you try to identify the lookup table used for more than one purpose. and why contexts are a better solution in this case. Create self restricting joins for the aliases as restrictions. it is not clear if it is the PRODUCTS table. you could have problems maintaining the universe. In this case. the use of contexts is a better solution. The restriction to the join between the alias and another table only takes effect when the join is invoked. we considered a schema with a shared lookup table. or the CUSTOMERS table.Resolving join problems in a schema Resolving loops 4 Problems using restrictions When you add the restriction to either the object’s Where clause or to the existing join between the alias and the CUSTOMERS/ORDERS table. The actions carried out can be summarized as follows: 1. so in some structures aliases may lead to the need for additional adjustments or restrictions. As the join is not seen as necessary. Example: Determining when an alias is not appropriate to break a loop Creating an alias to resolve the loop described above is not the optimal solution. These aliases also required the setting of restrictions (self-joins). every row in the SHIPPERS alias (including the unwanted Country rows) is returned as there is no reason to include the ORDERS table.

Example: Creating a context to resolve a loop A database contains information about customers who can either buy or rent products. In this database. you should create contexts. 212 Designer’s Guide . it was necessary to create two new aliases.4 Resolving join problems in a schema Resolving loops If you decide to create two aliases for the PRODUCTS table as shown below: The two aliases are ORDERED_PRODUCTS and LOANED_PRODUCTS. The resulting schema would be as follows: In the schema above. there are two different ways to present the relationship between the customers and the products: • • By products that have been ordered by (or sold to) customers. This could be confusing for users as they are more likely to understand products. By products that have been rented to customers. In this case. and not ordered products or loaned products. ORDERED_PRODUCTS_COUNTRY and LOANED_PRODUCTS_COUNTRY. The use of aliases is obviously an unsatisfactory and complicated solution for this particular schema. If you also decide to add a COUNTRY table to indicate that the products are manufactured in several different countries you would have to join it directly to the PRODUCTS table.

Example: Using an alias and context together to resolve a loop You can use contexts and aliases to resolve loops in a universe. This schema contains a loop that causes any query involving all six joins simultaneously to result in a list made up of both products sold and rented to customers. The result would be a list of products ordered by each customer. we could use the ORDER and ORDER_LINES table. A universe has the following schema: You can use aliases and contexts to resolve the loops as follows: • • Create two aliases for the COUNTRY table: CUST_COUNTRY and PROD_COUNTRY Define two contexts to resolve the CUSTOMERS to PRODUCTS loops (Orders and Loans) Designer’s Guide 213 . By using the LOANS and LOAN_LINES tables. The following example shows how to use both aliases and contexts together in a loop resolution. If a product has been sold. it would not appear in the list of results. we would obtain a list of products rented by each customer. but never rented to a customer or viceversa.Resolving join problems in a schema Resolving loops 4 This database has the following type of schema: If we wanted to run a query that returns only a list of customer names and a list of products.

214 Designer’s Guide .4 Resolving join problems in a schema Resolving Chasm Traps • Ensure that the two joins between CUSTOMERS and CUST_COUNTRY and PRODUCTS and PROD_COUNTRY appear in both contexts. It uses the same Club connection for data. The example below shows a part of the Beach universe schema. and there is no context in place that separates the converging join paths. The three tables have been separated from the rest of the schema to illustrate the chasm trap. The Service table receives the one ends of two one-to-many joins. What is a Chasm Trap? A chasm trap is a type of join path between three tables when two “many-toone” joins converge on a single table. The resulting schema appears as follows: Resolving Chasm Traps A chasm trap is a common problem in relational database schemas in which a join path returns more data than expected.

Resolving join problems in a schema Resolving Chasm Traps 4 You will get incorrect results only when all the following conditions exist: Condition A “many to one to many relationship” exists among three tables in the universe structure. Example: A chasm trap inflates results without warning Using the schema above. Example many-to-one one-to-many The query includes objects based on two tables both at the “many” end of their respective joins. There are multiple rows returned for a single dimension. The following is an example that shows how queries that are run when all the above conditions exist return a Cartesian product. a Web Intelligence user runs the following separate queries: Query Returned results Designer’s Guide 215 .

than the actual figures would indicate. the following has occurred: • • Number of guests transactions *Number of future guest transactions Number of future guest transactions*Number of guests transactions The following example examines in detail how a chasm trap returns a Cartesian product: Example: Examining the Cartesian product of a chasm trap We need to examine the rows that are returned by the queries to make the aggregated figures. and future guests who have reserved to use the Sports service has increased considerably. How does a chasm trap inflate results? The chasm trap causes a query to return every possible combination of rows for one measure with every possible combination of rows for the other measure. we can do this by adding the dimensions Days Billed and Days Reserved to the queries to return individual transaction details. This can be a serious problem if undetected. The Number of Guests report appears as follows: 216 Designer’s Guide .4 Resolving join problems in a schema Resolving Chasm Traps The user now runs a query that includes both paid guests and future guests: The following results are returned: The number of guests that have used. A Cartesian product has been returned and the results are incorrect. In our example. In the example above. The above example could lead a manager at Island Resorts to think that sporting activities at the resorts are a more attractive service to guests.

nor spot the chasm trap in the schema. Otherwise there is nothing to alert you to the situation. the summed results are incorrect. You can also detect chasm traps graphically by analyzing the one-to-many join paths in your schema. If you do not run Detect Contexts.Resolving join problems in a schema Resolving Chasm Traps 4 The Number of Future Guests report appears as follows: The two reports show the following number of transactions: • • Number of Guests = 3 transactions Number of Future Guests = 2 transactions When the two dimensions are both added to the query. Designer’s Guide 217 . the following results are returned: The query returns every possible combination of Number of Guests rows with every possible combination of Number of Future Guests rows: the Number of Guests transactions each appears twice. however. chasm traps are not detected automatically by Designer. the only way to see the problem is to look at the detail rows. This is the most effective way to ensure that your schema does not have a chasm trap. and the Number of Future Guests transactions each appears three times. It picks up the table that receives converging many to one joins and proposes contexts to separate the queries run on the table. Unlike loops. Detect Contexts examines the many to one joins in the schema. When a sum is made on the returned data. you can use Detect Contexts (Tools > Detect Contexts) to automatically detect and propose candidate contexts in your schema.

When you have dimension objects in one or both fact tables. this creates two Select statements that are synchronized to produce two separate tables in Web Intelligence.4 Resolving join problems in a schema Resolving Chasm Traps Detecting a Chasm Trap You can find chasm traps by using Detect Contexts to detect and propose candidate contexts. This solution only works for measure objects. you should always use a context. then you have a potential chasm trap. When you run a query which includes objects from both contexts. Using contexts to resolve chasm traps You can define a context for each table at the “many” end of the joins. 218 Designer’s Guide . Each of these methods is described in the following sections. It does not generate separate queries for dimension or detail objects. Tip: For information on organizing the table schema to detect join problems. and then examining the table where any two contexts diverge. In our example you could define a context from SERVICE to RESERVATION_LINE and from SERVICE to INVOICE_LINE. This point where two contexts intersect is the source of a chasm trap. you can use the following methods to resolve a chasm trap: • • Create a context for each fact table. Modify the SQL parameters for the universe so you can generate separate SQL queries for each measure. avoiding the creation of a Cartesian product. This solution works in all cases. and the type of end user environment. Resolving a Chasm Trap To resolve a chasm trap you need to make two separate queries and then combine the results. Depending on the type of objects defined for the fact tables. refer to “Detecting join problems graphically” on page 227. When do you use contexts? Creating contexts will always solve a chasm trap in a universe. If you have two fact tables with many to one joins converging to a single lookup table.

Resolving join problems in a schema Resolving Chasm Traps 4 Using contexts to solve a chasm trap To use contexts to resolve a chasm trap: 1. Using Multiple SQL Statements for Each Measure If you have only measure objects defined for both fact tables. The Candidate Contexts box appears. then you can use the Universe Parameters option Multiple SQL statements for each measure. Repeat for other listed contexts. 2. Select Tools > Detect Contexts. Select the Multiple SQL statements for each Context check box. The SQL page appears. The new contexts are listed in the Contexts pane of the List View bar. Click OK. Select File > Parameters. the query is separated for measures and dimensions defined on the affected tables. When you run queries on the tables in the chasm trap. Designer’s Guide 219 . 8. This forces the generation of separate SQL queries for each measure that appears in the Query pane. 7. 3. Identify the potential chasm trap by analyzing the “one-to-many-to-one” join path relations in the schema. Select a proposed context in the Candidate Contexts list box and click the Add button to add it to the Accept Contexts list box. 5. Click the SQL tab. The Universe Parameters dialog box appears. 4. This solution does not work for dimension and detail objects. 6.

The advantage of using multiple SQL statements is that you can avoid using contexts that you need to maintain later.4 Resolving join problems in a schema Resolving Fan Traps The following table describes when you can use Multiple SQL Statements for Each Measure and when you should avoid its use: You. The Universe Parameters dialog box appears. To activate Multiple SQL Statements for Each Measure: 1.. Click the SQL tab.. In universes that contain only measure objects defined for both fact tables. As this solution can slow query response time and produce incorrect results.. 2. If a dimension or detail Each Measure object is included in a query based on a universe using this solution. What is a Fan Trap? A fan trap is a type of join path between three tables when a “one-to-many” join links a table which is in turn linked by another “one-to-many” join. 220 Designer’s Guide . It has the same effect of returning more data than expected. Do not use Multiple When you have dimension or detail objects defined for SQL Statements for one or both of the fact tables. 3. than you should consider creating contexts to resolve the chasm trap. 4. Resolving Fan Traps A fan trap is a less common problem than chasm traps in a relational database schema. a Cartesian product will be returned.. Select the Multiple SQL Statements for Each Measure check box in the Multiple Paths group box. Select File > Parameters from the menu bar. Click OK. Use Multiple SQL Statements for Each Measure In these situations. The fanning out effect of “one-to-many” joins can cause incorrect results to be returned when a query includes objects based on both tables.

However. a Web Intelligence user runs the following query: The following results are returned: This result is correct. while still joining to the “many” end.Resolving join problems in a schema Resolving Fan Traps 4 A simple example of a fan trap is shown below: When you run a query that asks for the total number of car models sold by each model line. Example: A fan trap inflates results without warning Using the schema above. for a particular customer. the end user adds the dimension Model ID to the query as follows: The following report is created with the returned results: Designer’s Guide 221 . an incorrect result is returned as you are performing an aggregate function on the table at the “one” end of the join.

If you have two tables that are referenced by measure objects and are joined in a series of many to one joins. Wendy bought two cars for a total of $57. Once for each instance of Model_ID. caused the SaleValue to be aggregated for as many rows as Model_ID. The inclusion of Model_ID in the query. now returns the following table when run with the above solution: How Do You Detect a Fan Trap? You cannot automatically detect fan traps. and not 114.00. 222 Designer’s Guide . The following schema is the solution to the fan trap schema: Contexts to separate the query Alias for Sale The original query which returned the Cartesian product for Wendy Craig.184.092. The fan trap using dimension objects in the query is solved by using an alias and contexts. The fan trap has returned a Cartesian product. When these results are aggregated in a report. You need to visually examine the direction of the cardinalities displayed in the table schema. the sum is incorrect.00 as summed in the report.4 Resolving join problems in a schema Resolving Fan Traps The Sale Value aggregate appears twice. then you may have a potential fan trap.

You can do this as follows: To use aliases and contexts to resolve a fan trap: 1. • Both of these methods are described below. SaleValue in the previous example is an aggregate of the Sale_Total column in the Sales table.Resolving join problems in a schema Resolving Fan Traps 4 For a description to organize the table schema to detect join problems. Create a join between the original table and the alias table. Using aliases and contexts to resolve fan traps You create an alias table for the table producing the aggregation and then detect and implement contexts to separate the query. Sale_Total is an alias for Sale 3. Designer’s Guide 223 . You create an alias called Sale_Total for Sale. For example. This only works for measure objects. • Create an alias for the table containing the initial aggregation. Create an alias for the table that is producing the multiplied aggregation. How Do You Resolve a Fan Trap? There are two ways to solve a fan trap problem. Altering the SQL parameters for the universe. see the section “Detecting join problems graphically” on page 227. This is the most effective way to solve the fan trap problem. then use Detect Contexts (Tools > Detect Contexts) to detect and propose a context for the alias table and a context for the original table. Identify the potential fan trap by analyzing the “one-to-many-to-one-tomany” join path relations in the schema. 2.

7. Click a candidate context and click Add. The new definition for SaleValue is: sum(Sale_Total. Note: If you have used a one-to-one join between the alias and the base table. In most cases you can use a one-tomany which allows automatic detection and implementation of contexts. The Candidate Contexts box appears. For example the original SaleValue object was defined as follows: sum(SALE. 5.SALE_TOTAL). one-to-many join 4. Click OK.SALE_TOTAL). and you must build the context manually. 6. Designer does not detect the context. Select Tools > Detect Contexts. 8. 224 Designer’s Guide . For example you create a one-to-many join between Sale and Sale_Total. then you need to create the context manually.4 Resolving join problems in a schema Resolving Fan Traps If you create a one-to-one join. Repeat for the other candidate context. It proposes the candidate contexts for the join path for the base table and the new join path for the alias table. Build the object that is causing the aggregation on the alias tables.

10.SQL page. Select File > Parameters. Designer’s Guide 225 . The Parameters dialog appears.Resolving join problems in a schema Resolving Fan Traps 4 The contexts are created in the schema. Click the SQL tab. You can view them in the Contexts pane when List Mode is active (View > List Mode). The SQL page appears. The context for the join path CLIENT>SALE>SALE_MODEL appears as follows: And a second context for the CLIENT>SALE>SALE_TOTAL join path: 9.

See the section “Using Multiple SQL Statements for Each Measure” on page 226 for more information and procedure to activate this option. Run queries to test the fan trap solution.4 Resolving join problems in a schema Resolving Fan Traps 11. Using Multiple SQL Statements for Each Measure If you have only measure objects defined for both tables at the many end of the serial one-to-many joins. If an end user can include dimensions from any of the tables that reference the measure objects in the query. You cannot use this method to generate multiple queries for dimensions. then you can use the Universe Parameters option Multiple SQL Statements for Each Measure. This forces the generation of separate SQL queries for each measure that appears in the Query pane. 13. 12. Select the Multiple SQL Statements for Each Context check box. 226 Designer’s Guide . then you must use an alias and context to resolve the fan trap. Click OK.

Designer’s Guide 227 .Resolving join problems in a schema Detecting join problems graphically 4 Detecting join problems graphically You can visually detect potential chasm and fan traps in your table schema by arranging the tables in the Structure pane so that the “many” ends of the joins are to one side of the pane. The example below shows the Beach universe schema arranged with a one to many flow from left to right. and the “one” ends to the other.

Potential fan trap A universe schema for a car sales database is shown below: 228 Designer’s Guide .4 Resolving join problems in a schema Detecting join problems graphically Potential chasm trap The potential chasm traps are shown below: Both of these join paths have been separated using the contexts Sales and Reservations.

and SALELINE VARIETY. don’t start defining objects immediately. You run Check Integrity to check selected universe structures. so use the visual capabilities of the product to help you design universes. Checking the universe As you design your universe. Designer is a graphic tool. LOAN. you should test its integrity periodically. SALES. Manually Designer’s Guide 229 . PRODUCT. You can verify universe integrity as follows: Check universe Automatically Description You can set Designer options to check the SQL syntax of universe structures at creation. and SALELINE Tip: Once you have populated your schema with the necessary tables. or when a universe is opened. universe export.Resolving join problems in a schema Checking the universe 4 The potential fan traps involve the following tables • • • CUSTOMER. and LOANLINE CUSTOMER. An hour or so moving tables around could save you a lot of time later in the design process. Allow some time to move tables around so that you have the all the one-to-many joins in the same direction.

4 Resolving join problems in a schema Checking the universe Checking Universe Integrity Automatically You can set the following integrity check options in Designer to parse SQL structures at creation. All universes are checked automatically when opened. and universe opening: Automatic check option Description Automatic parse upon definition Designer automatically checks the SQL definition of all objects. Select or clear check boxes for appropriate universe automatic check options in the Integrity group box. 2. joins. Designer displays a warning each time you attempt to export an unchecked universe. Checking Universe Integrity Manually You can use Check Integrity to test to verify if the design of your active universe is accurate and up-to-date. Any necessary contexts. It is applied when you click OK to validate structure creation. Send check integrity Check universe integrity at opening Setting automatic universe check options To set automatic universe check options: 1. and cardinalities of your universe. universe export. and joins at creation. conditions. Click OK. conditions. Loops in join paths. Check Integrity detects the following: • • • • Errors in the objects. Changes to the target database. Select Tools > Options. 230 Designer’s Guide . 3. The Options dialog box opens to the General page.

Loops Isolated tables Isolated joins Loops within contexts Missing or incorrect cardinalities How does Check Integrity determine changes in a connected database? The Check Integrity function sends a request to the database for a list of tables. and may have incomplete data entries. Select Tools > Check Integrity. See the section “Refreshing the Universe Structure” on page 233. It carries out the same action for columns. then you can optimize the cardinality detection by modifying the PRM file. Select check boxes for components to be verified. the function checks whether the connection to the database is valid. For more information. It then compares this list with the tables in the universe. condition. If the connection is not valid. or join. Or Click the Check Integrity button. Verifying universe integrity with Check Integrity To verify universe integrity: 1. 2. results can also be inaccurate. Note: The option Check Cardinalities can be slow to run with large amounts of data. refer to the section “Optimizing automatic cardinality detection” on page 158. Designer’s Guide 231 . In the Structure pane. These are tables or columns that may have been deleted or renamed in the database.Resolving join problems in a schema Checking the universe 4 Before examining the elements of the universe against those of the database. Check Integrity marks any tables or columns not matching those in the list as not available. then you should not select the option Check Cardinalities. 3. Clear check boxes for components not to be verified. Types of errors detected by Check Integrity Check Integrity can detect: • • • • • • Invalid syntax in the SQL definition of an object. Check Integrity The Integrity Check dialog box appears. the function stops and returns an error message. If there is ambiguous or missing data. If your database is large. If you do use this option.

5. it displays “OK” beside each error type. If Check Integrity encounters no errors.4 Resolving join problems in a schema Checking the universe 4. Select the Quick Parsing check box to verify only the syntax of components. 232 Designer’s Guide . Click OK. Or Select Thorough Parsing check box to verify both the syntax and semantics of components. A message box displays the universe check progress.

Click the plus sign (+) beside the error type to view the list of components in which the error occurred. Otherwise. Click OK.Resolving join problems in a schema Checking the universe 4 6. 7. Refreshing the Universe Structure If Check Integrity indicates that the database of your universe connection has been modified. the function erroneously identifies loops in the joins. Designer’s Guide 233 . 8. Click the Print button to print the window contents. You can double click an item in the list to highlight the corresponding components in the Structure pane. Note: Before selecting the Check for Loops check box. you can use Refresh Structure to update the contents of the Structure pane. ensure that the cardinalities of joins have already been detected.

4 Resolving join problems in a schema Checking the universe Refresh Structure can modify the universe structure to comply with changes in the database as follows: If Columns were added to tables Columns were removed from tables Tables were removed from the database Tables were renamed in the database Then Designer does the following Adds the columns to the corresponding tables in the universe. 234 Designer’s Guide . No changes were made to the database Refreshing a universe To refresh the universe structure: • Select View > Refresh Structure. Designer returns a message stating that the renamed tables do not exist in the database. Displays a message informing you that no update is needed. Displays a warning message indicating the tables and associated joins you should delete. A message box appears informing you of a change in the database. or that no update is needed if no changes have been made. Displays a message that says it no longer recognizes the corresponding tables in the universe. If the names still do not match. Displays a warning message indicating the columns and associated joins you should delete. You should rename these tables to match those in the database.

Building universes chapter .

. it also covers optimizing object definitions to enhance end user reporting.5\win32_x86. The objects that you create must be based on a user needs study and use a sound schema design that has been tested for join path problems. The schema that you have created is not visible by Web Intelligence users. and will use to run queries on the databases structure to generate documents and reports. Note: $INSTALLDIR variable in this guide In this guide the variable $INSTALLDIR is the install root path for the data access files used by Designer and Web Intelligence. The previous chapters have described how you plan a universe. and joins. This is the Business Objects installation path with the operating system sub directory that contains the Designer executable and the data access drivers. Under Windows$INSTALLDIR = \\.\Business Objects\BusinessObjects Enterprise 11. columns. and universe optimization.5 Building universes Overview Overview This chapter describes how you can create the classes and objects that are used by Web Intelligence users to run queries and create reports. and also how to resolve loops in join paths. you can now build the classes and objects that users see in the Universe pane. 236 Designer’s Guide .. create a table schema which contains the database structure of a universe: the tables. For example C:\Program Files\Business Objects\BusinessObjects Enterprise 11. Once this database structure is complete.5\win32_x86. Introduction to universe building Building a universe is the object creation phase of the universe development cycle.

fact. Each object represents a meaningful entity. or calculation used in an end users business environment. Objects appear as icons in the Universe pane. The objects that you create in the Universe pane in Designer are the objects that end users see and use in the reporting tools. Designer’s Guide 237 .Building universes Introduction to universe building 5 The following diagram indicates where the building phase appears in a typical universe development cycle: What is an object? In Business Objects products an object is a named component in a universe that represents a column or function in a database. Web Intelligence users drag objects from the Universe pane across into the Query pane to run queries and create reports with the returned data. infers a Select statement. When multiple objects are combined. Each object maps to a column or function in a target database. which you can hide in the Universe pane seen by Web Intelligence users. and when used in the Query pane. You can also create objects for use only in Designer. a Select statement is run on the database including the SQL inferred by each object and applying a default Where clause.

What types of objects are used in a universe? In Designer. Universe Schema Query objects SELECT run against database tables WebIntelligence universe pane Designer universe pane As the universe designer. you can qualify an object as being one of three types: Object qualification Dimension Examples Description Focus of analysis in a query.5 Building universes Introduction to universe building The diagram below shows objects in the universe pane and the same objects in the Designer universe pane. you use Designer to create the objects that Web Intelligence users include in the Query pane to run their queries. Each object in the Designer universe pane maps to a column in the universe schema. and infers a Select statement when used in a query. A dimension maps to one or more columns or functions in the database that are key to a query. 238 Designer’s Guide .

Details Measure Contains aggregate functions that map to statistics in the database. This role determines the Select statement that the object infers when used in the Query pane. You create classes to house objects that have a common purpose in the universe. It maps to one or more columns or functions in the database that provide detailed information related to a dimension. edit. A detail is always attached to a dimension. Using the Universe pane You create the classes and objects in a universe using the Universe pane. you assign it a qualification based on the role that you want that object to have in a query. You use the Universe pane to view. The Universe pane presents a hierarchical view of the classes and objects in the active universe. What is a class? A class is a container of objects. create. Using classes and objects You organize classes and objects together in the universe pane to correspond to the way that Web Intelligence users are accustomed to work with the information represented by the objects. A class is the equivalent of a folder in the Windows environment.Building universes Using the Universe pane 5 Object qualification Detail Examples Description Provides descriptive data about a dimension. and organize classes and objects Designer’s Guide 239 . When you create an object.

For more information on creating and using condition objects. see the section“Defining restrictions for objects” on page 269.. KEY Classes: Open (All objects of the class are displayed. or condition objects in the Universe Pane. Class names appear beside a folder icon. Condition objects are predefined Where clauses that can be used within one or more Select statements.. Select left radio button Select right radio button What it shows All classes and objects All classes and conditions applied on objects contained within each class 240 Designer’s Guide .5 Building universes Using the Universe pane The universe pane is shown below.) Closed (Only the class name is visible. You can display two views of the universe pane: View Classes/ Objects Classes/ Conditions To display the view. and object names beside their qualification symbols.) Object Qualification: Dimension Measure Detail Classes/Conditions filter Classes/Objects filter Displaying classes and objects or conditions You can use the two radio buttons at the bottom of the window to display classes and objects.

Building universes Basic operations on classes. objects. Designer’s Guide 241 . and conditions 5 The two views of the universe pane are shown below: Classes and Objects view Condition objects view Classes and Objects radio button Classes and Conditions radio button For more information on creating and using condition objects. copy. copy. Moving classes. objects. see the section “Defining restrictions for objects” on page 269. objects and conditions: Cut. paste You can cut. and conditions You can perform the following operations in the Universe Pane that are common to classes. objects. or conditions You can move a component to another position in the window by dragging and dropping it at the desired location. and paste a selected component with the usual standard commands used in a Windows environment. Basic operations on classes.

242 Designer’s Guide . The name of the component is no longer in italics. You are in the process of developing a component that you do not want end users to view from the Query pane. objects and conditions You can hide one or more components in the Universe Pane. Select Edit > Hide Item(s). To show a hidden class. Click the component in the Universe pane. It is now visible to end users. Click the hidden component in the Universe pane. You use classes to group related objects. Objects are used only to optimize SQL syntax and should be hidden from end users. 2. Or Show/Hide Click the Show/Hide button on the Editing toolbar. Defining classes A class is a container of one or more objects. object. The component name is displayed in italics in the Universe pane. Hiding objects from end users can be useful for any of the following reasons: • • • • Components are from linked universes and are not needed in the active universe. but remain visible in Designer. You can create new classes and edit the properties of existing classes. or condition The name of hidden components appears in italics. Classes are represented as folders on a tree hierarchy in the Universe pane. Each object in a universe must be contained within a class. Select Edit > Show Item(s). or condition: 1. object. or condition To hide a class. 2.5 Building universes Defining classes Showing or hiding classes. You want to disable components temporarily without deleting them. Classes make it easier for end users to find particular objects. Showing a hidden class. object. These are hidden from Web Intelligence users. object. or condition: 1. Hiding a class.

then creating classes manually from your list is the best way to ensure that your universe structure corresponds to the needs of end users. As you avoid a new properties box appearing with the creation of each class. Or Click the Insert Class button. To create a class in an empty Universe pane: 1. The grouping of related objects can be further organized by using subclasses to break objects down into subsets. 2. If you have analyzed user needs and have listed and grouped the potential objects into classes. If you create another class. 3. Type a description for the class in the Description text box. Subclasses are described in the section “Using subclasses” on page 245 Creating a class There are two ways to create a class in the Universe pane: • • Manually defining a class.Building universes Defining classes 5 Tip: A useful way to use classes is to group related dimension and detail objects into a class. and place measure objects in a separate class. 4. Click OK. you can save time and unnecessary clicking. Tip: If you click Apply instead of OK. Insert class A class properties box appears. This allows you to create a series of classes using a single properties box. Select Insert > Class. Designer’s Guide 243 . you can type properties for the new class in the same box. but the properties box stays open. The new named class folder appears in the Universe pane. the name and description for a class are applied. Type a name in the Class Name text box. Automatically by dragging a table from the table schema into the Universe pane. Both methods are described as follows: Creating a class manually You can create classes manually within the Universe pane.

Insert class A class properties box appears. 244 Designer’s Guide . and are relevant to end user needs. you are creating the universe components directly from the database structure. Drag the table across to the Universe pane and drop the table at the desired position in the class hierarchy. Each new object corresponds to a column in the table.5 Building universes Defining classes Creating a class in the universe pane with existing classes To create a class with existing classes: 1. Select a table in the table schema. See the section “Using external strategies to customize universe creation” on page 413. 3. Click OK. The Objects strategy selected on the Strategies page in the Universe Parameters dialog box determines how the classes and objects are created automatically (File>Parameters>Strategies tab). Designing the universe from user needs is described in the section “Universe design methodology” on page 18. This strategy can be modified. Note: When you create class and objects automatically. You should edit the new class and object properties to ensure that they are appropriately named. New objects are also automatically created under the class. The class and objects that you create should be the result of a user needs analysis. and not be directed by the columns and tables available in the database. To create a class automatically from the table schema: 1. Or Click the class that you want to precede the new class in the tree view and click the Insert Class button. You can also create strategies to customize the class and object creation process. Click the class that you want to precede the new class in the tree view and select Insert > Class. Type a name and description for the new class. and the section “Selecting strategies” on page 51 for more information on strategies. 2. 2. Creating a class automatically from the table schema You can create classes automatically by selecting a table in the table schema and dragging it into the Universe pane. Editing object properties is described in the section “Defining objects” on page 246. The new named class folder appears in the Universe pane. The table name is the class name by default.

It contains an object for each column in the table dragged into the Universe pane. Information in this field should be expressed in the business language of the user. and select Edit > Class Properties. Right click a class folder. Class properties You can define the following properties for a class: Property Name Description Can contain up to 35 characters including special characters. This description can be viewed by users in the Query pane. You can access a class properties dialog box by any of the following methods: • • • Double click a class folder.Building universes Defining classes 5 A new class appears in the hierarchy. and select Edit > Class Properties. then select Insert > Subclass. Creating a subclass To create a subclass: • Click a class folder or a class name. By default. and be relevant to their query needs. Note: You can perform any of the above click operations on either the class folder or the class name to access the class properties dialog box. Comment that describes a class. Designer’s Guide 245 . Using subclasses A subclass is a class within a class. A class name is case sensitive. Must be unique in universe. You can use subclasses to help organize groups of objects that are related. and each object name is the same as its corresponding column name. You create a line break by pressing CTRL + Return. the class name is the same as the table name. Click a class folder. Description Modifying a class You can modify the name and description of a class from the class properties dialog box at any time. A subclass can itself contain other subclasses or objects. You can rename a class at any time.

When a Web Intelligence user builds a query using one or more objects in the Query pane the content of the Select clause line in the Select statement is inferred using the column(s) or function represented by each object. or automatically by dragging the appropriate database structure from the Structure pane to the Universe pane. An object must belong to a class. Web Intelligence users identify an object by its name and qualification. Creating an object You create objects in the Universe pane.5 Building universes Defining objects • Right click a class folder or name. 246 Designer’s Guide . You can create objects manually in the Universe pane. Creating an Object Manually You create an object manually by inserting an object in the Universe pane. and then defining the properties for the object. An object can also map to a function defined on one or more columns. The Universe pane below shows a subclass Sponsor listed under the class Customer. Each object infers a Select statement for the column or function to which it maps. Defining objects An object is a universe component that maps to one or more columns in one or more tables in the universe database schema. then select Insert Subclass from the contextual menu.

Ensure that object names are always expressed in the end user business vocabulary. The default object datatype is derived from the column datatype. 3. Designer’s Guide 247 . 4. For information on using the SQL editor to define Select statements and Where clauses. This name may be different from the actual column names that the object is associated with in the database schema. see the section “Using the SQL editor to define an object” on page 260. and is relevant to end user needs. Insert Object An object is inserted under the selected class and the Edit Properties box for the object appears. The Objects strategy selected on the Strategies page in the Universe Parameters dialog box determines how the classes and objects are created automatically (File>Parameters>Strategies tab). Click OK. Note: For information on object properties see the section “Object properties” on page 248. Creating an object automatically You can create an object automatically by selecting a column in a table in the Structure pane and dragging it to the Universe pane. Type a Select statement in the Select box. The default name for the object is the column name. All underscores are replaced with spaces. Or Click a class and click the Insert Object tool. or click the Select button to use the SQL editor. An object is created under the nearest class to the point where you drop the column. Type a name in the Name box. You can change this value by selecting a new datatype from the drop down list box in the Edit Properties sheet for the object. Editing object properties is described in the section “Defining objects” on page 246. Right click a class in the Universe pane and select Insert Object from the contextual menu. 5. 2.Building universes Defining objects 5 To create an object manually 1. This strategy can be modified. Click the Properties tab and select object properties. You should edit the new object properties to ensure that it is appropriately named. You can also create strategies to customize the class and object creation process.

Click a table column in the Structure pane. you are creating the universe components directly from the database structure. The classes and objects that you create should be the result of a user needs analysis. The column must be dropped under an existing class. Designing the universe from user needs is described in the section “Universe design methodology” on page 18. This name may be different from the actual column names that the object is associated with in the database schema. Properties • • • • • • • Name Datatype Description Select statement Where clause You can access the SQL editor from this page to define SELECT and WHERE syntax. Properties See “Properties” on page 252 for full information on available object properties. the object name is the same as the column name. and “Selecting strategies” on page 51 for more information on using strategies. Note: You should ensure that object names are always expressed in the end user business vocabulary. By default. To create an object automatically: 1.5 Building universes Defining objects Refer to “Using external strategies to customize universe creation” on page 413. Object properties You define the following object properties from the Edit Properties dialog box for a selected object: Edit Properties page Definition See “Definition” on page 250 for full information on available object definition properties. Note: When you create class and objects automatically. and not be directed by the columns and tables available in the database. A new object appears in the hierarchy. Drag the column across to the Universe pane and drop the table at the desired position in the class hierarchy. Object qualification Associated list of values 248 Designer’s Guide . 2.

Each object property listed above is fully described for each Edit Properties page in the section “Modifying an object” on page 249. Modifying an object You can define object properties at object creation. Keys See “Keys” on page 255 for information on defining index awareness for an object. or modify them at any time. Properties • • • • • • • • • • Security User rights on object Date formats Key type Select Where Enable Technical information Mapping Lineage You can modify object properties at any time. Source Information See “Source Information” on page 259 for information on using this tab.Building universes Defining objects 5 Edit Properties page Advanced See “Advanced” on page 253 for full information on available advanced object properties. Designer’s Guide 249 . The properties you can define on each page of the Edit Properties dialog box are described as follows. You define object properties from the Edit Properties dialog box for the object (right-click object > Object Properties).

Property Name Description Required/ Optional Object name. Press Ctrl+Return to move the pointer to the next line.5 Building universes Defining objects Definition The Definition page is shown below: You can define the following properties from the Definition page of the Edit Properties dialog box. It can consist of up to Required 35 alphanumeric characters including special characters and spaces. This field can be Optional viewed from the Query pane. Object names must be unique within a class. Comments for object. Objects in different classes can have the same name. Name is casesensitive. It can be one of four types: • Character Required Type • • • Description Date Long text Number Blobs are not supported in the current version of Designer. 250 Designer’s Guide . Object datatype. so you can include information about the object that may be useful to an end user.

The Where clause restricts the number of rows returned in a query. You can use the SQL Editor to create the Where clause. The Edit Properties dialog box opens to the Definition page. Parse button When you click the Parse button. See the section “Properties” on page 252 Required/ Optional Required Where Optional Tables button When you click the Tables button a list of tables used in the schema appears. If there are syntax errors detected. From this list you can select other columns in other tables to be included in the object definition. Where clause of the Select statement inferred by the object. Designer’s Guide 251 . You can use the SQL Editor to create the Select statement. Type or select object definitions and properties as required. the Select statement for an object is parsed. Click OK. a message box appears describing the error. Editing an object definition To edit an object definition: 1. This allows an object to infer columns from several tables in a the Select statement. 2.Building universes Defining objects 5 Property Select Description Select statement inferred by the object. 3. See the section “Properties” on page 252. Double click an object. Refer to the section “Applying a restriction by inferring multiple tables” on page 278 for more information.

