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4.47 THE EXPANSION FACTOR, Y

219

The simultaneous solution of Eqs (4-173) and (4-174) eliminates M a and yields a value for r , the critical pressure ratio. Table 4-25 shows a wide variation in the critical values with respect to y (Le., ratio of specific heats, Cp/C,) and the loss coefficient K .

**4.47 THE EXPANSION FACTOR, Y
**

The adiabatic flow Eq. (4-178) can be represented in a form:

4.46 ADIABATIC FLOW

If there is no heat transfer or energy dissipated in the gas when traversing from state 1 to state 2, the process is adiabatic and reversible, that is isentropic. However, the actual flow conditions are somewhere between isothermal and adiabatic and, as such, the flow behavior can be described by the isentropic equations, where the isentropic constant k replaced a polytropic constant y (e.g., 1 < y < k). For isothermal condition, y = 1, whereas truly isentropic flow corresponds to y = k . The density and temperature as a function of pressure are (4-177) The mass flow rate, G , by using Eq. (4-177) to eliminate p and T and solving for G gives (4- 179) where

p1= P , M w / R T l , A P = P , - P2 and Y is the expansion factor. Note that Eq. (1.179) without the Y term is the Bernoulli equation for an incompressible fluid of density p , . Therefore, the expansion factor Y = Gadiabatic/Gincompressible ratio of the adiabatic mass is the flux (Eq. (4-178)) to the corresponding incompressible mass flux, and is a unique function of P 2 / P , , k and Kf. Figure 4-38a shows values of Y for k = 1.3 and k = 1.4 as a function of A P / P , and Kf (which is denoted by simply K on these plots). Figures 4-38b and c show the expansion factor Y for compressible flow through nozzles and orifices, and plots of the critical pressure ratio for compressible flow through nozzles and venturi tubes respectively. The conditions corresponding to the lower ends of the lines on the plots (e.g., the nought) represent the sonic (choked flow) state where P2 = P2*. These same conditions are shown in the tables accompanying the plots, thus allowing the relationships for choked flow to be determined more accurately than is possible from reading the plots. Note: It is not possible to extrapolate beyond the nought at the end of the lines in Figures 4-38a and b as this represents the choked flow state, in which P2 = P2* (inside the pipe), and is independent of the external exit pressure. Figures 4-38a

L

where f =Fanning friction factor. If the system contains fittings as well as straight pipe, the term 4 f L I D (= Kf:pipe) can be replaced by C K,, that is the sum of all loss coefficients in the system.

EXAMPLE 4-11 From the table listed below determine the status of flow (e.g., whether choking flow exists or not), (AP/P,),,, and the flow rate

Using the Excel spreadsheet Example 4- 11.xls, the calculated overall critical pressure ratio r is r = 0.04804 The critical pressure P2 is

WI.

Data

P2 = r x Po

Value

= 0.04804 x 6600

Upstream pressure, Po(kPaa) Downstream discharge pressure, PA (kPaa) Upstream specific volume, Vo(m3/kg) Isentropic coefficient, y Internal pipe diameter, D(mm) Length of pipe, rn Number of elbows Loss coefficient, K

= 317.06kPa 6600 200 0.01724 Test for choke flow 1.55 Since P2 > PA, the pipe will choke. 52.5 The critical expansion factor Y,, from Eq. (4-175) is

100

4 45

'"=

Solution For known isentropic coefficient y and loss coefficient K, a guessed value of M a , is used in Eq. (4-173) until the left side of the equation approximates to a value of zero. Otherwise, a new guess value of M a , is used in Eq. (4-173). Once the required value is known, Eqs. (4-174), (4-175), and (4-176) are subsequently used to determine r, P 2 , AP, Y,,, and W respectively. This procedure involves the use of the Excel spreadsheet with the Goal Seek or Solver add-in from the Tools menu and is given in Example 4-1 1 . ~ 1 ~ .

J

45 (1 0.04804) 2[45+2(1/0.04804)]

+

= 0.6795

The critical mass flow rate from Eq. (4-176) is

W = 0.1265 (52.5)' (0.6795)

= 21,320.96kg/h

6600-317.06 (45 x 0.01724)

Figure 4-37 gives the Excel spreadsheet snapshots of Example 4-1 1.

220 FLUID FLOW Figure 4-37 The Excel spreadsheet snapshot of Example 4-1 1 .

Y 221 Figure 4-37-(conrinued) .47 THE EXPANSION FACTOR.4.

222 FLUID FLOW Figure 4-37-(conrinued) .

Y .649 .635 6 .750 . 4. with the average density along the pipe used in the equations.662 .0 . Fittings. and Pipe”.639 .761 . Technical Paper No.831 .612 . He further showed that this rule is invalid unless associated with a particular f L I D ratio.48 MISLEADING RULES OF THUMB FOR COMPRESSIBLE FLUID FLOW In general. this procedure requires some iterations because the value of K .576 .El8 .2 1.718 limiting Factors For Sonic Volocity k = 1. However.702 .6M . 8 10 15 . 410. compressible fluid flow calculations are much more complicated than incompressible fluid flow. All rights reserved).698 .681 . depends on the Reynolds number which cannot be determined until G is obtained.642 . Recently.48 MISLEADING RULES OFTHUMB FOR COMPRESSIBLE FLUID FLOW 223 k = 1.35 .631 . 1999. That adiabatic and isothemal flow bracket all flowrates.612 . (Reprintedadapted with permission from “Flow of Fluids Through Valves.0 3 4 325 . Walters [35.588 1.722 .697 .5 2.718 20 40 loo .710 .671 3 1 6 8 10 15 20 40 100 .670 6. and b provide an alternative method of solving compressible adiabatic flow problems for piping systems. calculations for compressible fluid flow can be grossly misleading and erroneous.E07 .710 .552 .5 2.8 a . The common rules are 1.718 . for compressible flow through pipe to a larger flow area.a77 .926 - Figure 4-38a Net expansion factor.883 .3 limiting Foctors For Sonic Volocity k = 1.2 1.e39 . Crane Co. then the incompressible flow calculation methods can be safely employed.737 .678 .705 .622 .695 . These conditions do not occur.710 .3 --K hP Y P’r -1.781 .4 Y .920 --- .550 I593 . 361 has shown that rules of thumb that are applied in the design 2.773 .4. If the pipe pressure drop in a compressible flow system is less than 40% of the inlet pressure.718 . .

