20 E. KARL MERZ. I7. BRAINARD'S SONS. COPYRIGHT MDCCCLXXXV. S. BY .If KARL MERZ 1 PIANO METHOD. A COMPLETE COURSE OF INSTRUCTION FOR TEE *& DR. fh - CHICAGO AVC. ons NEW YORK .

_J . The very favorable reception extended to our instruction . Similar requests having reached us from teachers located in different we felt that such a book was desired. parts of the country. "We have tried to make the duties of teachers and pupils pleasant as well as profitable. NT PREFACE." hae induced our publishers to request us to prepare for them also an Instruction book for the Piano. we have prepared this volume.THM VOLUME IS DEDICATED TO MY MOTHER HENRY. WHO HAS ALWAYS TAKEN A LIVELY INTEREST IN MY PROFESSIONAL LABOR*. book for the "Parlor Organ." "The Musical Hints" and "The Elements of Harmony. and encouraged thereby. and hope we may have succeeded in our efforts in that direction. which is hereby offered to the public.

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for he helps along the great work of making this world better and more beautiful. than to play a half day listlessly. also in their short-sightedness thej often side with their children. discharge him quietly. Remember that not only should a child's fingers and hands develope. if he does not reach your ideal of a teacher. they themselves often indulge in unjust criticism. attach no blame to the teacher. It is a means of education and culture. applying the teacher's instructions. that your children derive all those benefits from their musical studies which art-culture provides. important that the first lessons of a pupil should be directed by a skillful. namely. in the discharge of his duties. and both should combine to make it as profitable and pleasant as possible. Consult with the teacher. If. than he can hasten the growth of a plant. however. To become a good teacher of music requires years of study and practice. child cannot get along with the teacher. these reasons yon should not only pay your teacher well. after this is accomplished come also the pleasures to be derived from a musical education. exercises a beneficial influence upon the human mind and heart. Bear in mind that not all pupils are alike gifted. Parents. Avoid the error into which so many parent* It is safest to go slowly in the work of musical education.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. but also cheerfully. The first lessons are designed to lay a good foundation for technic. They should endeavor as much as possible to understand the daily lesson so as to be able to watch with some degree of intelligence over their practicing. The most Parents can readily rectify the difficulty if they faithful teacher at times gains the ill will of lazy and disobedient children. See to it then. Both teacher and parent should frequently explain to pupils the necessity of careful practice. respectful and diligent. fall. Music. and as such it is deserving of our esteem and most diligent cultivation. if properly used. nor are all equally diligent. for in most cases of this kind the pupil is to blame and not the teacher. your child's progress is slower than that of ycur neighbor. for it is . but here his task ends. your child an opportunity to study it. but also to its proper division. that of hastening the teacher. Aside from this it is an arduous and sometimes very difficult task to impart musical instruction. Anally. for a conscientious teacher takes as much interest and pride in your child's progress. TO PARENTS. for without this the teacher must fail. He who teaches the art of music. This will be an aid both to teacher and pupil. without carefully examining into the case. therefore. masterly teacher. that the highest possible benefits are only derived by those who study music as an art. nor be impatient for it to take its first piece. keep your instrument in order and sae to it that the child is ready for the lesson at the proper time . but also its mind. It is better to practice one hour carefully. He may use every efficient means conducive to mental growth. they should not find fault with the teacher. See to it that your child is obedient. without injuring his reputation. the the cheapest in the end. ought to consult with teachers of music as regards their children's progress and conduct. Not every instruction book is fit for your child's use do not object then to the expense of providing the necessary means for instruction. wilf but support the teacher If your yes. The teacher can no more hasten mental developement. Remember. parents should be patient. Select. For this he should be honored. not only as to the length of time * pupil should practice. Neither dictate as to what music a child is to use. thereby making the teacher's success simply impossible. It is to your credit that you give It is best. Place the child in his care and trust in his ability and fidelity. therefore. If a pupil's mental growth is slow. follows a high calling. more especially mothers. aa you.

for the teacher would rather repeat it ten you understand a topic. and indulgent teachers but too often allow them to stop there. before you play. polite and cheerful After d'jng all this they can afford to let the results take care of themselves. the single step you are taking. both in exercises and pieces. art? If it a requires years of application to master trade. The mere playing Put lesson. prove detrimental to the pupil's health. Do much hard work. In short watch and consider everything in connection granted. Do one year. This will be a means of inspiration. how much If you cannot instructions. but rather be prepared for starting out as a piano-student. Every person loses through the day many minutes which are spent in idle waiting. After a pupil has learned to play the notes of a piece correctly. punctual. do not . than to be forced to return to it at a later time. for this would be a waste of time. A. It is not necessary that the fourth and if individual should be used continuously or uninterruptedly. do not expect merely pleasure and entertainment. not attending school should spend not practice from one to while those who aspire for artistic perfection should devote at least five less than from two to three hours in is your your daily practice. Never say questions. but rather to which honest work from lesson to lesson. Most pupils are satisfied with having learned to play the notes of a piece correctly. But in no case into two portions of fifteen minutes each. thereby gaining daily an extra quarter or half hour of practice. Do not clandestinely play pieces. Young persons that attend school ought to Set aside regular two hours daily according to their state of health. your progress is sure to be interrupted by passing Make it a cardinal principle to practice slowly and intelligently. until you have hours for practice and let nothing interfere with them. Take nothing for and note carefully. to six hours to the dailj study of their lesson. write it down If you find anything in the for this the teacher for the desired information. or this ambitious playing of pieces that are too difficult for the pupil. By constant reviewing the pupil gains more and more the mastery over all technical difficulties and thu<s he is enabled also to play with A m' "e freedom and expression. when you will discover all your deficiencies. No when Never practice pupils. simply because they lay the old ones aside. but read every sign whole mind to your work. Many pupils never have more than one piece they can play. then begins the real study. says utilize on the piano. and you will succeed. weary good . 'Tis a dishonest practice that is sure to injure you. ask for a repetition of the explanation. This nibbling. Never hasten. devoting say a half hour to technical studies may divide it should the time to be given to each branch of the lesson be reduced. Look not at the end of the road you are to travel. piece once mastered is of value. and mastered them. never be careless. Other divisions of time may be more profitable to the teacher no doubt will make the needed suggestions. and times to-day. on many things. that of playing it with expression. one fourth to reviewing. a diligent pupil may to the contrary it if almott sure to is to be derived from it in bodv or mind. and for this reason. and faithfully apply them when practicing.S a rule one fourth of this time should be devoted to technical studies. Pupils when part of the time to be devoted to the study of exercises. do to the Million. for that alone deserves to be called practice. and ask Be not afraid to ask questions. a power desire for knowledge. Be sure your teacher over a lesson without fully comprehending it. be careful that you wander not from the lesson in hand." Use every means at your disposal to obtain a correct appreciation ot you will find in the Musical Hints that keeps alive within you a love for work and a the art you are studying. Pay special attention to the difficult places. our advice to pupils by enjoining them to be faithful. . with When over of pieces and exercises not practice. These.KARL MERZ" riANO METHOD. diligent. then play the whole smoothly from beginning to end. however. Finally we would sum to their teachers. play them alone. and one half to the study 01 the new lesson. Read good musical books. as soon as a new one has been learned. the benefits to be derived therefrom are really great. not expect to become a perfect pianist in to perfect yourself in an longer time is necessary the strictest attention to your teacher's Pay remember all that has been told you. lesson that is not plain to you. Every intelligent teacher likes to have his pupils ask questions. We cannot enjoin enough upon pupils the necessity of reviewing. if for none other. so. Amateurs. it ought to be reviewed. like so much property gained. a celebrated teacher. is sure to be productive of evil results. a list of your daily work well. for the lesson hour is your own. take notes. so to speak. u' . asking is a sure indication of an active mind. It has cost so much time and labor. TO When PUPILS.

This you may largely do by asking quesIt is better that the student arrive at a truth through a course of judictions. No matter how carefully the teacher may. Show the lesson in hand from all possible sides. It is hotter at first to give daily lessons. Yield to the wishes of parents and pupils whenever you can do so without You will be the gainer in the end. have been. he who is eager for his lesson. sacrificing a principle in principle is sure to commend itself. give up your pupil. Explain everything in connection with the niece your pupil is studying. if necessary. others dislike the work and denounce it as too dry and uninteresting. while a good instructor manages to get along. and by inducing your pupila to do the same. Much time is thus wasted. convince yourself that it is thoroughly understood. If this cannot be done. and discourage all mere mechanical routine work. Thus the teacher is not only compelled often to go over the same lesson. or he who tries to escape from it f he who loves his profitable. but have actually acquired bad habits bad during practice hours. From the very first lesson train your pupila to think. The first lessons are of most importance. This would save much time and prevent many annoyances both to the pupils as well as to teachers. Strive to be a friend to your pupil. nor alike diligent. An incentive and original turn of mind enables the teacher who loves his work to infuse life into any subject he may take in hana In fact the genuine teacher will never be at a loss -for want of interesting illustrations and effective explanations. Be therefore patieut in waiting for an answer. Mere telling is not teaching. but he is by no means above it. Aaa mechanic fails to do good work though he have at his command the best tools. to see the result of your labors. It is better that inyour pupil play one piece perfect. Avoid conversing on subjects which are not connected with music. To cause a pupil to understand a truth. at least in the first quarter could have some one with them while they practice. and there is none so learned that he is above teaching the rudiments of an art like music. you yourself must be the soul that breathes ILe into it. Establish friendly relations between yourself and your pupils. Study the operation of your pupil's mind. never become a mere taskmaster. The A We ! A . for thereby you make your lessons pleasant and more Which pupil learns most. pupil with but little sentiment but posessed of a good technic may play some things well. to watch the operations of their minds. TO THE TEACHER. He who is not interested in it lacks the very first qualifications of a teacher. You can therefore not be too careful and too conscientious. and before proceeding to another. Music teachers no doubt have observed that young pupils become weary with lengthy music lessons. In order to think clearly. Some deem themselves above it. to study their disposition. The teaching of beginners can and ought to be made interesting. than to give two lessons a week each three quarters of an hour long. but make your explanations brief and concise. and to make them shorter. Impatience by word or action confuses and intimidates. ious questioning. however. for steadfastness but rather than do this. Always do good work. The intelligent teacher will readily see what he needs and what his more gifted pupils may leave unused. Much of that kind of information may be matle profitable as well as interesting. great patience on your part is necessary. This is all wrong. The rudiments themselves. The teacher may not be capable of giving such instructions. hasten. Use plain language in your lessons Do not theorize. even the slowest. let if be bestowed in the shape of well directed questions. In order to develop thought. Aim at a good technic. with a poor one. instruction book is simply to be your aid and guide. but at the same time allow the pupil's individuality to develop. for the simple reason that they are not alike gifted. do well. If aid is needed. Whatever you do. the first teacher lays the foundation for all future musical education. so the inferior teacher fails with the best book. The first lessons should be given by the best teachers.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. It is at any time interesting to teach children. will never accomplish much as a player. and it were better if young pupils. to observe how their mind and character develop. No instruction book can be written that shall exactly suit all pupils. Many teachers have lost pupils. while a skilled artisan succeeds even poor with poor tools. do not it makes pupils ambitious arid gives them self-confidence. because they were neither cheerful nor forbearing toward those whom they instructed. Hastening and driving accomplishes no good. of the high mission of art. than that he have a dozen each one of which is marred by imperfection. the 'teacher himself must be interested. because they were not capable of entering into the spirit of children. and strive faithfully to be true to it. quietness of mind is absolutely necessary. keep alive within vou a full appreciatio. who has no technic. Such assistance ought of course to be present in the lesson so as to hear all instructions given. spires. Only that which a pupil can say or write down in his own language. After such diversions return to your lessons and you will find that your child's mind is refreshed. we would advise you to enliven your lessons bj telling the children some musical stories. or he who does not care for him? their first teachers were not what they ought to have been. make your daily duty a pleasure. There are teachers who dislike to teach the rudiments of their art. to remember it and to practically apply it. Be true to your convictions as a teacher. rather lead than drive. Perfection Have a definite course in view with each pupil. contains sufficient material to satisfy the wants of all. have known not a few pupils that have taken a dislike to music because teacher. review constantly. neither command nor demand. if the teacher has the necessary ability. than to simply state it for his benefit. good instruction book. however. but in order to make it so. and use every possible means to awaken thought. in many cases he finds that his pupils have not only failed to remember his instructions. he. no matter how poetic and appreciative he may be. is teaching. By the side of a good technic do all you can to develop correct sentiment. patient even when the pupil commits errors. but also to counteract habits that have been acquired. see to it that your pupils play something by heart. This is the most interesting work any man can be engaged in. or he may be too lazy to do so. he understands and knows. though apparently dry and uninteresting may be made entertaining. however. etc.

called octave. The word loco which usually is placed at the end of the curved line. the brace gives us much additional room it does not suffice. however. which means that the notes over which is the curved line which follows Sva. When striking the eighth note with the first. is placed below the notes. we notice they sound alike.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. counted from below upward. we put the two staffs the sign means that the notes should be played an octave lower. higher." In order to avoid the introduction of too many names in our musical system. The notes on the gether. staff are usually played by the right hand. for reason they are made short. These note* are written upon five parallel lines These lines are enumerated as called the staff. many more. space ist space The being. '. seven letters of the alphabet are usea to name the notes. THE ELEMENTS OF MUSIC. have two kinds of notes in use. follows : legrer line above Ma* We & i 2d leger line below tae staff. 1 If theee lines it The names of the notes on the FACE -r- leger lines are : were lengthened out would be difficult for like those of the staff the eye to quickly place a note. Thioe are short lines ~~S G B D : P The names of the notes on the spaces are which apply to single notes. signifies that the notes should again be played in their natural position. like the lines of the staff. - space below the staff. 4 tli Hue -3th line nine -ist line- JCllIlK i lines are called spaces . we call the eighth The eighth tone is note by the same letter as the first. In order to write the notes which cannot be re- The name of the notes on the lines are : Though presented on the staff. being counted either up or down from the staff. The intervals between the like the lines are and these. About Notes. Masioal Bounds are represented by signs called notes. those which are white and those which are black ^. are distinguished by nnmbrB. the following sign is placed over notes 8tfo~~. The spaces between the leger lines are counted in a like manner .id Too many : leger lines would make it difficult to read notes. we use Keger or Added LJnes. There to- In order to avoid them. The Names of The first Notes. this E C . should be played an octave If the 8va-~~ however. The leger lines. staff therefore affords room for nine notes. those of the upper lower staff by the left hand. 3* space above the staff. calling this combination a brace.

and with notes with different names. Having given the names of the notes. and has is like the quarter note. Dm Note. 64th Note. therefore the following series of notes The Value of ISotes. with which the pupil must make himself thoroughly familiar. the thirty-second note three. series of tonei. Older pupils should not waste their lesson hour with committing notes to memory. which are equal to four fourths. and has no stem . but has a dash . white. Whenever it is used. and has a stem a stem the eighth note the quarter note is black. The following signs :-" G A BC We F Q ABC D E FG AB ODE to represent D E more pleasant use If the teacher finds it the notes in all the various kinds of notes commonly in use. which are equal to . the notes have the names as given them above. and sections. which is encircled by the clef. have divided the notes. 32dNote. they being divided into difYoung pupils should not be taxed with learning the notes by themselves. . because in our opinion the task Whole Note. The whole note is . The names of the lines are : note* on the spaces between the leger G We have B D DBG : 1 Observe the sign placed at the beginning of the above This is the treble or the G clef. 16ttNote. which are equal to eight eighths . is The following The whole note table represents the respective value of these various kinds of notes. Let the teacher There are many illustrations which drill them in the lesson. is of learning them ferent classes made easier. Hall Note. is called G.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. is white. their consecutive order as given here. that will make the task of learn- ing the notes pleasant and easy for the child. the sixteenth note has two dashes. let us now consider their various forms and time values. They can do this as well by themselves. the half note the teacher may introduce. In a later lesson you will be made acquainted with another clef. Each note represents a different time value. equal to two halves. let him follow this plan. Quarter Note. and the sixty-fourth note four. It is so called because the note placed upon the 2d line of the staff.

About Whole note. 3*d note Observe the difference between whole and half note T reits. rit & equal to is equal to is equal to is . however. many Rests are signs which denote silence. and so forth. Quarter note. half and quarter notes. Measure. Two heavy ing lines or bars indicate that an entire piece or a part thereof has come to a close. nor by the fact that in Aie notes are witt*n singiy with dashes or put together groups. Half note. By combining two ^ measures we produce the ^ measure which is a compound time. Measure. The measure containing four beats is also called simple common time. Eighth note. leaving the others until or amusements. that there must be two quarters or their equivalent in every measure. common and triple time . The Bar and The the Measure. dividthe music into measures of an equal length. equal to is equal to ' r r \ ^ The same rule applies to rests. the simplest common time consists of two beats to a mena ure. making in years. only consider To THE TSACHBR. Thus ^ means. in which a piece -itten is indicated at the beginning. nominator indicates what kind of notes they are. If V The A dot placed after a note a dotted a dotted half note Dot.IO The value of the note is KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. With quarter dollars. notes. while the de- . the fiu presses same length of ger must be removed from the key for the if a whole note rest occurs. which means that there must be four quarters or their equivalent in each measure. There are as kinds of rests as there are kinds of notes. up or down. Time. i This time is indicated by a C. while the simplest triple time has three. The relative value of notes can easily be explained and to children with the aid of money the whole. Rests. without Every piece oi music must be written The time it no music can exist in regular time. Two dots before the heavy lines indicate that the last part is or the who!* piece to be repeated. Measure. thus : whole note & a dotted quarter note a dotted eighth note a dotted sivteenth note . time The relative value of the rests is placed above them. pupils more advanced With children we would There are two kinds of time. not effected by the manner in which the stem is placed. Grown they are introduced into exercises should study the form and value of all the pupils. its increases value one jalf. the same as that of the notes by playing a whole note the fingx the key until four beats have been counted. bar rs a perdendicular line drawn over the staff'. l6th note. practice should be empkyed. Usually it is expressed by fractions.. the enumerator indicating how many notes of a certain kind are to be in a measure. the whole. . Bar. half the quarter dollar the unit.

thus I one I : zz is is put upon the first and | In nine-eighth time the emphasis fourth and seventh beats. In four-fourth time the accent third beat. thus : 1 one I 1 two three foi The following played. n A A A . thus : laid upon the first. exercises may Observe the accents. I three I I 01 i I I I I 1 two four.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. I I I I In six-eighth time the accent fourth beats.

nat(Jj) ural sign restores a tone to its that which it original pitch. Next strike A. Place your finger on the middle black key in a group of three. then take the next black key to the right (#) (b) flat is A A by the terms ritardando. by this sign p PIANO. is CRESCBXDO. sharped. Sharp. like the one eight tones below. a sign which lowers a tone a half step. If this tone is flatted. all the Fs. The next white key is called B. Name all the white keys of the entire keyboard After this find all the Cs. is to be sharped. with great Indicating that a note to be played force. which indicates tempo with mathematical accuracy. distance from any one key to the next. you must take the next black key below. Ak A# names. are move D#. the next C. In a like F. Allegretto. we must take the key E. then move it to the next white key. right side of the key-board is accent. 2. E. no doubt. and then you have The following some of the expression marks vaich : cur most frequently in music finger B ff f FORTISSIMO. and the next black key below is called Ab. F and G. C. the key of Now place your finger on B. be it black or a half step or half tone. nor so fast that passages become indistinct. G# and A#. Andante. like the notes. Presto. The Key-board. Next place your finger on the key C. and then Cjf (C sharp). loud. Grave. Find in a like manner F#. Now put your on B. are placed in groups of twos and threes. DECRESCENDO. accelerando. Strike the key C. all the Ds and so forth. the left side The white keys. is called The key The pupil should keep an even ercises and pieces. Medium S^SFORZANDO. is called and thus the names are A repeated throughout the entire key -board. Find now Di?. indicates that the foot should be now name F# also represents Gfe. an instru- ment has been invented. Expressed by the terms Largo. and so forth. as Qz. you must take the key fftf MEZZOFORTE. which. When playing works by the older masters. : Larghetto. that every black key has two names. Gradually expressed by this sign I^= So-called loud PEDAL fled. etc. The black keys There are three different movements recognized 1. have been accepted for the purpose of known and indicating tempo. are named A. Expressed by Allegro. When the proper time for the use of the Metronome comes. indicated by its own character. Gradually getting louder. called tempo rubato. it is indicated tempo throughout his exof swaying to and fro with skipped. The tempo of a piece of music is best is to be performed. D. Tempo and Expression Marks. Having explained time and called high. etc. we must take the white key B. the entire white. The pupil should the keys of the instrument. should be avoided altogether by younger pupils. B. Flat and Natural Signs. Adagio. Vioace. MODERATELY FAST. with all removed from their it. the one to the right side. is when F is flatted. Formerly the tempo as expressed by the above terms was taken somewhat Blower than now. This key is called A. The tempo should never become so slow that melodic connection is destroyed. is - manner when E is FORTE. there being no black key to the right. BLOW. After that we again come to a key between the second and third black key. also indicated Soft. however. <1 by this sign ^-rea. GJf also represents also repersents B(>. sharp is a sign which raises a tone a half step. Efe and GK. the original time after changes in its tempo have been it ie terms and you have indicated by the terms a tempo or tempo primo. these. Very loud. Prestiss- Andantino. to make the composer's ideas quicker certain Italian words better understood. therefore. Familiarize yourself thoroughly with the names of all the keys. If the movement is to be accellerated.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. FAST. known as Maelzel's Metronome. there being no black key immediately below it. The low. the teacher. Expressed by Moderate. The pupil will observe Thus. the distance is called a whole step or whole tone. The names of the black keys are derived from E. To THE PUPIL. The practice the time. if it Put your finger on D. take the next white key which is C. If the time in a piece of music is to be retarded. In a like manner when striking F. star also exalso getting softer. If this tone is flatted. Thse terms being in themselves very indefinite. or that to the left. indicated by the made. this fact should be borne in mind. rallentando it is A or smorzando. etc. F and G. key -board is divided into half If one is steps or half tones. imo. Half Step and Whole Step. to the next black key to the right. we now will speak of or the rapidity of movement in which apiece of music tempo. oc- If the player is to return to strintjendo. you must. . will explain it. pp 'I PIANISSIMO. 3. In order. Loud. D. had before it was raised or lowered. Very soft.

the key D must be struck. to a piece.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. if placed at the beginning of a piece. affect all notes with the same names on which these signs have been placed. sharps. sharped. fingering 1. is If a double flat is placed before flat D. 5. therefore. parta of the same piece have %= Bs 2d. arm form a joints. 2. them fully explains : it means that hereafter only the Fs are to be and no longer the Cs. however. in which they occur. 2. and so forth. t sharp. A About the Piano. while a double flat lowers it a Two A whole step. have this signature : The pupil should be seated opposite the middle of the keyboard. for instance. : Two kinds cross of The mark stands for the thumb. If a double sharp is placed before C. a good fingering lessens them. 3. If a double sharp is placed before E. straight line from the elbow to the middle finger- A sharp. thereof. therefore. 3. Thus : A the effects of sharps. then follow the 1st. : this signature : The German fingering. strictly enjoined to watch this German bad fingering adds difficulties part of his lessons closely. without moving the body. 4 and 5. Thus the following signature'indicates that all B s and E s are to be flatted. 2. it is. throughout the measure Two sharps or a double sharp is represented thus ss. If a double Bt? must be used. The elbows should be kept near the body. 4. are placed at the beginning of a piece. is it means that the tone to be lowered a whole step and that. must be provided for children. far enough from it to allow the upper and lower arm to form an obtuse angle. Foot-retf |L . THE FOLLOWING TABLE QIVBS ALL THE NAMES OF THE KEYS ON THE INSTRUMENT. also to enable the right to reach it mean* that hereafter the only are to be flatted and not the upper and the left hand the lower keys. Suppose one of the If two the fingering are used in music. flat or natural sign. which is is flat or natural which occurs in a measure and not placed at the beginning of a piece or a part Such signs are only effective called an accidental. 3. understand this subject. If any of the parta. American fingering x. to wit American fingering. If so. use of a correct fingering is of the utmost importance The to the student . no matter which ilaces of the staff they may occupy. all F s and all C s are to be sharped. The piano-stool should be so adjusted. the kej key C should be used. or of a part thereof. the key F$ is to be struck. The figure 1 stands for the thumb. 1. 1. 3 and 4. which is this wise 1. 2. double sharp flats or a double flat is written thus (22. Fingering. the c placed bef >re /. so that the pupil may thoroughly To THE TEACHER. In a like manner flats operate. which is as follows: x. raises a tone a whole step. the 2 for what in AmerThe following ican fingering is the 1st finger. that the theEs. Make as many combinations as possible. Catechise your pupils thoroughly as to flats and natural signs. 4. 3d and 4th fingers.

the back should shorter but more frequent lessons. Keep the hand and arm perfectly still. therefore often forced to undo what has been done badly bedents. None other in the first lessons. To strike of all others.O_ tt-tf. the arm should remain perfectly still. develop the flexa most important practice for the pupil.. Place the hand in the proper position. raise the finger without the hand. This is Hand. Owing to the carelessness of young stu- often overlooked. . hence the hand is compelled to move somewhat. losing time and causing b uself as wtil as his pupil. 7 H K lit Hand. and move it from the knuckle-joint. L. and for this reatouch of the piano. Lett Hand. t"Le following exercises are designed to ibility of the fingers. j j j . The hand should assume an easy position. H. yet its position should not materially vary. but nails. allow no other finger to move except the one used. . The keys should be and not with the while practicing. Move the finger from the key as soon as the "When about to : next finger strikes. When about ready to play the first exerthe hand over the keys. When must reach forstriking a black key. : much annoyance to For this reason we recommend While the pupil may during the playing of the following exercises look at his hands in order to notice whether they are in the right position. thus allowing only one tone to sound at a time. this lesson is tween lessons. 3 H press the keyt represented by the whole notes quietlj down. : r~r~r J. The Wrist Action. so that each of the finplace From the natural the key it is to strike. person watch over the pupil touched with the fleshy part of the fingers The thumb must iiot be allowed to hang down. unless there be a rest in the music. then faster. gers rests over of the hand it will bo seen. The teacher should the fingers from the careful to see to it. There should be no interval of rest between the two tones. without contracting or extending the finmoving force to produce gers . that the second finger position stands somewhat further in upon the key-board than the cises. on the key-board by the side of ought to be given a place the other fingers. The following cut represents the position of the hand when striking the keys with the wrist-action. also that some grown neither bend inward uor outward. : A Left Hand. the basis son its operation as well as its importance should be made should be used by the pupil plain to the pupil. yet in no case should strike a key. The following eral fingers upon the key -board others. the fingers of course ward. then strike rapidly and with sufficient a good tone. I. H. The Touch. that the student does not strike the keys by raising the arms the normal from the knuckle-joints or wrists. he should not look at them for the purpose of hunting the keys. M. first slow. He should as much as possible endeavor to find them by the feel of his fingers. FIRST LESSON.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. . it reach in between the black cut illustrates the position of the sevkeys. Avoid all unnecessary motion of head or hands as well as all contortions of face. -* i 0-*- n. The wrist alone should move. s>ga ^O. then play the quarter notes. and thus they acquire a The teacher is false touch while practicing by themselves. and is absolutely necessary before attempting the lessons that follow. H. IO H. The keys should be struck by raising be knuckle-joint.

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p. 18 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. 6 5 Q 3 ft . Different notes in both hands.

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FIRST DUETT.20 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. f m f m f m f . SECOIVDO.

