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Introduction Ideal requirements Construction of die Four system of removable die -- Straight dowel pin --Curved dowel pin --Curved --Pindex system --Pindex --Di-lok trays --Di-
Various types of die materials gypsum cast and die material die stone ± investment combination amalgam epoxy resin dies electroformed dies silico phosphate cement metal sprayed dies ceramic die materials flexible die materials
Definition A die is a model of a single tooth (or) teeth (or) it is the positive replica of one tooth prepared from an impression. The working cast is the replica of the prepared teeth ridge areas, and other parts of the dental arch.
.A cast and die system captures the necessary information so that it can be transferred to the laboratory. The ease with which a restoration is fabricated and the accuracy with which it will fit the mouth is directly affected by the cast.
The cast must be trimmed to ensure access for carving wax pattern margins.There are three requirements for good cast : They must be bubble free. . especially along finish lines of prepared teeth. All portions of the cast must be distortion free.
Ideal Requirements of die materials ::It should be dimensionally stable and reproduce the surface details of the impression accurately. smoother surface and abrasion resistant during the carving of the wax pattern. . It should possess enough surface hardness.
It should be economical and not hazardous to health.It should possess a color contrast to the wax pattern for easy manipulation. less time consuming. . It should be compatible with the impression materials. It should be simple to manipulate.
the properties of which are shown below:below:(Table 135. V. Gypsum:Gypsum:The most commonly used die materials are type IV and type V dental stone. Sileri) No:Strength of these materials is greatly increased by decreasing the porosity.266.Various types of Die materials ::1. . P No:. thus pouring under vacuum is helpful.K.
Incorporation of accelerators and retarders cause a loss of strength. . increase in the mixing time will increase the strength. Certain water substitutes can dramatically increase the strength and hardness of gypsum eg:. In limits.Decreasing the water / powder ratio increase the strength.aqueous solution of colloidal eg:silica.
Setting time can be accelerated by the operator by the use of fine particle gypsum. use of 2% potassium sulphate solution (or) the use of slurry water. . low water / powder ratio. long and fast mixing.
. This can be done by using die ± hardening agents such as cyanoacrylate and acrylic resin lacquer. .These hardening agents must be used in very thin coats to avoid any unacceptably thick relief at the margins of the preparation.Gypsum products are sometimes modified to:to:Make the material more abrasion resistant.
The most common die spacers are resins. coloured nail polish (or) thermoplastic polymers dissolved in volatile solvents may also be used. This is most commonly done by using a die spacer. .Change the dimensions of the die. Models paint.
Usually a relief of 20 to 40 um is desired. .The thickness varies with the number of coats applied. The tooth preparation on the die is painted to within 0.5mm of the finish line.
called ³Divestment´. A commercial gypsum bonded material.Die ± Stone investment combination: This technique increases the refractoriness of the die. is mixed with colloidal silica liquid. the die material and the investment have a comparable composition. . In this technique.
The die is made from this mix and wax pattern constructed on it. The setting expansion of the material is 0. when it is hasted to 677oC. Then the entire assembly is invested in the mixture of divestment and water. . thereby eliminating possibility of distortion of wax pattern on removal from die (or) during setting of the investment.6%.9% and thermal expansion is 0.
it is not recommended for high fusing alloys. However it is highly accurate technique for use with conventional gold alloys. as used in metal ceramic restorations. Divestment phosphate is phosphate bonded investment that is used in the same manner as Divestment and is suitable for high fusing alloys.Because divestment is gypsum bonded material. . especially for extra coronal restoration.
. Technique:Technique:An impression is made in a copper band with modelling compound.Amalgam ::Conventional amalgam is also used to make dies similar to the silver amalgam which is used to restore teeth.
A thin piece of boxing wax. . in a mix of plaster. which has been previously placed in a small rubber ring to hold it steady and prevent it spreading during setting. The boxed impression is embedded with the open end showing the cavity facing up. is wrapped around the impression and band matrix and extended about 3/8 inch beyond and along the gingival margins of the band and its contained impression. 28 to 30 gauge.
a plastic mass of amalgam alloy is mixed. The die is then trimmed and tapered so that it simulates the shape of a tooth root.After the plaster base has hardened. the rubber ring and plaster is removed and the die is immersed in warm water to remove the impression compound and wax. . After it has thoroughly set. The amalgam is condensed into the impression as is done in making a good restoration.
which can cause distortion of the wax pattern. This rapid cooling of the wax may produce internal stresses. The amalgam die is placed in the impression of the prepared tooth and the cast is poured. .An impression of the upper and lower arches is made. Amalgam dies and all metal dies are good conductors of heat and so softened wax applied to them cools rapidly.
.The sudden cooling of the liquid wax when applied to a metal die may also result in the contraction of wax away from the die and discrepancies may arise because of imperfect adaptation of the wax pattern to the die.
In case of amalgam dies. the die should be lubricated with oil prior to fabrication of the wax pattern.These problems can be avoided by:by:Warming the metal die to mouth temperature (or) slightly below. .
cyclo ± hexene diepoxide and the rest are copolymers. . The third part is a tertiary amine catalyst.Epoxy resin dies:dies:Epoxy resins are supplied in two (or) three parts that are mixed before insertion into the impression. The second part consists of partially hydrolyzed benzophene tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride. The first part contains 50 ± 60% epoxy polymers 30 ± 40% vinyl.