Can be up to 8 alphanumeric characters. Activated by default.5 Building universes Defining objects Properties The Properties page is shown below: You can specify the following object qualifications and properties for a list of values from the Properties page of the Edit Properties dialog box: Property Qualification Description Defined role that object takes when used in the Query pane. When selected. Name of list of values file (LOV) associated with object. Associate a List of Values When selected. When selected. the list of values is exported with the universe. enables end users to edit the list of values. List Name Allow users to edit this list of values Export with universe 252 Designer’s Guide . associates a file containing data values with an object. You can qualify an object as being one of three types: • Dimension • • Detail Measure Refer to the section “What types of objects are used in a universe?” on page 238 for a more detailed description of object qualifications. Refer to the section “Using lists of values” on page 290 for more information.

If you want to associate a list of returned values with the object. Click OK. 4. 2. The Edit Properties box for the object appears. 3. Click a qualification radio button to determine whether the object is a dimension. or measure. Advanced The Advanced page is shown below. detail. Double click an object. Click the Properties tab.Building universes Defining objects 5 Specifying object qualification and list of values properties To specify qualification and list of values properties for an object: 1. select the Associate a List of Values check box. The Properties page appears. Designer’s Guide 253 . see the section “Using lists of values” on page 290. For information on creating and using lists of values.

or European format. the object can be used in a query. When selected. 2. When selected. You can assign the following security access levels: • Public • • • • Controlled Restricted Confidential Private If you assign Public then all users can see and use the object. see the section “Defining an object format” on page 262. Click the Advanced tab. Defining object security and user rights To define security and user rights for an object: 1. returned values can be sorted. Database Format Option only available for date objects. the date format for the object is defined in the Regional Settings Properties dialog box of the MSWindows Control Panel. 254 Designer’s Guide . By default. The Edit Properties box for the object appears. You can modify this to use the target database format for storing dates. the date format could be US format. For information on modifying this value. the object can be used to set in a condition. The Advanced page appears. Double click an object. If you assign Restricted.You can select a security level which restricts use of the object to users with the appropriate security level. Can be used in Result Can be used in Condition Can be used in Sort When selected.5 Building universes Defining objects You can define the following properties from the Advanced page of the Edit Properties dialog box: Property Security Access Level Description Defines the security access level of the object. For example. then only users with the user profile of Restricted or higher can see and use the object.

Example: Finding customers in a list of cities In this example you build a report on the Island Resorts Marketing Universe that returns revenue by customer for customers in Houston. Click OK. To do this you drag the Customer and Sales Revenue objects into the Result Objects pane in the Query pane. 4.last_name. This is particularly important in a star schema database. The objects that you create in Designer are based on database columns that are meaningful to an end user. This can have a dramatic effect on query performance in the following ways: • • Designer can take advantage of the indexes on key columns to speed data retrieval. Designer will retrieve one only unless it is aware that each customer has a separate primary key. This eliminates unnecessary and costly joins to dimension tables. Dallas. 6. if you want to modify the default date format. Keys The Keys tab allows you to define index awareness for an object. If you build a query that involves filtering on a value in a dimension table. When you set up index awareness in Designer you tell Designer which database columns are primary and foreign keys. Without index awareness. Select one or more check boxes in the Can Be Used In group box. Designer can apply the filter directly on the fact table by using the dimension table foreign key. Designer does not ignore duplicates with index awareness. a Customer object retrieves the field that contains the customer name. San Diego or Los Angeles. 5. If two customers have the same name. Type a date format in the database Format text box. For example.Building universes Defining objects 5 3. Designer generates the following SQL: SELECT Customer. In this situation the customer table typically has a primary key (for example an integer) that is not meaningful to the end user. but which is very important for database performance. then drag the City object to the Conditions pane and restrict the city to the list above. San Francisco. Index awareness is the ability to take advantage of the indexes on key columns to speed data retrieval. Designer’s Guide 255 . Designer can generate SQL that filters in the most efficient way. Select a security access level from the Security Access Level drop down list box.

256 Designer’s Guide .inv_id ) AND ( Invoice_Line.cust_id ) AND ( Sales. Using this information. With index awareness.city_id IN (10.price) FROM Customer. 11. Designer can restrict the cities without joining to the City table. Sales WHERE ( City. Service. 13.days * Invoice_Line.service_id AND ( Customer.service_id=Service.price) FROM Customer. 'Los Angeles'.inv_id=Invoice_Line. Service.last_name ) In this case Designer is able to generate SQL that restricts the cities simply by filtering the values of the city_id foreign key. Sales WHERE ( Customer. 14) ) GROUP BY Customer.last_name In this case Designer has created a join to the City table in order to restrict the cities retrieved. 12.nb_guests * Service. 'San Francisco'.cust_id=Sales.last_name.city_id ) AND ( Customer. City. 'San Diego') ) GROUP BY Customer. Invoice_Line.service_id=Service. The SQL is as follows: SELECT Customer.city IN ('Houston'.nb_guests * Service.city_id=Customer.inv_id ) AND ( Invoice_Line.inv_id=Invoice_Line.service_id ) AND ( City. you tell Designer that city_id is the primary key of the City table and that it also appears in the Customer table as a foreign key.cust_id=Sales. 'Dallas'.cust_id ) AND ( Sales.5 Building universes Defining objects sum(Invoice_Line. Invoice_Line. sum(Invoice_Line.days * Invoice_Line.

For example.. 6. 2. see “Using the SQL Editor” on page 261. A Primary Key line is inserted as shown below in the Keys page. Right-click the object on which you want to set up index awareness and select Object Properties from the menu. Do the following actions in to create key awareness for the primary key: • • Select Primary in the Key Type list. button in the Select field to open the SQL editing dialog box.city_id For more information on the SQL Editor. Click the Keys tab. • 5. the primary key SQL is City. The SQL Editor appears. Click the .Building universes Defining objects 5 Setting up primary key index awareness To set up primary key index awareness: 1. • Use the SQL Editor to build the primary key SQL SELECT clause or type it directly. for the City object above. Select the primary key data type from the drop-down list of key types. If you want to add a WHERE clause. Click Insert. 3. 4. under the Where column as shown below: Designer’s Guide 257 . do the following: • Click within the line. Repeat steps 3 and 4 for all columns that make up the primary key. The Edit Properties Of dialog box appears..

The SQL Editor appears. Click in the highlighted line. Right-click the object on which you want to set up index awareness Select Object Properties from the menu. do the following: • • • • 7. 258 Designer’s Guide . 3. Select Enabled. Use the SQL Editor to build the primary key SQL WHERE clause or type it directly. button in the Where field to open the SQL edit dialog box. button in the Where field to open the SQL editing dialog box.. The SQL Editor appears. Select Number from the drop-down list of key types.. Select Enabled. Click the . The Edit Properties Of dialog box appears. Select the foreign key data type from the drop-down list of key types. 8. Use the SQL Editor to build the foreign key SQL SELECT clause or type it directly.. Repeat steps 3 and 4 for all columns that make up the foreign key. Setting up foreign key awareness To set up foreign key awareness: 1. button in the Select field to open the SQL editing dialog box. Click OK. Select Foreign Key in the Key Type list. A key line is inserted in the Keys page. under the Where column. Click the . 8. Use the SQL Editor to build the foreign key SQL WHERE clause. There is no Where clause in the example above. 2.5 Building universes Defining objects • • • 7.. If you want to add a WHERE clause.. Click the Keys tab. The SQL Editor appears. 6. Do the following to create key awareness for the foreign key: • • • • 5. or type it directly. Click Insert. Repeat the steps above for all columns in the foreign key. Select Number from the drop-down list of key types. 4.. Click the .

Technical descriptions and formulas used to calculate target tables from source tables are displayed in this tab. The Sources Information tab is shown below: For universes generated from Data Integrator. You can specify the following types of information in the Source Information tab: • Technical description: Technical descriptions that are available in universes generated from Data Integrator. This information is available to Web Intelligence users.Building universes Defining objects 5 For the example “Finding customers in a list of cities” on page 255 the Keys tab should look like this: Source Information The Source Information page is used by universes generated from Data Integrator. Designer’s Guide 259 .

the SQL syntax is displayed for the objects that appear in the Select. Displays a description of a selected object or function.PRM files is described in the Data Access Guide. All classes and their respective objects that appear in the Universe pane. or to set conditions in a Where clause. and functions in tree views. The goal is not to provide the expression of the mapping. but to display it as a descriptive comment to inform the user of the source columns used in the object definition. Operators available to combine SQL structures in a Select statement.PRM file. Data Lineage information: List of source columns involved in a target column. If the syntax is not valid. You can add or modify the available functions by editing the . This information facilitates the impact analysis through DataIntegrator and WebIntelligence reports. character. 260 Designer’s Guide . objects. The SQL Editor is a graphical editor that lists tables. a message box appears describing the problem. • Database functions. operators. You have the following editing options available in the SQL Editor: Edit options Tables and columns Classes and objects Operators Description All tables and their respective columns that appear in the Structure pane. parses the syntax. columns. Functions • @Functions specific to Business Objects products. There is a .5 Building universes Defining objects • Mapping information: The mapping applied within Data Integrator between the source tables and the target tables. Editing . and date functions. or Where boxes. When clicked. You can double click any listed structure to insert it into the Select or Where boxes. Show object SQL Parse Description When selected. They are stored in the Data Access folder in the BusinessObjects path. for example number. Available functions are listed under the Functions entry in the parameters (.PRM) file for the target database. • Using the SQL editor to define an object You can use an SQL editor to help you define the Select statement or a Where clause for an object.PRM file for each supported database.

3. 4. Double click an object. Click in the Select statement or Where clause at the position where you want to add syntax for a structure. Expand table nodes to display columns.Building universes Defining objects 5 Using the SQL Editor To use the SQL Editor: 1. The Edit Properties dialog box for the object appears. 6. 5. Double click a column to insert the column definition in the Select statement or Where clause. Designer’s Guide 261 . click anywhere in the box. Expand class nodes to display objects. Click the >> button next to the Select or Where box. 2. The cursor automatically appears at the top left corner of the box. right click the column and select List of Values. The Edit Select Statement or Edit Where Clause dialog box appears. If the box is empty. Tip: To select one or more values from a list of values for a selected column.

The Object Format sheet appears. Right click an object Select Object Format from the contextual menu. Defining an object format You can define a format for the data values of a selected object. and the Date/Time category applies only to those with a date type. Currency. Click the Parse button to validate the syntax. 10. and shading. see the section “Using @Functions” on page 404. Information about formats is exported and imported with the universe. You can use the Remove Object Format command to remove any format you defined. These functions direct the current object to use the Select statement or Where clause of a selected object.000. Number. font. 4. 2. For example. The tabs of the Object Format dialog box include settings for numbers. Double click a function to insert the function in the edit box. to critical data values. Double click an operator to insert the operator in the edit box. 11. Modifying an object format To modify an object format: 1. Click OK.000 rather than the default 1. For more information on using @Functions. Click a format tab and select or type a format for the object. 12. The format applies to the related data values displayed in the cells of Web Intelligence reports.5 Building universes Defining objects 7. Click OK. Double click an object to insert a @Select or @Where function in the Select statement or Where clause.00. 9. alignment. 3. such as red. 8. border. Scientific and Percentage categories apply only to objects and variables with a numeric type. 262 Designer’s Guide . Expand function nodes to display available functions. Or you can apply a color. you can display an integer in a format such as $1.

Click OK. 4. Viewing the table used by an object To view the table used by an object: 1. 2. A contextual menu appears. Sales Person. Defining a dimension A dimension is an object that is a focus of analysis in a query. Select View Associated table from the contextual menu.Building universes Defining objects 5 Removing an object format You can remove a format for an object at any time. Viewing the table used in an object definition You can view the table in the Structure pane that is used in an object definition from the Universe pane. Designer’s Guide 263 . 3. Right click an object in the Universe pane. or Sales Line. Products. 2. To define a dimension object: 1. Click the Properties tab. A dimension maps to one or more columns or functions in the database that are key to a query. Dimension is the default qualification at object creation. You can change the qualification to dimension at any time. Double click an object. The Edit Properties dialog box for the object appears. Select the Dimension radio button in the Qualification group box. To remove an object format: • • Select an object and then select File > Remove Format. For example Country. The associated table is highlighted in the Structure pane. The Properties page appears. This can be useful to quickly identify a table used by an object when object names do not easily indicate a specific table. Or Right click an object and select Remove Format from the contextual menu.

a measure Sales Revenue returns different values when used with a Country object in one query. Select a dimension from the drop-down list box. The Properties page appears. Measures are very flexible objects as they are dynamic. The Edit Properties dialog box for the object appears. Click OK. they are discussed in more depth in the following sections. 3. 5. 264 Designer’s Guide . 2. and specifying the dimension attached to the detail. As measure objects are more complex and powerful than dimensions and details. An Associated Dimension drop down list box appears listing all the dimension objects in the universe. To define a detail object: 1. 4.5 Building universes Defining objects Defining a detail A detail provides descriptive data about a dimension. Click the Properties tab. and then with Region and Country objects in a separate query. For example. Defining a measure You can define a measure object by selecting Measure as the qualification for an object. Double click an object. A detail is always attached to a dimension. It maps to one or more columns or functions in the database that provide detailed information related to a dimension. The returned values for a measure object vary depending on the dimension and detail objects used with it in the query. The detail describes a quality or property of this dimension. Select the Detail radio button in the Qualification group box. You define a detail object by selecting Detail as the qualification for an object.

The five most common aggregate functions are the following: • • • • • Sum Count Average Minimum Maximum How are measures different from dimensions and details? Measures differ from dimensions and details in the following ways: • • Measures are dynamic Measures can project aggregates Both these properties are described as follows: How do measures behave dynamically? Returned values for a measure object vary depending on the dimension and detail objects used with the measure object in a query.Building universes Defining objects 5 What type of information does a measure return? A measure object returns numeric information. You create a measure by using aggregate functions. Designer’s Guide 265 .

266 Designer’s Guide . Based on this rule. resulting in the measure returning different values.5 Building universes Defining objects The following example shows the same Revenue measure object used in two separate queries with different dimensions. dimension and detail objects must NOT contain aggregates. To ensure that the query returns correct results. everything outside of that aggregate in the clause must also appear in the Group By clause. a Group By clause is automatically inferred in the Select statement. Same measure returns different results Measures infer a Group By clause When you run a query that includes a measure object with other types of objects. The inference of the Group By clause depends on the following SQL rule: If the Select clause line contains an aggregate. any dimension or detail used in the same query as a measure object will always be included in an automatically inferred Group By clause.

Dimensions inferred in GROUP BY Results aggregated to lowest level Resort. Service Line. When data is projected from the microcube to the block in a report. and Year dimension objects are all inferred in the Select clause and in the Group By clause. Returned values for a measure object are aggregated at two levels of the query process: • • Query level. This projection function of measures allows local aggregation in the microcube. then by Service Line and Year Note: If a query contains only measure objects. Microcube to block level. It represents the returned values held in memory by a Business Objects reporting product. A user Designer’s Guide 267 .Building universes Defining objects 5 The following example shows that the Resort. The block level is the 2 dimensional report that a user creates with the returned data. no Group By clause is inferred. Data is aggregated using the inferred Select statement. Setting aggregate projection for a measure When you create a measure you must specify the way the aggregate function will be projected onto a report. Note: A microcube is a conceptual way to present the data returned by a query before it is projected onto a report.

The two levels of aggregation fit into the query process as follows: The diagram shows the following processes in a query: • • • • User creates a query in Web Intelligence. Web Intelligence infers the SQL from the query and sends a Select statement to the target database. the three rows related to Year need to be reduced to one row to show the overall Sales Revenue for that resort. Data is split out in the Query pane requiring aggregation to lower levels. You set projection aggregation on the Properties page of the Edit Properties sheet for a measure (right-click object > Object Properties > Properties). For example. aggregation is required to show measure values at a higher level. A user can also do aggregate functions on the returned values in the microcube (local aggregation) to create new values on a report. This is the second aggregation level. when you use the Query pane to project only partial data from the microcube. When you initially make a query the result set of the Select statement is stored in the microcube. This is the first aggregation level. However. if you do not project the year data into the block. The microcube projects the aggregated data onto the report. so a sum aggregation is used. Projection aggregation is different from Select aggregation. and all data then held in the microcube is projected into a block. The data is returned to the microcube. or only some of the data held in the microcube to create a report. 268 Designer’s Guide .5 Building universes Defining objects can choose to use all. As data is projected from the lowest level held in the microcube no projection aggregation is taking place. in the previous example.

Defining restrictions for objects A restriction is a condition in SQL that sets criteria to limit the data returned by a query. A user may not need to have access to all the values returned by an object. Select a function. Double click an object. Optional Designer’s Guide 269 . 3. A condition object is a predefined Where clause that can be inserted into the Select statement inferred by objects in the Query pane. Click OK.Building universes Defining objects 5 Choosing how a measure is projected when aggregated You define what aggregate function is used to aggregate the returned results for the second level of aggregation (locally in the microcube) for a measure in the properties for the measure. You might also want to restrict user access to certain values for security reasons. The Edit Properties dialog box for the object appears. Restriction defined in special condition objects that users can choose to use or not use in a query. You can so this at object creation or modify this parameter at any time. The Properties page appears. 4. Creating a measure To create a measure: 1. It cannot be accessed by users and so cannot be overridden in Web Intelligence. Your reasons for limiting user access to data should be based on the data requirements of the target user. Select the Measure radio button in the Qualification group box. A Function drop down list box appears listing aggregate functions. You can define two types of restrictions in a universe: Restriction type Forced Description Restriction defined in the Where clause for an object. You define restrictions on objects to limit the data available to users. Click the Properties tab. 2. 5.

You define a Where clause to further restrict the data that is returned in a query. and Sales_Person. you should avoid creating optional restrictions that are simple to apply at the user level. or add it to the object definition at any time. You add a condition in the Where clause for an object. As the universe designer. You can define the condition at object creation. the Where clause in an SQL statement can be used in two ways to restrict the number of rows that are returned by a query. This is an additional condition to the existing Where clause inferred by joins. • A Where clause is automatically inferred in the Select statement for an object by joins linking tables in the schema. In a universe. • Example: Modifying the default (join only) Where clause for an object The report below is an unrestricted block containing data for sales people from all countries: The SQL for this query appears below. Region. Users can create these conditions themselves when necessary. Joins are usually based on equality between tables. 270 Designer’s Guide .5 Building universes Defining objects Note: In Web Intelligence. City. They prevent Cartesian products being created by restricting the data returned from joined tables. Defining a Where clause for an object You apply a further restriction on an object by adding a condition in the Where box from the Definition page of the Edit Properties dialog box for an object. for example when you want to limit users to queries on a sub-set of the data. The Where clause contains only restrictions inferred by the joins between the tables Customer. users can apply conditions in the Query pane.

sales_id=Customer. Region.sales_id ) If you want to restrict users to see only returned values specific to France.sales_person. The following report shows sales people for France only: The SQL for the query is as follows: SELECT Sales_Person. Note: Apart from self restricting joins. City. Designer’s Guide 271 . Customer WHERE ( City.country_id ) AND ( Sales_Person. Country.country_id=Region. City.country_id ) AND ( Sales_Person.sales_person.region_id=Region. you should not create a join in a Where clause.country = 'France' ) ) The Where clause has an additional line.country_id=Region.city_id=Customer. Country. Country.region_id ) AND ( Country. This ensures that all joins are available to the Designer automatic detection tools. you can add a condition to the Where clause of the Country object. Country. Customer WHERE ( City.sales_id=Customer. This is the restriction that you have added to the Where clause of the Country object.city_id ) AND ( City.sales_id AND ( Country. You should ensure that all joins are visible in the Structure pane.city_id ) AND ( City. A join in a Where clause is not considered by Detect Contexts (automatic context detection) or aggregate aware incompatibility detection.city_id=Customer.country FROM Sales_Person.region_id=Region.country FROM Sales_Person.Building universes Defining objects 5 SELECT Sales_Person. Region.region_id ) AND ( Country.

It restricts the values for Country to France only. 4. A list of all values for the column appear. 5. Or Click the >> Button next to the Where box to open the Where clause editor. 2. objects. Click OK.5 Building universes Defining objects Defining a Where clause To define a Where clause: 1. operators. 3. 272 Designer’s Guide . Select View Values. You can select one or more values to insert in the Where clause. or functions that appear in the SQL structures and features lists. Type the syntax directly into the Where clause text box. The Edit Properties dialog box opens to the Definition page. Double click columns. for example when using the In operator. Tip: You can select values for a Where clause as follows: Right click a column in the Tables and Columns list. Double click an object. The Where clause for the Country object is shown below. Click OK to close the editor.

query. If you have multiple objects inferring Where clauses on the same data. If two or more similarly restricted Conflict between objects are included in the same Where clauses. Unless your objects are very precisely named. Designer’s Guide 273 . Proliferation of If you restrict data for an object by similar objects. Confusion between object name and applied restriction. The conflict between Where clauses can be solved by creating condition objects and ensuring that users know that they must join the queries using a UNION or SYNCHRONIZE operator at the report level. Creating condition objects will solve the multiple objects. hierarchy difficulties. • • Create condition objects for each restriction. and ensure that users do a union or synchronization of the queries at the report level. creating several objects. the conflict between the Where clauses will result in no data being returned. but they must be used carefully in a universe to avoid the following problems: Problem Description Solution Create condition objects for each restriction. then a restriction may not be obvious to the user simply from the name of the object. and object name confusion problems. each inferring a Where clause for one part of the data. US clients. but not all users will view the SQL before running a query. Name each object appropriately. A user can see the Where clause by viewing the SQL for a query. Create condition objects for each restriction. you can end up with multiple objects with similar names. and Japanese clients. Difficulty creating hierarchies. For example. This can be confusing for users to see multiple objects that appear similar. French clients. it will be difficult for users to construct a logical default hierarchy to use for drill down.Building universes Defining objects 5 Problems using Where clauses Where clauses are a useful way to restrict data. Create condition objects for each restriction.

you should avoid using them. Designer’s Guide . and where possible create condition objects which. Gives users the choice of applying the condition. A join in a condition object is the equivalent to creating a join in a reusable Where clause. and so is not considered by Detect Contexts (automatic context detection) or aggregate aware incompatibility detection. condition objects Where clause for Young American Conditions radio button Advantages and restrictions for using condition objects Using condition objects has the following advantages: • • 274 Useful for complex or frequently used conditions. when used correctly can avoid the problems with hard coded Where clauses. Condition objects are stored in the Conditions view of the Universe pane. Note: Apart from self restricting joins.5 Building universes Defining objects Given the potential problems with Where clauses defined in an object definition. you should not create a join in a condition object. You access the conditions view by clicking the Conditions radio button at the right bottom of the universe pane. The condition objects for the Beach universe and the Where clause that the Young American condition infers are shown below. Defining condition objects A condition object is a predefined Where clause that can be inserted into the Select statement inferred by objects in the Query pane. You should ensure that all joins are visible in the Structure pane. This ensures that all joins are available to the Designer automatic detection tools.

objects. Double click columns. Click the Conditions radio button at the bottom right of the Universe pane. Designer’s Guide 275 . The Where box is empty. the two conditions are combined with the AND operator. If a user runs a query that includes two condition objects that access the same data. Note: You may need to direct users to use the condition objects view of the Universe pane. or functions that appear in the SQL structures and features lists. The only disadvantages for using condition objects is that you may want to force a condition on users to restrict their access to part of the data set.Building universes Defining objects 5 • • No need for multiple objects. Condition objects do not solve conflicting Where clauses Using condition objects does not solve the problem of conflicting Where clauses returning an empty data set. and no data is returned. It contains a tree view of all the classes in the universe. Click OK to close the editor. Type a name for the condition. Insert condition An Edit Properties dialog box appears. so the two conditions are not met. 4. one for each condition object and then combining the queries. Right click a class and select Insert Condition from the contextual menu. This problem can be solved at the report level by users creating two queries. Or Click a class and click the Insert Condition button. 5. Creating a condition object To create a condition object: 1. Condition objects do not change the view of the classes and objects in the Universe pane. 2. Type the Where clause syntax directly into the Where clause box. 3. 6. Or Click the >> Button next to the Where clause box to open the Where clause editor. In this case you need to define a Where clause in the object definition. The Conditions view of the Universe pane appears. operators. A default name appears in the Name box.

It restricts the returned values to American customers less than or equal to thirty years old. The new condition object appears in the condition view of the Universe pane. Click OK. Where possible you should avoid hard coding Where clauses in the definition of an object. the restriction is added to the restrictions set by the joins using the AND operator. Why do multiple Where clauses return an empty data set? When you add a Where clause to the definition of an object. but also when you use condition objects. Using condition objects in the same query If you have two condition objects defined for the same object. 8. 7. Click the Parse button to verify the syntax. and both are used in the same query. one query for each condition object. users need to be aware of the potential problems. no data is returned. Users can solve the problem of returning an empty data set by joining two queries. you can include in the description for a condition object ’X’ that it should not be used with object ’Y’.5 Building universes Defining objects The definition for a condition called Young American is shown below. Note: To avoid Web Intelligence users combining two condition objects in the same query. both applying a restriction on the same data 276 Designer’s Guide . If you combine two objects in a query. as the two Where clauses create a false condition.

Service_Line WHERE ( Resort. The following query is run using the condition objects for Bahamas resort and Hawaiian Resort: The SQL for this query is as follows: SELECT Service. Creating two queries to combine restrictions Users can solve the problem of using two condition objects in the same query by running two queries. A flag is a third column whose values determine which one of the two alternate columns is used in a query.resort FROM Service. one for each Where clause. a user wants to know the services that are available at the Bahamas and Hawaiian Club hotel resorts. For example.service. then the two Where clauses are combined in successive AND clauses.resort = 'Bahamas Beach' ) AND ( Resort. Resort. and using the UNION operator to combine the results. Using self restricting joins to apply restrictions You can use self restricting joins to restrict data to one or another column in a table.sl_id=Service_Line. When the query is run.sl_id ) AND ( ( Resort. the two restrictions on country cannot be met in the same query. Resort. The result of such a query is that no data will satisfy both conditions. A message box appears informing you that there is no data to fetch. Designer’s Guide 277 . and no data is returned. See the section “Self restricting joins” on page 147 for more information on creating and using self restricting joins. based on a flag which is used to switch between the two columns.resort = 'Hawaiian Club' )) The two Where clause restrictions are combined in AND clauses at the end of the Where clause. so no data is returned.Building universes Defining objects 5 set.resort_id=Service_Line.resort_id ) AND ( Service.

you can rename the object to Sales people countries and restrict the table Country to return only values for countries of Sales people from the Sales_Person table.sales_id=Customer. Customer. The object Country of Origin returns the following data: If you want to use the object Country origin under a class Sales_Person. the Sales_Person table must also be inferred in the From clause of the Select statement.city_id=Customer. 278 Designer’s Guide .city_id ) AND ( City. an object called Country of Origin infers the table Country. Region WHERE ( City.region_id ) AND ( Country.country FROM Country. Sales_Person. The Sales people countries object has the following SQL: SELECT Country. City.country_id ) AND ( Sales_Person.5 Building universes Defining objects Applying a restriction by inferring multiple tables You can limit the data returned for an object to values from the table inferred by the object that also match values in another table.sales_id ) The Sales people countries object returns the following data: You apply the restriction by specifying that when the Country object is used in a query.region_id=Region. For example. so that it only returns the countries where sales people are based.country_id=Region.

Inferring multiple tables to apply a condition To infer multiple tables that apply a condition for an object: 1. You are not notified if the table restriction is over ridden in the tables inferred by the object. Click the Tables button. then Designer automatically redetermines which tables are needed by the object’s Select statement and Where clause. 2.Building universes Defining objects 5 Country under the Sales_Person class then only returns countries in which sales people are based. The Edit Properties dialog box for the object appears. Designer’s Guide 279 . The Country table must be joined to the Sales_Person table by intermediary joins using only equi-joins. Double click an object. Tables button A list of tables in the universe appears. You apply the restriction by using the Tables button in the object definition sheet. Note: If you make any changes to the SQL for an object that has a table restriction defined in its Select statement.

5 Building universes Defining objects 3. The tables Country and Sales_Person are selected below: 4. When do you use each method to apply a restriction? You can use the following guidelines to set restrictions in a universe: • • • Avoid using Where clauses in object definitions. Use Additional Joins when a lookup table serves more than one purpose in the universe. Click OK in each dialog box. you should be aware of the potential problems using multiple objects. You can select multiple tables by holding down CTRL and clicking table names in the list. Use Self-Restricting Joins to apply restrictions to tables when you want the restriction to apply irrespective of where the table is used in the SQL. avoiding multiple objects and changes to the classes and objects view of the Universe pane. • 280 Designer’s Guide . This method is ideal when a table uses a flag to switch between two or more domains. 5. If you need to use a Where clause. Use Condition Objects when you want to assist users by providing optional pre-defined Conditions. Select one or more tables that you want the object to infer in addition to the current table. and conflicting Where clauses. Run queries in Web Intelligence to test the table restriction.

first_name + ‘ ‘ + Customer.last_name) Designer’s Guide 281 . For example. you create a new object Full Name in the Customer class. The Edit Properties dialog box appears. you create an object Full Name. which is a concatenation of the objects Last Name and First Name in the Customer class. For example you type the following syntax for the Full Name object (MS Access syntax): rtrim (Customer. 3.Building universes Defining objects 5 Concatenating objects A concatenated object is a combination of two existing objects.” 2. Create an object. Creating a concatenated object To create a concatenated object: 1. Double click the object. For example. You should also type a description for the object such as “This object is a concatenation of the customer’s first and last name. Type the syntax for the concatenated object in the Select box.

When you run a query on the Full Name object. You can use the graphic tools in the editor to help you specify the SQL syntax for the object. Note: You can also click the Edit button to open the SQL Editor. For more information on this editor. and the two quotes are used to insert a space between the first and last name. 4.5 Building universes Defining objects Where rtrim is a function that removes the blank space at the end of a character string. refer to the Designing a Schema chapter. the following results are returned: 282 Designer’s Guide . Click OK in each of the dialog boxes.

This enables them to spot trends or exceptions in the data. the manager can drill down to a more detailed level such as Reservation Month or Reservation Date. Examples of classic hierarchies include: • • • Geography: Continent ➨ Country ➨ Region ➨ City Products: Category ➨ Brand ➨ Product Time: Year ➨ Quarter ➨ Month ➨ Week ➨ Day It is also possible for a hierarchy to be “mixed” such as the following: Geography/Products: Continent ➨ Country ➨ Category ➨ Brand ➨ Product Designer’s Guide 283 . From a higher level of aggregation for example Reservation Quarter. What is multidimensional analysis? Multidimensional analysis is the analysis of dimension objects organized in meaningful hierarchies. a manager wants to track reservation data over time. He or she could also drill up from Reservation Quarter to Reservation Year to see a more summarized view of the data. As the universe designer. Reservation Quarter. you could set up a Reservation Time hierarchy to include the dimensions Reservation Year. Drill A user can use drill to navigate through hierarchical levels of detail. and City. For example.Building universes Defining hierarchies 5 Defining hierarchies You create object hierarchies to allow users to perform multidimensional analysis. A hierarchy is an ordered series of related dimensions. Users can “drill up” or “drill down” on a hierarchy. and Reservation Date. which may group dimensions such as Country. An example of a hierarchy is Geography. Region. Reservation Month. Multidimensional analysis allows users to observe data from various viewpoints. How to identify a hierarchy Hierarchies can take different forms. In Web Intelligence you can use drill up or down to perform multi dimensional analysis.

You often need to create customized hierarchies that include objects from different classes. Less detailed More detailed Setting up hierarchies By default. In the schema below. Viewing hierarchies You can view hierarchies as follows: 1. Or 284 Designer’s Guide . This is a graphic editor that allows you to manage the hierarchies in the universe. While there are no precise rules for determining where the hierarchies in the data lie. the one-to-many (1-N) relationships inherent in the database structure can indicate the existence of hierarchies. and create new hierarchies from the Hierarchies editor. the one-to-many relationships between the tables imply a geographical hierarchy.5 Building universes Defining hierarchies The hierarchies implicit in the data are dependant on the nature of the data and the way it has been stored in the database. You may need to analyze the data very carefully in order to find the hierarchies in your specific system that are best suited to the analysis requirements of your user group. When you create objects. To view hierarchies in the universe Select Tools > Hierarchies. to ensure that default hierarchies have a sense to users. you should organize them hierarchically. You can view default. Designer provides a set of default hierarchies for multidimensional analysis. In these cases you need to create a new hierarchy. These are the classes and the objects arranged in the order that they appear in the Universe pane.

The left pane lists all the classes that contain dimension objects in the active universe. click the New button. 1. 2. Designer represents hierarchies with a folder symbol. Hierarchies Editor The Hierarchies editor appears. The right pane shows all the customized hierarchies that you create.Building universes Defining hierarchies 5 Click the Hierarchies button. A folder representing the hierarchy appears in the right pane. Setting up the hierarchies You create a new hierarchy by creating a new folder in the Custom Hierarchies pane. select a class in the left pane and drag it over to the right pane. To create a new hierarchy From the Hierarchies editor. 3. Designer’s Guide 285 . and dimensions with a cube symbol. Click Cancel. You can delete a hierarchy or a dimension in a hierarchy by selecting the hierarchy or dimension and clicking the Remove button. then adding the appropriate dimensions in a hierarchical order. Click a hierarchy node (the + sign) to see the dimensions organized hierarchically. Or From the Hierarchies editor.

Click the Add button. 7. Click a dimension. You can also re-arrange the order of hierarchies in the same way. To move an object. 286 Designer’s Guide . click it. Expand a default hierarchy node in the left pane. One or more dimensions are highlighted. Press RETURN to apply the name. To select a series of dimensions. Rearranging the order of dimensions and hierarchies You can rearrange the order in which the dimension objects appear within a hierarchy. This is the hierarchy that contains dimensions that you want to add to the new custom hierarchy. You can also move a dimension object or a hierarchy by drag and drop. hold down CTRL and click each dimension. 6. The hierarchy is highlighted. Type a name for the hierarchy. Select the new hierarchy.5 Building universes Defining hierarchies 2. 3. under the selected hierarchy. and then click the Move Up or Move Down button. 5. One or more dimensions appear in the right pane. Note: The Unused objects only check box is a useful way to view only the dimension objects that you have not yet selected for inclusion in a hierarchy. 4.

The Products Hierarchy consists of the following dimensions: Lines. the hierarchy is displayed. Color and Unit Price MSRP. called Cascading lists of values. When a report containing a hierarchy associated with a cascading list of values is refreshed. before the query is run. and select one or more values from the list of values. Category. For example.Building universes Using cascading lists of values for hierarchies 5 Examples of hierarchies and dimension objects are shown below: Table 5-1 :In the Hierarchies Editor above. SKU desc. Designer’s Guide 287 . the Year hierarchy is displayed. and you are prompted to choose a level. Lists of values are fully described in the section “Using lists of values” on page 290. Store and Products. When Reservation quarter month is used in a query. and the user is prompted to select a year for the quarter before running the query. three customized hierarchies have been set up: Time Period. Reservation quarter is associated with a Year hierarchy. Prompts are defined for each hierarchy level to return a list of values for the level. Note: A list of values (LOV) is a list that contains the data values associated with an object. A cascading list of values is a sequence of lists of values associated with a hierarchy in a universe. Using cascading lists of values for hierarchies You can associate a default or custom hierarchy with lists of values.