(4-180) with y = 1. Choked air flow at 50% pressure drop. Walters indicated that using Eq. An equation often used to determine the likelihood of sonic choking is yl(y-1) (4-180) where p a is the critical static pressure at sonic velocity and p o is the local stagnation pressure at the orifice/valve. .224 FLUID FLOW 3. (4-180) cannot be used with the supply pressure if there is any significant pressure drop from the supply to the orifice/valve. Furthermore.4 results in 47% pressure drop to obtain choking. he stated that Eq.

which is unknown unless the pressure drop is determined from alternative means.aft.530 f W 2 d5 d5P (4-66) As shown earlier.530 f W 2 v . A.182) Isothermal flow equation and integrated solution are lLT lMa kdx= Ma2 I (1 . k = cP/cv Figure 4-38c Critical Pressure Ratio. p = ratio of small-tolarge diameter in orifices and nozzles. if there is any pressure drop in the pipe from the supply pressure to the shock wave. It is difficult to extend the equations to pipe networks. then the supply pressure cannot be used in Eq. Eq. it is impossible to know how much error is introduced by the assumption of constant temperature.0. (4. (4-180). GASES. . - 0. and the Re chart are used with the above relations. for compressible flow through 4. Eq. All rights reserved.186) The general procedures outlined previously for handling fluids involving the friction factor. However. and contractions or enlargements in pipes). 4. Technical Paper No.184) Computer software has been developed that models pipe systems of compressible fluids and this can be obtained from the website www.Ma2 y Ma4 [ 1 Ma2] dMa2 + (4-181) (4. Walters developed compressible flow equations for single pipe [35]: Adiabatic flow equation and integrated solution are soL Ma2 kdx=/Ma I 1 . This is because the stagnation pressure in the equation is the pressure at the upstream side of the shock wave. In addition. the pressure drop ratio will differ somewhat. AND STEAM See Figures 4-39a and 4-3913 nozzles and venture tubes.4. the local stagnation pressure at the shock wave must be used. AND STEAM 225 The entire pipe is solved in one lumped calculation instead of coupling the governing equations in marching order. most gases are not isothermal and. DARCY RATIONAL RELATION FOR COMPRESSIBLE FLOW FOR ISOTHERMAL PROCESS [41 AP -. Crane Co. rC. therefore. and Pipe”.com.000336fw2v . Instead. (4-180) breaks down for pipe-system analysis when pipe friction becomes a factor.0.yMa2) YMa4 dMa2 (4183) (4. Simplified equations typically do not address sonic-choking conditions. (ReprintedAdapted with permission from “Flow of Fluids Through Valves. This is applicable to compressible flow systems under the following conditions [4]. Therefore. 410.49 OTHER SIMPLIFIED COMPRESSIBLE FLOW METHODS (4-65) AP -100f t In SI units. Note: P‘ = psia. (4-180) cannot be used to predict the supply and discharge pressures necessary for sonic choking unless the piping has negligible friction loss. GASES.000336 f W2 lOOft or d5 d5P For gases with different specific heat ratios.000001959 f (qL)2Sg2 d5P (4-185) AP/100m = or 62. and cannot address the delivery temperature. in accordance with Eq. 1999.50 FRICTION DROP FOR FLOW OF VAPORS.62.50 FRICTION DROP FOR FLOW OF VAPORS. (4-180). These equations break down at high Mach numbers.. f . Fittings.

= rate of flow. nozzles. (Reprinted/Adaptedwith permission from “Flow of Fluids Through Valves.01325bara and 15°C). (mm) p = fluid density./in.) where W = rate of flow. and Pipe”.2 abs A P = pressure drop.] K = loss coefficient for all valves. + (APp.700 [Yd’/S. = specific gravity of a gas relative to air = the ratio of the molecular weight of the gas to that of air P’ = pressure.8 . nozzles. Babcock formula for steam flow at isothermal condition is q. = 24. Y = net expansion factor for compressible flow through orifices. = specific gravity of gas relative to air = the ratio of molecular weight of the gas to that of air q.187) In SI units.226 FLUID FLOW APnm . ) / ( K T 1 S . Ib/h (kgh) V = specific volume of fluid.] (AppI/K)’I2 (4-1 89) or qh = 40.l . in.700Yd’ [ ( A P ) ( P i ) / ( K T I S g ) ] ” * or (4-188) qi = 19.190) where d = internal pipe diameter. SCFH (m3/s at metric standard conditions (MSC) -1.04 2 d 30 7 Figure 4-39a Pressure drop in compressible flow lines. in. qh = 1. All rights reserved.4 API 100 ft = 0. mm Y = net expansion factor for compressible flow through orifices. CFH at 14.0 30 . ft3/h at 14. ft3/h(m3/h) at standard conditions (14.5 .9 1. psi T . lb. = inlet temperature. or pipe . lb/ft3./K)’’’. or pipe (see Figures 4-38a-c) where d = internal pipe diameter. and pipe (resistance coefficient) r=fittings+valves qi = flow rate.31 Yd2 [ ( A p ) ( p .7psia and 60”F (4.0312 [Yd’lS. abs (” R = F 460) p1 = upstream density of steam. 1999. Ib/ft3(m3/kg) f = friction factor d = internal pipe diameter. fittings.000336 f WPld6p p V 40 Ind . 410. Crane Co.S ‘. ) ] ’ / 2 1 (4. Technical Paper No. Ib/ft3(kg/m3) S.7psia and 60” F).7 psia and 60” F S. Fittings.

