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Turning Points in Curriculum
A Contemporary American Memoir

J. Dan Marshall
Pennsylvania State University

James T. Sears
Independent Scholar

William H. Schubert
University of Illinois at Chicago

Merrill an imprint of Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, New Jersey Columbus, Ohio

ISBN: 0-536-20077-7

Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir, by J. Dan Marshall, James T. Sears, and William H. Schubert. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall, a Pearson Education Company.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Marshall, J. Dan. Turning points in curriculum : a contemporary American memoir / J. Dan Marshall, James T. Sears, William H. Schubert. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-02-376451-1 1. Education—United States—Curricula—History—20th century. 2. Curriculum planning—United States. I. Sears, James T. (James Thomas), 1951– II. Schubert, William Henry. III. Title. LB1570.M36675 2000 375’.001’0973—dc21 99-36573 CIP Editor: Debra A. Stollenwerk Editorial Assistant: Penny S. Burleson Production Editor: Mary Harlan Design Coordinator: Diane C. Lorenzo Text Designer and Project Coordination: Carlisle Publishers Services Cover Designer: Janoski Advertising Cover art: ©SuperStock Production Manager: Pamela D. Bennett Director of Marketing: Kevin Flanagan Marketing Manager: Meghan Shepherd Marketing Manager: Krista Groshong This book was set in 10/12 New Century Schoolbook by Carlisle Communications, Ltd. and was printed and bound by R. R. Donnelley & Sons Company. The cover was printed by Phoenix Color Corp. ©2000 by Prentice-Hall, Inc. Pearson Education Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ISBN: 0-02-376451-1 Prentice-Hall International (UK) Limited, London Prentice-Hall of Australia Pty. Limited, Sydney Prentice-Hall of Canada, Inc., Toronto Prentice-Hall Hispanoamericana, S. A., Mexico Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi Prentice-Hall of Japan, Inc., Tokyo Prentice-Hall (Singapore) Pte. Ltd., Singapore Editora Prentice-Hall do Brasil, Ltda., Rio de Janeiro

ISBN: 0-536-20077-7

Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir, by J. Dan Marshall, James T. Sears, and William H. Schubert. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall, a Pearson Education Company.

In memory of Alice Miel 1906–1998 and Arthur Wellesley Foshay 1912–1998


ISBN: 0-536-20077-7

Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir, by J. Dan Marshall, James T. Sears, and William H. Schubert. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall, a Pearson Education Company.

ISBN: 0-536-20077-7

Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir, by J. Dan Marshall, James T. Sears, and William H. Schubert. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall, a Pearson Education Company.

and space exploration) and different ideologies (right. interviews. and Schubert place a narrative of IBM or the Roman Catholic Church or gay liberation or NASA (what they term parallel tales. a Pearson Education Company.Foreword by William F. To change images. Turning Points stands apart as noteworthy and important. the authors produce a kind of kaleidoscopic effect. and excerpted scholarly materials. all woven together by scholarly commentary into a complex tapestry in which the social and intellectual history of the field and its present circumstances are strikingly visible. a genre—what shall its name be?—that combines other genres and in so doing creates a new one. By inserting narratives with different themes from apparently very different fields of interest (business. when we are nearly overwhelmed by the sheer number of new titles in our field. James T. something that is stylistically and pedagogically intriguing. Sears. which is then placed next to an impressionistic portrait of the times. This book represents nothing less than a new genre of scholarship. Dan Marshall. and remembrance. And it does something else. a “complicated conversation” (Pinar et al. P i n a r n this Weimar-like time of book inflation. 848) that. in a profound sense. Turning Points has within it. I think. as Maxine Greene has so eloquently elaborated over the years (see Pinar. one might say that these various subgenres are in a kind of conversation with each other. sex. . most provocative in a pedagogical sense. and William H. The reader v ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 I Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. which is then generally followed by the singular voice of an individual who recalls that history within the context of his or her individual life. impressionistic portraiture.. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. exemplifies curriculum itself as the scholarly field that this book undertakes to teach. athletics. p. Such a series of juxtapositions provides a multiplicity of vantage points. by J. left. The juxtaposition of genres in this book is. as you will see. understands that term to mean. That achievement is not only an aesthetic accomplishment— which would be enough by itself to merit our special attention—but it is an intellectual and pedagogical accomplishment as well. although their relation to the primary stream of commentary is not as simple as that phrase implies) next to the intellectual history of the curriculum field. 1995. Why? The book is a stylistic achievement. There is a continuum of color and weave—from abstract theoretical formulations to concrete material facts and from broad social forces to specific individual lives—so that the reader appreciates how all are in inextricable relation one to another. Each of these is juxtaposed to the other. reflection. because it stimulates multiple modes of cognition. 1998c). parallel tales. church. Marshall. scholarly commentary. Schubert. Sears. and in between).

and other curricular artifacts and technologies. and William H. for good reason. 1995. learning. Such a complex—some would say “chaotic” (W. Dan Marshall. Schubert. teaching. That Eurocentric concept is no longer in fashion. conversation that incorporates life history and politics and popular culture as well as official.vi FOREWORD samples different knowledges as well as different modes of knowing. But the political decentering of European knowledges and knowing hardly means that curriculum is no longer students’ and teachers’ conversation with ideas. recalling (although not equivalent to) what Schwab (1964) termed substantive and syntactical knowledge (see Pinar et al. a Pearson Education Company. much of the field still seems to proceed on the assumption that if we only make the appropriate adjustments—in curriculum. their origin and expression in social movements and trends. the headlines of the times in which those lives and scholarly theorizations came to form. . Doll. 161). to understand curriculum today requires acknowledging the limits of technique and procedure.. E. reads key scholarly products. counseling. what gets subsumed under the umbrella term of social engineering. as they are recorded in primary source material. Traditionally when curriculum has been conceived as a conversation it meant conversing with the great minds of Western civilization whose ideas transcended the temporal and cultural locales of their origin. and yet. 1993)—view of knowledge is quite congruent with the contemporary understanding of curriculum as a conversation. astonishingly. their rootedness in the past. That impossible situation is the official or institutional curriculum. one that supports and expresses the possibilities of unpredicted. novel events and unplanned destinations. administration. European high culture is no longer the center of American civilization—was it ever?—especially as that is codified and theorized in scholarship and inquiry. as one listens to individuals describe their professional lives. and so on—those test scores will soar. institutional knowledge. Curriculum is also a conversation among the participants. James T. and recalls. by J. including European ones. Education is of course not mechanical. The vulgar truth is—and surely everyone knows this even if they feign ignorance when they speak publicly of the curriculum—that every- ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. While hardly abandoning the sphere of the everyday and the practical. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. textbooks. disclosing as it does the relational character of ideas. Curriculum conceived as conversation cannot be framed as another technique that will somehow get our educational engine humming smoothly again. their foreshadowing of the future. in broad. Sears. The truth is that much of our obsession with technique and procedure in the field of education is a doomed effort to make an impossible situation possible. The concept of curriculum as complicated conversation is performed pedagogically in this book. impressionistic brush strokes. p. in relation not only one to the other but pointing as well to their embodiment and personification in individual lives.

as we know (and despite the pious rhetoric). And even while the public sphere was always dominated by conservative and sometimes reactionary political and economic interests. Dewey (1916) must have known his was a losing gamble. At the heart of the present vocationalism—academic and otherwise—is the masculinist. Once bulging. Sears. Despite the odds. and economic fantasy that academic achievement (as measured by standardized tests. America will be rich. . general curriculum requirements also represent a negotiated settlement among competing (and powerful) academic parties (disciplines). Those individual teachers have always helped to keep hope alive. Serious students of the curriculum already know this unhappy story. militaristic. The progressive dream (Pilder. In addition to this masculinized fantasy that conflates test scores with national supremacy. individual teachers have continued—partly due to our promptings—to try to live out that dream. clearly visible by high test scores.FOREWORD vii one will not (despite teaching technique. the progressive dream of democratization and ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. to wage. James T. With extensive secondary curricular prerequisites for college admission closely linked with two years of “general education. Schubert. our faith—our denoting those of us in higher education and teacher preparation specifically—that individual educators can somehow find ways to work with children outside official directives and bureaucratic inertia. powerful. The secondary school curriculum is a somewhat arbitrary historical and political settlement of what Kliebard (1995) characterized as the struggle for the American curriculum. Forcing students to study each of the “major” fields thus props up enrollment and employment in these various fields. and William H. even if it was a gamble he was compelled. for his own as well as for the nation’s sake. about the education of students or the preparation of citizens. The curricular arrangement that stabilized after Sputnik is not. by J. unbelievably—is nineteenth-century faculty psychology.” each of the politically powerful disciplines gets a piece of the student enrollment (which equals budget) pie. say. understood today primarily as economic prosperity but also cultural and military dominance. a middle school level of acquaintance is not educationally sensible. but then it always was a dream. they are also hinted at in several of the parallel tales. parental involvement. a Pearson Education Company. 1974) has long been over. excellence in mathematics and science is especially crucial) creates the conditions for national supremacy. outside that patriarchal public sphere dominated by right-wing politics and capitalistic economics. Dan Marshall. and so forth. versions of that presumably discredited idea that the mind is a muscle that must be exercised by all the basic weights (or Nautilus machines) if it is to bulge. That all students must take all the major disciplines beyond. We educators lost that struggle. or curriculum reform) and need not become terribly interested in everything. We can hear that hope—and its frustration—in the interviews printed in this book. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. the gamble must be waged. What we have today—still.

as they work their way through this new genre.” ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. The triumph of consumption meant that anything that was easily incorporated into existing structures of self and society would in fact be consumed. The juxtaposition of commentary. The new genre may itself constitute a turning point for students. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. especially his films. and his teaching occurred through his art. Schubert. Congratulations. then. it is instructive to see others engaged in the same struggle. one anachronistic instance of which is the school. perhaps unsettled. and essayist Pier Paolo Pasolini understood this exactly. one which performs our contemporary understanding of curriculum. his students were the citizens of Italy. poet. A former schoolteacher. to James Sears. In Turning Points. and to William Schubert for this memorable contribution to our effort to understand curriculum. to Dan Marshall. Dan Marshall. The book itself may indeed someday be described as a “turning point. we must now devise new styles of teaching to have any hope of reaching our students. one which teaches the subject matter other textbooks have tended to only describe. as each depends on the other— must be performed. You have devised a new genre. within our much smaller sphere of influence that is American curriculum studies. and William H. our efforts in support of democratization and self-realization must take. What was required were stylistic innovations—forms of indirect discourse intrigued him—that would unsettle one’s students. James T. by J. Struggle: we are a long way from barricades in the street (although such events are always only an economic crash or ecological catastrophe away). interviews. as Pasolini (and many others after him) knew. quietly institute a revolution in the self. he was very clear that simple didacticism— straightforward instruction—was finished. more subtle forms. Pasolini’s class was large. teach no moral lessons.viii FOREWORD self-realization—inextricably intertwined. The story of Pasolini’s pedagogical efforts in film is exhilarating if tragic (Greene. as they see through the sham of public rhetoric on curriculum to the intensely political and gendered reality. and thereby unsettle extant social relations. indeed of social reality itself. our battles. Because we live in a period in which consumer capitalism has triumphed. the complex and contradictory character of curriculum. Sears. That is why questions of style are so very important. and parallel tales can only underscore the provisionality. perhaps unpedagogical as well. Salo. The brilliant postwar Italian filmmaker. could make no political difference. And although each of us must find ways that make sense for us and for those to whom we are bonded and committed. the instability. well. was and is unassimilable. novelist. 1990). . his last film. Pasolini was murdered in 1973. excerpts. a Pearson Education Company. a stylistic invention that is profoundly pedagogical. students will be provoked.

Sears. we decided not to write for an audience conceptualized in some binary way—that is. theory. too. the possibilities for interpretation inherent in the notion of curriculum work allow us to steer clear of the more fixed and differential meanings typically associated with more distinctive phrases such as curriculum theorizing or curriculum development. and deliberation. for few books exist that focus on contemporary (post–World War II) curriculum history. Schubert. as scholars or teachers. Turning Points is a text designed to engage readers in a story of curriculum as a field of intellectual study and invite them to identify with and ultimately participate in this important work. Our choice of the phrase curriculum work reflects. we have invited students who represent different levels of background knowledge in curriculum understanding and experience into this great conversation. This book represents our effort to answer that and other questions. the broader notion of work allows for variations that include reflection. Throughout the book we favor the term curriculum work over curriculum studies. we are inevitably asked where the historical markers might be that illustrate or represent the twists and shifts along the way: the turning points that have helped to shape contemporary curriculum history. James T. Rather. or history. Whether teaching courses in curriculum development. interested colleagues.e. . our thinking with respect to our readers. As curriculum teachers. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. by J. advanced or beginning students in curriculum. we see movement (i. our own curriculum work. Yet this very desire only complicates our own curriculum making. study. inquiry. Dan Marshall. To us. This distinction between movement as a noun or a verb lies at the heart of current discussion among curriculum workers. At the same time. we believe that the field of curriculum. theory. the first of which offers a backdrop or contextual panorama for parts II through V. and curriculum work in general. a Pearson Education Company. and graduate students. it contains five parts.Preface We do not believe that contemporary shifts in curriculum studies—and the people who played a part in creating these shifts—should be characterized as a movement within the field. and our efforts as authors of Turning Points. motion). To ix ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. which present curriculum’s journey through the last half of the twentieth century. Despite some genuinely valuable and welcome advice and criticism from manuscript reviewers. Focusing on the United States. serious or casual readers. construction. and William H. In short. urging them to (re)locate themselves and others among the players and participants who help to shape the curriculum field.. has undergone important changes within the past 50 years. or development. theorizing.

As a literary genre. history. Turning Points combines all of these elements in a layered and interactive kind of conversation among numerous storytellers (including readers) from past and present. we can more comfortably position ourselves as mindful authors of ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. and autobiography. Chapters 2 through 8 each include a lengthy excerpt from a primary source in an effort to bring the voices of these authors into this complex conversation. 4. we take this conversation toward the new millennium. What makes Turning Points unique is its invitation for readers to become engaged in this story so as to make it part of their own unique life tale. Schubert. see the introduction) into the book with an eye toward personalizing readers’ interpretative processes. we have combined six distinct elements (three of which we characterize as unique. The renaissance in contemporary American curriculum (often called the reconceptualization) is well chronicled in both broad and meticulously fine strokes elsewhere. Sears. We have woven a substantial array of published curriculum books into each chapter as a way to encourage further study by serious students of the field. 1. 3. . By accepting that these genres are inseparably interrelated (fiction is always part autobiography. These chapters present interviews (done specifically for this book) with a wide range of curriculum workers who speak personally about their actions and perceptions relative to curriculum work. by J. The unexpected variety and nature of these tales serve to illustrate curriculum history within its broader cultural contexts as well as to disturb and disrupt reader complacency and spark disjunctive thought. 5. We have placed an analogous story taken from America’s larger sociocultural milieu within each of these same chapters. Whereas other curriculum books rely on one or two of these elements for their strength and relevance. Chapters 2 through 8 introduce specific “vectors” (perspectives) from which curriculum changes can be identified and studied. a Pearson Education Company. In the final chapter. James T. An important goal of Turning Points is to provide readers with multiple levels of engagement in its complex conversation. Toward this end. Each of the book’s nine chapters includes reflective questions located within the chapter content itself in an effort to interrupt the reader with a reflective challenge. history is always part fiction. What makes this invitation powerfully salient is our decision to shape this work as a kind of memoir. the memoir is a relative to fiction. 6. 2. and so forth).x PREFACE have done so would have helped to perpetuate a theory–practice dichotomy that we believe is not only detrimental to but has outlived its usefulness for the curriculum field. and William H. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. Dan Marshall.

Southeastern Oklahoma State University. we believe that in recognizing Turning Points as a form of memoir. Like all authors of fiction. or autobiography. readers might better appreciate that this genre. people want to situate themselves within their own learning. as does our colleague Connie Yowell. University of Nebraska at Kearney. Sears. 1994) on the topic of important publications within the curriculum field. at least in principle. Dan Marshall. Our various university-based staff assistants over recent years. learning. how to construct a self. also deserve acknowledgment and thanks. quite explicitly. Irwin. Hugh J. especially Cindy Fetters and Pat Lindler. a Pearson Education Company. to the notion of radical equality” (1998. University of Southern Maine. In the shadow of the millennium. Judith L. However. Along with doctoral students Pyeong-gook Kim and Dana Stuchul at Penn State. as well as an enthusiastic collection of participants to our 1994 AERA session (Marshall. how to navigate [and narrate] the world. from doctoral students at the University of South Carolina who. Jim Beane. Schubert. Embryonic conceptual help was provided by a good friend. according to Jay Parini. these graduate students deserve our deepest thanks. p. A40). We assume that readers of this or any other authoritative text recognize that ours is a selective telling of stories. and William H. and—perhaps most usefully—how to gain some purchase on the world through the medium of language. 1998. have included the hope that Turning Points might encourage and invite such individual purchase. . Florida ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. According to Parini. James T. we made choices and took certain perspectives while writing this book. Schubert. by J. A40) Our intentions. Broyles. Florida International University. in part. The motivation to propose it came from Marcus Chapman. Valerie J. Florida State University. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. The questions located throughout the book come. worked through a late draft of the book. who helped to review and refine the working manuscript at several stages. which funded the survey used to identify many of the primary text documents excerpted here.PREFACE xi and participants in Turning Points. from the outset of this project. in the most literal sense. India L. with James Sears as their instructor. Acknowledgments The actual idea for this book came from our collective years of encounters with students who have taken our curriculum courses. Early and important support came from ASCD’s Curriculum Teachers’ Network. We also thank the manuscript reviewers who offered thoughtful criticisms of our efforts along the way: Kinsley Banya. Lucille Freeman. Janesick. & Sears. (Parini. p. Fant. lends itself to “a society devoted. history. memoirs have become increasingly popular in recent years because their readers are. a sales representative.

Dan Marshall. and natural disasters. Doane College (Crete. Warner. Thomas N. Debbie Stollenwerk. has remained a solid believer. University of Central Florida. Jon Wiles. Allen R. Kay W. University of Houston. Marcella L. Sears. King. NE). James T. and Ann—whose immeasurable faith and understanding continue. Kysilka. our most profound source of endurance stems from our long-time companions—Tara.xii PREFACE International University. by J. career shifts. Western Kentucky University. Terry. Through them all our editor. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Schubert. Ultimately. and William H. University of North Florida It has been a long and difficult chore to keep this project afloat in the face of family challenges. Bob. a Pearson Education Company. .

by J. James T. . Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. a Pearson Education Company.Brief Contents Introduction xix PART I Contextual Panorama for Contemporary Curriculum Work (1897–1946) 1 2 ▼ CHAPTER 1 Prelude to Contemporary Curriculum Theory and Development PART II The Rise and Fall of Curriculum Specialists (1947–1960) 15 ▼ CHAPTER 2 ▼ CHAPTER 3 Curriculum Development at Its Zenith 16 Transfer by Eminent Domain 34 PART III Reestablishing Agency and Agendas (1961–1969) 55 ▼ CHAPTER 4 ▼ CHAPTER 5 Muted Heretics Endure (1961–1964) 56 Transcending a Muddled Juncture (1965–1969) 77 PART IV (Re)Shaping the Contemporary Curriculum Field (1970–1983) 105 ▼ CHAPTER 6 ▼ CHAPTER 7 The Renaissance Blossoms 106 From Chorus to Cacophony 141 PART V The Uncertainties of Contemporary Curriculum Work (1984 to Lately) 167 ▼ CHAPTER 8 ▼ CHAPTER 9 Implosion and Consolidation 168 Imagining the Postmillennial Curriculum Field 211 Afterword: The Age of Pluralism by Wilma Longstreet 244 Bibliography 249 Index 279 xiii ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. and William H. Dan Marshall. Sears. Schubert.

a Pearson Education Company. and William H. . Dan Marshall. James T. by J.ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. Schubert. Sears.