.KARL MERZ PIANO METHOD. .

that The names of dots. we familiar with the notes written will now turn our attention to clef. BASS NOTES. -el-el-el sj O < M 8 8 8 O 8 8 <! O W o ~ P W 8 8 O 8 S o o ** Tft T o o 8 8 8 o o o - o 8 8 feO f Tff 11 \. Having become somewhat in the Treble or The names of the Bass notes upon the leger lines are : spaces between the G clef. This C is called the middle C. The student will observe that the last Bass and the first E G E O Treble notes represent one and the same key upon the piano. The following table shows the notes for every key upon the instrument. r |o| AIB c|n|i |D|E F|G|A|B c [p|i . is called F. and the teacher should not proceed with the following lessons until the Bass notes are thoroughly learned.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. The teacher may facilitate the lessons by drawing the pupil's attention to the that Bass notes are read two tones higher than the Treble notes.j B C |p|l j |D|E. The names of the Bass notes on the Having employed the Bass clef. that they are played two octaves lower. but attention should be drawn to the fact. : m fact. we are now able to represent upon the staff all the notes used in music. m m A 8 8 8 A G E G leger lines are . B D F F the Bass notes upon the five lines are D B B D F A 1 : The names of the Bass notes on the four spaces are These notes the pupil must commit to memory. the notes written in the F is or Bass It is called F clef because the note whieh which lies between the two written on the fourth line.

.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

' (Quarter notes and rests. iyr_f v * i . Slow.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

r

KARL MERZ'

"PIANO

METHOD.

26

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

*7

28

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.
Five-Finger Exercises.

to develop flexibility oi absolutely necessary for the pupil. They are designed the fingers. Without practicing them no pertne hand and fingers, strength and eveness of touch, independent action of and care. The mere playing son can become a good pianist. The student should, therefore, practice them with perseverance for hours without deriving any benefit from them. They will only prove of them does no good. pupil may play them with a motionless hand, the fingers striking from the knuckle-joints. Watch your hands, therefore, profitable when played Never strikes. while plaving them. Always raise the fiuger which lies on the keys, at the same instant that the other Strike all the keys with equal force. Inasmuch as the fourth and fifth fingers are allow two tones to sound together. each about twenty times, first with single hand weak, greater efforts are required when using them. Play these exercises Never let a practice hour pass without first playing ami very slow afterwards with both hands and increased velocity. that these exercises. Rather neglect the other part of your lesson, than omit playing these exercises. It is not necessary will enable the teacher few selections the pupil should play all these exercises for the teacher when reciting his lesson. to see what progress the pupil has made, ai d in what condition his hands are.

A daily practice of these Exercises is

A

A

^__

__!_._ _____

KARL MERZ- PIANO METHOD.

*9

30

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. &* .

Surely youth is the best time in life to receive impressions. for only then will they derive true pleasure and real bcneiit from their studies. it the first leger line above the staff. proper proportions of lomlness between the air and accompaniment? All pupils. namely. on ot reading the same notes upon different degrees of the staff. This gives the student an opportunity new note is introduced for the left hand namely 0. however. Sentiment should be stimulated. - In the following exercise the treble is written an octave lower than heretofore. and give the melody that prominence which in a previous lesson we said it should h'ave. EEt 3 . lth measure the hand changes position. In the A nannies its original position. but in the 13th measure. should be taught to play with expression. EVENTIDE. It is a truism which every teacher ought to accept. that without impressions.KARL MERZ PIANO METHOD. no expression is possible. For this reason the pupil's imaginative powers should be awaken. even those who are young in years or have but recently begun thuir musical studies. air below very slow. and the pupil should be induced to give expression to it Play the N\'hat are the through the medium of ton*. strengthened and properly guided.

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. .

*=*1 1 *= 53^ l_a_ ^=P^ HV 8- jEf-Ff-F". 2 z$rr+^ . ? 3 * P33 ** *=+ P=P=fEO: B-C* FT ^ 6 6 5 5 P*f ^^n=^ 5 -3 ^ I I - zS^EEFF^F FH -FH h I 6 t -^-- 4 o 4 3 9 3 *- -p-f^F-^ a +- ^ 3S5S^ a -4_^Z3I -9 a~* F=S-^ g i . r.^^ J i ! tPd^ i FIT" i i F^T^P= vfjrfrfrt^ I I -a .34 KARL MERZ PIANO METHOD.

and as such have no effect beyond the measure.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. softly. Play this little piece in moderately lively time. All the exercises and amusements A thus far up"1 have been written in the key of C. simultaneously struck. In the 9th measure three tones are struck together. MAY DANCE. 5 4 . -nelody may he well heard. Hold the hand veip 35 Play it sull while playing the first eight measures of the accompaniment. a combination of tones. is called a chord. which has no signature. so that the succession of tones is called a melody. In the 13th and 15th measures a sharp is introduced. These are simply accidental sharps.

and knuckle-joint only. -* ^:2_. are designed tor four fingers. 3234 r P i-fi- =P=p: 4= 3 3 2 2 3 -9 3234 f * -S 4 3- I 1234321 *-+ 32123 a 3 4 s 4 a 2 5 4 3 2 3 4 fi ^P^ 43 234 -P- tt . strike with Be your fingers from the 323 3234 43 343 2 1 3 2 ^. Keep it still.36 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. the following careful to give all fingers an equal touch. The preeeeding five-Finger Exercise s were for three fingers only. Hold your hand right. 5 ss. = 4==f= X * ix* 8 S - P P- 5^ ^ 5^ ^ P=2 Five-Finder Exercises.

37 .KARL MERZ* PIANO METHOD.

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. and therefore it aftecta all the F's in the entire piece. familiar air. change in the fingering from the 9th to the 10th measures. Play the piece slowly. 1 2 4 2 . which has one sharp. have thns far played in but one key. F-sharp is placed at the beginning of each line. Observe the unless otherwif-e indicated by s natural sign. a key which has neither sharps nor flats as a siglu the following will now step live tones upward from C to the key of G. SWEET HOME. Slorr. emphasize the melody well. namely on F. All F'B. HOME. namely. play the We W C base smoothly and softly. that of major. will be sharped without any special eign applied to the note. nature.

39 GENTLE HEART. RONDO.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. 3 4 5 3 1 2 .

40 .

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.
PRIMO.

HAPPY DREAMS.
Pui*il.
Moderate*

Rondo.

Third Duett.

*

4

ft

4

f

343

23

4*

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.
Five-Finger Exercises.

32

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5

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I I I

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4

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KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

44

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

In the following amusement triplets are introduced both in the treble and in the bass. When many triplets follow each other, it is not considered necessary to put the figure 3 over each group of three notes. Observe all expression marks. Play the melody loader than the bass.
.

LITTLE SPRING FLOWER.
234

Andante.

KARL MERZ PIANO METHOD.
(

45

46

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

2

1

232

*

4

2

323
/U
4 J

5

2

3

5

4

3

2

1

323

5

i 47 4 i a 3 a . a 3 a 3 4 ! 4 .KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

legato. should receive attention. . as will be Men from the illustration below. being of most importance in music. The connected When The withdrawn from the keys. . while the fingers are quickly Another style of staccato is executed by the wrist-action of which we shall speak in another place. for the legato touch. indicated by dots thus playing staccato the hand remains still just ae in the legato style of playing. staccato. ID the following Etude there is a combination of the legato and staccato touch. staccato is or by dashes tit placed over or under the notes. they are to be played in the legato style.. ETUDE. for without them success is not possible. They ought to be the daily study of every faithful pupil. the first is called simply staccato.48 KARLV'MERZ' PIANO METHOD. In all the Five Finger Exercises thus far used. before the full value of the note has expired. There are several ways of producing this effect. "We will now dwell more fully on this subject. The detached or staccato style is the opposite of the This is accomplished by lifting the fingers from the for it separates the notes as if there were rests between them. One of them is by keys motion of the fingers towards the palm of the hand. we simply employed the legato touch. or legato style of playing we have thus far used. The last is called the full "When no dots are placed over the notes. and in the future we shall have to introduce still other exercises of the same character. and should incessantly be practiced. In one of the previoui exercises we have spoken of the staccato touch.. STACCATO TOUCH. All the exercises pre constantly simply designed to develop the technic of the player.

and is designed to overcome cer- Etude for Staccato Playing. ^p IN the first THE MEADOW. Let the teacher first two notes. RONDO. . but play the second very short. when it is written in the form of a piece.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. called an Etude.form. that is. * M ' m. art. 49 When an exercha assumes it is tain technical difficulties. Moderate. play the lesson for the pupil.

I 3 2 first The following amusement begins with an incomplete measure. eighth note must be added to the last measure. The SWISS AIR. Observe the staccato notes. The last measure of the piece is also incomplete.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. whereby it becomes complete. . Allegretto.

1331 2342 34^3 3342 5436 4324 323 4324 L_3 3J-2348 345 32342 1 23 1 2342 34S3 2343 5435 4324 33 3 4334 B * 4 fl 4 8 5 3 4 2 453 4341 o 3 '* f 2 a 9 9 ^~ 4 3 4 ^~f~^ . 5 4 32 3 fl Hi! The following exercises must be played in the legato style.3 fe et Five-Finger Exercises. i .KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

r^ c . SECOKDO. A LITTLE AUTUMN \\'-\ LEAF.52 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. tie* that the pupil accents the first note in each measure. FonrthD ett.

.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

54 .

.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

.j>v* * ** 2 343243 2*3 232 132 2^2312 1 .KARL MERZ PIANO METHOD. ( Exercises 'With the When Hand Moving. playing these exercises the hand must move qnickly over which are not employed in the proper position. Keep the the key-board without rising or einking..j. hand. especially the fingers a nx -s vf f 9 u 9 m m 8 t 3 8 f- * m I m- 3 83 * 3 1 8 -^.

Observe that the treble clef appears in the lower staff of the second part. and to close where the word Fine stands. PEACEFUL DREAMS. means to play the piece over again. Andante. . 57 Play the following piece slowly and with proper expression.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. Da Capo al Fine. Emphasize the melody.

Hold the hand -t them first witk the lower fingering and then employ the upper. Exercises for the Play Hand Moving.KARL MERZ* PIANO METHOD. 443-a 54 -3 a a fr-JBgihrta . still.

Play this Hondo with harp again in the third. .KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. life and with great smoothness throughout. RONDO. Vivace. and the THE MERRY SLEIGHRIDE. Notice the natural sign in the second part.

-i*-1 mf ^-p p ^ -l-i. l=s: *.60 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. . -yf-T * Sa ^^fc ' S 3 1 1 ** ^ ^5 23461 ec 8 21 r * * Observe the changing of fingering on the same key.

NO METHOD.KARL MERZ' P:A. 1 j t t .

which indicates that the note or chord over or stands. unless otherwise indicated by a natural sign. Gracioso. sign /y\ which occurs in this piece. has one sharp. .KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. The Key of C. This it does however only outwardly so. The Key of G. which lies five tones higher than C. In order to be perfectly Inasmuch as every piece of music ends upon the principal sure. we chord of the key. The following under which it lowest tone also indicates the key. which is placed on B. namely on F. In the following little Polka we five tones downward from C we reach the Key of F. had will now introduce one in the Key of F. B flat instead of B natural. is a pause or hold. Having played amusements in the Key of C and G. with one flat. From the foregoing it will be play. seen that the signature indicates the key of the piece. is to be held at least double it* time value. its FAIRY POLKA. therefore. the pupil should also look at the close of the Polka. When stepping neither sharps nor flats.

The notes with the double stems should therefore be played heavier than those with single stems. The piece is written in two voices. Legato. Play the piece slowly and with much expression. Those notes which have double stems constitute the melody. ^ _i me 3 352515 10 i I i =* I ^ ritanlando. the other the accompaniment. -5 ^ 63 >--I 5 6 3 1 1 * ? i P M -0i * i * In the following recreation appear notes with donble stems. 5 1 *-j-* -*-* 5 f S mf I H Bi &SF f * 53 161515 1615 i 1516 m rr i ill i rit. The melody is thus written in order that the pupil may see it plainer and also emphasize it better. 352515 2515 4 S 3 5 2 5 3 5 8 6 I.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. LOVE'S DREAM. 352515 2515 iiiDt: ti^ mf r 453525 SC15 HI ES=5Ei3t mf F HI H p-t ^ JE 4=* SE ^ ^ mf i -- .

** t 5 11615 6 m 5 1. 151-515 :t f ^ i 1515 2 ^ ^ i ^ _5 1 6 8 1. ^ mf EE r 4-*- 1t . 6 1616 1 1616 6 '53515 mf r Titardando. _6 1.64 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. _.

Hold the half notes and dotted quarter notes while playing the exercises. 1-^-232 5432 6 4341234 5 1434 1234 1 3316 4 1 23454 .KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. Jfor the expansion of the hand. Five-Finger KxerciSCS.

It and the first half of the fourth note. eighth of the third note constitutes the second quarter of the measure. we count To the second half of this note we count four. it and adding to in tied notes. if BO it may be called. together with the first three. To the second half of the second note we count two.66 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. ^ The teacher must be and copation occurs frequently. it is called Syncopation. This half. There are four quarters in this measure. constitute the-third quarter. Syncopation becomes . In a like manner chords may be Syncopated : H more difficult. may be seen from this- i** r we i * i ^^ * To the second half of the third note. and unless pupil. m as "With notes of smaller value. consequently before we count two the second note must be struck. will Exercise. SYNCOPATION. often occurs in music. the last eighth of the measure first obtain the fourth Let the pupil play it as below and then as above. it is * * comprehension of this division of time. The note on the first beat is but an eighth note. for synbe a continuous source of trouble both to teacher careful that the pupil has a correct mathematical thoroughly understood. To illustrate this lesson we will write it out quarter. Tbii rhythmical irregularity. Commencing upon In the following example this is illustrated: light time is held over into heavy time. 1 234 . Wlien a musical sound.

KARL .

68 -0 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. 54 9- 3^ ^f- I 5 4 3 a z .

a i 69 33 3 4 1 143 2 a 52 83 a 4 S i 4 a a ia 3 4 5 -f * -0-r-f- .KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

70 .

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. 4346 ..*. Vrf i yi IS Ssffel > S ^ ^ rjt ^fitf eres..:.}.. Fir! g tf r . t-^ ^ f^M^ 5 ^^^ . PRIMO.43 ^rrn r f r F ffl=J=? 10 f^^ }. 11 POLONAISE t 5 Sixth Duett.

Seventh Duett.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. ROMANCE. SECONDO. ores. *p P * ^ < .

JrVARL MERZ riANO METHOD. 73 .

Play each number smoothly and rapidly. Play from the knuckle-joints. Exercises in Thirds.74 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. and them first slow and then fast. force. When exercises be careful that both fingers strike the keys at the same time and with *jqual practicing the following These exercises should be played first with raise your fingers as high as possible. Listen very carefully to your playing and each hand alone. then both hands together. persevere nntil you can play 3454 34 54 5 * ^F=S=f ^ ^ f *=:= * e? E= ** + V' ft 4 * .

Lift your hands from the keys during the rests. 5-5 * . Play in the leyato style. 75 3*3434343 323232 34 3 5 6 LITTLE STUDY.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. and count carefully.

.<. Andante. DARLING.76 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. i ror the purpose of practicing runs in thirds. ETUDE.. S 343 434 212 12 P 1 -1 1 JT*~S t--t s=i=i=*=*=* m 343 323 12 5 4 5 1 t t=t 323 232 . This Etude Slow. Play slow and smoothly. i * * * i 323 4 5 i4 *^=* i m f-ffr ^sh ^^ 1=2: * ? r-r^ ^T 1 ^=^ *-*- i CE ^ : ^= ap 5 GOOD NIGHT. E iff * .

77 .KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. hand should not be raised. The 43214321 43214321 . Changing the fingers upon one key is called tremolo. REPEATING NOTES. Play first with each hand alone. This style of playing must be executed very smoothly. then play together.

^ . 79 MOUNTAIN ECHOES. o'fow?.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

-4 8 -9 1 9 4 a a i a f 9- w= i a i i 2 3 . EXUDE.So KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. 2 3 -9- Allegretto.

and the hand should move simply from the wrist. The forearm remains in a horizontal position and does not move with the hand. The hand should assume hand in all its parts should act as a whole. Especial care must be taken. When striking let the finger which is to touch the key -board move a little forward. Exercises in Wrist-action* '^ ' * T . This touch is the second mode of staccato playing. WRIST-ACTION. Neither should the knuckles protrude. striking the key-board.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. In the legato style of playing the hand remained stationary the position as given in the following illustration : . 8x in the wrist-action it is moved. let the student not neglect practicing daily After playing the five-finger exercises legato. The fingers should remain firm and stationary. while the others recede somewhat. that in moving the hand the single fingers remain firm and do not move. this wrist-action. and most diligently exercises with the the student may play the same also with the wrist-action. the When While studying legato touch. H" 1 1 r " " i -L=f *t i f -^_ _ _ 2 - .

82 .

KARL MERZ' .

(Wrist-action. (Wrirt-touch.84 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.) 6655 ? \ \ ETUDE. 5 555 A STRANGE STORY. Moderate.) . Moderate.

. was required to hold down two keys while one finger Btruck a third. Five-Finger Exercises. We will now hold three keys down and employ the other two. but unless they are faithfully and thoroughly practiced. These exercises may prove to be distasteful to young players.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. Do not strikt 3ie keys to In the very first lessons the pupil be held down. Hold your hands correctly. and then play the exercises. the pupil will not succeed in mastering the piano. simply press them silentlj down.

quicker and quicker every daj . There are people." The student will see from the that his musical education is a two-fold one. t f SCALES. The student should daily practice scales and five-finder exercises. The following exercises have this lesson in view. with suitable amusements. Schumann. The study of suitable pieces and exerinterspersed cises must be carried on Bide by side. who think they may :" " You must attain to every- thing by doing this. etc. Let neither be neglected. until a ripe age they daily practice mechanical exercises for many hoars. the celebrated composer and author. A GALOP. As in thumbs. He must foregoing develop a good technic and cultivate correct taste in playFor this reason. we largely upon scales. Make a better use ot your time. B. C. are passed over the will first The practice this motion. or the fingers pass over the thumb. from the wrist. the exercises are ing.86 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. in one waj or in another. so that the thumb-joints may be made flexible. That is as reasonable as trying to pronounce A. and thetbirdand second . for there is scarcely a piece of music that does nc c introduce the scales the thumbs are passed under the other fingers. however. smoothness of passages and scales depends upon the manner in which the thumb passes under the other fingers. THE FOUNTAIN. for without them success as a pianist The art of piano playing depends is not possible. Flexibly. Bays in his " Rules and Maxims for Young Musicians industriously practice scales and other finger exercises.

while the thumb and fingers should move.2 1433 rT^rn _a a . Move the hand as little as possible.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. When putting the thumb under the hand should not turn. 2 fingers or the fingers over the thumb the 2 3 3 2 1 12313. Preparatory Exercises for Scales.

000 p A A A A A A V V V V I -s * A A r r * frr r m BSE A- 30 3^ rit. emphasize the notes placed by the left hand. Also bring out the melody given to the right hand to bo played. r^f A A A A i ^ A A 7 rr m ? A A A . *5 " gg= r r F=* Thia little piece looks more difficult than it is. Play slowly and softly. The main lesson is the crossing of the hands. Read it over carefully and you will find it easy. SWEET CHIMES. Observe the ritardandos at the close of each part. when crossing the right.88 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. -A A A ^ a tempo. Soft and Slow.

but both arm and hand must be steady. like a succession of balls of There should be no intermission between any of the tones. Remember the thumb is stronger than either of the other fingers. then loud. the arm may be moved somewhat from the body. as has already been stated. As it is considered more difficult to pass the thumb under the longer lows that the ascending scale in the right hand and Listen carefully while you practice scales. scale thus played is always pleasing to the ear. let them . Scales must at first be played slowly.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. the hand may be slightly bent inward or outward. A The main difficulty of scale practice. Hear each single tone and listen to the whole series of tones as to their smoothness and eveness of strength. there must be no motion of the arms. raise the fingers as high as possible. In order to produce this effect constant and attentive practice is required. hands and arms. After the scale has been practiced to a good degree of velocity and eveneas of touch it should be played soft. nor should one be stronger than the other. Thus only will you produce a good clear tone. then also crescendo or decrescendo. BO that the student may watch the fingering and the eveness of his touch. while the third and fourth are the weakest. fingers than to pass these over the thumb. the mere running of the fingers over the keys is not intelligent practice. lies in the passing of the thumb under the:longer fingers and in passing these over the thumb. size. In the use of the one restraint is necessary. scale in the left. If a mistake occurs it is best for the pupil to begin over again. so that there may be no delay or interruption. the descending it' fol- Always strike the keys from the knuckle-joints when playing scales. Always move the thumb under the other fingers just when it is ready to strike. "WTien doing this. the same be played until the entire tone-chain appears even like a string of beads. should be especially well drilled. 9 About Scale Each scale should Practice. There must be no turning of the hands. as if they were wings in motion. in that of the others strength must be increased. Watch both as if they were moving on a pivot. and descend perpendicularly upon the middle of the keys.

. then yom 1 fin- va irfff. Play first Blow. Raise In this Etnde scales are practiced with the right hand and in one octave only. Play strong and clow. ETUDE. fast. gers high.9o KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

Octave are the most important intervals. Prime. All intervals represented above intervals au Major. to C there is no distance. the 2d and 3d. have thus far only used the major scale. it is the be- ginning and the ending. Bear in mind the fact. namely. however. therefore. only twelve of either mode. Intervals. two half-steps in the C major scale. hence they are only counted as one. Second. to wit major : There are in all twenty-four major and twenty-four minor scales The names of the scales used are Major. sharps and flats must be introduced. which is also often called the Mediant. and between the 6th and 7th. and the 7th and 8th. From C to is the sixth. the chromatic. find that it consists of two equal halves. always called the Dominant. The pupil must now study the subject of scales. Scales in one octave played with the left hand. 3d and 4th. Fourth. Third. Fifth. BJZ F G also DJt D. Octave. From C to B is the seventh. When starting a scale and the tone to which we return. from C to D is a second. the diatonic. we called perfect Fourth. G D A E B FjorGiz A E B F$ C$ G D or C Diz EJZ Eft fill F. About Scales and Three kinds of practically used. Seventh.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. . and enharmonic. Fifth and Sixth. the 4th and 5th. & . From tone from C. ETUDE. and D is so called because it is the second a third. while whole steps are found between the 1st and 2d. From C to G is the fifth. the eighth or octave. it we is call C the key-note. is A From : to C i. practically we Afz use. in the lessons on harmony attached to this book. between the all other intervals consist of whole steps. because it the principal tone . so and EJ2 minor. Minor. the 5th and 6th. From C to F is the fourth. Of course in the above enumeration Fu and GJZ major are regarded as the same . :t>sd i feEH and Sixth are often When examining the scale of C. this For the same reason from C is called a to E generally called the sw6-(or lower) dominant. The following represents Minor 5 The major Fourth. that all major scales are built like the C major scale. Fifth and By making them a half-step smaller they become Minor. Sixth. and in order to make them conform to this model. each having a half-step while There are. The Third. We The scales are recognized in music. The distance from one tone to another is the tone from which we start out is called an Interval. prime . Fifth. Fourth. B is called the leading tone. They are exactly alike. In other words in C. Only the first two are and minor. diatonic scale has two modes. namely.

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. 3=1: .

and then only for the highest note in the right. The C scale in Contrary motion being the easiest. The fourth is only used in the white keyed scales excepting in the right hand of the scale of F. the thumbs fall on the white scales of F-sharp ones. begin with the first finger in the right hand. never by the fifth. F-sharp. The thumb is placed on the 4th and 7th with both hands. DNote to the Teacher. fingering nevertheless. while the thumb falls on the third and seventh. The fourth finger is always used on the 7th of the sc^'e. A-flat. in which it is used twice in the first octave. F and G-flat excepted. Usually the scales are introduced in the following order: C. B-flat. that of The following general rules apply to the right hand only. These rules have been introduced as a guide for your pupil. D. B. but in all other octaves B is played by the thumb. is The second i fingers are always used in both left hands at the same time. Do not use the thumb on a black key in In broken or solid chords it scales or runs. According to this rule. hence they have the same fingering. while the groups of twos should be played with the ist and 2d fingers. that the first five scales all have the same we will adopt a different order. A. the groups of threes should be played with the ist. E-flat. Fand G-flat. The third. B. with The scales are divided into five classes. falls on C and F in both hands. in keys. however. F excepted. is first introduced. E. The following general rules apply to the left hand only. As all the black keys are used in these scales. The The scale of P. scales of B-flat. ist. F. All flat keys. D. The more rules are grounded in the pupil's mind. especially in so far. each other. A-flat and D-flat. fourth and fifth fingers never cross As a rule do not use the same finger for two succeeding keys. In all flat scales the third finger of the right hand plays B-flat while the thumb plays C and F. the thumb on the fifth and octave. In G-flat or F-sharp the finger. The The scale of B. The thumb left. and G-flat. 4th. flat Doubtless this order has its good sides. This scale has the five black and G-flat are the same on the piano. These scales may. we will supply the following rules. . In these scales the thumb is placed on C and F in the right hand. the third finger invariably comes on the second. and the lowest note in the left hand. begin with the second The third always falls on the fourth. and third finger begins. A. E-flat. In all scales beginning with a white key. E. as follows : Scales of C. B-flat. F. namely. E-flat. D-flat. which the thumb must be placed on come on the two white keys. that of B excepted. RULES OF FINGERING.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. The thumb placed on I and 4 in the right. this: C. G. i and on in and 5 in the hand. The fourth finger is used but once in an octave of all scales. in order to give pupils a correct understanding of the principles of fingering. in the left hand of the scale of B The rule has been laid down that. G. all 2d. The thumb is very rarely crossed by the first finger. the less trouble he will have with lingering and the playing of thoroughly these lessons. and on 3 and J in the General Rule of Fingering. In the scale of B. consequently the thumbs 3d. and 4 both hands. which they should make themselves thoroughly acquainted. While the grouping in fingering is somewhat difficult when giving the scales in this order. and an aid to yourself. while the scale of B-flat would begin with the third. A-flat. which have the same fingering. G. 5th. may be used thus. D. we neverthesharp less think it most rational to advance with sharps and flats simultaneously. the third finger begins. the scales of E-flat and A-flat would begin with the second finger. A and E major. 2d and 3d fingers.

94 The C scale in parallel KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. beginning on G with the right and left hands ' 914 Scale of C. motion Scale of C. . 83 Scale of C. beginning on E with the right and left -+ - hands. and E with the left hand. contrary motion. beginning on C with the right. 23 ^ ?-*-.

beginning 95 on E with the right. and OB C with the left hand. and on G with the left hand. 14 Scale of C. beginning on E with the right. Seal* of C. Scale of C. and on E with the left hand.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. 1 4 . and on 2 C with 3 the left hand. beginning on G with the right. 3 2 1 4 Scale of C. beginning on G with the right.

96

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

SONATINA.
Having faithfully studied and thoroughly mastered the scales as given above, the pupil will now be permitted to study the following pretty piece by one of the famous Italian masters. Muzio Clementi was born in Home '.n 1752, and died in the Vale of Evesham, England, on the 9th of March, 1832. He was a remarkable composer and a very fine player. His sonatas and sonatinas are great favorites, and deservos to be studied. A sonata is a musical compositiDn consisting of three, four or even five parts. Although these several parts differ in character they form one whole, and for this reason must be the whole must be characterized by a spirit of unity. sonatina is a small sonata, spiritually related to one another of two, sometimes of three parts. Clementi has written many sonatas as well a sonatinas. usually consisting

A

Alkgro.

3

3434

KARL MERZ PIANO METHOD.
;

NOTE TO THE TEACHER. It is of the utmost importance that the pupil learn to play the scales in all their various forms and combinations. The following scales are all written in thirds, beginning at different tones in the scale. Though each begins at a different tone, yet the same fingering used in the C-major scale is applied throughout. The teacher should in every way convince the pupil of the necessity of a thorough study of the scales, and should be firm in his demands that this work be done. l a 3 l_ 4 Scale of C, beginning with C and E.