then use Figure 4-39a or b (SI). = flow rate.50 FRICTION DROP FOR FLOW OFVAPORS. = specific gravity of a gas relative to air = the ratio of the molecular weight of the gas to that of air Ap = pressure drop. 410. 1999. Determine C1 and C from Figure 4-40a or b (SI units) and .v (4. Table 4-26 for the steam flow rate and assumed pipe size respectively. Figures 4-40a and b (SI) are useful in solving the usual steam or any vapor flow problem for turbulent flow based on the modified Darcy friction factors.40 r30 2 f 1001 ”05 80 . ALTERNATE VAPOR/GAS FLOW METHODS Note that all specialized or alternate methods for solving are based on simplified assumptions or empirical procedures presented earlier. + B. 3. and Pipe”. Read the specific volume of steam at known temperature and pressure from steam tables. AND STEAM 227 Pressure Equivalent: Ibar = 105pa - IO0kPa W T o o [w Index 2 d . = inlet temperature. kg/m3. . (ReprintedAdapted with permission from “Flow of Fluids Through Valves. 2.01325bar at 15°C) S. They-are not presented as better approaches to solving the specific problem. bara qi. m3/h at MSC (metric standard conditions 1.191) . 1.01 Figure 4-39b Pressure drop in compressible flow lines (Metric units). abs ( K = “C 273) p1 = upstream density of steam.) K = loss coefficient (resistance coefficient) p’ = pressure. Calculate pressure drop (Figure 4-40a or b) per lOOft of pipe from AP/lOOft = CIC. GASES. At low vapor velocities the results may be low. Fittings. For steel pipe the limitations listed in (A) above apply. All rights reserved. Use Table 4-6 or 4-19 to select steam velocity for line size estimate. bar T .4. Technical Paper No. Crane Co.

- + .page . . . . Find: The flow rate in standard cubic feet per minute. .001 . . . . (Reprinted/adapted with permission from "Flow of Fluids Through Valves.) ooo + (4. . . 9 .4j = 12 L5 . . _ .I---u) ii' -7 6 .4j . C? values and an example on "determining pipe dxe". 1 7 = 0 . 410.02 .owe . . . .005 .) . . from table on next page. as outlined on page 3-3.008 Example 1 Given: Steam a t 345 psig and 500 F flows through 8-inch Schedule 40 pipe a t a rate of 240. .<%lo For qfm = qfm = w 23 ( 5 . .@I6 m .015 3.35 .025 C Z 2 U v) C1 = discharge factor from chart at right.06 - - d .0 C = j. C. 0 x 0. .03 5 . .146 e V = 1.COO7 . Find: The pressure drop per Soluiion: CI = 57 io0 feet of pipe.228 FLUID FLOW II' C I The Darcy formula can be written in the following form : 1i. and Pipe". see the opposite page.OW6 . j64 . . = size factor. All rights reserved. Crane Co. 1999.0) = 5000 scfm . Technical Paper No.In09 . .04 c l = APioo -=Cv z APioop c * =APwo-= ClV APmP C1 'X 4 0 .no2 .agc 3-17cr A-16 p APioo = 57 x c. . .17 z p = 0.004 . . Figure 4-40a Simplified flow formula for compressible fluids. . .8 Given: Pressure drop is 5 psi with 100 psig air a t go F flowing through 1 0 0 feet of 4-inch Schedule 40 pipe.0025 C = 0.o 1 . B f c VI G a .58 s. .7 a c 0 = . j 4 j Ci W = 2 3 OCO . .a3 .564) + j .58 x 1. Solution: APloo = 5.no9 . . apply also to the simplified flow formula. .page B-2 f (4. . Fittings. . .07 .0015 Example 2 la .5 3 > . ' 0 01 CT 225 2 . .m7 .146 x 1. The limitations of the Darcy formLila for compressible flow.000 pounds per hour.

3-23. . For example on determining pipe m see oppomtc page.000131(1+3.21 . AIR For quick estimates for air line pressure drop and through an orifice. see Tables 4-21a and b. this relation may be 0 4 0 % high [38]. w2 L Pd5 (4-193) (4-194) AP/100 ft = w2F/p . e and pager 3-24. . . Technical Paper No. ..) (AP/lOO)+Item5+Item6 = (4-192) 8. . . .257 . as outlined on page 3-3 apply also to the simplified flow formula. 7 Total system pressure drop . . . 6. from chart at right a C =size factor from tables on pages 3-23 to 3-25 z The limitations of the &cy formula for compressible flaw. 410. . . re-estimate line size and repeat calculations (see paragraph (A) above) and also examine pressure drop assumption for orifices and control valves.page B-2 = 9 9 0 0 + ( 7 3 . . C. . . . 1 325 bar and 15°C).page 3-17 or A 4 5 Ap . (Reprintedadapted with permission from “Flow of Fluids Through Valves. . p l . . GASES.1 0 P For C values s opposite page .p z =AP=0. For pipe lines smaller than 4in. . . . = 1 Cz = 9 . . Determine the loss coefficient K of all fittings. . .. . 10’ SblUtfoR: &. . Fittings.oo = 100 x 0. facing page 2 = 0. . .257 x 0. and hence the equivalent length ( K = f L. .. . D. Determine pressure drops through orifices and control valves. valves. Solufion: CI = 100 C = 0. . . . fittings and at vessel connections. . = 9900 = W + (73.5 Sg) . Example 1 Given: Steam at 24 bar absolute and 250’C flows through an &inch Schedule 40 pipe at a rate of 100 000 kilograms per hour. 6. . and so on. All rights reserved. Crane Co. .. BABCOCK EMPIRICAL FORMULA FOR STEAM Comparison of results between the various empirical steam flow formulas suggests the Babcock equation is a good average for most design purposes at pressure 500 psia and below. . . .4.091 m3/kg. . . p g e A . . and Pipe”... e w q‘. 1999. . ./D) or. Determine expansion and contraction losses. . AND STEAM 229 The Darcy formula can be written in the following form. from Figure 4-24 or 4-25. . .50 FRICTION DROP FOR FLOW OFVAPORS. . . If pressure drop is too large (or greater than a percentage of the inlet system pressure). .3 mm wall thickness. alternatively.) 4.091 Ap = 2. .page 3-24 = 9. . . 4 2 . Fd: The flow rate i cubic metres per minute at metric n standard conditions ( . . . . .7m3/min Figure 4-40b Simplified flow formula for compressible fluids (Metric units).6/d)- APTOTAL (L+L. Fmd: The pressure drop per 1Do met= of pipe. q’.34bar v Exampte 2 Given: Pressure drop is 1 bar with 7 bar gauge air at 3OoC flowing through 100 metres of 4 inch nominal size IS0 steel pipe. ktcl = E and c2= 62 530 x 10’ L 10’ d5 The simplified flow formula can then be written: C = disduuge factor. . ..a. 5 ~ 1 ) = 134. . . . . 5.