Rubin 34 Varied Tale: 20th Century Roman Catholic Church ▲ Church in a Postwar World 39 ▲ A New Day Dawns for Church and State 43 Primary Document Excerpt: The Process of Education by Jerome Bruner 47 PART III Reestablishing Agency and Agendas (1961–1969) 55 ▼ CHAPTER 4 Muted Heretics Endure Vector: “Outsiders” Visitor: Louise Berman 56 xv ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. Sears. James T. and William H.Contents Introduction xix PART I Contextual Panorama for Contemporary Curriculum Work (1897–1946) 1 ▼ CHAPTER 1 Prelude to Contemporary Curriculum Theory and Development 2 PART II The Rise and Fall of Curriculum Specialists (1947–1960) 15 ▼ CHAPTER 2 Curriculum Development at its Zenith Vector: Curriculum People Visitor: Arthur W. a Pearson Education Company. by J. . Tyler 23 ▼ CHAPTER 3 Transfer by Eminent Domain Vector: National Interest Visitor: Louis J. Dan Marshall. Herrick and Ralph W. Schubert. Foshay Varied Tale: The Rise of Big Blue (IBM) ▲ The Rise of Big Blue 18 ▲ IBM: Leadership in Computer Development 27 16 Primary Document Excerpt: Next Steps in the Development of a More Adequate Curriculum Theory by Virgil E.

Macdonald 121 ▼ CHAPTER 7 From Chorus to Cacophony Vector: Paradigms and Perspectives Visitor: Henry Giroux 141 Varied Tale: The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) ▲ The Fall of NASA 152 ▲ Weathering the Coming Storms 159 ▲ Reconceptualizing Space 164 Primary Document Excerpt: Where Are We Going? by Elliot W. Supreme Court ▲ Social Activism and Supreme Court Justice 60 ▲ Perseverence as the Mother of Satisfaction 75 Primary Document Excerpt: Preparing Instructional Objectives by Robert J. Sears. a Pearson Education Company. . Dan Marshall. Indeed 114 ▲ Tennis at the Crossroads 130 ▲ Full Circle Transformations 134 Primary Document Excerpt: A Transcendental Development Ideology of Education by James B. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall.S. Eisner 142 ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Schubert. and William H.xvi CONTENTS Varied Tale: U. Mager 66 ▼ CHAPTER 5 Transcending a Muddled Juncture Vector: Publications Visitor: Michael Apple Varied Tale: The Homophile Movement 77 ▲ From the Homophile Movement to Gay Liberation 89 Primary Document Excerpt: The Practical: A Language for Curriculum by Joseph Schwab 95 PART IV (Re)Shaping the Contemporary Curriculum Field (1970–1983) 105 106 ▼ CHAPTER 6 The Renaissance Blossoms Visitor: Janet Miller and Alex Molnar Varied Tale: Tennis Vector: Professional Organizations and Gatherings ▲ Tennis: A Civilized Sport. by J. James T.

a Pearson Education Company. Mary-Ellen Jacobs. by J.CONTENTS xvii PART V The Uncertainties of Contemporary Curriculum Work (1984 to Lately) 167 168 ▼ CHAPTER 8 Implosion and Consolidation Vector: Marginalized Voices Visitors: Tom Barone. Peter Hlebowitsh. Schubert. Dan Marshall. and William H. . Schubert 174 Structures of Feeling in Curriculum and Teaching by Deborah P. Pinar 204 ▼ CHAPTER 9 Imagining the Postmillennial Curriculum Field 211 Afterword: The Age of Pluralism by Wilma Longstreet 244 Bibliography Index 279 249 ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. Britzman 181 The Shifting Group of Curriculum Thought and Everyday Practice by William Ayers 195 “Dreamt into Existence by Others”: Curriculum Theory and School Reform by William F. and Bill Watkins Varied Tale: Popular Music ▲ Performativity and Unrepresentability: Postmodern Pop and Curriculum Studies 186 ▲ When the Music Died 193 ▲ Postmodern Pop 209 Primary Document Excerpts: Practitioners Influence Curriculum Theory by William H. Susan Edgerton. Sears. James T. Petra Munro.

by J. a Pearson Education Company. Dan Marshall. Sears. and William H.ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Schubert. James T. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. .

We base this belief not only on information we read and hear but on our own and others’ lived experiences. narrate. xix ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Schubert. and. a Pearson Education Company.Introduction Vectors. debates. In Turning Points we situate. Britzman. the question of whether the field of curriculum studies remains identifiable and viable. As participating members of the curriculum field and students of curriculum history. asking them to identify (among other areas) publications that played a significant role in changing the direction and scope of contemporary curriculum studies (Marshall. As for curriculum books that have helped to change the direction and scope of contemporary curriculum studies. Schubert. 1994). few would call today’s curriculum field moribund. . and social contexts. Dan Marshall. and Pinar found in Theory Into Practice (1992) (see chapter 8) to round out our collection. And while that assertion remains debatable. We do this through a narrative weaving together of curriculum history. of course. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. as Joseph Schwab did in 1969 (see chapter 5). the importance of a critical or radical perspective to curriculum work. and questions regarding the separation between theory and practice. In terms of curriculum articles. personal interviews. many curriculum veterans who have been active during the last four or five decades have told us that curriculum work is substantively different today. Indeed. Jerome Bruner’s Process of Education was identified more than any other (see chapter 3). the one most often identified by our respondents was The Educational Imagination by Elliot W. we profit from the ongoing discussions. so much to understand. Sears. cultural. & Sears. Choosing Tellers and Tales Several years ago we conducted a survey of self-identified curriculum people. and speculate on curriculum history between the end of World War II and the millennium. When asked about noncurriculum books. Eisner (see chapter 7). Schubert. and Varied Tales This is a heady era for curriculum workers: so much to consider. though James Macdonald’s “A Transcendental Developmental Ideology of Education” (see chapter 6) also won favor. Mager (see chapter 4).Visits. James T. so much to create and re-create. we believe that our field and its related forms of work have undergone a renaissance. and so many ways to go about it all. by J. To this list we added selections from Herrick and Tyler (see chapter 2). And like many of our curriculum colleagues. and excerpts from relevant and period-specific primary sources within their broader political. and William H. Joseph Schwab’s “The Practical: A Language for Curriculum” received the strongest support (see chapter 5). and those of Ayers.

motivate readers to pursue the use of such original documents for a better understanding and appreciation of contemporary curriculum history. In addition to curriculum vectors. Our choice of interviewees for this book was both personal and purposeful. Schubert. indeed. When inviting colleagues to participate (and some declined to do so). Thus. racial. In the interest of readability we elected not to overwhelmingly employ the use of ellipses but rather to present our edited version of the original text in a more straightforward passage. These vectors (curriculum people. their “take” on contemporary curriculum work. We urge readers who have not visited these original texts to read them in their entirety. and ideological (among other) representational identities. Overall Organization and Chapter Elements We introduce seven curriculum vectors through which the field’s development and struggles since 1947 unfold. Through a process of collaborative checking. publications. and marginalized voices) are more than an organizational frame. in fact. we hope that our edited presentation of these documents will. and certain events or publications connect with certain visitors. first. . These “visits” support our belief in the impor- ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. they constitute forces that have helped to contour and propel the curriculum field. interviewees were specifically asked not to make changes that would formalize the conversational patterns and tenor of their speech since this personalized voice was important to our overall project. professional organizations and gatherings. public interest. we focus on one in each chapter as a way to illuminate that period’s important moments. perspectives and paradigms. more veteran workers appear early in the book.xx INTRODUCTION When excerpting these materials we fought the ever-present demons of word count and contextual relevance. and William H. a Pearson Education Company. whose professional lives in some way coincided with the unfolding stories we present here. However. we determined the most relevant passage for our purposes and then proceeded to edit each to its most fundamental series of points. James T. chapters 2 through 8 contain interviews with people in curriculum who speak directly to their involvement in the field during the period under scrutiny as well as an excerpt from a primary source text document that has direct and important relevance to our historical discussion. Dan Marshall. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. we tried to represent a range in their reputational status. and their geographic and professional genealogical history while remaining sensitive to gender. We selected people. Sears. by J. Each interviewee received a complete transcript of her or his interview along with a draft of the particular chapter in which it was to be featured. Although all of these vectors are present at all times. outsiders. Interviewees reviewed the excerpted portions in light of the original transcript and made necessary corrections.

offers his experiential insights into the nature and direction of the shifting curriculum field at the time. our guest for this chapter. Those at work today in the field of curriculum have developed their ideas about teaching and learning. a Pearson Education Company. “Next Steps in the Development of a More Adequate Curriculum Theory. and public disappointment with the general state of school curricula (and. While most curriculum people were hard at work making curricula. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. was a colleague of Tyler. the lure of science and technology. Dan Marshall. and schools and society from various knowledge bases within the social and behavioral sciences ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. we include a parallel story or cultural icon designed to correspond to the key point about contemporary curriculum history made in each chapter.INTRODUCTION xxi tance of both portraying history as a personal journey and going to the original source to better understand and appreciate history. However. and bring it to a close in 1956. Our visitor for this chapter. when most large school districts employed curriculum specialists (who often had graduated from a small but growing number of curriculum doctoral programs) and welcomed the presence of “experts” to help redesign district curricula. Part II: The Rise and Fall of Curriculum Specialists (1947–1960). Our tale of the Roman Catholic Church and the “flash of heavenly light” that led to the radical changes of Vatican II underscore this sociocultural shift. the year the Chicago Curriculum Theory Conference took place.” suggests directions they hoped to see the field take. as discussed in our varied tale. the year Benjamin Bloom published his Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. by J. Sears. James T. and William H. teachers and students. Chapter 3 highlights national interest in discussing the rapid decline of this heyday of curriculum making that followed the 1957 launching of Sputnik. These “varied tales” work to situate the development of contemporary curriculum work within a broader sociocultural context and simultaneously illustrate tensions and contradictions. Foshay. by association. the late Arthur W. Herrick. Finally. . the 1947 conference originators (Virgil Herrick and Ralph Tyler) hoped to provide for these efforts a more clear and collective theoretical or philosophical framework— or at least some guiding principles. curriculum experts in particular). wherein he discusses ties between school curricula and the national interest. As Foshay points out. Louis Rubin. We begin chapter 2 in 1947. Part III: Reestablishing Agency and Agendas (1961–1969). serious challenges to both lay around the corner. This was the true heyday of curriculum development. the essence of curriculum work during this period was guided by a handful of leaders—much like computer technology was originally controlled by IBM. Our excerpt from their impressions of the midcentury curriculum field. Schubert. and numerous other curriculum people during this period. The key shift is made evident by Jerome Bruner in his introduction to The Process of Education (1960).

chief among these is psychology. a single book. Schubert. Though we offer examples of such influential publications within contemporary curriculum studies throughout this volume. however. The idea of determining end behaviors was not new to this era of curriculum work. On occasion. Sears..” Between 1961 and 1964. schools and their curricula for the first time in history.S. Dan Marshall. This was not always the case. Joseph Schwab’s 1969 article “The Practical: A Language for Curriculum” was arguably the most significant publication for curriculum people since Tyler’s Basic Principles 20 years earlier. the federal government strenuously intervened in U. B. mathematics and science). Five years after publishing Science and Human Behavior. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir.g. . which represents a techno mind-set driving much of the government-funded curriculum projects. or journal article can generate significant influence among members of a professional group. Thus many of these “outsiders” have had a major influence on curriculum work. and William H. a number of progressive ideas related to curriculum work of an earlier period were not only kept alive but nurtured by a small number of curriculum people around the country. As chapter 4 makes clear. F. Our excerpt from Schwab in this chapter illustrates the tenor of this wake-up call in which he revisits several ideas found in the Herrick and Tyler excerpt in chapter 2 while proposing new directions. Our visitor in chapter 4 is Louise Berman—a woman whose own work during the 1960s sometimes made her feel like a part of some “curriculum underground.g. chapter. At the same time. some curriculum people remained focused on children and their affective needs as well as the social change possibilities of curriculum—both themes of an earlier progressive era. for certain disciplines and subdisciplines have held privileged positions among educators in general and curriculum workers in particular.. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. Diagnosing the curriculum field as moribund. Like chapter 4’s varied tale of the Supreme Court and its shift from judicial activism to judicial restraint. Skinner stepped into the midst of the nation’s educational reform craze with his article “Teaching Machines” (Skinner. however. philanthropic organizations) and the federal government to make schools more efficient through the introduction of what Bruner called “automatizing devices” into the curriculum and instruction process. James T. a Pearson Education Company. by J.xxii INTRODUCTION as well as the arts and humanities. While educational psychologists and psychometricians joined academics in producing government-funded “teacher-proof ” curricula in almost every discipline (e. The virtual disappearance of fundamental curriculum questions is exemplified in our chapter 4 excerpt from Robert Mager’s Preparing Instructional Objectives (1962). Skinner’s work as a “radical behaviorist” coincided and helped to legitimize various other curriculum efforts. we highlight them in chapter 5. 1958). these curriculum outlaws would eventually come to prominence. This technological view of curriculum work coincided nicely with moneys made available in the 1950s and 1960s by outside groups (e.

in part through the tale of Stonewall and its resulting effects on the historic homophile movement in this country. and politically wrenching changes of the time. AERA members sought to create informal professional gatherings during the annual AERA conference. Sears. Division B (formed in 1964). Our newcomers in chapter 6 voice their experiences within AERA and the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD) and as par- ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Michael Apple. and William H. Despite the overwhelming emphases on science and empiricism evident in most curriculum efforts of the mid-1960s. value-based questions posed by many radical thinkers of the past. not only in universities but in classrooms across the country where teachers sought new ideas and practices that made sense for students and schools caught up in the socially. The American Educational Research Association (AERA) formed in 1916—the same year John Dewey published Democracy and Education. This describes the feeling we develop in chapter 5. a good deal of curriculum theorizing went on during the 1960s. the association sanctioned the creation of these secondary professional organizations. a group of curriculum scholars met in Chicago to consider bases and principles for curriculum theorizing. Schubert. in part. Actually.” our primary source excerpt. Part IV: (Re)Shaping the Contemporary Curriculum Field (1970–1983). As the association grew and took shape. . the second of which. was called “Curriculum and Objectives. the group arrived at no consensus regarding a “scientific” basis for curriculum work. In 1969. These changes are discussed with compelling clarity in James Macdonald’s “A Transcendental Developmental Ideology of Education. professional organizations and gatherings illustrate the changing face of curriculum studies during the 1970s. The 1970s represent a period during which an enormous energy engulfed the field of curriculum studies as scores of new people and ideas emerged in opposition to traditional practices and procedures.INTRODUCTION xxiii Publications that enjoy this sort of pervasive appeal do so. understood from experience that the curriculum field needed to shift its attention away from “objective” and empirically based issues to some of the socially oriented. a Pearson Education Company. much like changes under way then in the game of tennis. by J. interviewed for chapter 5. Dan Marshall. its members began to organize themselves into specific divisions. or SIGs. As the curriculum vector in chapter 6. because they appear with the right people at the right time under the right circumstances. as in 1947. This need to expand the status quo resulted from a collection of internal and external pressures.” As we indicate in chapter 6. calling them Special Interest Groups. culturally. James T. those responsible for overseeing the AERA soon felt the need to formally recognize and encourage the formation of even smaller groups. Chapter 5 begins in 1965—a year when. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. Like the amateur tennis players portrayed in our varied tale.

or in opposition to. Sears. Schwab’s own suggestion to provide an “active intellectualism” for curriculum work) and headed in other directions. has extended our thinking about paradigms by popularizing a fourth paradigm. In time. we excerpt Elliot Eisner’s The Educational Imagination. aesthetic perspective to the work of curriculum evaluation. If a new paradigm was not emerging. among others. This book was not only important for its unique take on curriculum work but because it—along with Michael Apple’s 1979 publication of Ideology and Curriculum— played a major role in popularizing the paradigm shift in contemporary curriculum thinking that took place around this time. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. understand (the practical paradigm).xxiv INTRODUCTION ticipants in an early series of “alternative” curriculum conferences that became the gathering place for a growing movement to reinvigorate and reconceptualize curriculum work. values. Our visit with Janet Miller and Alex Molnar provides an insider’s view of the dynamic interest in curriculum work as well as the fragile coalition that aimed to see this work legitimized. Much of contemporary curriculum work can be said to reflect the practical paradigm. In chapter 7. Schubert (1986) offers three analytically distinctive curriculum paradigms that allow one to predict (the perennial paradigm). Dan Marshall. though growing numbers of curricularists have taken what they can from this paradigm (e. so it appeared. This additional paradigm or framework serves those who wish to deconstruct reality (whether in support of. James T. the work of understanding or emancipation). and William H.. a Pearson Education Company. or emancipate (the critical paradigm) through posing and exploring questions about knowledge and experiences in schools. We use the term paradigm to mean a conceptual framework or way to look at the world composed of knowledge. in which he acknowledges a number of curriculum workers representing multiple perspectives before introducing his own. and assumptions that govern activity or inquiry in an academic field such as curriculum. however. certainly the old was being challenged as a variety of often competing perspectives vied to replace the Tyler rationale. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. The term paradigm is popular today thanks to Thomas Kuhn’s remarkable book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962/1970). Patti Lather (1992). Henry Giroux discusses his participation in the reconceptualization of curriculum work and articulates some of the distinctions among and within these paradigms.g. particularly as they relate to curriculum. Schubert. Chapter 7 brings this vector to bear on the period between 1979 and 1983 when the field had changed unarguably. moving our notions of reality away from those that are “found” toward those that are “constructed” by participants through their language and actions. as this collection of new and refurbished curriculum ideas gained currency. In chapter 7. . More recently. by J. variously called poststructural or postmodern. new energies increasingly were spent in disagreement and criticism among the various representatives of this curriculum renaissance.

. depending on its place and time in history. attention paid to social class or spirituality).INTRODUCTION xxv Of course. of course. and William H. And taking another step back. someone like B.. one might say that being on the margin of that which is generally accepted. for Pritzkau “took a stance that might be labeled existentialist and provided a departure from the usual generalizations found in many of the [other curriculum books of the time]” (Schubert. their marginal idea was often advanced to serve the business-asusual mode of making a better curriculum.g.. and done in the name of curriculum is an apt characterization of much contemporary curriculum work. a Pearson Education Company. your peers ignore your work) and within the broader context of that discourse (i. 1980. even when those representing such ideas did manage to make themselves heard (e.e. Contemporary curriculum history represents all of these variations on marginalization. Pritzkau’s book title indicates that his overall intentions were much the same as most other curriculum workers of his day: to improve curriculum. Dan Marshall.. . In chapter 8 we discuss several discourses that in effect had no visibility (or were ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir.g. your peers do not even recognize you as one of them). (1995) call “the paradigm wars”—a phenomenon similar. In a sense. More important. serious rifts developed over which of the alternative paradigms held the most promise for future curriculum theorizing. this attention proved minor compared with the popular discourses of fixing problems and choosing content. Here. However. in part because of the multiple perspectives and sophisticated nuances contained within each of them. For example. those promoting “curriculum integration” in the 1930s). we can recognize how one’s ideas might be marginalized both within a certain realm of discourse (i. To move further away from the familiar. we use the notions of minority and marginal interchangeably to represent several aspects of marginalized voices as a vector for investigating contemporary curriculum work. anyone representing a certain curriculum agenda (e. leading to what Pinar et al. discussed. At a different level. is to be rendered invisible. Schubert. in some ways. The idea of developing a tentative coalition for the purpose of breathing new life into an otherwise doomed operation is presented here in the parallel tale about NASA.g. we can also talk about minority voices in relation to the majority surrounding them. T.. P. although the curriculum rogues of the time understood themselves as collectively opposed to the perennial paradigm. Even when such topics received attention in the early years of the field (e. In chapter 8.e. F. by J. to the earlier split among progressive educators (see chapter 1). James T. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. social behaviorist) might be considered to be in the minority. p. To be truly marginalized. Pritzkau’s 1959 text Dynamics of Curriculum Improvement serves as an example. Skinner was actually considered a minority voice within the world of work done by social behaviorists. 143). paradigms lose their conceptual purity in reality. As chapter 7 suggests. Sears. Part V: The Uncertainties of Contemporary Curriculum Work (1984 to Lately).

and Bill Watkins—who work to develop their own voices within and around the imploding narrative called curriculum studies. Peter Hlebowitsh. in part. Petra Munro. by the tale of popular music. we also offer multiple excerpts from a special issue of Theory Into Practice to show the autobiographical passion underlying contemporary curriculum discourses. Sears. the chapter concludes with a constructed conversation among our invited visitors. we bring all of these elements together. Mary-Ellen Jacobs. We hope that you too will join in this important conversation. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall.xxvi INTRODUCTION ephemeral at best) for much of the curriculum field’s existence. . Dan Marshall. We visit with six curriculum workers—Tom Barone. In chapter 9. Just as we chose to visit multiple people in chapter 8. and William H. After imagining three quite different scenarios for the future of curriculum. reflecting on the past while discussing the future of curriculum work. James T. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. During recent decades a variety of such voices have surfaced between the cracks in contemporary curriculum discourses. Susan Edgerton. Schubert. Our effort to portray the difficulties inherent in both respecting and rejecting tradition while both requiring and repelling extant labels and identities is aided. by J. a Pearson Education Company.

