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Flexible AC Transmission FACTS-Technology and Novel FACTSControl Strategies For Power System Stability Enhancement

Mohamed Shawky ElMoursi Supervisor Prof. Dr. A. M. Sharaf, P.Eng. Electrical and Computer Engineering Department University of New Brunswick October 20, 2004

CONTENT

Voltage stability Harmonic/ SSR stability Renewable Dispersed Energy Systems

FACTS
Flexible AC Transmission System (Facts) is a new integrated concept based on power electronic switching converters and dynamic controllers to enhance the system utilization and power transfer capacity as well as the stability, security, reliability and power quality of AC system interconnections.

Improve generation productivity. Effective use of upgrading/ uprating. . Prevent blackouts. Increase loading capacity of transmission lines.OPPORTUNITIES Control power so that it flows on the desired routes.

FACTS KEY DEVICES Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC) Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) .

1. Fig. voltage.STATIC SYNCHRONOUS COMPENSATOR (STATCOM) It is a static synchronous generator as shunt static var compensator whose capacitive or inductive current can be controlled independent of the system voltage. The STATCOM scheme in parallel with AC power grid system and is controlled by a dynamic controller as shown in Fig. .

1 Sample three-Bus study test system with the STATCOM located at bus B2 to stabilize the AC system .Fig.

The operation of the STATCOM scheme is Validated in both the capacitive and inductive modes of operation.Novel Controller The new control system is based on a decoupled control strategy using both direct and quadrature current components of the STATCOM AC current. Fig. 2 Proposed STATCOM Decoupled Control System .

t=1 sec (capacitive load added) and t=1.5 sec (inductive load added).5 (Both inductive and capacitive load removed) & & & ) ( & & & & & & ) ( & & & & & & ) ( & & 0 00 & 0 40 0 80 1 20 ime (Se ) 1 60 2 00 0 00 0 40 0 80 1 20 ime (Se ) 1 60 2 00 & ' & ' 4 00 2 00 0 40 0 00 0 40 0 80 1 20 ime (Se ) 1 60 2 00 )5F & 3 q 2 4 0 00 7 & 0 40 0 00 & & 4 00 & 3 00 1 20 6 G @ 9 ) 9 6 ) ransmission Line q urrents ( u) ti e & R ea ti e Po er o t e ransm ission Line a a itor olta e ( u)       F )5 ¢ ) 6 E ¡           (   B A ¢ ¡     )8         ' 5 ¢ ¡   (   0 00   0 40 0 80 1 20 im e (Se ) 1 60 2 00 0 00 0 40 0 80 1 20 im e (Se ) 1 60 2 00 § § 0 00 0 40 § 0 00 P ¨ 0 40 # & qo t e S L    © $ #  0 80     0 80     1 00 0 00 1 00 2 00 0 00 0 40 0 80 1 20 im e (Se ) 1 60 2 00 % ¢ %    ¢  ¢ © ¨ Line olta e t i e & R ea t i e o er o S ire t & qua r ature o S P Q " ! ¡  ¡  " !  ¡ ¡  ¥ ¤ & ' & ' £ 4 3 2 0 1 0 .Preliminary Simulation Results Q Lin e                     1 20         1 20 ¦ 2 00 P &Q o t e S 0 40 P & 57 2 00 P & Q o t e ransmission Line 0 80 & & q o t e ransmission Line 2 00 & 1 00 & D 1 C & Q 0 00 1 00 & & ' 2 00 System is subjected to load switching at t=0.

. It is increase or decrease the overall reactive voltage drop across the line and thereby controlling the transmitted electric power. The o/p voltage is in quadrature with and controllable independently of the line current.STATIC SYNCHRONOUS SERIES COMPENSATOR It is a static synchronous generator operated without an external energy source as a series compensator.

3 Single line diagram representing the series SSSC scheme interfaced at sending end of the Transmission line (Bus B1) .Fig.

Control Structure of the SSSC scheme. This can be accomplished by either direct control of the line (E current or indirect control by compensating impedance. compensating injected voltage. Vs.Novel Controller The main function of the SSSC is to regulate the TL power flow PL. Xref = Negative Xref = Positive Vs lags IL by 90° plus (E Vs Leads IL by 90° plus (E (Capacitive Compensation) (Inductive Compensation) . 4. for Xs the via TL a Fig.

Supplementary regulator for the SSSC controller to reduce oscillatory . The operation of the SSSC scheme is validated in both the capacitive and inductive modes of operation under severe disturbance such as switching loads and fault condition Fig.5.SUPPLEMENTARYT CONTROL LOOP DESIGN IN SSSC To enhance the dynamic performance of the SSSC device an supplementary regulator loop is added using the dc capacitor voltage.

Simulation results of the SSSC in capacitive mode . 6.Simulation Results For SSSC Fig.

7. Simulation results of the SSSC in inductive mode .Fig.

FACTS UPFC controller scheme . The series converter operates as SSSC to control the real power flow Fig. stabilization. The shunt converter operates exactly as STATCOM for reactive power compensation and voltage stabilization. capacitor.8.UNIFIED POWER F OW CONTRO ER UPFC The UPFC scheme consists of two basic switching power converter namely shunt and series converters connected to each other through a dc link capacitor.

9. Novel Control in the STATCOM shunt converter SSSCSSSC-Converter controller Fig. Fig. Control Block diagram of SSSC series converter (2) scheme.PROPOSED NOVEL CONTROL STRATEGY The developed novel control strategy for the UPFC scheme is based on the magnitude and angle of series inserted voltage and shunt reactive current. . sec for a duration of ms. Proposed STATCOM Decoupled Current Control System for the shunt converter (1) The system is subjected to severe disturbance single line to ground fault at load bus at time . 10.