1

2

Scale of C, beginning with

D

and

F

4

3

Scale of C, beginning with

E and G.

Scale of C, beginning with

F

and

A

4

3

Scale of C, beginning with

G
i

and B.

98
Scale of C, beginning with

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.
A and
C.

1

3

1

Scale of C, beginning with
i

B

and

D

About the Use of the Pedal.
far enough to made a moderate use of the pedals. Beginners and even young players There are usually two pedals attached to a piano. That to the right is generally called the "loud pedal," but this is an improper name, for the pedal is not designed to strengthen the tones, but simply to prolong them. Let the teacher open the lid of the piano and explain to the student the operation of the hammers and dampers. As the hammer strikes the key, the damper is removed from the strings and remains in that condition as long as the finger presses down the key. When the finger is removed from the key, the damper falls and all the vibrations cease. According to this principle only keys that lie within the reach of the hand can be kept sounding together. By the aid of the pedal, however, all dampers ara removed from the strings and remain in that condition as long as the foot presses down the pedal. By this means the most distant tones can be made to sound together. Many students imagine that this pedal is to be used for the purpose of strengthening tones. Such is not the fact. Let the teacher strike a chord continuously and that with equal force, using the pedal, and then again discontinuing its use. This will demonstrate the lesson that, while through sympathetic vibrations of all strings there may be greater volume of sound, yet in reality there is no decided increase in strength. Now let the teacher strike the same chord alternately loud and soft without using the pedal. This teaches the lesson, that strength of tone can only be secured through greater force of touch. Next use some gentle passage, or if preferable the same chord, playing it softly with the loud pedal, showing that the "loud pedal" and soft playing are not incompatible. In fact some of the finest effects produced by players, is through playing piano with the use of the loud pedal. This teaches the lesson that when a forte mark occurs in a piece of music, it does not signify the use of the loud pedal, but rather a greater display of hand or wrist power. So also the piano mark does not exclude the use of the pedal. The piano mark often stands by the side of the word Pedal or Fed., which

The pupil has now advanced
it.

should not use

indicates its use.

The following

sign jtj indicates

its

discontinuance or release.

Only certain tones produce a concord when sounding together, others produce discords. For instance the chord C, and G, sound pleasing to the ear, no matter if the several tones are doubled or trebled, no matter which stands below and which above. As long as this chord continues the pedal use of the pedal even with one be used, a too
chord

E

may be

faulty.

The pedal may
etc.

also be used

may though lengthy with broken chords, as for instance when they are written in this wise

:

Such a succession of tones may reach over many octaves. As long as they comprise C, and G, they produce a concord and the pedal may be used with *hem.

E

When the chord C, E and is, however, followed by another, as for instance Gt, and D, th pedal must first b* released before striking the last named chord, for the chords of C and when heard together make a discord. What been said concerning the broken C chord also holds for the broken chord,

G

B

G

good

G

etc.

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.
ID order to obtain a correct understanding of the use of the pedal, the study of harmony in necessary. The student will, therefore, take in hand the subject of common chord and dominant chord, as given in the harmony lessons attached
to this book.

required to us the pedal properly, especially when its use is not indicated but is left to the player. Many players are in the habit of putting the foot upon the loud pedal, as soon as they begin to play, and generally they hold it down until they cease playing. It would be far preferable not to use the pedal at all, than thus to abuse it. This abuse of

Fine taste

is

the pedal is caused by a lack of proper understanding of its object and effect. Often, however, of covering up mistakes. When playing exercises the pedal should not be used.

it is

used for the purpose

Th pedal to the left side is commonly called the soft pedal. When rising it on square pianos, little felt slips are moved between the hammers and the strings, and as the hammers do not strike the strings directly, a muffled sort of a tone is produced. In grand pianos the left pedal moves the key -board to one side, by which operation the hammers strike only one or two strings instead of three. The soft pedal is indicated by the term una corda, meaning one string, and its release is indicated by the letters T. C., or the words Tre Corda, three strings.

A proper use ot the pedal improves a piece of music,
it.

Many
it

find

an improper use injures it. Be therefore very cautious in using pieces do not admit of the use of the pedals, others again should not be played without them. Should the pupil difficult to use the pedal, the teacher may somewhat facilitate matters by drawing a line between the two staffs or
staff,

below the bass

on which he may

indicate in notes

how

long the pedal

is

to be used.

MARCH.
Moderate maestoso.

5

1

^
fed.

'r

ft

'

I

i.*

.

I
t t

marcato e

sotto

wee.

3=

100 .

It from the above melodic in so far that it has a half-step from 5 6 and a step and a half from 6 7. because it is melodious and pleasant. that the half step lies between 2 and 3. Though they differ The following is the style in which all mino? in the ascending scale they usually agree in their mode of descending. as will be seen from the following schedule: Major c Minor . When playing order to TOT In make it more pleasing some authors have written the minor scale as written on the previous page it sounds it thus = somewhat harsh and unpleasant to the ear. has a large third a whole step from 2 3. : v & : 8" * n When examining this scale it is found to be exactly like the major scale. therefore. This scale differs A scales descend : Instances. While they differ in the last three notes. that the major 3. they are all alike good and a writer may use whichever he choses. with this difference. while the minor has a small third or a half step from 2 3. There is. however. and for this reason it is called the harmonic minor scale. another minor scale and it is written in this wise is necessary for us in order to build chords. instead of between 3 and 4. however. they all agree in having a half-step from 2 We may.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. lative Each major has a relative minor scale which is found three half steps below the key-note of the major scale. say that the characteristic difference between the major and minor scale is this. The remajor and minor scales have the same number of sharps or flats. This scale is called the melodic minor scale. are known where writers ascended with the melodic scale and descended with the harmouicv Relative Major and Minor Scales. Though these scales differ in their construction. Thus it will be seen that we have three minor scales.

*- .4 A-minor scale beginning with C in the right and A in the left hand. 4 1 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. 4 ** T A-minor scale .4 6.102 A-minor scale in contrar/ motion. + . . 14 A-minor scale beginning with A in the right and C in the left hand. A-minor scale beginning with E in the right and C 1 - in the left hand. beginning with C in the treble and C -t in the bass. -f- ^ -P- .

pared with the second which is written in C-major.-^ 1 2 a tempo.-f- -- 14 A-minor scale beginning with E in the treble and E in the bats. A-minor scale beginning with A in the treble and A in the bass. . Lively. 'f. 3 1 2 2 3 5 1 . The following little Rondo is written in the kej of A-minor. A-minor scale 103 beginning with E in the treble 1 and -f- A in the bass. Observe the peculiar character of the first part as com- GIPSY RONDO.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

4 5 . 5 4 3 32 a tempo.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

Strive for perfection. Count aloud for yourself. piece. eubdue the accompaniment. la perseverance alone is success to be found* 6." 3. in this direction have already been given on the very first pages ot this hook. but try to understand the time divisions. said "Always play as if a master were listening to you. Be always patient. endeavor to play with correct expression. Be sure you keep correct time. 7. If the. There ia no economy in plbying a whole piece through each time you practice. Do not use the pedal until all technical difficulties have been overcome. avoid them therefore. 2.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. even you cannot spend the time to practice : your piece. read the notes carefully. and you have enough to do. unless you can play Then play slowly with botk hande. No matter how well you can continue this until you are thoroughly familiar with the piece. stimulate your imagination and try to give as correct an interpretation as you can. always diligent. so can you overcome them. or when meeting with persons that play better than you. Practice these difficult parts thoroughly. Persevere until yon have overcome all difficulties. Devote especial attention to the first. no success. Make your motto : "Without discouraged when difficulties Minor Scales in Thirds. play them. Review faithfully. take paper and pencil to hand and cipher the tune out by adding the fractions represented by the notes. especially in difficult passages. a great musician. if "We will now add a few lines on the ame 1. Hastening produces a play slovenly 4. Play one hand at a time. do not forget your old lessons. never play faster than the composer desired his piece should be played. which are complicated. There are generally difficult as well as easy parts in each piece. subject. and everything in it alike well. and then play your piece through. . a piece. Schumann. pieces 9. Play your five-finger exercises and scales every day. time is too complicated for you to understand at a glance. 12. ficult. Beginning with B and D. Attend to your lesson.no matter whether it lies in the right or in the left hand. 10. Be not Bear in mind labor. HOW TO PRACTICE. Diligently review 5 our old lessons. 11. it. Aim to bring the melody out. 8. You cannot spend your time in playing over and study your lessons at the same time. The mere playing over of a lesson does not deserve to be called practicing." present themselves. way of playing avoid . therefore. Study the fingering well. especially those Never play in a slip-shod way. What you have acquired by hard labor you should not carelessly neglect. never hasten. Bear in mind that good fingering makes a piece easier. Beginning with A anrl 0. then you may play faster. bad fingering makes it more difBad habits in fingering are difficult to correct . Study the meaning of the Having overcome all technical difficulties. Do not waste your time in practicing every pretty piece you hear. 5. Never simply gue^s at it. Do your duty from lesson to lesson and leave the results to your teacher. that others have overcome technical difficulties.

4 1 1 3 Beginning with F and A. C and E.io6 Beginning with KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. i a a a i s a i l 3 Beginning with E and Gj. 4 1 Beginning with Gjf and B . Beginning with D and F.

generally engaged in by young Neapolitan girls. . at any was rapid dancing. The dance is called after the Tarantella spider. It was the rat* the Tarantella dance of to-day is believed in former years that the best antidote for this poison ment. This played is fast name of an Italian dance. It is always written in ^ time.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. Beginning with 107 A and C. the sting of which is poisonous. Allegro vivace. especially well-known in Naples. and must be and with much fire. 1 4 TARANTELLA. There is no foundation for this statesimply an amusement.

*: I +- t: -F- + f- .loS KARL MERZ* PIANO METHOD.

MASON.WM. .

.

3 4352343454 35134264 163125423 6 . Repeat each measure not lesi 109 than twenty times. Five-Finger Kxercises.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. 1 5 zfi: K 43 43242432 5 1 2 3_ 2.

* 3 - - i I I ^^ 346 3.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. . ft 3 46 2 4 5 ^Z3t 5234 5 4 3 o 4181 4254 ETUDE.o. Allegro anima.

KARL MERZ* PIANO METHOD. .

He was a celebrated pianist and a composer of great merit. where he met with great success and where he remained until 1800. we must sharp F. 9th. SONATINA. G-Major Scale. 1812. He lived long in England. The pupil should write out the scale exercises as given in the lessons on Harmony.XI2 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. vVhen playing the series of tones fiom G to G we find that from the 6th 7th is a half step. and from 7th 8th is a whole step. Play this scale in all the various forms introduced in connection with . This gives us a whole step from the 6th 7th and a half step fivm the 7th 8th.h C scale. 1761. Feb. part of a Sonatina by Johann Ludwig Dussek. This is the first St. He was born at Czaslan.) 3123 o 3 4 22-0-3 4 5 j-r-t- 5141 5131 5141 -9 5121 \-m i- -0 \-0 i f j 'r* j 0- . In order to make the G scale like that of C. (Not very fast. and died at Germain-en-Laye on the 20th of March. Allegro non tanto.

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. .

. s Sixths. * h 40 -t 1 **> rta -^B Ks ^n ^T^ Broken Play entirely by the movement of th fingerg. 5 Slide easily forward with the hand.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. .

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. . 5 4 Wrg J? J7F Jl ETUDE. AUtgro Moderate.

f t=i .KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

The Tyrolienne is a slow dance in Waltz time. 45 44 much in vogue.118 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. TYROLIENNE. once very a Tyrolese melody or an imitation of it. A WALTZ. It is so called because the melody ia either 544 H * * h fe ^*= .

4 2 ZZ] F .KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

MO KARL MERZ' .

**. *~-t-0 0-t-f-rf- =^srf 14*6 "I'M 4*1* 1 4 * 4*19 I I H ( g^^g^Eg^^^ . I 121 -4-5 4 9 *-0-4391 t t ' =f*. 1334 4414 C 4 3 2 '233 . Five-Finger Exercises in Sevenths.jffrrr.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

X22 1 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. * > 4 a i a w^=^ ^ is 52312454 ^=^=^ T~ m~ T- '^^^ 1>S6 4S43 6431 9824 .

Grave.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. (Slow. solemnly.) Ju-7 - *- 3 34 F=F * T^- 3* i i &5 . FUNERAL MARCH.

. on the 24th of Nov.as a composer of instructive as . Play this ON THE MEAD. Germany. It closes with thefourthfinger in the right hand and not with the forms in which the scale of C was introduced. series ** The from i from the C scale in being a large step from 3 to 4. F make the F teal* like that of C. we find that it we must make a half scale in all the various Observe the peculiar fingering. This amusement is by Fritz is teacher in Dresden. > ^ -**4 fiEt **-^ *v *=* When comparing the tone In order to a flat B. to F. well and favorably known throughout Europe and this country . 1817. from 3 to 4. and well as salon pieces. He is active as a piano Bpindler."4 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. born at Wurtzbach. fifth. and this necessitates the introduction of step differs Seal* in F-Minor.

reason are beyond the reach of the average hand.Observe the chord in the sixth measure of the second The tones exceed the range of an octave. that This is indicated by the broken or curved line (<) standing is.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. before the chord. and for this part. In order to enable the pupil to play this chord. Exercises in Broken Chords.3434 fi FP -it si _l -i 8~ =t * 4*V *E ^ r=sp: -t t . the tones are played one after another in quick succession. it must be broken . . .

' rf\ f 0_T_ t 4 1 1 4 * * I i ^E -t 0- ss ! fi .KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. J 6 ^? 4 J .

and will long remain favorites with ___!. Frederic Daniel Rudolph Kahlan was born in on the 13th of March.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. ! I . and died at LyngbyjTon the 18th of March. he is This sweet littl* H bwt known on account of teachers and pupils. some of which are elegant. composition is from one of the Sonatinas by Kuhlau. strumental composer of considerable celebrity. While he wrote many greater compositions which displayed merit. his Sonatas and Sonatinas. was a vocal and inUelzen. 1780. Germany. 1832. ANDANTE.

your 10. It is. Now that the pupil has made some progress.128 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. Don't stoSp to fish for compliments. always be honest and faithful to the composer. Observe the following rales: familiar. 6. Begin with little and easier pieces. Endeavor to commit only that which you have thoroughly mastered. It is a mistaken idea. Pay no attention to criticism. that only the new will r. and when the instrument is in a proper condition to be used. . Never play anything m company that is not worth playing. playing The plainest piece well played pleases more than a difficult one poorly played. do your best and there let your performance rest. be not discouraged. ear in mind that there is a difference of touch in pianos. he should afeo endeavor to learn to play from memory. thing when asked 1. simply because we are apt to become nervous therefore select from your easier pieces. public leaves the choice of piece to you. Never play anything with which you are not thoroughly aa a rale. Do not allow jourself any liberties by way of changing a composition. It is more > ask a person to play in company on an untuned piano. eo choose wisely. Refresh your memory from time to time. but play right through the piece as if no mistake had been made. 7. Keep calm when playing tered. Frequent use of our faculties brightens them. than it is to refuse to do so. This is a source of pleasure to the player as well as to the hearer. Playing in Company. not advisable for young pupils to play much in company. Blame yourself. m .base or be to credit. rather too slow than too fast. and yourself only when failing in playing anything in public which you have not thoroughly mas- Bear in mind that any piece of music becomes more difficult when playing it before others. Do not stop to correct errors. Play only when your fingers are warm. Do not expose yourself unnecessarily to criticism. The in company. Continue with your attempts aud you will eventually succeed. than for an imperfect rendition of a difficult one. Playing from Memory. Still all should be prepared to play someto do BO. Play slow. When asked to prepare something for an entertainment select from among your older pieces. The audience will always be more idy to give you credit for a perfect artistic performance of an easy piece. and learn one part at a time. so if you find it difficult to commit a piece to memory. nor undervalue praise honestly bestowed upon you. Be prepared for this when company. by reading over again the composition which you have committed.

(Lively. cause pain and produce ill feelings. Avoid all distortions of face. not indulge in severe criticism towards those the ears of others. The teacher should select from time to time duetts for the pupil's use. Play staccato and with an even degree of force. of body.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. Owing to the fact that pupils usually play such difficult Were they to overcome all the technical difficulties such part* parts in a deficient manner. I wrist-action throughout. all unnecessary motions Duett Playing. Ugly Parts. 11. present. 129 Be sure your words will Do who play before or after you. they would not find them ugly. in short. t other times obliging him to play the bass. ETUDE. reach Watch your personal appearance when playing in public. and for this reason it is of especial importance to those who stammer while playing or who find it difficult to keep correct time. they designate them as "ugly. By this practice the pupil will gain in the art of smooth and even playing. The following Etude must be played with Moderate. t t f I f f f Vivo. sometimes allowing him to play the treble. Every piece has some part that is more difficult than others. 12." Let pupils pay especial attention to these difficult and so-called "ugly" parts. everything that is unnatural or ostentatious.} t i f t f t f f .

r ~^^^ 9M %t 4 TtT-TTT 1 1 T I i -^=4 -0 0I T0 t 0t I 1 i 1 1 1 ? H -1h --?-- -a *- 4 + -------*p I f 1 12 *4[ it=V: -p ^^ ^p" D-Minor The D-minor from scale differs step. . and like it has but one flat. from that of A-minor in-so-far that while the step from the 5th 6th in the latter is a half the 7th 6th is a whole tone. The D-minor scale is the relative minor scale of F-major. whereby we will have a half step from the 5th 6th. A B or from Play this scale in all the various forms and combinations ased in connection with the A-minor cale. Scale.X30 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. In order to make the D-minor scale like the A-minor scale we must place a flat before the sixth B.

Additional Exercises in Double Notes. 2 1 2 1 o r .KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

m .13* KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. INQUIETUDE. AN ETUDE.

* _^_V \ h D-Major Scale. 18 . v&- 4 \_4_A. why another sharp has to be added key of D.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. ao ^S. *ss S it * mf J < ri i \ r 3 ^=rrt iS? & = 4 * ?E JpNTTn i Sfes ^ T-f P <l i *^rt -+-F- *= i i rJ: ? 5 - r - fe -6 4- *0C. The following scale must be played in the various combinations as given in the C-Major scale. in the The teacher should show in the same manner as was shown in the previous lessons. a* J^ne.

. Bomeeay 1815. SWEET REMEMBRANCE. Heis still He is a distinguished pianist and a fine composer for the piano. Stephen Heller. where he cCflfipoBer i highly esteemed as a teacher. of the following piece. was born in Pesth.134 KARL MERZ PIAITO METHOD. on May 15th. 1814.the living ic Paris. 5EI H h fed.

which must be well emphasized. The word sostemtto which appears at the close of the Etude. Raise the fingers from the knuckle-joints. The whole should be played with much feeling and delicacy. Five-Finger Exercises. distinctly. means sustained. Play the last chords eo that the highest tones are heard a little stronger than the others. The following five-finger exercises must be played slowly and quiet. and keep both hands and wrist perfectly 643 ^tttt 3 ffi' 3 1 421 E 3134 9 0-\ 2 0f-^0 ! 3 6 - 3 -1 -0-*- 3 - 0i =f=r-rrt ^0*0*000- fm .KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. 1 1 5 /5 3 i 3 3 The notes which have two stems one up and one down form the melody. \f 4- ii i 3.

6*- i* ^ ' * 6 1 ft * B I I & * ^ +-*-r?: 3131 ^ a l i 5 fr-yr-^ S 5 fr * 2 M 4 + I I I ^4- ^== H P-H :^ 6 * . ( 6 2 3 i*i*i*i \ -^5 .KARL MERZ PIANO METHOD. J J J J J *-+- s 4 6 ' i .

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. *.7 .

i3 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. .

Endeavor to give expression to the sadness of the piece. 1 1 is the relative scale to the D-major scale. Plaintive. PARTED FOREVER. Mark the signs of expression. 3 The teacher should thoroughly ex- The pupil should practice thia scale in all its possible modifications. and use the pedal as indicated. A ROMANCE. and like it has two sharps. also the emphasizes upon certain notes both in the treble and the bass. Notice the Marcato near the close of the piece. Observe the sforzandos. 2 I -r- m 1 T* ?f r -p I pp 1 1 *- * ^ 3 -fH h ^B . the ritardandos. which means that the melody should be well brought Break up the last chord and close very softly.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. especially those in the bass. This acale plain thia ecale. out.

next we will also represent the four-fold chord in ita various broken forms. Marcato. and then the third maj be the highest tone. The three-fold chord consists of the first. "We shall first introduce exercises with three-fold chords. also called the tonic. or G. This chord may appear in three positions. The following illustrates this E B : . the third and fifth as for instance C. 4 1- mf rit. On the fifth. and G. ** t a tempo.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. <Ve recognize two the three-fold and the four-fold so called because the one contains bnt three. -* Exercises in : Broken Chord*. etc. next. the octftTe. and D. principal chords foe other four tones. mf Ted.

*4* .KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

r 1 .14* KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. 4 S L4 6 r^ 2 1 -V 3 2 *- 2 *=^ ^^ l*3=i -'*-: -05 ^f:t:^ ^ S ?r i i i V if:< ^=P= ^^ 1= fe^ 1 r.

Play in the three positions. : 6 6 z f: a Dfc" 8 .KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. . by having a small or minor third. arc exercises in broken minor chords. Z ^ kg- The following A-minor. so the major chord differs from th minor chord. f^T the major scale differs from the minor scale by having a minor or small third. ^L . The following are major and minor chord : AB -r g. 5 5 -0-fI 4-0-2 *"*^ dH I 3 -f-O-\ tal **-* ii fci ! --3 - 2 5 -1 + 4 - 2 ! 5 -I Repeat in the 3 position!. 6 6 E -minor.

ETUDE. KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. 6 5 3-_ 5 Th teacher must oblige the pupil to play the same kind of exercises after every new scale that is introduced.144 D-minor. .

on *he 31st of March. 2 1 421 l*J?-f v J . simple. Adagio ma non 3 troppo. is a Sonata for orchestra. Joseph Haydn was born in liohi >u. He was of a very pious turn of mind. on May 31st./' 'he greatest instrumental composers the world ever produced. but was also eminent as a composer of vocal music. and died at Vienna. pure and childlike in his character. 1809.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. A Symphony This Adagio is the slow movement or the second part out of one of this master's Symphonies. 145 ADAGIO. and is. Haydn is the father of the Symphony and w:ia one . here simply arranged for the piano. 1732. therefore. and ie taken from one of his Symphonies. This beaatifal oompositiov has been written by the great Haydn.

146 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. .

Keep good time. hence the hand has to be qnickly moved from the key. first slow then fast. The whole exercise must be played very smoothly. Etude in Broken Chords. 4 5 _^ ^ 5 . Hold your hand still while playiug and move it easily along on the keys.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. The right hand begins on the same key on which the left closed.

X4& KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.. Adagio. * 124542 1 1 2 3 B 3 2 1 \ 1 IJJ'JJ IJJ'*3 *^ 3tI srf H t i "* *-J^~ * 4 |T7 . 4 5 THE MILLSTONE. Ktude in Broken Chords. 2 1 1 2 4542 1 .

421 r > S 2 :*= = ^ 1 2 4 I S 4 2 1 H H h H <t-9 1 H H h J J ->)-9 1- I- 5 4= -*-*- .KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. 149 124.

i-o KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. .

<N ^ ^t S 1 ^ ' -6 r t ^=^ -j] r . rE 1 r-rfr 1 5 r ^^ d ! 5fe^ i 5^ ^.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. f: = =S ^F3 ^ ^ ^=^=^ 5 R-T ft -3-1 1 1 -^- -tf S * . * - ITT ffi^ '4* tt =3=i f- ^~7f^ JN ^=f> f t t) <]"^g^ nai ^ j. .

. 57 4-*te rrtes -F* fP 9 all lil ->-4-e ->I playing the above begin with the lowest note and sustain each as it is struck BO that the chord sound together. 2 is good. No. 1 is bad. to wit : Modo of writing : Lento. ^ -^ &- ^ -m ^ fe un E t4tt i-t-i-i -4-t-i ^ ff '* IT-&- E3" f-H-rt- u. The arpeggio is by two signs. that indicated is the notes must be truck successively and not simultaneously. TS produce the proper effect in the following it arpeggio should be played as written below. &> The chorda of an arpeggio should never be played simultaneously. No.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. The following illustrates this : When the tones belonging to Lento. after the upper note is struck. Of the following. ARPEGGIOS.

153 .KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. 34-. =E * * Vi i-JH-^.--^ t: Vj Tr*-V ^== J i i- ^ . 43 33 K fkd.

Continue this exercise through another octave using the Bame fingering. .applying the fingering of the scale or that here given. Exercises in 5 Broken Chords.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. *- 4 3 -+- +- -0I --i 2 -0- Imitate this exercise in all the scale the pupil has thus far practiced.

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.) 4 3 24 4 . ^ ETUDE. Con deganza (with elegance. Moderato.

ms in the previous lessons. Let the teacher. explain the difference between I) and G minor scales.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. 157 3 a ** Scale in C^-Minor. .

.is* KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. Grand Arpeggios. 159 6 4 . EXERCISES.

x6o KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. .

In thi composition arpeggios occur in both hands. 1 ?. 61 ETUDE. they are indicated in the following manner then repeat omit the ending Imo. with two ending* is to ave epace. Be not afraid of them. . 1 an(i the rule is to play the part the first time endings. Imo. and proceed at once to ending 2mo.9 -f- m .KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.^=T *- ^ e m t-t ."F" a> r -iTFtf. 2 i 454 fc= mf IgzB % 8- t Imo. They seem more difficult than iney Especial care should be bestowed upon the dotted notes. 2mo. i j . The object of writing a piece with ending Imo. When a piece or a part of one has two different really are.

/ *r ^ rit. I: IEE5EE? *^ .KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. 4 I 4 4 2 Ei ^ 3 i ^i --.

by stepping five tones upward to G. The teacher will ask the pupil to write out the . with three sharps. advanced from the key of C. We have D A scale.r~ KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. and explain why three sharps must be used. the scale that has one sharp next to with two sharps. . and now we will proceed to A. -F- -P- -f^ ---& f^- " C i Scale of A-Mafor. 1 ETUDE. 1 163 C -0 -^- _ .

164 KARL MERZ* PTANO METHOD. .

.

.

B-MINOR. R-FLAT. These chords all other chords having two black keys. may.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. the thumb comes on the angle white one. a I 2 I I 412 1 2 2 i N 1 2 i^zp: fj-wa i 6 3 1 a 6 i 3 1 a 6 i 4 4 4 3 1 41 1 41 l 2 ni^l N 1 2 3 2 2 L K 2 1 N 412 2i 5E i= 64 ^ z i ^" 64 j i 64 2 1 4 ^ 64 J . m The following 3 1 i J^ raia t 1 -* -z-9- -^^f^ exercises are designed to accustom the finger to ft greater degree of extension. be played with the thumb on the black key. I. Broken Chords in in E-flat and in Different Keys. however.

Allegro.-4 ^ *- m ?=F mf i * i i i J i . A Vivate. fr 4.i6 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. JL i * . VALSE MELODIQUE.

167 -i 4 (r- FP I 5 ? fr-rr ^ ^ *t ^ I i 5 f i ^ r I =t ? i .KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

1 f I ft i P r - m* 2 ^ * S-^- & 4-^t -* - 5* JL | =t=t= ? E F^* r> - * .E= t ^ H^- ^ j ^^ *=l=t- ^^ ^p: ^S - i ft fi *M S^^ 9 $ 4= . n=f .x68 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. The t ' ^^^^^^ l 3 THE WITCHES' DANCE. Moderate. 169 therefore. It follows B-minor and teacher will again explain the cause for the additional sharp. five tones higher. F-Sharp Minor Scale. f *3 9 ^ *[ . B sharp minor ie the relative minor key to A-minor. is.

