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Differences between American ASME Y 14.5M Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing (GD & T) and ISO/BS 8888 geometrical tolerancing, standards
This chapter aims to highlight, identify and analyse, the differences between the ASME and ISO/BS 8888 systems. The Authors make no claim as to which might be the better and/or accommodate in any specific application. Some of these differences are of a smaller nature, and as such are self-evident, while others are not, and involve indications which are interpreted differently by users of the two different systems, giving rise to significant differences of the intended design specification. All Geometric controls included throughout this manual are to the ISO/BS 8888 standards. There are a few differences in terminology as detailed in Table 27.1.
TABLE 27.1 Comparison of ASME Y 14.5M and ISO terminologies
ASME Y 14.5M
Basic dimension Feature control frame Variation True position (TP) Reference dimension
Specification of datums
Whilst the general understanding that a datum is basically a ‘good starting surface or point’ is not wrong. The advancement and availability of today’s manufacturing technology, has created many more options of specific applications of datums that may be required. ISO 5459 and ASME Y 14.5 M standards comprehensively define these conceptual options together by their respective rules. These two set of rules can lead to substantially different conclusions. A brief explanation appears below. ISO standards keeping in line with these developments of modern techniques, give a wide range of different, sophisticated, practical conceptual terms and procedures for the various types of datums which may be specified on a drawing. Basically, where a specified datum feature has a form that allows the work piece to ‘rock’ within itself, the ISO rule is to ‘equalize’ the rock, in order to establish an ‘average’ position and orientation, to be used as the intended datum. ASME Y 14.5M specifies the concept of ‘candidate datums’ which allows every position that an unstable datum can rock to (with some limitations) is a valid ‘candidate datum’. A set of candidate datum reference frames can be derived for each set of requirements that are referenced to the same datum system, using the same precedence and the same material conditions. These sets of requirements are, by default, evaluated simultaneously to each candidate datum reference frame. If there is a candidate datum reference frame where all the requirements are fulfilled exists, the workpiece is acceptable with regard to the requirements. In general, the ASME Y 14.5M system accepts more workpieces as the form error of the datum feature increases. However, some workpieces accepted under the applied ISO rules can be rejected upon application of the ASME Y 14.5M rules, so assumptions should not be made.
Theoretical exact dimension (TED) Tolerance frame Deviation Theoretical exact position Auxiliary dimension
Applicability of standards
The rules to which any drawing is produced must be indicated within the framework of the drawing, i.e. ISO or ASME Y 14.5M. If a provision from ASME Y 14.5M were needed to be invoked on a drawing conforming to ISO rules, the relevant ASME Y 14.5M cross-reference must be specifically identified at the point of application.
ASME Y14.5 specifies in addition to or deviating from ISO 1101 the symbols shown in Table 27.2.
Manual of Engineering Drawing Copyright Ó 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights of reproduction in any form reserved.
sheet. The part contour within the crescent-shaped tolerance zone must be a fair curve without reversals with all points on the radii being within the tolerance zone Symbol placed after a toleranced dimension indicating the assigning of tolerances to related components of an assembly on the basis of sound statistics (such as the assembly tolerance is equal to the square root of the sum of the squares of the individual tolerances) Symbol indicating a flat bottom hole. unless a particular relationship is specified.5M Symbol Designation Tangent Controlled radius Interpretation Symbol placed within the tolerance frame indicating a tolerance applies to the contacting tangential element Symbol placed before the toleranced radius dimension. when evaluated. In other words surface texture shall be disregarded when evaluating workpieces using ‘ASME Y 14.) ASME Y 14. etc.2 Additional symbols found in ASME Y 14. and not the form deviations of the feature.5M’ and thus is similar to the dictates of BS 8888. Features-of-size The following table lists features of size recognized by each standard (Table 27. (b) It does not apply to flexible parts. (However. the form of a workpiece is always within its maximum size when at maximum material condition (MMC). opposed surfaces A cone A wedge ASME Y 14. ISO promotes (ISO 8015) the ‘The Principle of Independency’ which states: ‘Each specified dimensional or geometrical requirement on a drawing shall be met independently. This is known as ‘Rule 1’ and stated in the ASME Y 14.org/learning-resources. opposed surfaces Two opposed elements (such as the radiused ends of a slot) . the application of BS 8888 requires that surface