the line should.000972 1. Determine first estimate of line size by using suggested velocity from Table 4-6.798 1.000.00 4.00 3..01099 0.59 .000.00504 0.xx .00804 0.xx 40 s 80 x 160 .001119 3. Table 4-28 is used to obtain the value for “F’ in Eq. Engineering Div.00 186.xx 1 .200.0350 0.xx 40 s 80 x 120 160 .317 0..0157 0.40 28.00926 0.180.900.656.500.00 21..00 36.00 627.01155 0.00612 0..xx 40 s 80 x 160 10 20 s 30 x 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 0... 4-42a.80 146.00 37.00287 0.00 13.60 10.00 22. and pipe sizes (use with figure 4-40a) Values of C. 2.110.000.00150 0... (4-194).00 319.00 100.93 0.861 0.xx 3_1 2 4 80 100 120 140 160 Note: of Schedule Numbers indicate I1 Source: By permission from Crane Co.0206 0..00256 0.0905 0.01046 0.70 48.00 236.00287 0.00335 0.000597 3.230 FLUID FLOW TABLE 4-26 Simplified Flow Formula For Compressible Fluids Pressure Drop..0753 0.00 4.00 114. or b (SI) (for steel pipe).0168 0.. xx 3 4 40 s 80 x 160 40 s 80 x 160 .135 0. 4.00700 0. Calculate Reynolds number Re and determine the friction factor.x 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 20 ..290.0267 0.s 30 .I 4 40 s 80 x 160 .015 1..1052 0.. 410..00335 0.001478 ..01099 0.100.00 2.00435 0.30 380...70 5.59 4.75 8.000614 3.376 1.00169 0. Rate of flow.00 21.0397 0.289 0.x 30 40 60 3 40 s 80 x 160 . Figure 4-41 is a convenient chart for handling most in-plant steam line problems.. Nominal Pipe Size Inches 1 8 4 1 3 8 1 2 Schedule Number 40 s 80 x 40 s 80 x 40 s 80 x 40 s 80 x 160 Value of C.using Figure 4-5.0661 0.00217 0.s .01244 0.00141 0.00385 0. 1957. xx !.01416 18 jchedulc Number 10 20 30 s 40 x 60 80 100 120 140 160 10 20 Value of c.185 0.00 899. Technical Paper No.950.00996 0..00421 0.. Normally an estimated average p should be selected for each line increment to obtain good results..00573 0.00 904.00 9.0175 0.00191 0.000534 0.000.00 627.001274 1..21 1 0.00949 0.. See author’s note at Figure 2-31..000. ~..00 169.252 0.be calculated in sections in order to re-establish the steam-specific density. xx .xx ! I 2 2 40 s 80 x 160 .00463 0.00 11.00549 0..00298 0.00247 0.640.00251 0..00 488.xx 40s 80 x 40 s 80 x 120 160 ... .000835 1..133 0..0180 0.x 2_! 2 60 80 100 120 140 160 10 20 30 s 40 .000741 1.590.00 4.00 1.00376 0.00 718.100.333 0.17 6.100.640.630.000...0514 0. f..0 0266 0.146 0.00 1.00 93.80 18.000651 3.490.04 2.51 DARCY RATIONAL RELATION FOR COMPRESSIBLE VAPORS AND GASES 1. For long transmission lines over 200 ft.70 91.163 0. 0.00 66.69 3.408.200.30 96.0310 0..00161 0.1 Pipe Size Schedule Number Inches 40 s 80 x 120 160 16 2.00 1. : .500.0421 0. xx 20 30 40 s 60 80 x 100 120 140 160 20 30 40 s 60 x 80 100 120 140 160 20 30 40 .000.00504 0.0231 0.000565 3.00 5.300.00276 0.01244 0...94 11.0447 0. x 60 80 100 120 140 160 24 10 20 s .00669 26.610 0.0195 0.000.0569 0.0423 0.

