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Die materials

Contents
Introduction Ideal requirements Construction of die Four system of removable die -- Straight dowel pin --Curved dowel pin --Curved --Pindex system --Pindex --Di-lok trays --Di-

Various types of die materials gypsum cast and die material die stone investment combination amalgam epoxy resin dies electroformed dies silico phosphate cement metal sprayed dies ceramic die materials flexible die materials

Introduction
Definition A die is a model of a single tooth (or) teeth (or) it is the positive replica of one tooth prepared from an impression. The working cast is the replica of the prepared teeth ridge areas, and other parts of the dental arch.

A cast and die system captures the necessary information so that it can be transferred to the laboratory. The ease with which a restoration is fabricated and the accuracy with which it will fit the mouth is directly affected by the cast.

There are three requirements for good cast : They must be bubble free, especially along finish lines of prepared teeth. All portions of the cast must be distortion free. The cast must be trimmed to ensure access for carving wax pattern margins.

Ideal Requirements of die materials ::It should be dimensionally stable and reproduce the surface details of the impression accurately. It should possess enough surface hardness, smoother surface and abrasion resistant during the carving of the wax pattern.

It should possess a color contrast to the wax pattern for easy manipulation. It should be simple to manipulate, less time consuming. It should be economical and not hazardous to health. It should be compatible with the impression materials.

Various types of Die materials ::1. Gypsum:Gypsum:The most commonly used die materials are type IV and type V dental stone, the properties of which are shown below:below:(Table 135; P No:- 266, V.K. Sileri) No:Strength of these materials is greatly increased by decreasing the porosity, thus pouring under vacuum is helpful.

Decreasing the water / powder ratio increase the strength. In limits, increase in the mixing time will increase the strength. Incorporation of accelerators and retarders cause a loss of strength. Certain water substitutes can dramatically increase the strength and hardness of gypsum eg:- aqueous solution of colloidal eg:silica.

Setting time can be accelerated by the operator by the use of fine particle gypsum, low water / powder ratio, long and fast mixing, use of 2% potassium sulphate solution (or) the use of slurry water.

Gypsum products are sometimes modified to:to:Make the material more abrasion resistant. This can be done by using die hardening agents such as cyanoacrylate and acrylic resin lacquer. - These hardening agents must be used in very thin coats to avoid any unacceptably thick relief at the margins of the preparation.

Change the dimensions of the die. This is most commonly done by using a die spacer. The most common die spacers are resins. Models paint, coloured nail polish (or) thermoplastic polymers dissolved in volatile solvents may also be used.

The thickness varies with the number of coats applied. Usually a relief of 20 to 40 um is desired. The tooth preparation on the die is painted to within 0.5mm of the finish line.

Die Stone investment combination:


This technique increases the refractoriness of the die. In this technique, the die material and the investment have a comparable composition. A commercial gypsum bonded material, called Divestment, is mixed with colloidal silica liquid.

The die is made from this mix and wax pattern constructed on it. Then the entire assembly is invested in the mixture of divestment and water, thereby eliminating possibility of distortion of wax pattern on removal from die (or) during setting of the investment. The setting expansion of the material is 0.9% and thermal expansion is 0.6%, when it is hasted to 677oC.

Because divestment is gypsum bonded material, it is not recommended for high fusing alloys, as used in metal ceramic restorations. However it is highly accurate technique for use with conventional gold alloys, especially for extra coronal restoration. Divestment phosphate is phosphate bonded investment that is used in the same manner as Divestment and is suitable for high fusing alloys.

Amalgam ::Conventional amalgam is also used to make dies similar to the silver amalgam which is used to restore teeth. Technique:Technique:An impression is made in a copper band with modelling compound.

A thin piece of boxing wax, 28 to 30 gauge, is wrapped around the impression and band matrix and extended about 3/8 inch beyond and along the gingival margins of the band and its contained impression. The boxed impression is embedded with the open end showing the cavity facing up, in a mix of plaster, which has been previously placed in a small rubber ring to hold it steady and prevent it spreading during setting.

After the plaster base has hardened, a plastic mass of amalgam alloy is mixed. The amalgam is condensed into the impression as is done in making a good restoration. After it has thoroughly set, the rubber ring and plaster is removed and the die is immersed in warm water to remove the impression compound and wax. The die is then trimmed and tapered so that it simulates the shape of a tooth root.

An impression of the upper and lower arches is made. The amalgam die is placed in the impression of the prepared tooth and the cast is poured. Amalgam dies and all metal dies are good conductors of heat and so softened wax applied to them cools rapidly. This rapid cooling of the wax may produce internal stresses, which can cause distortion of the wax pattern.

The sudden cooling of the liquid wax when applied to a metal die may also result in the contraction of wax away from the die and discrepancies may arise because of imperfect adaptation of the wax pattern to the die.

These problems can be avoided by:by:Warming the metal die to mouth temperature (or) slightly below. In case of amalgam dies, the die should be lubricated with oil prior to fabrication of the wax pattern.