Dan Marshall.P A R T I Contextual Panorama for Contemporary Curriculum Work (1897–1946) ▼ CHAPTER 1 Prelude to Contemporary Curriculum Theory and Development 1 ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Sears. by J. . James T. Schubert. a Pearson Education Company. and William H. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall.

76). Far greater than a mere item of curiosity. More than any other philosopher. the social Darwinist: “What knowledge is of most worth?” We prefer to restate the curriculum ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. and which increases the ability to direct the course of subsequent experience” (1916. and at the century’s end curriculum questions remain easily related to his definition of education. Schubert. To ask meaningful questions about what should be taught and learned invokes basic assumptions about what it means to enable the growth of human beings and societies. James T. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. the curriculum question is frequently derived from the oft-quoted midnineteenth-century work of Herbert Spencer (1861). . and William H. Dan Marshall. John Dewey influenced the thought of curriculum scholars throughout the twentieth century. John Dewey said it well when he defined education as “that reorganization and reconstruction of experience which adds to the meaning of experience.2 C PART I Contextual Panorama for Contemporary Curriculum Work (1897–1946) H A P T E R 1 Prelude to Contemporary Curriculum Theory and Development ▼ T 2 he seedbed of contemporary curriculum work is far more complex than an outgrowth of any one decade and extends deeply into the historical and philosophical roots of humanity and society. by J. curriculum lies at the heart of an educator’s desire to make a difference in human lives. The enduring curriculum question thus becomes “What adds meaning and direction or purpose to experience?” Put another way. p. a Pearson Education Company. Sears.

1942). and William H. Overview In a brief chapter such as this. he interpreted these three elements as “fundamentally interdependent factors in curriculum development” (Neil. we add two additional elements central ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. This book represents our collective effort to make some personal sense of this field as it has evolved during our lives. . and Harold Rugg began his quest for common questions (if not common answers). McCutchen. 9–10). in part. Here. students. Tyler (1949) summarized several of the key topics that emerged from the first half century while pointing out the need to address balance among these same three sources of curricular knowledge. In the most influential curriculum book of the twentieth century. Schubert.CHAPTER 1 Prelude to Contemporary Curriculum Theory and Development 3 question as “What is worth knowing and experiencing?” and would add “Why? When? Where? How? For whom?” The importance of such questions drew each of us into classroom teaching and. 1983. pp. adolescent needs. To personalize such questions and the theoretical and practical discourses that lie behind them is. and social demands (see Giles. James T. eventually. it is impossible to fully set the stage for recent (1947 to the present) contributions in the curriculum field. Ralph W. & Zechiel. 1927). whens. learners. It is also our attempt to show the struggles among people and their viewpoints within the ever-changing social. Dan Marshall. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. economic. and political landscapes of their times. We believe that the essence of curriculum studies lies in the way each educator internalizes fundamental questions of what curriculum is and should be—and the attendant whys. Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction. The Child and the Curriculum. Curriculum history is. and society. a continual recurrence of focus on three elements: subject matter. an act of embodying perspectives that enrich one’s asking of fundamental curriculum questions. Dewey (1902) pointed these elements out in his classic essay. Rugg’s leadership in this process gave some brief stability to a shakily developing curriculum field and resulted in a milestone publication. the curriculum leaders of the renowned Eight Year Study fashioned their model of curriculum development around three similar factors: specialized subject matter. When the nascent field was in danger of disintegrating in the 1920s due to lack of agreement. by J. the Twenty-Sixth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education (Rugg. cultural. and wheres of its enactment. a Pearson Education Company. we highlight some of the basic ideas and debates that fueled contemporary curriculum discourses. In the following decade. Having made the case for the perennial focus on subject matter. Sears. into higher education in general and the field of curriculum studies in particular. as Ann Lopez (1993) perceptively contends. and society as paradigmatic bases for curriculum considerations throughout the twentieth century.

schooling had been principally for the elite. of mothers who are profound educators. voices of African descent. or belief ? The brief history that follows calls for inclusion but is beset with ignorance. a Pearson Education Company. disability. Dan Marshall. experiencing. learners. ethnicity. and social behaviorist—the underlying assumptions of each reflecting the recurrent emphasis on subject matter. and the late Paulo Freire have steadfastly brought these questions to consciousness during recent decades. voices of Latina/Latino origin. and The Transformation of the School (Cremin. sexual identity. by J. Until then. voices of Native or first nation people? Where are the voices of women educators. oppressed. repressed. place of origin. of singers and storytellers who create the curriculum of popular culture.4 PART I Contextual Panorama for Contemporary Curriculum Work (1897–1946) to most curriculum debate. often taking the form of private tutoring in preparation for higher education that was reserved for the very few. what is worth knowing and experiencing (to which Schubert [1994. as Schubert sought to identify schools of curriculum thought in his earlier scholarship (Schubert. “and worth sharing”)? Different responses to this question obviously shift the balance among subject matter. for it involves the curriculum history equivalent of what Elliot Eisner (1985) calls the “null-curriculum. For those who wish to learn about these pre–World War II orientations. 1893–1958 (Kliebard. The Struggle for the American Curriculum. respectively. 1982). you will see how debate shifted among these three curriculum orientations as different spokespersons sought to influence curriculum decisions about knowing. The influence ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Relative to curriculum history. and sharing. we suggest History of the School Curriculum (Tanner & Tanner. a tunnel vision our field has not yet overcome. . In fact. Schubert. discussion. experientialist. and development. James T. dialogue. and William H. Curriculum Books: The First Eighty Years (Schubert. one of this country’s central and emergent problems was how to provide more universal education. 1995] adds. First. 1961). Sears. 1980). 1995). 1990).” or that which is not taught. Authors such as Jean Anyon. Here we refer to the many voices that have been suppressed. appearance. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. of children and youths. Catherine Cornbleth. and who benefits from those decisions? The latter part of this question is more subtle. 1980. and ignored. three emerged: intellectual traditionalist. In our first half-century tour of the curriculum field that follows. The Birth of Curriculum Studies In the 1890s. and society. of those ignored or cast aside or devalued because of illness. the student or learner. Where. we must ask. Our second additional question or topic of focus has to do with decision makers: Who decides (and should decide) what is worth knowing. and society. custom. religious views. this notion refers to that which has not been part of the debate or that which has been omitted from the field. are voices at the grassroots. Schubert & Schubert.

James advocated a curriculum based on conversation and dialogue about fundamental questions. on the one side. Although ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Heated debate raged among Herbartians (followers of Johann F. Dan Marshall. a respected Hegelian advocate of the disciplines of knowledge. Frank and Charles McMurry. . Stanley Hall. Among the debaters of Herbartian persuasion were Charles DeGarmo. society. and the child. by J. Nevertheless. not just classical subjects propped up and justified by “faculty psychology” that saw the mind as a muscle to be strengthened. although aligned with the intellectual descendants of Herbart. his intellectual mentor was William James at Harvard. On the social behaviorist front. James T. They saw child development as the key to curricular decision making and offered detailed plans on how to correlate subject matter around the way child development recapitulates the evolution of the human race. Sears. and William H. advocated education based on scientific child study. and William T. was a balanced integration of emphasis on subject matter. Frank McMurry (1927) and other fellow Herbartians only later realized the power of Parker’s insight into curricular correlation. Harris’s notion of the disciplines as “five windows of the soul” emerged victorious in the committee’s 1895 report. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. Eliot led an effort by the National Education Association’s (NEA) Committee of Ten in 1893 to broaden the array of subjects for high school students to include contemporary areas of study. The question of preparation for elementary students was still open. A pluralistic thinker and Dewey’s forerunner in pragmatism. G. James—clearly ahead of his time—seemed willing to integrate the subject matter focus of the intellectual traditionalist with the experientialist’s focus on individual growth. a curriculum focused on the moral and ethical that gives some attention to stream of consciousness and dreamworld elements of life (see Schubert & Zissis. Dewey’s curricular view (1899. 1902). In the end. Schubert. a Pearson Education Company.CHAPTER 1 Prelude to Contemporary Curriculum Theory and Development 5 of Horace Mann and Henry Barnard in promoting universal schooling resulted in major debate in the 1890s. saw the organizing center for correlation of subject matter as residing precisely in the life world of the child. however. Wilhelm Wundt. so the NEA established the Committee of Fifteen. on the other. Before Hall’s travels to Germany to align himself with the father of experimental psychology. Parker. Harris. Herbart). who started the first American psychological laboratory. with their developmental theories. With this broadened array of subjects the committee assumed that the best preparation for college was the same as the best preparation for life. In these efforts we can readily perceive a shift from subject to learner as a basis for curriculum work. 1988). the Herbartians continued to influence educational practice in America for another decade. The grassroots emphasis on the student as legitimate initiator of curriculum was clearly a theme of Dewey’s in the years that followed and was anticipated in the debate over the Committee of Fifteen Report. however. and Francis Parker. Charles W.

1897. After surveying U. Also a minority voice of influence for Dewey was botanist Lester Frank Ward (1883. progressive social and educational theory. Ward. A member of her advisory board. Dewey was able to demonstrate his ideas in practice—a major value for those who advocated experiential learning. for Dewey. excavating common human interests symbolized by (but at a deeper level than) the individually identified interests. 1902. differed substantially from most educational practice of his day (see Dewey. schools he wrote a series of scathing articles in The Forum. . founder of Hull House in Chicago. who opposed the social Darwinism of Herbert Spencer (1861). Dan Marshall.S. However. a Pearson Education Company. by J. At the turn of the century. Joseph Mayer Rice. James T. sought examples of schools that represented these Deweyan ideals in practice. having started the Laboratory School of the University of Chicago in 1896. significant emphasis stemmed from the societal front as well. 1899. His central curriculum position. and drawing on the fund of written knowledge (the logical or extant disciplines and areas of study) in pursuit of original interests and the discovery of new interests. Dewey’s pragmatic experimentalist educational philosophy. his logical referred to both the disciplines of knowledge and knowledge accumulated by human beings through everyday experiences. Influencing Dewey directly was the work of Jane Addams (1910. One additional figure from the 1890s should be mentioned. a pediatrician who had studied with Herbartians in Europe and America. and experiential and reconstructionist curriculum thinking came to the fore. the work of educators flows back and forth on a continuum between the logical and the psychological. Thus.6 PART I Contextual Panorama for Contemporary Curriculum Work (1897–1946) much of the debate of the 1890s pitted subject matter advocates against those who favored child-centered approaches. Sears. encouraging students to share these interests within a community of learners. 1916) in its argument for the pedagogic necessity of starting with the psychological and moving to the logical. 1913. often referred to as the progressive reorganization of subject matter. 1981). survival-of-the-fittest orientation to education. developed what Kliebard (1995) calls a social meliorist position built on the argument that human intelligence and a sense of justice make it unnecessary to accept a predator-like interpretation of the laws of nature for human society. Dewey meant the concerns and interests of the learner’s life world of experience. Dewey saw firsthand Addams’s practical efforts to help the urban poor and immigrant populations to reconstruct their lives and opportunities. By psychological. which called for a selfpreservationist. a popular periodical of the time. At the time. 1893). many would-be progressive educators were criticized for not being sufficiently rigorous and not acquainting students with the depth of knowledge available in the disciplines. tapping a broad array of experiential resources (persons who have experienced similar problems) as precedent. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. Schubert. and William H. Dewey’s pedagogical process included identifying individual student interests.

it can be measured. became a means to achieve curriculum efficiency. many curricularists argued for early ability grouping based on such tests. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. democratic community that values the intellectual repertoire available to it (i. . who reasoned that if something exists. subject matter. Sears. popularized during this era. thus. Then the weight of the rock was guessed. Faith in measurement was further hailed by Edward L. Offered as a joke. however. The overwhelming influence of Taylorism (Frederick Taylor. studentcentered.e.. or Kozol [1991]. The question of the first half century of curriculum debate is symbolized in Rice’s story: Can a grassroots. This story of Rice’s saga of survey and investigation does not represent a change in his ultimate ideals but rather in his faith in schools to live up to these ideals. the board was placed on a fulcrum.. founder of educational psychology. the questions of “Whose knowledge?” and “Who benefits?” must be addressed along with “What knowledge is worthwhile?” Struggles Surface Rice’s message of efficiency grew loud and strong in the first two decades of the twentieth century. for if only a few have such educational opportunity. As he learned more. who coined the term mindlessness to characterize mainstream educational practice. it does so in some amount. by J. Thus. Believing that one’s IQ was a true measure of potential. He observed that in certain rural areas a hog was tied to one end of a board.CHAPTER 1 Prelude to Contemporary Curriculum Theory and Development 7 Continuing his studies. and William H. Silberman [1970]. and we should work to do so. Schubert. who vividly conveyed the “savage inequalities” between urban and suburban schools). Dan Marshall. often comparing intelligence testing with hog weighing in his lectures. James T. and society rather than one or the other as dominant) be created to support universal education? Or do the hierarchies that govern our world prevent such experience for all but a select few? Dewey’s was an inclusive ideal. 1911) in business and industry led to a similar emphasis on technical efficiency in education. The gross ineptitudes he described remind one of those portrayed by critics of later eras (e. Intelligence testing. Thorndike (1924).g. a Pearson Education Company. learners. Rice attempted to determine why some schools were better or worse than others and produced examples of a new form of scientific and comparative study of educational practice in the process. Dewey. and systematically controlled. and then rocks were placed on the other end of the board until one rock equally balanced with the hog. this was a deceptively simple but conceptually crushing critique of the construct of intelligence reified as numerical scores. Rice (1913) moved increasingly toward the position that educational progress would only occur if teachers and their leaders were carefully guided. its democratic and communal value is negated and the few become dominant—whether they desire to be or not. efficiently managed. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. took a critical and wry look at the emergent popularity of testing.

Dan Marshall. home economics. vocational enhancement.. Kilpatrick illustrated how to integrate curriculum around projects that grow from student interests. 1986). new subjects (e. citizenship. 1924). command of fundamental processes. argued for scientific curriculum making based on survey data representing societal ideals rather than the discreet activities advocated by Bobbitt. Kilpatrick unquestionably influenced progressive practice. Although scholars still debate the authenticity of Kilpatrick’s interpretation of Dewey’s philosophy. Classic subjects. a Pearson Education Company. . Franklin Bobbitt (1918. however. and William H. the question of how to scientifically make curriculum was addressed directly. Within a few pages and in straightforward language. Sears. These activities would then be selected as a means to acquire curricular objectives.e. formerly dominant.g. organized. founded in 1919. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. L. Its Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education (1918) developed seven cardinal principles. and in part to the passage of the Smith-Hughes Act for Vocational Education in 1917. The Deweyan progressive or experientialist tradition was kept alive and promoted in these times through the Progressive Education Association (PEA). In the period from 1910 to 1930 the population of students attending high school increased markedly. a paragon of the social behaviorist orientation (Schubert. worthy home membership. Schubert. the move away from classic subjects. James T. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. In a similar vein. Clearly..8 PART I Contextual Panorama for Contemporary Curriculum Work (1897–1946) During the second decade of the new century. and ethical character. the purposes of secondary schooling broadened to meet social needs. and the influx of new student populations revived the question “What are the purposes of education?” Again the NEA was at the helm of policy advocacy. Both the curricular conciliarists (see Thomas. a former student of Dewey. Greek and Latin) were of minimal value in training the mind. argued that addressing existing social needs was insufficient. Activity analysis was a scientific strategy of surveying the public to see what successful members of society spend time doing and what they must know in order to do those things. argued for activity analysis as the basis for curriculum work. or new curriculum aims: health. gave way to the vernacular in the wake of empirical studies (devised by William James and later by E. W. Due in part to the belief that all students could benefit from secondary education. business. and evaluated classroom activities. W. “The Project Method” (1918). The decline of faculty psychology. Kilpatrick’s small pamphlet. worthy use of leisure time. Objectives of curriculum would then be derived from gaps between what successful people know and what students know. taught. Progressive educators. Charters (1923). Many progressive educators were influenced by William H. Thorndike) that “proved” that classic languages (i. from about 10% to more than 50% of those eligible. which were to be expressed in terms of student behaviors acquired through properly sequenced. and industrial arts) emerged in high schools that catered to working-class students. by J.

