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4.47 THE EXPANSION FACTOR, Y

219

The simultaneous solution of Eqs (4-173) and (4-174) eliminates M a and yields a value for r , the critical pressure ratio. Table 4-25 shows a wide variation in the critical values with respect to y (Le., ratio of specific heats, Cp/C,) and the loss coefficient K .

4.47 THE EXPANSION FACTOR, Y
The adiabatic flow Eq. (4-178) can be represented in a form:

4.46 ADIABATIC FLOW
If there is no heat transfer or energy dissipated in the gas when traversing from state 1 to state 2, the process is adiabatic and reversible, that is isentropic. However, the actual flow conditions are somewhere between isothermal and adiabatic and, as such, the flow behavior can be described by the isentropic equations, where the isentropic constant k replaced a polytropic constant y (e.g., 1 < y < k). For isothermal condition, y = 1, whereas truly isentropic flow corresponds to y = k . The density and temperature as a function of pressure are (4-177) The mass flow rate, G , by using Eq. (4-177) to eliminate p and T and solving for G gives (4- 179) where
p1= P , M w / R T l , A P = P , - P2 and Y is the expansion factor. Note that Eq. (1.179) without the Y term is the Bernoulli equation for an incompressible fluid of density p , . Therefore, the expansion factor Y = Gadiabatic/Gincompressible ratio of the adiabatic mass is the flux (Eq. (4-178)) to the corresponding incompressible mass flux, and is a unique function of P 2 / P , , k and Kf. Figure 4-38a shows values of Y for k = 1.3 and k = 1.4 as a function of A P / P , and Kf (which is denoted by simply K on these plots). Figures 4-38b and c show the expansion factor Y for compressible flow through nozzles and orifices, and plots of the critical pressure ratio for compressible flow through nozzles and venturi tubes respectively. The conditions corresponding to the lower ends of the lines on the plots (e.g., the nought) represent the sonic (choked flow) state where P2 = P2*. These same conditions are shown in the tables accompanying the plots, thus allowing the relationships for choked flow to be determined more accurately than is possible from reading the plots. Note: It is not possible to extrapolate beyond the nought at the end of the lines in Figures 4-38a and b as this represents the choked flow state, in which P2 = P2* (inside the pipe), and is independent of the external exit pressure. Figures 4-38a

L

where f =Fanning friction factor. If the system contains fittings as well as straight pipe, the term 4 f L I D (= Kf:pipe) can be replaced by C K,, that is the sum of all loss coefficients in the system.

EXAMPLE 4-11 From the table listed below determine the status of flow (e.g., whether choking flow exists or not), (AP/P,),,, and the flow rate

Using the Excel spreadsheet Example 4- 11.xls, the calculated overall critical pressure ratio r is r = 0.04804 The critical pressure P2 is

WI.
Data

P2 = r x Po
Value

= 0.04804 x 6600

Upstream pressure, Po(kPaa) Downstream discharge pressure, PA (kPaa) Upstream specific volume, Vo(m3/kg) Isentropic coefficient, y Internal pipe diameter, D(mm) Length of pipe, rn Number of elbows Loss coefficient, K

= 317.06kPa 6600 200 0.01724 Test for choke flow 1.55 Since P2 > PA, the pipe will choke. 52.5 The critical expansion factor Y,, from Eq. (4-175) is
100

4 45

'"=
Solution For known isentropic coefficient y and loss coefficient K, a guessed value of M a , is used in Eq. (4-173) until the left side of the equation approximates to a value of zero. Otherwise, a new guess value of M a , is used in Eq. (4-173). Once the required value is known, Eqs. (4-174), (4-175), and (4-176) are subsequently used to determine r, P 2 , AP, Y,,, and W respectively. This procedure involves the use of the Excel spreadsheet with the Goal Seek or Solver add-in from the Tools menu and is given in Example 4-1 1 . ~ 1 ~ .

J

45 (1 0.04804) 2[45+2(1/0.04804)]

+

= 0.6795

The critical mass flow rate from Eq. (4-176) is

W = 0.1265 (52.5)' (0.6795)
= 21,320.96kg/h

6600-317.06 (45 x 0.01724)

Figure 4-37 gives the Excel spreadsheet snapshots of Example 4-1 1.

220 FLUID FLOW Figure 4-37 The Excel spreadsheet snapshot of Example 4-1 1 .

Y 221 Figure 4-37-(conrinued) .47 THE EXPANSION FACTOR.4.

222 FLUID FLOW Figure 4-37-(conrinued) .

678 .552 .750 .697 . this procedure requires some iterations because the value of K . 361 has shown that rules of thumb that are applied in the design 2.550 I593 . .705 .926 - Figure 4-38a Net expansion factor.781 . All rights reserved).831 .718 limiting Factors For Sonic Volocity k = 1. with the average density along the pipe used in the equations. Walters [35.2 1. If the pipe pressure drop in a compressible flow system is less than 40% of the inlet pressure.718 . The common rules are 1.48 MISLEADING RULES OF THUMB FOR COMPRESSIBLE FLUID FLOW In general.622 . He further showed that this rule is invalid unless associated with a particular f L I D ratio.702 .0 3 4 325 . for compressible flow through pipe to a larger flow area.671 3 1 6 8 10 15 20 40 100 .920 --- .2 1.681 .722 . 410.0 . Y .576 .5 2.761 .718 .612 .662 .48 MISLEADING RULES OFTHUMB FOR COMPRESSIBLE FLUID FLOW 223 k = 1. and Pipe”.631 . and b provide an alternative method of solving compressible adiabatic flow problems for piping systems. Recently. (Reprintedadapted with permission from “Flow of Fluids Through Valves.35 . 8 10 15 .710 . 1999.612 .718 20 40 loo .737 .El8 . However.a77 .E07 .e39 . Crane Co.710 .695 .670 6.773 . These conditions do not occur.8 a .883 .3 limiting Foctors For Sonic Volocity k = 1. calculations for compressible fluid flow can be grossly misleading and erroneous.642 .6M . depends on the Reynolds number which cannot be determined until G is obtained.639 . then the incompressible flow calculation methods can be safely employed. Technical Paper No.698 .3 --K hP Y P’r -1.4 Y . compressible fluid flow calculations are much more complicated than incompressible fluid flow. 4. Fittings.635 6 . That adiabatic and isothemal flow bracket all flowrates.5 2.4.649 .710 .588 1.