Epoxy resin dies:dies:Epoxy resins are supplied in two (or) three parts that are mixed before insertion into the impression. The first part contains 50 60% epoxy polymers 30 40% vinyl, cyclo hexene diepoxide and the rest are copolymers. The second part consists of partially hydrolyzed benzophene tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride. The third part is a tertiary amine catalyst.

The material is mixed in Vacuum and then poured into the impression. It is compatible with all impression materials except hydrocolloids. The resin cures in about half an hour at room temperature. During this curing it shrinks about 0.02 to 0.6% depending on configuration and bulk of the die. This shrinkage can be compensated for by thermal treatment of the die. It is heated in steps of 10o per minute to 160oC and then held at 160oC for one hour.

It is then rapidly cooled to room temperature. The exact mechanism of this expansion of the material is not known. One hypothesis is that further cross linking of the polymer occurs which generates water causing expansion. Epoxy dies are stronger and more abrasion resistant than gypsum dies and also the reproduction of surface details is much better than with gypsum dies.

Silicophosphate Cement ::Compositon:Compositon:It is a glass consisting of silica (sio2), alumina(Al2o3), fluoride compounds such as NaF, CaF, and Na3AlF3 and some calcium salts. This is similar to the filling and cementing materials. These are sometimes used to make dies in compound impressions they give harder dies than dental stone.

One disadvantage of these materials is that they shrink on setting and the surface of the cement has a tendency to loose water upon standing making it friable. Therefore the cement dies are stored in water or glycerine.

Metal sprayed dies ::A bismuth tin alloy, which melts at 138oC can be sprayed directly on to an impression to form a metal shell, which can then be filled with dental stone.

Advantage ::A metal coated die can be obtained rapidly from elastomeric impression materials. Dis Advantage ::The alloy is rather soft, care is needed to prevent abrasion of the die.

Ceramic die materials ::Ceramic dies are prepared and used in two methods. In one method, the ceramic should be heated upto 1000oC. In another method, the porcelain powder and liquid are mixed to putty consistency and the material is placed in the impression, is removed after one hour and heated at 600oC for 8 minutes to produce a hard strong die.

Flexible Die materials ::Flexible die materials are similar to heavy bodied silicone (or) polyether impression materials. They have been used to make provisional restorations (or) indirect composite resin inlays (or) onlays chair side. The advantages of the flexible material over a stone die include more rapid setting and the ease of removal of the provisional restorations (or) inlay.

Construction of the Die ::The dies can be constructed in two ways:ways:Where we need two sets of pours (ie) working cast with a separate Die Where we need one set of pour (ie) working cast with removable die.

Techniques necessitating two sets of pours:pours:Two pours can be had if elastomeric impression materials are used. Two separate impressions are required if reversible hydrocolloid is used. Dies are prepared from the first pour. These dies are not incorporated into the working model. Working models are poured from the second impression.

Advantages ::The mounted casts are not subjected to distortion since mechanical removal and insertion of the die may induce stresses and may interfere with its relationship with the master cast. There is complete immobilization of the prepared tooth replica, during building the anatomy, contact and contour of the wax pattern.

Disadvantages ::Moving the wax pattern from the working model to the die and vice versa can induce stresses in the wax. The two replicas of the tooth may not have the same exact dimension and shape, thus inducing stresses in the wax pattern.

Technique ::A pre measured amount of water is placed in a plastic bowl and a measured amount of die stone is added to the water. Die can be poured with approximately 50 70gms of stone. Full arch impressions require approximately 200 gms. The water and powder is vacuum mixed. Excessive water is blown from the surface of the hydrocolloid impression material without actually desiccating it.

In case of elastomeric impression material, a surface wetting agents may be sprayed on it. A small amount of stone is then carried on the side of the impression above the preparation and then vibrated until stone reaches the bottom of the preparation. Small increments are continually added till the impression is filled completely.

Stone is built to approximately 1- inch height to 1allow adequate bulk for preparation of a handle on the die. After this pour is hardened, the impression is poured again (for elastomers); second impression can be used for hydrocolloids to obtain full arch working models. The cast from which die is poured is trimmed, all excess stone around the prepared tooth is removed.

A handle is cut for the die. The handle should be slightly larger in diameter than the preparation and octagonal in cross section. Its sides should be parallel (or) slightly tapered toward the base. The handle should be parallel to the long axis of the tooth preparation. It should be approximately 1 inch long.

The contour o the die apical to the finish line should approximate that of the root to facilitate good axial contours in the finished restoration. The wax pattern contacts, contours and occlusal morphology is build on the working casts. The dies are reserved for final margination, surface treatment and spruing of the wax pattern.

Techniques utilizing one pour ::In these technique, the die will be part of the working cast, where it can be used to build occlusion, contact and contour of the wax pattern. The die can be removed from the working cast to marginate, adjust and treat the wax pattern.

Advantages ::It saves time and effort by using only one cast. It eliminates dimensional discrepancies between dies. There is less distortion of the wax pattern since it is not moved from one die to another.

Disadvantages ::Mobility in one or more directions is not completely prohibited, especially with the loss of interproximal gypsum of adjacent teeth. Necessity for additional tools and equipment.