texture be excluded by the use of appropriate filtering techniques. and some exceptions to this rule are as follows: (a) It does not apply to stock materials (bar stock. when only a size tolerance is quoted.e. Tolerancing principle The ASME Y 14. Maximum or Minimum Material Condition M .Buy this file: http://www.). (c) It does not apply to features of size which have a straightness tolerance applied to their axes or median plane.5M states that ‘all requirements apply after application of the smoothing functions’. L or the E .php?promoCode=&partnerID=&content=story&storyID=19975 210 Manual of Engineering Drawing TABLE 27. TABLE 27. (d) It may be overruled where a feature of size has a specified relationship between size and a geometric control for example the use of M or L in the tolerance frame.5M standard. presented before the associated dimension Symbol indicating depth of a feature. i.3 Feature-of-size ISO Cylindrical surfaces Spherical surfaces Two parallel.e. It was realized that this overall rule was not practical in all cases.3). presented before the dimension T CR Statistical tolerancing Counterbore or spotface Countersink Deep/depth http://www. subject to free-state variation in the unstrained condition.5M interprets size tolerances using the ‘Principle of Dependency of size and form’ in the same terms as the ISO envelope principle (Taylor principle).5M Cylindrical surfaces Spherical surfaces Two parallel. The tolerance zone is defined by two arcs (the minimum and maximum radii) that are tangent to the adjacent surfaces. envelope principle (the Taylor principle) This means that local two point measurements control the linear dimensional tolerances only. (e) It may be overruled with a statement such as ‘PERFECT FORMAT MMC NOT REQUIRED’ placed by a feature of size tolerance.php?promoCode=&partnerID=&content=story&storyID=19975 Exclusion of surface texture The ISO standards do not currently state whether surface texture should be included or excluded within a specified geometric control.download-it.org/learning-resources. tubing.’ i. presented before the associated dimension Symbol indicating a countersink.download-it.
5M:1994 The positional tolerance is only used with features of size ASME Y 14.org/learning-resources.download-it. It is defined as the condition whereby the median points of all diametrically opposed elements of a figure of revolution are congruent with the axis or centre point of a datum feature The standard states that concentricity cannot be used with the maximum and minimum material modifiers Concentricity coaxiality These characteristics have the same symbol even though they distinctively relate to different characteristics. which can be used to control the location of an axis or median plane of a feature of size in relation to a datum axis Symmetry is defined as the condition where the median points of all opposed or corresponding located elements of two or more feature surfaces are congruent with the axis or centre plane of a datum feature It is also stated that symmetry cannot be used with the maximum or minimum condition modifiers These tolerance zones are generated by a vector offset from the theoretically exact profile (or surface) to generate the boundary limits Profile of a line and surface These tolerance zones are generated by placing a theoretical circle or sphere.php?promoCode=&partnerID=&content=story&storyID=19975 The ISO definition describes concentricity as the situation whereby the centre point of a feature is located on a datum point or axis Coaxially is described as the situation where an axis of a feature is aligned to a datum axis. lines and flat planes ASME Y 14.download-it. with a diameter corresponding to the size of the tolerance. Concentricity/coaxially tolerances can be replaced by using a positional tolerance to provide an identical control Both these characteristics like the positional tolerance can be used with the maximum and minimum material condition modifiers Symmetry ISO considers this as a special case of the positional tolerance.php?promoCode=&partnerID=&content=story&storyID=19975 Chapter | 27 Differences between the ASME and ISO/BS 8888 standards 211 Tolerance characteristics (Table 27.org/learning-resources.4) TABLE 27. Where the theoretically exact profile (or surface) contains sharp corners (or edges) the tolerance zone boundary external to the corners (or edges) is radiused Where the theoretically exact profile (or surface) contains sharp corners or (edges) the tolerance zone boundary is extended to give a sharp corner (or edge) ASME uses the term ‘Circularity’ for this form of tolerance Roundness ISO uses the term ‘Roundness’ for this form of tolerance .4 Comparison of tolerance characteristics Tolerance Positional BS 8888 and ISOs Positional tolerance can be used to control the location of features-of-size and also points. with the term concentricity frequently and mistakenly confused with coaxially. on every point of the theoretically exact profile (or surface) to generate the boundary limits.Buy this file: http://www.5M recommends the use of Profile of a Surface to control a flat planar surface Known only as ‘Concentricity’ tolerance. and visa versa http://www.
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