170 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. 2 5 FEE a ^t i -* *h .

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. trewi. ^-T^ t 1 .-^ -^P ^B ^ T* V ** P 0- m -p -0 fc^ s f - 15: P^ t ^=^ I -. rjr 3r Jt-^f ^ -I -I I -m 1- ^ f E^EEfe ^ y=.

are written thus : The and are played in this wise : F F Notes written like these J Octaves and chords written in this when manner : . The following .KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. a There is a great variety of ab- few of which we will explain. if abbreviated. inasmuch as 4-8 make a 1-2. Abbreviations are a means of writing musical passages and notes in a curtailed form." "g8~ & I is played in ~~1 this manner: stroke across the stem of the half note and the chord. Notes of smaller value. each is to be repeated four times. means that both are to be played as eighth notes. breviations.

Play slow nd emphaeize the melody well.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. a 4-1 484 =JC i i a 3 i 3 ns a- i * - S E i -*- f~p~f - f- fp mfp it I: P 6-- p - 9^=?^ ^Wr r -4 * I ^ 5351424 . 173 MINUET. is from on of Mozart's Symphonies. This beautiful selection Allegretto.

' J * '. J f T a i t 5 S= 3 ! * *=* :i ^ t 3 -t t f H TWo. :^=ft _L 4 i 4 a=p: -F- =1=1= s r -w * i i- =*= i I i=* * i * Li $Ef 1 1 t ? l< :r .KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. 3 i.

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. D. X_U r L .C.alFine.

one of the greatest pianists of his time. His playing was brilliant and his Amgretto. compositions are graceful. and died in Paris in 1849. RONDO The author of was esteemed as IN E-FLAT. this favorite piece.f F . Frederic "W. He style. 4. Kalkbrenner.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. was born in Berlin. rrf-. S T> . 1788. following dementi's though without great depth of sentemont.

.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.. . 8va 177 8vm..

I78 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. ^ Jg L * r f r_ * *T-^=*=^-= ^^ #a rr^ *-r fr-K 2 T^ f T GRAND ARPKQOIOS. y \\>. 4 4 ^ -i-i -! t- =t i^ 3^Er * JLJL-l. .

^ ^ f- 179 4 TB * I ^ Sva In a like manner play broken chords and arpeggios in those keys you are familiar with. Either add a minor third to the dominant chord and omit the tonic or first tone. The following examples illustrates this lesson : Dominant Chord. and may be obtained in two ways. It can be built on every tone. if the arpeggio begins with a black key. a \ . namely the Diminished Chord of the Seventh. There is still another chord which frequently occurs in music. As a rule. or raise the tonic of any dominant chord a half step. Diminished Chord. and in the left hand descending. Diminished Chord. play your five-finger exercises as well as the arpeggios in those keys. and aa you advance. place the first finger upon it in the right hand ascending. learning to play other scales. Use the thumb upon the first white key that occurs and you have the correct fingering of the entire passage. Chords of the Dimished Seventh. A . Dominant Chord.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

ETUDE.x8o KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. (Mark well the bass.aoald proceed with this scale as with the others. C-Minor Scale. explaining the need of an additional flat. (Fast.) . Allegro.) Ben Marcato U Basso. The teacher .

Write out the E-major scale and compare it with that of C-major. The E-major vance by fifths The pupil will observe that as we adscale lies five tones higher than the preceding one on A-major.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. each scale haa one additional sharp. x8x 3 i 3 A 1 - m 1 I 4 E-Major Scale. .

Etude for Left Hand.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.i--I . i-m-I 3 - i <> 1 --.

) 1 1 S 4 2 3 61. (Diminished Chords of the Seventh. * 2 F1W : !'*-+- 1414254 54 fprffc-jpf^ LiLHj-^jz .2-*4 2 *.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. Exercises in Broken Chords.2 H - f0"\ -4 4 I -0"\ 1 +[>* K T" I 4 Pl 411 -01- *t~ I 523 516 *-3 --2424 I 1 1 526259 6 4 3 4 6 ^-t -4 ( 4 1 4 951 261 4 6 3 3 1-01 f .

Andantino. 242 it s a 4 s a >- i t t 43 t* 0- 000 ( 1 .- r r r r r H ' ' H .184 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. ETUDE.

i 3 .KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. * M-W* fcE3 ^ -r?v -* - C-Sliarp Minor Scale. before studying this which were taught in connection with the preceding scabs. Apply the same lessons. fcM *!fi **^ ^ s scale.

( In Broken Form. Other Major and Minor Chord*.) *4= + .i86 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

25335 .fe zrifr o ii 3 i - all *-h - ETUDE.87 +7. 113 4 .KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

/%^. as will be seen from ft J This appoggiatura is executed in this wise : Two small notes placed before a which is third are called a double appoggiatura played thus : The double appoggiatura from it. as a rule. it is begin onthe lower it. that the one over which the sign is it placed. If the turn is to begin on the upper note the sign is placed horizontal. . . The Mordent Thus: in this is a short ornamentation and is -. : 1 mid then the turn is : Q 7 The group . is called a long appoggiatura. of which there are two. ORNAMENTATION.i88 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. above the prin- played in this manner is __^ I ipal note. the accent falling -vit upon it . The mordent takes a must. These little notes taki' one-half of the value of the note to which they are attached. it takes its time value See the following illustrations play thus : The Mordent.. The Tarn is a group of tones which is a E indicated by this sign i j^ or this 9. namely. and then the one below note. A Observe there I is no dash through the upper part of the little note. Among the Thus: the long and the short. often occurs in the middle of a measure after the principal note : . is played wise : i ft A line across the mordent ^ means that note. The turn is often played in the following style-: to beginning as well as ending on the principal note. musical ornaments commonly used we will first mention the Appoggiatura. if so. but if placed in a perpendicular position. i These signs are placed over the notes. therefore. it should be played very fast. be played rapidly. represented by this sign . small note placed before another from which it borrows its value. as in the following : it must be played thus : The short appoggiatura x these examples : differs from the long in so far that it has a dash through its upper part. little time from the principal The Turn.as for instance: *-!I the folio wing manner If the appoggiatura stands before a combination of tones. hence they are played in this wise ' : r If the long appoggiatura is r at- I !j I it must be played in : tached to a dotted note. thus consists of the note is. which F is placed over the note to be embell^ "^^ which ished.

C. i jFYne. They are designed to avoid writing or printing many little notes. as for instance 189 * I The turn often appears in this wise: These several turns are played in the following manner I : I play| T^L 'fl p. ETUDE.. -. Hat or natural sign * may b be placed above or below the sign indicating the turn. Short Appoggiatura. the reading of which would make music difficult. A sharp.** - stxba L ' *?* IP- ^_3 K a Ha 3 fc -4r*-^z: 3ZgIT3EZZI^5Z iw n<^ py- r .KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. r~" ff$m~~9 which is Q Lf 1% 9 I If ~k~ 3 e<liu this way: 3 H= P I The double turn is and must be executed in the following These various signs are intro- marked thus : manner : duced as abbreviation marks. Z). 0w. ^ ^ ft nVKl \~- pz^^-j^f-C -flJF ^7 felU i * ^^-d-i mf ' i ^-d-Vd-Vi-Vd: T 1 .

Long Appoggiatura. ETUDE. .KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. Johann Nepomuk Hummel was born in Presburg on the 14th of November. This ex&rciae is a-^^rffrj& . ALLEGRO MODERATO. ETUDE. He has produced much excellent music and is esteemed aa a composer of rare merit. 1778. The composition is by Hummel. and died at Weimar on the 17th of October. for the purpose of practicing the turn as well as the appoggiatura. The Mordent. the celebrated composer and pianist. 1837.

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. fr -i 0- ^ E 3 ^ .

In 3-4 or 3-8 time we have one heavy beat in a measure. also the difference and E-flat scales. In 9-8 time there are three heavy beats. This pretty Salon piece is written in 9-8 time. This is wrong. The difference between 3-8 time and 9-8 time will become perfectlv plain when placing accented measures of both times under each other. ^"OTE TO ^93 THE TEACHER. Scale of A-Flat. to wit. one ' ' ' one 2 1 1 3 four 5 6 seven 8 9 II III Andantino tranquillo . Practice all scales in the various combinations introduced in connection with the C*3 i major scale. Some pupils regard this as equivalent to 8-4 time.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. befrw een the A-flat Explain to the pupil the difference between the A-flat and C-major scale. AN ALBUM LEAF. on one. namely on one. and connt is as snch. four and seven.

f E . . * -- * f: _t =1= :^= 555 tr=tft^= ^ -K"^^-*- 2 "f"^"^ |i ' t F * 4-p4W$AE 1 1 4 *- -- 4 1 -. v 4 -^*^*^ i <^^3 1 !j 2 -.ie>4 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

~ : 2 i THE BROOK. and in order to produce this.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. Aim first t evenesn of touch. 4 3 ETUDE. without the motion of the hand. Attegro Animate. Play the following Right hand. then at rapidity. The trill ia a rapid succession of two tones a second apart. 4 54. 323 5 3 . 195 THE TRILL. Thi embellishment is indicated by the littert //* placed over or under a note. and is one of the most important ornaments in piano playing. careful study is required. It must be executed by the fingers only. Only a perfect trill is pretty.

3 2 1 w-rt - " 1 .196 KARL MERZ PIANO METHOD.

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. *97 35 .

as is illustrated in the following example : :_. often has other note to play at the same time. Andcuiic. Thus required. ^3=J f=f^ ^=t . tr cy i /r J . The trill always begins with the principal note uiilesd otherwise indicated. the letters <r have to be fixed to each note. See tho following : 3 J J which would be played thus: | I I o I lr a 0?0f00?0P00f0f +-*-?L-L-i 11 La ir^n Ir-^^^LJrU^a 4 i ' -ei~~^**^*-****-+-^+m**m^^^m THE TRILL ETUDE.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. tr -** tr tr tr 4*+ tr fr -t- *+ jQ 75T ** tr +* V^- tr 84 tf! trtrtrtrtrtrtrtr^r 38 *94-3 9-t Double When double trilli are tr Trill. The hand which trills instances the trill begins with the grace note. Trills with Changing: Fingers.

and this may be properly done. playing octaves. the hand should be slightly raised by the wrist. be thoroughly studied. octaves is fatiguing. therefore.it must be. so to thrown upon the keys and quickly removed again. Play all octave exercises first staccato and soft. and with a very easy movement. for their proper use is the first lesson to be learned in these studies.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. 199 Octave Studies. and in reality is a waste of power. Octave playing lends great force and brilliancy to piano playing. it should. ers who execute octaves with stifi wrists. next they should be played slower in the legato style. The arm has nothing to do with this motion. but the student should practice octaves first with the wrist motion. heavy. take some other studies in hand. When The stroke with the whole arm is apt to be clumsy. pay strict attention to the motion of your hands and wrists. When playing octaves? therefore. then staccato and loud. This may be produced by giving the keys a sort of clinging pressure. To play ' 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 *~ i- M-----"5 . There are playspeak. When tired. therefore.

40O KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. v f m +-] -*- 13 .

KARL MERZ' .

2O2 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.H J3 b 7 ' * *'=** |g ^ . r rrr.

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. while as teacher he was for many years ao- tive in connection with the Leipzig Conservatory . 10th of March. He -wrote much good music. RONDO BRILLIANT.whither merely a portion of the Allegro. M. 17&4. the title he was called by his former pupil. Moscheles. though in was born pianist he was even a successful rival of Hummel. Rondo known under 104.MendeJ&sohn. of " Les Charms des Paris. teacher and composer. Prague on the 30th of May. J . the author-of this composition. 1870. and died at Leipzieron the was known and esteemed as pianist. J." The following i M. also many show He As pieces.

& 52T=h r r fr ff rf *^-^ Pfca^= ni ff ***tr? dim.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. r r f ^ 3032:22= L pp LTV ^f 2 == . Sva.

.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

1828. the author ot this charming piece. 5th. Andweight should be put to 104. it has four flats. is longer? especially famous on account ot hia beautiful songs. The same applies to the 4th. but he has also given us many fine piano pieces. was another one of Germany's. It consists of a regular clock-work with an upright pendulum. his rare talents. of the pendulum. 104. moans. that it may be moved up and down. . This scale in the relative minor scale to A-flat major and like need of four flats. great masters. that the pendulum tha figure be moved to 75 and that two be counted to one motion of the pendulum. Tho following is one of Schubert's shorter characteristic pieces.206 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. that weight 104 means. his originality and What would ho not have produced. Learn to play each hand independently and rapidly.. many symphonies and operas. etc.and then you will have no trouble in putting both parts together. had ho lived unceasing activity. to suit the figures indicated on the music. Franz Schubert. tempo Notice also the triplets in the 24th. and four should be counted to one stroke. M. The terms: Allegro. ' - : ^ ' ' Scale In F-Minor. 1797. 75. the Metronome has been invented. Adagio. Allegro Moderate. known a* Maelzel's Metronome. and died in tho same city on tho 19th of November. This alludes to a musical time measure* Observe the tempo mark at the beginning of thia piece. means that the attached. 26th and 27th measures which are played to notes of even divisions in the lex* hand. 25th. wa9 born iu the was famous city of Vienna on the 31st of January. 2 . Explain its construction and how the MOMENTS MUSICALE. should be put to the figure 50 en the pendulum. for his precocity. Allegro M. by the means with great precision. 6th and 7th measures from the close. being too indefinite. and one beat should be counted to each stroke of which composers can fix the ante. much He Ho He chamber music. On this a weight is so Thus 50.

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. 5 aoj 4 *&=& ^--^ -%^ m & i=t rq n t- P ^ == ^ ^ ^ r fc=P ppp ^ X^ m f- +- ^= Sx i .

. t m dim.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. ^ A player with a sufficiently large hand may use the third finger in tho following exercises. V EEE3 ! 5 ^ ? ? *5 * i w- -r* s ~^" j i^ fI "- "~~ * v ^ *- i SdE: ^ j -F3- ^ 15* Exercises in Octaves.

. 1 5 iJ 1 U 4 5 4541 461 41 645 54111451113 51 2 '-11 ^^J -- 5\ 3 /3 l^^^i =twa Efe^E^tp *^jl "^ ' -*"^-H ^^ 1 .-Gr- ^ Ui) . using the "When playing octaves the performer should connect them as much as possible by a skillful gliding of the thumb and 3d and 4th fingers on the black key as well as by passing the 3d and 4th fingers over the 5th. . Connected Octaves. lingering to be used when playing them slowly.-* *^i "* i * t !- l 4 3 145 6 1 1 5 _ ^1 1 164 ' I ! -_ i ' 6 4 (i (3) U) 4 * 4 41 4 5 j T-*-^r 1 i * * *-^.'r-* i T ' 114 44 146 145 T454 615^^ 14511 1541126 1 ^rfffft^ nHiTi L~a ^ntii g Hr>rTgS^= H^YnsU'i><uJ r?*5 : L F--l-H *P F"i *rta-*-F-FH *~t-^-*.KARL MERZ* PIANO METHOD.wm^f^tf^ F i U W .?4 II 45 1 i H-.64 209 5454 1 1146 64545454646464646 1111111111 111111 ' 6 46 1 45 4641 64 5 164 1154 1154 4 -*- * 451 4 5 4511 4 6 fingers..^ . 5 45 . 4\ ft U 6 II 4 4 5 1 4 uii U 4 4511154 If 6 s\ 6 4 3 54 115415 - 1 4 1 ~rr"ri j ^t h F H^ -^ =i:i?%gt + .

KXUDE. .KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

8va 211 STW *v /v .KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. T.

I ETUDE. It-Major Scale. Proceed with thin seal* like with 11 the preceding one*. . Notice the peculiar time in the following exercises. Moderato.212 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

also. G-Sharp Minor Scale. The accents fall on 1. This exercise. con moto. ia written in a peculiar time. not before 'introduced. 4. 7 and 10.KARL MERZ* PIANO METHOD. 3 3 EXUBE. .

-*- 4 '^^ -.--rf. STEPHEN HELLER.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. . D-Flat Scale. By tranquillo. *- -9- 1 M 1 SLUMBER SONG.--* .

fed. JL ^ r I i i 4>ed. -!9- I * 4 6 fled.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. S 1 5 5 S 6 A. . . PP J.

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. .

sV s9 fsO Pap r-F bIS s j .KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. Moderate. BOLERO. B-Flat Minor Scale. Explain this scale to the pupil. and like it has five flats. This scale is the relative minor of D-flat major.

2X8 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. *< mm : JUJ^L * 9-4- r T .

so as to make the student acquainted with itB meaning. The melody also introduce one example of this mode printed in larger notes so that the student may all the easier discern it. Play the ending very smoothly and brilliantly. is Play this pretty air well and emphasize the melody. . F-Sharp Major Scale. printing We f Allegro Moderate. The pupil should write +his scale and compare it 219 carefully with the C-major scale as well as with the ecale of B-major. A Chinese Melody for Black Keys Only. Play all the chords in this broken manner. MOO LEE WAH. music.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

* * 3 zra .fiFrl .22O KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. - irt* a fyrf> 143254J3 ~Frir?~fm fygripfr JTC: tt li 1 2 * <-* Tp* J i .fT>frrrfrffefr. P.

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> ^ F E :t=^ i- =t 4 I)-Sliiirp Minor Scale.i> : r> ^ 5^ - t^ T 4= =1: ^^ ^& 3^&5 P ^ s s ^ * : .222 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. K-Flat Minor Scale. fcS3. .

but uch pieces are rare. hence it is better under all ordinary circumstances to write and play a piece in D-flat in preference to writing it in C-sharp. while the latter has only five flts. the key of C-sharp is the same as D-flat. here and use only the keys up to six sharps there. We . occur a piece written in seven sharps or seven flats. The former has seven sharps. because the keys with seven sharps or flats can be easily produced and easier played as keys of five sharps or flats. and flats. 233 The pupil has now practised all scales commonly used in music except the Chromatic Scale. Thus. There may.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

224 .

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. . -t * -t- * * * t- ^^^$j&t3$F*^ 8 41 EXUDE. Modern to. Such forms often occur a- in music. Chromatic Passages.

a*6 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. . "f >fr .

J^\ ^if a>^ ~'^^^ M* .KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.>:*. 227 ^-/. pianist. i known and most elegant and melodious. Germany's beloved composer. He was born at Eutin on the 8th of December. admired. He is deservedly called a great composer. and also an excellent. still others with whose works he must gradually become familiar. however. One of these is Carl Maria von Weber. i Among his lit piano pieces his ii ?. and died at London (England). June 6th. 1826. i -<iii . 1786.r '^rg-. loace.t ^ ^^-*ng^i'i^' ' J ^^0 > IABi . The pupil has made the acquaintance of quite a number of the great masters.k. His style is "Invitation to the Dance" and his Concert-stueck are best Vivace. There are.^rfr-^ *-ar -^- S HSB- =sfc ytv > i t * RONDO.

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. * .

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. 4 5 229 tn b R>-* F^ H* ' ^ "5 .

Chromatic Scale in Simple Major Thirds.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. 1231 12 3 1 31 32 . Chromatic Scales in Simple Minor Thirds.

He was a superior pianist and a fine composer. and every student ought to be acquainted with them. L 3 1 Ji3 t*3-0. His Nocturnes are still much admired. 1837. He visited Russia with his teacher dementi. 331 3131 2313 Hi-*- 313 1 2131 12 3 313 2 1313 V 2131 3132 2131 3131 3 213 231 3 1312 Chromatic Scale in Simple Minor Sixths. Petersbnrgh. i 1 . cantabile. The title Andantino. later in Moscow. It was composed by the celebrated John Field. and finally settled in St.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. Chromatic Scale in Simple Major Sixths. where he Ireland. born in Dublin. died on the llth of January. . 4.--tf-- 2313 3131 2131 12 3 NOCTURNO. of this piece meani Night Music or Serenade.

3 .

% fed.^ f&t.^.fed. % fed. fed. * . $ fed.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.'^fed. % fed. % fed. .

-*>-. . In ascending the scale in thirds. after the use of f the connection with \ and | must be mad* by the thumb and fhe fingers turning over it.^ r r 2>ed. When using the first and third fingers. is to be made by the 3d and 4th. both the connection between | and f must be made by turning the 3d over using | the 5th. when descending hold it somewhat indard. The rules given for the scales of sixths are equally applicable to those of fourths in chords of the sixths and to fifths in chords of the diminished seventh. In the same manner in descending scales of thirds.? Scales in Thirds. must b passed undr the first and the second over the third. or the 4th and 3d. hold the right hand somewhat owtward. Sixths When and Octaves.* I 1235343 ^214 - ' 3 2 3 ^=ii*^ ?^-r ft 4 ^ *-*-+K 9 F i K .KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.*P F r *. The management of the thumb requires careful study in order to attain even motion.# Tea. 63 34 41 a ? . playing it is not allowable to raise them both. LLffi. -g"S S" -g. the thumb When ascending in thirds after scales in sixths connections between | and 4 is to be made in th same manner. 4 632 3 m * L . In scales of sixths the perfect connection of f with f (and the contrary). 5 i 3 4 j t 432123 2 ^ 1 1 31 5 : 3 323 Practice both fingering in the following scales C-Major.

. A-Major. 343 6 Iff. 43 34 4321 4512 235 a 4 B-Flat.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

Play the melody out well and subordinate the accompainment. The tewte. on the 3d of great musicians Germany has February. his famous "Songs Without Words.PIANO METHOD. Perhapa best known and doubtless most widely used among his works. They are in themselves a mine of beautiful melodies. 1809. Paul" and "Elijah. "St. and died at Leipzig on the 4th of November. the composer of this little -'Song Without Words." worthy of every pupil's attention. title To do this well requires great skill and correct Moderate. indicates that the player should sing upon his instrument. 1847. He waa one of the He wrote two very fine Oratorios. many produced. are Ther are forty-nine of them. mny songs and a large quantity of piano music. Felix Mendelssohn Rartholdy.KARL MERZ." He also produced much orchestral music. SONG WITHOUT WORDS. ." was born at Hamburg.

.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

omit. ..*fia HB^ 1 2 I 4 3- -J i V ji * S % J r- ^ 4 I 4- T^*M"i^ / *7^d ftfcVF i 32132 i ^ * "I. i 3 4 vfajor. etc. rr-f S 9^ a ~^ * * * % r V *-f25r* li-'T~* -/^**tHj-J> ---fr-p-P_^^ A> -^ >*-*?i* ----*. it.*--------H"F--t F-t U-^ E-r*2 3 -i | iF 2 - 1 3=p=t:^S^ K 3 9 5 3 4 435 234.g 4 341 \ \ Z m -0f m 2 I -. U-^=U * a =g=g=F~:-<-4 g * j -* i~~ *""* ft "* /\* /-v. 3 5 4 i * A-flatMajor.H F F I 4 2 3 1 a B-Major. 34321 4512.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.3-0-. Scales in Thirds.-i a^-j -S- f P i^^L-LZ ^TJ.-i 2 2 :! 8 i - *. ' * . ' Q^-tf" 3 '-^2 J :t The 4 is scale of G-flat Major being played with the same fingering. j^ "*" ^ - HM J - ^ 1- iV J 6 -ffl -S 0^ ___ . PrH 4 a fl ii -H 1 3 l^glttQ-J i^^rTrf1 3E: ft. *.^* *^^ fm I +*^-**~* \l * 32 2154 43 .2134 1- 9 ^*^^=. . -:_*_.m -*"f-H".-t.U-g.

many trios and quartets. indeed. which was a sore affliction to him. . distinguishes them by numbers. 1827. meaning work. Op. one of those mighty geniuses whose works alike astonish and delight mankind. having written thirty-two Sonatas. ANDANTE. a progressive spirit.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. stands for Sonatas are the best piano literature we possess. 1770. His thirty-two ies. his Sonatas are the object of admiration of all musicians of taste and learning. He was. his Chamber-music. His matchless and beautiful Symphongreat works. Opus. who was born at Bonn on the 17th of December.) Many masters distinguish their productions by them. March 26th. This piece was written by the great and immortal Ludwig van Beethoven. For a long time before his death he was so unfortunate as to lose his hearing. Andante. ( Op. nine Symphonies. Nevertheless he continued to produce and there is scarcely a field in musical art which he has not enriched. 26. and died at Vienna. The following is a selection from his Sonata. He is one of those rare intellects. Thus Beethoven.

A-Minor. . . Minor Scales in Thirds.24 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. 53 343 341 3 535 431343 a 331 4532 __ ^FP0*1 ^ ^1> ^ m -r .

4 5321 3 343 2143 2161 C-harp Minor. . 3 3 '4 5 1 4 2 f rtT "_*_ 1 4 t ! 5 f >5^ 3 444 G-sharp Minor.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. F-sharp Minor.

He has preferred smaller forms. from whose pen thi charming number came." He was one of the most famous and also one of the most peculiar composers of the iccond quarter of this century. P-r-tjii^ ^u^= ?*= pr-Ff-^t: -SS3"ff^-nRqi=^a=^ 4 3 . When else they will suffer. therefore. Jt . but in these he has excelled. Assai lento. 1849. 3412 5 3 ^j_| . Still more h should fied to enter into this composer's spirit.A . and his works have never guard against allowing the pupil confining himself to long to this composer's work. on the 3d He wai an exile from his native country since 1831. 5 KARL MERZ> PIANO METHOD. Schumann says of this composer: "He is the most daring and the proudest poetic spirit of his time. was born in Zelazowawalo. the teacher should. __ ^ ^ * T 2 -S". 1810. Not every one is qualiplaying Chopin's works special attention must be paid to the dynamic signs. 1 133 1 2 -p"*"S"fr A F--~"4 H _ PRELUDE. Frederic Francis Chopin. be careful in this particular. Poland. t>f February.24* B-flat Minor. ceased to attract lovers of good music in all countries. and died in Paris on the 17th of October.

KARL MERZ* PIANO METHOD. C-Major. . Scales in Major Sixths.

4 6 KARL MERZ. 121 2454 121 fi 12 4 S 6 * D-Major.244 F-Major.PIANO METHOD. 642 6 4 61 m ^ 1 ^ ^ ~~ . B-flat Major. A-Major.

o * : -^r^r -si- 3 4 -f A-flat Major.-F- -. - 5 5 42 4 53 4 1 | 5 3 f 4 2 o E-Mjor.- 1S45243 5 5-f6 ^ a ? t a t K=*= ^^=N^ -B ?=r-*--i^.grT-*r=a =1= :*^ ^c: =B^T. 11 ft f^i^z^4^=^^==f=fc^_F^i* r-ji=p^L-^ g^z-^rE^r-i^ =BZ^ ^ 7r^ rf-r ^=3=1^^= -U>^ n ^*^J SF === : 3 4 I 54 542: 61 ^ 2^^^i 1 5 4 4 ^ --F- 2 _ | -I -F-p-FW-4 I ^ - I 4 -P. 342 511 t 4 1 4 1 4 1 S ^rHrr= S3 =r~"*~F~ =j. A. B-Mjor. E-flat Major.-^^ -^L^B^^-^^ 4 jr^T : =- j.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. 1 .=P=N=^= =1=-'f3^ 3^p 5^w^.