9 2.6 676.94 11.16 0....7..513 0.042 0.40 1..07 1.09 4.4 384..451 0.106 0.82 16.6 5. ..247 0.274 0.19 1... 0.. .31 3.88 36.026 0..47 11.9 7.. . 0" 0.107 0.91 350 376 4 w 4 % 480 476 0. . .162 0... . To determine the cubic feet per minute o compressed air f at any temperature and pressure other than standard conditions. - .40 2.1 L8.340 0. 12.6 0.60 8.067 0.037 0.6 7..039 ).051 0.4 27. Chicago.018 0.156 D.0 1. 1 230. Air corn- .028 6.13 1.90 8...361 1. . .15 4.. 40 Pipe' (use for estimating.045 0.767 0....6 179.011 0.937 .163 0.4 ..046 0.034 0.437 1.845 4.673 0.922 2.5 5.020 0. ..062 0..129 . .20. multiply the value of cubic feet per minute of free air by the ratio: 12S lso 276 3% 300 28.. ..83 4.118 0.96 2.408 7..0 !O.04: 0..30 102.50 6..2 205. Subscript "40" refers to the velocity or ressure drop t h r o u e Schelule 40 pipe. - .12s 4 6 6 0.213 0...6 47.260 0.21 4.127 0.2 18. 0.3 18..59 I8 3.43 1. - .018 0.139 0.203 0.5..01 .384 0.4 13.025 1..072 0.187 0. .97 3.13 0.3 6. . .05 1.F 0.524 0.. ..034 0.204 3.56 5.49 76.73 4... . ..331 0. ..27.18 1.047 0.0 3.825 1. 410.00 3....0 2...6 ..7 256. ..04 1..3 18.402 0.06' 0.55 0.m e and 60 F Teml ature .23 0.32 1.50 2.04: 0.69 1.089 0.91 1.34 L0.52' 0..191 0.9.21 2. for detailed calculations use friction factors f) arcdAil QbiC Feet ubic Feel Y Minute :r Minutc Per at 60 F and 60Fanc 14.375 0. I 0.749 0.562 0.036 3lh" 0.534 1..019 0.2 a SKI 900 9110 1000 1100 %.04 1.22 22.02....086 0..5 0..343 1" 3.055 0..9 5.255 The ressuredropisalsoinverseyy proportional to the absolute pressure and directly .4 31.04 36.6 4. ..13( 0.063 0. .. . .285 0.052 0.99 2.8 3... .8 166.104 0. ..083 0.9 115.090 0.31( 1600 3000 3600 To determine the velocit Of water.663 3..200 1.63 4..44 4.327 0.68 2.. .1 15.. 055 ).051 0.21 3.. .. . through p ~ p e other than Schedule 40....67 2.13 1.095 1..07 2-42 2. Engineering Div.057 0.a 3.043 .76 0.102 8 10 16 20 ( )( ) 1 30 3s 40 4 .49 2.9 Calculations for Plpr Olhw than Schodulo 40 0. .244 0. .1 36..073 1.036 0. ..04 4.4 12..01 4..3 37...02: 0..5 108.404 0. . ....09.. 7..62 1. ..188 0.07! 0.078 0. 0.037 0..2 26.. .019 0.69 4..18 2.757 1.- -1M 0.3 6.5 16.75 2..8 27.35 0. .133 0.380 0.099 0.89 3.80 3...673 0.041 0. . .2 6....025 0 03( 0: 03! 0. 0.484 0.. .7 14.85 12.3 u.119 0. .305 .293 0. .16 8.. etc.4 14.O 1lW 1300 1100 1600 1600 1800 1000 121.748 1.214 0.9 18.5 .1 1.03 2. .144 0.044 0..39 1.39 4...279 0. .75..25 1.17 1.25 3.293 D.45 41. .52 1.931 1.. 026 1H' 0.626 0.620 0:u5 0 371 *By permission Technical Paper No..8 128..126 0.3 1.60 6-78 8.5 448..9 0.3 320.2 .M 0.56 6. 0.. ..134 0..027 0. .507 0.7 520 where: "P" is the inlet or average gauge pressure in pounds per square inch.63 0..068 0.17 1.038 0. . .4.7 17.313 0. ..19 1.2 0.89 6.66 7.023 0.099 0.6 s..1 16.019 0. . 'the pressure drop is roportional to the length.26 54. a3 given in the tables on these facing pages. .. lb.6 28.51 DARCY RATIONAL RELATION FOR COMPRESSIBLE VAPORS AND GASES 231 TABLE 4-27a Flow of Air Through Sch.45 0.8 5.395 0.. 2..2 141.270 0.623 0.W 0.9 19.47 6. 0. .070 0.. ..232 0.74 1.87 2.I2 89. 10" 0.3 7.42' 0..06 51.226 1 0.77 0.062 0.83 7.05 5.43 %* ).056 0.8 3.8..537 0. 1.58 1..19..462 0.032 0.164 0..641 0...042 0.w1 0.. w 2 3 --- 1/11 0. .264 8 70 90 100 12S 160 176 80 6..76 17..9 2.11: .16 1.9 0.14.062 3.08 70.12 1.3 1.79 8.788 0.356 0.84 5.690 8.44 14.103 0.49 4.148 0.201 0.044 0.036 0. 0.08.94 3.33 1.219 D .03I 0.1 8.02 19.605 1. "t" is the temperature in degrees Fahrenheit under consideration. Therefore.m 0.346 0.167 0.057 0.8 9..46 .87 48.4 192. *.66 10.83 1.971 1o.45 1.33' 0.29 8. use the following formulas: 4000 4600 6000 6000 7000 8000 9000 512..776 0. 0..5 14.041 0..55 1...063 0.54 0.521 0...178 0..6 14..4 22.42 2.021 0.2 600 660 600 650 700 60.1 4. IO25 118 Subscript "a" refers to the Schedule of pipe through which velocity or pressure drop is desired.239 0.68 2.7 460+1 P+14.154 0.271 0.6 3/8' 0.proportional to the ahsolute temperature.87 6.197 0.0 9.533 0.44 3. .91! 1.16 2... 0.06 7.0 8..64 .151 0..1 0.490 0.85 3.47 57.79 1.23 12.39 2 .019 1.0 .. .119 0.0.90 83..7 3A' 0. 5" ?.04 7... P m drop is a F C " ~ ~ l one-half thevaluegiveninthe for 300 feet. .7s 0.8 17.067 0..198 0..064 0.. the U for .032 0.63 12. D.49 6.024 0.064 0.7 2.00 1....936 0. .6 .7psia 100 psig Qn ' For lengths of pipe other than 100 feet. .06 4.148 0.161 0..26' 0.60 3.379 D.605 0. 0..094 0.. and.31 6..061 0.17 1.029 1.65 5.116 1.82 9.887 1. or the pressure &p of water or air.282 1.9 6" 0. t.64 4. ..0.. hS 50 feet Of pipe.23 3.02 1..0 2..59 5.113 0.1% 0..09 3.769 1..206 0.1 28..41 0.848 1.0 13.064 0. 10 000 1 000 1 12 000 13 000 14 000 1282 1410 1638 1666 1794 1922 2051 2307 3076 3332 20000 22 000 u0 00 16 000 28000 30ooo 16 000 16 000 18 000 2563 2820 3688 384s .191 0..7 21.9M 1..63 234' 0..9 1.36 1..168 4' 0.71 0.. *. .075 0. 1.474 0.. 1.64 0.341 0. .819 1.062 0.65 9.m 0. .089 0.3 The cubic feet per minute of compressed air a t any pressure is inversely pmportiohal to the absolute pressure and directly proportional to the absolute temhrature.073 0.5 0.. .- 0.96 0.24 0.2 22..0 12..00 1..613 0.40 4.20 4..W 0.3 0..050 0.718 0.06! 0.96 3.59 4.57 8.04 9..43 25.834 1.356 0.. .26 2.05~ 0.02 9.30 1. .022 0.84 32.5 w. Crane Co. 0. ..8 37.10 )..0 7.8 5.06 4.45 2.24 5. .824 0...80 lW 0.76 3.96 8.26 2. .270 1.09 5.88 64.107 0. .1.641 0. .2 22...208 0.727 0.149 1.07 9.616 0.526 0.112 0.029 0.01 2..97 2.027 0. .3 12" 0.. three table times the given value.1 32..071 0.030 0..314 .016 0.67 0.7 W 8 769:O 897..081 5.718 0.578 Q.54 5.50 3.0 163.044 0.126 6.W 0.. .20 3.26 1. . multiply thevalues given in the table by the ratio: 100+14..43 0.90 4.3 .576 0.Zs 11.76 6.24 38. .046 0. . 3' 0. 7. -- Pre-ure Drop of Air I n Pounds per Square Inch Per 100 Feet of Schedule 40 P i p For Air at 100 Pounds per Square Inch Gaul %ss.350 1. .17 1.160 .O 36.887 1..7 11.027 0.431 0.094 0. 1957..451 0... 0.74 1... . .408 0.33 5.42 .63.377 0. .036 0.6 3. to determine the pressure drop for inlet or average pressures other than 100 psi and at temperatures other thanMF.134 0.65 44...68 1.2 6. 0.61 6.21 3.