Simulation Results for UPFC Alpha vs time I ref. I of STATCOM vs time P of STATCOM vs time P. . The UPFC digital Simulation Results Under single phase Fault Condition at load bus . of SSSC vs time Vdc vs time ine Voltage vs time ine voltage and current vs time Fig.I m vs time Id.

CAPAB ITIES OF DIFFERENT FACTS CONTRO ERS Controller Voltage Control Transient stability Damping Reactive Power Flow Power Power Oscillations Compensation Control SSR Mitigation STATCOM X x x x x x x x SSSC X x x x x x X UPFC X .

POWER UA ITY ENHANCEMENT This chapter studies the power system power quality and harmonics and SSR/ Tortional stability enhancement to reduce harmonics. . improve the power quality and enhance the system harmonic stability. Three different cases were studied in order to improve power quality and enhance system stability using a novel Active Power Filter (APF) combining with and Tuned arm filter switched capacitive compensation.

Fig.A COMBINED CAPACITIVE COMPENSATION AND ACTIVE POWER FI TER The Power Filter Scheme The power filter scheme consists of both a passive filter and active filter. Sample study of the unified power system . 12.a. The passive filter removes any load harmonics just as a conventional one does and the added active filter plays a role in improving the filtering action.

a. 12.Novel Tri oop Dynamic Controller Design The proposed SSCC capacitor switching controller is an error driven. b). 2 2 2 Re ! e v e i e I Fig. error-scaled self adjusting nonlinear tri loop dynamic controller used the load voltage. instantaneous and RMS load currents deviation signals as shown in Fig 12 (a. Sharaf (Excursion. Sample study of the unified power system Developed By Dr.Level Magnitude) .

12.b.Fig. The SSCC series capacitor switching compensator scheme using two stage compensation per phase dynamic capacitor switching .

13. The simulation results when the system subjected to 3.phase fault disturbance .Simulation Results Without SSCC & APF With SSCC & APF Fig.

13.A COORDINATED CAPACITIVE COMPENSATION AND TUNED ARM FI TER This chapter presents a nonlinear coordinated dynamic error driven scaled error-controller for both the errorstatic series capacitor switching compensator SSCC and the added tuned arm filter TAF. Single line diagram sample study of the unified power system with one novel coordinated CC/TAF filter . transient stability. power Fig. for the enhancement of voltage. capacity of tie line power transfer and the quality. quality.

Proposed novel tri loop error-driven. Sharaf . Developed By Dr. error -scaled Tri-loop dynamic feed back controller. Fig 13.SSCC switched/modulated Tuned Arm Filter Controller The proposed self adjusting Tri-loop error scaled controller is based on Tri- the load voltage. RMS source current and the dynamic current ripple deviation signals. signals.

terminal voltage at bus 2. the p. total load current iL and the induction load current when the system subjected to 3 phase fault at bus 2 .Simulation Results For SSCC/TAF Scheme Without SSCC & TAF With SSCC & TAF Fig 14.u. load voltage at bus 4.

Fig 15. Comparison of the load voltage. load current and %THD voltage and current without and with (SSCC & TAF) . The Power Transfer levels P& Q without and with SSCC&TAF Fig 16.

standand grid connect wind energy conversion will be studied .Renewable Energy The research will investigate the use of renewable dispersed energy system (wind(wind-small hydro. hybrid scheme) and resulting grid interface problems and need for effective mitigative FACTS-based solution. Both stand-alone FACTSsolution.

CONC USION The research investigates FACTS topologies & novel control strategies for voltage stability enhancement. The use of FACTS devices in renewable energy utilization is also studied for small Hydro/ Wind hybrid renewable energy scheme.L power flow control and harmonic/ SSR mode stabilization of an interconnected AC system. . T.

enhancement. Application of the (UPC) Universal Power Compensator using dual Tri loop stabilization control for wind & small hydro.FUTURE WORK Validation of (UPC) Universal Power Compensator controllable scheme using the dynamic error driven controllers (P. . Q) in SSR-stability SSRenhancement. hydro.

Ajaccio. 14. France. Roanoke ." Power System Stabilization And reactive Compensation El-Moursi. Sharaf and M. United Arab Emirates. A. Sharaf and M.2003-17. El-Moursi" Stability And Power Quality Enhancement Using A Coordinated Capacitive El-Moursi" Compensation And Tuned Arm Filter" . Palais des Congrès 2004. . Electronics." Stability And Power Quality Enhancement Using A Combined El-Moursi. Proc." Voltage Stabilization And Reactive Compensation Using A FACTSEl-Moursi. Sharaf and M.M.2003-17." Transmission System Reactive Compensation And Stability El-Moursi. USA.12. . S. Sharaf and M.M." Capacitive Compensation And Active Power Filter" ICECS . Circuits and Systems. SUBITTED JOURNA PAPERS A. Compensators" IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics. El-Moursi." Using FACTS-Unified Power Flow Controller" IEEE Power Delivery Trans. 48Proc. Virginia." FACTSSTATCOM Scheme" IEEE Power Delivery Trans.12. . S." Enhancement Using A 48-Pulse Static Synchronous Series Compensator" IEEE Power Delivery Trans. 2003 conference Center. 2004.M. Sharaf and M. " A Novel Dynamic Controller For Stability Enhancement Using Capacitive Series El-Moursi. S.M. Proc. A. th IEEE International Conference on Electronics. 2-Thursday. A.2003.M. Sharaf and M.2003. S.12. S. November Sunday. the 9th Annual Conference of the IEEE Electronics Society Sunday. El-Moursi. May 4-7 .M. Sharjah. 14. El-Moursi. Congrè Expositions. November 6.ACCEPTED PUB ICATION A. A. FACTS. S.12. El-Moursi. El-Moursi.