He produced many fine orchestral and choral works. . The next master whose works we introduce is Robert Schumann.-^ 2 5 ^-< 1 ~-^-^*-i r5- 1 - -*" r t 1 4 _- . He was so unfortunate as to lose hi mind towards the latter part of his life.346 D-flat Major. 1856. 3 4 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. -*-Fil~I" pHBn^B A 4512 it ^4 "*" . 4 4 5312451 6 6 1 * -- WHY.r i 5421 m -0- -F--I . :? fl= frf^r W j 3>= -^^T^ iS^=: ^=*. but he who once has become familiar with the Schumann spirit will always be charmed with this master's works. He is difficult to understand and often difficult to play.Q 543 2^'l 1 6 5 3 6 F-sharp Major. born at Zwickau. also many fine songs and piano pieces. Germany. Schumann was an minent composer and a critical writer of great ability.=ii=^ :^^*-Tir: p^ I^FTT: =wJ -+=t===1=^-* =*--^-i=j= **^^^z 2 . and died atEnderich on the 29th of July. -+*-+rt i r r~ -0- m 2 4 2^ a * ^^^"^fc ^ 6 3 1215 S 4 = . Slow and tender.

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. 247 .

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

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Adolph Henselt, the composer of this selection, was born at Schwabach, Germany, on the 12th,of May, 1814. He is one of the most accomplished pianists, and as a composer of rare merit. He has produced many excellent Ktudes, Variations, etc., also greater works such as Chamber-music and Concertos. Since 1839, he has lived in Russia. hserve the peculiar style of writing employed in this piece, it being written on three lines. The upper two are for the
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on the 24th of February.T"N~ =5= =pcft . 1858. ideas with the most instructive mechanical passages. 1771. and not broken. is difficult. Cramer.*54 * KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. Allegro con brio. B. ThU study The thirds should be played together. 5 4 6 4 12124 641 6 4 6 fc-^ fc=N*: SB ** i |J TF 2' II W*H j - 4- J- 5 ** 4545 Study in Thirds. and his expressive Adagio touch. . on the 10th of April. Germany. who was born in Mannheim. Thie study is by the celebrated J. especially on account of the even His 84 studies are of classical value they combine musical cultivation of his hands. and who died in London. He was distinguished as a player. . fiffi\ l"i=P=-T^ I H. $#<>.

.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

study the different parts carefully. which is skillfully worked out according to the strictest rules. and his Mass in B-minor. Bach is without an exception the noblest and purest composer of fugues. 1635. above all those by John Sebastian Bach. He left an enormous quantity of vocal and instrumental music. Germany. pianists as well as composers." Doubtless all great masters. . Every fugae has a well defined theme or subject. the greatest contrapuntal composer ot all times and all He was born at Eisenach.the several parts eeem to flee from each other. to chase or to flee. three. In order to obtain a correct view of the several parts. or what would be a still more effectual plan. So great was their appreciation of Bach that Mozart said. and cause them to com* in with precision and clearness. "By the side of him. in art language known as Dux. and by the aide of Handel the greatest composer of the 18th century. Towards the latter part of his life he was so unfortunate as to lose his-eyesight.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. Fughetta is a small fugue. "The 'Well Tempered Clavichord' should be your daily bread. You will then certainly become an able musician. Schumann said in his famous Rules and Mexims. in the course of time yon will be charmed with this style of composition. the student should mr. A Practice these pieces slowly. and died at 28th of July. being at the time of his death director of the Leipzig on the Thomas school and cantor of the two principal churches of that city. Mathew. Play these and similar works continuously and their beauty will become plain to you. His greatest works are his Pas&ion music. giving each voice or part a separate line. Fast playing leads to indistinctness and confusion. on countries. the 21st of March." The term fugae is derived from the latin word Fuga. All fugues should be played with a moderate degree of speed. we are all boys. he should write an entire fugue out on a score. Fugues usually are written for two. four and live voices. "Practice industriously the fugues of good masters. according to St. Among his numerous works there is none of greater interest to the student than his "Well Tempered Clavichord.rk them. and has been applied to this style of composition because. Yes." In another place he said. for in that manner only will the composition become clear to the player and listener. The last selections are from the works of John Sebastian Bach. have studied his works diligently. 1750." containing forty-eight Preludes and Fugues.

INVENTION AND FUGHETTA FOR introductory study to S. Andantino.1 f~m-\ 6 - *H 4 -- 13 fc SS5 5 3 1 5 = .F--+ P-4 4 f -LM 3 i i i . TWO PARTS.1 * -0-f0.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. 6 -. Bach's inventions.3 5 .

Subject.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. The subject must always be brought out response. . Moderate. FUGHETTA.

KARL MERZ PIANO METHOD. J 39 thi-r^t^-t Sva .

ear is of the greatest importance. as that Do for which the composer aimed at. Look upon the alteiation or omission of modern ornaments. older. even if j ou have but little voice . and with all your it when doing this . highest and only one. Spiritual. things that exist we ought to live a hundred hu- Time man lives. but do not vainly suppose it the in fineness. but cultivate & immediately and look on it as the beat gift Heaven hac r XQwed on you. Sharpen your powers of fancy. etc. dc osfc CsoufcU yourself aa to who if listening. in <&. You to should never play bad compositions and never listen absolutely forced to do so. This will make your playing broader and more flowing. they will appear friendly enough to you when yon are familiar with them. We cannot learn to speak from dumb people. i v. b. converse more with scores than vir- over If first. Rest from your musical studies by industriously reading the poets. anything beyond it is mere caricature. is reached by chorus and orchestra. tired. like bodily nourishment You will then certainly become an able musician. but its proper harmonies also. about the choice of pieces for study. in order to see that they lead to nothing.aeter listened to you. Dragging and hurrying are equally great faults. Exercise often in the open air! A great deal is to be learned from singers and songatreeees.. ! Play carefully always and never try a piece You will thus save much time. Lose no opportunity of playing music. the highest expression possible to music. it is better than to play ficult dif- always in perfect tune. them when not key-boards" have been invented practice on them a while. all Never strum half through. duos. bell. should not aid in the circulation of bad compositions. You should be ab8c to tlD68SCtand a piece of music merely on reading it. "Dumb not try to attain mere technical facility. without the help of an instrument. no one can respect. As you grow tuosos. until a ripe age they ^aily mechanical exercises for many hours.that there are singers. . Seek among your comrades for those who know more than you do. quicker and quicker every day. RULES AND MAXIMS FOR YOUNG MUSICIANS. trios. your ear will thereby gain is . key are the sounds these produce. Playing in society is more injurious than useful. thorough bass. But if you possess a powerful voice. those of J.. not only the melody of a composition. Take care that your instrument not be led astray by the applause bestowed on great The applause of a master should be dearer to you than that of the masses. The playing of some virtuosos resembles Play in time the walk of a drunken man. provided Executive passages alter with the times flexibility is only must be simple and . It is better to rest than to practice without pleasure or freshness. Practice industriously the fugues of good masters above all. That is as practice reasonable as trying to pronounce a. so that you may be able to remember correctly. theory. do not lose a moment. Make a better use of your time. whom . Do not make such your models. If all were determined to play the first violin. Accompany singers often. the contrary. You must gradually learn to know able the most remark- works by all the most remarkable masters. good time. Try to sing at sight. Do if you cultivate fashion until you are old. read it Remember also. ones in a mediocre style. There are people. No children can be brought up to healthy manhood on *weetmeat9 and pastry. we should never have a complete orchestra. hold to it. Try to produce the same impression with a composition. etc. This is perhaps the greatest injury that can be offered to art. Try to play easy pieces well . Do not be afraid of the words.: that you should play it. avoid playing what is merely fashis If we would learn to know only precious. 8. If anyone places a coloration with which you are unacquainted before you.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. the cuckoo try to find out in what in : The culWmtion of the The masters have sufficiently strong. Learn the fundamental laws of harmony at an early age. You must industriously practice scales and other finger exercisea.. and feel do not force yourself to further labor. The " Well -tempered Piano-forte" should be your daily . All that is fashionable again becomes unfashionable and virtuosos. When you ionable. in their suppression. for this. to distinguish tones and keys the Endeavor. . the good are older. who think they may attain to everything in valuable You but on power. Remember that there are others Yet always play as tiioarSi c. you will become an imbecile. and that equally fine. "When you play. bread. in the works of good composers as a contemptible impertinence. It is not enough to know your pieces with your fingers you should be able to remember them to yourself without a piano-forte. no one should : attempt more. the so-called bravura. serves high aims. you have finished your daily musical work. Study your audience but never play anything of which you feel ashamed in your own heart. . with others. Bach. Therefore respect every musician in his proper place. however. c. the window-shutter. Question older artists counterpoint. But do not believe everything they tell you. Love your instrument.

adoration. to you. . minds . But you are so when in playing a new what is coming. Therefore you must understand The study of the history of music. but if such come to you unsought and not at power. and the more unclear the domain of harmony is yet more mysteriously you will feel yourself attracted magic circle. while the organ is being played. You are certain to rise through industry and perseverance. Faithfully use the pound Heaven has entrusted to you. different nations. Be You never thought of. the principal requisites. in the written score before him. but bring a warm heart to what is new. should early understand the compass of the human voice in its four principal kinds listen to these in the cho. elean or impure in composition or playing as the organ. you are not so when you stop and find play it impossible to proceed because some one has turned over two pages at once. of the If you pass a church If you long to ait on the organ-bench your. that costs only a few pence. and intelligent M a musician. rejoice. to be intelligently musical ? Yon are not o when of others. not the reverse. You should early learn to conduct observe good conducThis tors. they will smile out at you in a thousand differabout music. ferent stamp. a fine ear and a swift power of comBut this foundp'rehension come like all things from above. may be made. etc. Become a con- become Do not b prejudiced against unknown names. seeking to express the harmony that dwells within your eyes painfully fastened on the notes. pen. Do not judge a composition on a first hearing of it. begin to compose do it all with your brain. and in which they best express softness and tenderness.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. Stud} is unending. if you know these. But there are melodies of a very difvanity and self. you should consider it a gift " Melody" is the amateur's war cry. You Closely observe life as well as the other arts and sciences. or invented anything that modest others had not already thought of or invented before you. ear. and practicing . You cannot do this by shutting yourself up all day like a hermit. that which pleases moat at first is not always the best. and every time you open Bach. Without enthusiasm you will never accomplish anything in art.. and certainly music from above which y ou ought to share with others. Do not try the piece at the instrument until it is finished. when you have taken music not old one by only in your fingers but into your head and heart. Masters must be studied. the rest will happen of itself. And even if you had done BO. try to discover in which intervals their principal strength lies. the piano-forte. but through a cal activity. many thousand watch-springs. Practice reading in the old clefs at an early age. especially voices. If your piece proceeds from your heart it will touch the hearts When you *What wit!. you are studying. you will soon weary. aiion must be improved and increased. without melody is no music. in and listen. when alone practice conducting occasionally.faded monotony of modern Italian opera melodies. the middle Sing in choruses industriously. From a pound of iron. you laboriously a piece through. you almost forsee heart in short. for it proves that the inward sense of Lose no opportunity of practicing on the organ. Many things will only become clear to you Only genius wholly understands genius. not a means of amassing wealth. This M the most complete musicianship that can be supposed pos- when you are old. How may we become musical in that sense? Dea. or merely serve as the jutertainment of amateurs. Thibaut's work "On the Purity of Tone-art" is a fine book Mozart. vital. Beethoven. go ent wajs.People live ! 261 on tbe other side of the mountain. sible. the value of which runs into hundreds of thousands. power of will help you in becoming clear regarding the compositions and orchestra. These are the happiest hours of But beware of giving yourself up too often to a talyouth. Read it frequently when you are older. ent that will lead you to waste strength and time on shadow You will only obtain mastery of form and the pictures. and the hearing of maswhat amateurs fancy the word means: Anything easy arid ter-works of different epochs will most speedily cure you of rhythmically pleasing. and will teach you the characteristic of . ?hild. and especially through many-sided musifamiliarity with chorua clear construction through the firm outlines of the Write more than you improvise therefore. rus. when you play an piece. Fingers must do what the head instrument that so quickly revenges iteelf on anything un! In judging compositions. the as if into a mechanical exercises. Else many precious relics of the past will remain unknown to you. which he listens to for the first time. too. . This will is it make you a good reader. make a distinction between then' as to whether they belong to art. Some one has said that a perfect musician si juld be able to imagine a complicated orchestral work. Your mind will only become clear when form has clear to you. If Heaven has gifted you with lively imagination you will often in lonely hours sit as though spell-bound at the piano. Observe the tone and character of the different instru- Art is ments try to impress their peculiar tone-colors on your Never omit hearing a good opera. Stand up for the first But it la not worth while to grow angry about the others. wills . Honor the old. . there is no tone pulsates within you. The laws of morality are also laws of art. It is a pleasant sign if you can pick out pretty melodies on wonder at this great musical self. try your little fingers and the key-board. Listen attentively to old folks songs these are a treasure of lovely melodies. . tinually greater artist .

however. His technique is said to have been defective. where he interested himself in the manufacture of pianos. Haydn and Mozart speak highly of him. and no pianist would consider his education complete without having thoroughly studied them. His style was brilliant. Herz and others the Vienna school degenerated into mere fingerstill term. Hummel. Mozart. He developed. were simply astonishHis many compositions are still object* of admiration. one that deserves our special attention in connection with this sketch. ing. show and finaly ceased to exist as such. The lower keys were black and the upper white. With men like Kalkbrenner. The following sketch is designed simply to give the student an outline of the history of piano-playing. ed by Woelfl. insisted the use and equal training of all the fingers. The Mozart or Vienna school was further develop- Though his Sonatas are not very extensively known. Haydn. his fingers formed almost a straight line and their motion was scarcely perceptible. Ludwig von Beethoven. smooth. While upon the whole his works are simple. He occupies much the same position towards Mozart and Haydn." a series of studies in which he laid the foundation for piano-technique. clavichord and harpsichord were now gradually superseded by the modern piano. Lack of space forbids us giving a discription of them. continued in the work of Dussek also produced many good works. astonish or to dazzle with his skill on the piano. than mere velocity. H dementi had a remarkable technique and he is said to have even surpassed Mozart as a player. 1752-1832. While the first named was Field must be regarded as the originator of the modern Nocendowed with higher gifts. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ART OF PIANO-PLAYING. and built so lightly that a man could carry one of them from one side of the room to the other. These players cared more to develop the singing quality ot his father. Clementi was also a great composer and his Sonatas are used to this da} Among his many works there is. As an impro- visator he was unsurpassed. While his style. His fine compositions of that style are no doubt the greater. The student must. but faithpeared in the arena of art. "While the piano-technique. 1756-1792. while studies. however. Steibelt. more freely than did the players of the Vienna school. 1770-1827. he revolutionized the art of piano-play ing through his matchless piano works. "that he who plays one Fantasia fully served the highest . who. Steibelt. of course. gentle gliding style of playing. like that of Mozart. His style was graceful and fluent. namely his "Gradus ad Parnassum. Marx said. apand Muzio it is applicable more to Scarlatti than to Bach. and claimed. The not imagine these masters as having played upon such instru- ments as are now in use. The early pianos were very small. are still played. it was also characterized by fire and much power. especially Friedemaim. is famous mainly as a composer. dementi lived long in England. the influence of the later was turno. in so far that he yielded to modernizing influences They also used the of his times by developing the lyric element in his composi. was also m superior player upon the harpsichord. 1685-1759. Czerny ia well-known aa the writer of many exercises which are extensively used. especially the latter. He never aimed to vising he was. The student must bear in mind the fact. present here and there difficulties. admitting of an easy. Kalkbrenner and others. His touch was clear and exact. it differed largely from that of germ out of which grew the matchless Nocturnes by Chopin. 1683-1757. that aa a pianist he was exIn the art of improcelled by some of his contemporaries. nevertheless. 1714-1787. yes. they also aflected each other in their onward course. Mozart and dementi The earliest players of distinction were John Sebastian To Bach. these might properly be added the name of George Frederic Handel. they. The first has left us an excellent series ot and Philip Emanuel. dementi. which give even experienced players plenty of work to Scarlatti playing. tions as well as in his playing. Philip Emanuel's style was serious. was clear and fluent. 1685-1750. He was upon m most remarkable improvisator and hia powers of working out themes in the contrapuntal style. the art of piano making. towards the development of which he did a great deal. who wrote and played in the contrapuntal style. While neither of these two men dethey serve to be called virtuosi in the modern acceptation of the do. The sons of the latter. The dementi school was carried on by Cramer. Bach was the greatest clavichord player of his time. Czerny. it ia purposes of art. which Scarlatti occupied by th side of Bach and Handel. suffice it to say that they were simply the precursors of the present square and grand piano. Oui oe was also a superior pianist. These two masters formed distinctive schools of piano.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. : Mozart. While the German pianos had a light touch. developing th piano-technique. fluent and distinct even to the smallest notes. Field and others. pedal With Carl Mayer the Clementi school declined.the instrument. was the greatest player of his country. like Philip Emanuel Bach before them developed the ly ric element in music. to wit Wolfgang Amadeus poser and pianist. that the instrnments then in use were very limited in their capacity. though mainly famous as organist. and the art of musical composition developed separately. Dussek. and Domiuico Scarlatti. Herz. Moscheles. that of the English piano was somewhat heavier and its tone more sonorous. Moscheles and Hummel. in contradistinction to Bach and Scarlatti. 1710-1784. while the damper-pedal was usually worked with the knee. are also highly esteemed as composers. truly great. After this master we see the art of piano-playing again While Muzio Clementi was still living and active as comrepresented by a German and an Italian. however.

His career 1812. Liszt is and will in all probability remain the He among pianists.which became. Liszt on the other art legacy it is not surprisingthat but a short fourteen years after his death. however. Especially is this true of Chopin. knowa them all he who plays one Sonata by Mozart. a brilliant player. which to grasp is not given to every one. while hifl powers of execution are. be careful how they use this master's works with pupils. glittering show pieces. Suddenly there appeared two great luminaries cert players. Though not a concert player. also influenced the art of pianoplaying. He very seldom played anything else than his own works. by singing them. aflected the entire musical world. and the only number not his own we remember seeing on his American programs was Mendelssohn's song without words. became famous as composer and pianist. so to speak. He revolutionized the art of piano-playing. Franz Schubert. He gave an impetus to pianomaking. 1810-1856. 63 when he appeared concert-rooms he took everything by storm.none ever reached. Of Franz Liszt the student will find a biographical greatest player. Schumann very correctly said. in a measure. affected the piano-technique of to-day more than Lizt even. Most of his pianocompositions was mere. Their number Liszt. While he who wishes to play the works of this master must have a good technique. though he was not a great pianist. these. Like Weber. is is impossible. The same is true of Chopin's remarkable works. but also in those of our The former was born He was born in 1841. but especially that of Dance. on the piano. a high de. and so rapid was his progress. he did a great deal towards art development by transcribing orchestral and vocal compositions. 1871. namely. on the 27th of January. smooth and exceedingly brilliant. 1871. nor should they allow stuboldest hand is a man of a more fiery temperament. There seemed to be nothing impossible with them Thalberg's playing was elegant. " He will cause me to be forgotten as a pianist. He exerted an influence through his piano compositions. he . a piece which a great many boarding-school misses now adaya play." Young men and young women doubled and trebled their energies in order that they might become Liszts or Thalbergs.he is classed among the Romanticists. Teachers should. that his teacher is reported to have said. During Beethoven's life time." On the other hand he played his Sweet Home" quite frequently. This led him to persuade Streicher. in a brief sketch lite this.dents to confine themselves too long to them. while all the preceding players and composers belonged to the classic school. graceful. 1809-1847. Liszt. he approached him very closely. to among con- Sigismund Thalberg and Franz Liszt. Italy. and recognized the superior qualities of the latter. as well as the art of piano-making. Carl Maria von Weber." A peculiar spirit pervades his works. instructions country. but gradually known. He died when quite young. especially his "Invitation to the "Concert-stueck. works cannot Indeed. Many enjoyed his instruction. Both artists exercised a decided influence upon the development of piano-technique. masters were setting tho music-loving with their extraordinary performances men like world wild Mendelssohn. The instruments of those days in gree of intelligence. "Beethoven must be studied over again with every Sonata. He threw everything into shade that had been done before him in the line of piano-playing. Yes. he having appeared not only in all the large cities of Europe." continues he. 1797-1828. by Thalberg. butitwas also cold. upon the piano. strangely formed passages. By the side of Mendelssohn and Chopin. and thus it came that Schumann. on the 17th of July." Beethoven used both the Vienna and English piano. who was an excellent pianist. Mendelssohn developed the lyric element through his matchless songs without words. The playing of these two masters. both a players and as composers. 1810-1849. however. One player among them we must mention. If the players of the Viennese school made a mnsical box out of the piano these two masters now turned it into an ketch later orchestra. then the greatest manufacturer of grand pianos in Germany. mainfily Some of them were indeed remarkable for all. to adopt English models. He died near Naples. stands Robert passed. feels them all. he should almost entirely Of him." While Carl Tausig could ot over shadow Liszt. and probably will forever remain unsur. exercised a far greater influence than did those by Mendelssohn. therefore. While Liszt in his younger days in- were dulged in much show-work.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. that he introduced Schuking 1786-1826. he needs still more than this. and having left ns no he lost sight of. full of fire and power. and peculiar rhythms. namely. quired most careful study and special fingering. His pianogreatest influence through his compositions. but. far too weak for the powerful touch of this master. and for He was bert's songs to the world. and Chopin. it may be said. which led to the production of the American piano. He was pupil as concert player waa brilliant. " that he is and remains the and proudest poetic epirit of his time. Of Beethoven it may well be said that he anticipated the pianos of to-day. and stronger ones were the result. called the " Home. These. so large that it notice them all. all very but exerted by far the gave many concerts. and received his first from his father. is gifted with more vivid imagination. and while many of his piano lay any claims to being artwork. Chopin. "Spring Bong. Later he took lessons of Liszt. much less surpassed Franz players. while no pianist of note failed to study his pieces. at Geneva." were played everywhere. on the 27th of April. and by popularizing them through his concerts. labored more for pure art. the best in the world. He introduced many chord combination!. and all agree that next to Liszt he waa the Carl Tausig. of Hummel and Sechter. He served self first . which re- But while among those of living pianists.

where he was appointed Court Pianist. Louis Moreau Qottschalk. studied. the student will find in the following biographical sketches. antry in 1853. Gade. howcomposer. men and women of we as Americans may well be proud. He. He played mainly his own composition*. often original. Johannes Brahms. where he was instructed by Pauer. Made various successful concert- tours. THE GREAT PIANISTS OF THE WORLD. he was capable of better things than he did. and having once taken in that peculiar spirit. played at times with great power. Hans VOn Bulow was born 1830 at Zurich. First studied under his father. where he studied under Liszt. to catch the were slow to make their way into public favor. This in- formation. Sides with the new school. and as such stands high Hans von Bronsart. Indeed. was born in New Orleans. length and breadth of the States. and meets everywhere with a hearty reception. In them occur chords and passages as well as divisions of melodies. they iar spirit that pervades his works. he became Court Conductor and director of a new school of and Weimar.on th 18th of December.Germany. His compositions are pleasing. In 1869. went to Paris in 1841. studied with Liszt. in the history of art. try. Next he went to Weimar. however. Came to Boston in 1880. He now occupies a similar tellectual pianists of the present was for ing in Returned to this country in 1878. went in 1848 to Leipzig to study law. and remained for some time in Paris and London. which are not Moreover it is difficult peculeasily rendered. who faithfully studies Schumann. The following are brief biographical sketches of the leading living pianists : Eugene Francis Charles d' Albert was of operas and piano music. ha will always be held in fond remembrance as the first pianist. Conducted the "Euterpe" at Leipzig. wherein 1867. afterwards determining. born in Hamburg. Is . has done all she could to make the public acquainted with her husband's beautiful works. of whom we speak elsewhere. Returned to Copenhagen. we cannot close this article without saying a few words about the oldest native He American pianist of note. and in '77 he became Court Conductor at Hanover. at from 1860-62. where he met with brilliant success aa a pianist. He is regarded as a brilliant pianist of the modern school. to devote himself exclusively to music. and it only remains tor us to speak of the living pianists. at Glasgow. He had great delicacy of touch. Came early to this Henry country with his parents. and gained several scholarships and passed his examination with high honors in 1881. He is. 1839. South America. after which he settled in as a ever. Germany. For these reasons. also in South America giving concerts. mainly known Vienna. He Excited great attention when a boy. His father was ft popular composer and naturalized Englishman. a pianist he combines brilliant execution with refined feeling. where he was at once employed as a teacher and conductor. . who settled in Philadelphia. filling a large sphere of'labor with zeal and activity. Received instruction from N. and she has been highly successful in this respect. and some time employed as concert player. He died in Brazil. entered the National Training School of Music in 1876. Clara Schumann. 1828. it may be said that Schumann's composi- where he and returned to his jative He travelled throughout th tions require a technique of their own. and should he appear again in the concert halls of his counhe could hardly dare to play his old programs over again. His widow. whom first musician that gave national hope for musical growth and development. that special art value. he will always remain faithful to this master. "Went to Europe in 1861. the of American While we have mentioned quite a number pianists in the following sketches. cannot fail to be elevated. Appeared in the Musical Fund Hall Concerts of that city when a mere boy. Sullivan. Liszt and Rubinstein as an interpreter of the great works of position at Meiningen. While he is entirely over-shadowed by American pianists of to-day. (1869). 1869. enjoying a high degree of popularity. he made various concert-tours. His recitals and concerts attract born in 1864. on the 4th of Decemlser. c : affected the art of piano-playing through his very original works. it must be said of him. made many prolonged concert-tours on the continent and in his own native country. he was called in the same capacity to Munich. This brings our historical sketch up to the present. though without As a pianist. while at Berlin. He IB highly esteemed aa pianist. As Otto Bendix Berlin. and always appeared at his ease at the instrument. Bonawitz was born at Duerkheim. and is since 1869 manager of the Theatre Hanover. Stainer much attention in England. Went to Wagner in 1851 completed his studies under Liszt at After various triumphant concert-tours he went to Berlin. is a native of Copenhagen. Bonawitz is also well known as a composer one of the most finished and inBulow ranks with day. where he haa frequently appeared in recitals. Is now livEngland. by his gifts aa a pianist and composer. later from Kullak in Gave numerous concerts in Berlin. born in Koenigsberg. others. In 1864. in 1833. in 1827. music.164 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. Denmark. Lives now in Germany.

composer and conductor. Deppe and Liszt. such far off countries as Australia. but received her known all over this country. considerable local reputation. and quite a number of works of hers have apelled much King Mary . studying first at Leipzig." so well Amy F*ay was bora in Louisiana. gave recitals of his own. Paris. her power of imagination. England and France by her poetic style of playing. Davidson. May Raphael Josefly was born 1852. In 1852. where he labored successfully for the cause Leipzig. Studied the piano-forte and theory first at Munich. His forte. Lives in New York.. editor of the Times and Musical World. She gave concerts in Berlin. in 1863. is Richard Hoffiman in having been born Manchester. highly was born in Cincinnati. ied with Ferd. Appeared for the first time as pianist in 1849. she went to She is especially works of Chopin. Germany. His fine compositions have also met with from 1848-51. where he studied under F. at the was born 1814. shows forth the mau of superior qualifications. Resides now in London. the musical critic. England. 1850. and it is there where he has been mainly active as concert pianist and teacher.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. She visited this country and played with great success in all principal cities East and West. where she studied for six years under T&asig. L. next at Weimar under Liszt She appeared with great success in European cities. 1864. Liszt and Wagner. She appeared in concerts when but nine years of age. Petersburg. Married in 1859. conductor. He studposer. on th Julia RiveHer mother was a music teacher of 31st of October. was born Lived in Petersburg. such and as conductor admirable powers 1886. Henschel went to England in 1879. la 1881. Is known and esteemed as pianist. played in Dresden. She travelled much and gave cont819. Hitter. . and is everywhere esteemed as an artist of rare merit. he ettled in Boston. with the pen. his name has become known by various drawing-room pieces for the piano-forte. Came early to this country. Has conworks comprise pieces for the plan >. She is also active concerts. Received her In 1875. where he established chamber concerts. Germany. in the year 1844. Besides his asVienna. to whom he gave instruction. he Wilhelmine Szarvady-Clatiss Prague. Y. She is the authoress of the little volume entitled "Music Study in Germany. now at Poughkeepsie. Is a conscient ions interprets! of the classical composers. Enjoyed the instruction of many good teachers. and with Mendelssohn at Otto Dresel. Her greatest tour as an aritst she undertook in 1873. and took every scholarship. Szarvady. 1834. obtaining brilliant success in Germany. earliest instruction at St. and when sixteen years of age went to Europe. of memory. 14th.. etc. Came to Engfollows in the footsteps of land in 1843. Her technical powers are immense. and occupies a brilliant position as pianist. in her interpretation of the met with great an Englishman by birth. Kretw* was born at Dresden. where he was appointed Virtuoso to the EmHenselt occupies a press. etc. East India. at Schwabaeb. and Sechter aft Vienna. Kullak. during which period he appeared quite frequently in concerts. Schuhappy mann and Schubert. nobility of style.. Since her return to this country she settled in Chieago. and warmth of tone. His playing is leading position among marked by eminent technical qualities. of musical culture. In 1874. displaying as As a composer. singWhen but twelve years of age er. her feminine grace aud unusual energy. settling in Boston. and has resided there ever since. is music. tonishing-technical powers. Her "Piano Conversations" are highly instructive. she returned to London where she now lives. Arabella Goddard tions was born in 1840. Studied with Rink in Damatadt. Edward Dannreuther was born at Strassburg. lecturer and teacher. at Andernach. afterwards under Hummel at Weimar. When but sixteen years of age he came to this country. songs and orchestral works. Germany. Germany. Hiller at Cologne. and sine* her return home has appeared in all cities of this country. New York a high degree of success. Leipzig. Paris where she success. never failing to win admiration by her charming manner and She has travelled much giving recitals and artistic playing. Went to Paris in oarts in many German oitioe. travelled extensively in 1836 finally settled at St. Studied at Leipzig from 1859-63. She took lessons of several American teachers. and has done much good to raise was bom at public taste by solid and refined performances of classical elwssica. . Annette EssipoflT was born. at lives since Went to Germany in 1860. born in Germany on the 18th of February. Henschel. and in Charles Halle was born m Hagen. George married to Dr. modern pianists. especially an excellent pianist and a giffced comin 1826. became under Tausig's guidance one of the first pianists of tha After several successful concerttours he settled 1881 at New York. and is now settled in New York. if ext the went to J&ngland Received instruc- in this country as pianist. and was everywhere regarded aa a remarkable artiat. Has travpresent day.atPree8burg. She is a thorough artist. visiting peared in print. If.stantly appeared as pianist in the Monday Popular Concerts. and resides now in Paris. Adolph Henselt and same time a warm advocate of the modern masof Richard "Wagner. he came to this country. is busy as teacher and concertist. He is a man of rare abilities and everything he does. German. rrom Moscheles and other excellent teachers.in 1851. 1881. education in New England. 1850. he appeared in a concert in Berlin as pianist. and is to- day the most famous pianist in England. ters.