76 1.62 7.264 0.5 89.272 0.90 1. abs Values used in calculating above table were: C= 1.2abs and 700 F Gauge Pressure Before Orifice in Pounds Per square inch 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 12 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 125 Diameter of Orifice (in.0. Moss. ed.81 3.916 1.32 1. "Compressed Air Data".66 4. Values for pressures from 1 to 15 Ibs gauge calculated b y standard adiabatic formula.845 0. absolute pressure and 70°F. =gauge pressure + 14.073 0.194 0.56 3.048 0.9 40. New York.7 97.62 1.406 0. P.) 64 1 32 1 16 1 8 1 1 - 4 3 8 1 - 2 5 8 3 - 7 - 4 8 1 0.79 5.040 0.775 0.30 6.1 101 112 122 132 152 173 193 213 234 254 274 284 69.562 0.633 0.7 Ib/in2.72 7.91 1.96 2.49 7.9 91.0 108 126 144 162 180 198 216 235 271 307 343 379 415 452 488 506 109 117 132 152 168 196 225 662 366 423 528 609 939 1050 1161 649 934 1016 762 1097 1138 1272 1383 1494 1549 718 938 1082 1227 1371 1516 1661 1806 1951 2023 Notes: Table is based on 100% coefficient of flow.5 70. 1939 [371. For sharp-edged orifices a multiplier of 0.379 0.53 3.194 0. = 0. For well-rounded entrance multiply values b y 0.4 18..0 63.52 1.97.38 3.176 0.491 0.7 54.7 80.331 0.68 1.2 C =Coefficient of flow Pi =Upstream total pressure in Ib/in.2 22.0 49.450 0.095 0.3 15.3 64.4 35.232 FLUID FLOW TABLE 4-27b Discharge of Air Through an Orifice" in Cubic Feet of Free Air per minute at Standard Atmospheric Pressure of 14.068 0.105 0.06 1.68 5.20 1.92 6.2 99. Values for pressures above 15 Ib.1 12.123 0.W.7 Ib/in2.5 45.86 8.494 0.703 0.7 21'2 24.8 27.4 14.5 49.158 0.98 0.2 I 111 128 143 156 168 191 218 242 283 323 440 496 329 430 503 575 213 230 278 300 175 228 1 17.98 10.6 39.062 0.774 0. (Source: By permission from F.633 0.892 0.23 4. Weights ( W )were converted t o volume using density of factor of 0. This is correct for dry air at 14.97 4.18 10.0 84.53 2.9 31. W.36 5.993 1.10 3.300 0.3 12.7 40.A.05 7.6 60.) .112 0.1 11.9 16.229 0.420 0.4 7.083 0.211 0.34 4.34 1.223 0. gauge calculated by approximate formula proposed by S.1 42.3 26.10 3.140 0. 5th Ed.80 2.17 1.65 may be used for approximate results. O'Neil.2 47.7 91.07 6.2 abs Tl =Upstream temperature i n O F .07494 Ib/ft. Compressed Air Magazine.370 0.48 1.028 0.248 0.158 0.3 77.7 Ib in.09 1.335 0.25 2.5 45.8 1 1 1 28.441 0.5 75.056 0.=discharge ' aCPl Tl in Ibis a =area of orifice in. Formula cannot be used where Pl is less than t w o times the barometric pressure.5303 where W.476 0.293 0.

220W -d2 d2P (4. 6. If the line pressure drop is a small portion of the total.:LIJlDS IN PIPE 233 PRESSURE LOSS IN LB PER SQ INCH PER I00 FEET Based on Babcock Formula: .06W d2P (4-196) (4-65) um = 16. AP total . .000336 f W2 P d5 4. Even the average of inlet and outlet conditions is not sufficiently accurate for some systems. control valves.3. 5.---a d2 In SI units. If total line or system pressure drop is excessive (or greater than a percentage of the inlet system pressure).) 3. Leq. Determine or assume losses through orifice plates. . v. ft3/lb (m3/kg) d = inside pipe diameter.000131 (Itx)dL d P& Figure 4-41 Steam flow chart. Determine total straight pipe length.21.196a) . (By permission from Walworth Co.06Wv urn=-. lb/ft3 (kg/m3) at T and P. Determine equivalent pipe length for fittings and valves. at conditions stated for (ds) a = cross-sectional area of pipe. I b h (kgh) = fluid specific volume. therefore conditions influenced by pressure drop . particularly if the pressure drop is high. equipment. 4. little will be gained by increasing pipe size.0. = ( L + L e g )(APllOO) (4-65a) + Item5 (4-195) 8.000000726f T S (q. contraction and expansion.220Wv . in. Calculate pressure drop.40Wv 3. AP/lOOft (or use Figure 4-39a or b (SI)). = mean velocity in pipe.670W a v . AP/100ft = 0. Note: Use for estimating only (Ludwig [19].2 (m2) W = flow rate. examine the portion of pressure drop due to pipe friction and that due to other factors in the system.52 VELOCITY OF COMPRESSIBLE FLUIDS IN PIPE See Figures 4-43a and 4-43b 2.P~O. Consider reducing losses through items in step 5 above. where v. and so on. in. Recheck other pipes sizes as may be indicated.)’ P’d5 7 Total pressure drop.ftlmin v Note that determining the velocity at the inlet conditions to a pipe may create significant error when results are concerned with the outlet conditions. (mm) p = fluid density.21. L.