D. including Margaret Wells’s A Project Curriculum (1921). Bobbitt. Hutchins (1936). Margaret Naumburg’s The Child and the World (1928). The intellectual traditionalist position was kept alive (then) by William C. But we are getting ahead of our story. For them. Bagley (1905) and Robert M. a Pearson Education Company. progressivism never dominated educational thinking or practice in a popular sense. female progressive educators played a critical though much neglected role. followed later by Mortimer Adler (1982) and E. 1926). This intellectual traditionalist curriculum position has no small kinship with that of the social behaviorist extensions of Bobbitt. Hosic and Sara E. Sears. expert-driven enterprise resulting in selection or creation of products to be systematically delivered to students who were assessed on their retention of knowledge and acquisition of skills. Although the 1920s and 1930s became the heyday of progressive practices. including the child-centered work described by Harold Rugg and Ann Shumaker (1928). Chase. curriculum making was a top-down. many progressives saw them as favoring a curriculum of personal adjustment rather than social transformation. Charters. With the support of the National Society for the Study of Education (NSSE). Although the cardinal principles received less criticism. However. Sentiments of progressivism would reemerge under numerous guises in subsequent decades. Schubert. Ellsworth Collings’s (1923) portrayal of a project method experiment. Charters. and a range of other interpretations of progressive practices penned by female educators. merely perpetuated society’s seamiest effects. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. because they ignored the need for participatory democracy at all levels of society (even that of students in schools). David Snedden. Caroline Pratt’s Experimental Practice in the City and Country School (1924) and Before Books with Jessie Stanton (Pratt & Stanton. most accounts of progressive practice during these years were admirable. Harold Rugg coordinated a virtual all-star team of curriculum advocates from each of the contending schools of thought (among them were Bagley. . progressives asserted. and others in terms of adult-centered authority. The Progressives Multiply and Divide By the mid-1920s the curriculum field was in danger of disintegrating because of its many competing positions. Counts. Brief Guide to the Project Method (1926) by James F. by J. Education on the Dalton Plan (1922) by Helen Parkhurst. by the 1940s the curriculum field was again awash in struggle. and William H. Mary H. Curriculum workers guided by the “science” of activity analysis. James T. Hirsch (1987). It is difficult to find a more biting and witty critique of these curriculum orientations than Modern Educational Theories by Boyd Bode (1927). Lewis’s An Adventure with Children (1928).CHAPTER 1 Prelude to Contemporary Curriculum Theory and Development 9 1991) and social efficiency advocates had it wrong. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. However. and Patty Smith Hill’s A Conduct Curriculum (1923). Dan Marshall. During our field’s early years.

private. R. rural. and William H.or group-designed projects and completed minicourses on a wide range of topics. suburban. Their challenge: to find commonality in viewpoint about curriculum making. Did They Succeed in College? by Chamberlin. to take charge of the pursuit of meaningful projects. progressive educators undertook the most elaborate educational research project in the first half of the twentieth century. 30 school systems agreed to participate in the study. 1927) represented the first significant attempt to bring coherence to the expanding field of curriculum. these experimental–progressive schools were scattered around the United States and represented public. Smith. democratic interaction. . attitudinal. & Scott. the performance of students from the experimental–progressive schools equaled or exceeded that of students from traditional schools—success in foreign language being the lone exception. Eventually. intuition. After securing from nearly 300 colleges and universities a willingness to admit high school graduates based on portfolios of their work rather than traditional grades and test scores. and more). Chamberlin. An overview volume. tells the story and summarizes the findings. Harper & Brothers published four additional volumes in the same year (Exploring the Curriculum by Giles et al. social. Tyler. urban. and experiential insight held little sway in this modern world. Despite this search for a common ground. Students in many of the experimental–progressive schools engaged in self. these reports show that on all measures (academic. and to sustain and augment their curiosity. Collectively. James T. poor. a Pearson Education Company.. Ralph Tyler. “hard” data of the social behaviorists and traditionalists. Sears. The progressive explanation for this comparative success was that students learned to love learning.10 PART I Contextual Panorama for Contemporary Curriculum Work (1897–1946) Judd. Drought. this landmark volume (Rugg. group process. director of evaluation. along with a 10-page position statement. and university constituencies. and Thirty Schools Tell Their Story by educators from the schools commissioned by Progressive Education Association Publications). and relating learning to ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Appraising and Recording Student Progress by E. Dan Marshall. & the Evaluation Staff. they presented a list of 18 questions and subquestions for curriculum developers to consider. These were followed by more than 200 pages of rebuttal statements. written by Wilford Aikin and published in 1942. members of the Progressive Education Association felt pressure to demonstrate their successes with the more generalizable. wealthy. and his team arranged curriculum workshops for teachers and developed and employed a host of innovative evaluation instruments. Students from these 30 schools were compared throughout high school and college with students from traditional high schools. and Kilpatrick). by J. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. They learned skills and amassed knowledge as it became useful for them to do so. Nevertheless. Schubert. the Eight Year Study (circa 1933–1941). Because they found that story. Like their traditional counterparts. and thus they became adept at self-directed learning.

for example. they were seen as misguided by fellow progressives who favored the tamer. tanks. Moving beyond social theory and into curricular practice. These efforts largely failed. by J. fulfilling way of life. which curriculum approaches are used? What approach do you think is the most appropriate for today’s students? ? ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Some sought to bridge this rift. Counts. equitable. as did some progressives. argued that progressive education must build on the strengths of its common values. pointing to the need to find reciprocal relationships between individual and political growth. and the Japanese siege of Corregidor. was less reliable than modern research methods. Schubert. In 1932.S. Counts held—with the world on the brink of destruction—that curricula must be designed to rapidly overcome injustice and oppression and create a more democratic. James T. they were often criticized by reconstructionists as apolitical. Eclipsed by the invasion of North Africa. Rugg’s texts.” Despite the fact that these reconstructionists were concerned about individuals and small groups and guided by a social ideology. and later Theodore Brameld (1956) disputed the accusation. too. and George S.CHAPTER 1 Prelude to Contemporary Curriculum Theory and Development 11 living. though. the year famine in the Soviet Union claimed four million lives. Fate. Among prominent reconstructionist progressives. called for a deeper look into these superficial differences. Rugg went on to develop an influential series of high school social studies textbooks. squatter camps of World War I veterans were trampled by U. Dan Marshall. like the questions of Socrates and the fables of Aesop. though. Many outside the progressive movement accused these reconstructionists of indoctrination. weakening their collective voice and muddying the curriculum waters of the 1940s and early 1950s. Harold Rugg. led students to question too many of their elders’ values and the books were eventually dashed on the rocks of “un-Americanism. claiming to foster critical thinking and social action around issues of ethics and justice. everyday people simply struggled to survive. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. Sears. Dewey (1938). FDR was elected president. And although these child study advocates were concerned with democratic participation. Boyd Bode (1938). While the progressives were busy planning their massive study. a Pearson Education Company. Question In your community schools. a spring German offensive. Though they sold well for a few years. and in time this rift among progressives widened. . more individualized “child study” ideology. the report received scant public notice when compared with the nation’s attention to the events of World War II. Counts asked “Dare the School Build a New Social Order?” Stemming from Dewey’s efforts to provide curriculum that fostered democratic participation. and William H.

and William H. For example. In ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. the Progressive Education Association pushed hard on the issue of grassroots authority and influenced curriculum research through progressive and reconstructionist thought published in its two significant journals. James T. an agronomist and outsider who wrote insightfully about the need for social meliorism to overcome the detrimental effects of social Darwinism. through his publications. Publications themselves sometimes serve as benchmarking moments in the history of curriculum. and efficient management of curriculum in the Bobbitt and Charters generation (1915–1930) changed as a new generation of curriculum workers. social behaviorists viewed education as a science and worked for the efficient acquisition of socially admired traits. and imagine purpose and possibility. . The National Education Association. through several major committees and commissions. proved to be a much greater intellectual forum for curriculum policy making throughout the first half of the twentieth century than any single professional group active today. helped those doing curriculum work to turn away from the adult-centered curriculum that dominated educational theory and practice in the nineteenth century. Schubert. Actually. Further. Franklin Bobbitt. by J. and reconstructionists worked to create a more just and equitable society. John Dewey. Intellectual traditionalists cared about preserving sociocultural values and insights from great works and disciplines of knowledge. curriculum is an illustration of the influence of government agendas. among them Counts and Rugg. and Ralph Tyler are examples of established curricularists who were both inf luenced by and attempted to inf luence matters of public interest. a Pearson Education Company. That curriculum ref lects the social context or milieu of the times is patent. turned the field toward a social reconstructionist orientation. The impact of the Smith-Hughes Act on U. social Darwinism and the efficiency movement in general were more pervasive socially and economically than educationally. The same can be said about the federal government. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. experientialists promoted their faith in the judgment of grassroots decision making (even among students) to solve problems. Harold Rugg. We can see this in the work of Lester Frank Ward. Sears. Emphases on expert science. in every era we see those outside the field of curriculum enter to make considerable waves.12 PART I Contextual Panorama for Contemporary Curriculum Work (1897–1946) Conclusion A great deal of terrain has been covered here (from the early 1890s to the late 1940s) as we viewed curriculum history from diverse vantage points. Major figures such as John Dewey. Social Frontier (1934–1943) and Progressive Education (1924–1959). enhance meaning.S. As professional organizations go. which plays a small but important part in the shaping of our early curriculum story. Dan Marshall. social behaviorism. Rugg’s 1927 NSSE Yearbook and Counts’s 1932 Dare the School are further examples.

Voices of women and children (especially children) remain thin in this history as well. from the early years of the curriculum field. Dan Marshall. by J. DuBois (1903). DuBois wrote on a host of curricular topics throughout the period just discussed. Horace Mann Bond [see Urban. Burleigh. for example. reconstructionist. Nevertheless. Schubert. gendered. Yet it is our hope to mention them enough that other students and scholars of curriculum will make visible these neglected educators and authors. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. and William H. too. Woodson [1933]. . experientialist. as is the voice of Cuban liberationist Jose Marti (see. implicit in the writings of the first half century (especially those of Dewey) is a great deal that speaks to both questions. These paradigms include various perspectives. Sears. Benjamin Mays. yet his work is rarely cited in curriculum literature. a Pearson Education Company. Deep South [1940] by Davis. James T. and assumptions that govern activity or inquiry in an academic field such as curriculum. all of which shifted and vied for recognition and influence in curriculum debates during the early years of optimism and mission in the field. They remain invisible throughout much of this book not because they are unimportant to the story we tell but because ours is an attempt to portray the intellectual and social history of what has been rather than what might or should have been a part of the background of contemporary curriculum studies. Such marginalized voices need to be excavated. We will talk about some of ASCD’s gatherings later in this book. & Gardner. social behaviorist. and other voices largely invisible—a term used perceptively by the African-American scholar W. a broad range of curricular perspectives combined when the NEA’s Department of Supervisors and Directors of Instruction merged with the Society for Curriculum Study to create the huge and influential Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD). by which we mean a conceptual framework or way to look at the world comprised of knowledge. Reflecting on the first 50 years of curriculum work finds racial. and On Education by Jose Marti [1979]). and Allison Davis [1929]) are missing. and even conciliarist represent substantive paradigms. Question What accounts for the marginalization of these various voices? Can you identify other voices or individuals during this 50-year period who were also rendered silent? ? ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. 1992].CHAPTER 1 Prelude to Contemporary Curriculum Theory and Development 13 1943. Other AfricanAmerican voices (Carter G. values. intellectual. B. Positions such as the intellectual traditionalist. In more recent years these curriculum debates have moved from their preoccupation with questions about what should be taught and learned and how to develop and package it to problems regarding how best to inquire about such questions. and integrated fully into our discourse about curriculum. studied. E.

Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. its educational mission was changing. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. purposes. Living through difficult yet remarkable economic. in part. to serve (or subvert) society’s apparent needs. Dan Marshall. be it to situate the learner at the center of education. Sears. By the late 1940s the field of curriculum had arrived. and the need for attention to curriculum matters was obvious. and William H. political. or to try to somehow balance all of these. a Pearson Education Company. and cultural times. a deep optimism in the value of their work: The country was changing. each had a mission. . to maintain the integrity of disciplined knowledge. by J. What kept this group of curricularists going was.14 PART I Contextual Panorama for Contemporary Curriculum Work (1897–1946) Regardless of collisions among holders of differing perspectives. or beliefs. social. questions. the men and women who helped develop and define curriculum work through their engaging struggles were people with a vision of the centrality of curriculum to questions of what schooling and education ought to be. James T. Schubert.

by J. a Pearson Education Company. Schubert. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. and William H. .P A R T II The Rise and Fall of Curriculum Specialists (1947–1960) ▼ CHAPTER 2 ▼ CHAPTER 3 Curriculum Development at Its Zenith Transfer by Eminent Domain 15 ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. James T. Sears. Dan Marshall.

Living in a land unchallenged as a military and industrial superpower and awash in the benevolence of Uncle Sam’s benefits to millions of soldiers. Dan Marshall. the transistor.16 C PART II The Rise and Fall of Curriculum Specialists (1947–1960) H A P T E R 2 Curriculum Development at Its Zenith ▼ F 16 ollowing what oral historian Studs Terkel has called “the good war. inventions including xerography. and the long-playing record appeared. and vacations in the family automobile. dances. Americans—at least the vast Euro-American middle class—saw a future of social promise and economic prosperity in a land seemingly insulated from the factionalism that had nearly destroyed Europe: Norman Rockwell covers for the Saturday Evening Post. and comforting Big Band music accompanied by crooning singers such as Rosemary Clooney. and malt shops. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. steady work. Benjamin Spock’s Baby and Child Care.” men and women anxiously returned to the normalcy of pre–World War II life: marriage and families. in postwar America it was the zeitgeist of the times. It was an era of hope and optimism: the United Nations held its first session in London. Topgrossing movies included David Lean’s Great Expectations and William Wyler’s The Best Years of Our Lives. Schubert. a Pearson Education Company. movies. and the Jewish state of ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Sears. the Nuremberg Tribunal reached a summative judgment for crimes against humanity. . and William H. and the Marshall Plan infused $18 billion into European reconstruction. James T. by J. Although from hindsight such a view may appear hopelessly romantic.

Caswell exemplified the scholar-practitioner in that he both theorized about and practiced curriculum making. The curriculum field had established an identity during the 1930s as an informed yet practical endeavor. working-class women relieved from one job turned around and secured another. Millions of men and women had stepped onto foreign shores such as those of Normandy and Wake Island or into foreign environments such as General Electric munitions and Bethlehem Steel plants. the bank and bakery. most prominent among them Hollis Caswell. The work of constructing curricula for schools and districts was done by a small but growing number of curriculum people. The world was becoming complicated. by J. they were largely invisible in everyday social life as each person understood his or her role defined against the taken-for-granted symbols and rituals of American life: church steeples. were the communities of school and the small bands of educators known as “curriculum people. some women and men never returned to their past: homosexual soldiers were discharged into the ports of San Francisco and New York City. Sears. too. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. momand-pop businesses lined Main Street: the barbershop and beauty salon.CHAPTER 2 Curriculum Development at Its Zenith 17 Israel entered world politics no less profoundly than Jackie Robinson entered “white” professional baseball.” Curriculum Work as Curriculum Making These postwar years brought focused attention to American public schooling in general and curriculum work in particular. Dan Marshall. Neither the economic independence experienced by women on-line nor the cultural diversity experienced by men in uniform would be easily forgotten. In towns with bucolic and patriotic street names.g. Many who did return home soon discovered that both they and their communities were already undergoing change. and compulsory school laws enmeshed schooling with the American dream. Expanding cities. as men reoccupied factories and their role as breadwinners. and African-Americans and Native Americans refused to accept the indignities of second-class status after proving indispensable in the war effort. Yet this good war had already sowed the seeds of social transformation in America. it fell to curriculum workers to help schools and school districts answer questions about worthwhile knowledge and experiences. and with more students of all sorts spending more time in schools. In fact. and William H. and county fairs. immigration (both from abroad and from the American South). women were dutifully returned to the kitchen and their role as caregivers. Fourth of July parades. Though social and geographic divisions existed (e. . James T.. In the late 1940s most Americans lived in small communities or rural surroundings. Now. So. Schubert. the grocery and granary. the “wrong side of the tracks” variously populated by the working poor and ethnic or racial minorities). a Pearson Education Company.

Caswell and Campbell also pioneered the combining of varied curriculum publications from journals and book chapters with their 1937 book. Thomas Watson was the quintessential “NCR man” (intelligent. James T. However. the book was their attempt to provide some uniformity for a field moving in many different directions (i. THE RISE OF BIG BLUE The emergence and dominance of IBM in the new field of business technology and computing reflects both the optimism of this postwar generation and the underbelly of nascent multinational corporatism. . Sears. and tenacious) at the turn of the century. and developed new markets by ruthlessly undercutting his competitors.e. Schubert. expanded the well-trained and richly rewarded sales force. and William H. and by 1910 he was a member of company president John Patterson’s inner circle and his heir apparent. This story is a harbinger to how a young field such as curriculum studies (with its own niche at Teachers College producing curriculum workers to serve a monopoly of educational clients) was first challenged from within and later from without. because they canonized knowledge for graduate students preparing to be curriculum workers. Readings in Curriculum Development.18 PART II The Rise and Fall of Curriculum Specialists (1947–1960) Caswell and his colleague Doak Campbell first recognized the need to further professionalize curriculum work by bringing the disparate thinking in curriculum together in a synoptic text. a Pearson Education Company. in part.There he created an experimental laboratory for a new generation of advanced and superior business machines. Such publications texts became important.Within three years he rose to the top in sales. and CTR was renamed International Business Machines. following a nationally publicized antitrust trial and disagreements on marketing strategies. Watson valued cooperation and loyalty as much as he discouraged independence and individualism.. and emphasized research and development (R&D). Called Curriculum Development (1935). During the next two decades Watson oversaw the quadrupling of revenues as IBM weathered the Depression. took advantage of the electrification and urbanization of America. by J. Once a National Cash Register (NCR) salesperson from upstate New York. Watson was named chief executive officer. aggressive. Emphasizing hard work. Leas(continued) ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. In 1924. Watson found himself holding his last paycheck. Watson quickly assumed management responsibility for the fledgling Computing-Tabulating-Recording (CTR) Company. Dan Marshall. to place much of the literature that had emerged within the curriculum rubric under one cover). Theirs turned out to be an exemplary kind of organizational scheme that provided a pattern for many synoptic texts of the 1940s and 1950s. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall.

81). The Depression found Watson developing relationships with institutions of higher education and academics. p. Dan Marshall. these two curriculum meccas would redefine the curriculum field. selling operating supplies at inflated prices.g. and its sales emphasis on leasing and upgrading would enable it to dominate the computer market. Like IBM and its youthful rival Rand. and Howard Aiken) with IBM to develop the automatic controlled sequence calculator that was unveiled in February 1943 as the Mark I. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. In the field of curriculum. and the upstart University of Chicago. For example. more important. and William H. IBM subsidies provided to Columbia University’s Statistics Bureau contributed to the development of the calculator. to a large extent. as such. and providing free training to the predominantly female IBM operators created a “harmonious whole . James T. During the 1930s. providing low capitalization requirements for leased equipment. its monopoly on critical components. James B. by J. Harlowe Shapley. 1940s. Curriculum Meccas and Mentors In these early years of the curriculum field. . . There were subject matter specialists. 1981. of course—those in mathematics education or social studies education—but they had less interaction with the general curriculum field than colleagues in the social and philosophical or psychological foundations of education. inf luencing school curricula. Sears. there ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir.CHAPTER 2 Curriculum Development at Its Zenith 19 THE RISE OF BIG BLUE (continued) ing its machines to large corporations and the government (whose demand exploded with its New Deal agencies). provided them with a source for cutting-edge technology and ideas. Conant. built on the pillars of perennialism and empiricism under the leadership of Robert Hutchins. It was also the formula for IBM’s success a generation later when its reputation for customer service. and 1950s many would probably have identified themselves as generalists. [that] provided IBM with a stability that the other companies in the industry lacked” (Sobel. these included Teachers College–Columbia University. which in turn led to the alliance of leading Harvard academics and researchers (e. like public schools. Schools of education. enjoyed their own monopolies. synonymous with progressivism and experientialism. Indeed. many of whom spent considerable time consulting and. Schubert. curricularists were a small and rather insular group of university-situated academics. a Pearson Education Company. IBM came to dominate the educational testing market by developing the 805 test scorer in the 1930s.. Serving on the boards of trustees for universities such as Columbia not only gave Watson and IBM a small market advantage but. .

and Elliot Eisner). Other great curriculum or foundations faculty members at Teachers College included Florence Stratemeyer. Thomas Hopkins. and Joseph Schwab). Counts. Indeed. At Teachers College in the 1940s and early 1950s one could also find L. Gordon McKenzie. Teachers College—a flagship institution for progressivism—was the IBM of curriculum studies. Tyler became head of the Department of Education. John Childs. Dan Marshall. Just as he would inf luence his new department by recruiting inf luential faculty members (including Virgil Herrick. the main place that people from all over the world went to study curriculum was Teachers College. who was the research director of the Horace MannLincoln Laboratory School. progressive curriculum experiment from Ohio State University to the University of Chicago. Caswell was influential in helping to legitimize curriculum studies there and move the field toward greater status. John Goodlad. and William H. he would contribute to the curriculum field’s continued sophistication through his impact on students (including Benjamin Bloom. brought his work in evaluating this great. Carl Rogers. George Axtell. James T. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Few people actually sought doctorates in curriculum around the World War II era because few universities offered such a degree. by the 1940s. Not yet 40 years old. Kilpatrick. and William H. . Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. the first academic department to employ the term curriculum (the Department of Curriculum and Teaching) was inaugurated in 1935 at Teachers College under the leadership of Hollis Caswell. dean of social sciences. and educational examiner at Chicago. Largely because of Caswell’s presence. midway in the Eight Year Study (1936). George S. Sears. Though influenced markedly by progressive theory. Schubert. Probably the only serious rival for graduate curriculum studies during the 1940s and 1950s was the University of Chicago. Ralph Tyler. by J. And in 1949 he published a version of his syllabus under the title Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction. a Pearson Education Company. Lee J. Alice Miel. the institutional legacy continued. seemed to intellectually dominate curriculum work) and those primarily inf luenced by educational psychologists. Caswell’s curriculum work is best characterized as eclectic. most important curriculum mentors worked at Teachers College–Columbia University and the University of Chicago. Cronbach. Ohio State University. Tyler was—for years— responsible for teaching the major curriculum course for graduate students at the University of Chicago. Though some had retired by the early 1950s. Although the curriculum field was being nurtured by faculty at the University of Illinois.20 PART II The Rise and Fall of Curriculum Specialists (1947–1960) seems to have been a competition between people whose origins were in the philosophical and social foundational areas (who. Robert Havighurst. Harold Rugg. and the University of Wisconsin.