When a query is run. only the LOV for a prompted hierarchy level is returned. Note: This iterative use of lists of values for a hierarchy is different from creating a hierarchy for a list of values. and only the LOV for the level is returned.5 Building universes Using cascading lists of values for hierarchies Creating a cascading list of values You can create a cascading list of values for a default hierarchy or a custom hierarchy. The Create Cascading List of Values dialog box appears. To create a cascading list of values Select Tools > Lists of Values > Create cascading lists of values. When cascading lists of values are used. no LOV is returned in the microcube until the prompt for the level is filled. 1.LOV file is created for each level. where all the lists of values for all levels of hierarchy are returned in the microcube. 288 Designer’s Guide . A .

Designer’s Guide 289 . Click a class or expand a class and select one or more objects. Or The selected objects appear in the Object list. If you want to change the position of an object in the Cascading list of values list. All the objects in the class appear in the Object list. The hierarchy level for a dimension. click the object and use the up and down arrows to move it up or down the list. Click the right head arrow. 6. Type a prompt text for each object. When selected. This facilitates navigation through a hierarchy. 3. 5. Click the Default Hierarchies or Custom Hierarchies radio button. The corresponding list of hierarchies available in the universe appears. the list of values appears in a pane to the right of the query panel. The text that appears in the prompt for the level list of values. When a level is clicked. 4.Building universes Using cascading lists of values for hierarchies 5 You have the following options: Cascading LOV option Default Hierarchies Custom Hierarchies Description When one is selected. See the section “Setting up hierarchies” on page 284 for more information on these hierarchy types. the hierarchy is displayed in a tree view in the Query Panel. the corresponding default or custom hierarchies defined in the universe appear in the Available pane. Hierarchical View Object Prompt text 2.

You cannot have a dynamic link with an external file. Each . choose to display a list of values for the object in the Query pane. Note: For information on editing. 7. The Create Cascading List of Values dialog box is removed. click the object and click the left arrow. A list of values that is based on an external file is fixed.LOV file is then used as the source for values for the list. for example. Using lists of values A list of values is a list that contains the data values associated with an object. You must refresh the. The returned data is stored in a file with a.LOV file is saved in the universe sub folder on the file system. A SELECT DISTINCT query is then run against the column or columns inferred by the object. Personal data. Select or clear the Hierarchical View check box. External file 290 Designer’s Guide . The list of values is not created until a user. 8. or you the designer. exporting to the CMS. or an Excel file can be associated with a list of values. Designer automatically associates a list of values with the object. for example a text file.5 Building universes Using lists of values If you want to remove an object.5\Universes\<CMS name>\beachXI2\. see the section “Using lists of values” on page 290. A list of values can contain data from two types of data source: List of values Description data source Database file When you create an object. and creating mists of values for individual objects.LOV extension in the universe sub folder created under the same folder that stores the universe file.The. C:\Documents and Settings\<user>\Application Data\Business Objects\Business Objects 11. Click Generate LOVs. A LOV is created for each level of the cascading lists of values.LOV file if your external file has changed.

This list is returned when the object Country is used in a condition in a query. Note: A. The first time a list of values is used.LOV file in the universe sub folder on the file system.LOV file is also created whenever any condition is applied to an object in the Query pane that requires a restriction on the column values inferred by the object. The default list of values associated with the object contains all the distinct country names in the COUNTRY_NAME column. The List of Values for an object appears showing values available for the object.COUNTRY_NAME. it is saved as a. A user that wants to limit the values in a query to France only.Building universes Using lists of values 5 How is a list of values used? In Web Intelligence. allowing the user to choose the terms for the condition. a user can create a query in the Query pane using the operand “Show list of values” to apply to an object when applying a condition. can select France from the following list that shows all country values in the Country table for the condition: Designer’s Guide 291 . This folder also stores the. Example: Using a list of values for Country An object called Country has the following Select clause definition: COUNTRY. This allows the SELECT DISTINCT query to be run only once for an object.LOV files created in Designer which are used to restrict the list of values returned for objects for which the designer wants to control access to the data.

and the list of values is returned. or as an object hierarchy. or values from an external file. you can define how the data is presented in the list. 292 Designer’s Guide . Define a query that sets conditions on the SELECT DISTINCT query that an object uses to return a list of values. Note: No default list of values is assigned to measure objects. A.LOV file is automatically created in the universe subfolder to hold the list values. but by default. it is automatically assigned an associated list of values. You save this query in the properties of an object. The designer’s role in controlling lists of values As the universe designer.5 Building universes Using lists of values When France is selected from the list. Display list values either as a simple list. You can set the properties for an object to determine the following actions for a list of values: • • • • • If a list of values is associated with an object. the object has the ability to query the database to return a list of its values when used in the Query pane. This list does not physically exist when you create an object. for example an Excel spreadsheet. If the list is based on column values. the values are returned from the. When the list is refreshed. the condition appears as follows in the Conditions pane of the Query pane: The query only returns values for France. and define restrictions on the amount and type of data returned to the list.LOV file and not from the database. a SELECT DISTINCT statement is run against the appropriate columns inferred by the object. When a condition is first placed on an object in the Query pane that requires a list of values to be displayed in Designer. The next time that the list of values is required for the object in Designer. Defining how a list of values is used with an object When you create a dimension or detail object in Designer.

allows a list of values to be associated with the object. Limited to 8 characters. When cleared. List of values properties and options You can define the following object properties which allow you to control how a list of values for an object is used in Web Intelligence. • When cleared. you clear this option to ensure that users do not edit lists of values. the user cannot edit the list. List name Allow users to edit this List of Values Name of the.Building universes Using lists of values 5 You can also create a permanent list for values for an object and export this list to the repository. Selected by default for dimensions and details. A user can edit a local file. no list of values is associated with the object.LOV file is then always used as the list of values for that object. The purpose of a list of values is usually to limit the set of available values to a user. It is selected by default. Property Associate a List of Values Description • • • When selected. It is not updated. if you are not using a personal data file as a list of values source. Designer’s Guide 293 . These are not exported to the repository. Normally. or change the target list of values for another local data file. you no longer have control over the values they choose. If they can edit a list.LOV file that stores the returned list data. Not selected for measures. users can edit the list of values file in Web Intelligence. This. • When selected. Note: This does not apply to personal data files such as Excel spreadsheets. They remain on a local machine.

This option does not apply to Web Intelligence reports. Display 294 Designer’s Guide .LOV is refreshed. the.LOV file for the object is not exported to the repository. the list data is refreshed each time the list of values for an object is displayed in the Query pane. If the list contents are stable. This can have an effect on performance each time the . display. then you can select this option. Select this option if you customize this list regularly. The universe domain and document domain must exist on the same data account. Displays the list of values for the object. a. or assign the default name to a list of values by clicking the following buttons: Option Restore Default Edit Description Restores default name assigned to the. This list is saved as a. This allows your modifications to be exported and imported with the universe. • When cleared. you must click Display to create the.LOV file. • You must create the list of values that is associated with the object for it to be exported.LOV file associated with the object is exported with the universe to the repository. When selected. A list of values is stored in the document domain. then you should clear this option. You can use the editor to restrict the values displayed in the list when used in the Query pane. When you want to create a permanent list to be exported with the universe to the repository.LOV file at object creation. Allows you to edit the values displayed in the list. but you should take into account the effect on performance.5 Building universes Using lists of values Property Automatic refresh before use (BusinessObjects only) Description When selected. the list is refreshed only once at the start of a user logon session. • When cleared.LOV file. The document domain does not have to be visible to the a user’s profile in Supervisor. You can then edit the file. If the list contains values that regularly change. • Export with universe • You can edit.

Type a name for the associated. Double click an object. Click the Properties tab. When you click this button.Building universes Using lists of values 5 Defining properties and options for a lost of values To define properties and options for a list of values (. Designer’s Guide 295 . Click the Display button to see the list of values. 6. The Edit Properties dialog box opens to the Definition page.LOV) file: 1. 8. 3. Click the Edit button if you want to define restrictions on the list values Use the Query pane to create a query on the list data. The Properties page appears. 4.LOV file is automatically created in the User Docs directory to hold the returned data. When you view a list of values.LOV file in the List Name box. Click the Display button. a default.LOV file for the object. This is the same method used in the reporting products to create the. You can view a list of values in a list format. By default. To view a list of values: 1. you can view the list of values associated with an object. 5. Viewing a list of values associated with an object In Designer. or as an object hierarchy. The Edit Properties dialog box opens to the Definition page. 2. The Properties page appears. Click OK. Select or clear check boxes in the list of values group box at the bottom of the page. 3. 2. when you view a list of values you automatically create a. Double click an object.LOV file. a SELECT DISTINCT query is run against the columns inferred by the object in the database. Click the Properties tab. 7.

LOV. Click Cancel.LOV) files in a universe subfolder in the same folder that contains the universe file. Once you have created the. View the list of values for an object. or modify how the data is presented in the list. Designer stores list of values (. 2. 296 Designer’s Guide . displays a tabular view of the values displays a hierarchical view of the values The list of values filters the display to selected items only refreshes the view of the values Creates the list of values file 4.LOV file. you can edit the list to restrict the data that is returned to the.LOV file. Click OK.5 Building universes Using lists of values The List of Values dialog box displays all the possible data values associated with the object. The name of the subfolder is the same as the universe that contains the object used to create the. For example. you restrict the resorts in the list of values for the Resort object to those resorts that have more than a minimum number of reserved guests. Creating a list of values You create a list of values as follows: 1. Editing a list of values You can modify the contents of a list of values in two ways: • Apply a condition to the SELECT DISTINCT query that generates the list.

The active object is listed in the Result Objects pane. Select or type values as required.LOV file in the List Name box. If you want to rename the list. Select the Associate a List of Values check box. 8. The object Edit Properties sheet appears. 5. The Properties page appears. Designer’s Guide 297 . 4. Click the Properties tab.Building universes Using lists of values 5 • Create a hierarchy to simplify for users the process of choosing a value from the list. 2. Click the Edit button. Drag an object that you want to serve as a condition on the list of values for the active object over to the Conditions pane. 3. 9. Double click an operand in the Operand pane. Double click an object. This can be very useful if a list contains a lot of values. 6. 7. The Query pane appears. then type a name for the. Applying a condition to a list of values To apply a condition to a list of values: 1. Double click an operator in the Operators pane.

13. Click Display to view the restricted list of values. 12. 11.5 Building universes Using lists of values For example the following query returns customers only from France. 10. A blank list appears. 298 Designer’s Guide . 14. Click OK. Click OK in each of the dialog boxes. The values appear in the list. Click Refresh.

9. Click the Properties tab. The Properties page appears. 4. Click Refresh. A blank list appears. 6. 8. then type a name for the. Designer’s Guide 299 . 2. Click the Edit button.Building universes Using lists of values 5 Creating a hierarchy for a list of values To create a hierarchy for a list of values: 1. The object Edit Properties sheet appears. Double click an object. The active object is listed in the Result Objects pane. If you want to rename the list. 5. 3. Click OK. The Query pane appears. Click Display to view the restricted list of values. Select the Associate a List of Values check box.LOV file in the List Name box. as shown below: 7. Drag the objects that you want to place in the hierarchy into the Result Objects box to the right of the existing object.

Exporting a list of values You can export a list of values with the universe to the CMS.5 Building universes Using lists of values The values appear in the list. A default . the restricted list appears. The SQL for the SELECT DISTINCT query defined in the .LOV file. If you have created a condition in Designer to restrict the data values returned for an object. the list of values that is returned for the object is determined by one of the following: • • The data contained in the .LOV file with the universe.LOV file would then be created to hold the data. If you had not exported the . Click OK in each of the dialog boxes. the associated . and not the default list of all the data values.LOV file exported from Designer. 10.LOV file.LOV file is copied to a universe sub directory in the same folder that stores the universe file. then the object would simply return the default list with no conditions and formatting. The list retains all conditions and formatting implemented in Designer. On the file system. How is an exported . 300 Designer’s Guide .LOV used in Web Intelligence? When a user runs a query in Web Intelligence using an object that is associated with a .

LOV. With data Exporting a list of values definition To export a list of values definition (no data): 1. and is populated the first time the object is used to return values in the Query pane. Select Tools > Lists of Values. It lists the classes and objects in the current universe and contains options to manage the list of values for each object. 2.LOV does not change. then you should not export the data with the . or if the list of values can be very large. if the data is regularly updated. With query definition only (no data) Description The .LOV file contains no data. Below.LOV file is exported with the definition of the SELECT DISTINCT query to return values to the list. This can be useful if the data in the . All conditions that you set for the . or if the list contains a lot of values. The . 3.LOV in the Designer Query pane are retained. Designer’s Guide 301 . The Lists of Values dialog box appears. Create a list of values for an object. Select the Export with Universe check box on the Properties page for the object.Building universes Using lists of values 5 Exporting a list with or without data You can export a list of values to the Central Management Server (CMS) repository in two ways: Export . The . You should use this method for data that is updated regularly..LOV as it can slow the export process. However. a list of values Cust_FR is associated with the Customer to return only values for customers in France..LOV file is exported or imported with all the data that is returned when you display or edit a list of values in Designer.

The .LOV file for the object. If the list is empty. 8. Create a list of values for an object. The list of values appears. 2. 9. Expand a class and select the object with an associated . Exporting a list of values with data To export a list of values with data: 1. 4. 7. click the Refresh button to populate the list. 3. Click OK. Select the Export with Universe check box on the Properties page for the object. 6. Click the Display button. Select the universe filename from the list of universes. A message box appears telling you that the universe was successfully exported. Select File > Export.5 Building universes Using lists of values 4. Click the Purge button.LOV file that you want to export to the repository. Click OK. The Export Universe box appears. 5. 302 Designer’s Guide . The data is deleted from the .LOV file now only contains the query definition for the list of values.

or dBASE. and click the Refresh button. Expand a class and click an object. Click OK in each of the dialog boxes. A message box appears telling you that the universe was successfully exported. You must update the data manually if the values need to be changed. Personal data is data stored in a flat file such as a text file or data from one of the following applications: Microsoft Excel. 6. Designer’s Guide 303 . The List of Values dialog box appears. Select Tools > Lists of Values. Click the Personal Data radio button in the Properties group box. The Export Universe box appears. You control the values that users see when they work with lists of values. 3. Select File > Export. Using data from a personal data file You can assign a list of values to an object that contains personal rather than corporate data retrieved from a database server. Using a personal data file as a list of values has the following advantages: • • • Retrieving data from a personal data file can be quicker than accessing your corporate database.Building universes Using lists of values 5 5. is that the data is fixed. select an object and click the Refresh button. 2. Select the universe filename from the list of universes. 8. The disadvantage using a personal data file. Refreshing values in a list of values You can refresh the data in a list of values in Designer using two methods: • • Display the list of values for an object. Click OK. Select Tools > Lists of Values to display the Lists of Values management box. A message box tells you that you are about to change the list of values type from corporate to personal. Lotus 1-2-3. Users need these values which do not exist in the database. Creating a list of values from a personal data file To create a list of values from personal data file: 1. 7.

Click OK. Select the file format from the Format list box. You can select one of the following file formats: • • • • Text Files (*. one line is equivalent to one row.csv) Microsoft Excel Files dBASE Microsoft Excel 97. indicate the type of column delimiter: a tabulation. Click the Browse button and select the file that you want to use as the list of values. as necessary. If you select character as the type.asc. you must use the Microsoft Excel 97 option. 7. space. The Access Personal Data dialog box appears. For a text file. or character. 6. The available options depend on the file type you select. 304 Designer’s Guide . 8. *. *. enter the character in the text box. 9.txt. 5.5 Building universes Using lists of values 4.prn. *. Note: If your file was created in Excel 97. not the Microsoft Excel Files option. Click OK. In a text file. Or Type the file name in the Name text box. Specify the remaining options.

The Lists of Values dialog box appears. and access its list of values. Clears the contents of the list of values currently assigned to the selected object. All the classes and objects are presented in a tree view. Expand a class and select an object. 4. Select Tools > Lists of Values > Edit a list of values. Displays the current list of values for the selected object. You can select any object. Click a button or select an option to perform an administrative task. Click OK. Refreshes the display of the list of values. Designer’s Guide 305 . You can define and edit existing queries for a list of values.Building universes Using lists of values 5 Administering lists of values in the universe You can manage all the lists of values in the active universe from the Lists of Values dialog box (Tools > Lists of Values). You can perform the following actions from the Lists of Values dialog box: Option Edit Description Displays the Query pane used to define a query for the selected object. Display Purge Refresh Accessing the Lists of Values administration tool To access the Lists of Values administration tool: 1. 3. 2.

then the LOV should be edited to point to that alternative table.5 Building universes Creating a basic universe automatically Optimizing and customizing LOV files Some common methods used to optimize and customize LOVs are as follows: Method Point LOV to a smaller table Description By default LOV point to the same object as the object they are attached to. Why use the Quick Design wizard? The Quick Design wizard assists you throughout the creation of a universe. If there is an alternative smaller or faster table that returns the same values. it can help you get familiar with the user interface and basic universe design. The opposite can be done for the 'sales type description' object to display the code along with the description. If you are designing a production universe. 306 Designer’s Guide . All chapters of the Designer’s Guide are based on showing you how to manually create a universe. In this way. An object returns a 'sales type code' which may not have a meaningful value to some users. you can gradually refine the quality and structure of your universe. The wizard also provides built-in strategies for the automatic creation of objects. Combining code and description Creating a basic universe automatically For a demonstration or quick test universe based on a simple relational schema. It guides you in establishing a connection to the database and then lets you create simple classes and objects. a wizard for creating a basic yet complete universe. This is the only section that deals with automatic universe creation. and tables. joins. Editing the LOV to display the 'sales type description' will help them when viewing the LOV. But if this object points to a large table (number of rows) then refreshing the LOV may be slow. you should create the universe manually. Using Quick Design has the following benefits: • If you are new to Designer.LOV is to combine a 'code' and 'description'. or you can modify the objects and create complex new ones. You can use the resulting universe immediately. A typical customization of a . Designer provides Quick Design.

Using the Quick Design Wizard Quick Design is the name of the wizard that you use to automatically create a universe. you can quickly set up a working model of your universe. you can find two options relating to the display of the wizard in the General tab of the Options dialog box: Show Welcome Wizard and File/New Starts Quick Design wizard (Tools menu. Note: If you do not want the wizard to appear the next time you launch a Designer session. In the User Identification dialog box. Options command). clear the check box Run this Wizard at Startup. it saves you time by automating much of the design process. Click the OK button. Each step in the wizard is described in each of the following sections. In addition. Start Designer. 2. The User Identification dialog box is displayed. With the wizard. The welcome screen of the Quick Design wizard appears. 3. Designer’s Guide 307 .Building universes Creating a basic universe automatically 5 • If you are creating a demonstration universe. and then you can customize the universe to suit the needs of your target audience. enter your user name and password. Starting the Quick Design wizard To start the Quick Design wizard: 1.

5 Building universes Creating a basic universe automatically The welcome screen The welcome screen displays an overview of the four steps necessary to create a basic universe. or accept the default strategies. 308 Designer’s Guide . a dialog box appears listing strategies. When you select the Click here to choose strategies check box. To move from one dialog box to the next. If you click this check box. This dialog box is described in “Choosing the strategies” on page 310. click the Next button. In each dialog box that follows. otherwise. You can select a strategy. You may end the process and quit Quick Design at any time by clicking the Cancel button. You can return to the previous dialog box by clicking the Back button. you will be able to select the strategies for creating the universe. Click the Begin button to start the creation process. Designer applies the default built-in strategies. Quick Design prompts you for the information needed to carry out the action. It also provides a check box: Click here to choose strategies.

You can enter a long name of up to 35 alphanumeric characters for the universe. You can either create the connection. To check whether your connection is valid. Click the Next button to proceed to the next step. Designer’s Guide 309 . refer to the section “Defining and editing connections” on page 41. or select an existing one. click the Test button. The Edit button lets you modify the parameters of the connection. you define the universe parameters: the universe name and a database connection. For more instructions on these dialog boxes. To create a connection. and specify the necessary parameters in the dialog boxes that follow.Building universes Creating a basic universe automatically 5 Defining the universe parameters In this step. click the New button.

Designer uses these scripts to create objects. joins. and tables. Refer to the section “Using external strategies to customize universe creation” on page 413. A strategy is a script that reads structural information from a database or flat file. you can also create your own external strategies. From a list box. In addition to the built-in internal strategies provided by Designer. you can select another strategy. joins. and tables automatically. Brief descriptions of the current strategies appear just below the list boxes.5 Building universes Creating a basic universe automatically Choosing the strategies If you clicked the check box for strategies in the welcome screen. or none at all. Click the Next button to proceed to the next step. Quick Design prompts you to specify strategies for the creation of objects. 310 Designer’s Guide .

To view the data values of any table or column. the left pane shows only the names of the tables. and adding them to the Universe classes and objects pane on the right. Click the Add button. Designer includes all of its columns. To select one table. Designer’s Guide 311 . Then click the Add button. hold down the Shift key. and then click the Add button. To select several tables that are not contiguous. click the table. then click the first table and last table. By default. and add classes and objects to the right pane: • • • • • • To view the columns of any table. click the plus sign (+) to the left of the table name. All the tables between the selected tables will be highlighted.You can use the following methods to navigate through the file trees. the wizard presents you with a list of database tables and columns. To select several contiguous tables. Another way to select tables is to drag and drop them from the left pane to the right pane. When you insert a table. click each table while holding down the Ctrl key. You create the initial classes and objects by selecting tables and columns from the left pane.Building universes Creating a basic universe automatically 5 Creating the initial classes and objects Based on the parameters of your database connection. click it and then click the View Values button.

Examples of measure objects are shown in the right pane of the dialog box below: If you wish to view the data values associated with an object. which is indicated by the cube symbol that precedes the object’s name. click it and then click the View Values button. Click the plus sign (+) beside the class name to view the objects. It also facilitates the end user’s ease of navigation. Grouping measure objects in one or more measures classes improves the organization of the universe. For more information on measure objects. Quick Design begins creating your universe. Creating measure objects A measure object is derived from an aggregate function: Count. You can rename a class or object by double-clicking it and entering a new name in the dialog box. To remove a class or object. By default. Minimum. 312 Designer’s Guide . You can rename any measure object you create. an object is qualified as a dimension object. click it and then click the Remove button. When you click the Next button. or Maximum. and then click the aggregate button. Sum. refer to the section “Defining a measure” on page 264. click the appropriate object in the left pane. the names of classes are displayed beside a folder icon.5 Building universes Creating a basic universe automatically In the right pane. Click the Next button to move to the next step. To create a measure object. This type of object provides numeric information.

It indicates the number of classes.Building universes Creating a basic universe automatically 5 Generating the universe Quick Design automatically generates your new universe based on the parameters you specified. a message states that loops exist within the joins of the universe. Designer enables you to resolve loops with aliases and contexts. and joins created in your universe. Universe pane Structure pane Designer’s Guide 313 . the Universe pane and the Structure pane of your new universe appear. objects. Refer to the Designing a Schema chapter for more information. When you click the Finish button. In the dialog box above.

To quit Designer. In addition. 5. this folder appears under the Local Data folder for your user profile. You can also view the SQL that objects generate in a query by using the Query Panel to create a query with universe objects and clicking the View SQL button. Testing objects in the Query Panel You can view the SQL for a query using the Query Panel as follows: 1. 4.unv extension. you can choose to enhance your universe with more complex components using the various Designer features. It has a . When you save the universe. A universe file name can contain the maximum number of characters allowed by your operating system. The Query Panel appears. select File > Exit. Drag objects to the Results pane on the right. then File > Close to close the universe. The SQL for the query appears. Following up on a universe created with the Quick Design wizard Once you have created a basic universe with Quick Designer. Testing the universe You can test the integrity of the objects and classes in your universe by running regular checks with Check Integrity (Tools > Check Integrity). In Windows 2000. By default. Designer prompts you to enter a file name. Designer stores these files in the Universe subfolder of the BusinessObjects folder. Click the SQL button . 314 Designer’s Guide . you may find it necessary to edit joins. For the appropriate information. you should refer to the relevant section in this manual. Click OK then Cancel to close the Query Panel. 3. Select Tools > Query Panel. 2.5 Building universes Testing the universe Ending a Work Session Select File > Save As to save the universe. and to resolve all loops using aliases or contexts. and by testing objects in Web Intelligence.

and by checking the schema components with Check Integrity. by evaluating if returned results are correct. Designer’s Guide 315 .Building universes Testing the universe 5 Testing the integrity of the universe As you create and modify classes and objects. Testing the universe with Web Intelligence You can test objects by running test queries in Web Intelligence. did you save the universe after the last created? Is the SQL correct? Are the results of the query correct? You must also test the joins. Refer to “Checking Universe Integrity Automatically” on page 230 for information on using Check Integrity. When you test objects you can ask the following type of questions: • • • Do the objects exist? If not. you should use Check Integrity regularly to test the integrity of your universe regularly using Check Integrity.

5 Building universes Testing the universe 316 Designer’s Guide .

Generating OLAP universes chapter .

6 Generating OLAP universes Overview Overview A OLAP universe is a BusinessObjects universe that has been generated from a OLAP cube or query. Refer to “Generating OLAP universes from OLAP cube sources” on page 320 for general information on creating connections to OLAP cube data sources and creating OLAP universes. Once the universe has been created it can be exported to the Central Management System (CMS) as any other universe.com/documentation What OLAP data sources can be used to create a universe? You can use Designer to create OLAP universes from the following OLAP data sources: OLAP data source Description Designer creates universe automatically from a connection to a InfoCube or QueryCube. • • • OLAP cube sources BW SAP Microsoft Analysis Services Essbase 318 Designer’s Guide .businessobjects. A OLAP flattening driver is used to build a relational view from the cube. The universe is created automatically from a selected connection to a OLAP data source using an OLAP query flattening driver that is installed as an add in to Designer XIR2. The cube elements are mapped directly to equivalent structures in the universe. The universe is then generated from the view. and is then available to Web Intelligence users to run queries and create reports. Supplementary OLAP universe information You can find supplementary information for supported OLAP data sources in the guide Designer's Guide Supplement for OLAP Universes available on the Business Objects Customer Support Documentation web site: http://support.

Generating OLAP universes Overview 6 What does the universe look like? A universe generated from a BW cube is shown with the object properties box for a selected object: Once you have exported a OLAP universe to the CMS. it is available to Web Intelligence users to run queries against the target cube and create reports. Designer’s Guide 319 .

The universe structure appears in the Universe pane. measures. The universe creation process is automatic once you have selected the connection. you can modify any of the universe components as for any other universe. There is no table schema in the Structure pane. Saving and exporting a OLAP universe 320 Designer’s Guide . Overview of the universe creation process An overview of the OLAP universe creation process is as following: Universe creation stage 1. 2. Once you have created the OLAP universe. You save and export the universe to the Central Management System (CMS). The universe is created automatically once the connection is selected. Create a new connection to a InfoCube or Query cube. dimensions. Save the new universe and export to the CMS. Go here for information. the universe is then available to Web Intelligence users to create queries and reports. Create a new universe by selecting the new connection to the OLAP data source. and details. Once exported to the CMS.. OLAP structures are mapped directly to classes. Creating a OLAP connection Creating a OLAP universe 3..6 Generating OLAP universes Generating OLAP universes from OLAP cube sources Generating OLAP universes from OLAP cube sources You create OLAP universes from data sources contained in the following data warehouses: • • • BW SAP Microsoft Analysis Services Essbase You create a OLAP universe by selecting a OLAP connection to a QueryCube or InfoCube.

The New Connection wizard appears. From the Parameters dialog box. The wizard guides you through the connection creation process. This is Business Objects data access driver for the OLAP middleware. 2. The Connections list appears. Click Next. Designer’s Guide 321 . This is the target database for the connection. If the Quick Designer Wizard appears. This method is documented in the section To create a OLAP connection below. you click New. Expand the middleware node. There are two ways to create a connection: • • From the Connections list (Tools > Connections). Click the data access driver. Select Tools > Connections. The OLAP data access driver appears. 1. The Database Middleware page appears. From the Parameters page.Generating OLAP universes Creating a OLAP connection 6 Creating a OLAP connection You create a connection to a BW Cube or Query Cube. All the connections available to the current Designer session are listed here. 6. This box appears when you select File > Parameters or click the new universe icon. The steps through the wizard are the same as documented below. 3. It lists the database and middleware that correspond to your Data Access driver key. and the New Connection Wizard appears. 4. Click Next. The node expands to the supported middleware. 5. Expand the node for your target OLAP datasource. Each connection maps the structures in the cube data source to a universe. One connection must be created for each cube that you want to use to create a universe. To create a OLAP connection Start Designer. Click Add. click Cancel.

Required SAP client number. This is the name that appears on the list of connection available to the universe. Name or IP address of the BW server that contains the target cubes. For example 00. Connection name. Name User name Use Single Sign-on when viewing reports Password Server System Client Language Note: User name and password stored in the connection string are only used to create the universe. 322 Designer’s Guide . Type or select logon options and click Next. Your database user name The user name and password used to access the CMS are automatically used as database login parameters.6 Generating OLAP universes Creating a OLAP connection The Login Parameters page appears. Connection language. See the BusinessObjects Enterprise Administrator’s Guide for information on setting up Single Sign-On. Your database password. 7. you have the following logon options: Logon options Type Description Security level for connection. You must use a secured connection to export the universe to the CMS. and for end-users to create and run queries in the event the SSO option is not activated. For example EN for English. Required SAP login information. For SAP BW.

Type or select Advanced options and click Next. Click Next. right click a cube in the OLAP cube browser and select Add to Favorites from the contextual menu. Each found instance is highlighted. There are no parameters listed on this page for OLAP connections. Search 8. You can accept the default settings when you create the connection and modify them at any time later. The Advanced page appears. See the Data Access Guide for information on setting Advanced parameters. Select the target cube. Click Search to continue searching. Click Next. Type a string in the text box and click Search.Generating OLAP universes Creating a OLAP connection 6 The Cube browser appears. 9. Searches the names of available cubes for a text string. Expand cube nodes to display the cubes and query cubes available. Designer’s Guide 323 . 10. To add a cube to Favorites. This is the cube that you want to use to create a universe. This lists connection parameters that you can set to manage the connection. This shows all of the OLAP cubes available to the target server. The Custom page appears. You have the following features available to facilitate cube searching: Cube browser tools Favorites Description Folder that holds links to cubes that you select for quick access.

Once the connection is selected. the universe is created automatically. Click Finish to complete the connection creation. The Parameters dialog box appears. Creating a OLAP universe by selecting a connection Click the New Universe icon.6 Generating OLAP universes Creating a OLAP universe The Connections list appears. Creating a OLAP universe You create a OLAP universe using one of two ways: • • Creating a OLAP universe by selecting a connection. Or From an empty Designer session. select File > Parameters. 11. The new connection appears in the list. Creating a OLAP universe using the Quick Design Wizard. 324 Designer’s Guide . Refer to the Designer’s Guide for information on universe design techniques. 1. You can modify and customize the generated universe in the same way as you do for any other universe.

Click Test to validate the connection. Designer’s Guide 325 . you can create a connection by clicking the New button. 3. See the section Creating a OLAP connection for information on creating a new connection. Note: The universe generation can take while to complete depending on the size of the target cube. Click OK. This starts the New Connection Wizard. 4. The generated universe appears in the Universe pane. Type a name and description for the universe. If you do not have a connection. 5. Once you have created a connection it becomes available in the Connections drop down list. This connection must be a connection to a OLAP data source. Select a connection from the Connections drop down list box.Generating OLAP universes Creating a OLAP universe 6 2.

6 Generating OLAP universes Creating a OLAP universe 1. 4. See the section Creating a OLAP connection for information on using this wizard. do the following: • • • Type a universe name. click New. If the wizard has been disabled. 2. Creating a OLAP universe using the Quick Design Wizard Start Designer. Click Next. 326 Designer’s Guide . Select the OLAP cube connection from the database connection drop down list box. Click OK and Select File > New. This is the default setting. The New Design Wizard starts. The wizard starts. The New Connection wizard starts. If you want to define a new connection to a OLAP cube. The Options dialog box appears. A completed define universe parameters page is shown below. Click Next. then do the following: • • Select File > New Or If the wizard does not start when you select File > New. From the Universe Parameters page. 3. The Universe Parameters page appears. Click the General page and select File/New starts Quick Design wizard check box. then select Tools > Options.

However. you import the universe. Click Finish. refer to the Designer’s Guide. 2. Updating OLAP universes You use Designer to automatically generate a OLAP Universe. If a OLAP cube definition has changed. There are two ways to update a universe manually: • • 1. or browse to a universe on the file system for export. you export the universe to the Central Management System (CMS) to make the universe available to other designers or Web Intelligence users. The Export universe box appears. then export the updated version. Click OK. You can export the active universe to the CMS. you need to manually update the universe with the new modifications. When you want to update the universe. To save and export a OLAP universe Select File > Export. you can not automatically update a OLAP Universe. Designer’s Guide 327 . The universe is exported to the CMS. 1. and measures from the new universe to the old universe. 5. objects. 2.Generating OLAP universes Saving and exporting a OLAP universe 6 The final page of the wizard appears. For more information on importing and exporting universes. Saving and exporting a OLAP universe Once you have generated the OLAP universe. The generated universe appears in the Universe pane. Select the repository folder from the Folder drop down list. Update universe with modifications from a newly generated universe Edit the current universe directly Update universe with modifications from a newly generated universe Generate a new universe based on the existing OLAP connection. modify it. It lists the number of class and objects that the universe contains. Open the old universe and copy classes. 3.

delete obsolete classes. objects. measures. Copy and paste classes. and classes or objects that don’t reference a level. In the old universe. and measures. 2. dimension or attribute in the OLAP Cube. dimension or attribute in the OLAP Cube. objects or measures within the same universe and change their definition. 328 Designer’s Guide . objects. 1. Edit the current universe directly Delete obsolete classes.6 Generating OLAP universes Updating OLAP universes 3. and classes or objects that don’t reference a level.

You can find OLAP to universe mapping information for supported OLAP data sources in the guide Designer's Guide Supplement for OLAP Universes available on the Business Objects Documentation web site: http://support.com/documentation. BW SAP This section describes how SAP BW structures are mapped to universe components when a OLAP universe is created from a SAP BW data source. This information will be available in a future update of the Designer’s Guide. Classes are created for the characteristics and key figures attached to a dimension. How are BW OLAP structures mapped to universe components? Designer creates a universe from either a InfoCube or a QueryCube by mapping BW OLAP structures to equivalent classes and objects. Class (contains dimensions) Measure Measure Not applicable Characteristics (+Time. Classes are created for the characteristics and key figures attached to a dimension. Class (contains dimensions) Measure Measure Dimension Universe object created from a InfoCube No direct mapping.businessobjects. You identify the cube data source type by the cube technical name shown in the Cube browser. The following table shows the universe structures mapped from the BW object: BW Object Dimensions Universe object created from a QueryCube No direct mapping. Unit) Key Figure Formulas Multiple Structure Designer’s Guide 329 .Generating OLAP universes OLAP to universe mapping 6 OLAP to universe mapping This section describes how OLAP objects are mapped to universe components when a OLAP universe is created from a OLAP data source. Note: Mapping information for Microsoft Analysis Services and Essbase are not available in this guide.