It is heated in steps of 10o per minute to 160oC and then held at 160oC for one hour.6% depending on configuration and bulk of the die. It is compatible with all impression materials except hydrocolloids.02 to 0.The material is mixed in Vacuum and then poured into the impression. During this curing it shrinks about 0. This shrinkage can be compensated for by thermal treatment of the die. . The resin cures in about half an hour at room temperature.
The exact mechanism of this expansion of the material is not known.It is then rapidly cooled to room temperature. Epoxy dies are stronger and more abrasion resistant than gypsum dies and also the reproduction of surface details is much better than with gypsum dies. . One hypothesis is that further cross ± linking of the polymer occurs which generates water causing expansion.
alumina(Al2o3). This is similar to the filling and cementing materials. CaF.Silicophosphate Cement ::Compositon:Compositon:It is a glass consisting of silica (sio2). These are sometimes used to make dies in compound impressions they give harder dies than dental stone. and Na3AlF3 and some calcium salts. fluoride compounds such as NaF. .
. Therefore the cement dies are stored in water or glycerine.One disadvantage of these materials is that they shrink on setting and the surface of the cement has a tendency to loose water upon standing making it friable.
which melts at 138oC can be sprayed directly on to an impression to form a metal shell.Metal sprayed dies ::A bismuth ± tin alloy. which can then be filled with dental stone. .
Advantage ::A metal coated die can be obtained rapidly from elastomeric impression materials. . Dis ± Advantage ::The alloy is rather soft. care is needed to prevent abrasion of the die.
Ceramic die materials ::Ceramic dies are prepared and used in two methods. the porcelain powder and liquid are mixed to putty consistency and the material is placed in the impression. is removed after one hour and heated at 600oC for 8 minutes to produce a hard strong die. In another method. In one method. . the ceramic should be heated upto 1000oC.
. The advantages of the flexible material over a stone die include more rapid setting and the ease of removal of the provisional restorations (or) inlay. They have been used to make provisional restorations (or) indirect composite resin inlays (or) onlays chair side.Flexible Die materials ::Flexible die materials are similar to heavy ± bodied silicone (or) polyether impression materials.
.Construction of the Die ::The dies can be constructed in two ways:ways:Where we need two sets of pours (ie) working cast with a separate Die Where we need one set of pour (ie) working cast with removable die.
Techniques necessitating two sets of pours:pours:Two pours can be had if elastomeric impression materials are used. Working models are poured from the second impression. Dies are prepared from the first pour. . Two separate impressions are required if reversible hydrocolloid is used. These dies are not incorporated into the working model.
Advantages ::The mounted casts are not subjected to distortion since mechanical removal and insertion of the die may induce stresses and may interfere with its relationship with the master cast. during building the anatomy. There is complete immobilization of the prepared tooth replica. contact and contour of the wax pattern. .
thus inducing stresses in the wax pattern. .Disadvantages ::Moving the wax pattern from the working model to the die and vice ± versa can induce stresses in the wax. The two replicas of the tooth may not have the same exact dimension and shape.
Die can be poured with approximately 50 ± 70gms of stone. Full arch impressions require approximately 200 gms.Technique ::A pre ± measured amount of water is placed in a plastic bowl and a measured amount of die stone is added to the water. Excessive water is blown from the surface of the hydrocolloid impression material without actually desiccating it. . The water and powder is vacuum mixed.
a surface wetting agents may be sprayed on it. .In case of elastomeric impression material. A small amount of stone is then carried on the side of the impression above the preparation and then vibrated until stone reaches the ³bottom´ of the preparation. Small increments are continually added till the impression is filled completely.
inch height to 1allow adequate bulk for preparation of a handle on the die. After this pour is hardened. second impression can be used for hydrocolloids to obtain full arch working models. The cast from which die is poured is trimmed. the impression is poured again (for elastomers). .Stone is built to approximately 1. all excess stone around the prepared tooth is removed.
A handle is cut for the die. The handle should be parallel to the long axis of the tooth preparation. Its sides should be parallel (or) slightly tapered toward the base. . It should be approximately 1 inch long. The handle should be slightly larger in diameter than the preparation and octagonal in cross ± section.
The contour o the die apical to the finish line should approximate that of the root to facilitate good axial contours in the finished restoration. surface treatment and spruing of the wax pattern. . The wax pattern contacts. contours and occlusal morphology is build on the working casts. The dies are reserved for final margination.
The die can be removed from the working cast to marginate. contact and contour of the wax pattern. adjust and treat the wax pattern. where it can be used to build occlusion. . the die will be part of the working cast.Techniques utilizing one pour ::In these technique.
There is less distortion of the wax pattern since it is not moved from one die to another.Advantages ::It saves time and effort by using only one cast. . It eliminates dimensional discrepancies between dies.
Disadvantages ::Mobility in one or more directions is not completely prohibited. especially with the loss of interproximal gypsum of adjacent teeth. Necessity for additional tools and equipment. .
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