It’s a funny thing. Sears. 1 Personal communication. In general he treated me as a protégé. and William H. Well. a 1949 doctoral graduate of Teachers College. So I followed him there. After that year enrollments were dropping and I was transferred to a junior high school in East Oakland where I taught science. Dan Marshall. Where was he? He was at Teachers College. during the depression his practice collapsed and here I was in college at the University of California in Berkeley. Foshay. Entering the curriculum field around midcentury. later invited me onto the faculty [1949]. Foshay’s choice seemed obvious. I went there in the summer of 1945 to let them look me over and to look them over. and social studies. so I thought I’d better get off his back. and there’s a test you need to take”—it was a graduate intelligence kind of thing. A. a Pearson Education Company. As for where to attend. music. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. and invited me to do a book with him (Education in the Elementary School. As he put it: The best place to go at that time was Teachers College. In the medieval university. Schubert. . He told me to come back when I’d done that. When I sought Caswell out. along with French. In 1936. because I never knew him awfully well in a personal sense. The following summer I returned with a high score on that test—and his whole manner changed! He rolled out a red carpet. studied with many of curriculum’s early progressives. as Foshay explains.1 it was Caswell’s stature within the curriculum field more than Teachers College’s progressive reputation that drew him to New York City: My father was an old fashioned family doctor who made house calls. he recognized the change in traditions under way. August 17.CHAPTER 2 Curriculum Development at Its Zenith 21 ▼A rthur Wellesley Foshay—A Hollis Caswell Pro t é g é Arthur Wellesley (Wells) Foshay. I had heard about Hollis Caswell at Cal in several courses. He was the leading curriculum man in the country at that time. “Well. Wells and his wife agreed that he should go on to pursue a doctorate in curriculum. My first meeting with him was formal. he said. James T. mainly. I was there for three years before becoming an elementary school principal in 1939—a job I kept through the war. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. 1950). by J.W. though he has steadfastly maintained his support for the progressive ideals he embraced at Teachers College. offered me a job as Assistant Principal at the Horace Mann-Lincoln School at Teachers College. English. I got a job as a high school teacher in Oakland. 1994. here are some courses you probably ought to take. However. you go to the man. Following the war.

Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. Caswell the eclectic. And most new curriculum workers typically began their careers after taking only a few curriculum development courses and consuming one or another of the popular synoptic texts. most curriculum leaders of this era spent a good deal of time in school environments working with their clients—teachers and administrators—to make curricula. Schubert. and normative-prescriptive curriculum theory. and Arthur Jersild. Herrick and Tyler identified several ideas in their conclusion to the published conference proceedings. represented a different form of curriculum leadership. . Much of my time as a researcher [1949–1952] was spent in Springfield. participants were gathered to develop theoretical principles that might move curriculum development and research beyond their eclectic and stalled position. But Caswell remained my mentor. So I went back. and the income from the endowment was used to support a research staff. who provided Wells Foshay with numerous opportunities on the one hand and yet no specific direction for curriculum work on the other. In the conveners’ eyes. Caswell invited me to come back to Teachers College in 1957 as Head of the Horace MannLincoln Institute. Upon graduation. Ralph Tyler the assessor. a Pearson Education Company. Our beginning point for contemporary curriculum history is 1947 because it coincides with a curriculum conference held at the University of Chicago on October 16 and 17 of that year. I left Teachers College in 1952 to become Director of the Bureau of Education Research at Ohio State University. and William H. Florence Stratemeyer. there were plenty of well-known people at Teachers College at the time. Caswell invited me to join the faculty as a Research Associate in the Horace Mann-Lincoln Institute of School Experimentation. working with school staff doing action research. and while at Teachers College I developed a strong sense of membership in the curriculum field. including Harold Rugg. an increasing amount of curriculum work was being done by a small but growing number of established curriculum people and their students. Convened under the leadership of Virgil Herrick and Ralph Tyler. Jersild even became my doctoral sponsor when Caswell became dean of the college and couldn’t take on any more sponsorships. and teaching his curriculum students at Chicago to begin with a small and manageable set of “basic principles” for curriculum work on the other. Missouri. Seeking Guidance and Direction As we have illustrated thus far. Although no grand theory emerged. not in laboratories. who was establishing evaluation as a fundamental aspect of curriculum work on the one hand. Too. the time had come to try and move beyond the competing paradigms of neopositivist. inISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Sears. analytic. The institute was to carry on experimentation in public schools. Dan Marshall.22 PART II The Rise and Fall of Curriculum Specialists (1947–1960) Mind you. represented one sort of curriculum mentor. largely educated at two philosophically different institutions. James T. by J.

Additional Concerns about Curriculum Theory Curriculum development by its very nature is a co-operative problem. the development of curriculum theory is a co-operative enterprise. These ideas include their belief that an adequate curriculum theory could only be produced by the combined efforts of people at all “levels of curriculum work.CHAPTER 2 Curriculum Development at Its Zenith 23 cluding the state of curriculum theorizing at that time and a foreshadowing of changes in the field. published in 1950 as Toward Improved Curriculum Theory. . On the other hand. Herrick and Tyler further understood that curriculum questions were inherently questions about values and should be acknowledged and critically discussed as such. The teacher working with a group of young people is engaging in a co-operative learning project whether he recognizes it or not. they foresaw the need to address curriculum questions on a “broad front” via multidisciplinary teams or “committees” that employed “creative scholarship” in their efforts. 1950. No one person is going to be able to encompass all the knowledges or to perceive all the problems that would be essential in the formulation of an adequate conception of curriculum. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. Herrick and Ralph W. a Pearson Education Company. . The belief of the editors of this monograph is that the task of curriculum theory is not the question of either the grass-roots approach or the mountain-top ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. there must be.This sense of disappointment should not. It should merely point out the great opportunity for work and contribution in curriculum development. It is likely too that professional workers in the curriculum were disappointed to realize that. if any. the past fifteen to twenty years had produced few. . and William H. . . The following excerpt is from their concluding essay to the conference proceedings. people who are consciously trying to see the ideas which are important in clarifying and relating the various curriculum activities in their sphere of interest. . 124). Schubert. however.” Additionally. In the same way.” (Herrick & Tyler. is to provide its audience with a sense of the present status of the thinking in the field and of the future directions to be taken. . but it is quite likely that they must have both a horizontal and a vertical orientation to curriculum activities. on the various levels of curriculum work.Tyler One useful outcome of a conference . Dan Marshall. Sears. . Next Steps in the Development of a More Adequate Curriculum Theory by Virgil E. And recognizing that “a theory of curriculum becomes very close to a theory of education. . At present. p. . . in spite of this conference’s being the first of its kind. new or significant contributions to the topic of the conference. . James T. by J. they invited a diverse group of curriculum workers to begin the more comprehensive and complicated challenges awaiting them as the century passed its midpoint. there is not even any clear-cut conception of what these levels of curriculum work are. lead to cessation of work in the field.

The Problem of Basic Orientations The problem of basic orientations is not different from the problem of more adequate curriculum theory because one of the most important decisions in formulating a good curriculum theory is the one regarding the basic orientation of that theory. by J. if we are to have more comprehensive theory. and the individual must be considered. . we have to have more people thinking and struggling with its problems. both in general and in special fields. not in the fact that these three backgrounds are not considered at some point. . is it possible for workers in education and in fields of study such as sociology. Approaches to this problem differ. The implications of this point of view are many and pose some interesting problems for the profession itself. man’s knowledge. This problem of the orientations of the curriculum is mentioned specifically because it serves to point up an aspect of theory which runs through all the specific problems of curriculum development. . secondary education. he would have to become acquainted with the subject matter of his theory. . such as elementary education. higher education. man’s knowledge. As a part of the above. .The simplest solution would be to say. psychology. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. just as the worker in education would have to become acquainted with the disciplines of the philosopher and with the points of his preoccupations. . there is general agreement that the society. Sears. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. . but in the fact that they differ primarily at the base which is given prior importance.24 PART II The Rise and Fall of Curriculum Specialists (1947–1960) attack but that any program must have both. Actually. the workers on the horizontal levels of education. a Pearson Education Company. or adult education. Dan Marshall.“Give this task to the philosophers.The persons naturally concerned with curriculum theory on the different levels are the teacher who tries to encompass the total program of his group. . human development. this task will not be given to any group unless they are willing to assume it. man’s accumulated knowledge. or the individual should be the initial and basic orientation of the curriculum in general and of the derivation of objectives in particular. political science. and the educational philosophers.There is need for communication and synthesis of results. the curriculum co-ordinators and supervisors in the public schools. In the derivation of objectives. Curriculum problems demand a range of competencies and a cooperative attack. For example. It is time that these problems be posed frankly and honestly. .” And while the philosopher might welcome the task. James T. or the society but to whether you believe the society. and the other content fields to communicate and work together so that their individual contributions can be utilized in the solution of common problems of curriculum? . and William H.The problem simmers down not to whether you are or are not going to consider the individual. the specialist in curriculum organization and development. Schubert. proceeding through proper communication and interaction to evolve and creatively project a more adequate curriculum theory. however. Improvement in curriculum theory will probably come as rapidly or as slowly as we make progress in securing such co-operation.

Many times. . Dan Marshall.The knowledge of how individuals learn and develop is confronted with its own dilemma in this connection. we need a theory of value to help us make a theory of curriculum. organization. and for determining the role and function of the learner and teacher in the educational process? It has been suggested that this decision is one of the major value judgments of curriculum. In relation to this question. . It would be especially helpful if the points where value judgments operate were honestly recognized and critically discussed in the writings on curriculum theory. for no one seems to know what to apply the methods of scientific education to or how. . Differences in this conception account for. . for selecting and organizing the learning experiences. First. This fact is especially true in the field of curriculum. in the main. . . The different points of view regarding learning and development rest their case ultimately upon some conception regarding the basic orientation of the learning and developmental process. Research on Broad Fronts Most fields of study are constantly being enriched by discoveries and advances in related fields. .The second suggestion is that some critical study be made of the role of values in curriculum investigation and that the implications of this study be shown for the development of curriculum theory and practice. Schubert. How does one decide the basic orientation of a curriculum for determining objectives. . the approaches to these problems do not differ in the sense that different elements are considered in the decisions involved in determining the selection of learning experiences and their organization into a learning program with adequate breadth and continuity. much of our curriculum thinking starts to sound like a phonograph record stuck at a certain spot. the differences in findings and point of view. after having applied them. But what does one look at as a value when making these judgments? At this point. James T. the discussion usually gets hazy. that would eliminate the ultimate need for making some kind of judgment on a base still outside the data being considered. many have suggested that the solution consists in applying the methods of scientific education or the products of present knowledge about how individuals learn and develop. . Perhaps . a Pearson Education Company. the problem would be clarified and the issues would be kept clear if the writers on the various topics of curriculum development would make sure that the reader is always told what decisions are being made and exactly how these decisions are being reached.With this suggestion. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. Sears. society is the basic orientation to the curriculum because the society is the basic orientation of the curriculum because the society is the. The differences in the approaches to these problems grow out of the differences in the order in which certain bases are used as initial considerations in the selection process. and sequence. similar advances do not take place in curriculum theory either ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. And we are back again where we started. . by J. and William H. . however. The editors of this monograph have only two suggestions to make at this point. .CHAPTER 2 Curriculum Development at Its Zenith 25 Similarly in the problems of selection.

When this is a conscious part of the in-service training. Rather. James T. very properly. . and William H. It is very likely that the contribution to humanity on the one hand and the demand on creative scholarship on the other is not very different in either case.When this is true. when the implications of a new knowledge or new understanding of what educational programs might be are honestly put into practice. being made by committees which represent an array of backgrounds and interests. there is real hope for the continued improvement of the school’s program. .26 PART II The Rise and Fall of Curriculum Specialists (1947–1960) because everyone assumes that the implications of such advances in other fields are obvious for the field of curriculum or because no one really faces up to the task of determining the actual import of such advances for the improvement of educational programs.The power and capacity of a school staff to improve its own program grows correspondingly when these working hypotheses are part of the thought and action pattern of each teacher. Leadership in Curriculum Development The emphasis on curriculum theory in this monograph does not mean that the problem of curriculum improvement in schools is not regarded as important. Sears. by J. too. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Curriculum theory in its broadest aspects is not a problem apart from the development of curriculum programs in schools. First. Could it be that a person interested in the problem of the curriculum might profitably be a part of such research groups? Second. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. Frequently. deserves as much recognition and status in the professional field of education as that now given to the so-called “pure research” specialists. the kind of creative scholarship which would deal with the synthesis of these related fields of knowledge and with the seeing of the import of this synthesis for curriculum theory and improved curriculum practices. future experience can supply data for the evaluation and improvement of such hypotheses. . Dan Marshall. a Pearson Education Company. In fact. the two merely illustrate the important ingredients of the same problem. . The most important part of this point of view is the fact that the above process is the very foundation of an educational program through which we hope each learner will become increasingly competent to deal with his own problems. then there is no more worth-while project demanding the attention of workers in education. If this is true. It is difficult to visualize a program of inservice education of any value in which the program of activities is not directed by some kind of “working hypotheses” of education and curriculum. Two ideas which may have some significance seem to grow out of this discussion. many research studies in education and its related fields are. In this sense. a theory of curriculum becomes very close to becoming a theory of education. the value of curriculum theory is not realized until it serves to aid the teacher in making curriculum decisions in his classroom. that practice is so different from the traditional practice of the school that it seems impossible of achievement and is consequently discarded or ignored as being too radical or too impractical. Schubert.

. a Pearson Education Company. R. financial. and William H.Thus. two additional IBM scientists quit to form the first computer-focused firm. Bell of AT&T.S. the death of vice president Charles Kirk silenced the only executive championing the potential of computer technology—which lacked commercial applications and carried an undetermined R&D price tag.While research continued elsewhere on computers. and RCA were unable to enter the computer technology because of legal. General Electric became the first nongovernmental firm to own a computer—another UNIVAC.V. James T. Smaller companies such as NCR. Sears. and in 1951.. IBM: LEADERSHIP IN COMPUTER DEVELOPMENT ike the place of curriculum people in the development of school programs. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. U. Illinois. Further.1 million. the elder Watson assumed the post of board chairman and his son.A. or marketing considerations. to RCA. In 1954. IBM failed to take advantage of its resources and networks due to lack of competition and internal insularity. Schubert. knowledge. (continued) L ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. 118–124). (Eds). ECC—bought out by Remington Rand— delivered its UNIVAC computer to the Census Bureau for a hefty $1. Dan Marshall. Yet despite the unparalleled resources held by IBM in terms of its network of scientists and institutional affiliations. & Tyler. IBM’s emphasis on commercial viability and its reliance on the customer to direct its efforts resulted in the loss of John von Neumann.CHAPTER 2 Curriculum Development at Its Zenith 27 Question In the derivation of objectives. RCA had completed the EDVAC computer for the Army. Next steps in the development of a more adequate curriculum theory. Published 1950. In everyday school life. assumed the vice presidential seat occupied by Kirk. how do you see these three backgrounds variously defined and operationalized? ? Source: Herrick. and the individual. (1950). Copyright 1950 by The University of Chicago.. In Toward improved curriculum theory (pp. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall.All rights reserved. Chicago. By 1950. and market range. its 73-year-old patriarch showed more enthusiasm for the known market than the potential market: computers. Composed and printed by The University of Chicago Press. by J. the most prominent theoretician in the field of computers. Electronic Control Corporation (ECC).Tom Watson Jr. Content with developing electronic variations of IBM’s card-sorting machines. extensive patents and profits. the authors note “general agreement” (although not on their importance or priority) on three backgrounds for curriculum development: society. IBM’s place in business machines at the end of World War II was unchallenged.

by J. although inferior to the UNIVAC. unveiled the 705. a computer that. By 1956. two years later and. found military applications. in 1955. But the single most powerful reason was market advantage. the elder Watson handed corporate control to his son. . p. What accounted for the dramatic turnaround of a company that only a few years earlier had been two years behind? Certainly one can cite IBM’s effective and well-rewarded sales force. technological. 161) quotes Watson junior.The result was guaranteed profits and a direct sales link to IBM service personnel. (continued) ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. every computer customer leased at least one piece of IBM equipment. In the spring of 1956. 85% of the retail value of computer sales was generated by IBM. IBM quickly developed the 701. IBM’s governing structure also changed during this transition of leadership. which competed favorably against the UNIVAC with a price tag well below the Remington Rand model.Thus. overtaken Rand in the production and marketing of commercial computers. Faced with competition on the home turf and fueled by the military needs of the Korean War. Watson junior had doubled IBM’s long-term debt. The new corporate climate emphasized innovation. a Pearson Education Company. reasonably decentralized organization. 100 executives attended a reorganization conference. the 702. “we emerged three days later as a modern. James T. this now multinational conglomerate delegated authority and dispersed power. In other words. In the space of three years.” Sobel (1981. and William H. . UNIVAC had less than 10%. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. and business acumen—long characteristics of IBM—coupled with heavy capitalization and youthful vision. “We went in a monolith. and open communication. who quickly initiated the largest capital borrowing campaign in the company’s history. tripled its income. its reputation for service and customer satisfaction. The move of government agencies and large corporations toward computer technology increased the demand for peripheral office equipment and supplies ranging from printers to punch cards. Executives were given greater authority. IBM also began taking orders for its first commercial computer.” Whereas Watson senior supervised and exercised decision-making authority in almost every area. and the integration of academic. most important. Dan Marshall. Sears.28 PART II The Rise and Fall of Curriculum Specialists (1947–1960) IBM: LEADERSHIP . shortly before Watson senior’s death. hard work. (continued) Admitting in 1952 that IBM was probably two years behind its competitors. . and. market advantage—not technological lead—proved key to IBM’s dramatic reemergence as the computer leader. Schubert.These service contacts eventually translated into lease contracts for entire computer systems at less than one-half their actual cost and well below that of the competition. IBM not only reaped enormous profits from this increased demand but its monopoly over card readers dictated that all other computer manufacturers had to rely on these units (which were leased from IBM).