Louis Maas 21et. much esteemed and wll beloved by all who know him.under Plaidy. but returned to Europe in 1871. since which time he Weimar. and later in Paris. He gave concerts in all cities and mann. Bazin and others. Mr. taught Kentucky. was born in Germany on the 12th Received his first lessons from the blind teacher. tor him. He and now lives wrote many orchestral and some choral works. He also spent eome time in Vienna studying the works of Bach with Fuchs. but ia still active with the pen. 1840. Became Professor at the Leipzig Conservatory in 1874. was the youngmuch studied under Dreyschock. all also written news-paper articles. who mar well be called the king among pianists. on the 29th of July. interested himself in behalf of Wagner and Berlioz. Sebastian Mills was born in England in "When quite young he showed renutr-kable skill on the piano. and enjoys a good reputation as a pianist. When nineteen years of age went to Europe. the little city life. was born Germany. In the following year. Came to this country in and was brought before the public through Carl Bergberg. will never be forgotten by those who lived to witness the 1850. has been before the He has books. etc. Settled permanently in New York. sensation they produced. 1851. Kmil Lieblinjf "Win. She has given concerts since her fifteenth year. highly favorably impression. Next he was placed under Ehrlich. for a number of years in a ladies seminary in 1867.which up to . When twelve years of age he appeared in conHe came of this country in certs in the Prussian capitol. Canada. and at times discusses musical questions. and several of which attracted a great deal of attention. year later he became a pupil of Liszt. In the spring of 1876 he went to Weimar where he studied for a brief season under Liszt. later visited Germany where he studied Europe. Czerny. meeting always with great success. revered Lowell Mason. Not satisfied with his attainments he went again to Germany in the winter of 1874-5. He cause. Pesth and Rome. was deemed unattainable. June Received early musical instruction and waa favored with a good literary education. he settled A where he is still active. Mr. ApStudied with Czerny and Salieri at Vienna. he moved to Boston. and after about three years and a half of life at Weimar .he returned to this country an accomplished artist and excellent pianist. Anna 1869-71 she travelled in America. where he still lives. His father was organist of Gloucester Cathedral. where he placed himself under Liszt. He continued his studies in Paris under Marmontel. In 1870 she visited this country Italy with Thomas. From in New York as teacher. where he enjoys European countries. settled in Chicago as teacher. Boston as pianist and teacher. He is a fine pianist. where he now lives.ar T 'ellous technical eki'J.pears in concert rooms and always with great success. He lives in Chicago. was designed also to display his tr. in Berlin. however. He delights. public ever since he was eleven years of age. Next he went to Liszt at Weimar. His skill as pianist is acknowledged. and his piano works enjoy Franz Bach to a high degree of proficiency. Mills frequently apSet. was ever ready to aid in every good much favor and support as teacher. where she was honored by an invitation from the Queen to with Patti play at Windsor. his time. Concert playing was not to his taste and though he appeared with great success in public. and by the side of his fabulous execution he displays artistic enthusiasm. As a virtuoso he reached a position. composed industriously. He returned to his native country and settled in Quebec. born in Boston. Entered Leipzig Conservatory in 1867. In 1880 he came to this country and eoon afterwards settled in Boston. Liszt has long since ceased to play in concerts. His playing produced tremenduous excitement in peared early as pianist. 1850. everywhere making a Lriszt. where he trained the court orchestra is also well known as composer. where he made rapid progress. in order to continue his studies. He enjoyed the instruction of many teachers in this country. for her mental and technical proficiency and great bodily vigor. From Leipzig he went to Prague where he est son of the Mason. and his style is admired by all that have heard him. He is well spoken of as a pianist. He played in many concerts abroad and in this country. at Stuttgart. Is one of the best pianists of the present day. in 1811. in Lang was born at Salem. She entered early the Conservatory of her native city and later became a pupil of Liszt. and his concerts in Paris in which he rivalled Thai. tled finally in Weimar. She is highly esteemed as a pianist. He B. of April. Germany. J.. 1848. and an excellent composer. He also attracted attention as composer. In 1S67 she visited. of musical to a leading position as a center of In 18G1 he settled in Rome where he took holy lives alternately in Weimar Sophie Mentei* was born at Munich. after which he visited Europe. Germany. 1829. who deem with it whom he an honor to play in Wiesbaden. In 1872 she returned to Germany. great pnt ting upon everything he playa the stamp of hia own indiHe has written much piano music. Mehlig was born in 1846.studying with Kullak in Berlin. but finding his field of usefulness uncongenial. after that epent six months with Raff. and gave large sums for the relief of sufferers. Mass. Meyer. Liebling has appeared in many concerts.in company and South France. showing special She is highly partiality for the works of Chopin and Liszt. most of whidh viduality. Hungary.266 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. Adam Kang. to be surrounded by young pianists. which are much admired by some and just as bitterly denounced by others. Calixu Lavallee was born in Vercheves. and when but twelve years of age appeared at the Theatre Royal. orders. Received his first instruction from his father. was born at Rirding. took lessons of Moscheles and Hauptmann. and raised much popularity.

follow the form of the classics. After her marriage with the composer. Pepper. and pianist. time in 1871. Since 1872 she is married to younger players the violoncellist. masters to those of the present day. when she visited Cassel. When young he was a good player of Bach. where he remained for three years. various oratorios. chamber music for the piano-forte and violin. What causes Sgambati to attract additional attenhis mother. ranging from the works of the oldest Since 1871. as well as on the Sternberg has also published a number of works for thf p*no. and was afterwards. at Leipzig. His father was a minister. where he founded a music school." He has also written a prize cantata. ebe was the first to introduce the works of Chopin into Germany. born at Vienna. Max Pinner. playing there with great success. He has published quite a number of works. all of which he interVM born in Lyon. Went to Europe early engaged orchestral effects. and appeared again in this country in 1878.pianists. where he studied under Kullak ami Wuerst. Holland and Germany. ter. Studied music with Dirzka and the younger Mozart. on the 14th of November. Weimar and Frankfoc t-on-the-Main. the highest in 1871. two operas. er. Peters. organ compositions. As a composer he has cultivated nearly all branches del. . Doubtless is one of the most prominent concertiets among the of Germany. 1844. at Samis highly distinguished as composer and la 1865 he wemt to Berlin. of classical music. He is also a composer and author of reputation. he is teacher in the conservatory of Rome. placed himself under his inptruction. Went to Leipzig in 1862. sent back to Europe for hia musical education. When fourteen certizing. Teaches in New York. etc. France. certs. 1851. Schumann has taken up her permanent abode at Frankforton-the-Main. Appeared in many cities of Germany as concert pianist. and as such.of the piano. prets with equal mental and mechanical skill. was born in 1819. After Liszt. EngConservatory in 1864. many in 1872. where he lived for many years. a mass. Among them may be specially mentioned symphonies and symphonic poems suchas"Lerouet d'Ourphale. in fact it den. His compositions are always original in 1876. eliciting from the instrument wood was in giving concerts. He was in this country and was much and admired by those who could appreciate his great skill and later true artistic worth. returning to New York in 1868. where he has since played in many con. Gave many concerts and recitals abroad. teacher. as with Liszt. Clara Si-liuman Giovanni Sgambati He also the only Italian pip nist of Anton .tion is the fact that great pianists are rare in Italy. where he is now active and highly respected as a pianist and teacher. where he studied with Liszt. In Schwerin. 1845. Ernst Pauer. Germany. principal cities in Europe and in this country. must be reckoned one of the first musicians of the day. born 1829 at Wechwolynetz history of Italian piano-forte music. Fr. she 967 M His compositions exceed fifty in number. His works mark an epoch in the Rubinstein. After various successful concert-tours in Swe. Was engaged in giving concerts and soirees and did much to advance the cause of music in Boston. which Perabo was born in Wiesbaden." "Phae" Danse Macabre" and the " Marche ton. piano. He won Constantin Stevnberg was born in St. On her later concert-tonr. where he studied under TauWent again to Gersig.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. while with him. spending. Petersthe grand prize of the Conservatory. eatoemed a pianist and often appears in public. In his boyhood days he was re. years of age he studied with Brassin in Brussels. in the year 1850. and with great success. Went to England in 1852. Later he took lessons of Kullack in Wid and in this country. and after giving some concerts settled in Boston. and without ignoring the aims of the new school. are much admired. he became conductor is said that since the days of CUmenti. HanWhen Liszt came burg. her playing developed into a high state of proficiency. Met with a warm reception upon his return home.Italy has had no great of the opera and director of the conservatory at St. visiting all the Camille Saint-Saens was born in 1835 in Paris. while as a pianist he commands an to Rome. Sgmabati immense repertoire. Went to Leipzig in 1865. He was born in Rome near Jassy received his first instruction on the piano from in 1843.note. where he is well known and highly esteemed as pianist. Y. Sherwood ' Franz Runimel . He has been concertizing since 1875. completing his course later under Liszt at Weimar. etc. lecturer. He settled in n his fourth year he showed great musical proclivities. that his name is well klLi/ is of German parentage.accompanied by her father. and has since played so much in public*! and marked by great beauty. Carlyle Peterselea was born in Bosto& on the 18tb of July. where he studied under Kullak and Weitzmann in technical mastery is but a means towards the ideal rendering Berlin. and she is at present universally admired and esteemed as one of the great interpreters of musical art. This is especially the case with regard to her husband's works. Came to this country in 1852. tals in so many places. next to Berlin. in 1826. Received instruction from her father. William H. Wi sck. Returned as an accomplished player in 1865. and afterwards Paris. N. the piano-forte teachIn her fifth year she appeared in concerts. temporary piano-forte players. England. His father was an excellent teacher. Chopin and Schumann 'of music with success.. At eleven years ot age she made her first concert-tour. He usually resides at Berlin. Appeared for the first Began his studies at the Leipzig burg. In the fall of 1876 he settled in Boston as a teacTKei born in London. and is a pianist of rare attainments. Berlin. in Madame the rendering of which she stands unrivalled. in the year 1854. through the aid of friends. however much of his time in congarded as a prodigy for memory in music. but undertakes extensive co ncert-tours throughout Europe. Has since returned to Europe. Emst Germany. Made concert-tours in Germany. Germany. 1858 he became an organist. Robert Schumann. and the founder of a musical academy. Xavier Scharwenka was born in 1850. Recently he went again to Europe. in 1853. Beethoven. a great lovhe undoubtedly occupies the first place in the ranks of conSherer of music. is born in New York on the 14th of April. but was where." the heroigue. famous as composer and belongs to the modern school of writers.

..... but more 8 Merrymaker's Dance.............. In the Rose Garden ........ Op.. Valse Melodique Wall* 40 40 u and students....... Op..................... The Swallows. Hmith. G.. Lover'i Quarrel ...... 34-2 Silvery Streamlet Swim Song....... Jensen Melodie ...... 83-1 60 40 50 86 40 76 7* 50 76 86 Centre Dance....... 75 1 00 Secoude Romance Opui21 Cradle Song................ 1-1 Leaf.................. Maiurka Brllliaute 40 40 Remembrance R............. uguMt Hyllested.............................. PMC*........ Hcnn.... Concert Paraphrate Spanish Dancef.. .. H. Impromptu .. C.... 14-3 . 40 80 16 86 Si 40 40 35 25 8i $ style.......... Tramcriplion resembles the Spanish Cachoucha.. R.. onslanlinc HK-rii tiersMme... ElfenTanc....... Humming Bird Fantaiile .. 4 00 Complete (six 40 60 40 40 40 60 40 40 50 50 40 50 50 50 Robert Cioldbeek. M 40 50 50 60 Oscar Mayo...... Cotpellm Gurlltt Kirmess ............ with its light staccato treatment.......... Ad. Idylle... Von Wilm .... Load..... ..... Ti Wiegenlled ... * "'> Bravoura Galop ..................... Reinhold G.... 28-3 .......... BmmaWalUei.. Wehll...... Minuet Moderne ...................... Rippling Waters SaUerello Tarantelle............. N................ The Troubadours .. Reverie..... On the Lake ........ Ferd.. Dream Visions......... Album Leaf ... The Serenade contains some rery pretty mandolin effects....... fifths and lixths........ 1............. Bourree Antique Cradle Song....... No.................... edition................. Wild Flower..... Ing........ H...... a fine sample of Mr. or Sketches from the time of Margaret............. W. John Field 40 36 60 40 60 85 75 36 30 35 40 50 60 40 Petite Valse ................... J.. Jensen Dance Caprice.... Op........................ Longing..... 66-2 ........ 32 .... 88 .......... Seymour Smith Dorotiy In Rank and File ... F...................... Qade .... K....................... 2-2 . AlbumLeaf.... : These compositions have been chosen with special reference to the demand for and need of entertaining and instructive pieces for the piano... Witchery.. Moscnelles Gavotte Antique . Rirulet .. BonComarade Op...... will equally iaterest the rrtlft and piano teacher..... K 86 40 80 80 80 <0 40 60 60 60 80 40 40 40 40 60 36 75 A collection of choice piano compositions by mod75 60 50 60 66 60 50 60 tu ern French composers.. GodaM Valse Fantasie .............. Bolero 00 Trembling Leaves .............. Srarlatti-Tiiuig Roving Butterfly . At the Sea Shore..... Op..... Moizkowski 86 25 2....................... Zweifel .. * * Jam....... Gade Spring Flowers . M............................... Prom Op..... Mazurka Elegante Op... Lyaes...... Gust..... Waltx BriUiante . Scene Pastorale LITTLE CLASSICS...................... Polonaite Militaire ................ 86-1 .... Joseffy Hungarian Dance . Rosenham Spring Idyl. Op. N.... Berceute High=Grade Piano Music by Eminent Composers......... The Cavaliers.....VooWlllB Danish Canzonetta.... Heller X 10 li Kd ward 8....... Ad.......... 37-6 .... Bdouard Grieg Contain! numerous ezamplea of double appoggiaturas..... 10-3 .... Oipsy Stories ............. Guitare Imitation W Elfriede Valse Caprice .... 1 00 *0 Heather Bells . Before the Tournament ........... No. thirds...................... P.. Wellensplel ............. Bewitching Eyes. Kinderspiel ........ Caprice d< Concert ElKohinoor......... G...... Gavotte . Ad..... Op............. 80 ftomo Solo............ Op......... Child's Play. Each piece is a gem considerably above the average of such compositions regard! to harmony and musicianly style of treatment......... Saint Amaranthe.......... 24-7 ............... Saraband* Serenade JJJ Grand Torchlight March ........................... Dupont Volte Caprice . Ad................. 60 60 WlUon ... 37-2 Scherzo Tarantelle......... X......................... ........ FJJln Dance ........................ of a medi- um grade of diflttculty..... Killer Dance Antique.......... Thome Second Mazurka ... Gutmann Nocturne(A) ..... Dramatique......... -^ng............................. Tocatto....... Romantic Study ........ tinder the Pine*............... An original composition An t Impromptu . Original Theme i<* variation* ............. Bachmann Harlequin et Colombine ......... Arabesque .. Henry Litolff The Mill .......... Auld Lang Syne Belles of Chicago ValM Caprice de Concert 00 40 1 00 00 1 SO 1 00 1 The above suite..... Edw. Bendel Nocturne .... 33-2 Polonaise de Concert... In F........ Mozart's Minuet ... Woiiz Etude ...... Scharwenka Rustic Dance......... Hensalt Minuet de Mozart .......... and is original and melodious..... Pratt... Foote's peculiar and scholarly which u dedicated Madam This Concert Gavotte is graceful and melodious in The main theme it! themes and richly harmonized. Edw... E. Polonaise iO 20 ** 76 Dllu G.............. exquisite gem from the popular Danish pianist. Moscheles Romance ................. VonWilm Mazurka............. issued In a special analytical and esthetical 40 80 MODERN CLASSICS... The Jester ......... Far from Home............ 4. W....... 9 Aug.......... Serenade.... Summer Breezes.. 1 00 number! in one volume................................ Polka OraeituM and elegant in appearance...... 42 75 1 75 beautiful Serenade...... P.. W.. Scheherezade.. Jensen Slavonic Dance...................... K.......... Op..... Op....... Ad................. VesperBell. Fantatit ...... ........ Braune Augen ....... Sweden and Norway... Op..................... AtSunriie.... o 80 40 86 50 76 60 1 00 60 Serenade ................ rtiis Op...... Emery... The Mokes ...... Die Schwalben ..... Please....... .......... C. The Bolero li Tcry bright and animating...... ug accompaniment in arpeggios....... Op. (InSpring) ....................... In the Sunny South ........ Ing.... Novellozza ...... Op..................... Volte from Naila .. VMin <W Good stndlei in rhythm and criipneas of style.. 60c...... Jensen Robert Idylle L.... Queen of Denmark..... AmMeere ........ and will well repay study....... ROMANTIQUI SUITE. JfarcAo/ the Immortall .. j> PotUqu*......... is in excellent contrast to the second or intermediate part in E major................... It contains a melodious theme.... CradleSong ...............Select List of W. Op.... Bungert Oscar Raif Allegretto Pastorale........ Volte Qracieuie . Lange In the Gipsy Camp ..Scholtz Op....... Eyening Chimes... CradleSong........ R.................. Opm J 40 Gigue Bretonne ImiUtion of the Ouitr Lafayette Waltz Old Folks at Home....... G......-* M... Leo Delibes Pastorale ..................... in E flat..... Polka Kuttiqu* Minuet Alia Mazurka........ performed in concert! by is to and Julia Hire-King.... 86-2 ..... Dminor ...... .......... 8... while within reach of more advanced pupils......... * Op........... Grieg Menuetto Gracieuse ..... Op... .. On the Mountains ................................. Aata StreleBki..... Von Wilm Serenade....... The Vision ...... Op...................... Franz.. Brown Eyes......................... Thome_ Album 5..... B....... 18........ Nocturne Faust......... Polka Brilliant* . Tuo Noctunui Bitt-r Team......... B........... Dancing Wavelet!.... After the Ball........ Op....... 6-1 At the Lute.......... Dance Bretonne Dance Rustique V I... Cavalcade Triumphale Oalop Embarrassment I Love You so Truly 71 60 This set ha! won W ISO MyNormandy Russia Drirer's Song Scherzo Sounds from the Ohio.. Op... De Vilbac Polish Mazurka.. Hoffman Barcarolle... Nimmermehr ...... Doubt.. N.. Albert Ellmenreich Spinning Song .. 7 .................. that will grow in favor.......... D.... Beaumont Premier Nocturne ...... Lullaby ............... Barcarolle .......... Knickerbocker Danie .. Mattooa....................... fourths......... Henselt Polonnaise Brllllante ........... J.... W.. Character. P............ 40 40 40 ECHOES FROM FRANCE. Op.......... Seeboeek. Op........... Coquette..... 88-1 Op.. the praise of all progressive teachers........ Op.. Concert Gavotte. Op. N.... Otto Hefner. Selected from the piano works of modern composer*........... Bachmann Les Sylphes............ Opiu and Piano de Concert.. Unter den Flchten .. Trantcription ...... 11 PEICI. Beaumont .. 16-2 ......... Hoffman......... HuntingScene .... revised and fingered for the use of teachers Karl Men.......... Forest Winds. The Sigh The Brooklet............... Merkel Spring Song ..... Psacs.......... Especially selected forteachen' and itudents' use............. H. and a brilliant cadensa............... SI ............. Salop Polka.... Never More... TON-BILDIB... 2 50 Bacchanale......... 84-1 Second Gavotte..... Moscheles Scherzo ....... Ad... \ Op............. 23......... 84 .. 40 76 Mazurka Poetique........ Ing.. 87-1 ............ 37-2 ................. 40 76 60 Flashes from the West Marchede Fault Rigoletto W BO 3* 60 40 86 50 80 ENCORE SERIES..... Fianz Neumann Menuetto.. Bachmann .......... Andante ........... Gade Valse Francaise............. 1 Premiere Romance de Concert..................... 7-2 .................. < /rthur Foote. N. Godard Pas des Fleurs.. Parker................. Op..... Gade SpringSong .. Gade Charmes de Paris ....... and a good practice in delicacy of touch. 60 I* Andante Masurka Qone. Op...... Da! Baschlein ..... Grieg Gavotte Moderne.. Henselt Tarantelle ... Barcarolle Belle Amerlcalne...................................... W........... 60 Four hands 1(0 Ti Bitte ................................. Op.............. correctly printed Be Thou Faithful Thine Eye* Nocturne Lift ......... but without the Castanet rhythm. 37-1 ........ F..... 75 Music of the Sa ......... NachdemBalle ... excellently which U more sustained and legato in treated...... 60 Stephen A.... ...... Brahms Impromptu ..... The second is not like the old sarabandet.. Forest Ramble .................... Reverie Poetique .... Fairy Harp... Walhalla.... Mazourka Romantique ...... Hoffman Babbling Brook................ 36 16 16 li 36 26 16 26 36 16 16 16 Love Song ....... Ad.. Volte BrUUamU .. N.... Albert EMmenreich .................. Coquette... Bachmann Village Fete. Fred Boscovit*....... 1353-1412.......... Emma Waltzes........... is J........... G......... Barcarolle 10 By Lake Geneva.... C......... In six numbers 1......... Heller 85 40 50 Hour .... Impromptu Minuet Mazurka Ola Sigh Smile... J............7 ving melody first presented In plain fen* being afterward! giren to the he right present! a brilliant and ........... Album Leaf ...................... i" Ka i8XEoft Berceuse...................... 8. Edouard Grieg Camp of Gypsies ............... Merkel Leisure 30 66 U In the Forest .................... Tschaikowsky CradleSong....... Moszkowski Mazurka Caprice.... N.... v Fr 'wnhr Canzonetta ..

2x2048 = 4096.name. of any elast. tar. with tones. and will for this reason derive greater have in all 9x12 or 108 tones. henec it nations as for instance the Arabians. while the fewer the vibrations. so. practice it are called tone-masters. We will is A by others a half-step not every sound whole-step. they being subdivided into twelve equal parts. is has boe* given the same name. w? musical sound. When speaking however of the strength and the will represent the twelve divisions in the following manner its quantity. si. : duration of a tone. the lower the tone. Lot us now represent in the same manner the tones that nave not ntuic.of our instruments produce this entire range of tones. the higher is the it was thought sufficient to supply only seven with tkem. their resolution. only it is louder. I. but there is a limit to the human ear hearing them. Harmony The Why this name is applied we will presently see. has no pitch. For this reason Germans call music the tone art. but it was the most natural to might to tones. la. lie all the tones we uac in space. All these tones have the same name. while in Germany the tone represented by the letter . we speak of depth of a tone is called its pitch. Having made all the necessary divisions in the chain of 109 tones. 8th. that from any one key on the piano to the next folThis last term called lowing upwards or downwards is a half-step. taves and further more knowing as we now do the division of each of these student who masters these rules. attains a more perfect understand. we have in all 109 tones in. call it a tone. Some divisions. or half-tone. that the mi. 2x8192 = 163*4 which is the highest tone. that the same tone pro. twelve equal parts. An object must make at least 3? vibrations in a second. is it is rather ambagious.' 2x512 = 1024. he can.octaves.c oody is is. practical use None pleasure from the art.384 vibrations per second. that er at regular intervals. What then is a sound what tone? a sound. prefer however to ust the term of We by some cr. Octave comes from the latin word octo mailing eight. The Germans call tone of each of the nine octaves. have smaller have larger ones. is so much like the one I I I produced they systematiied. who have not studied these rules must read notes carefully. but The more vibrations an object makes in a given time. 2x1024 = 2048. abstractly speaking. but the greater extent of the vibrations does not cause the tone which have separate names in the above manner. as has been said. tone color. as many terms adopted in musical theory are. From the foregoing it will be seen. In order to make the lesson plain. except it be the or- derlie the chords. facility.. Despite the fart that U>e < highest tone is an entirely independent oue from the lower. etc. 5th. is called h. The explanation of the cause of this would occupy too much fcinaiu of tones is circumscribed. Knowing as we now do the division of implies the study of the rules appertaining to the entire tone series. Lt us see how are music. 7. it being divided into nine equal sections or octhe combinations of tones into chords. The tone that is pro- I I _J . in order to facilitate matters for students. Separate names might have been given to each of these twelve tones. guess at knowing them and their progressions. 10th and 12th tones. while those whole tone. which is produced by 16. before the tone becomes au4. if there is only one kind of vibrations moving the object. The tone use the letters. The greater the extent of the vibrations. the same name has been given to the first sider the character of a tone we speak of its quality. and adding to this the highest tone where ing Moreover the study of harmony enables the stu. but as often used.THE ELEMENTS HARMONY. Music is the art twelve 'ones to the next upward or downward is called a half-step or half1. that when the two sounds together. In some European countries the names used. BY Editor of BRAINARD'S by 32 vibrations. 3.with to close the scale. simply because it is so much like it. Two of these half-steps or half-tones constitute a whole step or a In short.. The distance from one to the other of these tones has been agtun divided into twelve equal parts. The distance from one of these Music is the art of expressing sentiment in tones. int CHAPTER II. but the division of twelve tones was deemed best. while others t who 2. we will have the follow to be heard further. 2x256 = 512. the highwt tone 64 vibrations seems to disappear in the lower. the sound is The is a by separate keys. If we represent the interval* of sound. and it only produce them through the aid of different stops. Between the two limits indicated above. are : ut. the rule may here be laid down. MUSICAL WORLD. it follows that we of the construction of music. and we must therefore pass on with our lessons. In an upward therefore the lowest tone possible for us to use direction there is. and aro said to be an octave apart. we will proceed to name them. of sombining sounds agreably to the ear. Were we to give each tone a separate and it ton-farbe. it would be difficult to remember them. The 13th is merely a repetition of 3d. They have been given any other names. Every musician no doubt has noticed the fact. as it were. 6. It might have been divided in a larger or smaller number of tone. and if these v . but a tone. The oaivM separate names. fa. was adopted. As each of these twelve tone are represented on the piant ABOUT SOUNDS AND TONES. In order to facilitate and duced by different instruments sounds differently. The mere 10 ii 12 9 13 sound lacking the qualifications of a tone. The sanu> principle applies to the tone produced by double the vibrations of sixtyfour (2x64) or 128. tone therefore is a sound.f4 m t is produced by 8s82 vibrations. as well as to the tone of 2x128 = 256. is about the highest uoe perceptible to our ear.. is the lowest possible toae. \ CHAPTER The study of ABOUT HARMONY. for by denf to read music with more the rules that un. definite height or The 12345678 i I I I I i I I I I I I I The human ear cannot perceive all possible vibrations. namely the Is1>. we give it here.ed a tone. gan. the greater will be the intensity tke 1st and as such receives the same name.to simplify the study of music. 8. perceptable or bearable vibrations. It has been said that the distance of an octave has been divided while others.ations succeed each othIf these vibrations are even. ing schedule I : I dible to our ear ic This is letters from the alphabet to name the several tones. when we therefore con. 2x4096=8192. 6th. their names. musical art deals tone. tone which it produces. no limit C D have used We EF I I I I G A BC I I daasd by 32 vibrations. re.