An equation often used to determine the likelihood of sonic choking is yl(y-1) (4-180) where p a is the critical static pressure at sonic velocity and p o is the local stagnation pressure at the orifice/valve. Walters indicated that using Eq. (4-180) with y = 1. Choked air flow at 50% pressure drop. Furthermore.4 results in 47% pressure drop to obtain choking. he stated that Eq. (4-180) cannot be used with the supply pressure if there is any significant pressure drop from the supply to the orifice/valve.224 FLUID FLOW 3. .

This is because the stagnation pressure in the equation is the pressure at the upstream side of the shock wave.186) The general procedures outlined previously for handling fluids involving the friction factor.yMa2) YMa4 dMa2 (4183) (4.000336fw2v . However.50 FRICTION DROP FOR FLOW OF VAPORS. (4-180) breaks down for pipe-system analysis when pipe friction becomes a factor. which is unknown unless the pressure drop is determined from alternative means. (ReprintedAdapted with permission from “Flow of Fluids Through Valves.49 OTHER SIMPLIFIED COMPRESSIBLE FLOW METHODS (4-65) AP -100f t In SI units. 1999. it is impossible to know how much error is introduced by the assumption of constant temperature. It is difficult to extend the equations to pipe networks.62. 4. (4-180).4. for compressible flow through 4. in accordance with Eq. AND STEAM See Figures 4-39a and 4-3913 nozzles and venture tubes. . therefore. if there is any pressure drop in the pipe from the supply pressure to the shock wave. 410. In addition. This is applicable to compressible flow systems under the following conditions [4]. and the Re chart are used with the above relations.Ma2 y Ma4 [ 1 Ma2] dMa2 + (4-181) (4. Eq.530 f W 2 v . Eq. and contractions or enlargements in pipes). GASES.000336 f W2 lOOft or d5 d5P For gases with different specific heat ratios. - 0. GASES. A.530 f W 2 d5 d5P (4-66) As shown earlier. These equations break down at high Mach numbers. and Pipe”. Technical Paper No. (4-180) cannot be used to predict the supply and discharge pressures necessary for sonic choking unless the piping has negligible friction loss. k = cP/cv Figure 4-38c Critical Pressure Ratio. f .0. Crane Co.aft.com.50 FRICTION DROP FOR FLOW OF VAPORS. Instead. AND STEAM 225 The entire pipe is solved in one lumped calculation instead of coupling the governing equations in marching order. (4-180). p = ratio of small-tolarge diameter in orifices and nozzles.000001959 f (qL)2Sg2 d5P (4-185) AP/100m = or 62. and cannot address the delivery temperature. rC.182) Isothermal flow equation and integrated solution are lLT lMa kdx= Ma2 I (1 . Simplified equations typically do not address sonic-choking conditions. the pressure drop ratio will differ somewhat. Therefore. most gases are not isothermal and. (4. the local stagnation pressure at the shock wave must be used. DARCY RATIONAL RELATION FOR COMPRESSIBLE FLOW FOR ISOTHERMAL PROCESS [41 AP -.184) Computer software has been developed that models pipe systems of compressible fluids and this can be obtained from the website www.0. All rights reserved.. then the supply pressure cannot be used in Eq. Fittings. Note: P‘ = psia. Walters developed compressible flow equations for single pipe [35]: Adiabatic flow equation and integrated solution are soL Ma2 kdx=/Ma I 1 .

0 30 . = rate of flow. Ib/ft3(m3/kg) f = friction factor d = internal pipe diameter. abs (” R = F 460) p1 = upstream density of steam. 410./K)’’’. = inlet temperature. Fittings. and Pipe”. lb. (mm) p = fluid density. Ib/h (kgh) V = specific volume of fluid. Ib/ft3(kg/m3) S./in.7psia and 60” F). qh = 1. Crane Co. SCFH (m3/s at metric standard conditions (MSC) -1.] (AppI/K)’I2 (4-1 89) or qh = 40. or pipe .226 FLUID FLOW APnm . or pipe (see Figures 4-38a-c) where d = internal pipe diameter.] K = loss coefficient for all valves. ) ] ’ / 2 1 (4. Y = net expansion factor for compressible flow through orifices. = 24. + (APp. 1999. and pipe (resistance coefficient) r=fittings+valves qi = flow rate.S ‘.7psia and 60”F (4. (Reprinted/Adaptedwith permission from “Flow of Fluids Through Valves. in.187) In SI units.9 1. nozzles. in. All rights reserved.700 [Yd’/S.2 abs A P = pressure drop. ft3/h(m3/h) at standard conditions (14.04 2 d 30 7 Figure 4-39a Pressure drop in compressible flow lines.8 .5 . ft3/h at 14.l .0312 [Yd’lS.4 API 100 ft = 0.31 Yd2 [ ( A p ) ( p .700Yd’ [ ( A P ) ( P i ) / ( K T I S g ) ] ” * or (4-188) qi = 19. ) / ( K T 1 S .190) where d = internal pipe diameter. = specific gravity of a gas relative to air = the ratio of the molecular weight of the gas to that of air P’ = pressure.000336 f WPld6p p V 40 Ind .) where W = rate of flow.7 psia and 60” F S. Technical Paper No. fittings. Babcock formula for steam flow at isothermal condition is q. CFH at 14. nozzles. = specific gravity of gas relative to air = the ratio of molecular weight of the gas to that of air q.01325bara and 15°C). mm Y = net expansion factor for compressible flow through orifices. psi T . lb/ft3.

