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PATIENT¶S ILLNESS PATHOPHYSIOLOGY Patient-Base

Modifiable Factors -colds and other viral infections/ influenza - Immunosuppresive therapy - Malnutrition -cigarette smoking -tracheostomy Non-Modifiable Factors - Age - Genetic Considerations

Presence of bacteria or virus on Lower Respiratory Tract

Invasion of bacteria or virus in the body

Expelling offending microorganism at Upper Respiratory Tract (mucus production, ciliary expulsion, inflammation, bronchial constriction)
Cough (present since the date of admission)

Pulmonary inflammatory response to the offending microorganism

Release of endothelial binding of neutrophils and macrophages

Inflammatory Response: Release of vasoactivesubstance

Cytokines Inflammatory Response

Bradykinin Emigration of neutrophils, lymphocytes and macrophages into the alveoli

TNF-alpha

Interleukin 1 Acts on the brain to increase temperature

Pulmonary Congestion

Increase Mucus Production

Antigen-antibody response on microorganism

Phagocytic effect on microorganism

Abnormal breath soundswheezes and rales

Difficulty of Breathing(1 -24 to 2511)

Increase WBC

Vasoconstrictio n Hyperthermia

Continuing Inflammatio n Consolidated exudates in alveoli go into enzymatic digestion

Presence of debris on respiratory tract

Mechanism to expel foreign object in body

Oral and tracheal Secretions

Age . ciliary expulsion.Genetic Considerations Presence of bacteria or virus on Lower Respiratory Tract Invasion of bacteria or virus in the body Expelling offending microorganism at Upper Respiratory Tract (mucus production.PATIENT¶S ILLNESS PATHOPHYSIOLOGY BOOK-BASED Modifiable Factors -colds and other viral infections/ influenza -abdominal surgery .Aspiration -cigarette smoking Non-Modifiable Factors . inflammation. lymphocytes and macrophages into the alveoli TNF-alpha Interleukin 1 Acts on the brain to increase temperature Pulmonary Congestion Increase Mucus Production Antigen-antibody response on microorganism Phagocytic effect on microorganism Abnormal breath sounds Difficulty of Breathing Increase WBC Vasoconstrictio n Hyperthermia Continuing Inflammatio n Consolidated exudates in alveoli go into enzymatic digestion Presence of debris on respiratory tract Mechanism to expel foreign object in body Nasal/Oral Secretions X.Malnutrition .Ray Result . bronchial constriction) Pulmonary inflammatory response to the offending microorganism Cough Release of endothelial binding of neutrophils and macrophages Inflammatory Response: Release of vasoactivesubstance Cytokines Inflammatory Response Bradykinin Emigration of neutrophils.Immunosuppresive therapy .