The class contains a dimension for each hierarchy level. Each sub-class contains a dimension for each hierarchy level. One class containing dimensions.6 Generating OLAP universes OLAP to universe mapping BW Object Member properties Display Attribute BW variables Universe object created from a QueryCube Detail Not Supported Universe object created from a InfoCube Detail Not Supported Dimension Navigation Attribute Dimension @Prompt function defined Not applicable in the WHERE clause of either object (for optional variable) or filter object (for mandatory variable). One class containing as many sub-classes as defined hierarchies. See the section “BW variables” on page 333 for more information. Hierarchies 330 Designer’s Guide .

Two classes are created to store corresponding characteristic objects included in each of the two dimensions. A Key Figures class is created to hold BW Key Figures objects. Time. the data set returned when you filter values (using a list of values. Classes are created in the universe for the characteristics within each dimension as follows: Data source QueryCube Mapped structures in universe Only BW Dimensions for Time and Unit are processed. corresponds to the first occurrence member found. Designer’s Guide 331 . InfoCube Filtering Dimensions that share the same Description Members If you use Dimensions that share the same description members. Key Figures. or a Members filter).Generating OLAP universes OLAP to universe mapping 6 Mapping QueryCube components to a universe The diagram shows how certain structures in a query cube are mapped to equivalent structure in a universe generated from the cube: Query created in BEx Analyzer Generated BusinessObjects universe Dimensions BW Dimensions hold Characteristics. ‘Time’ and ‘Unit’. and Unit classes are created respectively for the BW dimensions ‘Key Figure’.

in the query definition. but is mapped separately from the parent object. There is no link between a parent object and compound objects. Only one hierarchy is created: • • Either the default one (flattened hierarchy) with two levels Or The assigned hierarchy with n x levels. or not used. for example hierarchy/levels or Display Attributes. A hierarchy can be used. you should use different descriptions. 332 Designer’s Guide . Levels Compound objects Treated as a regular characteristic. The content of the class the same as that of a regular characteristic class.6 Generating OLAP universes OLAP to universe mapping To ensure that you return data set for all description members. Characteristics and the corresponding properties are mapped as follows: Characteristic/ Mapping information property Characteristic The SELECT clause is defined using the technical name of the characteristic. Hierarchies are treated as follows: Hierarchy case InfoCube level Query Cube level Treated as follows in universe All hierarchies defined for each Characteristic are created. The Characteristic Key and Long Name are defined as Details objects of the characteristic The Characteristic Key and Long Name are defined as Detail objects of the characteristic A sub-class is created in the parent object class. Member Navigational Attribute Hierarchies and See the section “Hierarchies” on page 332. Hierarchies Multiple hierarchies can be defined for a characteristic. Characteristics A class for each characteristic is created to contain a characteristic object and its related objects.

Ensuring that time dependant hierarchies are valid You can ensure that time dependant hierarchies in the universe are valid as follows: • • • Manually add or delete objects that no longer correspond to hierarchies in the target cube. Variables can be mandatory or optional. hierarchies. you must ensure that the universe is updated correctly to avoid creating non-valid hierarchies. BW variables BW variables are query parameters defined in BEx that are populated with values when a query is executed. you can experience the following issues when a universe is not updated correctly: Hierarchy type Entirely time-dependent hierarchy Result when universe not updated Hierarchy objects in the universe may be not valid. BW variables are mapped to objects in a universe using a @Prompt function defined in the WHERE clause of either a target query object (for optional variables) or a filter object (for mandatory variables). ensure that the reports are also updated with the changes. hierarchy nodes. They can store characteristic values. Generate a new universe based in the updated target cube. users may run queries on obsolete objects that return errors. Depending on the type of time dependant hierarchy. and the universe has not been updated with the changes. These are discussed in the section Optional and Mandatory variables. Create a dummy universe on the same cube with a new connection to get the updated objects. texts and formula elements. If not.Generating OLAP universes OLAP to universe mapping 6 Time dependant hierarchies When you have time dependant hierarchies. Note: If reports have already been created on the modified universe. Designer’s Guide 333 . then update the SELECT of the original objects in the original universe with new definitions. The universe must be updated to take into any modifications in the hierarchy or any newly created objects. Time-dependent Hierarchy Instances of obsolete or missing objects Structure may occur if the hierarchy structure changes. Refer to the Designer’s Guide for information on creating and deleting objects in a universe.

the LOV displays Member Descriptions sorted in alphabetical order. ensure that at least one measure is included in the Result Objects pane.6 Generating OLAP universes OLAP to universe mapping The following variables are supported: • • • • • • Characteristic variables Hierarchy variables Hierarchy node variables Formula variables Currency variables Keydate variables The mapping of each variable to universe object is discussed in the following sections. For BW variables. When using complex variables. So note the following sort differences: • • For custom prompts. To ensure that variables are processed correctly when a query is run. This is the default behavior for Designer. The list of values (LOV) for Custom prompts and Variables is ordered differently from the LOV displayed for BW variables. General points on using BW Variables You need to note the following points when dealing with BW Variables in Designer: • • • Only BW variables defined as ‘Ready for Input’ are processed. Variables are only processed if there is at least one measure in the Web Intelligence Result Objects pane. Default values for BW variables are not supported. the following capabilities are not available: • • • • multiple operators multiple intervals Complex variables are automatically transformed to simple interval variables. 334 Designer’s Guide . The sort order for a BW variable LOV is by Key. The default sort order for Member Descriptions in a custom LOV is alphabetical. the LOV displays Member Descriptions sorted by Key value.

multiple.These objects are not visible to Web Intelligence users. A @Prompt function is a BusinessObjects function that can be used in a SELECT or WHERE clause for an object. When a query is run using the object. depending on whether a variable is optional or mandatory. moved. WARNING The hidden dimensions are used as reference objects for the @Prompt function used for each variable. Designer’s Guide 335 . and Interval values) is turned into a Interval variable. a prompt box appears asking the user to enter or choose a value for the prompt. Optional and mandatory variables use hidden objects in universe When processing BW variables. the @Prompt is processed differently as described in the following sections Optional variables and Mandatory variables. multiple.Generating OLAP universes OLAP to universe mapping 6 Variable type The supported types (single. and appear as hidden objects in Designer. or selection option) for BW variables is shown below: Characteristic Single Multiple Interval Selection Option Yes Yes Yes Single interval Hierarchy Hierarchy node Yes N/A N/A N/A Yes(*) Yes(*) N/A N/A Formula Currency Keydate Yes N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A N/A N/A (*) with limitations: A hierarchical list of values (LOV) is flattened Note: Selection Option (Complex variable that includes combinations of single. interval. dimension objects are created for each variable. The hidden objects are necessary for the correct functioning of the @Prompt function so must not be deleted. However. or modified. Optional and Mandatory variables Mandatory and Optional BW variables are both mapped using a @Prompt function in a universe object.

336 Designer’s Guide .6 Generating OLAP universes OLAP to universe mapping For each variable. a hidden filter object is also created as shown below: Optional variables An optional variable is a Variable that does not necessarily need to be populated.) To ensure that the corresponding prompt is displayed each time the variable is used. and not in the WHERE clause of the target object. This ensures that the restriction always applies when the Web Intelligence query is run. two objects are created. and is independent of the object selection in Result Objects. the @Prompt function is specified in the WHERE clause of a filter object. one for the caption and one for the description columns in the list of values (LOV) for the variable. Note: This is not the case for Mandatory variables where the @Prompt is defined in the filter object (see below). To ensure that prompts are processed only when the associated characteristic is selected in a query (included in Result Objects). Mandatory variables A mandatory variable is a variable that must be populated whether or not the associated characteristic is selected in the query (included in the Result Objects. a @Prompt function is specified in the WHERE clause for the target object. An example of the two objects is shown below: Hidden objects referenced by @Prompt For mandatory variables. In the current version of Web Intelligence only mandatory prompts are supported. The restriction applies only when the object is selected in Result Objects.

a message appears advising that the level does not exist for the hierarchy. Hierarchy variables A single sub-class is created for hierarchy and for level objects. User manually enters a value for a number. or price. Designer’s Guide 337 . A @Prompt function is used for each variable in the formula object. quantity. The user must then select another level that exists for the hierarchy to run the query. Hierarchy node variables The hierarchy must be associated to the variable in BEx to ensure that the hierarchy node values come from that hierarchy when the variable is mapped to the universe. Note: If a Hierarchy Node Variable uses a multiple column LOV. Using lists of values for hierarchy node variables When a list of values (LOV) for a Hierarchy Node Variable is mapped to a universe. each column of values is concatenated as a mono-column LOV. A single prompt is displayed if multiple levels are selected in a query. the hierarchical LOV is flattened. A @Prompt is generated for each variable defined for a characteristic. amount. Note: If a user selects a level object in a prompt that does not exist for a given hierarchy.Generating OLAP universes OLAP to universe mapping 6 Characteristic variables Variables for Characteristics are used to filter values for a characteristic. A @Prompt function is added in the WHERE clause definition of the object created in the universe for the characteristic variable. This limitation only applies to the HTML panel of Web Intelligence. Formula variables Variable used to hold a dynamic parameter for formula computation. The number of level objects is the maximum level for all Hierarchies defined for the characteristic. All the values appear at the same level in the prompt. Multiple characteristic variables can be defined for a single characteristic. Level objects are defined with the same @Prompt definition in the WHERE clause.

By default the system uses the system time. Keydate variables The Keydate object holds the date value for time-dependent metadata (for example. hierarchy changing structure for given a time period) or timedependent masterdata (for example a List of Values (LOV) content may differ for a given time period.6 Generating OLAP universes OLAP to universe mapping Currency variables Currency variables are processed in the same way as regular characteristic variables. or the date can be dynamically set at refresh using the keydate variable. The corresponding list of values is generated from the currency characteristic.) The Keydate is a property of a query. The date can be a fixed date for the query so the query refresh always use the same date. 338 Designer’s Guide .

Creating universes from metadata sources chapter .

and generate the universe. This is the format used by the target metadata source file. Note: The Metadata Exchange is also available in stand alone mode with this release.7 Creating universes from metadata sources Overview Overview You can use Designer to create a universe from a metadata source. and is then available to Web Intelligence and Desktop Intelligence users to run queries and create reports.0) Common Warehouse Model OLAP (CWM OLAP) Oracle Warehouse Builder (Oracle WB) Data Integrator IBM DB2 Data Warehouse Center (IBM DB2 DWC) IBM DB2 Cube Views • Oracle Analytic Workspaces (Oracle OLAP) Universe creation overview You use the Metadata Exchange panel (File > Metadata Exchange) to select a metadata format. You can create a universe from a metadata source from within Designer. or by starting the Universe Builder from the start bar and selecting Universe Builder in the Business Objects group of products. Creating universes from XML metadata sources is described in the section XML metadata sources. You then select the target connection. Once the universe has been created it can be exported to the Central Management System (CMS) as any other universe. Refer to the section Selecting a metadata source for information. 340 Designer’s Guide . Once the format has been selected. Generating universes from metadata sources You can create universes from the following metadata sources: • XML metadata sources: Common Warehouse Model (CWM Relational 1. The universe creation process is the same for all XML metadata sources. you follow a universe builder wizard to choose a target database and select the structures that you want to use to build the universe.

Once exported to the CMS. the universe is then available to Web Intelligence users to create queries and reports. you can modify any of the universe components as for any other universe. a universe creation panel specific to Oracle Analytic Workspaces appears. Once you have created the universe from a metadata source. Once you have selected your connection. You create a view on the database.Creating universes from metadata sources Generating universes from metadata sources 7 The universe creation process for a Oracle Analytical Workspaces datasource is different. You save and export the universe to the Central Management System (CMS). Designer’s Guide 341 . then create a universe from the view.

This is the metadata source that has been used to create a universe. The source has been updated. A universe creation wizard takes you through steps to select a connection for the metadata source.7 Creating universes from metadata sources Selecting a metadata source Selecting a metadata source You select a metadata source to create. A universe update wizard takes you through the steps needed to update the universe. 342 Designer’s Guide . You select a metadata format to which you can export a universe. Update a universe from Export a universe to 1. then save a universe in that format. and now you want to update the universe with the same modification. For example. To select a metadata source option Select File > Metadata Exchange. and finally the generation of the universe. You can also select a universe to export to the DB2CV XML format. You have the following options available from the Metadata Exchange panel: Metadata Exchange option Create a universe from Description You select a metadata source format from the drop down list. selecting the metadata components that you want to be mapped to the universe. This is the source XML file or database view that you use to build a universe. You select a metadata source that has been updated. you can select the DB2CV XML standard. or update a universe from the Metadata Exchange panel (File > Metadata Exchange).

refer to the section “XML metadata sources” on page 344 for information on using each of the creation. A creation. select the target metadata format from the Export a universe to drop down list box. If you selected a XML metadata source. 4. select a metadata format from the Create a universe from drop down list box. If you want to update an existing universe.Creating universes from metadata sources Selecting a metadata source 7 The Metadata Exchange panel appears. Follow the wizard steps. select the metadata source that was used from the Update a universe from drop down list box. 3. If you want to generate a new universe. update. Click OK. Information on the options available in each of the wizards is available in the Metadata Exchange column in the table above. Designer’s Guide 343 . If you want to export a universe to a metadata format. If you selected Oracle Analytic Workspaces (Oracle OLAP) then refer to the section “Oracle Analytic Workspaces” on page 356 for complete information. update. 2. or export wizards. or export wizard starts.

Click the source database. Click Next. 5. Click OK. The Select database page appears. The Metadata Exchange panel appears. The Universe Builder wizard starts.0) Common Warehouse Model OLAP (CWM OLAP) Oracle Warehouse Builder (Oracle WB) Data Integrator IBM DB2 Data Warehouse Center (IBM DB2 DWC) IBM DB2 Cube Views You follow the OLAP Universe Builder wizard available from Metadata Exchange (File > Metadata Exchange) to create universes from XML metadata sources.7 Creating universes from metadata sources XML metadata sources XML metadata sources You can create a universe from XML files conforming to the following data source standards: • • • • • • Common Warehouse Model (CWM Relational 1. The available database tables and columns are listed in the left pane. Click the Browse button and select a XML source file. 2. This is the file that you want to use to generate the universe. Select a metadata format from the Create a universe from drop down list box. Click Next. The tables and columns in the right pane are those that appear in the generated universe. 3. Creating a universe from a XML metadata source 1. The XML file source page appears. 344 Designer’s Guide . Click Next. You can use the arrow buttons to add and remove tables from the universe pane as necessary. Click Next. Select one or more tables and columns and click the right arrow to populate the right pane. 4. To generate a universe from a XML metadata source Select File > Metadata Exchange. The universe elements page appears.

the new universe replaces the existing universe. Click a connection in the connections list. This is the connection to the data source that the universe uses to retrieve data. You can browse to and select a folder. It lists a summary of the options that you have selected during the wizard. Select or clear options check boxes. Universe name Save universe automatically Replace existing universe Advanced settings General tab Traces Designer’s Guide 345 . Type a universe name. It lists the connections available to Designer. When selected. This is the connection to the target RDBMS. These are described in the section “Choosing connection and universe options” on page 345 6. Click the Advanced button to set trace log file and XML source file options. Choosing connection and universe options You have the following options on the connection and universe build page of the metadata universe builder wizard: Wizard page Build universe settings Universe options Select a connection Description Listed connections are connections available to Designer. The universe generation summary page appears. When selected. if a universe with the same name exists. Path to the trace folder. the universe is saved on creation. The generated universe appears in the universe and structure panes of Designer. The name of the universe that will be generated. Click Next. and Save universe automatically is selected. This is the folder that holds the log files when universes are generated. Click Finish.Creating universes from metadata sources XML metadata sources 7 A connection and universe properties page appears.

Click Next. 3. The parameter file does not store the selected metadata. The Universe Builder wizard starts. The universe file page appears. 4. The XML file source page appears. Click Next. You can browse to and select a folder Updating a universe 1. Path to the default folder that stores the parameter files. it is a filter that directs the bridge to the selected metadata through the original XML file. This is the file that you want to use to update the universe. Select a metadata format from the Update a universe from: drop down list box. Click OK. Click Next. The Select database page appears. These are files created when a universe is created. Click the source database. These files store and reference the selected metadata so that it can be reused for creating or updating other universes. Click the Browse button and select a XML source file. The universe elements page appears.7 Creating universes from metadata sources XML metadata sources Wizard page Universe options File locations tab Default XML Source File Folder File locations tab Parameter File Description Path to the default folder that stores the XML files used to create universes. The available database tables and columns are listed in the left pane. This is the universe that you want to update from the selected XML metadata source. Click the Browse button and select a universe. Click Next. To update a universe from a XML metadata source Select File > Metadata Exchange. 2. 346 Designer’s Guide . Tables that have been added or modified are indicated with a red check mark. The Metadata Exchange panel appears. You can browse to and select a folder.

Type a universe name. IBM DB2 Cube Views reads the metadata from the XML file. This is the connection to the data source that the universe uses to retrieve data. The universe definition is exported to a XML file that complies with IBM DB2 Cube Views XML format. Select or clear options check boxes. Exporting a universe to DB2CV You can export a universe to IBM DB2 cube View XML format file. The information in this section is organized as follows: • • • • • Oracle Analytic Workspaces Universe pre-requisites for export Identifying universe metadata Universe to DBCV2 metadata mapping Mapping specific SQL expressions Exporting a universe to a DBCV2 XML file You export a BusinessObjects universe to a IBM DB2 Cube Views XML file as follows: Designer’s Guide 347 . 6. It lists the connections available to Designer. The tables and columns in the right pane are those that appear in the generated universe.Creating universes from metadata sources XML metadata sources 7 5. Click Finish. These are described in the section “Choosing connection and universe options” on page 345 Click a connection in the connections list. Click the Advanced button to set trace log file and XML source file options. and recommends the appropriate Automatic Summary Table (AST) for future query optimization. Select one or more tables and columns and click the right arrow to populate the right pane with the tables that have been modified. Click Next. The universe generation summary page appears. You can use the arrow buttons to add and remove tables from the universe pane as necessary. A connection and universe properties page appears. The updated universe appears in the universe and structure panes of Designer. It lists a summary of the options that you have selected during the wizard. Click Next. This file can then be loaded in IBM DB2 Cube Views using the API or OLAP Center tool.

C:\Documents and Settings\<username>\Application Data\Business Objects\Business Objects 11. A summary page appears.5\Universes. Select IBM DB2 Cube views from the Export a universe to drop down list box. Click Finish. Browse to and select a universe file. or you can accept the fact table name by default. A page appears showing the structures that will be exported. for example. To export a universe to DB2CV format Select File > Metadata Exchange. Click OK. 4. Type a name for the XML file and click Next. Enter a name for the schema. Click Next. The Metadata Exchange panel appears. Contexts are not taken into account. The export wizard starts. Click Next. 5. The XML file is created in the universes folder of your user profile. The metadata is loaded. Universe pre-requisites for export The following list describes the universe pre-requisites necessary for a successful universe export to the XML file: Universe level restrictions • • • • • • Each universe is exported to a Cube Model. Click Next. A universe must match a single snowflake schema with a single fact table. 2. An OLAP information page appears. 3.7 Creating universes from metadata sources XML metadata sources 1. Verify that the export information is correct. 348 Designer’s Guide . and not exported. A universe source file page appears. Custom hierarchies: the levels of a custom hierarchy must be grouped in the same class. Click Next. The universe must contain at least one measure Links between universes are not supported. Enter a name for the fact table.

as they are not used for optimization. and do not respect IBM DB2 Cube Views multi-dimensional rules. must be grouped in the same class in the universe. then an attribute for this column is automatically created and added to the dimension (or fact) that contains the column table. All the objects (attributes in IBMDB2CV) that are referenced by the same dimension in IBMDB2CV. Conditions in the Where field of an object definition are not exported. All other @functions are not mapped in the export. Note: Conditions are not supported in DB2 Cube Views objects. All the objects in a universe do not necessarily match equivalent IBM DB2 Cube Views objects. To correctly match relational structures. Joins If the left or right column of a join does not match an object in the universe. A universe contains relational metadata A universe is based on relational metadata that does not have multidimensional design constraints. Dimensions Tables that are not identified as Facts are assumed to be dimension tables. Any other measure in other classes are automatically added to the Fact object in IBMDB2CV. Fact The IBM DB2 Cube Views Fact object is automatically built from the set of measures found in the universe. Each class must contain objects that are built on the same dimension tables. The affected multidimensional objects are described below. Designer’s Guide 349 .Creating universes from metadata sources XML metadata sources 7 Classes and objects • • • • • @Select function is the only supported @function. Multi-parameter aggregation functions are not exported. A IBM DB2 Cube Views dimension object is deduced directly from a BusinessObjects class. Identifying universe metadata This section describes how objects in a universe that do not have a multidimensional match in IBM DB2 Cube Views are identified and processed during the export of a universe definition to an XML file. the BusinessObjects UMB must run certain automatic detection processes to identify and define the required and appropriate metadata for IBM DB2 Cube Views.

The tables inferred by BusinessObjects objects within the class. Joins Joins and their properties are directly read from universe structure. then they are exported without any modification. Attribute relationships The detail-dimension relationship in a universe is translated to an attribute relationship of type Functional Dependency in IBM DB2 Cube Views. Candidate attributes are detected and identified from the following information: • • • BusinessObjects objects within a class. Attributes Attributes are not directly deduced from the columns of tables in the universe. Measures All classes are searched for measure objects. BusinessObjects objects referenced in Select field of other BusinessObjects objects by the @Select statement. If a measure is not built on the same fact table. Universe to DBCV2 metadata mapping This section describes in detail the mapping between universe structures and IBM DB2 Cube Views structures. where a custom hierarchy can contain levels coming from different Business Objects classes. 350 Designer’s Guide . If the universe has custom hierarchies. are detected by parsing the object’s Select field. The following sections give detailed descriptions for structures that are mapped from a universe to IBM DB2 Cube Views when a universe is exported to a XML file. then it is ignored. using the object order within each class. then the hierarchies for export to IBM DB2 Cube Views are deduced from the objects. Hierarchies A hierarchy in DB2 Cube Views is linked to a dimension object and all its levels are members of this same dimension. Columns involved in a join. This is not the case in a universe.7 Creating universes from metadata sources XML metadata sources All the objects within a class determine the attributes of the IBM DB2 Cube Views dimension. Hierarchies are treated as follows: • • If a universe uses only default hierarchies.

Hierarchy Dimension property Name and Business name Comments attributeRef joinRef If hierarchy is a custom hierarchy. The hierarchies are put in the herarchyRef property. See “Measure to measure” on page 352 for measure mapping. Joins between dimension tables inferred by the class. Class to dimension The following table describes the mapping for a class to a dimension: Class property Name Description List of dimension and detail objects. then the dimension is modified to get all hierarchy levels in the same dimension as required by IBM DB2 Cube Views. Designer’s Guide 351 .Creating universes from metadata sources XML metadata sources 7 Universe to cube model The following describes mapping for a universe to cube model Universe property Short name (file name) Universe name (long name) Cube property Cube file name Business name By default the name is the universe short name (<universe short name>) Comments factsRef dimensionRef joinRef Description Fact table name List of classes List of joins involving the fact table.

Select statement formula Aggregation function Measure properties Name and Business name Comments sqlExpression column sqlExpression template aggregation function Dimension and detail object to attribute The following table describes the mapping of dimension and details to attributes: Dimension and detail objects Name Description Attributes Name and Business name Comments Columns and objects referenced sqlExpression column in Select statements Select statement formula sqlExpression template 352 Designer’s Guide . You can also accept the default name Facts_<universe name>.7 Creating universes from metadata sources XML metadata sources Fact table to Fact The following table describes the mapping for a fact table to a Fact: Fact table property Fact property Fact table name Name and Business name You enter this name manually in the Facts box in the Export universe panel. Table description List of columns and objects referenced in measures Comments attributeRef List of all measures in the universe measureRef Measure to measure The following table describes the mapping of measure to a measure: Measure properties Name Description Columns and objects inferred by Select statements.

Creating universes from metadata sources XML metadata sources 7 Dimension and detail relationship to attribute relationship The following table describes the mapping of Dimension/detail relationships to attribute relationships Dimension/detail relationship Dimension name + detail name Concat character is “_” Dimension Detail Attribute relationship Name and Business name left attribute Right attribute Default hierarchy to hierarchy The following table describes the mapping of default hierarchies to hierarchies: Default hierarchy Name List of objects. Detail objects must not be part of the hierarchy. Concat character is “_” Join Name and Business name Designer’s Guide 353 . a class is used as the hierarchy. Custom hierarchy to hierarchy The following table describes the mapping of a custom hierarchy to hierarchy: Custom hierarchy Name List of objects Hierarchy Name and Business name attributeRef Join to join The following table describes the mapping of joins to joins: Join Left table name + right table name. Hierarchy Names and Business name AttributeRef Note: If there are no custom hierarchies.

Amount_sold)) 354 Designer’s Guide .7 Creating universes from metadata sources XML metadata sources Join Left column Right column Complex expression: For each simple expression the left and right columns are identified. For example: A @AggregateAware expression for a measure expression in the universe is as follows: @Aggregate_Aware( sum(AggregatedTable1. Mapping specific SQL expressions Certain SQL expressions are mapped in particular ways by the export process. only the last parameter of the @AggregateAware function is taken into account. sum(Fact_Table. Join Left attribute Right attribute Each simple expression maps to an attribute pair.Sales_revenue). @AggregateAware function When an object contains the @AggregateAware function. sum(AggregatedTable2. The following cases of SQL expressions are described in detail: • • • • • SELECT expression for a measure @AggregateAware function Complex join expressions Theta joins Shortcut joins SELECT expression for a measure The BusinessObjects UMB gets the following information from the SELECT of a measure: • • • Detect tables and columns involved in a measure and map them to sqlExpression:column Identify the aggregation function Determine the formula expression and map it to sqlExpression:template.Amount_sold)) The expression that is mapped to IBM DB2 Cube Views is: sum(Fact_Table. This is the expression that contains the lowest level of aggregation used by the function.Sales_revenue).

Creating universes from metadata sources XML metadata sources 7 Complex join expressions The expression of a complex join in a universe can consist of expressions of type: LeftTable.age_max This join will be split into two joins with the following expressions: Join1: Customer. The BusinessObjects UMB maps each expression in the complex join to an attribute pair of IBM DB2 Cube Views within the same join. As shortcut joins create loops within a cube model.Column In a complex join. these type of expressions can be linked together with the AND operator.Column=RightTable. they are not exported. Designer’s Guide 355 .age_min and Age_group.age_min Join2: Customer. where the operator BETWEEN is replaced by operators <= and >=. For example: A join in a universe has this expression: Customer. Theta joins A theta join is split into two IBM DB2 Cube Views joins.age between Age_group.age <= Age_group. Shortcut joins in a universe represent an alternate path to improve performance of queries by not taking into account intermediate tables.age >= Age_group.age_max Shortcut joins Not exported to IBM DB2 Cube Views.

Create a view based on the cube metadata. You can also create a universe from an existing view. You go through these stages: • • • • • Connect to the InfoProvider that you want to use to build a universe. and then select which existing view structures are mapped to create the universe. Select the cube that is the target metadata source. and generate a existing view universe directly from this view. An overview of how you create a universe with Oracle Universe Builder wizard is as follows: Start Metadata Exchange and select Oracle OLAP from the Create a universe from drop down list. The view is available in a view list and can be used to create a universe at any time. Oracle OLAP Universe Builder wizard starts. Generate a universe from an You select an existing view. Create a view only You can create a view and save the view if you do not want to create a universe. Universe and view creation options You can create universes and views as follows: Universe creation option Description Generate a universe from an You create a view. Generate a universe based on the view. You connect to the Oracle OLAP Universe Builder wizard from the Metadata Exchange panel (File > Metadata Exchange).7 Creating universes from metadata sources Oracle Analytic Workspaces Oracle Analytic Workspaces You use the Oracle OLAP Universe Builder wizard to guide you through the steps of universe creation. 356 Designer’s Guide . Select a database.

Select a connection and enter user name and password. 1. 2. It lists dimension and measures available to the cube. If required. A connection parameters box appears. 3. Oracle OLAP Universe Builder starts. This page lists the hierarchy levels with data types and values. Click the Cubes node. Edit hierarchy values if necessary. To create a view and generate universe Select File > Metadata Exchange. Designer’s Guide 357 . Double click a data type or length value. Expand a AW node to display the cubes available to the AW. • • • 7. and generate a new universe. Click Next. The View Creation page appears. Do this as follows: 4. and click Next. modify the datatype and length values. The Metadata Exchange panel appears. The View and universe options page appears. Select a datatype from the drop down list box. then you set universe creation options. Select Create View and Generate Universe and click Next. 6. The Hierarchy level page appears. A status box shows the progress of metadata being loaded from the selected cube. then click Next. The Cube panel appears showing the Analytic Workspace cubes available to the connection. Select a cube and click Next. The Analytic Workspaces (AW) available in the connection are displayed. 5.Creating universes from metadata sources Oracle Analytic Workspaces 7 Create a view and generate a universe You generate an Oracle OLAP universe by first defining a view using Analytic Workspace Cube metadata. Select Oracle OLAP from the Create a universe from drop down list and click OK.

7 Creating universes from metadata sources Oracle Analytic Workspaces 8. This is useful when the user does not have CREATE VIEW rights. When selected. an extra column of type Raw(32) is created in the view to enable the use of OLAP_EXPRESSION function in the universe. object IDs are transformed into detail objects in the generated universe. Type a name for the view. The SQL verification page appears. Once you have create the view. When selected. Only active when the Create columns for identifiers option for views is selected. Verify the universe information. you can then select the view at a later time and generate a universe. 358 Designer’s Guide . 10. Options View Name Create Column for OLAP_EXPRESSION Create Columns for Identifiers Replace existing database objects Use derived tables Transform object IDs to details 9. The View properties and universe options are as follows: Description Name for the view. It is not created in the database. columns representing the dimension members (identifiers) are created. The saved view appears in a list of views. or if you do not want to accumulate views in the database. 11. but is built by using a derived table to reference the cube structures. and click Finish. When selected. The universe information summary page appears. Designer starts and opens to the newly generated universe. Create a view only You can create a view using Analytic Workspace Cube metadata. When selected existing Type and View structures are replaced in the database. You can edit this field. Click Next. To create a view only. Verify the SQL for the view and click Next. When selected the universe is not built from a view physically created in the database. and select view and universe options. A derived table is a virtual table that exists only in the universe that references database structures.

To generate a universe from an existing view Select File > Metadata Exchange. Click Next. The Cube panel appears showing the Analytic Workspace cubes available to the connection. 4. 1. You can connect to this view at any time to create a universe. but at the start of the Oracle OLAP Universe Builder wizard. See the section “Generate a universe from an existing view” on page 359 for the procedure on using a view to create a universe. The Analytic Workspaces (AW) available in the connection are displayed. and click Next. Click the Cubes node. The Metadata Exchange panel appears. select the Generate universe from a view radio button. Oracle OLAP Universe Builder starts. The view is created in the target database. Generate a universe from an existing view You can generate a universe from an existing view. 2. From the Oracle OLAP Universe Builder wizard start page. Select Oracle OLAP from the Create a universe from drop down list and click OK. 3. You select a view from the list and generate a universe. Select a connection and enter user name and password. you select the Create View only radio button.Creating universes from metadata sources Oracle Analytic Workspaces 7 follow the same procedure in the section “Create a view and generate a universe” on page 357. Existing views appear in a list. Designer’s Guide 359 . A connection parameters box appears.

360 Designer’s Guide . Mapping Oracle OLAP structures to universe components This section describes how a universe is created from Oracle OLAP cube structures. Do this as follows: 7. Click Finish. If required. The Universe Creation page appears. Double click a column name or level value. Select or type a name as appropriate. A status box shows the progress of metadata being loaded from the selected cube. A list of available views defined on the cube appears. It explains the universe structure that is generated and answers some general questions about the mapping process. • • 8. 6. and hierarchy levels defined in the view that can be used to create a universe. Expand a AW node to display the cubes available to the AW. measures. modify a column name or hierarchy level. Designer starts and opens to the newly generated universe.7 Creating universes from metadata sources Oracle Analytic Workspaces 5. Click a view name in the list and click Next. Select a cube and click Next. It lists dimension.

Oracle exposes dimensions and rollups in a relational view. Multi-hierarchy dimensions are supported in the view definition and in the universe. Oracle 9i AW exposes Oracle OLAP cubes as relational views. Defines object expressions using the AggregateAware function to handle the Aggregation Navigation Transforms objects that map real dimension members (Identifiers) to Details of objects that represent the member descriptions. Creates a subclass for each hierarchy if a dimension has more than one hierarchy. Business Objects’ patented semantic layer enables users to create complex SQL queries using visual objects. Creates measure objects Designer’s Guide 361 . Business Objects users can benefit from the performance and calculation power of Oracle OLAP while staying in a BusinessObjects query-building environment. Creates a class of objects for each Cube dimension and an object for each level of the dimension. Add aliases to represent the dimension levels and hierarchies Joins the relational view to the dimension tables with regular joins and shortcut joins. which can be queried using standard SQL. The Oracle OLAP Universe Builder wizard generates a universe on the cube view. it is automatically set up for SQL access to Oracle Analytic Workspaces. Define aggregate navigation to resolve object incompatibility that results from the multi-hierarchy dimensions. How is a universe generated from an OLAP cube? When you create a universe with the Oracle OLAP Universe Builder. BusinessObjects Oracle OLAP Universe Builder performs the following main tasks: • • • • • • • • • Inserts the relational fact view in the universe as a real view or as Derived Table. The expressions of the joins are specific to this solution.Creating universes from metadata sources Oracle Analytic Workspaces 7 Oracle Analytic Workspace and Business Objects semantic layer technology Oracle 9i AW (Analytical Workspace) allows Oracle OLAP data to be queried using standard SQL.