The twici lower the white keys. the small C. In using sharps and flats alo have derived names. Placing th tw of the Key-board. C. are called derived or intermediate names. The entire ootovr upwards is called the twice marked octave. is taught us by nature. A. but this plan has not In fact all scales are the creatures of art. Uie tone produced by 32 vibrations. hence the Germans call the scale. let us see by what means we may is CHAPTER octaves. say the lowest the first. This does however by no means imply that the C etc. model. but on G which iijive tones above C. It is called the C scale. a capital C with two lines above names. scale the tone-ladder. When playing scales without the use of sharps and flats. it so happened that the lowest tone in the regular order hapIn the same manner by placing flats beognised as E sharp and B sharp. though under deriTed with C. and it is also termed the diatonic scale. Every tone ~1*~ in the scale from this tone upward. The next octave is called the thrice marked octave. because it begins and ends fh entire octave from this tone up to B is tra octave. from the latin word scala. and that each of the upper has two names. may however so happen that the white keys harmony with the alphabetical order ? tb* /0 ^est tone called C. F. while those of the CD EF upper keys it G A BC marked Contra C. The entire octave from this c upward to B. >ened to be called C. This note occupies the following place in the staff: _ It is called seven white keys of the piano. The entire octave from this tone to the next B it. and so rertti this tone series of tones. the twice marked o a one foot he thrice marked c a half foot tone. and is repreoeutec The distances of the several tones are not alike. een foot tone. distinguish the nine different On the staff the difference readily THE DIATONIC MAJOR SCALE. it called For this same reason the Contra C' is called a Bixhirty-two foot tone. hrougnout the entire The several octaves are also sometimes called by feet.minor or smaller scale of which we shall presently hear. hence it is called the M called the Contra or Counter C. D. by adding and B. 11. two half-steps and five whole-steps. This scale being perfectly satisfactory. There to build other scales after this . are no longer called such. it will be found that the It would have been a reasonable plan Ihe staff cale beginning with C is the only one in the entire series that gives us sctaves in their regular order. c. For this. a major or larger scale in contradistinction to the called the twice marked Con. It is called names. and i* . then with D. Let us now proceed are in this scale. the next the second. E. It represent the black keys. portions. the names from the will be observed that the upper keys have derived their lower by adding sharps or flats. are called the C major scale. by placing sharps below E A. omes. downward especially. is called the the email octave. which were given independent 2.. will not construct one on Djtw model We tones next to C. while other scales some tones enters more than once. G. and The reason is as foL risions of the tone chain or tone series. after which all other major scales are built. feUewmg C i called the twic C. reason the names of the lower keys are called principle names. The step from 3-4 and from 7-8 is only half as large as ia that from 1-2. why not A in : ows The tone which was formerly regarded as the lowest one was call<t Thus.beginning with >erfect satisfaction. etc. is The question is often asked. then with E and so forth. and is written as follows C. B. because in it each tone enters only once. he once marked c a two foot tone.v small c with one line above it. and the large octave. the ladder. is called the twice marked Contra or scale The succession of the seven tones. Having now became aquainted with the names of the III. as it should be called <>ut are recognized as C flat and F flat. namely C. the two white keys of E and B are no longer called such. the white keys of F and C. and which names represent the ! : r below it. in this wise =3^ m By above is called the Contra octave. The C following ZJ: I is called is ^Y I represented by *+ t mall letter c.new tones.seated rom 4 He upper lines 5 T by m small letter c with two marks orer it. let us first examine each other in their proper pt> one line above or below. beginning 1. The names have never been changed and so i bre C and F. smaller di&. the aid of een. for instance. In order to be able to construct others. o*e. 10. it has been accepted as the 3. 'ounter C. but as the tone system was extended. the large C an eight foot tone. and is represented by a capital C with Normal scale. we have an eraet repreeanta. being produced by a thirty-two foot pipe.ohettnie* above each other. that our lowest tone is called C' and not A. the small c a four foot tone. etc. we will obtain the following schedule : Tbe C following 2li : is called the large C. The next C is called the once marked C. The lowest scale. and is represented by a is called *pital C'. but can we not distinguish the several octaves without to have called the several with C. but are rec. placing the seven tones above The C that follows and which is written on the staff. The entire octave from this tone up ward U called the once marked octave. been adopted. from 2-3.

The scale sharp. and stepping downward we have again described a circle. we have the following series of the 3th to the 4th which is a whole one. By continuing in the same course appear as follows : the next scale will be built on G$. we will select the one that lies five tones or a fifth higher The B flat scale is in all but one particular like that of F. aad consequently that from the 4th to UM SUi ie small. which hag be than G. We must. m In order therefore to make the B flat I scale like that of F. one on B and the other on E. 07 scale and it i it will be found that this scale does not agree with the between the 3d and 4th is again a whole step. which U largo. Ai>. until we arrived is the course we : pursued We have. A As Dfo G Observe that C has no flats. until wo roach th or scale designated. and proceed by Observe that C has no sharps. we must introduce an additional sharp on the 7th tone this tone has one flat already. which is C. HM 9 while in the Normal fore. scale just ths opposite is the case. has two sharps. which is but a half of one. The last named scale. E# and B#. we must lower the 4th a half step. thereby introducing the first sharp. so to speak. therefore. E. we must add a second one. 5 9 11 In order. namely. while in the normal scale the reverse is the case. we must lower therefore ha* the 4th tone and introduce a second flat. : 1 Here we meet with the same difficulty as in the preceding scale. B. started with C. * m The oaly difference we notice scale of F is nearly like the scale of C. and in that from the 4th to th In the F scale however it is the reverse. has every tone flatted.__A--E-B F^JH3M5&-A-E#-B0. The B flat scale LEMON 4. The following started from C and stepped upward five tones each time. and. thus putting a of the scale. C scale in all the steps except in that from is the case. while G has one and each following key has belonging to any given scale. duced over those that have flats. fifths or five tones at each step. the Btep from the 3th to tke 4th. to find the number of flats 3 4 6 7 8 10 1 2 12. to make the D scale like that of G we must introduce a second EXERCISE 3.. step from the 6th-7th is but a half-step. we 5. it will be plain. therea half-tone. Write the scales of Djf. tones 5th. Let us write it with the sharps as used in the Cfy scale. that of Cb. while just the but a half-step while that from the 7th to the 8th is a whole one. therefore. the sharps until you arrive at the key designated. E^. of D. Cfl the F|? scale like the normal. We mast therefore lower the fourth tone or and that from 7-8 which must consequently be large. flat ft. therefore. given key. which is played by the same key as C. counting an additional fiat each time. while F has one. Instead of starting with the tone next to G. and every following key or F# Cfl Bfl.fhls Male corresponds with the -7 wbictt is small. a circle in fifths. namely Bt>. and build scales in C G D A E B 0123456789 G# D# A# E# C *b tame manner . starting from In writing the scales in keys in which sharps are introduced. In order therefore to find the number of sharps of any fifths downwards. as follows : 10 11 12 flats. In order to make In order to make the G$ scale scale ho waver it is just the reverse. The two flats. Let us now step five tones c5owi> urard from C. as it already has a sharp we shall place a double sharp before B. therefore. Let us descend from we 1 G We will now proceed to build another scale. In the contrary condition of things exists in the normal scale. that LBSSON 2. By retaining all the tones of the scale which has built after the C or Normal scale. counting the double sharp as two. 1* i The scale of V99 4.'Ffl and C# major. scale therefore has one flat. 6. disat B. In order. we Each additional scale gave us also an additional By stepping five tones lower from Of we reach FK Write this scale with will In the C$ major the same number of flats which have been used in the sharp. G$ has therefore 8 sharps. (x) before F. consequently that from the 7th-8th is a whole one. which was placed upon the 7th tone of the scale. therefore. The major scale. we must start out from one additional. The difference is again in the step fro been built after the normal scale of C. Write the scales of A. for double flat scale. wbile ir the normal scale just the raven* jle C 12 456789 . raise the F 6 iX --^-^-4 F by five tones aud zai *^=^^EE reach Bt>. 7. Write the scale on Efc. finally 1. We reached C$. and 1 the same tone (on the piano) as C'. scale we find that every tone is sharped. A#. 876543210 1 2 3 10 11 11 G D 11 1* 11 11 11 fi 12 11 11 11 ll" 12~ 11 II H that the or kayn winch are placed abort aaoh other are w . DJ7. EXERCISE Write the scale on B^. until we reached by Dj^. scale has one additional. and as correspond with it. has eight flats. is =!s=kf. The F flat Upon examination normal scale. and conUpon examination it will be found that the step from the 6th to the 7th is sequently between the 4th and 5th is but a half of one. and place it again before the seventh tone. G(> and O. begiu to count from C and step upwards by five tones counting key Let us now place the names of the aoalea in which sharp* are intro8. has one sharp. and stepping five tones higher each time. D. namelj F$. orihed. therefore.

in as much as it like the normal major scale. we already know. i we find that there are not leas than ach of which we M follows advocated by theorist* as correct is. from t!. in the second degree. we make This key. 3y counting the number of the sharps and above or below each other. and so forth. When we however form minor three distinot forms. from the 2-3. Next it contains two whole steps from 1-2. they should all be the same descendone tone. we ca> mild the chords in minor keys. we shall adopt that scale MC. example No. scales after the C major scale.e 5-6 anl or flats. In changis. easy to find the number of sharps or has E#? This being a key be asked.As we are now studying the rules of harmony. without the use of sharps This scale has three half steps. The Gft is to be regarded as an accidental and n i -" a B V 1 smaller scale. which bring* u* to Let us now proceed! A E W will first i : nreaent tbta Mali without any sharps. writing the ascending minor scale. et- pose which question never used in music. and for ttis reason our model or normal minor scale. This key has but one sharp. 10. When we formec we had but one model or normal scale Minor scales are built in the same manner as were the major scales. they are fashioned after the normal minor scale. that on A. it will be found that the first ombinaliou sounds defective. from by five steps upwards.wrwu ing from written. we find that next to the C scale. By using the tones as we find them in the It is easier to read and play (be key of D\? which has but five flats. we make an enharmonic Change. number of flats used in AH?. C GDA : E B FJJ When placing the different degrees of the harmonic minor scale abort each Other in the form of a ladder. no one is expected to know its signature. Such a change is called the enharmomt y above or beby stewing from any key to the one immediately ehaugelow it u given above. B^ playing scales on the seven white keys. when Scales 11. has neither sharps r flats. and for this reason the descending minor scale ought to be regarded The following will represent the as the normal minor scale. THE DIATONIC MINOR SCALE. a difference. different degrees of relationship of all the keys used in music Gfc Dfc Afr Bfe used in-music. It is. 'hese several scales are all correct. we have the following proportions : 81 IA v f CHAPTER IV. f the masters. and a half from 6-7. The third form is the one which is to us of most imporance. the Thi G is natural. key of D^ is generaly prefered music in the following keys : C-G D A E B And not in these : Fft-G|> This scale has been called the harmonic scale. has but one flat. 2. By playing the following chords. Though Fft Gfrlookj *\. qnickly to find out the number of sharps without countis the enharmonic change and say. consequently Eft tone as F. and may all be deduced from the works may be termed the most consistent minor cale. Suptherefore. for there is but one tone in it. we obtain the following series : y * * music in a key with but five accidentals than in one with seven. a regular signatute of the scale for in going down. while those that differ in two tones are related they differ in but ng.that Eft is the same ing by fifths. The key of Cft for instance with seven sharps sounds exactly like hich suits our purposes best. In order however. the number will invariably be twelve. consequently the scale of AW must have eleven flats. The second scale is perhaps the smoothest and has been called melodic scale. line are all that are we shall adopt it a* The keys mentioned in the upper usually Some theorists claim that inasmuch as there are three different ways of and keys are said to be related in the first degree. and the minor. which is perceptible to nd not to the ear. soft. must have exactly that number of sharps which is required to make up Hence Eft has eleven sharps. Hiese febrca forma scales. that causes it to differ from he major scale. 2. The first scale 1. and so forth. like the deondlng minor A . AJ?j? is the same as G. flats of remote keys. 1. is the only one which from 7-8. ty F I.tones sound exactly alike. how many sharps the Uie eye or ! G# to G there therefore. Or suppose we wish to know the twelve. This scale is called the minor scale the lesser or Germans call the major scale hard. from o-4 and a step affords us any degree of satisfaction. namely. Not all the scales we have constructed are praeticaly nsed in mu. while the second is agreeable to the ear. because with it. In that case we say. these and by one and the same key. hence the For the same reason we write to Cft. flats of the scales placed $.

G b Minor A D G C F B E^. means only a ihange to the eye and not to the ear.t its key. 2. so its own. 2 3 5 . has no influenm beyond the next bar-line. Gi Cjf difference still is recognized in music. F All the steps of this scale are alikt. G$ and Dft. By going five tones downward from A we reach D. The major and minor scales are modern when compared with the churcll :eys. placed at the beginning of a piece of music or a line. Moreover we must sharp the C. and tha As this scale has no other than half steps. (374) nd the next four were added by St. -9 Mixolydian. so that from the 2d to the 3d may be smal We must. therefore. Write the minor scales of B. The minor the major keys. C. sharp. but on th? D minor key. while we have tout AinorE A sharp C# is G# D# D G C F Bb F>. the chromatic scale has 12 and the enharmonic 17. when placed at the beginning of a piece of music. Let us now place the minor scales under those major scales 'hal nave the same number of sharps or flats. to be regarded merely as an accidental. The major and minor scales each lave 7 tones. EBF#C#G# L i Lydian. has effect throughout the entire piece unless changed. while D| occurs only in the ascending form or natural sign which however occurs only in a measure. or minor keys. This scale is of no practical value. Major G DA B Fjf E B F fib E|? Ab Db Gb'he first four of these keys or modes were chosen by St. so that the step from the 5th to the 6th may be a half step. chromatic. which comes from chromo. eight different modes. 4. E b A b Df. therefore. the minor key is always three half steps below its re- lative major. This scale is written upward with sharps and down ward with flats. and still are used in church music. 2. be used alike in connection with the majoi that from the 6th to the 7th may be a step and a half.L' from the 1st to the 2d large. hence the name. Hopophrygian. they are called the church keys. 19 The D$ is. for it produces each D and This scale is only possible when we take into considerais a difference between and DJ>. F$ and Gt>. They are eight in number and are divided into two classes. we consider tones by one key. CHAPTER" 1 Y. The question whether stu- major or minor is however by no means thereby decided. therefore. Any of the above signatures. place a sharp before F. Bj? and Gt> minor keys EXERCISE 3. the major and minor modes In the Ionian and Aeolian ">odes UM . Ambrose. n the past they had. lie THE CHROMATIC SCALES. its enharmonic changes. The sharps and flats must be placed ing manner : at the beginning of a piece of music. F$. it will b found that Fjf occurs in both. CHAPTER flats VI. the The first four are the authentic scales. The dent can solve this generally by looking at the last note in the ha indicates the name of the key. The enharmonic etc. tion the fact that there the Bt> as the only regular signature of the regarded but as an accidental. O- Aeolian. indicate it i. 1 Major Minor CL GL DL AL EL BL FV. 5. . which belong to the several keys or scales. F. The succession of all the twelve tones that within one ot^ve. Dorian. CGDA I Phrygian. we must sharp the D When comparing the ascending and descending E minor scale. EfrBpF keys are related to each other in the same manner as The following formula will explain it. that that have the same number of sharps or are called relatative major or minor keys. Gregory (591). it has no peculiar character of from the 6th to the 7th a whole one. EXERCISE 5. but as in the descending scale the sharp disappears. 6. In order to make this scale like the normal minor scale. It is called chromatic because in former times this scale is said to have been called the chromatic scale. while th. and it may. and in the followFtt Ionian.uthentic and plagal. we must flat the B. Dorian. while the Ctt is tone in Write minor scales on G. It will be observed that in ascending. therefore. the color. AJ7. and they are always three hall is. while the is the permanent signature of this scale. Al EL B F O# G '#D V Major CL FL Bj. flat or flat which A vo. C|. ast four are the plagal. the minor scale has a flat and a piano and the organ we have split that difference and represented both sharp. which as we have learned.I rder to make this scale like the normal scale. and as these key? ere. written in different colors. we must make the ste . The minor and major keys steps apart. In order to make the dis ance from the 6th to the 7th a step and a half. 2 3 4 THE CHURCH KEYS.

with and if we vals. TEMPERAMENT. Either we count the de. in order to simplify out tached to the scales because it do not notice and that tl>e several provinces of that country had each instruments. Prime. longs to history we will add nothing further. while the tones that lie between them. except theory has been denied. that necessarily modified. ffl :sz preee&d W may therefore say of a pi* "&*t i tuned in this manner. starting from C. This mode of tuning. it will be found the fraction of 74-73 of a tone higher than C. on the srme as C. and the two tones are now represented. making three vibrations additional names. it will be found that the tone of 74-78 lower than C. is The following is a list of intervals : Perfect Prime. GP. Ct>. which last tone is on the Et>. By sharping or flatting any one of the tones of an interval it is we proceed in the same manner. 1 Major Second. We one of these scales appropriated to its special use. Third. namely. Ejf" F. and cur ear has accustomed itself to it. The tones to the the right. it does not change its original name. B.out of tune. E the third. the lower tone makes but relation. C$. As this subject be. There tance may be measured iu a two fold manner. we womld never return to that tone. which latter tone B$ is F#. E. F the fourth. DX G>. Diminished Fourth. which would make these instruments exceedingly complicated. has been claimed that the ancient Grecians which each tone yields a fraction of its purity. CHAPTER IX. Diminished Seventh. A. is by a fraction piano the same as C. Augmented Fifth. D^ Minor Second. teps By pursuing the first course we obtain the Chinese and other Eastern nations use a scale that consists of but five intervals following tODM. fifth.. G D A E 6 " Ebb. By doing the proportions of each fifth had to be somewhat lessened or de- Perfect Octave. Minor Third. This dis 1. we started from C and advancing by fifths we interval that smaller than major is called minor. of accoufltios. the tone lying bctwaea each of Were we Major Seventh. Again if we begin C.that it is mathematicaly speaking. Ebb. student Till recognize our major and minor. the interval In eonstmcting the scales. G#. namely 3 2. G the VIII. fc these this. Fourth. it is simply modified by is. grees that lie between the two tones. C*. from CHAPTER VII. is called the temperate mode of tuning. divide their octave into 17 _re many others. Cand Ill Major Third. A 2. advancing to F and proceeding to B!?. E$ and B$. Augmented Octave. Ai?. This same fractional difference exists between tune from C downward by fifths. is of the proper accoustic proporitons. Augmented Third. If the fifth bj does not change its staff which we tune. E=3=JEa*EEEE Perfect Sixth. By tuning in this manner. Octave. A is on the 6th degree from C. that A|. and that which is a reached B$ in one direction. '. The distance between two tones is called an interval. Diminished Octar*. the Hindoos have a scale with twenty divisions. Sixth. D. I Perfect Fifth. produced by the same key on the piano.the defects of this mode of tuning because we have heard it to state that this earliest youth.. or we count the half steps or semior tones. Counting CHAPTER C as the first D is the second. the sixth. though to oemg those of the major some we apply the term perfect scale. Any is a half step larger than the major is augmented. but would perpetually run in opposite direction* To overcome these difficulties. if the G. Diminished Third. to tune pianos and organs according to the principles would become necessary for us to have all these several tonee represented by separate keys. In tuning 3. This it is called the Pentatonic Scale. by that of C. advance to G. Second. as for instance. & * These names are derived from the number of staff degrees that lie between the two tones. Diminisncd Fifth. The jjrrecian names were at. are all major inter- : two. As long as the interval while C. F?. Augmented Prime. In the half steps are omitted. D$. Augmented Fourth. Ninth. invented them. Diminished Sixth. Minor Seventh. Fifth. Perfect Fourth. A>t and DH>. The major and minor scales are not the only ones that are used. Seventh. advancing by fifths. etc These intervals in place of major. . INTERVALS. two was adopted. B. Augmented Second. both of which are that is a half step half step smaller than minor is called diminished. it left are all by the fraction of 74-73 higher than those to Augmented Sixth. The Arabs for instance. and it is supposed to be very old. and Tty? in the opposite. : ABOUT SCALES IN GENERAL.

8th. Write out a similar table of intervals.. i" voice may progress with another io parallel motion. therefore. D. This idea can readily be represented by figures 12345678 8764321 : The CHAPTER is X. C|. F -* 2d. we invert an interval. can however appear in more than one key. 8th. etc. Alto. This combinamoving the latter. Soprano and Bass. each and the following chord. 6. 2d. In reckoning by semitones or half steps. on It is furthermore called the Tonic-chord. the next lower is called the 3d next lower is while the lowest tone is called the 4th voice or Bass. 4th. . llth. : . these voices is called progression. from Cfl to D is the second. 9th. Gb and Ct>. 3d. 5th. 5th. At>. and the interval. Dt?. 4th. which is the difference in pitch between two tones. 5th. chord C. E.. both moving when we speak of the simultaneous sounding of tones. w* when inverted becomes a seventh. 5th. or Tenor. to the ear. E and greater than the number of semitones or half steps.and you have the interval it will become by and Bass. In writchord is doubly connected. E>. Th* '"ost natural position for the common chord is this in which 3. two outer voices. will have common chords written for doubling the tonic or fifth we as mnch By fow c/5 voices.which a succession of tones. The common chord however consists of but we obtain an octave. the third the next above and the are regarded as mere repetitions of the 3d. while the doubling of the third is to be avoided inversion. Intervals are not counted beyond the 9th. voices. with the preceding ing harmony. 3d. C will always be of C. are usually called thft while the two inner voices. 7th. we shall now consider the rules that underlie the combination of tones. In order to find out whether an interval is major or minor. namely: principal 5. FJf.Major Ninth. The term tonic chord should. as it is her* G . it we hare adopted from !*. The quickest mode of finding the number of half steps is "f* its third and fifth. the funds 5.1st sound. The second. which is the same as deducting 2 from must double one. been adopted for the four tone* 3d. we call it The motion of each of G We A 2. as it is linked with the same voice of the is serve the motion E and F is offensive to the ear. therefore. that constitute harmony. for reasons which will hereafter be explained. etc. 1. It is also called rows and Richter and others. 4. making eight in all. Alto and Tenor. The simultaneous sounding of tones may be agreeable to the ear. In progression. starting from G. & . m a contrary motion. Tenor corresponds to the division of the human voice the degree or interval from 9. no the fundamental tone. namely. B. Simple Intervals. and shall only consider such combinations which are pleasant preceding agreeable. the distance. Write the common chord on C. from C to C| is the first half step. 12th. A. we say. Thus from C to G$ of C. we must count the half steps that lie between the two tones. By placing the lower tone of an interval above the upper without Harmony is usually written in four tones or voices. 7th. Minor Ninth. because consists of but three tones. one voice rising and the other falling Many of the illustrians as well as exercises We kall irst consider the chord of three tones. be*auae it is always the first tone of the scale. B[>. Gfl. E> and At>. They are fifth called Compound Intervals. This common chord consists of the LESSON 7. E. etc. all others are derived from =3g the other of four or It is called the 3 ^-9- these. therefore. and G. is only eight semitones. 4th. . The following are common chords : It has been said that the tonic chord is always built on the first tone 01 is the only tonic chord of the key simply to count the intermediate tones. Any tone of the triad may be doubled. L the common chord.as well as the scale. . 4th. to double the tonic or fifth.c V % . three tones. E and G. which names have. therefore. Having considered the nature of the tone. 6th. are called secondary voices. diminished or augmented. B and D is the only tonic chord of the key of G. 4th. G. the 1 -^ est. 6th. Thus the chord C. the third and G the fifth. these chords is called the 1st voice or Soprano / th higuest tone of called the 2d voice or Alto. only be used when that akord is meant which is built on the first tone of the scale. but it is safest The following table shows the inverted intervals 9. 5th. * direction. A. . F.which is the same as deducting 1 from 9.^tbe 10th. D. Compound Intervals. 4. the student must obdisagreeable of each voice. E and the following chord. : . by inverting it. boks of too* or three-fold chord. the same or chords. .5 1 1 X as possible. tt * # EXERCISE 8. harmony There are but two fundamental chords. Th< voice or THE COMMON CHORD.- tal tone is the lowest tone. E. etc. For instance. ii 1 * emitone. F. I illustrated. the sounding together of C. In orders to obtain a tone for each of the four voices. while the combination of C. B>. because it is so simple and ooaan *> frequently in a&i i "** sic. - 3E= E5__ These three tones constitute the common chord ver in what position they may be placed. Thus the Prime is represented by the figure 1. The on consists of three tones V Triad * ^ . It subtract the number of what an interval will become by inversion is this Soprano. which will be found to be one the scale. The easiest method of showing tion has been accepted as the purest and most agreeable to the ear. etc. $*3d. D. therefore. Th* ie nine tones.

the other M. the pupil is not apt to low the perfect. we must break up. a b tUso avoid such faulty progressions in the downward course ntrodncina other chords. as for instance. In example b. U* howl 9f G. make mistakes. "Doves upward or downward. so to Thetie we must also avoid. in 3t 1: ^E b two succeeding chords. i xm Tenor In order to avoid these faulty progressions. in the following example : Ye may V" In ths above examples we have parallel fifths and octaves. fifths exist between the Soprano and Tenor. The following example presents the same chords with parallel fifths *od octaves. w< tave actually doubled the third. 7. F and C move into G and Dj and and the parallel octaves appear in the Alto and Bass. F and F move in octaves into G G fifths occur in the Bass and Tenor. though the contrary and oblique motions. Not so in the use of parallel motion. ownward. It being considered wrong to make such progressions. each advances a semitone to C.F and F move into G.to an oblique motion. that these parallel motions are a- voided. Parallels in fifths The following examples are parallel as and octaves are d. the parallel Bass. as for instance. it is deemed best to let the imperfect fifth fol- By nsing regarded : faulty. a step against which we were warned in % previous lesson. By tBis first manner. Observe how the Alto and Tenor G descend: motkM we have broken np the parallel progressions between th two chords. a*d wwta it iu the follow ng manner speak. therefore. (G and D) to move in a contrary motion to the Bass. In a. because they sound unpleasA parallel motion or progression can only exist between the same antly. ascend in a like tone. we must write the above harmonies in such a G manner. : . parallel and D. fifths and octaves In the same manner we avoid faulty progressions wh<r< 8.~f T i r while . in the Soprano and Tenor. we must cause the Alto and in the chord. but in the second chord (on G) we have now two Bs. F and C go into move in fifths. Parallel octaves are made between the Tenor and they and G. one voice remaining stationary. it only remains for us to state that an imperfect fifth may follow a perfect one and vice versa. in the following progression : These progressions are denounced as wrong. By writiug the chords in this manner we avoid all parallel fifths / Having at length set forth the rules concerning parallel fifths and oeteve. with which they make parallels. The third always desires to rise a half step or a semi Tne two Bs. thereby making parallel octaves In order to do this.