+ B. and Pipe”. then use Figure 4-39a or b (SI). m3/h at MSC (metric standard conditions 1.01325bar at 15°C) S. Fittings. Figures 4-40a and b (SI) are useful in solving the usual steam or any vapor flow problem for turbulent flow based on the modified Darcy friction factors.4. Use Table 4-6 or 4-19 to select steam velocity for line size estimate. = inlet temperature. ALTERNATE VAPOR/GAS FLOW METHODS Note that all specialized or alternate methods for solving are based on simplified assumptions or empirical procedures presented earlier. Table 4-26 for the steam flow rate and assumed pipe size respectively.191) .50 FRICTION DROP FOR FLOW OFVAPORS. abs ( K = “C 273) p1 = upstream density of steam. bar T . (ReprintedAdapted with permission from “Flow of Fluids Through Valves. = flow rate. All rights reserved. . They-are not presented as better approaches to solving the specific problem. Technical Paper No. 410. Determine C1 and C from Figure 4-40a or b (SI units) and . GASES. For steel pipe the limitations listed in (A) above apply. Crane Co. 1999. bara qi. 3.v (4. 2. At low vapor velocities the results may be low.) K = loss coefficient (resistance coefficient) p’ = pressure. Read the specific volume of steam at known temperature and pressure from steam tables.01 Figure 4-39b Pressure drop in compressible flow lines (Metric units).40 r30 2 f 1001 ”05 80 . = specific gravity of a gas relative to air = the ratio of the molecular weight of the gas to that of air Ap = pressure drop. kg/m3. Calculate pressure drop (Figure 4-40a or b) per lOOft of pipe from AP/lOOft = CIC. AND STEAM 227 Pressure Equivalent: Ibar = 105pa - IO0kPa W T o o [w Index 2 d . 1.

. B f c VI G a .005 . . . .OW6 .58 x 1.0015 Example 2 la .02 .7 a c 0 = . ' 0 01 CT 225 2 . . j64 .- + .agc 3-17cr A-16 p APioo = 57 x c. Figure 4-40a Simplified flow formula for compressible fluids.5 3 > . (Reprinted/adapted with permission from "Flow of Fluids Through Valves.m7 . see the opposite page. apply also to the simplified flow formula.4j = 12 L5 . and Pipe".004 . .146 x 1. . . .I---u) ii' -7 6 .) ooo + (4. . 410.<%lo For qfm = qfm = w 23 ( 5 . .8 Given: Pressure drop is 5 psi with 100 psig air a t go F flowing through 1 0 0 feet of 4-inch Schedule 40 pipe. All rights reserved. .146 e V = 1. . 9 .35 . Solution: APloo = 5. Find: The flow rate in standard cubic feet per minute. .04 c l = APioo -=Cv z APioop c * =APwo-= ClV APmP C1 'X 4 0 . .564) + j .0025 C = 0. . .In09 . . . .17 z p = 0.COO7 .no2 . . 1999. .4j . = size factor. .015 3.58 s. j 4 j Ci W = 2 3 OCO . C? values and an example on "determining pipe dxe". Find: The pressure drop per Soluiion: CI = 57 io0 feet of pipe. .) . The limitations of the Darcy formLila for compressible flow.owe . . from table on next page.page B-2 f (4.228 FLUID FLOW II' C I The Darcy formula can be written in the following form : 1i. _ .025 C Z 2 U v) C1 = discharge factor from chart at right. .o 1 . as outlined on page 3-3.001 . . .03 5 .07 .008 Example 1 Given: Steam a t 345 psig and 500 F flows through 8-inch Schedule 40 pipe a t a rate of 240. Fittings. Crane Co.0) = 5000 scfm .000 pounds per hour. .0 C = j. 0 x 0. .page . . 1 7 = 0 .no9 . .06 - - d . C. Technical Paper No.a3 . .@I6 m .

a. . .1 0 P For C values s opposite page . . = 1 Cz = 9 . . GASES. Example 1 Given: Steam at 24 bar absolute and 250’C flows through an &inch Schedule 40 pipe at a rate of 100 000 kilograms per hour. and hence the equivalent length ( K = f L. . All rights reserved. AIR For quick estimates for air line pressure drop and through an orifice. 4 2 . 1999.34bar v Exampte 2 Given: Pressure drop is 1 bar with 7 bar gauge air at 3OoC flowing through 100 metres of 4 inch nominal size IS0 steel pipe. If pressure drop is too large (or greater than a percentage of the inlet system pressure). D. 6. .page 3-17 or A 4 5 Ap . . . from Figure 4-24 or 4-25. . facing page 2 = 0. . 1 325 bar and 15°C). see Tables 4-21a and b. .50 FRICTION DROP FOR FLOW OFVAPORS. . .4. Fittings. . For example on determining pipe m see oppomtc page. fittings and at vessel connections. . 6. . Fmd: The pressure drop per 1Do met= of pipe. . . 410. . .. alternatively.257 . re-estimate line size and repeat calculations (see paragraph (A) above) and also examine pressure drop assumption for orifices and control valves.7m3/min Figure 4-40b Simplified flow formula for compressible fluids (Metric units). . AND STEAM 229 The Darcy formula can be written in the following form. valves. Solufion: CI = 100 C = 0. . . C. . . = 9900 = W + (73. . 3-23.3 mm wall thickness. . ..091 Ap = 2. . 10’ SblUtfoR: &. . . . 5. as outlined on page 3-3 apply also to the simplified flow formula. . Determine the loss coefficient K of all fittings.5 Sg) . Technical Paper No.. p l . . . . . .. For pipe lines smaller than 4in. p g e A ./D) or.page 3-24 = 9. . . 5 ~ 1 ) = 134. Fd: The flow rate i cubic metres per minute at metric n standard conditions ( . . . .. .257 x 0. 7 Total system pressure drop . this relation may be 0 4 0 % high [38].page B-2 = 9 9 0 0 + ( 7 3 . Determine pressure drops through orifices and control valves. BABCOCK EMPIRICAL FORMULA FOR STEAM Comparison of results between the various empirical steam flow formulas suggests the Babcock equation is a good average for most design purposes at pressure 500 psia and below. e w q‘.091 m3/kg. . . .000131(1+3. . . from chart at right a C =size factor from tables on pages 3-23 to 3-25 z The limitations of the &cy formula for compressible flaw.. . . e and pager 3-24. . ktcl = E and c2= 62 530 x 10’ L 10’ d5 The simplified flow formula can then be written: C = disduuge factor. . . Determine expansion and contraction losses. . . .p z =AP=0.6/d)- APTOTAL (L+L. . . ..21 .oo = 100 x 0. w2 L Pd5 (4-193) (4-194) AP/100 ft = w2F/p . and Pipe”. and so on. Crane Co. .) (AP/lOO)+Item5+Item6 = (4-192) 8.) 4. (Reprintedadapted with permission from “Flow of Fluids Through Valves. . q’.