TEST!FK_CUSTOMER_INHIER LEVELREL null.TEST!FK_TIME_FAMILYREL USING GLOBAL_AW2.FK_CUSTOMER_ALL_CUSTOMERS_DESC.TEST!FK_CUSTOMER_LEVELLIST LEVELREL null.TEST!FK_CUSTOMER_INHIER LEVELREL null.''.FK_CUSTOMER_TOTAL_MARKET_DESC.FK_CUSTOMER_WAREHOUSE.FK_TIME_MONTH FROM GLOBAL_AW2. Here is an example of limit_map parameter: DIMENSION GLOBAL_AW2. The generated script has the following form: CREATE VIEW BOBJ_FK_UNITS_CUBE_VIEW AS SELECT * FROM TABLE(OLAP_TABLE('GLOBAL_AW2.''. FK_CUSTOMER_ACCOUNT_DESC.null.TEST!FK_CUSTOMER WITH HIERARCHY GLOBAL_AW2.null.FK_CUSTOMER _MARKET_SEGMENT_D01. FK_CUSTOMER_REGION_DESC.TEST!FK_TIME_LONG_DESCRIPTION ATTRIBUTE FK_TIME_LEVEL FROM GLOBAL_AW2.TEST!FK_TIME_LEVELREL DIMENSION GLOBAL_AW2.null.FK_TIME_QUARTER.TEST!FK_TIME_FAMILYREL USING GLOBAL_AW2.TEST!FK_TIME_LEVELLIST LEVELREL FK_TIME_YEAR_DESC.FK_CUSTOMER_MARK ET_SEGMENT.null.null 362 Designer’s Guide .TEST!FK_CUSTOMER_LEVELLIST LEVELREL null.TEST!FK_CUSTOMER_LEVELLIST LABEL GLOBAL_AW2.TEST!FK_TIME_LEVELLIST LABEL GLOBAL_AW2.FK_CUSTOMER_TOTAL_MARKET.TEST!FK_TIME_PARENTREL (FK_TIME_HIERLIST \''CALENDAR\'') LEVELREL FK_TIME_YEAR.null.7 Creating universes from metadata sources Oracle Analytic Workspaces Analyzing the relational view BusinessObjects Oracle OLAP Universe Builder generates views that call the OLAP_TABLE function to map the view columns to the hierarchies of the dimensions and measures of the Cube.null FROM GLOBAL_AW2.TEST!FK_TIME WITH HIERARCHY GLOBAL_AW2.TEST!FK_CUSTOMER_LONG_DESCRIPTION HIERARCHY GLOBAL_AW2.TEST DURATION session'.null. FK_CUSTOMER_REGION.null.'&LIMIT_MAP' LIMIT_MAP is a variable that stores the text of the limit_map parameter of OLAP_TABLE.FK_CUSTOMER_ALL_CUSTOMERS.TEST!FK_CUSTOMER_FAMILYREL USING GLOBAL_AW2.FK_CUSTOMER_WAREHOUSE_DESC. FK_CUSTOMER_ACCOUNT.TEST!FK_CUSTOMER_FAMILYREL USING GLOBAL_AW2.TEST!FK_CUSTOMER_PARENTREL (FK_CUSTOMER_HIERLIST \''MARKET_SEGMENT\'') INHIERARCHY GLOBAL_AW2.FK_CUSTOMER_SHIP_TO_DESC FROM GLOBAL_AW2.FK_TIME_MONTH_DES C FROM GLOBAL_AW2.null.TEST!FK_CUSTOMER_PARENTREL (FK_CUSTOMER_HIERLIST \''SHIPMENTS\'') INHIERARCHY GLOBAL_AW2.TEST!FK_CUSTOMER_FAMILYREL USING GLOBAL_AW2. This text is generated by Oracle OLAP Universe Builder.FK_CUSTOMER_SHIP_TO FROM GLOBAL_AW2.FK_TIME_QUARTER_DESC.

Creating universes from metadata sources Oracle Analytic Workspaces 7 FROM GLOBAL_AW2.TEST!FK_CUSTOMER_LEVELREL MEASURE FK_UNITS_CUBE_UNITS AS NUMBER FROM GLOBAL_AW2.TEST!FK_CUSTOMER_LEVELLIST LABEL GLOBAL_AW2. Designer’s Guide 363 . BusinessObjects uses shortcut joins when it can omit tables from a query and take a ‘shortcut’ between two tables that are not directly linked in a hierarchy. based on the following schema: if a shortcut join is defined between the QUARTER and OLAPCUBE tables.TEST!FK_CUSTOMER_FAMILYREL USING GLOBAL_AW2. BusinessObjects does not need to join through the MONTH table to retrieve revenue by quarter.TEST!FK_UNITS_CUBE_UNITS ROW2CELL OLAP_CALC What are the shortcut joins in the universe used for? Shortcut joins ensure that BusinessObjects generates SQL for each object combination rather than for each object.TEST!FK_CUSTOMER_LONG_DESCRIPTION ATTRIBUTE FK_CUSTOMER_LEVEL FROM GLOBAL_AW2. For example.

OLAPCUBE TIME_ALL. The full join expression is therefore: /* QUARTER. in the case of QUARTER.DUMMY */ OLAPCUBE. OLAPCUBE QUARTER.time_level = ‘QTR’. as shown below: The join expression must include the expression that will restrict the rows returned from OLAPCUBE.DUMMY */ OLAPCUBE.DUMMY */ OLAPCUBE.time_level = ‘YEAR’ /* TIME_ALL.7 Creating universes from metadata sources Oracle Analytic Workspaces Each table in the time hierarchy (except the lowest-level table) must be joined to OLAPCUBE.DUMMY */ OLAPCUBE.DUMMY */ OLAPCUBE.time_level = ‘MONTH’ /* QUARTER. OLAPCUBE Expression /* MONTH.time_level = ‘QTR’ /* YEAR. this is OLAPCUBE. To ensure that Designer allows the join.time_level = ‘ALL’ 364 Designer’s Guide .time_level by a shortcut join.time_level = ‘QTR’ The full list of shortcut join expressions for the example time hierarchy is as follows: Joined tables MONTH. which should appear inside comments (because it plays no part in the actual join expression that you are interested in generating). the expression must also reference the MONTH table. OLAPCUBE YEAR.

then a different set of tables is created for each hierarchy even if some hierarchies share a same level. Quarter. Hierarchy tables For each hierarchy that is represented in the relational view. YEAR. Month) All_Time and Month are shared by both hierarchies so we’ll have two aliases for All_Time: All_Time _H1 and All_Time_H2 Designer’s Guide 365 . See the section “Multi-Hierarchy special case: (Multi-Hierarchy dimensions support)” on page 369 for more information. The name of the alias is the level name. This means that for shared levels. Multi-hierarchy tables Note: Multi-Hierarchy is a special case. If a dimension has more than one hierarchy. For example: Dimension time has two hierarchies: H1 (All_Time. as many aliases are created as hierarchies. MONTH.dual. an alias of sys. the Oracle OLAP Universe Builder adds and configures universe objects as follows: View Oracle OLAP Universe Builder inserts the relational view as a table in the universe as well as the oracle table sys. Year.dual is created for each level of the hierarchy. QUARTER) then create 4 aliases ALL. a derived table is inserted with the definition of the view (select part with OLAP_TABLE function). Month) and H2 (All_Time. YEAR. If you choose to use a derived table. QUARTER. The naming of such aliases is a concatenation of the level name and the hierarchy name. MONTH. For example: if we have a dimension TIME with 4 levels (ALL.Creating universes from metadata sources Oracle Analytic Workspaces 7 How are Oracle OLAP structures mapped to universe components? To obtain and set up the expected universe.

YEAR. The join expression is: /* Alias1.DUMMY */ 1=1 • Each table is joined to the view using a shortcut join type except for the lowest level where the join is regular. levelColumn is the column representing the level within the view and level_value is the value of that column that matches the level name.DUMMY */ VIEW. The join expression defines a value to filter the rows returned from the view and is of the type: /* Alias.7 Creating universes from metadata sources Oracle Analytic Workspaces And two aliases for Month: Month _H1 and Month _H2 Dimension joins • Each table representing a level is joined to its direct lower level in the same hierarchy. Example: /* Quarter. the column that contains the levels is time_level. MONTH 366 Designer’s Guide . QTR.DUMMY=Alias2. Example: Examples: MYVIEW is the view that represents the OLAP cube.levelColumn = ‘level_value’ Where Alias is the alias name.DUMMY */ 1=1 where Alias1 represents a level and Alias2 represents its direct upper level in the hierarchy.DUMMY=Year. the level values are: ALL.

MYVIEW /* QUARTER.DUMMY */ MYVIEW.time_level = ‘MONTH’ QUARTER.time_level = ‘QTR’ YEAR.Creating universes from metadata sources Oracle Analytic Workspaces 7 Joined tables expression MONTH. MYVIEW/* YEAR.DUMMY */ MYVIEW. MYVIEW /* TIME_ALL.DUMMY */ MYVIEW. MYVIEW /* MONTH.time_level = ‘ALL’ Designer’s Guide 367 .DUMMY */ MYVIEW.time_level = ‘YEAR’ TIME_ALL.

Dimension name Objects Name Select Tables Levels and attributes. For example. ID field is YEAR. View field.. Additional tables to ensure the use of appropriate joins: • Table of current view • • Detail (optional) Parent dimension Note: All other properties are the same as for dimension above. Measure name in cube. Name Select (no drill through) Tables View Highest level table for all dimensions Dimension object created from the Description field that is related to the ID field.YEAR. Current level name identified by the field name in the view. Description field it YEAR_DESC. 368 Designer’s Guide . for example MYVIEW. The object YEAR is a detail of object YEAR_DESC. Class and object properties are mapped as follows: Universe item Class See also Multi-Hierarchy special case: (MultiHierarchy dimensions support) below.7 Creating universes from metadata sources Oracle Analytic Workspaces Classes and Objects The Bridge must create a class for each OLAP dimension and an object for each level. View field. Dimension Property Name Mapped from OLAP item. for example MYVIEW..SALES Additional tables to ensure the use of appropriate joins: • View Measure • Highest level table for all dimensions Aggregation function None.

the aggregate function is added to the Select expression.dummy Customer_All. Designer’s Guide 369 . all the high level aliases. A class is created for the dimension and a subclass for each hierarchy.dummy Time_All_H1.YEAR/* Year_H1.dummy glb_dnorm_fact_mktseg_view.dummy Product_All.YEAR/* Year_H2.DUMMY Channel_All.Creating universes from metadata sources Oracle Analytic Workspaces 7 Multi-Hierarchy special case: (Multi-Hierarchy dimensions support) To support Multi-hierarchy dimensions of an Analytical Warehouse.DUMMY Channel_All. the following actions are carried out in the universe: • • • A set of tables is created for each hierarchy as described in the section “Multi-hierarchy tables” on page 365.dummy Product_All. The naming of subclasses is a concatenation of the dimension name and the hierarchy name. It references as comments.dummy glb_dnorm_fact_mktseg_view. For example: @Aggregate_Aware(glb_dnorm_fact_mktseg_view. For each object corresponding to a level within a hierarchy. except the aliases of the current hierarchy.dummy*/) @Aggregate_Aware(glb_dnorm_fact_mktseg_view. This prevents the end user from using in a report objects representing levels that belong to different hierarchies.dummy*/) • Aggregate Navigation is set to make the objects of a subclass (Hierarchy) incompatible with the tables corresponding to another hierarchy.dummy Customer_All.dummy Product_All2.

7 Creating universes from metadata sources Oracle Analytic Workspaces For example. the table Year_H1 (from Hierarchy H1) is incompatible with objects from H2 hierarchy: And the table Year_H2 (from Hierarchy H2) is incompatible with objects from H1 hierarchy: 370 Designer’s Guide .

Creating universes for use as metrics chapter .

but to specify the SQL that is used to create a data monitoring tool called metrics. 372 Designer’s Guide . or administer universes for performance management products. It covers standard practices for setting up a basic installation of performance management at both demonstration and deployment levels. Performance Management is a group of Business Objects products that provide Web Intelligence users with the capability to monitor and track time based data. then this chapter is not for you.8 Creating universes for use as metrics Overview Overview This chapter contains information specific to Performance Management products. Universes designed for performance management products are not used to analyze data and create reports. Note: This chapter only applies to performance management administrators or advanced users of performance management products. This chapter provides performance management administrators and advanced users with a brief introduction to the principles behind system universes. If you do not have to create universes for metrics.

Joiner) Data based: COUNTRY = "England" Enterprise metric An enterprise metric is a metric that contains a data based filter defined on the entire population of entities limited by a simple WHERE restriction. A metric is typically composed of the following: Metric component Measure object Date based self join or where clause Set or data based filter Example SUM(SALES) DATEFIELD between START and END • • Set based: SETSTARTDATE = START (for example. Set based metrics are built using metadata in tables generated by Set Analyzer. Building universes used for enterprise metrics is described in this chapter. Joiners of the Gold Set. You use metrics to track actual performance and compare it to a goal. Note: This chapter introduces set based metrics and covers general design principles. Refer to the Performance Management Universe Documentation for information on using sets for metric creation. rather than an independent refresh. COUNTRY = 'England'. or the behavior within a set. set behavior. Designer’s Guide 373 .Creating universes for use as metrics Using universes to build metrics 8 Using universes to build metrics You use Designer to build universes that specify the SQL used to define metrics. Set based metric A set based metric is a metric that contains a filter defined on a set. You then use Dashboard Manager to create a dashboard that uses the metric to track performance. for example. Metrics Metrics are time based aggregate values based on sets. or filters. but does not provide specific workflows and examples based on the use of Set Analyzer with Designer. This type of metric is set to automatically refresh with the set at set processing time. for example.

In the diagram below we define subject areas 1 and 2 as being enterprise.8 Creating universes for use as metrics Using universes to build metrics Multiple metric universes Performance Management supports the ability to build metrics from multiple universes. subject 1 subject 2 subject 3 subject 4 universe 1 universe 2 universe 3 connection For enterprise-metrics. multiple universes in Performance Management can be used to select from multiple data sources. not set-based. The results of metric calculations on connections 1 and 2 are written into the Performance Management repository tables that are located in the same schema as Set Analyzer. (for example. for example. This simplifies a Performance Management system universe by breaking down the universe structure and creating a new universe for specific Set Analyzer subject areas.) and subject 3 and 4 as set-based. Connection 3 in the diagram below subject 1 subject 2 subject 3 subject 4 universe 1 universe 2 universe 3 connection 1 connection 2 connection 3 374 Designer’s Guide .

Creating universes for use as metrics Using universes to build metrics 8 The following diagram shows a typical deployment using multiple universes and multiple connections. The Set Analyzer tables and Performance Management tables are located in the same database instance as the data mart providing the basis for sets. Analytics Multiple measure universes for any type of metric AF and SA repository and Datamart 1 Multiple measure universes only for enterprise metrics Data Mart 2 Data Mart 3 Data Mart 4 Designer’s Guide 375 . Other metric universes connecting to data marts outside of the focus instance can only be enterprise-based.

Creating a measure To define the value for the basis of the metric calculation. unlike a typical universe. This is then used as the subject area that is later used in Performance Management. so it is calculated without using the set meta-data tables. The process has the following stages: • • • • • • Creating the universe on a target fact table Creating a measure Defining a self join and @prompt functions Defining a filter Exporting the universe to Performance Management Creating the metric Creating the universe on a target fact table A sales table is used as the basis for a metric. avg) as Performance Management allows the user to select the type of aggregate at time of metric definition. Design principles An enterprise metric is defined within a universe and is typically composed of the following: • • • a measure a filter a date restriction. refer to the appropriate section of this guide. You create classes to organize the metrics into groups. The following sections provide an overview of how you use Designer to create the universe used as the basis for an enterprise metric. You then load the Sales table into the structure pane. The table contains a date field. max. You use Designer to create a universe and define a connection to the source database.8 Creating universes for use as metrics Enterprise metrics Enterprise metrics An enterprise metric is calculated at a non-set level. you create a measure using a sales_actual field from the Sales table. The select statement for the object. does not contain an aggregate function (sum. the following sections outline the general process you follow to create a metric. The metric generates the following SQL: SELECT agrfunc(SALES_ACTUAL) FROM SALES 376 Designer’s Guide . min. For in depth descriptions of the procedures.

However. so designers should be very careful to preserve the exact syntax.mono.free)" is replaced. For example: SELECT agrfunc(SALES_ACTUAL) FROM SALES Designer’s Guide 377 .'D'.mono.'D'. The following figure shows a filter object defined in the universe called All Orders. Instead it looks for a pattern match to simply swap in the dates.mono. For example. A simple way of enforcing the restriction on time is to use a self-join on the date field within the source table (in this case Sales. The @Prompts are replaced by Performance Management at metric refresh time with the current period. which therefore does not limit the scope of the query.'D'.'D'.. The replacement is case-sensitive. A metric is typically a value stored over time and requires a time-based restriction.free) AND @Prompt('END_DATE'..Creating universes for use as metrics Enterprise metrics 8 Defining a self join and @prompt functions The next step is to limit the period of calculation.free) The definition includes the use of two @Prompts.start_date between @Prompt('BEGIN_DATE'.start_date between '01-JAN-2002' AND '31-JAN-2002' The Performance Management SQL generator does not see @Prompt as a function.free) AND @Prompt('END_DATE'.mono. The exact string of "@Prompt('BEGIN_DATE'.) You create a self-join on the Sales table that generates following the SQL: sales. The SQL behind the restriction in this case is simply a true statement.. the SQL executed reads: sales.start_date between @Prompt('BEGIN_DATE'. the syntax for the @Prompts is valid within Desktop Intelligence and Web Intelligence for testing and integration purposes. The SQL for the metric is as follows: SELECT agrfunc(SALES_ACTUAL) FROM SALES WHERE sales. or filter. if you refresh the metric against a Monthly calendar in January. Defining a filter The final element of this enterprise metric universe is the population restriction.'D'. Performance Management allows the user creating the enterprise metric a choice of filters with which to limit the metric..mono. Note: See the section “@Prompt” on page 408 for information on using the @Prompt function.free) Note: The Performance Management SQL generator is not the same as the one used in traditional Desktop Intelligence and Web Intelligence..

For example if you wish to calculated a rolling value (last three months volume) the date restriction needs to look over the last three months rather than the fixed one-month (if using a monthly calendar). Enterprise metrics are defined using a three step wizard in the Analytic Services/Metrics section of Performance Management. for example Sum. the Performance Management metadata needs to be updated with the new structure and objects. You then select a filter. The changes and new objects should then be visible for metric creation. 378 Designer’s Guide . Refer to the Performance Management documentation set for information on updating metrics with changes in target universes.start_date between @Prompt('BEGIN_DATE'. you can now create a metric. This may not always lead to the desired results. Complexities of the self join A self-join is used in any SQL generated that involves the table with the selfjoin.mono. When you modify a universe by building filters on other tables.free) AND @Prompt('END_DATE'. Creating the metric As the universe is available to Performance Management.mono.. To achieve this the self-join can be removed and placed in the measure object.'D'.8 Creating universes for use as metrics Enterprise metrics WHERE sales.free) AND 1=1 Exporting the universe to Performance Management Now that the universe is defined and saved. You select Sales Actual as the basis for the metric. You create an Performance Management connection for the metadata. it needs to be made visible to Performance Management to be used as the basis for metric creation. Dimension table filters The creation of filter objects is not restricted to the fact table on which the metric is based. At metric creation time an aggregation function is selected.'D'.. See the Performance Management documentation set for information on creating metrics using the wizard. This is done in system setup by selecting the saved universe and clicking Update. then export the universe to the Performance Management meta-data tables. You can also use other lookup/dimension tables. It is also possible to place the date restriction in filter objects. which is then "wrapped around" the measure at time of SQL generation.

The user now gets a link under the legend that allows the value shown in the chart to be sliced. When selected the Sales Actual value is split into the distinct available values for promotion. Sales Actual) and break it down by a dimension object. as period tables are typically time based. by Category. you have a dimension called Promotion. by Country. Dimensions and slicing metrics The principle of slicing or dimensioning a metric is to take a metric value (for example. Designer’s Guide 379 . When refreshed the metric can be viewed as normal in the interactive analytic. for example by Promotion. Using metrics based on metrics. it is possible to use the values held as the basis for further metric calculations. At the SQL level this means employing a GROUP BY clause. Information about the promotion name is stored in the promotion table so this is loaded and joined to the fact on promotion_type.Creating universes for use as metrics Enterprise metrics 8 Date lookups A period table is highly likely to appear in a data warehouse. The problem is now making Performance Management aware that it must use the period (dates) table when generating metric SQL. The simplest way to do this is by modifying the tables associated with the measure objects to force use of the date table hence forcing use of the self-join. a significant performance gain can be achieved. For example. A common scenario is the fact table not actual containing a true date field but rather a date/period id that provides the foreign key to a period/date dimension table. This is achieved by loading the metric meta-data tables into the system universe and creating measure objects against these tables. To define what to "slice" on the universe needs modifying to include dimension objects. Standard dimension objects are then created for promotion_id and promo_description against the dimension table. For example. rather than calculate average sales per transaction against the fact table. so it is probable that you will need to use one when you calculate metrics. if a metric for sales and a metric for number of transactions have been defined. Metrics on metrics As metric information is stored in the Performance Management system tables. thus calculating only against the very aggregated metric tables. the metric of sales can be divided by the metric for transaction.

Refer to the Performance Management Documentation for more information on using the function builder. instead of scheduling a metric refresh.8 Creating universes for use as metrics Enterprise metrics Refreshing the metric that is based on another metric must take place only after the first metric has been refreshed. This queries directly to the metric values and does not use the system universe. create a rule to refresh the metric when the first has been refreshed as shown below Metrics functions within the rules engine The Performance Management rules engine contains a function builder that allows access to metric values. The simplest way to ensure this is to make the metric independent and. 380 Designer’s Guide .

Dimension objects for breakdown variables are also included in the appropriate classes. Designer’s Guide 381 . Measures are then organized into classes which are translated into subject areas by Performance Management. There are. a number of requirements that must be met by the data source to enable the process analysis engine. np. however. The Performance Management process analysis engine uses a Business Objects universe as metadata to access the underlying data source. Performance Management. or u charts) needs to include filters that are based on a common dimension that joins to both fact tables. These measure objects should be organized within Business Objects classes that are translated into subject areas by Performance Management. Any control chart that needs to draw data from two fact tables (p.Creating universes for use as metrics Configuration of universes for Process Analysis charts 8 Configuration of universes for Process Analysis charts This section explains the process of creating a universe for control chart analysis in Performance Management. The process analysis engine is capable of working with data at a transactional level. the user selects the measure object or objects that are used in the control chart calculation. as well as at any level of aggregation. During configuration. Conditions are created that are combined to create filters for control charts. It assumes a working knowledge of statistical process analysis control charts. Universe configuration Measures Measure objects in the universe are used by control charts to calculate the actual data points on the control chart. Each fact table needs a self-join on its timestamp to allow Performance Management to select data by date. start by inserting the appropriate fact tables that contain the transactions or aggregate values that you chart. Each control chart uses either one or two measures to calculate its data points. The process analysis engine in Performance Management uses a number of elements from a specially configured Business Objects universe to access the appropriate data for each control chart. and universe design. To create a universe for the process analysis engine.

np. If the values in the table are already sufficiently aggregated that no further aggregation is necessary. or set of control charts for a breakdown variable. the value on the control chart is calculated based on the number of rejects (which may come from one table) and the number of inspections 382 Designer’s Guide .free) AND @Prompt('END_DT'.free) Breakdown variable Breakdown variables are used to automatically generate control charts for each value in a dimension. the conditions include those that limit control charts to particular product type. For each breakdown variable that is used. Control chart filters are based on combinations of conditions that are created in the universe. The breakdown variable can come directly from the fact table.mono. to a particular set of data. This raw data may be at transactional level or aggregated. In p charts. or may be an object that is based on a column in a joined table. it may or may not be necessary to include aggregate functions in the measure objects themselves. When designing conditions.mono. then no aggregation function is included in the object.8 Creating universes for use as metrics Configuration of universes for Process Analysis charts Each measure comes from a fact table that contains the raw data... if appropriate. for example. a dimension object needs to be created in the appropriate class in the universe. and u charts it is possible to draw the measures that are used in calculating control chart points from two different fact tables. The conditions can be based on columns directly on the fact table. Self-joins Each fact table must include a self-join which is used by Performance Management to select values during sampling. The self-join is on the date stamp column of the fact table and follows this exact syntax (changes in case and spaces can cause this self-join to fail): <date stamp column> between @Prompt('BEGIN_DT'. For p. Depending on the nature of the data. Filters Filters are used to limit a particular control chart. In a manufacturing example. For example. Reject Type is a breakdown variable in a class called Manufacturing Reject. or any table that is joined to the fact table.'D'. you need to be aware that control chart filters that are configured in Performance Management can combine conditions together. in a manufacturing example.'D'.

and one context for the inspection query. Systematic sampling If systematic sampling is required within a particular subject area. For the number of inspections the Nb Inspections object is used. One context can be named for the tables included in the rejects query. Designer’s Guide 383 . Resolving loops in the universe The universe design to support the process analysis engine can often result in loops in the universe. is to use contexts to resolve the loop. which is based on the reject. There are two ways to deal with loops: table aliases and contexts. A table alias has been used in the manufacturing universe to resolve a loop. This loop has been resolved by aliasing defect_type as reject_type for the join with the reject table. a dimension object is needed within the appropriate class based on the timestamp column in the fact table. For number of rejects the Nb Rejected object are used. For example. Refer to the chapter “Resolving join problems in a schema” on page 167 for information on solving loop problems. Note: You must include the self-joins in the relevant context. An alternative approach.nb_rejected column. In a manufacturing example. the use of two fact tables for rejects and inspections may result in a loop if a number of filter and breakdown objects are required from different dimension tables. In this case the defect_type and item tables both need to be joined with the defect and reject tables creating a loop.nb_inspected column. For the manufacturing example.Creating universes for use as metrics Configuration of universes for Process Analysis charts 8 (which may come from another table). which may be necessary in some cases. Database requirements The database design must meet the following two requirements if it is to be used for process analysis control charts: • Each fact table must include a date stamp in the date/time format of that database. The common filters are based on the name field in common dimension table item. which is based on the inspection.measuremt_time column. the Measurement Time object in the Manufacturing Variable class is based on the individual_measuremt. When two tables are involved they both need to be constrained by a common filter that is based on common conditions. a Manufacturing Reject class uses measures from two different tables.

np. 384 Designer’s Guide .8 Creating universes for use as metrics Configuration of universes for Process Analysis charts • If two tables are used in p. or u charts then they must have a common dimension table that can be used for a common filter.

If the user creates date-based segments the SET_SET_DETAILD table can be used in the same way. also known as a snap-shot. there are never Joiners or Leavers. the SET_SET_DETAIL table can be used. for example customers who purchased goods in January 2003. or those who leave a group (Leavers). the set is stored in the SET_SET_DETAILC table where the ID field is character type. such a set can show all the customers who purchased goods yesterday. for example those who join a group (Joiners). products where the Product_Key field was a numeric. Using a set based on a list of customers. If customer_id is a character-based value. This may change over time but we do not store who bought goods three days ago. A hybrid of this is a 'vintage set' that never changes membership. The structure of this table allows Set Analyzer and Performance Management to store membership details over time. Another way to view a static set is as a fixed view of a certain period in time. For example. Design principles and SET_SET_DETAIL[C/D] When a set is built. depending on the subject. This lack of history means we are able to show the membership of the set and not be able to break this into groups over time. The tables allow different data types to be used in set creation. dynamic segments. the set information is saved within one of the tables shown below. This also holds true for date-based sets. If the user created a set of. Using this information we can section our set members/non members into various sub-sets. Designer’s Guide 385 . Unlike the time-based. A static (non calendar-based) set does not store the history of a segment’s membership over time. We need only track Members for metrics based on such segments.Creating universes for use as metrics Designing universes for set based metrics 8 Designing universes for set based metrics You can use tables created in BusinessObjects Set Analyzer in a universe to create metrics based on sets. for example.

in the case of the above example. Joiners. The second part of the date restriction is for set membership and requires a dimension object called IPDATE. The universe loaded metrics can now be created against sets. however. This is then used to locate and reference the individual entity in Individual Profiler. for example Members. This is done with the use of one of the Performance Management period tables (CI_PERIOD). the join between the fact table and the CI_PERIOD table restricts the fact table rows date to be between a start and end date defined in a particular period. against the begin date field. Set-based metric creation follows a similar path to that of an enterprise metric. Individual Profiler needs to be made aware of the key field being used as the basis for sets in Set Analyzer. Individual profiler requirements Performance Management Individual Profiler uses the metric universe as a basis for the available dimensions for a profile. a key Set Analyzer field is customer_id. For example. This prompt is filled in the same way as the other prompts in the universe and so is case-sensitive. Filters to be used in Individual Profiler for each subject are defined in Set Analyzer. A self-join can be used to limit the metric calculation to the period of metric observation. or Leavers. For metric calculations. The major difference is the inclusion in SET_SET_DETAIL[C/D] in the schema. In a set-based universe. in this case the class is Customer. A dimension object is created and a description given to pass a parameter to Performance Management to indicate this is the subject's key. The table is loaded into the schema. 386 Designer’s Guide . At the start. This period of observation/restriction is enforced by the use of the self-join on period type. The universe is set up with specific dimensions. the user has the choice of what sets and subsets to base the metric on. a method of restricting the period for metric and set membership calculations is needed. Firstly. Once we save the universe can be made available to Performance Management in the same way as an enterprise universe. Now that a customer can be located.8 Creating universes for use as metrics Designing universes for set based metrics The universe for set-based metrics is similar to enterprise metric universes. It is joined to the fact table where metrics used at the individual level are based. you use filter objects to define subsets . as well as for individual metric analysis. The object is placed in the class that refers to this subject area.

Designer’s Guide 387 . the query must be ad-hoc against. the fact table. Performance Management Individual Profiler now needs a way of selecting which customer_id to view. For performance reasons it may not be of benefit to allow users to create individual metric analysis against all measures. The restriction is placed against the same field that was specified as the subject key described earlier. because as the metric is calculated at an individual level. in this case. This is done with the use of a filter called IPFILTER.Creating universes for use as metrics Designing universes for set based metrics 8 Note: The tag LIST=N is used to prevent the object being used in a list output. The IP=M tag allows Individual Profiler to know which metrics are available for individual analysis with Individual Profiler.

8 Creating universes for use as metrics Designing universes for set based metrics 388 Designer’s Guide .

Optimizing universes chapter .

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Optimizing universes Overview

Overview
You can optimize universes by using the following techniques:

• • • •

Using aggregate tables Using @Functions Using external strategies to customize universe creation Using analytic functions

Using aggregate tables
You can use features in Designer to allow you to define the Select statement for an object to run a query against aggregate tables in the database instead of the base tables. You can set conditions so that a query will be run against aggregate tables when it optimizes the query, and if not, then the query will be run against the base tables. This ability of an object to use aggregate tables to optimize a query is called aggregate awareness. This chapter describes how you can set up aggregate awareness in your universe. Note: $INSTALLDIR variable in this guide In this guide the variable $INSTALLDIR is the install root path for the data access files used by Designer and Web Intelligence. This is the Business Objects installation path with the operating system sub directory that contains the Designer executable and the data access drivers. Under Windows$INSTALLDIR = \\...\Business Objects\BusinessObjects Enterprise 11.5\win32_x86. For example C:\Program Files\Business Objects\BusinessObjects Enterprise 11.5\win32_x86.

What is aggregate awareness?
Aggregate awareness is a term that describes the ability of a universe to make use of aggregate tables in a database. These are tables that contain pre-calculated data. You can use a function called @Aggregate_Aware in the Select statement for an object that directs a query to be run against aggregate tables rather than a table containing non aggregated data. Using aggregate tables speeds up the execution of queries, improving the performance of SQL transactions.

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The reliability and usefulness of aggregate awareness in a universe depends on the accuracy of the aggregate tables. They must be refreshed at the same time as all fact tables. A universe that has one or more objects with alternative definitions based on aggregate tables is said to be “aggregate aware”. These definitions correspond to levels of aggregation. For example, an object called Profit can be aggregated by month, by quarter, or by year. These objects are called aggregate objects. Queries built from a universe using aggregate objects return information aggregated to the appropriate level at optimal speed.

Applying aggregate awareness to data warehouses
Aggregate awareness is particularly useful when working with data warehouses. For example, consider a data warehouse organized into three dimensions: time, geography, and product.
Time Dimension Geography Dimension Country Region State City Product Dimension Company Division Group Product

Levels

Year Quarter Month Day

At its lowest level, this data warehouse can store daily information about customers and products. There is one row for each customer’s daily product purchases; this can be expressed as follows: 365 days x 100 cities x 10 products = 365,000 rows. If you ask for information about yearly sales, the database engine must add up a large number of rows. However, the yearly sales of companies may actually involve fewer rows, as follows: 3 years x 3 countries x 3 companies = 27 rows So, in this example, 27 rows from a table are sufficient to answer the question. Based on this information, it would be far more efficient to presummarize these rows into aggregate tables.

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Setting up aggregate awareness
Setting up aggregate awareness in a universe is a four-part process. The main steps of the methodology are summarized in the diagram below.
Build the Objects 1. Identify all the possible definitions (table/column combinations) of the objects. 2. Arrange the objects by level of aggregation. 3. Build the objects using the @Aggregate_Awareness function.

Specify the incompatible objects 1. Build an objects/aggregate tables matrix. 2. For the first aggregate table, decide whether each object is either: - at the same level of aggregation or higher (compatible) - at a lower level of aggregation (incompatible) 3. Check only the boxes of objects that are incompatible for that table. 4. Repeat the steps for the remaining aggregate tables.

Define any necessary contexts Define one context per level of aggregation.

Test the results 1. Run several queries. 2. Compare the results.

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Each stage of the above process is described in detail in the following sections. The example schema shown below is used to illustrate each stage:

The schema contains three predefined aggregate tables: AAMONTH, AAQTR, and AAYEAR. Note: The example schema is not representative of a typical schema. Use it as a way to follow the steps to set up aggregate awareness. In a production schema, an aggregate table would generally combine several dimensions rather than a single dimension based on time. The time dimension (Year, Quarter, and Month) would also normally be defined from within a master table, not an aggregate table.

Building the objects
The first step in setting up aggregate awareness in a universe is to determine which objects are to be aggregate aware. You can use either measure objects or dimension objects. An object Sales Revenue has the following definition based on the above schema: PRODUCTS.PRICE*ORDER_LINES.QUANT You want to redefine Sales_Revenue to use the aggregate tables where possible instead of performing a aggregation using the non aggregate tables. Each of the stages that you complete to redefine Sales Revenue as aggregate aware, you also need complete for any other objects that you want to use aggregate tables in their definitions.

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Identifying all combinations of the aggregate objects
You need to identify all possible combinations of the objects in the various tables. The Sales Revenue object can be defined in the following ways:

• • • •

AAMONTH.REVENUE AAYEAR.REVENUE AAQTR.REVENUE PRODUCTS.PRICE*ORDER_LINES.QUANT

Arranging objects in aggregate level order
Once you have identified all combinations of the objects, you arrange them according to their level of aggregation as follows:

• • • •

AAYEAR.REVENUE is the highest level of aggregation. AAQTR.REVENUE is the next level. AAMONTH.REVENUE is the next level. PRODUCTS.PRICE*ODER_LINES.QUANT is the lowest level of aggregation.

Defining aggregate objects with the @Aggregate_Aware function
You then re-define the Select statement using the @Aggregate_Aware function for all aggregate aware objects. The @Aggregate_Aware function directs an object to query first of all the aggregate tables listed as its parameters. If the aggregate tables are not appropriate, then the query is run with the original aggregate based on the non-aggregated table. For more information about @Functions see the section “Using @Functions” on page 404.