invited me to edit the 1957 ASCD yearbook with James Hall. In 1956. where the first computer generation of vacuumtube technology would soon give rise to a second generation of transistorized. It grew out of our discussions with teachers in Springfield. the greatest resources were placed in R&D. Her colleague Steven Max Corey published Action Research to Improve School Practices in 1953. Wells Foshay himself had a hand in all of this: In 1954. They’d had courses in child study. Wann called Children’s Social Values. much of curriculum work remained focused on developing and revising actual school curricula to meet the needs of “customers. Everybody was very much influenced in those days by Daniel Prescott’s work in child study and child development. could be considered a precursor of today’s contemporary ideas of group process. and action research. a Pearson Education Company. so that’s what they wanted to do: study children. not subject matter—which I would have preferred. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. In comparison. the work I’m most proud of is also tied to action research. I published a book with K. Serving and Shaping School Personnel Clearly. and William H. As a researcher with the Institute I was sent to Springfield as the curriculum person who was going to work with them on whatever they wanted to work on. cooperative learning. Actually. Well. Missouri. As editors. by J.” One of the major figures at Teachers College at the time was Alice Miel. . (continued) and the entire corporation was separated into different divisions.CHAPTER 2 Curriculum Development at Its Zenith 29 IBM: LEADERSHIP . James T. . we wanted to put together a curriculum book that provided an eclectic feeling for the field. Springfield was a member of the Network of Schools associated with the Horace Mann-Lincoln Institute at Teachers College. Today’s “action research” was essentially born at Teachers College from the earlier work of Dewey as developed in his The Sources of a Science of Education (1929). the 1947 Chicago Conference was a call from Herrick and Tyler for more attention to curriculum theory and research. whose 1946 book. Changing the Curriculum: A Social Process. . what they wanted to work on was social values. Bob Leeper. Sears. while serving as a member of the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development’s National Executive Committee. Schubert. the curriculum field’s early R&D work was still under way at the University of Chicago and Teachers College. Meanwhile. but the book ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Dan Marshall.D. solid-state computers. the association’s director of publications.

action research represented a kind of compromise between the field’s need for theoretical and research legitimacy (to better define itself ) and its largely service orientation. would be best served by a “life adjustment” curriculum designed to prepare them to go into various roles and lines of work that did not require college or vocational training. For the curriculum field. basics. On the national scene. Prosser argued. that seemed to be the solution to everything. by J. Question What are some classroom issues that merit action research? How might these issues be researched? In what ways could the results positively and negatively impact curriculum development? ? Curriculum development remained.30 PART II The Rise and Fall of Curriculum Specialists (1947–1960) turned out to be loaded with action research. The people I had asked to come together on the project—Hilda Taba. This action research focus during the 1950s also grew from an increasing interest in teachers as important players in curriculum development efforts—attention rekindled from an earlier Progressive Era emphasis on the importance of the teacher. and William H. then. the work of curriculum expert as facilitator of whatever teachers wanted to do. while another 20% of high schoolers were well served by vocational and technical curricula in place in most schools. . Virgil Herrick. That left 60% of students who. “life adjustment education” was a kind of hybrid curriculum effort occurring during this same period. and disciplines of knowledge. with Charles Prosser as its major proponent. James T. many educators agreed with a growing public sentiment that we should move away from any curriculum that would smack of being frivolous or catering to the interests of students when such interests veered too far from rigorous study of skills. Such movements often follow wars and other kinds of national ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Prosser believed that the traditional high school curriculum of the day was best suited for the 20% of college-bound students. Margaret McKim and others of that sort—all had this action research perspective in common. Sears. however. however. as memories of World War II became increasingly replaced with more immediate cold war concerns. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. a Pearson Education Company. life adjustment curricula were rather quickly overwhelmed by a kind of back-to-basics movement. as in Foshay’s experience. Dan Marshall. As a result. either “expert work” done by hired curriculum developers and presented to teachers in the form of curriculum guides and wholesale plans of study or. Some high schools did move in the direction of life adjustment curriculum. Schubert. At the time.

McNally. or truly alternative in any sense. ennui. leftist. James T. Schubert. Dan Marshall. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. offers these comments: ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. by J. Harry Passow. the communists’ triumph in the newly declared People’s Republic of China around the time that rail and road traffic ceased between east and west Berlin and North Korea invaded South Korea. The A-bomb detonation tests of the Soviet Union and the elevation of Joseph McCarthy as the nation’s chief spy catcher.CHAPTER 2 Curriculum Development at Its Zenith 31 emergencies when the public is understandably more concerned with preservation than progressive experimentation. It was an era when “the people” turned their attention to public schools like never before. and misanthropy while simultaneously associated with certainty of progress. Sears. and pride in oneself and one’s country. A decade later. who has been around long enough to recollect the active span of the Progressive movement. Neither of these books contained examples of school curriculum projects that were especially radical. their work required a vision of what could be rather than what had been. these and other events signaled the emergence of American society into a new world that would come to be defined by fear. trust in social institutions. Professor Foshay. By the 1950s. the passage of the antilabor Taft-Hartley Act as threats of rail and coal strikes marked the legitimacy of big unions. Harold J. though some could rightfully be labeled as progressive. Whatever “social” attention remained within curriculum work was geared more toward serving than steering society. a Pearson Education Company. the publication of Orwell’s 1984—a not-so-optimistic rendition of our totalitarian future— and Camus’s The Plague—a not-so-pleasing portrait of the human condition. Hollis Caswell and others identified exemplary curriculum projects across the country in a book called Curriculum Improvement in Public School Systems (1950). multinational corporations and the resulting “organization man. and the establishment of both the Vietnamese state in Saigon and apartheid policy in South Africa: In 1950. the death of Babe Ruth and the retirement of Joe Lewis. and the grudging acknowledgment of a seamy side of American social life would all combine with cold war effects to inf luence an entire generation of young people. A. what was left of the Progressive movement was largely its student-centered focus: With the exception of a small handful of writers such as Theodore Brameld. The growing cold war chill had much to do with this turn.” the cultural discovery of adolescence. Civil strife. and their associates at Teachers College published a similar book titled Improving the Quality of Public School Programs (1960). and William H. few curriculum leaders were calling for social reconstruction of the sort proposed in the 1930s and 1940s by George Counts and Harold Rugg. For example. . Most curriculum people at the time were politically liberal and socially progressive. uncertainty. Almost by definition.

the book had its origins in Giles et al. during the 1950s. and William H. but the public perception was overwhelming. Anyway. the teaching machine was even bigger news—a way of making the teachers’ work easier. it offered a promise for a way to directly address self-teaching and subject matter—things that the schools apparently were ignoring. Why that happened. and over again. Nonetheless. Dan Marshall. when it was a kind of elite magazine. James T. for in a way. it belonged there. during the 1930s and ’40s. again. I read “The New Yorker” during that period. It was a clever idea. really. silly though not ironic. and over. I didn’t think much of it. and we had a long talk about the way things were back in the 1930s. a Pearson Education Company. This was in the early ’50s and the right wing Macarthyesque kind of thing was in full bloom. Bloom identified “social be- ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. In his Taxonomy. that is. I think that the Cold War and competition with Russia had something to do with it. Although I saw Harold Rugg around. Of course. by J. The drama of the Sputnik business has never been fully appreciated as much as it deserves. Exploring the Curriculum. You see. I never had a course with him at Teachers College. Bloom developed and refined his ideas for the taxonomy during his own involvement in that great progressive experiment. Well. I don’t think I understand particularly. . It really turned things around. though not Skinner’s idea. after he retired and had been in Egypt working. Actually. Schubert. in a way. so we talked about that. Rugg had been a target of its earlier efforts. Discovering the Public’s Perceptions Of all the era’s curriculum-related research. that discussion and those issues got into the popular media and became a matter of general discussion during the 1950s.32 PART II The Rise and Fall of Curriculum Specialists (1947–1960) I had a course with George Counts and. Though published in 1956. originally. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. though. Handbook 1: Cognitive Domain. And that’s what it was. he came out to Ohio once. They weren’t. The teaching machine acquired its popularity with the press and public because. technified. Benjamin Bloom’s would lead to one of the most influential books of the 1950s: Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. progressive education was kind of an elite matter. and it presented progressive education over. Sears.’s (1942) volume of the Eight Year Study. frankly. I’m glad it did. the blame for some things fell on the schools which is. I think the progressive movement—which had a live period from approximately 1920 to 1960—was a period when curriculum was seen as an ideological tool. The schools represented the evolution of popular culture and had become largely vocational and ideological.

. steelworkers and seamstresses. By the mid-1950s. and William H. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. in which he addressed anti-intellectualism in the schools. The unarticulated question became “What are these curriculum experts doing?” While curriculum people attended to what Herrick and Tyler called orientations toward “the society” and “the individual. Sears.” A number of “invisible” curriculum projects were going on at the time. which he subtitled The Retreat from Learning in Our Public Schools. baby boom era. Joined by smaller movements in foreign language education. educational discourse. a Pearson Education Company. A curriculum coup lay just around the corner. homemakers and heiresses all seemed concerned about what was not happening in schools. James T. Bloom described six hierarchical levels of cognitive functioning and provided explorations of each level—from memorization (the least sophisticated) to evaluation (the most sophisticated). Schubert. Although not perceived as a curriculum person in the general sense. Rudolph Flesch followed in 1955 with Why Johnny Can’t Read. inquiryoriented approaches to science education. by J. His taxonomic scale of cognitive abilities further lent itself to the coming attention to subject matter content.CHAPTER 2 Curriculum Development at Its Zenith 33 havior” as a kind of demarcation between the cognitive and affective lives of school students—a demarcation that significantly influenced schooling.” society at large grew increasingly concerned with an orientation toward “man’s accumulated knowledge. none of these received wide-scale attention. Throughout the 1950s Arthur Bestor disparaged the schools in articles such as “Life-Adjustment Education: A Critique” (1952). Similar projects had begun at Harvard and MIT with Zacharias and others developing new. and books such as Educational Wastelands (1953). Albert Lynd published Quackery in the Public Schools—a major criticism of the schools— in 1950 (reprinted in 1953). which criticized the state of reading instruction in the public schools. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. Dan Marshall. priests and politicians. for instance. Benjamin Bloom typifies the shift in emphasis from social and philosophical to psychological foundations in curriculum work. But all of this would soon change when the field lost its market advantage. a focus that the curriculum field had not paid serious attention to for many years. Max Beberman. But subject matter content had become central to the public’s interests within this unfolding cold war. was at work at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in the area of mathematics education developing the “new” or “modern” math. and curriculum thought for decades.

Game shows such as TwentyOne and The $64. and anxieties. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. playwrights such as Samuel Beckett (Waiting for Godot. and films strike at odd juxtapositions to the more mainstream popular culture found in the black-and-white television world of Father Knows Best and I Love Lucy. . heroes wearing white hats drove the ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. and Alain Resnais (Hiroshima Mon Amour. 1958). 1955). American society and Americans’ self-image forever altered amidst revolutionary upheavals in politics. 1957). 1957). uncertainties. plays. The underlying stresses and hidden anomalies of everyday life in the apparently transparent 1950s were often portrayed by America’s artists. and technology. 1955). religion. These novels. popular culture. 1952). 1951) and Jack Kerouac (On the Road. and film directors such as Nicholas Ray (Rebel Without a Cause. where hosts like Milton Berle (Texaco Star Theater) and Ronald Reagan (General Electric Theater) transported the American viewer elsewhere. Salinger (Catcher in the Rye. business. poets such as Dylan Thomas (Under Milk Wood. and William H. poems. and Lorraine Hansberry (Raisin in the Sun. Literary writers such as J. 1956). Sears. Tennessee Williams (Cat on a Hot Tin Roof. by J. 1954) and Allen Ginsberg (Howl. Billy Wilder (Twelve Angry Men. Dan Marshall. In the law-andorder TV world of the Wild West. D. a Pearson Education Company.34 C PART II The Rise and Fall of Curriculum Specialists (1947–1960) H A P T E R 3 Transfer by Eminent Domain ▼ 34 During the second half of the twentieth century.000 Question promised that anyone could be transfigured into someone by separating right from wrong responses. Schubert. 1959) captured the decade’s fears. James T.

and Lebanon. was received in more than 37 million homes within 10 years— connecting the American consciousness and transforming U. . by the late ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Guatemala. had gained the sympathy of the white majority outside the South. p. the boycott became the Movement. Sears. bus boycott lasted almost a year. kitchen gadgets. the Broadway production of Hair. Television. Dan Marshall. or police but by a U. television correspondents were presenting these and numerous other troubling incidents to millions of viewers. By 1957. Eventually.S. Yet while African-American representations of the culture of nonviolence proved important. popular culture would replace them with rock and roll.” Within a year (September 3. a black student. 1993. It was a beginning rather than an end. The emphasis on the sublime and the ephemeral in popular culture can also be found in innocuous pop music (Davy Crockett and The Chipmunk Song). Peyton Place (1956). Supreme Court decision judging Montgomery’s bus-segregation law to be unconstitutional. from entering Little Rock Central High School amidst shouts of “Lynch her! Lynch her!” “Go home. for American youth. “the battle was won. James T. . and color television helped to diminish the desegregating sting of events resulting from Brown v. President Eisenhower deployed U. or joined in shoot-outs on Gunsmoke (during the 1958–1959 season the 3 television networks broadcast 31 westerns series). p. 1957). with a capital M. and science fiction novels. social and political culture in ways unfathomable to prior generations. a Pearson Education Company. which could boast only 15 stations nationwide in 1948. the Montgomery. by J. The blacks .S. long-playing stereo records. inhumanity. 675). 1951) or Lerner and Loewe (My Fair Lady. and indifference: polio. . black inf luence on popular culture— particularly through music and sports—proved truly revolutionary. Elvis Presley’s success opened the door for other white recording artists to borrow as freely as he had from the music of black artists. and escapist fiction such as Lord of the Rings (1954). 1955. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. tuberculosis. As David Halberstam (1993.S. 652) notes. Beginning quietly enough with Rosa Parks on December 1. Artifacts and icons such as these suggest a desire within America’s postwar generation to retreat from the inevitable march of humankind’s progress. Board of Education (1954). military troops to see that nine young black students found their way into Central High and that a segregationist southern governor upheld the constitutional law of the land. lawyers. and William H. But the war was hardly over. and influenza proved more immediately fearsome than the federal government’s refusal to intervene in the Rosenbergs’ executions or its military interventions in Korea. the nostalgic plays of Rodgers and Hammerstein (King & I. ended not by the acquiescence of the city’s white politicians. and Hawaii (1959).CHAPTER 3 Transfer by Eminent Domain 35 Wagon Train. you bastard of a black bitch!” and “No nigger bitch is going to get in our school!” (Halberstam. Governor Orval Faubus sent Arkansas National Guard troops to block 15-year-old Elizabeth Eckford. Alabama. Schubert. 1956). Within another decade. rode in posses with Wyatt Earp.

in the streets of the nation’s Southern cities. personal communication. and Sam Cooke were recognized on America’s white hit charts. a former government diplomat and Harvard University president. the Platters. . .. Born in Oakland. his Depression era childhood resulted in ambivalent feelings toward schooling. Schubert. then the soul of America. Rubin. advanced academic. was still almost exclusively white. heralded the precise EPC argument supporting massive curriculum renovations. And while most major sports had been integrated by 1960. curriculum workers continued on a national path cut some years earlier by the NEA’s Educational Policies Commission (EPC) and contained in two of that commission’s major publications. as manifested in its music and sports. Tightly tied to the expressed needs of public school educators. The commissioners—who included James B. . but the culture was appealing. in 1926. Much school work was not very challenging or interesting. was in many ways outstripping the revolution engineered by the Supreme Court of the United States and by Martin Luther King. As the 1950s marched on. a decade earlier.. by J.g. and elective courses) within an untracked system from grades 7 through 12. .36 PART II The Rise and Fall of Curriculum Specialists (1947–1960) 1950s. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. 1994 ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. James T. p. the first wave of war babies had made their way through elementary schools and were entering the very high schools where educators grew increasingly concerned about working in “blackboard jungles” with growing numbers of diverse youth becoming disinterested in school itself. 1993. Dan Marshall. Rubin: Curriculum Consultant Changing far less quickly was the face of curriculum work. If the face of America . . a Pearson Education Company. Jr. was changing quickly” (Halberstam. television pushed them (and their players) to nationwide prominence. 693). Professor Lou Rubin. 1 Louis J. and William H. “Clearly. I wasn’t much of a student simply because I diverted my attention elsewhere. California. vocational. black artists including Fats Domino. Conant. November 23. In Rubin’s words:1 I enjoyed school because it was much better than anything I could find elsewhere. Education for ALL American Children (1948) and Education for ALL American Youth: A Further Look (1952). a social revolution . Eisenhower during his presidency of Columbia University—spelled out the need to address students’ diverse educational needs through a core curriculum of common learnings coupled with various “differential studies” (e. was himself a somewhat disinterested high school student. in fact. and Dwight D. ▼Louis J. Sears. His high school experience.

Sears. Leaving the high school classroom in 1956. H. I think I was driven to survive college and get a teaching credential primarily in anticipation of going back and student teaching in the same school to pique the counselor. the progressive ideals of many curriculum people. In fact. suggesting “If you’re a good carpenter they’ll always want you. by J. In 1957. a second edition of Developing a Curriculum for Modern Living by Florence Stratemeyer. Dan Marshall. Forkner. and A. or whatever. McKim. for example. Kilpatrick’s “project method. finance. liked him. Rubin spent eight more years as a high school teacher.” the popular student-centered Stratemeyer text remained proudly progressive. . L. his choice of doctoral studies within education proved limited at the time: In those days you followed the prescriptive sequence out of consensual faith. the work proved to be explicitly teacher oriented and educationally “progressive. James T. Schubert. M. Typical of most others then in his field. Why not consider some sort of job instead?” My father agreed. H. during which time he completed a master’s degree (in musicology) and a doctorate (in curriculum) at Berkeley. he said. however. G. I found a pliable professor at Berkeley named Cecil Parker. Well.” At the time. I found the curriculum field a little more interesting than the others simply because it had a greater capacity to circulate ideas. Law school became a lost cause and fifty-one years later I still prefer teaching to retirement. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. “Well. Rubin began his work as a curriculum consultant. When I saw my high school counselor during my senior year and asked about going to college. and William H. As a teacher interested in higher education. particularly those linked to Teachers College.” reasoning that “transfer” is best accomplished when problems studied in school mirror those encountered later in life. Indeed.CHAPTER 3 Transfer by Eminent Domain 37 Going to college was not part of a tradition that I grew up with. based upon your grades I don’t think you have the ability to get through college. remained largely prominent. and simply affiliated. He taught me that people are more important than ritual. My intent was to teach a couple of years to earn money for law school. The book offered an expanded and revised conceptualization of building school curricula around what the authors called “persistent life situations. I took the normal sequence of courses at Berkeley—a matter of two curriculum courses. administration. Passow appeared in the curriculum literature. Harkening back to W. a Pearson Education Company. H. in curriculum. I taught the first year and was captivated—absolutely consumed by the joys of helping kids learn.” I was annoyed with that. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir.

impetus from the EPC. 257). 260) Educational critics proved often to be conservative critics of the progressive ideas promoted by John Dewey and his followers. the decade of the 1950s became a period of criticism of American education unequaled in modern times.38 PART II The Rise and Fall of Curriculum Specialists (1947–1960) Despite the public storm approaching. Generally. a Pearson Education Company. and William H. Sears. After a period of neglect almost amounting to disdain. . belief that too few students were appropriately served by the traditional. however: Life adjustment education turned out to be the prod that awoke the slumbering giant. . Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. Just as Hollywood served the Allied war effort. Like the curriculum field. they ignored normative concerns about how such knowledge should be selected and situated relative to knowledge related to students and society. The Greatest Story Ever Told. He continues. 1980). “scholarly oriented” high school curriculum had. including religious life. continued to pay attention to curricula for a “general education” or the “core curriculum” idea while addressing democratic ideals and their related aspects such as interpersonal relations. The Ten Commandments. The two published exceptions to this were the “subjects” of citizenship and social living (Schubert & Lopez-Schubert. Dan Marshall. . progressive education ideals. and Ben Hur shared their space with films such as Roman Holiday. . The Seven Year Itch. myths. The age-old tension between “conserve” and “progress” was apparent in most aspects of American life during the 1950s. . by J.. especially those addressed to secondary schooling. Schubert. p. an intense interest began to develop among leading scholars in a variety of disciplines as to the state of the curriculum in the lower schools. The transfiguration of the Roman Catholic Church in America illustrates this period of change. Almost without warning. as Kliebard notes. mathematics) tended to emphasize their subject matter and ways to present it. religious life was in serious f lux. Writers who spoke to particular content areas or disciplines (e. . ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. “become conventional wisdom in the educational world” (1986. (pp. Gigi. and values as marquees announcing blockbuster movies such as The Robe. residue from the once-prominent life adjustment education movement. and Around the World in 80 Days. Thus. and alienated young people continued to drive the felt needs of educators and the related work of curriculum. so now its services were turned to promote Christian themes. . Exodus. James T.g. By this time. as the decade mixed the sacred with the profane and long-standing proselytizing tent shows were reborn as nationwide pulpits through the new medium of television. or how it might best be understood within the entire curriculum endeavor. most curriculum texts of the late 1950s. 258.