..01046 0.200..656.00 37...80 18.. Rate of flow.00217 0.00141 0.100. Engineering Div.21 1 0..100.xx 40s 80 x 40 s 80 x 120 160 .00549 0.40 28.0180 0.00 4. Normally an estimated average p should be selected for each line increment to obtain good results.80 146.00385 0.x 2_! 2 60 80 100 120 140 160 10 20 30 s 40 ..51 DARCY RATIONAL RELATION FOR COMPRESSIBLE VAPORS AND GASES 1.17 6.00 1.00287 0.0350 0.00 236.146 0.00 4.00276 0. See author’s note at Figure 2-31.133 0.135 0.317 0..000.640.798 1..0569 0..00612 0. and pipe sizes (use with figure 4-40a) Values of C. .xx 1 ..00 627.000972 1.s 30 ..0 0266 0.00 3. (4-194).0175 0.163 0..00 22.. the line should. Nominal Pipe Size Inches 1 8 4 1 3 8 1 2 Schedule Number 40 s 80 x 40 s 80 x 40 s 80 x 40 s 80 x 160 Value of C.000. xx 3 4 40 s 80 x 160 40 s 80 x 160 . 2.00 93.60 10.70 48.xx ! I 2 2 40 s 80 x 160 .0514 0.000. xx !.0905 0....000565 3.00247 0.be calculated in sections in order to re-establish the steam-specific density.00298 0.01155 0.70 5.00 21. x 60 80 100 120 140 160 24 10 20 s .00 21.0206 0.000741 1.001119 3.290.610 0.000835 1.94 11.001274 1..185 0.x 30 40 60 3 40 s 80 x 160 .500.I 4 40 s 80 x 160 .289 0.590.0753 0.00463 0.500.200.000.30 96.00335 0.xx .640..00 13.490.0168 0.30 380.110..900.000651 3.00 36.75 8.1052 0.00169 0. 410.93 0. : .xx 40 s 80 x 120 160 .015 1.00421 0. 1957.00 11..000597 3.00 66.100.0661 0...00 899.000..xx 40 s 80 x 160 .00 186. Technical Paper No.1 Pipe Size Schedule Number Inches 40 s 80 x 120 160 16 2.00191 0.00287 0.00 169..00700 0.0421 0. 4.000.0231 0.01244 0.70 91. ~.00251 0.00949 0.01244 0..0397 0.69 3.00 2..59 4.01099 0.0157 0..376 1..000534 0.59 .using Figure 4-5.000614 3.00 904.00 4..00804 0.00996 0. f..230 FLUID FLOW TABLE 4-26 Simplified Flow Formula For Compressible Fluids Pressure Drop. 0.00 1.00435 0.00161 0. xx .00 5.00 114..000.00150 0.00256 0.630. For long transmission lines over 200 ft.180.00 100. xx 20 30 40 s 60 80 x 100 120 140 160 20 30 40 s 60 x 80 100 120 140 160 20 30 40 . Table 4-28 is used to obtain the value for “F’ in Eq.0267 0.000. Calculate Reynolds number Re and determine the friction factor.252 0.00 9.0447 0.04 2..00669 26.950.01416 18 jchedulc Number 10 20 30 s 40 x 60 80 100 120 140 160 10 20 Value of c.00 488..00926 0.x 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 20 .00376 0.0423 0.00 1.0310 0.00335 0.xx 40 s 80 x 160 10 20 s 30 x 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 0.xx 3_1 2 4 80 100 120 140 160 Note: of Schedule Numbers indicate I1 Source: By permission from Crane Co.00573 0.00 627.861 0.00504 0.300.408.00 718.01099 0.001478 .. Determine first estimate of line size by using suggested velocity from Table 4-6. or b (SI) (for steel pipe)..s .333 0.0195 0.. Figure 4-41 is a convenient chart for handling most in-plant steam line problems.00504 0.00 319. 4-42a.