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The Select statement for Sales Revenue using the @Aggregate_Aware function appears below.

The syntax of the @Aggregate_Aware function is as follows: @Aggregate_Aware(sum(agg_table_1), ... sum(agg_table_n)) where agg_table_1 is the aggregate with the highest level of aggregation, and agg_table_n the aggregate with the lowest level. You must enter the names of all aggregate tables as arguments. You place the names of tables from left to right in descending order of aggregation.

To define an object using @Aggregate_Aware
To re-define an object using @Aggregate_Aware: 1. 2. 3. Double click an object. The Edit Properties dialog box for the object appears. Click the >> button next to the Select box. The Edit Select Statement dialog box appears. Click at the beginning of the Select statement. Or Click anywhere in the select box if the object does not yet have a Select statement. The cursor appears at the top left corner of the box.

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4.

Click the @Functions node in the Functions pane. The list of available @functions appears.

5.

Double click @Aggregate_Aware. The syntax for @Aggregate_Aware is inserted in the Select statement. A description of the syntax appears in the Description box at the bottom of the dialog box. You can use this to help you type the parameters for the @function.

6. 7.

Insert the aggregates within the brackets of the @AggregateAware function in order (highest to lowest level of aggregation data). Separate each aggregate with a comma. For the example, the syntax for the Sales Revenue is:

@Aggregate_Aware(sum (AAYEAR.REVENUE), sum(AAQTR.REVENUE), sum (AAMONTH.REVENUE), sum(PRODUCTS.PRICE*ORDER_LINES.QUANT)) 8. Click the Parse button to verify the syntax.

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The Edit Select page of the SQL editor for Sales Revenue is shown below.

syntax is displayed here for selected function.

9.

Click OK in each of the dialog boxes. In the example, you also re-define the dimension objects Year and Quarter with the @Aggregate_Aware function.

Specifying the incompatible objects
You must now specify the incompatible objects for each aggregate table in the universe. The set of incompatible objects you specify determines which aggregate tables are disregarded during the generation of SQL. With respect to an aggregate table, an object is either compatible or incompatible. The rules for compatibility are as follows:

• •

When an object is at the same or higher level of aggregation as the table, it is compatible with the table. When an object is at a lower level of aggregation than the table (or if it is not at all related to the table), it is incompatible with the table.

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Using a matrix to analyze the objects
You may find it useful to build a matrix in order to analyze the compatibility of objects and aggregate tables. In the first two columns of this matrix, you can list the names of classes and objects. Then you can create a column heading for each aggregate table in your universe. A blank matrix based on the schema of the example would look like this: Class Object AAYEAR AAQTR AAMONTH

Customers Customer Code (CUSTOMER.CUST_ID) Customer Name (CUSTOMER.LAST_NAME) Customer City (CUSTOMER.CITY) Customer Nationality (COUNTRIES.COUNT_NAME) Products Product Code (PRODUCT.PROD_ID) Product Name (PRODUCT.PROD_NAME) Orders Order Year (AAYEAR.PROD_NAME) Order Quarter (AAQTR.QTR) Order Month (AAMONTH.MONTH) Order Date (ORDERS.ORDER_DATE) Sales Measure Sales Revenue (@Aggregate_Aware(...))

For each table, enter a check (✓) if the object is incompatible.

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A completed matrix based on the example is given below. Class Object AAYEAR AAQTR AAMONTH

Customers Customer Code (CUSTOMER.CUST_ID) Customer Name (CUSTOMER.LAST_NAME) Customer City (CUSTOMER.CITY) Customer Nationality (COUNTRIES.COUNT_NAME) Products Product Code (PRODUCT.PROD_ID) Product Name (PRODUCT.PROD_NAME) Orders Order Year (AAYEAR.PROD_NAME) Order Quarter (AAQTR.QTR) Order Month (AAMONTH.MONTH) Order Date (ORDERS.ORDER_DATE) Sales Measure Sales Revenue (@Aggregate_Aware(...))


(n)


(n)


(n)


(n)


(n)


(n)


(n)


(n)


(n)


(n)


(n)


(n)


(n)


(n)


(n)


(n)


(n)


(n)


(s)


(h)


(h)


(l)


(s)


(h)


(l)


(l)


(s)


(l)


(l)


(l)

✓ (n) This object has nothing to do with the aggregate table. It is therefore
incompatible.

✓ (l) This object is at a lower level of aggregation than this aggregate table; it cannot
be used to derive information. It is therefore incompatible.

✘ (s) This object is at the same level of aggregation than this aggregate table; it can be
used to derive information. It is therefore compatible.

✘ (h) This object is at a higher level of aggregation than this aggregate table; it can be
used to derive information. It is therefore compatible.

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In the right pane. The Aggregate Navigation box appears. which lists all the objects of the universe. Select Tools > Aggregate Navigation. Associated Incompatible Objects. You use the Aggregate Navigation dialog box (Tools > Aggregate Navigation) to specify the incompatible objects. which lists all the tables of the universe. based on the matrix. Click an aggregate table in the left pane.9 Optimizing universes Using aggregate tables Specifying incompatible objects You now specify the incompatible objects. for the AAYEAR table all the objects in the Customers class are incompatible. For example. Universe Tables. You specify incompatible objects using the Aggregate Navigation as follows: 1. You select the check box beside the class name as follows: 4. Repeat the above steps for each aggregate table in your universe. select the check box for each incompatible object. It consists of two panes: • • 2. 3. 400 Designer’s Guide .

Click OK. when all incompatible objects for all the tables are specified. Designer’s Guide 401 .Optimizing universes Using aggregate tables 9 For example. only one object is incompatible. For the AAMONTH table. the incompatible objects for the AAQTR table are shown below. 5.

but is aggregated to the respective levels of each table. You do not need to rename the context with more meaningful labels as they are transparent to the users. not final choices. the darker set of joins represents the given context. Sales Revenue is stored in FACT_AGG1.9 Optimizing universes Using aggregate tables Note: The dialog box also features a Detect Incompatibility button that can guide you in the process of specifying incompatible objects. FACT_AGG1 and FACT_AGG2. before you can run this query. Product and Month. FACT_AGG2 and FACT. • • For a query with sales Revenue and Customer State. However. Product and Year. Designer automatically checks those objects it considers as incompatible. The joins included in the three contexts are illustrated on the next page. Resolving loops involving aggregate tables When a database contains one or more aggregate tables. and the Month key in addition to a number of measures aggregated to Customer City. The measures (the key performance indicators) are stored in all the fact tables. In each schema. FACT_AGG2 is also an aggregate table similar to the FACT table. 402 Designer’s Guide . you should resolve any loops using contexts. you want to use the join between CUST_STATE and FACT_AGG2 rather than the join between CUST_STATE and CUST_CITY. Its measures are aggregated to Customer State. Example: Resolving a loop involving an aggregate table A simple schema containing aggregate tables is shown below: Note the following points in the schema: • FACT_AGG1 is an aggregate table that is nearly identical to the FACT table. It contains the (Customer) City Key. you need to define three contexts. You should view the incompatible objects proposed by Detect Incompatibility as suggestions. When you click a table and then click this button. for example FACT. the Product Key.

Optimizing universes Using aggregate tables 9 The FACT context The FACT_AGG1 context The FACT_AGG2 context Designer’s Guide 403 .

404 Designer’s Guide . Based on the first example. @Functions are available in the Functions pane of the Edit Select box for an object. or a Where clause. we can run the following queries and then compare the different results.9 Optimizing universes Using @Functions Testing aggregate awareness The final step in setting up aggregate awareness is to test the results in Web Intelligence. Depending on what you want to achieve. @Functions are very flexible. you can use any @function in either a Select statement. You can use the @Prompt function to display a message box when an object is used in a Web Intelligence query. Example: Using the @Prompt function to restrict returned values to entered prompt value The @Prompt function is one of the @functions available in Designer. BusinessObjects Using @Functions @Functions are special functions that provide more flexible methods for specifying the SQL for an object.

Allows you to use the Select statement of another object.Optimizing universes Using @Functions 9 The message box prompts a user to enter a value for the object. The edit properties dialog box for the object appears. 2. The following @functions are available: @Function @Aggregate_Aware Description Incorporates columns containing aggregated and dimension data into objects. The query returns values for the entered prompt value as shown below: Resort definition in Designer Query using Resort (@Prompt) @Prompt function for Resort object User types in value You can incorporate one or more @functions in the Select statement or the Where clause of an object. Allows you to use the Where clause of another object. Prompts user to enter a value for a restriction each time the object using the @Prompt function is included in a query. Double click an object. Usually used in object Select statement @Prompt • • Select statement Where clause @Select @Where Select statement Where clause You can insert @functions in the Select statement or Where clause for an object as follows: Inserting an @function in an object To insert an @function in the SQL definition for an object: 1. Click the >> button next to the Select box. Or Designer’s Guide 405 .

3. Double click a @function. The cursor automatically appears at the top left corner of the box. Click and enter function here 4. Click in the Select statement or Where clause at the position where you want to add the @function. If the box is empty as above. The list of available @functions appears. The Edit Where clause dialog box for Resort is shown below.9 Optimizing universes Using @Functions Click the >> button next to the Where box. 406 Designer’s Guide . Click the @functions node in the Functions pane. 5. The Edit Select statement or Edit Where clause dialog box appears. click anywhere in the box.

it is quicker to run a Select statement on the columns that contain summary data rather than on the columns that contain fact or event data. Designer’s Guide 407 . Click OK in each of the dialog boxes. You can use the @Aggregate_Aware function to set up aggregate awareness in a universe. 8.Optimizing universes Using @Functions 9 The syntax for the @function is added to the Select statement or Where clause. Description of @function syntax 6. Click the Parse button to verify the syntax. 7. You can use this to help you type the parameters for the @function. If your database contains summary tables and you are running queries that return aggregate data. A description of the syntax appears in the Description box at the bottom of the dialog box. This process includes a number of other steps which are associated with the use of the @Aggregate_Aware function. @Aggregate_Aware The @Aggregate_Aware function allows an object to take advantage of tables containing summary data in the database. Type the necessary parameters.

[FREE|CONSTRAINED]) The syntax is described in the following table: Syntax ’message’ Description Text of the prompt message. The text appears in the prompt box when the query is run. It can be one of the following: • ’A’ for alphanumeric ’type’ • • ‘N’ for number D’ for date The specified data type must be enclosed in single quotes.‘type’. Syntax The syntax of the function is as follows: @Prompt(‘message’. ‘Choose a Region’. @Prompts are useful when you want to force a restriction in the inferred SQL but do not want to preset the value of the condition. ‘Pick a time period’. You use a @Prompt function in the Where clause for an object.[lov].[MONO|MULTI]. “Using Aggregate Awareness. or ’Choose a showroom’. for example. a prompt box appears asking for a value to be entered.” @Prompt You can use the @Prompt function to create an interactive object. When the user runs the query.9 Optimizing universes Using @Functions Aggregate awareness and the use of the @Aggregate_Aware function are both covered in chapter 6. Data type returned by the function. 408 Designer’s Guide . It forces a user to enter a value for a restriction when that object is used in a query. The text must be enclosed between single quotes.

The whole list is enclosed in curly brackets. User can enter a value of their choice. Example: Using @Prompt to restrict countries The object Country returns values for the countries of resorts. For example. NED Note: For each of the optional parameters. If you want to restrict the returned values to resorts for only one country. 'France'. MONO MULTI FREE CONSTRAI User must select a value from the list of values. using the @Prompt. It must be enclosed in single quotes. For example: 'Client\Country'. 'United Kingdom'. Each value is separately enclosed in single quotes and separated by a comma. User can select multiple values from the list of values (optional). separated by a backslash. 'Japan'. You can specify two types of list of values: • Hard coded list. you must still enter the commas as separators. {'Australia'. you need only one object as follows: Designer’s Guide 409 .Optimizing universes Using @Functions 9 Syntax lov Description List of values (optional). This gives the Class name and the Object name. • Pointer to a List of Values from an existing object. or select one from the list of values. You invoke the target lov by double clicking on the object containing the lov that you want to use in the Classes and Objects panel. However. if you omit an argument. 'USA'}. User can only select only one value from the list of values (optional). you would need a separate object for each resort country in the universe.

410 Designer’s Guide . Example: Using @Select to re-use the Service_line Select statement You create an object called Promotional Service Line which is used to return service lines used in promotional campaigns for different resorts in the Club database. You have created a new object dependency.9 Optimizing universes Using @Functions The user is prompted to enter the name of the country. You can use @Select to reference the existing Select statement for the Service_lines object. as shown below: When a query is run in Web Intelligence. Note: When you use @Select and @Where functions. one object now depends on another in the universe. which has the following advantages: • • You have to maintain only one instance of the SQL code. Objectname is the name of the referenced object. in the form Class_Name\Object_Name. the following prompt box appears: @Select You can use the @Select function to re-use the Select statement of another object. This object is in a new class called Promotions. it specifies the path of another object in the universe as a parameter of the @Select function. Ensures consistency of the code. When one object is deleted. Using the @Select function allows you to use existing code. When the @Select function is used in the Select statement of an object. and the returned values are the resorts from that particular country. the other object using the @Select or @Where function needs to be manually updated. Syntax The @Select function has the following syntax: @Select(Classname\Objectname) • • Classname is the name of the class that contains the referenced object. This then acts as a pointer to the Select statement of the referenced object.

When one object is deleted. the Where clause of the referencing object is automatically updated. Using the Where clause creates a dynamic link between two objects. Designer’s Guide 411 . This then acts as a pointer to the Where clause of the referenced object. You have created a new object dependency.Optimizing universes Using @Functions 9 The Select statement for Promotional Service Line appears below: @Where You can use the @Where function to re-use the Where clause of another object. When you use @Select and @Where functions. Ensures consistency of the code. in the form Class_Name\Object_Name. When the @Where function is used in the Where clause of an object. one object now depends on another in the universe. You have created a new object dependency. Note: When you use @Select and @Where functions. it specifies the path of another object in the universe as a parameter of the @Where function. the other object using the @Select or @Where function needs to be manually updated. the other object using the @Select or @Where function needs to be manually updated. This has the following advantages: • • You have to maintain only one instance of the SQL code. When one object is deleted. When the Where clause of the original object is modified. Using the @Where function allows you to use existing code. one object now depends on another in the universe.

You want to reuse the @Prompt function defined in the Resort object. When you modify the Where clause for Resort. you are prompted to type the name of a resort. Example: Using @Where to re-use the Resort Where clause You create an object called Resort Service Lines which is used to return service lines available at each resort. so that users are prompted to enter a resort name when they query the services available at that particular resort. The SQL for the Resort object (the object that you want to reference) appears as follows: The new object Resort Service Lines uses the @Prompt function in the Where clause for Resort as follows: When you run a query with Resort Service Line. 412 Designer’s Guide . Objectname is the name of the referenced object. the change is automatically made in the Resort Service Line object.9 Optimizing universes Using @Functions Syntax The syntax of this function is the following: @Where(Classname\Objectname) • • Classname is the name of a class.

• Both methods are described fully in the section “Creating an external strategy” on page 423. Create a new entry for each strategy. This section describes external strategies and their use. These strategies are built-in to Designer. external strategies are treated in the same way in Designer XI.5 were defined in an external text file called the st<xxxx>. The use and activation of strategies is described in the section “Selecting strategies” on page 51. You cannot access or modify them.txt file.5. You can also create SQL scripts that follow a defined output structure to perform customized automatic universe creation tasks. copy the SQL script directly into the STG file using the SQL tag. This is described in the section “Creating Help text for external strategies” on page 415. You can select these from the Strategies page with the other strategies.STG) as follows: • • • Or Open the external strategy file for your target RDBMS in a XML editor. For each strategy. Enter a file path to reference the data in an external text file using the FILE tag.Optimizing universes Using external strategies to customize universe creation 9 Using external strategies to customize universe creation Designer uses built-in automated routines to automatically create universe components based on the database structure. • Copy the Help text to a second XML file (<RDBMS><language>. These routines are called strategies and are available from the Strategies page of the Parameters dialog box (Files > Parameters > Strategies).STG). Designer’s Guide 413 . you must do the following: • Edit the new external strategy file (<RDBMS>. Migrating external strategies to Designer XI External strategies in Designer versions previous to Designer 6. These user defined and customized scripts are called External strategies.This file is no longer supported in Designer XI. Note: If you are migrating from Designer 6. To ensure that your customized and user defined external strategies used in previous versions are available from Designer XI.

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Verify that the external strategy file is declared in the general parameters file (SBO), not the parameters file (PRM), as was the case for previous versions of Designer. This is described in the section “Verifying that the external strategy file is declared” on page 417.

External strategies in Designer XI overview
The table below provides an overview of the files used and their role in the creation and management of external strategies in Designer XI. Roles and files in external Description strategies management process External strategies stored and created in External strategy file (<RDBMS>.STG). XML file contains external strategy name, type, SQL script, or file reference to external text file containing data. File is stored here: $INSTALLDIR/dataAccess/RDBMS/connectionServer/ <RDBMS>/<RDBMS>.stg. One file for each RDBMS. Uses the strategy.dtd file here: $INSTALLDIR/dataAccess/RDBMS/connectionServer/ strategy.dtd Related sections: • “How is the strategy file (STG) structured?” on page 418 • “Creating an external strategy” on page 423 XML file contains Help text for each external strategy in the external strategy file. This is the text that appears under an external strategy when it is selected on the Strategies page. File is stored here: $INSTALLDIR/dataAccess/RDBMS/connectionServer/ <RDBMS>/<RDBMS><language>.stg. Uses the strategy_localization.dtd file located here: $INSTALLDIR/dataAccess/RDBMS/connectionServer/ strategy_localization.dtd. Related section: “Creating Help text for external strategies” on page 415.

Help text for external strategies stored and created in External strategy language file (<RDBMS><language>.STG)

External strategy file is declared in XML file contains the general data access parameters the general data access file (SBO) for a target RDBMS. The name of the external strategy for the target RDBMS. file is set as the value for the parameter External Strategies by default. Related section: “Verifying that the external strategy file is declared” on page 417

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What is an external strategy?
An external strategy is an SQL script stored externally to the .UNV file, and structured so that it can be used by Designer to automate object or join creation, and table detection tasks in a universe. External strategies are stored in an external strategy file with the extension STG. External strategy files are in XML format. There is one for each supported RDBMS. External strategy files are stored in the following directory: $INSTALLDIR/dataAccess/RDBMS/connectionServer/<RDBMS>/ <rdbms>.stg Note: You should use an XML editor to edit the external strategy file.

Accessing external strategies in Designer
External strategies appear in the drop down list boxes that also list the built-in strategies on the Strategies page. Each drop down list box corresponds to a strategy type category in the XML file. An external strategy appears in the list with External Strategy prefixing the strategy name as follows: External Strategy:<strategy name> For example, an external strategy for join creation called Constraints in the Strategy file, appears as External Strategy:Constaints in the Joins drop down list on the Strategies page.

Creating Help text for external strategies
On the Strategies page, a commentary note appears under each selected strategy. This is the Help text for the strategy. For built-in strategies the Help text cannot be accessed or edited. However, you can access and edit the Help text for external strategies. Note: In previous versions of Designer the Help text was included in the strategy text file in the section [HELP]. The text in this section is now stored in a separate file, the external strategy language file described below.

External strategy Help text is stored in a separate file
The Help text for external strategies is stored in a separate external strategy language file called <RDBMS><language>.stg. For example, oaracleen.stg is the Help text file for the strategies in the oracle.stg file.

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You can edit and customize Help text entries. The Help text should describe briefly what the strategy does to help designers who may not be familiar with the strategy. For each external strategy that appears in the external strategy file, you should ensure that a corresponding entry with Help text appears in the external strategy language file. There is a strategy language file for each language version of Designer that you have installed. The external strategy language file is in the same directory as the external strategy file. For example, if you have a French version of Designer, the external strategy language file for Oracle is oraclefr.stg. The English version is oracleen.stg. When you create a new external strategy in the external strategy file, you also create an entry for the Help text in the external strategy language file. This provides information about the external strategy to other designers using the universe. Example: Help text entry for the strategy shipped with Oracle data access driver The Help text for the strategy Classes and Objects listed in the oracleen.stg file is shown below. This is the Help text for the Classes and Strategies external strategy defined in the file oracle.stg.
<Strategy Name="Classes_and_Objects"> <Message id="Help">This strategy reads the database structure. It associates tables with classes, and columns with objects.</Message> <Message id="Name">External Strategy: Classes and Objects</Message>

Creating a Help entry for an external strategy
To create a Help entry for an external strategy: 1. Open the external strategy language file for the target RDBMS in an XML editor. The external strategy language file for a target RDBMS is located here: $INSTALLDIR/dataAccess/RDBMS/connectionServer/<RDBMS>/ <RDBMS><language>.stg. For example: $INSTALLDIR/dataAccess/RDBMS/connectionServer/oracle/ oracleen.stg. 2. Create a new Name element.

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3. 4. 5. 6.

Enter the name of the strategy. This is the strategy for which you are creating Help text. Create a Message ID called Help. This tag contains the Help text. Enter the Help text. Create a Message ID called Name. This tag contains the name that you want to appear in the strategy drop down list when the external strategy is selected. Enter a strategy name. Validate, save, and close the file. When you next start up Designer, the Help text appears under the selected external strategy.

7.

Tip: An easy way to create and set parameters for a new Name element is to copy an existing Name element and fill in the new values for the new strategy.

Verifying that the external strategy file is declared
An external strategy file is declared in the Parameter section of the general parameter (SBO) file for the target RDBMS. For example, the external strategy file for Oracle is oracle.stg. It has the value oracle in the oracle.sbo file as shown below:

oracle is the name of the external strategy file for Oracle. This is declared in the oracle.sbo file.

Verifying that the strategy file is declared in the SBO file
To verify that an external strategy file is declared correctly: 1. 2. 3. 4. Open the SBO file for the target RDBMS. Ensure that the parameter Strategies Name is set to the name of the external strategies file. This is the default setting. If the name is not set correctly, enter the correct name of the external strategies file. If you have made modifications, save and close the file.

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Or 5. If you have not made any modifications, close the file without saving. Note: External strategies in previous version of Designer were declared in the PRM file. This is no longer the case for Designer 6.5. The Strategies File parameter in the SBO file is set to the name of the external strategies file for the target RDBMS by default. Refer to the section “What is an external strategy?” on page 415 for full information on migrating external strategies to Designer 6.5.

Using example external strategies
All external strategy files contain a number of existing strategies delivered with Business Objects products. For example, a file may contain one object strategy, one join strategy, and one table browser strategy, or multiple strategies of each type. You can customize an example file, or use it as the basis to create a new external strategy. You can customize an existing strategy or create your own. Save a copy of each file before modifying it.

How is the strategy file (STG) structured?
There is an external strategy file (STG) file in XML format for each supported RDBMS. You migrate existing or create new external strategies to this file. All external strategy files use the strategy dtd (<RDBMS>.dtd) file in the following directory: $INSTALLDIR/dataAccess/RDBMS/connectionServer The elements in the external strategy XML file are defined in the external strategy DTD file. If you are using certain XML editors, for example XML SPY, the available parameters are listed in a drop down list when you create a new strategy element.

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The external strategy file contains one main section called Strategies. All the external strategies are defined in this section. The Strategies section has the following elements and parameters: File element Strategy Name Description Main element. All external strategies are created within this element. Name of the external strategy. This name appears in the drop down list on the Strategies page. Default element. The list that the external strategy appears in on the Strategy page. There are 3 values: • JOIN: Join strategy appears in the Joins list.

Type

• •
SQL

OBJECT: Classes and objects strategy appears in the Classes and Objects list. STRUCT: Table detection strategy appears in the Tables list.

The SQL code for the script. This is the SQL script that Designer runs when the strategy is selected. The SQL script must follow a specific output format for object and join creation, and table detection routines to run correctly. See the section “The output format of object strategies (OBJECT)” on page 421 for information on structuring the SQL for an external strategy. Specify a database connection. The connection type must be personal. When set to Y, it skips the screen in the Quick Design wizard that deals with the creation of measures: File path of an external text file that contains data organized in a specific output format that creates a universe automatically. See the section “Creating a text file for data” on page 425 for more information.

Connection SkipMeasures File

Example: Classes and Objects external strategy in oracle.stg The external strategy file for Oracle is oracle.stg. It is stored in the directory $INSTALLDIR/dataAccess/RDBMS/connectionServer/oracle/oracle.stg. This file contains a number of example external strategies shipped with Designer. You can customize these strategies, or use them as templates for new ones. An external strategy from the oracle.stg file that automatically associates tables with classes, and columns with objects is shown below:
<Strategy Name="Classes_and_Objects"> <Type>OBJECT</Type>

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<SQL>SELECT U1.table_name,'|', U1.column_name,'|', translate(initcap(U1.table_name),'_',' '),'|', translate(initcap(U1.column_name),'_',' '),'|', U1.table_name||'.'||U1.column_name,'|', ' ','|', decode(SUBSTR(U1.DATA_TYPE,1,1),'N','N','F','N','D','D','C') ,'|', SUBSTR(U2.comments,1,474),'|', 'O','|' FROM USER_TAB_COLUMNS U1,USER_COL_COMMENTS U2 WHERE U1.table_name=U2.table_name and U1.column_name=U2.column_name UNION SELECT S.SYNONYM_NAME,'|', U1.column_name,'|', translate(initcap(S.SYNONYM_NAME),'_',' '),'|', translate(initcap(U1.column_name),'_',' '),'|', S.SYNONYM_NAME||'.'||U1.column_name,'|', ' ','|', decode(SUBSTR(U1.DATA_TYPE,1,1),'N','N','F','N','D','D','C') ,'|', SUBSTR(U2.comments,1,474),'|', 'O','|' FROM ALL_TAB_COLUMNS U1, ALL_COL_COMMENTS U2, ALL_OBJECTS O, USER_SYNONYMS S WHERE S.table_owner=O.owner AND S.table_name=O.object_name AND (O.OBJECT_TYPE='TABLE' OR O.OBJECT_TYPE='VIEW') AND O.owner=U1.owner AND O.object_name=U1.table_name AND U1.owner=U2.owner AND U1.table_name=U2.table_name AND U1.column_name=U2.column_name</SQL> </Strategy>

The output formats of strategies
You write or copy the SQL script within the <SQL> tag in the external strategies file. The order and type of information returned by the SQL script depends on whether you are creating an object, join, or table strategy. Designer has different information needs for each of the different types of strategies. When you create the SQL script for a strategy, you must ensure that the generated output for the script matches the output formats described below.

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The script output is formatted as a series of columns. Each column corresponds to a unit of generated information used to create the object, join, or table components. This section presents the output formats for:

• • •

Object strategies Join strategies Table browser strategies.

The output format of object strategies (OBJECT)
The output format of an object strategy contains nine columns. You must ensure that your output includes all these columns even if they contain null values. Column Column number contains... 1 Table Description Table name format is [Qualifier.][Owner.]Table where each name can have up to 35 characters. If you leave this column empty, then the tables are obtained from the Select (fifth column) and Where (sixth column). Name of a class. Subclasses are written as follows: Class\Subclass format. Name of the object or condition. If the object name is empty, then a class and its description are created. Select statement. If you leave the Select column empty, but include a Where clause, then a predefined condition and its description are created. C (Character), N (Numeric), D (Date), T (Long Text). If the column is left empty, the default is N. Description of the object. D (Dimension), M (Measure), or I (Detail). If the column is left empty, the default is D.

2 3 4

Column Name Name of the column. Class Name Object Name

5 6

Select Where:

7 8 9

Type Description Qualification

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Example: External object strategy that copies column comments to object descriptions The example below does not contain a Where clause. The output column for the Where clause is empty. <Strategies> <Strategy Name="Read Column descriptions”> <Type>OBJECT</Type> <SQL>Select Col Description Table_name, ‘|’, Column_name, ‘|’, Replace (Table_name,’_’,’ ‘), ‘|’, 1 2 3 Table name Column name Replace underscores in table name with blanks in Class name Replace underscore in column name with blanks in Object name. Concatenate table name to column name separated by a period. This is the Select statement. No Where clause Get column description from system tables Get column type from system tables Object type null will default to a Dimension.

Replace (Column_name, ‘_’, ‘ ‘),’|’, 4 Table_name||’.’||Column_name, ‘|’, 5

,’|’, Column_Desc,’|’, Column_type,’|’, ‘ ‘,’|’ </SQL>

6 7 8 9

The output format of join strategies (JOIN)
The output format of a join strategy contains the following columns: Column number 1 2 Column contains... Table1 Table2 Description Name of first table in join Name of second table in join.

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Column number 3 4

Column contains... Join Definition Outertype

Description The actual definition of the join in a table1.column1=table2.column2 form Outer join type. L=outer left, R=outer right. If the column is left empty, there is no outer join. valid values are 11, 1N, N1.

5

Cardinality (optional)

The output format of table browser strategies (STRUCT)
The output format of a table browser strategy contains the following columns: Column number 1 2 3 4 5 Column contains... Qualifier Owner Table Column Data Type Description RDBMS dependant. The Table Qualifier is the database name or some other identification. RDBMS dependant Name of the table, view, or synonym. Column name. C (Character), N (Numeric), D (Date), T (Long Text). If the column is left empty, the default is C. Indicates whether there can be null values in columns

6 7

Nullable

Y (Yes) or N (No) Default is unknown.

Creating an external strategy
You can create an external strategy in two ways: Create external strategy by... Inserting SQL script directly. Tag in XML Description file SQL You insert the SQL script for the strategy directly in the external strategy file using the SQL tag. You enter the file path and name for an external text file that contains the data for the strategy.

Referencing data in FILE an external file

Both methods are described in the following procedure.

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2.stg. the Name. Check the validity of the XML file. Verify that the external strategy file is declared in the general data access file for the target RDBMS (<RDBMS>. Enter a TYPE parameter: OBJECT. Type. This is the default value. You must close and restart Designer for a newly created external strategy to be visible. or STRUCT. save and close the file. Add optional elements and set values if necessary. Objects. 7. then save and close the file. For example. for example C:\Path\Filename. Note: If you want to add Help text that appears under the external strategy when it is selected on the Strategies page. TYPE=OBJECT. you add this text to a separate file. Create a new strategy element. 3.SBO). The SQL format is described in the section “The output formats of strategies” on page 420. Enter the SQL statement of the strategy. Or If you want to reference a text file containing data.9 Optimizing universes Using external strategies to customize universe creation Creating an external strategy To create an external strategy directly: 1. 4. Enter the file path for the data file. If you have modified the SBO file. replace the SQL element with the File element. the external <RDBMS><language>. Enter a strategy name. JOIN. The strategy file for a target RDBMS is located here: $INSTALLDIR/dataAccess/RDBMS/connectionServer/<RDBMS>/ <RDBMS>. Open the external strategy file for the target RDBMS in an XML editor. The name of the strategy is visible in the Strategies tab of the Universe Parameters dialog box and in the Quick Design wizard. or Tables drop down lists on the Strategies page of the Parameters dialog box. Do this as follows: • • • Open the general data access file (SBO) in the directory: Ensure that the Strategies File element is set to the name of the external strategies file. and SQL elements for the strategy are created automatically. located in the same directory as 424 Designer’s Guide .txt 6. $INSTALLDIR/dataAccess/RDBMS/connectionServer/<RDBMS>/ The external strategy appears in the Join. 8. If you are using an XML editor for example XML Spy. 5.STG file. This is the new strategy.

If you want the candidate join and cardinalities to be automatically applied based on the selected strategy. To insert tables extracted with a table browser strategy.Optimizing universes Using external strategies to customize universe creation 9 the external strategy file. you select the Tables command from the Insert menu. or table. See the section “Using the automatic creation functions of a strategy” on page 54 for more information. join. you must select the corresponding creation options on the database page of the Options dialog box (Tools > Options > database). To insert joins derived from a join strategy. object. select the Detect Joins command from the Tools menu. Adding Help text for an external strategy is described in the section “Creating Help text for external strategies” on page 415. Applying external strategies in Designer You apply external strategies as follows: 1. Note: When you select a join strategy. You insert the FILE element in the external strategy file. All formats consist of columns of information separated by tabulations. For example. you select the Candidate Objects command from the Insert menu. The output formats are described in the section “The output formats of strategies” on page 420. When you create an external strategy. Designer will use the strategy to detect candidate joins and cardinalities. Ensure that the external strategy that you want to use is selected in the Strategies page of the Parameters dialog box. • • • To insert objects extracted with an object strategy. Designer’s Guide 425 . You can choose to apply the suggested joins or cardinalities. The output of the SQL script must adhere to the correct format for the type of strategy. you can enter the file path and name for the text file instead of directly inserting the SQL. Creating a text file for data You can create a text file that contains the data for an external strategy. and set the value to the file path and name.

This section describes how you can define Analytic. and OLAP functions for objects in a universe for the following RDBMS: • • • IBM DB2 UDB and Oracle RedBrick (RISQL functions) Teradata (OLAP functions) 426 Designer’s Guide . RISQL. To do so. You can use Designer to define analytic functions for objects in a universe. and OLAP functions in Teradata. Web Intelligence users can also use analytic functions to perform data analysis that is not normally possible within the reporting capabilities of InfoView. Using analytic functions Designer supports the use of analytic functions for specific RDBMS.9 Optimizing universes Using analytic functions Selecting strategies in the Quick Design Wizard You can select an external strategy you set up from the Quick Design wizard. Analytic functions are called RISQL functions in RedBrick. you must click the option Click here to choose strategies from the welcome window of the wizard.