4.432 x 10-3 3. no superheat.32 10-9 42.354 x 10-6 748.) * Factors are based upon ID listed as Schedule 40 Factors are based upon ID listed as Schedule 80 EXAMPLE 4-13 Steam Flow Usine Babcock Formula Determine the pressure loss in 138ft of 8-in.kg/s These values are within graphical accuracy. and pipe (vapordgases): {g> (4-202) For fittings$and Pipe (liquids): English Engineering units (4-203) w = 0.9 x 351..69 x I 0-9 8. ~~ ’I2 3i4 1 1 114 1 ‘12 ’I2 2 2 3 3 ’I2 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 OD 16 OD 18 OD 20 OD 24 OD 955.000 lblh of 150 psig steam (saturated). above about 1OOOcfm of free air..1 x IO-’ 176.621 x IO-’ 2. For nozzles and orifices (vapors/gases): (4-200) u = 0.28 10-9 14. Ib/h In units.365x 493. or atmosphere.57psi In SI units.5/100) = 4. = 3. For 138ft (no fittings or valves). 40 steel pipe.1 x from Table 4-28.914 x 951.. Corrections are applied to the Darcy equation to compensate for fluid property changes due to the expansion of the fluid. 1 1 1 x 1 0 . solve by equation.kg/s /g> Ib/s (4-199) w = 1.234 FLUID FLOW TABLE 4-28 Factor”F” For Babcock Steam Formula Nominal Pipe Size (in. and these are known as Y net expansion factors [4]. Figure 4-45 is convenient when using Dowtherm vapor.525 Y d i 2 d m Ib/s .111 x 10-6Yd1? .364 w = 1./?.94 x 23.31/100) (138) =4.7 x 46.8 10-3 77.469 10-9 3.84 x 10-9 21.53 ALTERNATE SOLUTION TO COMPRESSIBLE FLOW PROBLEMS There are several good approaches to recognizing the effects of changing conditions on compressible flow [39.000/60 = 14321b/min Reading from top at 150 psig. w = 86. w = 1 . The corrections for other temperatures and pressures are also indicated.) Standard Weight Pipe’ Extra Strong Pipe+ can produce more accurate results when calculations are prepared for successive sections of the pipe system (long or high pressure).71 x 14. Use for estimating only.29 x 10-9 27. The corrected Darcy equation is: For valves.01 x 8.854 x 10-6 2. However.82psi.561 x IO-’ 2.051x 340. vessel. such as a larger pipe. (4-198) flowing 86. Line Size Specification Sheet. 401. the flow is considered adiabatic.95 x 31.544 x 587. noting that both free air (60°F and 14.0 x 104. Y w = 1891Ydi2JAPpl/K. total A P is 138(3. FRICTION DROP FOR AIR Table 4-27a is convenient for most air problems. Sch. follow diagonal line to the horizontal pipe size of 8 in. 2 C ’ .278 10-9 EXAMPLE 4-12 Pressure Drop for Vapor System The calculations are presented in Figure 4-44.3 x 70. Figure 4-46 is useful for quick checking. using value of F = 587.1 x 184.7psia) and compressed air at 1OOpsig and 60”F are indicated.2 x 10-9 225. down vertically to intersect the horizontal steam flow of 1432 Ib/min.5 psi/lOOft.. For the discharge of compressible fluids from the end of a short piping length into a larger cross section. its values are slightly higher (about 10%) than the rational values of Table 4-26.1 x 10-9)/0. = (3.52 10-9 55.61 x IO-’ 6. (4-197) (continued) .39 x IO-’ 11.7 x I 0-3 45. (Source: By permission from The Walworth Co.525 Y dI2 3 C’.2 x 62.265 Y d 1 2 / F kg/h . Use Figure 4-41.866 x 3.865 10-3 1. and then vertically down to the pressure drop loss of 3. fittings.7 x 10-3 9.3 10-9 90.6 Y d .8 x 143.31 psi/lOOft (4-201) AP.67 x I 0-3 5.46 x 6. AP/lOOft = (1432)* (587.. For comparison.