There are. fifth is *8. minor. We will once mere examine the chords built upon the major scale of C. minor chords on the 2nd. If the Soprano. If no melody is given. diminished. it will be found that we have major-chords on the 5th and 6th. recognized as the ruling chord. those on the 1st The th first of these chords is attendant harmonies. The fifth This name comes from Dominans.m=-^r Upon examination a- fe- 'g g minor. Observe that while the Soprano has changed. diminished EXERCISE 12. The that is. with the preceding as well as the succeeding chord. other besides major and minor triads. The student may however take the first chord in _. e. minor. minor. On the 3d we find a chord that has a major third and an augmented This chord is. 3d and 6th. direction will produce parallel octaves. the latter has a . its connection /. it is called a diminished 11. it is deemed best to begin with a chord scale in these three positions. 2~ we ^ find only three major chords. let the chord move lies tie-tone. The chord on the Tonic chord. minor chords on the 1st and 4th. progression of each voice should be considered in : major. namely. tone in the scale is called the ruling tone and the chord of the because it rules the tonic chord. so we hare also major anc of the three positions. If any tone belongs to chords. meaning a ruler. illustrate this lesson. The octave and fifth g. it has been called the sub-dominant. If a melody is given with the bass. let us build common chords or triads on every tone may go in either direction. Such a tone is called If there be no tie-tone. major. same roice. the octave position. As we have major and minor scales. will now proceed to write the tonic harmony with its attendants : 14. d ^ la doing this we obtain the following chords - F^- ~ major.g=f=^fzzr|==l K^^ & v -^. major triads. the tonic chord must always the same by name as the fifth tone below fourth tone of the scale. EXERCISE 10. In order to If possible let the third ascend a semitone. perfect fifth. 12. major. The former has a major third.uinor common coords. There being triad. do not write above it. minor. the b. which EXKHCISTE 11. From the above illustration the 1st. ' T" Among 4th and these 5th. a ruling chord. minor. being *J"> tonic. ' We will now write out the Tonic harmony with its attendants. however. diminished chords on the 2nd and 7th. and moving in the Write minor chords in three position* on toe twelve nearest to it. while on the 7th we find a chord which has a minor third and an imtwo intervals smaller than major in this chord. diminished. but writ! Bass or fundamental tone remained the same in each of the three chords. avoiding parallel motions. which we have adopted as the best for harmonic purposes.therefifth. d. of the fifth. :=. Write major. 35 --^fl mi Avoid parallel fifths and octaves. major. augmented and diminished chords on all the tones in the scale. augmented. We have. 4th Having given the rules to be observed in writing harmony. major. tained in the minor. In a like manner let us now build chords on that A minor scale. For this reason the third should not ba in the C major scale doubled. diminished. the chord stands in the third position. The . if possible in a contrary direction to the bass. minor triads. or in the position of the third. your chords afterwards. each voice stepping into that tone of the next chord. Write the common chord on every tone of the Chromatic c. it should aa a rule be re ' Ifth is in the to be in the second position. it will be seen that we have major chords on and 5th tones of the scale.aj iO. triads and augmented triads. meaning the lower dominant. Write your bass first. fore. . therefore. : f.g: same h. called an augmented triad. Jtat efor* doing BO we will bare give a few rules concerning the writing . or in the and treatment of chords. the chord as closely to it as the progression of the voices permits. follow the dominant chord. and the other two are called the fifth is called the Dominant chord.1taid Position a.ones of the scale. else doubled thirds being an octave apart. succeeding 1 tturr. JSr* w ^ 9 "^. & .

chord. Authentic. Jlp^z^ . it is called plagal.

If the upper three voices lie so close together that not a tone bel nging to the chord can be placed between them. - at ^ .^ 19. 1 and wide petition or harmeny. the chord is said to be written Chorda can be written in the close ia the close position or harmony.

- - ESE?E I -I t-^ ^ J RXESCISK 84 I i . & . * fi ^ g 4 g_ J 6) 5 * 35 -a ^- EXERCISK ttfc*-? FT" .

the second is called the position of the third. EXBSOMK. Thus. or the F. 4th. The consequence is that the following chord has but two tones. 7 7 7 7 he several positions are also called after the intervals which lie on top. The seventh moves upward a semitone. 7. if possible. tone of the scale and Write the resolutions of the dominant chord in every mark the motion of the voices. where the same rules are observed. 3d.no. fundamental tone was omitted. EMRCISB 29.. lions of the chords in their four different positions. there are sevenths which are uais a dissonance. The sevenths move The octave is retained as a tie-tone in the first two thirds up. either The fifth can go up or.iirfhJ'oqt sition of the octave. We will now write the resolutions of the dominant chord of the seventh in it* different positions. tone which does not belong to While the dissonance of the domincalled a is not unpleasant to the ear. the Observe that every voice has its independent motion. in the key of C is G. leading tone of the scale of C. It is. the third x called the position of the fifth and the fourth is called the position of called :ie seventh. (See 1 and 6. 8. the third of the chord and is also the seventh. is the leading tone of the scale. 4- S- 6 - j ~ET down. The fundamental tone should upward. therefore. that is to let the discord- ant note. unpleasant. a i_ . n Study the following resolutions of the chord of the seventh wal forms of writing. 30. therefore. progression of the dominant chord Into the triad In the resolution observe the following rules : It is its The The seventh has a definite progression. down. /I and keep * as a tie-tone. the first position.) third of the dominant chord which moves down a semitone or a whole tone. This is always the case when the octave of the fundamental tone is omitted in the dominant chord. fourth and fifth examples. Any dissonaut tone. The resolution. Write the resolu. B. well to prepare them. In order to make this plainer we will state the triad is that the dominant chord of the seventh. it appear in the preceding chord and in tha MU move a fifth downward or a fourth voice. *= KSXBCISK II. in its sev- 2. In the third. i. D and ant seventh B is. the octave being the upper note is called the poi if iLi-ic nr. the octave of the resolutions. 3.

1. there being but three tone* in the treble whioh we may alternately put in We We the bate. Changes took place only in the treble. Write cadences like the above on all the tones of the ExmcHB 84. has already been explained.II. i . g * . Il i--* t*es progresses From is the bass a third. it is Why to is a sixtk. THE INVERSIONS OP THE DOMINANT CHORD OP THE SEVENTH. CHAPTER XIII.) we did not change the bass tone. will now proceed to put other tones than the fundamental tote into the bass. generaly omitted in the treble. B to F is a fifth. from third being in the ba tha third should not be doubled B G The EXBRCISE 83. it is beat not to arable the fundamental tone. By placing the third of the dominant chord in the bate. and from B to D ll. thereby producing inversions in the same manner as we did with the common chord. 0. 3. (to b*M no VM m a contrary direction to MM trcbte. bat as S lias reter<Moe ia U g ^~ 8 is <} the triad. The full signature or figuring of 6 _ thk chord is 5. can only produce three inversions. The name derived from the position of the interval. wale.it. we obtain the *"** of the sixth and fifth. X. In placing the dominant chord in the several positions (see Chapter . but one degree upward. o deemed sufficient to mark this chord.

5155= t c si .UCISE 48. ~P" JL EXF. } ~ ^fe^EE^-E^ ! p -~ t_ m t?5 ESEESr =S=f=at: 51 e. -. - T~f:~" 9* 7 8^ 87 JLLJ_6_| e 8 Q. 50. EXERCISE 47.KARL MERZL_ELEMENTS OF HARMONY.:-b * 2--- 2 :* s -*- EXBRCISE 46. $4 6 ifc t?4 i I i -e J - m EXERCISE 45. a fl. 6 8 6 4 6 t_t_ JEXERCISE. e t . BKEBCTOE 44. EXERCISS 49.

H. compositions in the romantic style. A With extreme livelv. DOLORE. mf. [time. SLENTANDO. m[>. well marked. Medium TRANQUILLO. CAPRICCIO. in 6-8 time. Very soft.. PIANISSIMO or pp. As if. A or = tone./ lib.1 an agitated manner. movement in 3-4 meas- or original time. Left hand.. LEGGIERO. occurring between the verses of a hymn or psalm. In a graceful. in the composition for four voices. G. An air of one movement or part. Dying away. given A subject. Pin piano. dignified. FURIOSO. ARPEGGIO. LOCO. > MODERATO. . With fire. use Ujft DOLOROSO. Con Espressione. CAPO or D. The last movement or part of an ex- AFFETTUOSO. Without. TUTTI. DIATONIC. Showy and brilliantly. MARCATO. FANTASIA. . I. Gradually increase the volume of tone. A. to graceful GRAZIOSO. elegantly. Lightly. meanfrom the sign tC to the word rs MARCHE FUNEBRE. tion. sadly. softer. 1'IU. brilliancy and spirit. An air or song. elegant style. E. softly. BARCAROLLE. / ME/. In the first MENO TEMPO PRIMO. STACCATO. With spirit. MARCHE. By degrees. - ESPRESSIVO. the beginning to the sign 'P (Con). vigorously. TEMPO. } feet". solemn. Gradually retard or slacken LFiNTO. The. DECISO. or moderate. CHROMATIC. kind of composition. D. Libitum. ing. extremely. PERDENDOSI. or melody. CON ESPRESSIONE. RELIGIOSO. somewhat. and rural movement ir> troduced in the course of a piece. MAIN. With heavy accent PIANO or/. At the taste or discretion of the performer. SENZA. Neither slow nor quick. S. IL. briik"!ess \ Night song. ing chord. A Same as APPOGGIATURAS. Anxiously.harmony. Smooth and conneAed. simple ROMANZA. GAVOTTE.. Gradually retard the time. PESANTE. the In slow time. ELEGANTE. Three or more tones struck simultaneously. without previous \CIO. As fast as possible.. Soft. DECK ESC ENDO or dccresc. Sustained. by Majestic and as. but RITARDANDO less so Gradually than Largo. ARIA. In a solemn six RALLENTANDO REVERIE. A R. A short introductory performance. C. D. A movement or SECONDO. The second or lower part in a four-hand duet. "1 An I irregular. UNA CORDA. 1 T a s In mte<i AN'IMOSO } A PIACERE. A Venetian boat measure. Quicken the movement. Affectionately. Right hand. or An extemporaneous A produc- manner or style of. In the regular time. DELICATO. mechanical stop in an organ. Hats or naturals inTh<. SEMPLICE. Animated. grand. COUPLER. A composition for three voices or parts. Left hand. SEGNO. QUASI. BRILLANTE. PRIMO. | MoornfoUy[parts. FUOCO. major or minor scales without chromatic Naturally. the part performed by the right hand player in a four-hand duet. . NOCTURNE. A MAESTOSO. always. \A keyboard for the PEDAL KEYBOARD. In the same style throughout. To the sign. CHORD. o. A dance. The difference in pitch between two tones. in TRIO. parts except Gracefully. meanjsig. Corda. EXTEMPORE. SUSPENSION. Extremely slow. nected. A keyboard for the hands. QUINTET. All the voices or instruments together. graceful ure. NOTTURNO. or . More. as. A soft Not too much. soft pedal. The end. ANDANTE. Gradually retard the time and diminish the volume of tone. or/2 or >. \ i as./O or in. / pensive and sentimental melody. POCO A POCO. L. MA. LARGHETTO. SFORZANDO or sf~. 1 T Veiy !oud. Three strings. M. H. PERDENDO. usually in rapid 3-4 time. Dignified. QUARTET. FINE. COPULA. 1. tin- Offhand. an6 anima[tion. PATETICO. . Slow and solemn. ) A funeral march. Right hand. DIMINUENDO or dim. M. / Wlth ex P resslon . VIGOROSO. ALLEGRETTO. position. Firm. ) j as. preparatiou. INTERVAL. With agitation and earn- estness. iee Una Mysteriously. With the voice. tenderly. at. even and graceful GIUSTO. FANTAISIE..mng. as. applied to a light graceful composition in 6-8 short strain. SOSTENUTO. slower. in four parts. With sudden emphasis or^T. decidedly. WELL Gradually quicken the time. are to a certain extent disregarded. Somewhat slower than Andante. alteration. /. Mournfully. LES. G. AMOROSO. BEN. Very quick. Briskly. smooth and con- sion. A Formed of semi-tones. TENUTO. / ^vmgly. ANDANTINO. usually DOLCE. vague and dreamy composition Right hand. Gradually moderate time. melody of lende* composition of a light and playful character. Delicately.. which two rows of keys are conor cresc. P manner. DAL SEGNO or D. Sweetly. SCHERZO. DUET. A name frequently given written in small characters. extremely. AG ITATO.. Well. Sustaining or prolonging a note of one chord into a follov. CODA. MORENDO. MANUAL. One string. ually diminish the MENUET. IMPROMPTU. Short and detached. or ritanl. Grad- volume of MIM'KT. tended composition. Notes of embellishment Ad IDYLLE. A TEMPO. As sweetly 1 -. COLLA VOCE. unaffected style. DOLCISSIMO. song. THEME. SEMPRE. GRAVE. And. M. By for. LARGO. 1RIOSO OANTABILE. singing style. as possible. A fanciful and irregular com- LEGATO. tenderly. orin two VALSE. MOTO Rapid. SPIRITO or Con spirito. AI. M4MIA. Time.-//. PASTORALE. FORZANDO or force. =o . L'ISTESSO TEMPO. CON. ROMANCE. A little. . A or rail.. The notes of a chord when played ASSAI. The. before. Furiously. From the sign. INTERLUDE. Held. or Increase the volume of tone and then diminish it. MOSSO. FORTE or/ FORTISSIMO Loud. \ A short. Left hand. with expres. STRINGENDO. Quick. With sudden emphasis. Very. Dying away. A composition for two voices. emphasis". A -vattz. VIVO. ACCELERANDO. In exact time. an adverb of augmentation. In a simple. Less. rather loud. all the one earn ing the melody. ALLEGRO. [successively. TRES CORDE. ACCIDENTALS. nected. but not as quick as Allegro. See Mezzo.. usually of 4 or 8 measures. mep. using the tones of the MISTERIOSO. PRELUDE. BRTO (Con). CRESCENDO DA or =:. Ben Marcato. TWO-STEP.YD Quite slon. Pathetically. With. MOLTO. PR ESTO. Hand. meaning. or in five parts. A lively (lance or march. A first or principal part. or diminish the volume of tone. FINALE. 1 A march. PRESTISSIMO. little by little. Piu inosso. LE. } . repeat from AMORE time. LENTANDO. POMPOSO.. ANIMATO. / charafter. 1 NON TROPPO. quicker. rather soft. In a moderate. Sharps. remove the foot from the soft pedal. 6-8 measure.. Very. But. combining vivacity with dignity. sustained. VIVACE. M. Repeat from beginning to the word I-'ine. M. In the same time as written. usually in common time. Marked and emphatic. composition for five voices. repeat t-ine. in. CAVATINA.DICTIONARY OF MUSICAL TERMS. 01 Con moto. Very slow and solemn. Play the notes where mark occurs after an 8va This LUGUBRE. In a tranquil planner. Boldly. POCO. In a graceful. or . full value. in which the rnlesof form LIBITUM. PEDALS. passage added to a composition to bring it to a complete close. ACCOMPANIMENT.

I''. The fundamental tone is held as a tie-tone. the third will ascend a half cipher 6 13 followed by a 5 step and the seventh will is the eixth from B. it is called a changing note. In a. Notes like notes or passing _ffl F be followed by the seventh.in the bass. the leading tone. the octave passes through the seventh F.ascci. also applies to its various forms of In a.rcble. mean- ag that the octave of the bass tone (j is to be followed by F. 38. J t . The chord of * progresses as follows . If the discordant note appears with the B. o The seventh.If the seventh is placed in tne oass it is omitted in tlie t. it having a definite progression. The third B. In the above exercise the figure 7 follows the figure 8.11 i difference. Write chords of the secon 1 on att /ones in the scales. 1 _6 8 7 8 7 ^ 5 a ff When two chords follow each other. or should be followed G G by F. while F is the fifth. (See the above example). . while the third the chord and leads into another.) one of the tuues uiay pass through the seventh. the in\er. In /. descends a half step into E. descends into C. Both passing and changing notes may occur in any voice. V?EEfeE 7 EXERCISE. and fifth progresses in the following iiiauner therefore. $7 fast B ( -9 6> v- t* (2 fSr EXERCISE 41. S tt -I i. we produce EXERCISE 37.' passes through them tones. iLX \o. while the seventh ia the bass descends a semitone or a whole tone. the fundamental tone G.ds into C. The third. being 1. _2 _6 64^ 8 It should not ascend into E. Because ~oy parallel doubling the oeveuth. iuto the third. U we produce double EXERCISE 40. ascends a half step into C.- F in No. and that the octave of 'be chord should be followed by the seventh. or in this'example are called/<w///. D de. while in b the same takes place. The chord of the second progresses in this manner: Z ij_ e S ___ _!___ 1f =lEEffeJ3^^l=~^ The the fifth. the first chord is that of a sixth. Passing notes are discordant notes. B. ascends a half step into C. they are foreign to the harmony' of descends a semitone into E. while the bass either descends into C. 3 - G 2 * 8 47 . E. The fifth.1 . If the discordant note appears after the entrance of scends into C. r 6 - ~ J eff_s363 ** fc fi T 4 ft S |^ 1. harmony. is to The signature is 8-7. or ascends into EXERCISE 19.is. Q 66328 6. This signifies that first the common chord should be taken. the progression of the chord of the S^COE \ is iuto the chord of the sixth.the common chord. All the rules which have so far been given in reference to the progressions of the chord of the dominant. thirds.is held as a tie-tone. Counting from the bass tone. The signature 6-5 means. namely. because one of the voices into another tone. it will be found that descend a half or a whole step. Dof 84ft No. be- cause the seventh. The seventh of No. that the passing note lies in the inner voices. (see example below. It being the fifth. which lies in the bass must move to E.. that the sixth of the bass tone should be followed by the fifth. 1. * beiug the leading tone. we have two common chords. As ascend. it can move in either direction. By letting which leads to parallel octaves. octaves. li.sio-. the progression ol the seventh is a semitone downward. (See 1 and The chord of the sixth 2). it is called a passing note. the fundamental tone G is held as a tie-tone.b D E. with this G I (I .

treated as if it were deCompare example 1 and 2.5. The Mp following will 1 in this: la a forme* lesson the rule has been '. if it is resolved into s\ ni:ijr chord. and the third eventually ascends. 01 whole tone if it is resolved into a minor chord. may c 'iscend. passes into the chord of the sixth. -4 chord of the sixth. rived from the dominant chord of G. --UL-JL ^ I is 7.aid down that the seventh .^ause it has a definite progression. tones below. fe . which would indicate that this chord of the sixth derived from the diminished chord. f> has also been given as a rule that the third should ascend a When two chords of the dominant follow each other. G r and B|? is C. the chord must be regarded as the chord of with the fundamental lone omitted. G and BK The . although octaves. the serve that the fundamental tone or root is omitted in the treble. The seventh should ascend. in the chord of rather than take the octave of the fundamental tone root. The rule has been laid down that the seventh of the dominant chord should descend a semitone. which as has been repeatchord of the sixth (see example 2) is therefore. therefore. therefore. It semitone. The signature of or {jo is. a 4$ or sufficient. (Seecxample 2. A diminished ing example we of the sixth on D. therefore. which is to bo We nave. because by descending. $4 or 4 is the signature jjl. 8. therefore. implying an im- w is n -&--jprrz. uttss tone with a Sert sharped teuinthis wi. because we cannot derive chords from diminished or imperfect triads.-c-l. 11. theicfore. Tne same rule holds good when the third lies in the bass. this bass avoid . is The root of the above chord is example second. and. The seventh may. 12. The bass tone cannot be regarded as the fundamental toue or found a thiid below the bass. really C. * dimiuished chord like the above. G. however. In the followhave in first. really the chord of 2 on D. When the chord of 3 . chord cannot be a fundamental dmrd. and the bass tone D is the fifth The chord.) is It has been said that the full figuring of the chord of the second is In either of thesb cases the natural progression of the dominant chord only interrupted or delayed. and in second a chord 2nd. should not be regarded as a chord of the sixth.rfc ~ -3 ft. 1st.In such a case the Imver seventh must ascend so as ttarpcd. which is de. which is apparently derived froi*. 4. The fourth of which might also have been writtone is G. however be doublec should not be doubleu. i-om the dominant chord of E. 9. they were marked with " & . be treated as if the root or fundamental tone were found live A 10. When 4!j is the fourth of the bass tone m however raised a semitone. a diminished chord. is therefore. an equivalent of The is root of the first chord E. The chord must. the third which The chords are. root. therefore. would droduce parallel octaves. perfect a bass tone has the signature of as in the following examples t>5 or t]5. o Of course the student will ob- When fifth. third E being in the ' Hass. treated as if (. and the fundamental chord E. but that the cipher 2 is is sufficient. edly shown would lead into parallel octaves.. really treated as if the signature were^.

Other Chords of the Seventh. Caprice. Music previous to the Christian Era. is a complete list of the most valuable studies and pieces to be used in the course of study. etc. if properly elaborated. theorelicnl works. D.. music from A. - The 'IIM_ pnfm. The Qhromatio Scale. bound in cloth. 1 to 1600. The Church Hcale. No.000 per second. Setting Words to Music. best methods of practice. Sol. Philosophy of octaves. About Scale* in General. The fingering.:>. ranging from 16H to 6. containing all the important musical terms.. Mailed postpaid to any address on receipt of price. Op. etc. Handsomely bound in Cloth. Besides a hos lof other matters of Tonality. Chords of the Seventh. 15." analysis of Symphonies. Canons. quality and pitch of tones.. is original. in fact. $1. the most detailed hints as to the proper execution and phrasing of each number. Dictionary of Mu*ic. The musical scale. 13. are manifestly of the greatest to students and professionals. 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The Dominant Chord of the Seventh. phrases. Tonal relationship. PART IV. Op. while the rest bring up the reserve. 6. Effects of resonance. students. like Schumann's " Bird as Prophet.TWELVE PIANO LESSONS On Classical and flENNINGES' PRACTICAL GUIDE FOR Modern Master Works BY TEACHERS AND STUDENTS OF THE E:MIL LIE:BLING. of Harmony. and Gavotte Invitation a la Vilse. young musicians and composers. Chapter VI. n-iral Notation. PRICE. (Berceuse. Duets. This work is the fruit of thirty years' experience in teaching.udwig von Beethoven .. Chapter VIII. Method of selecting the tones which form the scale. Forms of Imitation. Construction of the various forms of compositions. 6. . hand- somely bound in cloth. Eleventh and Thirteenth. Philosophy of sounding boards. Relation between keys. printed on fine heavy paper. 23. Quartets and Choruse*.. Combination of Periods.. Matin. it is a complete instruction book. The work has been issued in the popular octave form.

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EXPRESSION AND TECHNIQUE. interspersed. The few studies There has been no " ready-made which are not fresh copyrights. first volume starts with the simplest grade Contents of Volume Adagio Alternate I. M. Sheldon Richard Ferber F. Alternate Left and Triplets for the Left Hand F. M. Sheldon M. Langley R. Sheldon F. M. Boettger Etude Right Barcarole Triplets. G. F. Kullak Sustained Melody Sustained Melody M. Boettger C. unsur- Special Discount to Teachers and Dealers. 23 R. Independence of the Hands Interpretation Adolph Jensen Adolph Jensen Benjamin Godard Edouard Potjes C.M. Sheldon II. Op.a. Idyle Intervals and Chords Edmund Legato Movement Light and Gay Listening Little Liglitheart. Kullak . Mysterie Pastime Position of the The Romanza Romanze Rondino Scales Richard Ferber Langley Richard Richard Richard Richard Ferber Ferber Ferber Ferber Hands Richard Ferber 24. Kullak F. Spinning Song Florence McPherran F. Sheldon Adolph Jensen T. Prelude Recordau/. . Expression. Henninges Movement i F. 4 Kdouard Potjes T. Caprice Cochran Mazurka Impromptu Mill on the Brook Modulation Pastorale Martha M.Sheldon M. Sheldon M. Peckham T. L. M.. E. E. The chapters on Rhythm.Sheldon F. Rhythmical and Valuable. Jenks is Printed on the finest quality of paper from passed in style and workmanship by anything of its engraved plates and substantially bound. and kind in this country or Europe. M. Inversions and Modulations are simple and comprehensive. Joseffy M. Sheldon Theo.Wrist M'lody Mill. Sheldon Rhythm Running a Race Scher/. for the Left Hand Mill. M. Sheldon Touch Cheerfulness Chromatic Thirds Canon Cantabile Contents of Volume II. I^xice SI. Sheldon Langley Dominent Chord Etude of the Seventh and its Inversions S.Newest. were selected with great care from JENSEN and KULLAK. F. (Die)..ino The Seventh The Tonic and its Relative Harmonies Richard Ferber Technique Whirl-wind Without a Cloud Theo. Chords. M. Boettger Langley Op. '. Inverted Chords M. " material used through economical consideration. M. and on Intervals. C/erny Heller Earle F. Handsomest ar\d Best the Market! BRAINARD'S GRADED STUDIES IN RHYTHM.SO Every Study is esicla. The Trill Dance. Melodious. Dorothy Dasch F. Gillette Prelude (The) Muhle. etc. F. G. G.. No. F. Meeting At the Cradle Au Matin Berceuse Devotion A Merry Canto Sostenuto Contrary Motion Dictionary of Musical Terms Expression Four Notes Against Three Gathering Flowers. The and the two volumes range to fourth grade. Sheldon Theo.

7.G " " 2. . Canon A Minor. 50c. Garotte C " The Cricket. Tone-Piece The Mill on the Brook F C F A " Minor. Reverie C Major. The Morning Prayer. 8. Little 11. Marie Antoinette. Rondino Sleep Baby.. Complete. Adonis Waltz Hymn Full of Sorrow. March VOLUME II. My First Lore. 12. 9. 10. MELODIES FOR THE PIHNO FORTE.E6 " Jennie June. . Minuet F Major. Sunshine in Spain. Scherzino A " The Good Old Time. 5. Christmas Bells. bound in paper. 13. Grade . Spanish Song. 2. Sleep. Cradle Song 4. 6. I.FBRBBR'S 5O INSTRUCTIVE VOLUME Md 1. The Birthday Party. " D Major. 3.

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Music . MAY3 1972 PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE FROM THIS CARDS OR SLIPS POCKET UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY MT 222 Merz Karl Piano method .BINDING SECT.

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