59 4. 2..4 22.85 12.9 0.. 0" 0. 10 000 1 000 1 12 000 13 000 14 000 1282 1410 1638 1666 1794 1922 2051 2307 3076 3332 20000 22 000 u0 00 16 000 28000 30ooo 16 000 16 000 18 000 2563 2820 3688 384s . .052 0.757 1.55 0. .047 0. use the following formulas: 4000 4600 6000 6000 7000 8000 9000 512.072 0.0 .1% 0.462 0.47 6.507 0.203 0. .. ..69 4.16 1.313 0.9M 1.7 520 where: "P" is the inlet or average gauge pressure in pounds per square inch.201 0.279 0.59 I8 3..191 0.68 1.160 .M 0. ..45 0.. Subscript "40" refers to the velocity or ressure drop t h r o u e Schelule 40 pipe.178 0.3 12" 0.11: ..106 0.5 5.O 36.7 256.. P m drop is a F C " ~ ~ l one-half thevaluegiveninthe for 300 feet.06 4.9 19.451 0.264 8 70 90 100 12S 160 176 80 6.40 1. ..03 2.9 1.06 51.90 4. 055 )..9 6" 0. .524 0... Chicago..16 0.17 1.45 1..2 6. .. .2 141.0 3.9 5.67 2.65 9. 0. 0.W 0.21 2.8 17. To determine the cubic feet per minute o compressed air f at any temperature and pressure other than standard conditions...576 0.788 0.384 0.W 0..6 s.067 0. .032 0. .062 0.285 0..0.80 3. 0..4 384.027 0.04 7.026 0.260 0.327 0. multiply thevalues given in the table by the ratio: 100+14...09 4.35 0.5 0..887 1.. 12.. .062 0.30 102.018 0.102 8 10 16 20 ( )( ) 1 30 3s 40 4 .9 0.44 3.083 0.73 4.1 8.673 0.513 0.061 0.26 2. . .161 0...314 .8 5.028 6.213 0..032 0.04 36.7.13 1.534 1.42 2.408 0.089 0.834 1.21 3.9 7.825 1.0 9.3 1.154 0..247 0.26' 0.340 0.05 5....04 9.163 0.056 0..7 14.641 0... . 1.W 0. .044 0.038 0.204 3.96 0.474 0. ...819 1.6 5.156 D.44 4.64 .255 The ressuredropisalsoinverseyy proportional to the absolute pressure and directly .356 0.6 28...041 0.2 0.605 0.4 31.. ...- -1M 0. .. ..057 0..39 4. 0.270 0.578 Q.33 1.01 4.6 4.74 1.018 0.3 .044 0.15 4.029 1.144 0. .97 3.. 3' 0..4..09 3.019 0.134 0. .3 320...m 0..431 0.8 37.6 179...029 0.7 460+1 P+14.208 0.06' 0.727 0.2 600 660 600 650 700 60.274 0.1 4.59 5.m e and 60 F Teml ature .. ..7s 0.30 1.39 2 ....9.96 8.361 1.9 115. .282 1.6 14.25 1.8 5.64 0.044 0.4 13.027 0. 10" 0.63 12.6 3/8' 0.25 3..356 0.01 2..1 15.6 7.095 1.7 11.021 0.226 1 0.103 0.119 0.84 32.56 5.21 3.2 18. 0.67 0.293 D.063 0. ...31 6.65 5. .1 28. - .. .437 1.23 12.931 1. 40 Pipe' (use for estimating.626 0.96 2.3 6.037 0.56 6. Engineering Div. 0.451 0.6 .04 1..87 48.042 0.. "t" is the temperature in degrees Fahrenheit under consideration.086 0.43 1.073 0...749 0.20 4..063 0. 1 230.490 0..094 0..19 1.064 0.. 0.3 1.41 0.167 0.16 8.06 4.40 2.019 1.239 0...116 1.18 1.188 0..58 1.767 0..023 0. .019 0..034 0. for detailed calculations use friction factors f) arcdAil QbiC Feet ubic Feel Y Minute :r Minutc Per at 60 F and 60Fanc 14.022 0.02 1.016 0.7 3A' 0..3 18.99 2.. w 2 3 --- 1/11 0. .. *.57 8.49 76.148 0..97 2..219 D ..45 41. ..0..07 9..118 0. 0...2 6.605 1.66 7.63 4.m 0.08 70.5 108.5 448.151 0...23 3.89 6.36 1.9 2.13( 0.. 0..9 Calculations for Plpr Olhw than Schodulo 40 0.1 36.119 0.081 5.. D.187 0....064 0.271 0. 7.200 1..85 3.6 47.19 1. . . - .82 16... .18 2.01 ..42 .02: 0.046 0.9 2.20.3 18.375 0.. 410.126 0.43 0.17 1.90 83.4 14..037 0. .6 676.020 0.067 0.379 D... . . 1.0 2.44 14.04 4..2 22. Air corn- .075 0.346 0.16 2.971 1o.83 7. .76 17.29 8..623 0.00 1..6 .0 163..76 3.139 0...88 36.887 1..936 0.089 0..proportional to the ahsolute temperature.3 The cubic feet per minute of compressed air a t any pressure is inversely pmportiohal to the absolute pressure and directly proportional to the absolute temhrature. *.8 3.068 0..19.00 3. . .54 5.54 0.197 0. 0.50 3.331 0...68 2. .62 1..06 7.63 234' 0. multiply the value of cubic feet per minute of free air by the ratio: 12S lso 276 3% 300 28.046 0. through p ~ p e other than Schedule 40.404 0.616 0. - .79 1.3 6.8 9.04: 0... ..8 27.10 ).43 %* ). 0. .83 4.F 0.02.40 4.07 2-42 2.- 0.673 0.50 6.7 17.68 2.0 13..3 u. IO25 118 Subscript "a" refers to the Schedule of pipe through which velocity or pressure drop is desired. .75 2.027 0.05 1. .305 .00 1.408 7. 5" ?.80 lW 0. .164 0..74 1.22 22. ..03I 0.1 1.232 0.036 0.051 0.7 W 8 769:O 897. 1.17 1..42' 0. .5 0.94 3.613 0.09..33 5. .20 3.Zs 11. -- Pre-ure Drop of Air I n Pounds per Square Inch Per 100 Feet of Schedule 40 P i p For Air at 100 Pounds per Square Inch Gaul %ss.08.27.66 10....2 a SKI 900 9110 1000 1100 %...87 2.191 0.055 0.7psia 100 psig Qn ' For lengths of pipe other than 100 feet. 7.26 54...31( 1600 3000 3600 To determine the velocit Of water. .60 6-78 8.4 .49 4.79 8.024 0. .126 6. .. .244 0.52 1. ...13 1..663 3. . .07 1....8. .05~ 0. Therefore.1 L8.87 6.107 0.025 0 03( 0: 03! 0....34 L0. .019 0.49 6.I2 89.17 1..620 0:u5 0 371 *By permission Technical Paper No.. a3 given in the tables on these facing pages.24 0. . ..848 1.718 0.47 57.690 8.61 6. I 0.1 0. .71 0. .526 0.036 0.748 1.69 1. 'the pressure drop is roportional to the length. ...64 4.52' 0.77 0.O 1lW 1300 1100 1600 1600 1800 1000 121. .036 3lh" 0.484 0.63 0.7 21.0 12.042 0.76 6.025 1.533 0.3 0.94 11.51 DARCY RATIONAL RELATION FOR COMPRESSIBLE VAPORS AND GASES 231 TABLE 4-27a Flow of Air Through Sch.148 0.47 11.24 38.. to determine the pressure drop for inlet or average pressures other than 100 psi and at temperatures other thanMF.2 ..1. .55 1.270 1.12s 4 6 6 0. 1957.0 2.5 .43 25.062 0..293 0.6 0..09 5.76 0.045 0.31 3... 0..051 0. .89 3.064 0. .776 0.88 64. or the pressure &p of water or air.922 2.91 1.206 0.w1 0.402 0.96 3. ...84 5...050 0.12 1..395 0..91 350 376 4 w 4 % 480 476 0.60 8.24 5. .824 0.090 0.83 1.04: 0..2 22.127 0..011 0.030 0.26 2. lb... .7 2.099 0. and.46 .5 w.8 166.91! 1. .0 1.062 3... .60 3.380 0.4 12..107 0.a 3.099 0. t. .4 27.094 0.034 0. hS 50 feet Of pipe.21 4.65 44.845 4..214 0...133 0.537 0..39 1.75.057 0.07! 0.5 14...1 16.82 9.02 19..071 0..041 0.50 2.04 1.073 1. .149 1.32 1.3 7..6 3.718 0...4 192.113 0.8 128.2 26.0 7.8 3.039 )..521 0.1 32.3 37.06! 0.26 1..90 8. .134 0. 026 1H' 0.0 !O...23 0.45 2. three table times the given value.112 0..13 0.162 0.043 ... .. the U for .. 0..641 0.070 0. .078 0. ..2 205. .036 0... etc..198 0.168 4' 0.937 . . Crane Co.33' 0.02 9.9 18.769 1..341 0. .562 0..104 0.343 1" 3.5 16.63..0 8.350 1.14.5.377 0.129 .49 2.