4. using h./C.) = pressure. The AP is the difference between the inlet pressure and the pressure in the area of larger cross section C’ = flow coefficient for orifices and nozzles (Figures 4-19 and 4-20). such as steam.5 diameters downstream from the inlet face of orifice plate or nozzles. W pd2 m/s (4-31) q = CIA/=. For gaseshapors that deviate from these laws. or AP as differential static head or pressure differential across taps located one diameter upstream. and entrance and exit losses in the line Y = net expansion factor for compressible flow through orifices. lb/ft3(kg/m3) w = rate of flow.22- Q d2 = 354 -. mean or average. lb/s (kg/s) AP = pressure drop across the system. For any fluid: JksRr = \/kg144Ptv. C = y = ratio of specific heats (C. and venturi tubes. Then use the fluid properties at this condition of pressure and temperature in: us = These conditions are similar to flow through orifices. C = discharge coefficient for orifices and nozzles [4]. Note: The use of C’ eliminates the calculation of velocity of . at sonic conditions (see Figure 4-38c). P m3/sflow (4-2 12) (continued) . approach. and the limiting value for Y and AP must be determined from the tables in Figures 4-38a and b and used in the velocity equation. psi (bar) (inlet-discharge) K = total resistance (loss) coefficient of pipe. r. ft/s (4-30) In SI units. Figures 4-38a and b are based on the perfect gas laws and for sonic conditions at the outlet end of a pipe. use the charts in Figures 4-38a and b (SI) to determine the downstream pressure when sonic velocity occurs. u = q / A = 1.m3/s (4-210) where p = ratio of orifice throat diameter to inlet diameter C’ = flow coefficient for nozzles and orifices (see Figures 4-19 and 4-20). the AP is the inlet gauge pressure or the difference between the absolute inlet pressure and the atmospheric pressure absolute. In SI units. or c) AP = pressure drop ratio in AP/P’.0509 W / ( p )(d’) . for a line discharging a compressible fluid to atmosphere. lb/s In SI units. = downstream pressurehpstream pressure. in.kg/s AP(P1) (4-204) English Engineering units For nozzles and orifices (liquids): d A q T t k w = 0. For compressible fluids flowing through nozzles and orifices use Figures 4-19 and 4-20. in.273 x 10‘ q / d 2 = 21. and pipes [4] (see Figure 4-38a. (mm) = cross section of pipe. (mm) p 1 = upstream fluid density. When AP/P‘ falls outside the limits of the K curves on the charts. lb/h (kg/h) = velocity. W= where 1.111 x lo-‘ di2C ’ J m . when used as per ASME specification for differential pressure p = fluid density. ft/s ( d s ) . The flow coefficient C‘ is C‘ = C . (4-205) P’ W v = internal diameter of pipe. fittings.3 q/d2 = 0. kg/s (4-206) where d. nozzles. = (4-21 1) to determine the flow rate at this condition from u = q / A = 183. (4-207) (4-208) or v. ft/s = \ / ~ P I vm/s .53 ALTERNATE SOLUTIONTO COMPRESSIBLE FLOW PROBLEMS 235 EXAMPLE 4-13-(continued) In SI units. the same application will yield about 5% greater flow rate. For nozzles and venturi meters. ’R(K = 273 t ) = fluid temperature. / m . ft2 (m2) = ft3/sc (m3/s) at flowing conditions = temperature. For flow of gases and vapors through nozzles and orifices: (4-209) orq=YC’A J2. used to determine Y from Figure 4-38a and b. ---. + w = 1. and 0. psia (N/m2 abs) = flow.111 x 10-‘dl2/. lb/ft3 (kg/m3) A = cross-sectional flow area.. valves.525 d I 2C ’ d m . b. the flow is limited by critical pressure ratio and the minimum value of Y is to be used. when values of C are taken from Figures 4-19 and 4-20 [4]. = pipe inside diameter. above [4]. ft2 (m2). For example. nozzles. sonic velocity occurs at the point of discharge or at some restriction within the pipe. Flow through nozzles and venturi devices is limited by the critical pressure ratio. For improved accuracy. u s ..

lb/ft3 (kg/m3) at flowing conditions A = cross-sectional area of orifice or nozzle. = sp gr of gas relative to air = mol wt of gad29 Y = net expansion factor compressibility flow through orifices. nozzles.Next Page 236 FLUID FLOW . psi A p = pressure drop. di W = 1891YdO2C'/~. 0 1 2 5 2 d O 2 C m 1. 3 0 Y d ~ C ' & .15+t t = fluid temperature. 6 d O 2 C ' m = 1891 do2 C ' m In SI units. Q = 19. q = 0. see [41]). bara A p = pressure drop. (4-220) q'= l l .2087C'd12& 1 1 4.3 do . EXAMPLE 4-13-(continued) For estimating purposes in liquid flow with viscosity similar to water through orifices and nozzles. lb/h (kg/h). Q = 0 . J A ' C (4-213) In SI units.265dO2C& = where do = internal diameter of orifice.I/""". (mm) di = pipe inside diameter in which orifice or nozzle is installed. .is less than 0. W = 0 . bar S.265 do2C'&. Ib/ft3 (kg/m3) A p = pressure drop. = loss of static pressure head due to fluid flow. a C pi = pressure.is greater than 0. the following can be used [7]: . in. From [4]: (4-221) (at flowing conditions) . psi (bar). TI = absolute temperature. Q = 0. = P. q =Y where m'/s (4-222) In SI units. in.APP. Flow of gases and vapors (compressible fluids) through nozzles and orifices (for flow field importance.. in. 2 0 8 7 C ' d O 2 h Llmin . do = diameter of orifice or nozzle opening. /- S = sp gr of gas relative to air = mol wt of gad29 . In SI units.636C'dO2& where . TI s. where . (4-217) (4-21 8) (4-219) kg/h or [4]. or pipe. = 273. 'R = (460 +' F) Pi = pressure. (mm) h = static pressure head existing at a point. a t ft3/s 14. (mm) VI = specific volume of fluid.5 diameter) W = flow rate. m of fluid.lb/h (4-223) (4-224) In SI units.3 di Y = net expansion factor from Figure 4-38a or b A P = differential pressure (equal to inlet gauge pressure when discharging to atmosphere) p = weight density of fluid. bar (hL and Ap measured across taps at 1 diameter and 0. C' = flow coefficient (see Figure 4-47 for water and Figures 4-20 and 4-21 for vapors or liquids) q = ft3/s (m3/s) at flowing conditions rc = critical pressure ratio for compressible flow. h. gpm (Ymin) C = flow coefficient for orifices and nozzles = discharge coefficient corrected for velocity of approach = C./Pi A P = pressure drop. ft3 (m2) C' = flow coefficient from Figure 4-38a or 4-38b. m3/s (4-226) where T. W = 1 5 7 . or W = 1. (m) of fluid.005363YdO2 . in. psia. Vmin (4-214) I-($) (4-215) (4-216) do . ft3/lb (m3/kg) p1 = density of fluid.7 psia and 60°F (4-225) where where Q = liquid flow.

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