Dan Marshall. to John F. The World Council of Churches and the National Council of Churches formed in 1948 and 1950. Since the founding of Maryland by Roman Catholics who sought religious freedom from the intolerance of fellow colonists.CHAPTER 3 Transfer by Eminent Domain 39 THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH IN A POSTWAR WORLD he postwar world marked the emergence of ecumenicalism and challenges to religious teachings and practices. Protestants such as Richard Niebuhr (The Purpose of the Church and Its Ministry. Russel Kirk. the Catholics’ Legion of Decency and strictly followed Code for Television and Motion Pictures. James T. Kennedy’s difficulties seeking national office in 1956 and 1960. To be Roman Catholic in postwar America was to be at once different and similar. 1952). a Pearson Education Company. and William H. and seminaries as well as a handful of illustrious universities such as Notre Dame. respectively. Georgetown. It meant abiding by catechistic teachings.” The latter allegation grew from the fact that postwar Catholics tied their pro-American. and eating fish on meatless Fridays. It meant enduring anti-Catholic jokes and sentiments expressed by the very Protestant neighbors with whom you shared a common social class and immigrant background. which questioned Catholic Americans’ patriotism and ability to think freely. 1956). Sheen and the inspiring sermons of Reverend Billy Graham. And it meant worshipping in Latin through a sixteenth-century Eucharistic ritual of genuflections. and the Catholic University of America. Sears. religious conservatism remained the distinguishing characteristic of American society: reflective talks by Archbishop Fulton J. single-sex secondary schools. building on an earlier generation of Catholic conservatives led by Ross Hoffman and Francis Graham Wilson (another vehement Deweyan critic). It meant reading from Catholic newspapers such as Our Weekly Visitor and newsmagazines such as Catholic World. Schubert. nevertheless. respecting priestly authority. anticommunist ideology to a separate. and the emergence of a new generation of secular and religious conservative thinkers such as William Buckley. Throughout this era. the Catholic community in America has viewed itself as an embattled minority. and Roman Catholics such as Pierre Teilhard de Chardin (The Phenomenon of Man. Postwar anti-Catholic nativism was evident in religious bigotry ranging from the influential publication of American Freedom and Catholic Power (Blanshard. colleges. sacred songs. integrated school system that included thousands of elementary schools. and Thomas Molnar (a vociferous critic of Deweyan-styled public education). 1959). by J. (continued) T ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. . Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. 1949). and scriptural readings while being accused of statue worshipping and “brainwashing. Also published was the New Revised Standard Version of the Bible. heralded a “new theology” developed through the writings of Jews such as Martin Buber (Eclipse of God.

was successfully launched in the USSR. Suddenly. Schools that wished to support the country’s best students should go back to a curriculum of mathematics. Sears.As we noted in chapter 2. English. . prominent intellectuals and pundits lambasted long-standing progressive ideas and practices like serving all students’ needs or offering numerous elective courses. Rather than concern ourselves with a common curriculum within a high school designed to educate everyone. and it carried a small dog. a Pearson Education Company. and while most adults probably gave little thought to the 1957 premier of a new television show called American Bandstand. James T.29 pounds . . Americans learned that the Soviets’ nuclear program was advancing as ours slipped. nononsense learning occurred: educational critics during this period wanted no less for public school students. was called Sputnik. Catholic schools were seen as places where strict. p. . The new socialist society turns even the most daring of man’s dreams into reality. .) Soviet satellite. science. Shortly after the Sputnik launchings.40 PART II The Rise and Fall of Curriculum Specialists (1947–1960) THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH IN A POSTWAR WORLD (continued) Then. . and resources away from the schools’ ability to mine the intellectual potential of their best students. 352): “The first artificial earth satellite in the world . the true liberal arts. “The Russians seemed to be ahead of us in all aspects of defense and weapons technology.They feared that so much attention to dropouts and the general education of all students had taken time. 1957. Tass (Gordon & Gordon. and even worse. (1993. and William H. by J. history. it seemed as if America was undergoing a national crisis of confidence.After all. 1957. Launched on November 3.120. Clearly. . attention. pp. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. its success seemed to herald a kind of technological Pearl Harbor. Dan Marshall. dual.” The small (184-lb. . it weighed 1. It was another psychological triumph. Schubert. they argued strenuously for the opposite: an efficient. their GNP ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. . like now. . the Soviets intended to put a man in space soon. As Halberstam notes. . Upside Down in a Satellite’s Glow Though educational critics might have paid little attention to the 1957 election of Jimmy Hoffa as president of the Teamsters Union. the Russians were surpassing us. launched early on October 4. . 1990. and foreign language—the academic basics. European-like system of secondary schools—one academic and the other vocational. . Soon there was Sputnik II. none could ignore the following news report taken from the Soviet News Agency. Laika. . . 625–627) Shockwaves rolled across America’s heartland.

activity.CHAPTER 3 Transfer by Eminent Domain 41 was said to be growing at a faster rate than ours. Fundamentals of Curriculum Development (1957). large-scale curriculum work proceeded along its tenuously constructed theoretical track. James T. They situated all of this within a discussion of three differing curriculum orientations (subject. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. Stanley. Professor Rubin. by J. It had become clear that you couldn’t really accomplish curriculum change without teacher change. “With Sputnik. along with the status of our culture and our scientific progress. Sears. . p. Dan Marshall. 1993. Schubert. Its authors were among the first to set the work of curriculum development within its sociocultural context and the first to carefully explore criteria for various curriculum tasks (going well beyond the earlier “basic principles” suggested by Ralph Tyler). . for example.” Lou Rubin recalls. government created the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to unify and develop the country’s nonmilitary space efforts. Almost overnight. it was a day of glory to sit with people like Alice Miel. as Life magazine identified poor curricula as a significant problem in its “Crisis in Education” series. Florence Stratemeyer. At the same time. Othanel) Smith—the curricular greats of the moment— and debate substance and method. At that time.” In 1958. the barbarians were not merely at the gate. the U. . and William H. so I got involved in both. the federal government rolled into action in defense of our national security. Rubin recalls it being “a careful and well done treatment of prevailing curriculum theory. 700). and “Bunny” (B. Here’s how Professor Rubin described such work: When I began my work in California [1957]. and core) and carefully explored theoretical assumptions and issues related to curricular problems. Clearly. . Smith. The argument was that if we took a page out of their book we could create better scientists. Encyclopedic in nature. Fundamentals of Curriculum Development was a book well suited for the curriculum experts at work in the schools.” and that it was. curriculum in particular and education in general became much more of a political issue. with the communist block. Previously published books of critics such as Bestor and Flesch sold out of stores while popular magazines published countless articles and series about America’s educational problems. like most other curriculum consultants. staff development was in its infancy and yet to be recognized as a fact of professional life. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. people called curriculum scholars were widely used as consultants: it was just assumed that some lettered sage from afar could come inform teachers on what and how the young should be taught. and Shores synoptic text. Gordon McKenzie.S. when I met with the Professors of Curriculum group at ASCD. they were able to fly over it with missiles and nuclear warheads” (Halberstam. relied on the thinking found in the enormously popular second edition of the B. a Pearson Education Company. “because it was at that point that we began comparing the achievement of American youths. O. Back then.

the politicization of the curriculum. and science and. among a variety of vested interest groups. a Pearson Education Company. as a key factor in the society’s well-being. Many of the “curriculum gurus” of the time were still emphasizing practical. As a consequence of Sputnik it suddenly became commonplace to use schools as whipping posts—to argue that the nation was in difficulty because schools taught the wrong stuff. and William H. The eminencies of the day—like Hilda Taba and William Stanley—would guide school districts in thinking through what was important to teach. Curriculum has always been something of a political football. particularly their seeming inability to produce intellectually superior graduates. not surprisingly. and Miel? ? What Rubin recalls was an ever-so-slow shift in the interests of curriculum work. . Still needed were a vision. The other notable shift was to conceive of curriculum.” Just as the stereophonic records introduced in 1958 would rapidly make obsolete monophonic recording. and in the wrong ways. funding. the strong theoretical foundations of educational psychology were poised to overwhelm the more progressive philosophical and sociological roots of curriculum work. Senate was in high gear in 1958. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. Dan Marshall. indicated serious problems with our schools.42 PART II The Rise and Fall of Curriculum Specialists (1947–1960) Curriculum was viewed as a local process of decision-making: Denver. One was the general concern over what I referred to as the thinking aspects of curriculum: curriculum as particular content and intellectual processes. math. San Francisco. educators of all sorts—including curricularists—had begun to take note of Bloom’s Taxonomy and its obvious relationships to curriculum work (see Anderson & Sosniak. Swiftly. Hence. 1994). experientialist thinking and practice. How are these similar and different from the role of curriculum experts such as Taba. Testimony.S. as an add-on to the fledgling interests in process as content. Question Compare and contrast curriculum and staff development approaches in your area schools or school districts. reasoning skills. increase their imaginal capacities. You could teach kids history. and creativity— all worthy by-products. by J. The U. Rubin. Those bases reflected heavy doses of progressive. client-centered curriculum construction and repair based on still-evolving theory and research bases. Congress moved to ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. at the same time. both positively and negatively. Sears. Toledo and Macon would each ponder weighty instructional questions. Meanwhile. and a spokesperson. James T. its Committee on Labor and Public Welfare conducting hearings to determine the causes of our intellectual lag behind the Russians. became fashionable. particularly Bloom’s connecting of “objectives” to “cognition. Schubert. but in that period two particular issues began to emerge.

266) notes. These events and efforts radically changed the focus of curriculum work. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. public schools and curriculum workers confronted the harsh realities of the marketplace. two crucial events served as the other bookend: the loss of the papal states (and the papacy’s accompanied sovereignty. As Kliebard (1986. This single law (NDEA). mathematics. and America’s Roman Catholics would mark 1958 as a year of unforgettable change. . accompanied by corporate foundations. unlike IBM. and William H. Congress had clearly accepted the verdict of the academic critics that educators had foisted a soft and intellectually puerile curriculum on American schools” (p. Schubert. Roman Catholicism was about to embrace it. Sears. and the Church had shown great antipathy toward modernism (variously disguised as ecumenicalism. federal intentions were made clear in the act’s opening paragraph: The Congress hereby finds and declares that the security of the Nation requires the fullest development of the mental resources and technical skills of its young men and women. So. institutional democracy. . by J. A NEW DAY DAWNS FOR CHURCH AND STATE As public education and the curriculum field were turning away from progressivism. The present emergency demands that additional and more adequate educational opportunities be made available. and the influence of progressive thought. professional educators were no longer to be given free reign in curriculum matters. This postwar generation was to become a bookend for traditional Catholicism. . The defense of this Nation depends upon the mastery of modern techniques developed from complex scientific principles. the role of the curriculum worker. Dan Marshall. Kliebard continues: “Their credibility impaired. During the 1870s. few responded with independent R&D initiative. Catholic life in America was essentially unchanged for generations. designed to fund curriculum improvement in science. and foreign languages. Like IBM. p. . entered the vacuum and redefined curriculum work: the field was taken over by eminent domain. James T. 267). and positivism)—a prejudice developed and refined throughout the reigns of five popes. financial (continued) ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. the new theology. was quickly followed by significant funding efforts from the likes of the Ford and Carnegie Foundations and subsequent legislation to address additional subject areas. the federal government. a Pearson Education Company.CHAPTER 3 Transfer by Eminent Domain 43 pass the National Defense Education Act (NDEA) on September 2—an unprecedented governmental intrusion into community schooling and curriculum work.

some U. and the importance of institutional democracy. Following these events. and its papal authority was unquestioned. the Catholic role in American public life was more prominent than ever before. the “new theology” would be linked to modernism: his 1950 encyclical. Nietzche and Kierkegaard. its clergy were respected. Defending Church authority.The health of the Church. however. soon to be religious editor for the New York Times). praising God and Western culture. too. At the cusp of a new decade. (continued) ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir.internationalism. bishops. Dan Marshall. During the postwar era. as well as the rise of a brash. Chaplin and Edison. they rejected relativism and pragmatism and championed democratic capitalism and rationalism. Humani Generis. Schubert. Leading Catholic intellectuals began to exert a profound influence on secular society. it was not man’s role to change religion. . large numbers of Catholic editors and writers produced conservative journals including National Review and Modern Age. Pius X. they rejected not only calls for institutional democratization but also claims of undue papal influence on American politics.and liberalism and dismissed pleas for isolationism and laissez-faire capitalism espoused a generation earlier by conservatives. In these modern times. however. Later. for example. and political power) to the nation-state building of modern Italy and the ecumenical council of bishops (Vatican I). James T. For most of the church hierarchy and thousands of Roman Catholic parishes throughout the United States. most notably James Cardinal Gibbons of Baltimore and Archbishop Ireland of St.44 PART II The Rise and Fall of Curriculum Specialists (1947–1960) A NEW DAY DAWNS . . . as evidenced by these public intellectuals on the emerging right (and on the left. Leo’s successor. religious pluralism. the theologian’s task was to justify orthodoxy through Scripture and tradition. Paul. challenged this position. with John Cogley. the position was more traditional: religion would change man. seemed unquestioned: its seminaries and convents were at capacity. lambasted modernism as a “synthesis of all heresies” and directed his bishops to eradicate it. Pius XII declared. Leo XIII—elected in 1878 as the 256th pope— found himself within a reduced dominion (from 16. Marx and Engels. and William H. they acknowledged the separation of church and state. Einstein and Heisenberg. Embracing natural law. Sears. As a “prisoner of the Vatican. a Pearson Education Company. by J. (continued) resources. Arguing for an Americanization of Catholicism. young Massachusetts senator named Kennedy.000 square miles to 108 acres) and an ideologically defensive position.S. its churches were prosperous and full. under the shepherdship of Pope Pius XII (1939–1958). declared that Catholics were to subordinate their “will and intellect” to papal judgment and Church teaching.” his 25-year reign suffered modernistic assaults: Freud and Darwin. Heavily influenced by antimodernist ideology. they opposed communism. which condemned modernism and declared the doctrine of papal infallibility.Toward this end he issued a decree that required all clergy to take an annual pledge against modernism (revoked by Pope Paul VI in 1967). Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall.

in the face of greater attention to the nation’s more “advanced” students. this new father of the Roman Catholic Church informed a small group of cardinals of his intention to call a great council. Conant’s study found that students who graduated from large. went the argument. or excommunicated by the Church since the last ecumenical council in 1870. Schubert. school-based curriculum development. His successor was a compromise candidate among the College of Cardinals—a pope whose role was to be marginal. Dan Marshall. altered this hegemony. 154–159). (continued) The death of Pius XII in 1958.Within a year. with Carnegie financing. and William H. Similarly. . Selected on the 12th ballot by an assemblage of his peers was Cardinal Roncalli. and brief.Vatican II witnessed bishops in the Council relying on the very theologians dishonored. status quo. a Pearson Education Company. James T. curriculum workers became more ref lective. and historical reviews of their work as curriculum consultants and coordinators (see Schubert & Lopez-Schubert. the goals of Vatican II became visible: modernization of the Church and unification of all Christians. and behavioral instructional objectives quickly gained ascendancy by congressional and foundational demand. Following his January 1959 declaration. like the demise of America’s technological and educational supremacy a year earlier. pp. John XXIII ushered in a new era that would sweep away 100 years of antimodernism and place the Church at the vanguard of ecumenicalism. in a “flash of heavenly light” as he would later describe it. 1980. consolidation. in part. It was brief. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. local school governance. Progressive ideals and the democratic aims of American education were disappearing as fast as had the results from progressives’ grand experiment. . In one swift decision. silenced. A Curriculum Spokesperson Emerges As the decade drew to a close. Thus. by J. . In an effort designed.CHAPTER 3 Transfer by Eminent Domain 45 A NEW DAY DAWNS . publishing empirical studies. and education professors as curriculum experts would quickly disappear as comprehensive high schools. smaller high schools would need to be phased out and ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. the Eight Year Study. to blunt the idea of a European-like twotiered system of secondary schools. the Carnegie Corporation had financed a major study by James Conant (formerly of the Education Policies Commission) that was published in 1959 as The American High School Today and distributed. known forever after as Pope John XXIII. comprehensive high schools (those with the faculty expertise and material resources to offer everything from vocational to advanced academic courses) did as well in college as their peers from more “academically specialized” schools. to school superintendents throughout the country. bibliographies. marginalized. Sears.

The result [The Process of Education] really wasn’t to be a curriculum book. In 1959. a Pearson Education Company.S. and the Rand Corporation to organize and finance a conference at a place called Woods Hole. “above-average” elementary school students. He wanted to focus on the essence of a discipline’s key ideas and present this in provocative ways which permitted integration and facilitated thought.S. Navy. It is doubtful that many educators even knew that the conference would take place: amidst the collection of eminent psychologists. by J. He did not want a student who could successfully answer a couple hundred recall questions. though like his curriculum peers. Sears. which was run by the U. mathematicians. Office of Education. the Air Force. In Bruner’s rhetoric. the National Science Foundation. Conant also offered recommendations concerning the nature and number of specific courses needed for graduation. Jerome Bruner. The landmark event was when Jerry Bruner collected that group at Woods Hole. were permitted to take foreign language instruction while their high school counterparts received early college admissions. What he wanted was to poll the judgment of disciplinary specialists on how to convey the essential structure of a subject to learners in ways that maximized functional understanding. he learned about the conference from Bruner’s report published in 1960 and titled The Process of Education. the best way to perfect educational theory is to assess its practicality. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. Jerry came in with a cognitive background and a keen interest in how knowledge could be made applicable. the U. efforts were under way by representatives from the National Academy of Sciences. scientists. Dan Marshall. . and William H. In retrospect. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. and others (e. James T.46 PART II The Rise and Fall of Curriculum Specialists (1947–1960) more comprehensive high schools built—schools large enough to offer a strong yet diverse curriculum.g. Schubert. as a benefit of post-NDEA federal experimentation programs. on Cape Cod.. and a renewed concern about whether it was time to shift attention to the cognitive direction. At the same time. The late 50s brought an effort to instill rigor into the curriculum. The book proved especially important at the time because it suggested that popular concerns regarding educational excellence could indeed be met within the subject-centered high schools of the day without altering their basic curriculum structures. Professor Rubin can identify the motivations of the conference chairperson. historians and cinematographers) invited to participate. but as a great psychologist and adroit conceptualizer he was able to view the curriculum through a very different kind of lens: synthesizing complex knowledge into transferable chunks. only three were identified as educators and none represented the field of curriculum. he wanted the student to be able to tell you what was significant and what the deeper implications meant.