53 3..379 0.5303 where W.775 0.49 7.248 0.98 0.068 0.158 0. For well-rounded entrance multiply values b y 0.194 0.229 0.140 0. ed.491 0.7 80.2 99. New York.17 1.A.09 1.048 0.223 0.7 91.1 101 112 122 132 152 173 193 213 234 254 274 284 69.194 0. Formula cannot be used where Pl is less than t w o times the barometric pressure.23 4.86 8.4 35.W.79 5.0.68 5.0 63.) .300 0.98 10.3 64.7 Ib/in2.892 0.4 18.10 3. Weights ( W )were converted t o volume using density of factor of 0.=discharge ' aCPl Tl in Ibis a =area of orifice in.07494 Ib/ft.80 2.845 0.056 0.1 12.66 4.81 3.48 1.7 54.123 0.62 1.05 7.1 42.5 70.8 27.65 may be used for approximate results.562 0. Values for pressures from 1 to 15 Ibs gauge calculated b y standard adiabatic formula. absolute pressure and 70°F.9 91.211 0.6 39. O'Neil.7 Ib/in2.040 0.335 0.083 0. 5th Ed. This is correct for dry air at 14.2 I 111 128 143 156 168 191 218 242 283 323 440 496 329 430 503 575 213 230 278 300 175 228 1 17. For sharp-edged orifices a multiplier of 0.92 6.97.158 0.9 40.993 1.10 3.062 0.20 1.30 6.34 1.3 26.72 7.5 45.774 0.406 0. abs Values used in calculating above table were: C= 1.0 49.2abs and 700 F Gauge Pressure Before Orifice in Pounds Per square inch 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 12 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 125 Diameter of Orifice (in.264 0.7 21'2 24.476 0.56 3.0 84.38 3.0 108 126 144 162 180 198 216 235 271 307 343 379 415 452 488 506 109 117 132 152 168 196 225 662 366 423 528 609 939 1050 1161 649 934 1016 762 1097 1138 1272 1383 1494 1549 718 938 1082 1227 1371 1516 1661 1806 1951 2023 Notes: Table is based on 100% coefficient of flow.7 40.331 0.105 0.5 45.073 0. = 0.232 FLUID FLOW TABLE 4-27b Discharge of Air Through an Orifice" in Cubic Feet of Free Air per minute at Standard Atmospheric Pressure of 14.91 1.5 75. W.52 1.8 1 1 1 28.2 47.2 22.272 0.76 1.62 7.) 64 1 32 1 16 1 8 1 1 - 4 3 8 1 - 2 5 8 3 - 7 - 4 8 1 0.4 7.5 89. Compressed Air Magazine.6 60.633 0.07 6.32 1.703 0.68 1.2 C =Coefficient of flow Pi =Upstream total pressure in Ib/in.4 14.96 2.3 12.176 0.370 0. Values for pressures above 15 Ib.1 11. "Compressed Air Data".2 abs Tl =Upstream temperature i n O F .7 Ib in.112 0.06 1. P.36 5. gauge calculated by approximate formula proposed by S.916 1. 1939 [371.293 0.7 97. =gauge pressure + 14.25 2.18 10.028 0.633 0.97 4.5 49.095 0.441 0.9 31. Moss.53 2.90 1.9 16.420 0.34 4.3 77.3 15.450 0.494 0. (Source: By permission from F.

6. Consider reducing losses through items in step 5 above. in. where v. therefore conditions influenced by pressure drop .40Wv 3. control valves. . and so on.196a) .2 (m2) W = flow rate.21.220Wv .3.000336 f W2 P d5 4.0. AP total . = ( L + L e g )(APllOO) (4-65a) + Item5 (4-195) 8. 5. Determine equivalent pipe length for fittings and valves. = mean velocity in pipe.52 VELOCITY OF COMPRESSIBLE FLUIDS IN PIPE See Figures 4-43a and 4-43b 2. I b h (kgh) = fluid specific volume. in.670W a v .06Wv urn=-. examine the portion of pressure drop due to pipe friction and that due to other factors in the system.220W -d2 d2P (4.)’ P’d5 7 Total pressure drop. (mm) p = fluid density.ftlmin v Note that determining the velocity at the inlet conditions to a pipe may create significant error when results are concerned with the outlet conditions. little will be gained by increasing pipe size. Even the average of inlet and outlet conditions is not sufficiently accurate for some systems. lb/ft3 (kg/m3) at T and P. particularly if the pressure drop is high.---a d2 In SI units. 4.06W d2P (4-196) (4-65) um = 16. Leq. . equipment. at conditions stated for (ds) a = cross-sectional area of pipe. (By permission from Walworth Co. Determine or assume losses through orifice plates.000131 (Itx)dL d P& Figure 4-41 Steam flow chart. v. Recheck other pipes sizes as may be indicated. contraction and expansion.P~O. If the line pressure drop is a small portion of the total. Determine total straight pipe length. AP/100ft = 0.:LIJlDS IN PIPE 233 PRESSURE LOSS IN LB PER SQ INCH PER I00 FEET Based on Babcock Formula: .) 3. ft3/lb (m3/kg) d = inside pipe diameter. Calculate pressure drop. AP/lOOft (or use Figure 4-39a or b (SI)). Note: Use for estimating only (Ludwig [19].21. If total line or system pressure drop is excessive (or greater than a percentage of the inlet system pressure). L.000000726f T S (q.