This list may not contain all the functions available for each family in each of the RDBMS supported for analytic functions. Improved query performance. A number of data analysis tasks such as calculating rolling averages and applying advanced aggregate processing are not normally available in InfoView. The calculations are done on the server. Depending on your RDBMS. What are the advantages of using analytic functions? Defining objects using analytic functions in Designer has the following benefits for Web Intelligence users: • • Reduced work. The RDBMS section in each Parameters (PRM) file lists the analytic functions that can be used in a SELECT statement. Objects that use analytic functions now allow Web Intelligence users to conduct advanced data analysis that was not previously possible. Added functionality. Ratio to Report. cumulative aggregates.Optimizing universes Using analytic functions 9 What are analytic functions? An analytic function is a function that performs an analytical task on a result set that can be divided into ordered groups of rows or partitions. For a full description of analytic functions refer to your RDBMS documentation. Designer’s Guide 427 . and ratios within one or more partitions. An object defined with an analytic function can perform data analysis that would normally require the use of extended syntax at the report level. or Reporting Aggregate How are analytic functions used in Designer? You use analytic functions by defining the analytic function in the SELECT statement for an object. you can also define the range of rows on which you want to apply the analysis within the partition. In Designer you can define objects with analytic functions to calculate rankings. • Which analytic function families are supported? You can define analytic functions for the following function families: • • • Ranking Accumulative aggregation Ratio.

you can add the name of the function to the list. Note: You can automate syntax entry by adding analytic functions to the Functions list in the Edit Select Statement dialog box. Designer will then support its use in the Select statement for an object.9 Optimizing universes Using analytic functions What is a PRM file? The PRM file is a parameter file used to configure universe creation and SQL query generation in Web Intelligence products. for example: RANK() OVER (PARTITION BY calender. See the section “Inserting syntax automatically in Select statements” on page 437 for more information.cal_year ORDER BY SUM(telco_facts. you need to add the analytic function to the [FUNCTIONS] section of the PRM file. Using analytic functions for each RDBMS Using analytic functions will be described for each of the following RDBMS: • • • • Syntax that you can use for analytic. and OLAP functions in the Select statement. Defining The Select Statement You define an analytic function in the Select statement for an object. PRM files are located in the following folder: <INSTALLDIR>\dataAccess\RDBMS\connectionServer\<rdbms>\ See the Data Access Guide for full information on modifying parameter files. RDBMS specific rules and restrictions for the use of analytic functions. You need to type the syntax in one of the edit boxes for the Select statement. Before using an analytic function. Inserting analytic function syntax automatically when editing Select statements. IBM DB2 UDB and Oracle You can use the same syntax for analytic functions for both RDBMS. See the section “Verifying and Adding Analytic Function Support to the PRM File” on page 430 for more information. There is a PRM file for each supported RDBMS. RISQL. Analytic functions are identified by the keyword OVER.total_billed_rev)DESC) 428 Designer’s Guide . you should verify that it is listed in the PRM file. If it is not listed. How you can verify and modify PRM files to ensure the support of unlisted analytic functions. To make a function available in the Functions list.

refer to your RDBMS documentation. Designer’s Guide 429 . The syntax for each family of analytic functions is described as follows: Function family Ranking Syntax RANK() OVER(PARTITION BY arg1 ORDER BY arg2 ASC/ DESC) Description • • • arg1 is optional. arg2 is required. <window frame units> ::= ROW |RANGE <window frame start>::= UNBOUNDED PRECEDING |<window frame preceding> |CURRENT ROW <window frame between> For the BETWEEN clause syntax and other window size definitions. ASC/DESC determines whether values are sorted in ascending or descending order. and how the rows are ordered in the result table. arg1 is the argument on which the ratio is based. Windows SUM(arg1) OVER(PARTITION Aggregate BY arg2 ORDER BY arg3) • • • Reporting RATIO_TO_REPORT(a rg1) Aggregate • • OVER(PARTITION BY arg2) Using a Window clause For the Windows Aggregate family. you can also define a <window clause> which defines the range for the window size after arg3. arg2 is the reset clause. ASC is the default value. then the partition is by default the whole result set. If no argument is included. It is optional. For example. It is optional. arg3 is the group clause. The rank is based on this argument value. It is optional. arg2 is the reset clause.Optimizing universes Using analytic functions 9 The clause that follows the OVER keyword defines the partition. arg1 is the argument on which the cumulative aggregation is based.

For example. Verify that the following parameters and values are present: Description Generates the appropriate SQL (OVER_CLAUSE). you should verify that it is listed in the RDBMS section of the PRM file. type the name of the function at the end of the list. 2. and if necessary. the PRM file may not contain all the analytic functions available in the target RDBMS. Scroll to the RDBMS section of the PRM file. You can do this as follows: To add support for an analytic function to the Oracle or IBM DB2 PRM file: 1. Browse to the Data Access directory in the Business Objects path. 4.Before using an analytic function. Analytic functions available. Parameter and value in PRM OVER_CLAUSE = Y RISQL_FUNCTIONS = <list of functions used> 5. However. You need to restart Designer for any changes to the PRM file to take effect. Open the PRM file for your RDBMS in a text editor. 3. to use RATIO_TO_REPORT you need to add it to the list as follows: 6. Save any modifications and close the file. If you want to use an analytic function that is not listed.9 Optimizing universes Using analytic functions Verifying and Adding Analytic Function Support to the PRM File The PRM files for IBM DB2 UDB and Oracle have been updated to support the use of analytic functions. 430 Designer’s Guide . add it to the list.

6: • • You can not use the functions @prompt and @variable in the definition of an object that also uses analytic functions. Analytic functions must not generate a GROUP BY clause. If an analytic function uses an aggregate function. To ensure that analytic functions are not used in GROUP BY clause.1 and Oracle 8. you must ensure that the GROUP CLAUSE is set to N. Analytic functions are not supported as user objects. RANK() OVER (PARTITION BY year ORDER BY SUM(sales). The OVER_CLAUSE preceding it must be set to Y. If you add an analytic function to the Functions section in the PRM file (to populate the list of functions in the Edit SQL dialog box).Optimizing universes Using analytic functions 9 Rules For Using Analytic Functions The following rules apply when using analytic functions for DB2 UDB and Oracle: Rule Analytic functions cannot appear in a GROUP BY clause. but an analytic function such as RANK will not be used. Designer’s Guide 431 . See the section “Inserting syntax automatically in Select statements” on page 437 for more information. they are listed after the RISQL FUNCTIONS parameter in the PRM file. you must ensure that IN MACRO is set to N.1. all the dimensions used by the analytic function will appear in the GROUP BY clause. If you add an analytic function to the Functions section in the PRM file (to populate the list of functions in the Edit SQL dialog box). For example. This will prevent it from generating a GROUP BY clause. This is the default setting. The GROUP BY clause will contain the dimension year even if the rank function is used alone in a query. Description Aggregate functions such as SUM defined in the analytic function are used in the GROUP BY clause. Restrictions for using analytic functions in Oracle and DB2 You have the following restrictions when using analytic functions with IBM DB2 UDB v7.

The Edit Properties dialog box appears. RedBrick (RISQL functions) The following sections describe how you can use RISQL functions in Designer. 2. 4. 432 Designer’s Guide . 3. Click OK. You can prevent the end user from using an object in either a condition or a sort by editing the object properties as follows: Preventing use of an analytic object in a condition or sort To prevent the use of an analytic function in a condition or sort: 1. Defining The Select Statement You define an analytic function in the Select statement for an object. If end users try to use these objects to define a condition. Select Object Properties from the contextual menu. Right-click the object in Designer. they will receive a SQL error message. Clear the Condition and Sort check boxes in the Can Be Used In group box.9 Optimizing universes Using analytic functions • Objects that use analytic functions cannot be used as a condition or in a sort. You need to type the syntax in one of the edit boxes for the Select statement.

Scroll to the RDBMS section of the PRM file. Verify that the following parameters and values are present: Description Applies the condition. 2. you should verify that it is listed in the RDBMS section of the PRM file. Number is optional. 3. Before using an RISQL function. You can do this as follows: To add support for an analytic function to the Redbrick PRM file: 1. Open the PRM file for your RDBMS in a text editor. The ratio is based on this argument. Analytic functions available.Number) For example: • • arg1 is required.total_bill ed_rev)) arg1 is required. The cumulative aggregation is based on this argument.id). The rank is based on this argument. you need to add the RISQL function to the [FUNCTIONS] section of the PRM file. and if necessary. MOVINGAVG. To make a function available in the Functions list. Verifying and Adding RISQL Function Support To The PRM File The PRM file may not contain all the RISQL functions available.Optimizing universes Using analytic functions 9 Note: You can automate syntax entry by adding RISQL functions to the Functions list in the Edit Select Statement dialog box. 4. See the section “Inserting syntax automatically in Select statements” on page 437 for more information. MOVINGSUM) MOVINGSUM (COUNT(complants. Browse to the Data Access directory in the Business Objects path.2) MOVINGSUM(arg1. Ratio RATIOTOREPORT(arg1) (RATIOTOREPORT) For example: RATIOTOREPORT (SUM(telco_facts. Parameter and value in PRM OLAP_CLAUSE = WHEN RISQL_FUNCTIONS = <list of functions used> Designer’s Guide 433 . This is the number of preceding lines used for the sum. add it to the list. RANK(SUM(telco_facts.total_bil led_rev)) Aggregate Families (CUME. The syntax for each family of RISQL functions is described as follows Function family Ranking (RANK) Syntax RANK(arg1) For example: Description arg1 is required.

The OVER_CLAUSE preceding it must be set to WHEN. To ensure that RISQL functions are not used in the GROUP BY clause. you must ensure that the GROUP CLAUSE is set to N. type the name of the function at the end of the list. You need to restart Designer for any changes to the PRM file to take effect. Save any modifications and close the file. RISQL functions If you add an RISQL function to the Functions section must not generate a in the PRM file (to populate the list of functions in the GROUP BY clause. 6. but an analytic function such as RANK will not be used. Edit SQL dialog box). This is the default setting. This will prevent it from generating a GROUP BY clause. See the section “Inserting syntax automatically in Select statements” on page 437 for more information. If you want to use an RISQL function that is not listed. they are listed after the RISQL FUNCTIONS parameter in the PRM file. Rules for using RISQL functions The following rules apply when using RISQL functions: Rule RISQL functions cannot appear in a GROUP BY clause. Description Aggregate functions such as SUM defined in the RISQL function are used in the GROUP BY clause. You can use an RISQL function in a condition A WHEN clause is generated Restrictions for using analytic functions in RedBrick You have the following restrictions when using RISQL functions: • RESET BY clause is not supported. 434 Designer’s Guide .9 Optimizing universes Using analytic functions An example appears below: 5.

nb_guests) MAVG. See the section for the procedure describing how you can prevent the end user from using an object in a sort by editing the object properties “Preventing use of an analytic object in a condition or sort” on page 432. For information on how to make a function available in Functions list to automate syntax entry. For example: CSUM(invoice_line. MLINREG. ASC is the order by default. NOTE: You cannot use an object that uses an aggregate object (sum. min. The cumulative aggregation is based on this argument. The argument can be an object or a list of objects. see the section “Inserting syntax automatically in Select statements” on page 437. MDIFF. avg.Optimizing universes Using analytic functions 9 • SORT BY clause not supported. The rank is based on this argument. Defining the Select statement Ratio functions are not available in Teradata V2R3. You define an OLAP function in the Select statement for an object. The RANK(invoice_line. ASC is the order by default.nb_guests) argument can be an object or a list of objects. Designer’s Guide 435 . MSUM • • arg1 is required. The syntax for each family of OLAP functions is described as follows: Function family Ranking (RANK) Syntax RANK(arg1 DESC/ASC) For example: Description arg1 is required. • DESC/ASC specifies the ranking order. You need to type the syntax in one of the edit boxes for the Select statement. • Aggregate CSUM(arg1 DESC/ASC) Families (CSUM. DESC/ASC specifies the order of result rows. Teradata (OLAP functions) The following sections describe how you can use OLAP functions in Designer. count) as arg1.

However. 4. the PRM file may not contain all the OLAP functions available. You can use OLAP functions in a condition. A QUALIFY clause is generated. 2. 6. You need to restart Designer for any changes to the PRM file to take effect. Scroll to the RDBMS section of the PRM file. The OVER_CLAUSE preceding it must be set to QUALIFY. You cannot combine an object using an OLAP function with an object using an aggregate function in the same query. Browse to the Data Access directory in the Business Objects path. Analytic functions available. 3. To ensure that OLAP functions are not used in GROUP BY clause. Before using an OLAP function. Save any modifications and close the file. Verify that the following parameters and values are present: Description Applies the condition. • • 436 Designer’s Guide .9 Optimizing universes Using analytic functions Verifying and adding OLAP function support In the PRM file The PRM file for Teradata has been updated to support the use of OLAP functions. Parameter and value in PRM OLAP_CLAUSE = QUALIFY RISQL_FUNCTIONS = <list of functions used> An example appears below: 5. Open the PRM file for your RDBMS in a text editor. If you want to use an RISQL function that is not listed. Rules for using OLAP functions The following rules apply when using OLAP functions: • OLAP functions cannot appear in a GROUP BY clause. type the name of the function at the end of the list. they are listed after the RISQL FUNCTIONS parameter in the PRM file. You can do this as follows: To add support for an analytic function to the Teradata PRM file 1. you should verify that it is listed in the RDBMS section of the PRM file. add it to the list. and if necessary. This is the default setting.

Optimizing universes Using analytic functions 9 • You can use OLAP functions in a SORT BY clause. For IBM DB2 UDB v.6 only: and Oracle from being used in user objects.7.1. Once added to the PRM file. An OLAP function cannot be used in the same Select statement as another function. You populate the Functions list box by adding the analytic function to the list of functions under the [FUNCTION] section in the appropriate PRM file for the target RDBMS. When you double click the function syntax. you prevent the analytic function from being used in a GROUP BY clause. the defined syntax is inserted in the edit box. For IN_MACRO = N RedBrick and Teradata. Inserting syntax automatically in Select statements You can automate the insertion of analytic function syntax by adding the analytic function to the Functions list box in the Edit Select Statement dialog box.1 This prevents the analytic function for DB2 UDB and ORACLE 8. you must set the following values: Parameter GROUP = N Description Analytic. OLAP functions are not supported as user objects. the function becomes available in the Functions list box in the Edit Select Statement dialog box. and OLAP functions cannot generate a GROUP BY clause. 2. Restrictions for using analytic functions in Teradata You have the following restrictions when using OLAP functions: • • • • • RESET BY clause is not supported. You can add an analytic function to the [FUNCTION] section in the PRM file as follows: To add an analytic function to the PRM file: 1. Browse to the Data Access directory in the Business Objects path. An OLAP function cannot be based on another function. RISQL. By setting the value N. Designer’s Guide 437 . OLAP functions cannot be used in a sub-query. this value can be set at Y. Open the PRM file for your RDBMS in a text editor. When you add the analytic function to the PRM file.

Scroll to the [FUNCTION] section of the PRM file. Character. or Date). You need to restart Designer for the changes to be applied. 7. Note: When you restart Designer. set the IN_MACRO value to N. Set the GROUP value to N. 4. and modify the values as appropriate for the analytic function that you want to add to the list. For example: 6. 5. Copy an existing function and paste it at the end of the list. If you are using IBM DB2 UDB. or ORACLE. Save and close the PRM file.9 Optimizing universes Using analytic functions 3. the syntax for the added analytic function appears under the appropriate Type node (Number. Type a unique number for the newly pasted function. 438 Designer’s Guide .

Managing universes chapter .

See the following sections for information on deploying universes by importing to and exporting universes from the respository: • • “Importing a universe” on page 28 “Exporting a universe” on page 31 440 Designer’s Guide . For example C:\Program Files\Business Objects\BusinessObjects Enterprise 11. You deploy a universe by exporting it to the Central Management Server (CMS) repository. You test a universe by exporting to a test repository and running tests in Web Intelligence before exporting to the production repository. build. This is the Business Objects installation path with the operating system sub directory that contains the Designer executable and the data access drivers.10 Managing universes Overview Overview This chapter is about universe management. Deploying universes Deploying a universe is the action of making the universe available to Web Intelligence users or other designers.. You should only deploy a universe to Web Intelligence users when it has completed the design.\Business Objects\BusinessObjects Enterprise 11..5\win32_x86. It describes the following: • • • • • Deploying universes Setting access restrictions on a universe Linking universes Managing users and logins Optimizing universes Note: $INSTALLDIR variable in this guide In this guide the variable $INSTALLDIR is the install root path for the data access files used by Designer and Web Intelligence. Under Windows$INSTALLDIR = \\. and test phases.5\win32_x86.

Universe security is managed at two levels: Security level CMS Description From the Central Management Console you can set restrictions that apply to universes stored in a CMS. A restriction can include object access. A universe is unique in the parent folder. You can set what universes users can access.Managing universes Setting access restrictions on a universe 10 Identifying a universe in the repository A universe is identified by the following parameters: Identifier File name Long name Description Maximum 100 characters and a . The combination of file name and folder location (path). editing. Universe Designer’s Guide 441 . so it should be a name that describes the purpose of the universe. row access. This guide describes the types of restrictions you can define on a universe. You can define restrictions for users allowed to use a universe. This is the name by which end users identify the universe in Web Intelligence. and other actions in a universe. and depending on the rights defined for a user group. and connection controls. you can restrict viewing. See the BusinessObjects Enterprise™Administrator’s Guide for information on using the Central Management System. Unique system identifier Universe identifier rules The following rules apply to the universe identifiers for universes stored in universe folders in the repository: • • A universe identifier is unique in the CMS. Identifier assigned by the CMS. Consists of up to 35 characters. query and SQL generation controls.unv extension. Setting access restrictions on a universe You can apply restrictions to defined user and groups who use a universe. This guide does not cover setting restrictions at the CMS level. deleting.

A restriction can define the following types of restrictions to apply to a selected user or group for a universe: Type of restriction Connection Description Universe connection to the data source. This limits the access to universe objects or resources based on the profile of the user group. You can replace a table referenced in the universe by another table in the database. Options to control the SQL generated for queries. and connection that they use in the universe are determined by their applied restriction. the objects. Options to limit the size of the result set and query execution time. You assign a restriction to a BusinessObjects user or group. See the section “Setting SQL generation parameters” on page 61 for more information. When users connect to a universe. You can apply a restriction to a selected group or user account for a universe. or deleted at any time.10 Managing universes Setting access restrictions on a universe What is a restriction? A restriction is a named group of restrictions that apply to a universe. Creating and editing connections is described in the section “Defining and editing connections” on page 41. You can define multiple restrictions for a universe. What restrictions can be applied in a universe? Access restrictions that apply to a user group are defined in a restriction. rows. Restrictions can be edited. See the section “Indicating SQL restrictions” on page 59 for more information. You can define a WHERE clause that restricts access to row and limits the result set returned by a query. You can select objects that are not available to the universe. You can select an alternative connection for the universe. query types. Query controls SQL generation options Object access Row access Alternative table access 442 Designer’s Guide .

The dialog box appears below. Allows you to view all users and groups defined for the BusinessObjects system. Remove a restriction from the list. Add user or group Priority Preview Designer’s Guide 443 . You access this box by selecting Tools > Manage Security > Manage Access Restrictions. Modify an existing restriction.Managing universes Setting access restrictions on a universe 10 How are access restrictions managed? Access restrictions are managed from the Manage Access Restrictions dialog box. The restrictions currently available to the universe are listed in the Available Restriction pane. Allows you to set a priority level for one or more user groups. The users and user groups that are defined for each restriction appear in the Available Groups and Users pane. The options available to manage access restrictions are described below. Add a user or group from the list of BusinessObjects users and groups defined for the BusinessObjects system. Restriction option New Edit Delete selected restriction Description Define a new restriction.

To create a restriction Select Tools > Manage Security > Manage Access Restrictions. 444 Designer’s Guide . and delete a restriction at any time once the universe has been exported to the CMS. 1. The Manage Access Restrictions box appears. You can create multiple restrictions depending on the query needs of a target user group. Click New. edit. 2.10 Managing universes Setting access restrictions on a universe Restriction option Remove security option from selected users or groups Description Restriction options Creating a restriction You can create.

The Restricted Objects box appears. Click the SQL tab. Select a query option and enter a value for each option.. Click Add.Managing universes Setting access restrictions on a universe 10 The Edit Restriction dialog box appears. SQL generation options object access restrictions Designer’s Guide 445 .. Click Select. Select a connection name from the Connection list box. Do one or more of the following: Do this. Select an object to restrict. Click the Objects tab. Multiple paths. or Cartesian product options.. Click OK to close the Objects Browser and Restricted Object boxes. a new connection query controls • • • • • • • • • Click the Controls tab. 3. The Object browser appears.. Select check boxes as appropriate for Query. To set.

Click Add. 5. an operator. Click the Browse button next to the Where Clause box.. Click a table name and click OK. Put the cursor in the Replacement Table box and click Select. Click OK. Or Build a WHERE clause by selecting a column. Click OK. See the section “Using the Join SQL Editor” on page 127 for information on using this editor... 446 Designer’s Guide .. Select a table in the table browser and click OK. Click the Browse button next to the Table box. and function from the SQL editor. Put the cursor in the Original Table box and click Select. Click the Table Mapping tab. The new restriction appears in the list. row access restrictions Do this. Type a WHERE clause in the definition box. • • • • • • Click the Rows tab. a reference to an alternative table • • • • • • 4. The New Table Mapping box appears. Select a table and click OK. Click Add.10 Managing universes Setting access restrictions on a universe To set. A table browser appears.

Click the Search icon to start searching. See the BusinessObjects Enterprise XI V2 Administrator's Guide for information on setting up users and groups for the BusinessObjects system. These users are defined in the Manage Groups and User Accounts section of the BusinessObjects Administration Console. 4. If you need to apply a restriction to a user group that is not in the Available Groups and Users pane. you can search the list as follows: • • • Select Name or Description from the drop down list. Click a restriction in the Available Restrictions pane. The Manage Access Restrictions dialog box appears. 2. click the Add user or Group icon. you can add the user group to the list as follows: 1. 3. 1. 5. Click OK. Click a user or group in the Available Users and Groups pane. Click Apply. To apply a restriction to a universe user group Select Tools > Manage Security > Manage Access Restrictions. Or If you want to select multiple users or groups. To add a user group to the Available Groups and Users pane From the Manage Access Restrictions box (Tools > Manage Security > Manage Access Restrictions).Managing universes Setting access restrictions on a universe 10 Applying universe access restrictions You set access restrictions on a universe by applying a restriction to one or more users or user groups. click multiple users or groups while holding down the CTRL key. The Select Users and Groups dialog box appears. Type in a text string in the For Text box to search the list for the text string in either Name or Description fields selected above. Adding a user group to the list of available users for a universe You apply a restriction to user groups defined for your BusinessObjects system. If the list of users is too large to easily find a target user or group. It lists all the user groups defined in the BusinessObjects Administration Console that have access to the BusinessObjects system. Designer’s Guide 447 .

they will ALL be applied. The user or group appears in the Selected Groups and Users list pane on the right of the dialog box. 448 Designer’s Guide . you can also select the Groups or Users check box to display only groups or users in the list. 4. Note: This only applies to exclusive restrictions such as connection. Setting restriction group priority You can specify which restriction to apply to a user that belongs to multiple groups using a universe. Sales with a restriction to view 5000 rows of data. For example a user belongs to two groups. and Marketing to view 10000 rows. The user or group now appears in the Available Groups and Users list in the Manage Access Restrictions dialog box. You can arrange user groups in order. the restriction associated with the lowest level group is applied.10 Managing universes Setting access restrictions on a universe To filter the list. or SQL controls. When the user refreshes a report. Click OK. 2. If object restrictions are set on both groups. table mapping. The restriction for the lowest group in the listed order is used. Click a user or group. Click the right head arrow. Or Click multiple user or groups while holding down the CTRL key. the restriction from marketing (10000) would be used. 3. if the Sales group had order 1 and Marketing had order 2. In the example above.

Click a user or group in the Available Groups and Users pane. 5. The Manage Access Restrictions dialog box appears. 4. Click OK. Select a user or group. and click the Move Up or Move Down buttons to change the priority level. To view restrictions for all universe users and groups Select Tools > Preview Security Restrictions. Designer’s Guide 449 . Viewing users and groups security restrictions You can view the restrictions applied to all user and groups. Click the Priority icon. 1.Managing universes Setting access restrictions on a universe 10 1. The Set Group Priority box appears. To set user group priority for multiple restriction use Select Tools > Manage Security > Manage Access Restrictions. 3. 2.

The security restriction that applies to that user account appears. You can lock a universe so that only one designer at a time can make modifications on the universe. 2. Click OK to close the box. Click Preview. Locking a universe When stored in a universe folder. Click a user account name in the list. 4. and a universe can also be assigned a version number to keep track of changes. 3.10 Managing universes Working with multiple designers The preview users and groups dialog box appears. Parameters and options that appear in red are those that have been modified and apply specifically to the restriction. a universe can be shared by several designers provided that they have the necessary user rights. Working with multiple designers You can use Designer in a multiple user environment in which several designers can work on the same universes without causing conflicts between versions. 450 Designer’s Guide .

the other a derived universe. A designer who wants to work on a universe. When you link two universes. The revision number appears on the Summary tab of Universe Parameters (File > Universe Parameters > Summary) as shown below: Revision number Linking universes You can dynamically link one or more universes. When another designer locks the universe. one universe has the role of a core universe.Managing universes Linking universes 10 Only one designer can work on a given universe at a time. Note: You lock a universe from the Import or Export dialog box. Designer increments the revision number of the universe. objects. This allows you to determine which is the latest version of the universe. classes. or joins. can do so only if the universe has not been locked by another designer. What are linked universes? Linked universes are universes that share common components such as parameters. Revision number Each time you export a universe to a universe folder. they are automatically propagated to the derived universes. the padlock symbol appears dimmed. When a universe is locked. When changes are made in the core universe. Designer’s Guide 451 . a padlock symbol is displayed next to the universe name.

Kernal and master universes are described in the section “Creating a link between two universes” on page 457.The core universe represents a re-usable library of components. one the core universe containing the common components. then components can be added to the derived universe. Example: Linked core and derived universes The example shows two linked universes. then the derived universe contains all the core universe components.10 Managing universes Linking universes Note: For information on deploying linked universes. 452 Designer’s Guide . see the section “Derived universes and lists of values” on page 462 What is a core universe? The core universe is a universe to which other universes are linked. What is a derived universe? A derived universe is a universe that contains a link to a core universe. Classes and objects are not added to the derived universe. These universes are called derived universes. If the linked core universe is a master universe. They can be hidden in the derived universe depending on the user needs of the target audience. but has also new classes and objects specific to itself. the other the derived universe that uses the core structures. It contains components that are common to the other universes linking to it. A core universe can be a kernel or master universe depending on the way the core universe components are used in the derived universes. The link allows the derived universe to share common components of the core universe: • • If the linked core universe is a kernal universe.

The manager Designer’s Guide 453 . These classes and their objects are displayed normally. the manager creates a derived universe. This universe is one of the demo universes delivered with this release.unv is the core universe. The manager has created two new classes. which focuses on reservations. Reservations by Quarter and Reservations by Resort. In the Universe pane the derived components are dimmed. It is used by the sales manager of Island Resorts to perform marketing analysis. The contents of the universe are shown below: Using this core universe.Managing universes Linking universes 10 Beach. The new components are displayed normally The components in the Structure pane are dimmed The components derived from the core universe are dimmed.

Kernel approach With the kernel approach.10 Managing universes Linking universes has also chosen to hide the Sales class. combine one or more together. the universes Human Resources and Sales are derived from a kernel universe. Any changes to the core universe components are automatically propagated to the derived universe. which is not needed in the Reservations universe. The derived universes that you create from this kernel universe contain these core components as well as their own specific components. one universe contains the core components. or. They contain core components of the kernel universe as well as their own specific components. 454 Designer’s Guide . added components Kernel + Kernel Derived Universes Human Resources universe Kernel + Sales universe Any changes you make to the kernel universe are automatically reflected in the core components of all the derived universes. Different ways to link universes You can use any the following approaches when linking universes: • • • Kernel approach Master approach Component approach You can use any of the three approaches individually. In the example below. These are the components common in all universes.

Managing universes Linking universes 10 Master approach The master approach is another way of organizing the common components of linked universes. certain components are hidden depending on their relevance to the target users of the derived universe.The example below shows the universes Human Resources and Sales are derived from a master universe. The components visible in the derived universes are always a subset of the master universe. Component approach The component approach involves merging two or more universes into one universe. They contain components from the master universe. The Sales universe below was created by merging two universes: Part 1 and Part 2. In the universes derived from the master. Part 1 Part 2 Part 1 Part 2 Sales Designer’s Guide 455 . some of which may be hidden. The master universe holds all possible components. There are no new components added specific to the derived universe. DERIVED UNIVERSES Master _ Master Hidden components Human Resources Master _ Hidden components Sales Any changes you make to the master universe are automatically reflected in the core components of all the derived universes.

but this can be changed at any time.10 Managing universes Linking universes Advantages of linking universes You have the following advantages when linking universes: • • • Reduce development and maintenance time. Designer propagates the change to the same component in all the derived universes. Development can be split between database administrators who set up a basic core universe. You can centralize often used components in a core universe. 456 Designer’s Guide . You do not have to re-create common components each time you create a new universe. When you modify a component in the core universe. The core and derived universes must be in the same repository. The derived universe does not need to have been exported before creating a link. Using the same connection for both the core and the derived universe makes managing the universes easier. All classes and objects are unique in both the core universe and the derived universes. You are authorized to link the given universe. Exported derived universes are located in the same universe domain as the core universe. Requirements for linking universes You can link the active universe to a core universe. and the same RDBMS. Facilitate specialization. You cannot create derived universes from a universe which is itself derived. The core universe was exported and re-imported at least once. only if the following requirements are met: • The core universe and derived universe use the same data account. or database. • • • • Restrictions when linking universes You need to be aware of the following restrictions when linking universes: • • You can use only one level of linking. If not conflicts will occur. and then include them in all new universes. and the more specialized designers who create more functional universes based on their specific field.

then Cartesian products can result when a query is run with objects from both structures. while keeping the links with derived universes valid. When you do so. To create a link between a derived universe and a core universe: Ensure that the active universe is the one that you want to link to the core universe. • • Creating a link between two universes You can link an active universe to another universe.Managing universes Linking universes 10 • The two universe structures must allow joins to be created between a table in one universe to a table in the other universe. Components from the core universe are inherited by the derived universe. If not. you can relocate the core universe within the same repository with out breaking the link. Only the table schema. Contexts must be re-detected in the derived universe. Note: When you link universes. and the linked universe becomes the core universe. the active universe becomes the derived universe. Designer’s Guide 457 . To link a universe to a core universe. 1. the core universe must have been exported to the repository. Lists of values associated with a core universe are not saved when you export a derived universe with the core universe structures. classes and objects of the core universe are available in the derived universe. This allows you to export the core universe to a different repository folder.

The Universe to Link dialog box appears. No Resort class Missing Resort data tables 2.: 3. but no resort data.10 Managing universes Linking universes For example. You want to link this sales universe with a resort universe that contains resort data. 458 Designer’s Guide . and the Resort universe is the core universe. Click the Add Link button. The sales Beach universe below is the derived universe. The Universe Parameters dialog box opens to the Links page. It lists universes in the available domains. Select Edit > Links. the universe below is a version of the Beach universe that contains only sales information for countries.

Managing universes Linking universes

10

4.

Browse to the universe that you want to link. This is the core universe that contains the components that you want to use in the active universe. In the example, you select the resort universe.

If the universe you selected has never been exported, then you receive an error message. You must export the universe before it can be linked. 5. Click the Open button. The selected universe appears in the list.

6.

Click OK.

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The link is created. The core components are displayed dimmed within the active universe.

Resort class from core universe

Resort data tables from core universe

Editing a derived universe
You complete the linking process by creating joins between the core tables and the derived universe tables. You must delete all current contexts and redetect the contexts for the new structure. Note: You can not edit any structure, class, or object from the linked universe (core universe), within the derived universe.

Editing the derived universe
To edit the derived universe: 1. Create joins between the core and derived universe structures. Creating joins ensures that Cartesian products are not returned for objects included in a query from both structures. 2. 3. 4. 5. Remove existing contexts. Detect aliases. Detect contexts. Hide or Create new objects as required.

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Note: For information on hiding a component, refer to the section “Showing or hiding classes, objects and conditions” on page 242.

Removing a link
You can remove a link to a core universe only if the derived universe does not contain objects based on core components, or joins to core components.

Removing a link in the derived universe
To remove a link in the derived universe: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Open the derived universe. Select Edit > Links. The Links page of the Universe Parameters dialog box appears. Click the name of the core universe in the list. Click the Remove Link button. Click the OK. The components from the core universe are removed from the active universe.

Relocating the core universe
If the location of your core universe has changed, then you need to indicate the new location in order to maintain the link.

Updating a link to a relocated core universe
To update the link to a relocated core universe: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Open the derived universe. Select Edit > Links. Click the linked core universe in the list. Click the Change Source button. The Universe to Link dialog box appears. Browse to the new location of the core universe. Click the Open button. The new core universe appears in the Links list.

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Managing universes Including one universe within another

Derived universes and lists of values
Lists of values associated with core objects are not saved with the derived universe, when it is exported to the repository. One method you can use to save lists of values associated with the core objects is as follows: 1. Create new objects using the same definition as the objects containing lists of values that you want to export to the repository with the derived universe. Assign the new objects the same lists of values as the core objects. Hide these new objects. The hidden objects serve the function of holding the lists of values so that they can be exported and imported with the derived universe.

2. 3.

Presenting objects in the order of the core universe
By default, the order in which you arrange the objects of the derived universe is that which will be seen by users of the universe, even if the order later changes in the core universe. If you want your derived universe to present objects always in the order they are presented in the core universe, you must set a parameter accordingly in the *.PRM file of the database you are using. The parameter setting is CORE_ORDER_PRIORITY = Y. See the Data Access Guide (Help > Data Access guide) for details on how to set the parameters in the relevant *.PRM file.

Including one universe within another
You can copy the components of a core universe to a derived universe. The resulting components in the derived universe are independent of those in the core universe. These components are not linked to the core universe. Any changes made to the core universe are not inherited by the derived universe.

Copying a core universe into a derived universe
When you copy a core universe into a derived universe, the resulting components in the derived universe are independent of those in the core universe. These components are not linked to the core universe. Any changes made to the core universe are not inherited by the derived universe.

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You copy a core universe into a derived universe for any of the following reasons:

• •

To copy the contents of a given universe into an active universe. To no longer keep the dynamic link between two universes.

Note: If your two universes were linked before the operation, the procedure removes the dynamic link components in the active universe are no longer dynamically linked to the external universe.

Copying a core universe into derived universe
To copy a core universe into a derived universe: 1. 2. 3. Open a universe. Select Edit > Links. The Links page of the Universe Parameters dialog box appears. Click the Add Link button. The Universe to Link dialog box appears. It lists universes in the available domains. 4. Browse to and select the universe that you want to copy. This is the core universe that contains the components that you want to use in the active universe. Click the Include button. Click OK. The components from the core universe are displayed within the active universe.

5. 6.

Managing users and logins
You can log into Designer as a different user and also change your login. User accounts must be valid accounts for the target repository. Note: You can also log in to Designer in stand alone mode. You can use Designer, create universes, personal and shared connections, but you can not access connections and universes in the CMS.

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Managing universes Managing users and logins

Managing logins
You can log into Designer as a different user without quitting your work session. User accounts must be valid for the target repository. You can log in as another user only if you know the corresponding user name and password. 1. To log in as a different user Select Tools > Login As. If there are open universes, Designer closes them automatically. The User Identification dialog box appears.

2. 3. 4.

Type a valid user name in the User Name box. Type a new user name and password. Click OK. When you log in as another user in Designer, you are automatically entitled to all the rights of that user; however, you may also be prohibited from certain operations as a result of restrictions set on the user profile.

Managing passwords
During a Designer session, you can change the password with which you logged provided that your user account has the rights to do so. You cannot, however, change your user name. 1. To change your password Select Tools > Change Password.

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The Change Password dialog box appears.

2. 3. 4. 5.

Type your existing password in the Enter Old Password box. Type your new password in the Enter New Password box. Confirm your new password by typing it again in the Confirm New Password box. Click OK. The password is changed.

Optimizing universes
Query time can often be shortened by optimizing a universe. There are several ways you can optimize a universe:

• • • •

Optimizing the Array Fetch parameter in the Universe Parameters. Allocating a weight to each table. Using shortcut joins. Creating and using aggregate tables in your database.