1 x from Table 4-28.1 x 184. Use Figure 4-41. Line Size Specification Sheet.111 x 10-6Yd1? . Figure 4-45 is convenient when using Dowtherm vapor.7 x 10-3 9.) Standard Weight Pipe’ Extra Strong Pipe+ can produce more accurate results when calculations are prepared for successive sections of the pipe system (long or high pressure). Y w = 1891Ydi2JAPpl/K. the flow is considered adiabatic. (4-198) flowing 86. total A P is 138(3.kg/s These values are within graphical accuracy. fittings. and these are known as Y net expansion factors [4]. For nozzles and orifices (vapors/gases): (4-200) u = 0. For 138ft (no fittings or valves).854 x 10-6 2. = (3.561 x IO-’ 2. w = 1 .3 10-9 90.84 x 10-9 21. solve by equation.3 x 70. using value of F = 587.0 x 104.866 x 3. w = 86. vessel. (4-197) (continued) .8 10-3 77. and pipe (vapordgases): {g> (4-202) For fittings$and Pipe (liquids): English Engineering units (4-203) w = 0.01 x 8.95 x 31.469 10-9 3.525 Y dI2 3 C’.2 x 62. 1 1 1 x 1 0 .31/100) (138) =4.kg/s /g> Ib/s (4-199) w = 1. follow diagonal line to the horizontal pipe size of 8 in..53 ALTERNATE SOLUTION TO COMPRESSIBLE FLOW PROBLEMS There are several good approaches to recognizing the effects of changing conditions on compressible flow [39.9 x 351.39 x IO-’ 11.2 x 10-9 225.) * Factors are based upon ID listed as Schedule 40 Factors are based upon ID listed as Schedule 80 EXAMPLE 4-13 Steam Flow Usine Babcock Formula Determine the pressure loss in 138ft of 8-in. Use for estimating only. Figure 4-46 is useful for quick checking.432 x 10-3 3. 2 C ’ .1 x IO-’ 176.1 x 10-9)/0. and then vertically down to the pressure drop loss of 3. Ib/h In units./?.621 x IO-’ 2.8 x 143.52 10-9 55. (Source: By permission from The Walworth Co.051x 340. = 3.31 psi/lOOft (4-201) AP. ~~ ’I2 3i4 1 1 114 1 ‘12 ’I2 2 2 3 3 ’I2 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 OD 16 OD 18 OD 20 OD 24 OD 955.82psi. or atmosphere.46 x 6. For the discharge of compressible fluids from the end of a short piping length into a larger cross section. The corrected Darcy equation is: For valves. However. 4.69 x I 0-9 8. no superheat.525 Y d i 2 d m Ib/s .000 lblh of 150 psig steam (saturated).234 FLUID FLOW TABLE 4-28 Factor”F” For Babcock Steam Formula Nominal Pipe Size (in. noting that both free air (60°F and 14. FRICTION DROP FOR AIR Table 4-27a is convenient for most air problems.364 w = 1. above about 1OOOcfm of free air. Sch.000/60 = 14321b/min Reading from top at 150 psig.71 x 14...94 x 23.914 x 951.5 psi/lOOft. AP/lOOft = (1432)* (587.265 Y d 1 2 / F kg/h .865 10-3 1. down vertically to intersect the horizontal steam flow of 1432 Ib/min.544 x 587.. its values are slightly higher (about 10%) than the rational values of Table 4-26. 401.278 10-9 EXAMPLE 4-12 Pressure Drop for Vapor System The calculations are presented in Figure 4-44.61 x IO-’ 6.6 Y d ..57psi In SI units.7 x I 0-3 45. such as a larger pipe.7 x 46. The corrections for other temperatures and pressures are also indicated.32 10-9 42.354 x 10-6 748.365x 493. Corrections are applied to the Darcy equation to compensate for fluid property changes due to the expansion of the fluid.67 x I 0-3 5.5/100) = 4.28 10-9 14.7psia) and compressed air at 1OOpsig and 60”F are indicated. For comparison.29 x 10-9 27. 40 steel pipe.

111 x 10-‘dl2/. and 0./C. In SI units. For example. and entrance and exit losses in the line Y = net expansion factor for compressible flow through orifices.0509 W / ( p )(d’) . ---. When AP/P‘ falls outside the limits of the K curves on the charts. or c) AP = pressure drop ratio in AP/P’. b.53 ALTERNATE SOLUTIONTO COMPRESSIBLE FLOW PROBLEMS 235 EXAMPLE 4-13-(continued) In SI units.) = pressure. and venturi tubes. at sonic conditions (see Figure 4-38c).525 d I 2C ’ d m . For compressible fluids flowing through nozzles and orifices use Figures 4-19 and 4-20. = (4-21 1) to determine the flow rate at this condition from u = q / A = 183. u s . nozzles. the AP is the inlet gauge pressure or the difference between the absolute inlet pressure and the atmospheric pressure absolute. For flow of gases and vapors through nozzles and orifices: (4-209) orq=YC’A J2. ft2 (m2). lb/s In SI units. when used as per ASME specification for differential pressure p = fluid density. in. when values of C are taken from Figures 4-19 and 4-20 [4]. Flow through nozzles and venturi devices is limited by the critical pressure ratio. (mm) = cross section of pipe. ft2 (m2) = ft3/sc (m3/s) at flowing conditions = temperature. lb/ft3 (kg/m3) A = cross-sectional flow area. ft/s = \ / ~ P I vm/s . mean or average. (mm) p 1 = upstream fluid density. sonic velocity occurs at the point of discharge or at some restriction within the pipe. ft/s ( d s ) . C = discharge coefficient for orifices and nozzles [4]. (4-205) P’ W v = internal diameter of pipe. Figures 4-38a and b are based on the perfect gas laws and for sonic conditions at the outlet end of a pipe. r.kg/s AP(P1) (4-204) English Engineering units For nozzles and orifices (liquids): d A q T t k w = 0. The AP is the difference between the inlet pressure and the pressure in the area of larger cross section C’ = flow coefficient for orifices and nozzles (Figures 4-19 and 4-20). ’R(K = 273 t ) = fluid temperature. above [4]. P m3/sflow (4-2 12) (continued) . use the charts in Figures 4-38a and b (SI) to determine the downstream pressure when sonic velocity occurs.5 diameters downstream from the inlet face of orifice plate or nozzles. in. Then use the fluid properties at this condition of pressure and temperature in: us = These conditions are similar to flow through orifices. (4-207) (4-208) or v. psi (bar) (inlet-discharge) K = total resistance (loss) coefficient of pipe. using h.111 x lo-‘ di2C ’ J m . = pipe inside diameter. lb/s (kg/s) AP = pressure drop across the system. for a line discharging a compressible fluid to atmosphere. ft/s (4-30) In SI units. approach.m3/s (4-210) where p = ratio of orifice throat diameter to inlet diameter C’ = flow coefficient for nozzles and orifices (see Figures 4-19 and 4-20). the same application will yield about 5% greater flow rate. lb/ft3(kg/m3) w = rate of flow. For gaseshapors that deviate from these laws.4. nozzles. = downstream pressurehpstream pressure.. the flow is limited by critical pressure ratio and the minimum value of Y is to be used. psia (N/m2 abs) = flow. / m . or AP as differential static head or pressure differential across taps located one diameter upstream. used to determine Y from Figure 4-38a and b. Note: The use of C’ eliminates the calculation of velocity of .. lb/h (kg/h) = velocity. W pd2 m/s (4-31) q = CIA/=. kg/s (4-206) where d. W= where 1. For improved accuracy.22- Q d2 = 354 -. The flow coefficient C‘ is C‘ = C . + w = 1. such as steam.3 q/d2 = 0. For nozzles and venturi meters. u = q / A = 1. and pipes [4] (see Figure 4-38a.273 x 10‘ q / d 2 = 21. fittings. valves. C = y = ratio of specific heats (C. For any fluid: JksRr = \/kg144Ptv. and the limiting value for Y and AP must be determined from the tables in Figures 4-38a and b and used in the velocity equation.

nozzles. (m) of fluid.Next Page 236 FLUID FLOW . or pipe. lb/h (kg/h).7 psia and 60°F (4-225) where where Q = liquid flow. TI = absolute temperature.5 diameter) W = flow rate. m of fluid. (4-217) (4-21 8) (4-219) kg/h or [4]. Q = 0. bara A p = pressure drop. From [4]: (4-221) (at flowing conditions) . (mm) h = static pressure head existing at a point. where . = sp gr of gas relative to air = mol wt of gad29 Y = net expansion factor compressibility flow through orifices. EXAMPLE 4-13-(continued) For estimating purposes in liquid flow with viscosity similar to water through orifices and nozzles. q =Y where m'/s (4-222) In SI units.005363YdO2 . do = diameter of orifice or nozzle opening. psia.2087C'd12& 1 1 4. 0 1 2 5 2 d O 2 C m 1.lb/h (4-223) (4-224) In SI units.3 di Y = net expansion factor from Figure 4-38a or b A P = differential pressure (equal to inlet gauge pressure when discharging to atmosphere) p = weight density of fluid. m3/s (4-226) where T. lb/ft3 (kg/m3) at flowing conditions A = cross-sectional area of orifice or nozzle. bar S. ft3 (m2) C' = flow coefficient from Figure 4-38a or 4-38b.15+t t = fluid temperature. h. 'R = (460 +' F) Pi = pressure. = loss of static pressure head due to fluid flow. 6 d O 2 C ' m = 1891 do2 C ' m In SI units. TI s. or W = 1. C' = flow coefficient (see Figure 4-47 for water and Figures 4-20 and 4-21 for vapors or liquids) q = ft3/s (m3/s) at flowing conditions rc = critical pressure ratio for compressible flow. bar (hL and Ap measured across taps at 1 diameter and 0. W = 1 5 7 . J A ' C (4-213) In SI units. (4-220) q'= l l . see [41]). q = 0. 3 0 Y d ~ C ' & . W = 0 .. In SI units. Q = 19. (mm) VI = specific volume of fluid.is less than 0.265 do2C'&.265dO2C& = where do = internal diameter of orifice. ft3/lb (m3/kg) p1 = density of fluid. the following can be used [7]: . gpm (Ymin) C = flow coefficient for orifices and nozzles = discharge coefficient corrected for velocity of approach = C./Pi A P = pressure drop. 2 0 8 7 C ' d O 2 h Llmin . a C pi = pressure. Flow of gases and vapors (compressible fluids) through nozzles and orifices (for flow field importance. /- S = sp gr of gas relative to air = mol wt of gad29 . Vmin (4-214) I-($) (4-215) (4-216) do . di W = 1891YdO2C'/~. Ib/ft3 (kg/m3) A p = pressure drop. in. in. (mm) di = pipe inside diameter in which orifice or nozzle is installed. .APP. psi A p = pressure drop. psi (bar).3 do . = P.636C'dO2& where . Q = 0 . in. in. = 273.is greater than 0.I/""". a t ft3/s 14.

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