Each of these methods is described as follows:

Optimizing the array fetch parameter
The Array Fetch parameter in the CS.CFG file allows you to set the maximum number of rows that are permitted in a FETCH procedure. The CFG file is a XML file that specifies default values for certain parameters used by Business Objects products when queries are run against a database. The Array Fetch parameter determines the packet size on the network. For example, if you set the Array Fetch at 20, and you plan to retrieve 100 rows, then five fetches will be executed to retrieve the data.

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Some data sources do not allow modifying the FETCH size. In this case all rows will be returned in a single FETCH. If you want to retrieve binary longobjects (BLOB), you should set the Array Fetch size as 1. If you have a network that allows you to send a large array fetch, then you can set a new larger value (values can be set from 1 to 999). This will speed up the FETCH procedure, and reduce your query processing time.

Modifying the array fetch parameter
To modify the Array Fetch parameter: 1. Open the CS.CFG file in a XML editor. The CFG file is stored in the following directory: <INSTALDIR>\dataAccess\RDBMS\connectionServer. 2. 3. 4. Search for the parameter Array Fetch. Set the parameter value. Save and close the CFG file. Restart Designer.

Allocating table weights
Table weight is a measure of how many rows there are in a table. Lighter tables have less rows than heavier tables. By default BusinessObjects sorts the tables from the lighter to the heavier tables (those with the least amount of rows to those with the most). This determines the table order in the FROM clause of the SQL statement. The order in which tables are sorted at the database level depends on your database. For example, Sybase uses the same order as BusinessObjects, but Oracle uses the opposite order. The SQL will be optimized for most databases, but not for Oracle where the smallest table is put first in the sort order. So, if you are using an Oracle database, you can optimize the SQL by reversing the order that BusinessObjects sorts the tables. To do this you must change a parameter in the relevant PRM file of the database.

Modifying the PRM file to allocate table weights
To modify the PRM file to allocate table weights: 1. Open the PRM file for your database in a XML editor. The PRM file is stored in the following directory: <INSTALLDIR>\dataAccess\RDBMS\connectionServer\<rdbms>\ For example, the file for Oracle is oracle.prm in here:

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<INSTALLDIR>\dataAccess\RDBMS\connectionServer\oracle\oracle.pr m 2. 3. Find the REVERSE_TABLE_WEIGHT parameter in the Configuration section of the file. Change the Y to an N. For example the parameter appears as REVERSE_TABLE_WEIGHT=N. If the line is not in the file, the default is Y. 4. 5. 6. This forces BusinessObjects to sort the tables from those with the most rows to those with the least rows. Save and close the .PRM files. Restart Designer to apply the changes to the .PRM file.

Modifying the number of returned rows for a table
You can also manually change the number of rows for any table in Designer. To view the number of rows in any table, select View > Number of rows in tables. The number of rows appears at the bottom left of each table symbol. You can modify this number as follows:

Modifying the number of returned rows
To modify the number of returned rows for a table: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Open a universe in Designer. Right-click the relevant table Select Number of Rows in Table from the contextual menu. The Table Row Count dialog box appears. Select the Modify manually tables row count radio button. A text box appears at the left of the dialog box. Type a number in the text box. This is the number of rows that you want to use for the table. Click OK, then save the universe.

Using shortcut joins
A shortcut join links two tables that are already joined in a common path. You can use a shortcut join to reduce the number of tables that are used in a query. Refer to the section “Shortcut joins” on page 146 for more information. Note: Shortcut joins will not create loops.

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Using the sample materials appendix .

A Using the sample materials Overview Overview This appendix provides detailed information on the structure of the Club database built with Microsoft Access. in the \Samples\<language>\Databases subfolder in the Business Objects path. the sales manager can perform sales and marketing analysis.mdb. Club. You can find the database file. The structure of the tables The Club database is used by the sales manager of Island Resorts. Based on the information in this database. The database is made up of the following tables: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Age_group City Country Customer Invoice_Line Region Region_Sline Reservation_Line Reservations Resort Sales Sales_Person Service Service_Line The next sections describe each of the above tables and their columns. This is the database from which most of the examples and illustrations in this guide are derived. 470 Designer’s Guide . a fictitious business specializing in packaged holidays. you will find the efashion demo database. Also in this folder. The Club database The Club database is used in most of the examples given in this guide.

Versailles. UK.Using the sample materials The Club database A The Age_group table The Age_group table stores information on the age ranges of customers.C. US. France.. Column Name age_min age_max age_range Description the lower limit of the age range the upper limit of the age range the age range of customers Here are the results of a query on the data in the Age_group table: The City table The City table stores information on the city in which the customers reside.. Column Name city_id city Description system-generated city number the city in which the customer resides (Albertville. Augsburg. Column Name country_id country Description system-generated country number The name of the country in which the customer resides (Australia. Washington D. Germany.) The Customer table The Customer table contains information relating to customer identification such as name and address.. Yokohama) system-generated region number region_id The Country table The Country table relates to the country in which the customer resides. Amsterdam. Japan. Column Name cust_id first_name Description system-generated customer number first name of the customer Designer’s Guide 471 . Holland.

Column Name inv_id service_id days Description system-generated invoice number system-generated service number Number (3-15) representing the length of the stay at the resort in days. the system considers the remaining days to be a new stay. system-generated sponsor number (optional) Shown below are the results of a query derived from data in the Customer table. number of guests for which the invoice is drawn up nb_guests 472 Designer’s Guide .A Using the sample materials The Club database Column Name last_name age phone_number address city_id sales_id sponsor_id Description last name of the customer age of the customer phone number of the customer first line of the customer’s address system-generated city number system-generated sales person number (the person who sold the packaged holiday). a stay can be up to 15 days. The Invoice_Line table This table includes invoice information. it is used to bill the customer. Beyond 15 days. For billing purposes.

5) The Reservations table The Reservation table contains information on the date of the customer reservation. Column Name res_id service_id res_days future_guests Description system-generated reservation number system-generated service number days of the week reserved (1 . East Coast. Column Name region_id region Description system-generated region number geographical region in which the customer resides (Bavaria. Column Name res_id Description system-generated reservation number Designer’s Guide 473 ...Wales. West Japan) system-generated country number country_id The Region_Sline table This table enables calculation of a sales revenue aggregate in the universe. The Reservation_Line table Information relating to customer reservations is stored in the Reservation_Line table.7) number of future guests (1 .Using the sample materials The Club database A The Region table The Region table stores information on the geographical region in which the customer resides. West. Aggregate awareness is covered in Chapter 5 of this guide. Column Name sl_id region_id sales_revenue Description system-generated service line number (service line information is given in the Service_Line table) system-generated region number the total sales revenue by region. East Germany.

Column Name sales_id sales_person Description system-generated sales person number name of the sales person (Andersen. Column Name resort_id resort country_id Description system-generated resort number the name of the resort: Australian Reef. Moore. Nagata. Barrot. French Riviera.A Using the sample materials The Club database Column Name cust_id res_date Description system-generated customer number the date on which the customer reserved The Resort table The Resort table contains information on each resort.. Bahamas Beach. Column Name inv_id cust_id invoice_date Description system-generated invoice number system-generated customer number date of the invoice The Sales_Person table The Sales_Person table stores information on the sales persons of the Island Resorts business.. Column Name service_id service Description system-generated service number services available in a resort (see the query results below) 474 Designer’s Guide . Royal Caribbean system-generated country number The Sales table The Sales table contains sales information. Schmidt) The Service table The Service table includes information on the price and types of services available in a given resort. Bauman. Hawaiian Club.

food and drinks. Service line means simply the category in which the service falls.Using the sample materials The Club database A Column Name sl_id price Description system-generated service line number (service line information is given in the next table) the price of the service The following is the result of a query performed on the service column of this table: The Service_Line table The Service_Line table stores information on the service line of resorts. recreation system-generated resort number (values 1 to 5) Designer’s Guide 475 . Column Name sl_id service_line resort_id Description system-generated service line number Service line includes: accommodation.

A Using the sample materials The Club database 476 Designer’s Guide .

Business Objects information resources appendix .

businessobjects. the online help file contains the entire contents of the PDF version of the guide.businessobjects. the web.B Business Objects information resources Documentation and information services Documentation and information services Business Objects offers a full documentation set covering its products and their deployment. Documentation from the products Online help and guides in Adobe PDF format are available from the product Help menus. configure. deploy. Documentation on the web The full electronic documentation set is available to customers on the web from support website at: http://www. and consulting. The Documentation Roadmap references all Business Objects guides and lets you see at a glance what information is available. Documentation on the product CD Look in the docs directory of your product CD for versions of guides in Adobe PDF format. Additional support and services are also available to help maximize the return on your business intelligence investment.com/support/. Documentation You can find answers to your questions on how to install. 478 Designer’s Guide . available with the product documentation at http://www. or from your product CD. and use Business Objects products from the documentation. and in what format. What’s in the documentation set? View or download the Business Objects Documentation Roadmap. education. Where only online help is provided. The following sections detail where to get Business Objects documentation and how to use the resources at Business Objects to meet your needs for technical support.com/support/. from where. Where is the documentation? You can access electronic documentation at any time from the product interface.

com/support/ Designer’s Guide 479 . and we will do our best to ensure that your suggestion is included in the next release of our documentation: documentation@businessobjects. education.Business Objects information resources Customer support. Note: If your issue concerns a Business Objects product and not the documentation. and consulting to ensure maximum business intelligence benefit to your business. and support forums. How can we support you? Business Objects offers customer support plans to best suit the size and requirements of your deployment.businessobjects. For information about Customer Support visit: http://www. We operate customer support centers in the following countries: • • • • • USA Australia Canada United Kingdom Japan Online Customer Support The Business Objects Customer Support website contains information about Customer Support programs and services. downloads. consulting and training B Send us your feedback Do you have a suggestion on how we can improve our documentation? Is there something you particularly like or have found useful? Drop us a line. Customer support.com/ support. please contact our Customer Support experts. http://www. It also has links to a wide range of technical information including knowledgebase articles. consulting and training A global network of Business Objects technology experts provides customer support.businessobjects.com.

com/ support/ Content Information about the full range of Business Objects products. and more. downloads.businessobjects. we can offer a training package to suit your learning needs and preferred learning style.businessobjects. 480 Designer’s Guide . Send us feedback or questions about documentation. or contact us at: http://www.com Online Customer Support http://www. For more information. Find more information on the Business Objects Education website: http://www. database design tools.com Product documentation http://www. in connectivities. Business Objects product documentation. contact your local sales office. Information on Customer Support programs. including the Business Objects Documentation Roadmap.businessobjects.businessobjects.businessobjects. as well as links to technical articles. customized embedding technology.B Business Objects information resources Useful addresses at a glance Looking for the best deployment solution for your company? Business Objects consultants can accompany you from the initial analysis stage to the delivery of your deployment project.com/ support Business Objects Documentation mailbox documentation@businessobjects. and online forums.com/services/consulting/ Looking for training options? From traditional classroom learning to targeted e-learning seminars.com/services/training Useful addresses at a glance Address Business Objects product information http://www. Expertise is available in relational and multidimensional databases.

businessobjects.com/ services/consulting/ Business Objects Education Services http://www. Information on Business Objects training options and modules.businessobjects. Designer’s Guide 481 .Business Objects information resources Useful addresses at a glance B Address Business Objects Consulting Services http://www.com/ services/training Content Information on how Business Objects can help maximize your business intelligence investment.

B Business Objects information resources Useful addresses at a glance 482 Designer’s Guide .

Designer Guide Post-release additions appendix .

When the following parameters are set. after the database password has been changed: • • In the Central Management Console. it is recommended that the password is updated for each user account in the Central Management Console. the Enable and update user’s Data Source Credentials at logon time check box must be selected. 484 Designer Guide .C Post-release additions Overview Overview This addendum provides detailed information on the updates to Designer and its documentation. This document was last updated August 2006. the updated DBUser and DBPass parameters are automatically associated with the BusinessObjects user account. and must be updated in the Central Management Console. Note: DBUser and DBPass are static parameters. This is where the updates appear after the main release of the product. If the Database password is changed. In Designer. DBUser / DBPass A new feature has been added to Designer XIR2 that gives a BusinessObjects administrator the ability to permit a BusinessObjects user login (name and password) to continue to access data after the database user password has been changed. on the Define a new connection page of the New Connection wizard. When the check boxes described above are selected. the Use Database Credentials associated with BusinessObjects user account and the Use Single Sign On when refreshing reports at view time check boxes must be selected. a BusinessObjects user can continue to access data without contacting the BusinessObjects administrator.

407 syntax 395 @function 404 @Prompt 408 @Select 410 @Where 411 alias create 173. 203 define 171 delete 175 detect 197. 174 resolve fan trap 223 resolve loop 190 role in schema 171. 198. 172 allocate table weights 466 alternative table access restricting 442 analytic function 426 advantages 427 available in Functions list 437 IBM DB2 428 Oracle 428 RedBrick 432 supported types 427 Teradata 435 ANSI 92 create full outer join 144 define join 131 support for joins 114. 129 ANSI92 universe parameter 63 apply external strategy 425 arrange tables automatically 108 arrange tables 86 array fetch optimize 465 assign password 44 authentication A access external strategy 415 to universe for all users 27 action undo 79 activate list mode 85 table browser 105 add connection 49 table 106 administer list of values 305 advanced object options 253 aggregate set projection for measure 267 tables 390 aggregate aware 390 data warehouse 391 define objects 394 identify objects 393 navigate incompatible objects 400 navigate tables 400 set up 392 specify incompatible objects 397 test universe 404 Designer’s Guide 485 . 198. 198 inappropriate use of 211 multiple 200 name 173. 198. 197. 197.Index Symbols $INSTALLDIR variable use in guide 8 @Aggregate_Aware 394.

229. 481 BW object map to universe object 329 BW OLAP mapping to universe components 329 BW SAP mapping to universe 329 BW variables mapping 333 supported 333 C cardinality 182 define 150 detect 55. 231 print results 165. 218 use contexts 218 use multiple SQL 219. 244 create default 55 define 242 edit 245 hide 242 modify 245 move 241 486 Designer’s Guide . 230 class 10. 481 support services 479 training services 480. 156 display 152 keys 154 optimize 158 optimize detection 158 resolve database limitation 160 set for join 153 set manually 153 use in Designer 151 cartesian product prevent 60 warn 60 cascading list of values create 287 change passwords 464 schema display 89 table display 86 character find or replace 79 characteristic variable 337 characteristics mapping 332 chasm trap 214 detect 218 identify 218 resolve 214. 230 when start Designer 161. 233 error types 162. 219 visually detect 227 check universe 160. 161. 243.Index login 24 AUTO_UPDATE_QUERY universe parameter 64 automatic cardinality detection 156 class creation 244 create alias creation 203 create context 203 join insert 123 loop detection 201 object creation 247 table arrange 86 universe check 161. 161. 230. 230 change in database 165. 233 send option 161. 230 B Beach universe 21 BLOB_COMPARISON universe parameter 64 BOUNDARY_WEIGHT_TABLE universe parameter 65 browser table 75 build hierarchy 284 Business Objects consulting services 480. 230 check integrity 315 automatic parse 161. 239 create 243.

41 name 42 new 45 password 42. 44 personal 42 restricting 442 secured 42 shared 42 universe parameter 40 view available 47 consultants. 241 close universe 36 Club database 21. 281 create 281 syntax 281 condition apply to list of values 297 infer multiple tables 278 object see condition object view 240 condition object conflicting Where clauses 275 create define 274 hide 242 move 241. 241 use in query 276 connection add 49 create new 45 create to OLAP cube 321 database engine 42 define 41 delete 49 modify 40. 203 define 176 delete 181 detect 197. 200 detection problems 182 edit 180 incompatible queries 184 modify 180 multiple SQL statements 59 Designer’s Guide 487 .Index properties 245 subclass 245. 200. 245 class and objects use in Oracle Analytic Workspaces universe 368 clear list of values 305 clipboard operations 241. 470 Age_group table 471 City table 471 Country table 471 Customer table 471 Invoice table 472 Region table 473 Region_Sline table 473 Reservation_Line table 473 Resort table 474 Sales table 474 Sales_Person table 474 Service table 474 Service_Line table 475 structure of tables 470 column view values 91 COLUMNS_SORT universe parameter 65 COMBINE_WITHOUT_PARENTHESIS universe parameter 65 combined queries allow 59 COMBINED_WITH_SYNCHRO universe parameter 66 comment object 250 comments universe 49 complex condition enable 59 complex join create 136 component approach to linked universes 455 concatenated object 281. Business Objects 480 context ambiguous queries 184 create 177.

Index resolve chasm trap 218 resolve fan trap 223 resolve loop 193 role in schema 176 update 182 context inferred queries 184 controls universe 441 copy 241 CORE_ORDER_PRIORITY universe parameter 66 CORRECT_AGGREGATED_CONDITIONS_IF_D RILL universe parameter 67 create alias 173. 245 theta join 138 universe 36. 198 cascading list of values 287 class 243. 37 universe by selecting connection 324 universe from metadata source 344 universe with quick design wizard 326 create OLAP universe connection 321 create universe overview 320 cription 250 Cube map to universe 329 cube create connection 321 cube browser favorites 323 using 323 CUMULATIVE_OBJECT_WHERE universe parameter 67 customer support 479 customize list of values 306 cut 241 D data drill 283 list of values file 303 return empty set 276 view 107 data type display 90. 198. 90 database supported schema 14 view tables 105 database engine connection 42 Database requirements 383 date database format 254 Date lookups 379 DECIMAL_COMMA universe parameter 68 declare external strategy 417 default classes and objects 55 modify save options 35 save options 35 define 214 @function 404 488 Designer’s Guide . 120. 246. 247 OLAP universe 324 restriction set 444 self join 147 subclass 245. 122 link 457 list of values 296 list of values from file 303 measure 264 object 246. 299 join 118. 118. 200 default classes and objects 55 detail 264 dimension 263 dynamic SQl parameters 62 equi-join 134 external strategy 423 hierarchy 283. 244 complex join 136 condition object connection 41. 45 context 177. 197. 284 hierarchy for list of values 299. 243.

200 fan trap 222 integrity errors 162. 146 theta join 138 universe parameters 36 Where clause 270 delete alias 175 connection 49 context 181 join 133 SQL parameters 62 table 83 demo database 21 universe 21 derived table using 109 derived universe create link 457 object order 462 description modify 40 universe 40 design schema 104 design wizard disactivate 27 Designer example materials 21 interface components 76 perform action 78 start 24. 198. 90 formula bar 128 key 116 number of table rows 94 object 12 organize tables 83 Designer’s Guide 489 .Index aggregate aware objects 394 cardinality 150 chasm trap 214 class 242 complex equi-join 136 condition object connection 45 context 176 detail 264 dimension 263 dynamic SQL parameters 61 external strategy 415 fan trap 220 list of values 292 loop 187 measure 264 object 246 . 197. 231 dimension create 263 define 263 mapping 331 Dimension & slicing metrics 379 dimension joins use in Oracle Analytic Workspaces universe 366 Dimension table filters 378 disactivate design wizard 27 display cardinalities 152 change table 86 data type 90.PRM file 428 self join 147 shortcut join 146. 201 optimize cardinality 158 universe errors 162. 25 structure pane 75 universe pane 75 universe window 75 user interface 75 detail create 264 define 264 detect aliases 197. 231 join path problems 227 joins 121 loops 197. 198 cardinalities 156 cardinalities in joins 55 chasm trap 218 contexts 197.

Index row count 90 schema 89 schema options 89 DISTINCT_VALUES universe parameter 68 distribute universe 440 documentation feedback on 479 on product CD 478 on the web 478 roadmap 478 drill 283 dynamic SQL parameters 62 E edit class 245 connection 41 context 180 dynamic SQL parameters 62 hierarchies 284 join 125. 327 universe to XML metadata file 347 external strategy 413 accessing in Designer 415 apply in Designer 425 create 423 create SQL text file 425 creating Help text 415 declare external strategy file 417 define 415 files and process overview 414 insert SQL directly 423 join strategy output format 422 migrate to XI 413 migrating Help text 415 object strategy output format 421 output format 420 reference text file 423 select 51 set number rows retrieved 56 STG file parameters 418 table browser strategy output format 423 using 413 using examples 418 extract joins with tables 55 F fact table define 169 fan trap define 220 detect 222 identify 222 inflated results 221 resolve 220. 231 EVAL_WITHOUT_PARENTHESIS universe parameter 69 example universe and database 21 export list of values 300 lock universe 450 pre-requisites 348 restrictions 348 universe 31. 125. See training eFashion database 470 universe 21 END_SQL universe parameter 69 enterprise metric definition 373 equi-join complex 136 create 134 define 133 error Check Integrity 162. 223 use alias and context 223 490 Designer’s Guide . 127 list of values 296 object 249 SQL editor 260 use formula bar 128 editor SQL 127 education.

284. 299 set up 284. 285 hierarchy tables use in Oracle Analytic Workspaces universe 365 I IBM DB2 analytic function 428 identify aggregation levels 393 chasm trap 218 fan trap 222 hierarchy 283 G generate dynamic SQL parameters 62 Designer’s Guide 491 . on documentation 479 file create list of values 303 filter class and conditions 240 FILTER_IN_FROM universe parameter 70. 73 find loops in schema 196 quick search in universe 82 search in universe 79 FIRST_LOCAL_CLASS_PRIORITY universe parameter 70 fix chasm trap 218 fan trap 220 loops 187 flexible lookup table 208 folders repository file system 31 FORCE_SORTED_LOV universe parameter 70 foreign key 116 index aware 255 set up awareness 258 format object 262 remove 263 show data type 90 formula bar display 128 edit join 128 full outer join create 144 function add to PRM file 437 available in Functions list 437 new OLAP universe 324 graphic create join 118 detect join path problems 227 identify loops 196 tables 83 Group clause measure infers 266 group security viewing restrictions 449 H Help create for external strategy 415 hidden objects mandatory variable 335 optional variable 335 hide class 242 condition object 242 object 242 hierarchies mapping 332 time dependant 333 hierarchy change order of objects 286 create 283.Index use multiple SQL 226 visually detect 227 favorites cube browser 323 feedback. 285 drill 283 editor 284 identify 283 list of values 299.

125. 227 fact tables role 169 fan trap 170 incorrect results 169 lookup table 169 loops 170 problems overview 168 solve problems 170 K kernel approach to linked universes 454 kernel universe change 461 remove link 461 key aware 255 cardinality 154 display 116 primary key 116 key awareness set up foreign key awareness 258 set up primary key awareness 257 key foreign 116 J join ANSI 92 support 114. 214 detect problems 170. 230 check universe 160. 127 edit with formula bar 128 equi-join 133 foreign key 116 insert with tables 123 modify 125 operators 124 outer join 133. 106 integrity check automatically 161. 146 strategy 53 supported types 133 theta join 133. 230 check manually 161. 138 join path alias define 171 chasm trap 170. 120 define 113 define with ANSI 92 syntax 131 delete 133 detect 121. 129 create 118. 122 detect cardinality 55 492 Designer’s Guide . 141. 229 interface components 76 intersect allow 59 enable 59 edit 125. 141 parse 125 primary key 116 properties 124 retrieve linked tables 55 self join 133. 441 import lock universe 450 universe 28 incompatible object 397 incorrect result chasm trap 215 fan trap 221 loops 188 index awareness 255 index aware set up foreign key index 258 set up primary key index 257 using 255 Individual profiler requirements metric universe 386 inflated result chasm trap 215 fan trap 221 information resources 478 insert @function 404 optimize 108 tables 104. 118.Index loop 196. 147 set cardinality 153 shortcut join 133. 196 universe 40.

196 resolve with alias 190 resolve with contexts 193 LOV see list of values M manage lists of values 305 mandatory variable use in universe 336 use of in universe 335 manual object creation 246 set cardinality 153 universe check 161. 201 effect on queries 188 examples 205 identify 196. 25 limit query execution time 56.Index key tab key awareness options 255 L launch Designer 24. 299 customize 306 define 292 display 305 edit 296. 58 link create 457 dynamic 457 universes 61 linked universe 451 advantages 456 component approach 455 CORE_ORDER_PRIORITY 462 dynamic link 457 include one within another 462 kernel approach 454 linking methods 454 master approach 455 object order 462 remove link 461 requirements 456 restrictions 456 set up 457 list mode activate 85 list of values 290 administer 305 apply condition 297 associate object 252 cascading 287 clear 305 create 296 create hierarchy 299. 196 resolve 187. 305 export 300 manage 305 modify 296 optimize 306 options 293 personal data file 303 properties 293 purge 305 refresh 303. 230 master approach to linked universes 455 Designer’s Guide 493 . 305 specify properties 253 use in reporting 291 view 295 lock universe 450 log in as another user 464 login authentication 24 managing 463 password 24 system 24 user name 24 lookup table define 169 lookup tables flexible 208 shared 207 loop define 187 detect 197.

174 connection 42 object 250 universe 40 new OLAP universe generate 324 normalization 208 number universe revision 451 494 Designer’s Guide . 77 multidimensional analysis 283 create hierarchies 285 types of 283 multi-hierarchy tables use in Oracle Analytic Workspaces universe 365 Multiple 374 multiple aliases 200 multiple SQL chasm trap 219 fan trap 226 use to resolve chasm trap 219 N name alias 173. 127 list of values 296 number of returned rows 467 object 249 object format 262 returned rows number 93 row count 94. 96 schema display 89 table display 86 universe definition parameters 40 universe name 40 Where clause 270 mouse actions 78 move class 241 object 241 toolbar 77. 376 individual profiler 386 multiple universes 374 set based 373 universe for process analysis chart 381 Metrics on metrics 379 Metrics within rules engine 380 migrate external strategy Help text 415 external strategy to XI 413 minus allow 59 modify array fetch 465 class 245 connection 40. 41 context 180 default save options 35 description 40 join 125.Index MAX_INLIST_VALUES universe parameter 71 measure aggregate functions 265 aggregate projection 267 create 264 define 264 dynamic nature 265 Group clause 266 multiple statements 59 metadata connection options 345 universe options 345 metadata source generate universe 340 metadata universe create 344 create from Oracle Analytic Workspaces 356 create universe from 342 export universe to 342 export universe to XML format 347 select source 342 update 346 update universe from 342 methodology universe design 18 metric define 373 designing universe for 376 enterprise 373.

247 create default 55 date format 254 define 246 define aggregate aware 394 define restriction 269 detail 238 dimension 238 display 12 edit 249 format 262 generate SQL overview 13 hide 242 hierarchy 283 in condition 254 in result 254 incompatible 397 key awareness options 255 measure 238 modify 249 move 241 name 250 overview of SQL inferred 11 Parse button 251 properties 248 qualification 11. 246. 252 remove format 263 role overview 237 security 254 security access 254 Select statement 251 source information options 259 specify qualification 253 strategy 53 Tables button 251 type 238. 250 types 238 user access 254 view 240 Where clause 251 object access restricting 442 offline use Designer in stand alone mode 463 OLAP BWSAP map to universe 329 mapping Oracle OLAP to universe 360 olap function 426 Treadata 435 OLAP universe create 324 update 327 OLAP universe connection create 321 Online Customer Support 479 open universe 30 operator join 124 optimize list of values 306 table browser 108. 251 advanced options 253 associate list of values 252 change hierarchy order 286 comment 250 concatenated 281 create 246.Index O object 10. 108 universe 465 optional variable use in universe 336 use of in universe 335 options Allow users to edit this List of Values 293 Associate a List of Values 293 Automatic refresh before use 294 Export with universe 294 Oracle analytic functions 428 Oracle Analytic Workspaces class nad object mapping 368 create universe 356 create view and generate universe 357 dimension joins 366 generate universe 340 generate universe from view 359 hierarchy tables 365 mapping OLAP to universe 360 multi-hierarchy tables 365 Designer’s Guide 495 . 237.

59 union 59 query control restricting 442 Query Cube map to universe 329 query limit set 56 Quick Design desactivate wizard 27 display options 307 quick design wizard 306 R RedBrick 496 Designer’s Guide . 253 query allow subquery 59 ambiguous 184 combine condition objects 277 complex conditions 59 condition objects use of 276 incompatible 184 inferred 184 intersect 59 limit execution time 56. 58 loops 188 set controls 58.Index universe creation options 356 use of shortcut joins in universe 363 view 365 organize table display 83. 108 outer join ANSI 92 144 create 141. 44 login 24 paste 241 PATH_FINDER_OFF universe parameter 71 PDF save as 34 personal connection 42 plan universe design stages 19 Preselecting aggregate functions 378 prevent cartesian product 60 preview universe 99 primary key 116 index aware 255 set up awareness 257 print Check Integrity results 165. 141 define 133 full 144 restrictions 145 output format for external strategy 420 page setup 99 preview 99 set options 98 universe 97 PRM file 428 add function 437 problem detecting contexts 182 process analysis chart metric universe 381 properties universe 36 purge list of values 305 P page specify setup 99 parameter file define 428 parse join 125 Parse button 251 password change 464 connection 42. 233 Q qualification object 252.

33. 196 resources 478 restriction alternative table access 442 connection 442 define 269 guidelines for use 280 multiple tables 278 object access 442 query controls 442 row access 442 self join use of 277 SQL generation options 442 Where clause 270 Where clause problems 273 restriction set apply to user group 447 create 444 define 442 set group priority 448 revision number 451 risql function 426 RedBrick 432 row display number of 94 modify returned number 93 modify row count 94. 223 join path problems 170 loop with alias 190 loop with context 193 loops 187. 233 show data type 90 use of cardinalities 151 search cube browser search 323 in universe 79 secured connection 42 security CMS level 441 object 254 object access 254 restriction sets 441 universe level 441 select schema display options 89 strategies 51 table 83 Designer’s Guide 497 . 165. 327 schema alias use of 172 context use of 176 define 102 design stages 104 detect join path problems 227 display 89 display row count 90 populate with tables 104 refresh 165. 233 remove object format 263 replace string or character 79 REPLACE_COMMA_BY_CONCAT universe parameter 72. 218 fan trap 220. 33. 72 repository deploy universes 440 export universe 31 folder structure 31 resolve chasm trap 214. 305 structure 165.Index risql function 432 refresh list of values 303. 233. 96 set maximum retrieved 56 row access restricting 442 row count adapting to data volume 96 display 90 query optimization 96 show 90 S save as PDF 34 defaults 35 modify defaults 35 universe 33.

233. 153 dynamic SQl parameters 61 maximum rows retrieved 56 query controls 58 resource controls 56 row count 94 save defaults 35 save options 35 schema display options 89 set based metric definition 373 set up hierarchies 285 linked universes 457 shared connection 42 shortcut join create 146 define 134 use in Oracle Analytic Workspaces universe 363 SHORTCUT_BEHAVIOR universe parameter 72 show list mode 85 row count 90 solve chasm trap 218 fan trap 220 loops 187 source information object options 259 SQL create text file for external strategy 425 editor 260 multiple statements 59 set query controls 59 SQL editor edit join 127 SQL generation options restricting 442 SQL parameters dynamic 61 stand alone use with no CMS 463 start Designer 24.Index Select statement 251 self join create 147 define 134 restrict data 277 Self-join 378 set cardinality 153. 233 structure pane 75 display options 89 subclass create 245. 25 statistics universe 49 STG file parameters 418 strategy external see external strategy 413 joins 53 objects 53 output formats 421 select 51. 51 select in Quick Design Wizard 426 tables 54 string find and replace 79 structure STG file 418 Structure pane refresh 165. 165. 245 summary universe information 49 support customer 479 locations 479 technical 479 web site 479 syntax @Aggregate_Aware 395 automatic insert in SELECT 437 concatenated objects 281 system login 24 System universe 373 498 Designer’s Guide .

77 using 77 training. 37 create by selecting connection 324 create connection 41 create default classes and objects 55 create with wizard 326 creation overview 13. 320 define connection 41 define parameters 36 definition parameters 40 description 40 design methodology 18 designer profile 17 development cycle 20 distribute 440 dynamic link 457 edit connection 41 export 31. on Business Objects products 480 troubleshoot Check Integrity 164. 327 Designer’s Guide 499 . 73 time dependant hierarchies 333 toolbar move 77.Index T table add 106 aggregate 390 arrange 108 arrange automatically 86 browser see table browser change display 86 create default class and objects 55 delete 83 derived 109 display number of rows 94 extract joins 55 fact define 169 graphic display 83 infer multiple tables 278 insert 104. 229 close 36 comments 49 connection 40 create 36. 108 using 105 view data 107 table weight allocate 466 Tables button 251 technical support 479 Teradata olap function 435 test universe 315 theta join create 138 define 133 THOROUGH_PARSE universe parameter 73. 233 TRUST_CARDINALITIES universe parameter 73 type object 250 U undo action 79 UNICODE_STRINGS universe parameter 73 union allow 59 enable 59 universe access to all users 27 check integrity 160. 106 insert with joins 123 lookup 169 loops with aggregate table 402 manipulate 83 modify number of returned rows 467 optimize insert 108 organize 83 organize display 108 populate schema 104 select 83 strategy 54 view values 91 table browser 75 activate 105 optimize 108.

464 user group apply restriction set 447 set restriction priority 448 V validate universe 160. 441 mapping to BW objects 329 modify name 40 name 40.unv file extension 33 utilization overview 14 window overview 12 workgroup design 450 universe check integrity 315 Universe configuration 381 breakdown variable 382 filters 382 measures 381 resolving loops 383 self joins 382 systematic sampling 383 universe design development cycle 20 planning stages 19 universe development cycle overview 18 Universe pane 239 view conditions 240 universe pane 75 universe parameter reference list 63 universe security setting controls 441 Universes for control charts 381 update context 182 metadata universe 346 updating OLAP universe 327 used 254 user access to object 254 access to universe 27 login 24. 229 values column view 91 table view 91 variable characteristic 337 interval 335 mandatory 335 multiple 335 optional 335 selection option 335 single 335 verify universe 160. 229 view condition in Universe pane 240 connections 47 data from table browser 107 database tables 105 group security restrictions 449 list of values 295 number of rows 94 objects 240 500 Designer’s Guide . 327 save options 35 statistics 49 summary information 49 test 315 . 441 import 28 include within another 462 link universes 61 lock 450 long name 33. 441 object order in derived universe 462 open 30 optimize 465 overview 9 print 97 Quick Design wizard 306 resource controls 56 revision number 451 roles 9 save 33.Index export restrictions 348 file name 441 identifier 441 identify 40.

Index use in Oracle Analytic Workspaces universe 365 view conditions 240 W warn cartesian product 60 web customer support 479 getting documentation via 478 useful addresses 480 web sites support 479 training 480 Where clause conflict 276 conflicting 275 define 270 modify 270 object 251 problems with 273 return no data 276 windows manipulating 76 wizard quick design 306 workgroup universe design 450 X XML metadata CWM OLAP 340 CWM Relational 340 Data Integrator 340 IBM DB2 Cube Views 340 IBM DB2 DWC 340 Oracle WB 340 Designer’s Guide 501 .

Index 502 Designer’s Guide .

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