CHAPTER 3 Transfer by Eminent Domain 47 “The contribution of university scholars in the creation of the most advanced weapons systems had led the nation’s political leadership to look to the university scholars for devising curricula in science and mathematics for the elementary and secondary schools” (D. poets. in contrast. Tanner & Tanner. it announces a rekindled interest in curriculum problems by educational psychologists and expresses concern for schools’ ability to produce sufficient numbers of scholars. curriculum work finally found a theory (at least for the moment). One of the places in which this renewal of concern has expressed itself is in curriculum planning for the elementary and secondary schools. The main objective of this work has been to present subject matter effectively— that is. Most who excerpt this influential text highlight the “structure of the disciplines” and “spiral curriculum” (a curriculum wherein subjects were revisited in subsequent years with increased sophistication) aspects of its theoretical discussion. The daring ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. by J. Several striking developments have taken place. . We. They have been preparing courses of study for elementary and secondary schools not only reflecting recent advances in science and scholarship but also embodying bold ideas about the nature of school experience. Schubert. James T. scientists. Bruner suggests two extremes related to “how best to aid teachers” in the forthcoming curriculum revolution. and William H. . . as Tanner and Tanner note. find the book’s original introduction more pertinent. a Pearson Education Company. Bruner’s publication of the Woods Hole results became. a curriculum manifesto for the 1960s.There has been an unprecedented participation in curriculum development by university scholars and scientists. 1980. Dan Marshall. . for with the publication of The Process of Education. 434). . Finally. men distinguished for their work at the frontiers of their respective disciplines. we have reached a level of public education in America where a considerable portion of our population has become interested in a question that until recently was the concern of specialists:“What shall we teach and to what end?” The new spirit perhaps reflects the profound scientific revolution of our times as well. Rather. And the university scholars came through. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. . Too. it marks a turning point.What may be emerging as a mark of our own generation is a widespread renewal of concern for the quality and intellectual aims of education—but without abandonment of the ideal that education should serve as a means of training well-balanced citizens for a democracy. As such. and lawmakers. with due regard not only for coverage but also for structure. Sears. p. . Our excerpt illustrates the polite and highly professional dismissal of curriculum workers as people in need of support from disciplinary scholars. The Process of Education by Jerome Bruner Each generation gives new form to the aspirations that shape education in its time.

Schubert. in the mid-eighteenth century: “It would be well if they could be taught everything that is useful and everything that is ornamental: but art is long and their time is short. skills of a specific kind and. however. . and those trained in the fields related to teaching and learning. It consists in the renewed involvement of many of America’s most distinguished scientists in the planning of school study programs in their field. An additional word of background is needed to appreciate the significance of present curricular efforts in the changing educational scene. .” The concept of the useful in Franklin and in the American educational ideal afterwards was twofold: it involved.” As he put it. in the preparation of textbooks and laboratory demonstrations. .48 PART II The Rise and Fall of Curriculum Specialists (1947–1960) and imagination that have gone into this work and the remarkable early successes it has achieved have stimulated psychologists who are concerned with the nature of learning and the transmission of knowledge. James T. Other considerations led to a neglect of curriculum problems by psychologists. . For their part. to enable one better to deal with the affairs of life. . but did not concern themselves directly with the intellectual structure of class activities. One consequence of this development has been the growing separation of first-rank scholars and scientists from the task of presenting their own subjects in primary and secondary schools—indeed even in elementary courses for undergraduates. The American secondary school has tried to strike a balance between the two concepts of usefulness—and most often with some regard for the orna- ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. general understanding. Now there appears to be a reversal of this trend. . . and we have not reaped the benefits that might have come from a joining of the efforts of eminent scholars. on the other. . and William H. educational psychologists turned their attention with great effect to the study of aptitude and achievement and to social and motivational aspects of education. It is therefore proposed that they learn those things that are likely to be most useful and most ornamental.The past half century has witnessed the rise of the American university graduate school with its strong emphasis upon advanced study and research.The chief contact between those on the frontiers of scholarship and students in schools was through the occasional textbooks for high schools. the scholars at the forefront of their disciplines . a striving for a balance between what Benjamin Franklin referred to as the “useful” and the “ornamental. in the construction of films and television programs. For the most part. . by J. Sears. a Pearson Education Company. . . was one response to this stimulation of interest. Dan Marshall. were not involved in the development of curricula for the elementary and secondary schools. school programs have often dealt inadequately or incorrectly with contemporary knowledge. In consequence. . This same half century saw American psychology move away from its earlier concern with the nature of learning as it occurs in school. . . on the one hand. wise and skillful teachers.The Woods Hole Conference .There has always been a dualism in our educational ideal. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. .The ever-changing pattern of American educational philosophy played a part in the matter as well. . .

been rekindled among psychologists concerned with the learning process. the balance between instruction in the useful skills and in disciplined understanding was harder to maintain. and the like. We are concerned with curricula designed for Americans. learning designed to produce general understanding of the structure of a subject matter. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. sequences. there are also requirements for productivity to be met: are we producing enough scholars. lawmakers. to meet the demands of our times? Moreover.The moment one begins to ask questions about the value of specific courses. and William H. Clearly there are general questions to be faced before one can look at specific problems of courses. .Yet the diversity of American communities and of American life in general makes equally imperative some degree of variety in curricula. . James T. Schubert.The study of “transfer” provides the type case—the problem of the gain in mastery of other activities that one achieves from having mastered a particular learning task. for their ways and their needs in a complex world. . while the original theory of formal discipline was poorly stated in terms of the training of faculties. and as the proportion of new Americans in the school population went up. a Pearson Education Company. scientists. Dr. . .Virtually all of the evidence of the last two decades on the nature of learning and transfer has indicated that. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. even to the degree that learning properly under optimum conditions leads one to “learn how to learn. and political conditions continually alter the surroundings and the goals of schools and their students. their geographical mobility makes imperative some degree of uniformity among high schools and primary schools.CHAPTER 3 Transfer by Eminent Domain 49 mental as well. schools must also contribute to the social and emotional development of the child if they are to fulfill their function of education for life in a democratic community and for fruitful family life. Sears. .” These studies have stimulated a renewed interest in complex learning of a kind that one finds in schools. It is interesting that around the turn of the last century the conception of the learning process as depicted by psychology gradually shifted away from an emphasis upon the production of general understanding to an emphasis on the acquisition of specific skills. Dan Marshall. But as the proportion of the population registered in secondary schools increased. one is asking about the objectives of education. it is not that the other objectives of education are less important. Interest in curricular problems at large has. and so forth—later work tended to explore the transfer of identical elements or specific skills. Conant’s recent plea for the comprehensive high school is addressed to the problem of that balance. in consequence. it is indeed a fact that massive general transfer can be achieved by appropriate learning. judgment. The construction of curricula proceeds in a world where changing social. If the emphasis in what follows is principally on the intellectual side of education. by J. cultural. . Whereas the earlier emphasis had led to research studies on the transfer of formal discipline—the value obtained from the training of such “faculties” as analysis. And whatever the limits placed on education by the demands of diversity and uniformity. memory. Americans are a changing people. poets.

. . .The reader will find the chapter devoted to this theme introduced by the proposition that the foundations of any subject may be taught to anybody at any age in some form. Good teaching that emphasizes the structure of a subject is probably even more valuable for the less able student than for the gifted one. . for it is the former rather than the latter who is most easily thrown off the track by poor teaching. .50 PART II The Rise and Fall of Curriculum Specialists (1947–1960) We may take as perhaps the most general objective of education that it cultivate excellence. a Pearson Education Company. Intuitive thinking. The third theme involves the nature of intuition—the intellectual technique of arriving at plausible but tentative formulations without going through the analytic steps by which such formulations would be found to be valid or invalid conclusions. Four themes are developed in the chapters that follow. but it should be clear in what sense this phrase is used. not in kind. . and it is easier for him to learn physics behaving like a physicist than doing something else.The first of these has already been introduced: the role of structure in learning and how it may be made central in teaching. . the training of hunches. .The schoolboy learning physics is a physicist. . James T. . Sears. One thing seems clear: if all students are helped to the full utilization of their intellectual powers. . Question Individuals with a preference for intuition constitute about one-quarter of the general population (based on research on the long-standing Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)). .The difference is in degree. . . and William H. is a much-neglected and essential feature of productive thinking not only in formal academic disciplines but also in everyday life. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. by J.The “something else” 1 We thank Kathy S. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. whether at the frontier of knowledge or in a third-grade classroom. . we will have a better chance of surviving as a democracy in an age of enormous technological and social complexity. . Schubert. The second theme has to do with readiness for learning. Experience over the past decade points to the fact that our schools may be wasting precious years by postponing the teaching of many important subjects on the ground that they are too difficult. Quinn for this particularly insightful question. . Can educators be effective in “the training of hunches” when three-fourths of our student body prefer “sensing”?1 ? The three themes mentioned so far are all premised on a central conviction: that intellectual activity anywhere is the same. . Dan Marshall. It here refers not only to schooling the better student but also to helping each student achieve his optimum intellectual development. .

. Mass. . The other extreme implies a massive effort to prepare films. discussion that ranged over such diverse topics as teacher training. the nature of school examinations. but there was a division of opinion on how the teacher was to be aided. rather than such external goals as grades or later competitive advantage. Schubert.There was much discussion at Woods Hole of how the climate in which school learning occurs can be improved. . perhaps. While there was considerable discussion at Woods Hole of the apparatus of teaching—films. .The implication of the first extreme position is that every effort should be made to educate the teacher to a deep knowledge of his or her subject so that he or she may do as good a job as possible with it. and William H. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. and to teach the teacher how to use these with wisdom and understanding of the subject. and other devices that a teacher may use in instruction—there was anything but consensus on the subject. The two extreme positions—stated in exaggerated form—were. and at the same time the best materials should be made available for the teacher to choose from in constructing a course that meets the requirements of the syllabus. Ideally. Virtually all of the participants agreed that not teaching devices but teachers were the principal agents of instruction. by J. . can be summarized (though oversimplified in the process) in terms of the relative emphasis placed upon the teacher as such and upon the aids that the teacher might employ. Bruner. James T. and. While it is surely unrealistic to assume that the pressures of competition can be effectively eliminated or that it is wise to seek their elimination. television programs.: Harvard University Press. television. Sears. and the like. and so on. Copyright : © 1960 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College. . that the teacher must be the sole and final arbiter of how to present a given subject and what devices to use. television. a Pearson Education Company. The disagreement. the quality of curriculum. teaching machines. that the teacher should be explicator and commentator for prepared materials made available through films. Dan Marshall. teaching machines. second. and audio-visual aids. . The fourth theme relates to the desire to learn and how it may be stimulated.CHAPTER 3 Transfer by Eminent Domain 51 usually involves the task of mastering what came to be called at Woods Hole a “middle language”—classroom discussions and textbooks that talk about the conclusions in a field of intellectual inquiry rather than centering upon the inquiry itself. . . Reprinted by permission of the publishers from THE PROCESS OF EDUCATION by Jerome S. interest in the material to be learned is the best stimulus to learning. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. . first. it is nonetheless worth considering how interest in learning per se can be stimulated. Cambridge. instructional programs for teaching machines.

too. What a different place America had become. was the central role of the teacher as instructor and curriculum developer supplanted by prepackaged curricula authored by subject specialists. Kennedy expressed cautious approval of federal support for contraceptive research” (Halberstam. p. students became child-scientists and the traditional curriculum worker took a backseat to psychologists and other discipline scholars of the “first rank. revealed a radical transformation of curriculum and curriculum development. watched the candidates debate in what became a boon for the nation’s soon-to-be first Catholic president. p. 606). 1993. a Pearson Education Company. Just as the central role of the parish priest as confessor. with primary curricular control exercised by noneducators.” Within a few years neither traditional curriculum developers nor devout American Catholics recognized their long-time sanctuaries. Sears. However.” radically transformed the educator’s role in the classroom. . ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Meanwhile. and the states to Ivy League scientists. school boards. James T. and “After a century of American Presidents who refused to deal with the issue of overpopulation. 1993. pilot Gary Powers was shot down over the Soviet Union while on a spying mission. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. comprehending the structure of knowledge was more important than understanding the structure of society. In the very same month that the Harvard University Press published Bruner’s book. There was no turning back. like the new liturgy. and theories of learning were prized above theories of knowledge. so. Whereas church governance grew to include parishoners. by J. in an ironic reversal of roles. while the Church opened the doors for participation at the local level. the control of public education shifted dramatically from teachers.” like John XXIII’s “new theology. Inquiry into the discipline supplanted inquiry into the self. father figure. The new curriculum evidenced in Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) and Man: A Course of Study (MACOS). Teachers became either subject matter specialists or human conduits for the transmission of subject matter knowledge. and the curriculum worker’s role in development. the student’s role in learning. the civil rights movement produced more than 100 sit-ins at lunch counters across the country as Kennedy and Richard Nixon “were magnified to the status of heroic gladiators” during “the most exciting democratic election of the twentieth century” (Aitken. U. Schubert. the schoolhouse became the dominion of the federal government funders and the foundations. The largest television audience to date. Dan Marshall. and the most popular hobbies in 1960 America were playing with science kits and building model rockets.52 PART II The Rise and Fall of Curriculum Specialists (1947–1960) No Turning Back Bruner’s new “theory of instruction. and the federal bureaucracy. some 74 million. and William H.S. 274). and shepherd was changing to accommodate greater participation by the laity. foundation boards.

I went to the University of California to work on a major grant. p. and a finely-honed repertory of intellectual skills. Dan Marshall. Control of curriculum change in other words had reverted from its traditional locus in the professional education community to specialists in the academic disciplines. I came on as Assistant Director. Schubert. the directors of these major projects were drawn from academic departments in major universities. Tyler was a living portrayal of Bruner’s educational ideal: broad knowledge. Third. as would be expected. by J. the effort to replace the academic subjects as the basic building blocks of the curriculum. and foundations gave large sums to various experiments. made money available. Ralph Tyler was on the Board. (Kliebard. and William H. the first director. and believed that research and development could advance education. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. First. 268) We proceed into the next chapter with Professor Rubin’s story of first meeting Ralph Tyler. which had come to represent the end of an era in several respects. and all kinds of local projects. R & D Centers. James T. . Secondly. High optimism prevailed. . almost without exception. going back about half a century. I succeeded him. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. It was during the height of externally controlled curriculum work: In 1964. He became a superb mentor. A legendary giant. 1986. a Pearson Education Company. These were the early days of Title III and Title IV [of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act].CHAPTER 3 Transfer by Eminent Domain 53 As president. . Those were the halcyon days when the feds welcomed new ideas. and when Ernie Boyer. was brought to an abrupt end. Sears. went east to the stewardship of the New York Higher Education System. social consciousness. . the Ford Foundation funded the Center for Coordinated Education on the premise that we needed greater connective tissue between high schools and universities. the longstanding emphasis on local efforts at curriculum change was replaced by a pattern of centrally controlled curriculum revision. In my case. John Kennedy also supported the growth and acceleration of government-supported curriculum projects.

and William H. Schubert.P A R T III Reestablishing Agency and Agendas (1961–1969) ▼ CHAPTER 4 ▼ CHAPTER 5 Muted Heretics Endure Transcending a Muddled Juncture 55 ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. a Pearson Education Company. Dan Marshall. James T. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. . by J. Sears.


Dan Marshall. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. buried in erudite discussions of the structures of the disciplines” (Pinar. development. psychology had become the basic educational science. Reynolds. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir.56 C PART III Reestablishing Agency and Agendas (1961–1969) H A P T E R 4 Muted Heretics Endure ▼ T 56 he painstaking work of developing a curriculum alongside teachers and school administrators quickly diminished when the curriculum field was repossessed by psychologists and discipline specialists funded by foundation moneys and empowered by federal decrees. Bruner’s Process of Education was the new curriculum bible. with its “military and nationalistic objectives . . . As a result of this domination. . and William H. 159–161). curriculum people such as Dwayne Huebner and James Macdonald would develop potent critiques and alternative possibilities to such discourse. & Taubman. Slattery. James T. . the educational problem has been recast in terms of method. a Pearson Education Company. pp. and behavior. pp. As Tanner and Tanner (1990. Schubert. Sears. 300–301) note. In time. . Most educational controversies rage around theories of learning rather than the content of the curriculum. This erudite curriculum discourse of the early 1960s was dominated by the psychological language of cognition. . The underlying assumption of this point of view is that there is an agreed-upon body of knowledge called the curriculum. 1995. by J.

Overall. a work in general curriculum that built on the Tylerian formula for curriculum making. Bruner brought attention to the structure of knowledge. inquiry was usually divorced from action (D. Tanner & Tanner. Sears. Such a turnabout was promoted in many synoptic texts . Taba was especially interested in developing a strong theoretical base for curriculum development and in moving from the perceived linearity of Tyler’s “steps” to a more Deweyan or ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. though inquiry and structure were touted as fundamental in this new take on curriculum work. yet he also emphasized intuition and different ways of knowing through inquiry. and the kind of inquiry that produces discipline-specific knowledge. Dan Marshall. one of the few women in the curriculum field whose work had achieved broad notoriety.CHAPTER 4 Muted Heretics Endure 57 To be fair. Through the midpoint of the decade. James T. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. Taba. 175–176). its larger sociocultural context moved in opposition. as the curriculum field moved away from action toward rational. 1980). This book was distinguished by Taba’s ability to draw from multiple disciplines in describing the forces that influence curriculum and her special emphases on diagnosis and unit construction (Schubert. like many preceding synoptic texts. removed. 1945). a new version of social behaviorism” (Schubert. they seemed to promote a belief in human similarity that could be addressed through an information-processing model of curriculum—much like the widespread influence of faculty psychology during the late nineteenth century (Willis. Schubert. Indeed. . or at least rationalized. and William H. Many 1960s curriculum books were new or revised editions of earlier synoptic texts. Kridel. Additionally. 282–283) as structure was transformed into “a means-ends rationality with predetermined objectives that governed. pp. [and] embodied the technology of behaviorism and simplistic systems applications . Bruner’s ideas were far more complex than the manner in which they were eventually employed. 1990. Schubert. . . . Bullough. had long been associated with Ralph Tyler. p. this decade welcomed the full-fledged production and popularity of collected readings in the field. 1993. Curriculum Development: Theory and Practice was. many of the post-Sputnik curriculum reform projects. their teacher-proof character. systematically designed learning activities. and their evaluation-heavy aspects modeled on Bruner’s ideas reflected an unmistakable social behaviorist flavor. planned experiences. she had produced an oft-cited chapter in the 1945 National Society for the Study of Education (NSSE) yearbook. Moreover. In addition to her work on the Eight Year Study evaluation. pp. . would emerge in 1962 with the publication of Hilda Taba’s Curriculum Development: Theory and Practice. & Holton. curriculum books suggested a confused and uncertain field. 355). which Tyler edited (NSSE. The true swan song for the disappearing field of curriculum development. a Pearson Education Company. however. however. 1980. by J. the importance of the disciplines. Ironically.

and considered very good. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. yet I can also recall spending an awful lot of time sitting and watching the clock. Sears. Schubert. and Alice Miel were quietly at work in places like Teachers College recruiting and mentoring increasing numbers of young women teachers. ▼Louise M. I usually liked them. 175). Connecticut. Berman: C o n t i nuing the Tradition of Wo m e n ’s Curriculum Wo r k Dewey’s progressive and experiential influence managed to remain recognizable during the technical and behavioristic curriculum work of the early 1960s. Education was quite formal and classical. pick fruit in nearby orchards. who has spent more than 30 years as a curriculum worker involved with issues of curriculum development as a rational and organized process undertaken by meaning-making human beings. Being the oldest I often had responsibility for their care. thanks in no small part to a growing number of women entering the curriculum field. I enjoyed being with them. Margaret Lindsey. September 27. 1995.58 PART III Reestablishing Agency and Agendas (1961–1969) “circular” process wherein new goals or purposes could emerge through the utilization of ongoing (formative) evaluation at the school level (Pinar et al. but I didn’t have the kind of freedom to spend with peers that many youngsters have today. a Pearson Education Company. by J. . offering them temporary lodging until they could find a place to settle. personal communication. We built tree houses and all kinds of things outdoors. I seldom thought much about possibilities beyond high school because career options for women in the late 1940s were scarce. but her parents helped many European refugees immigrate to the United States. Though we may take for granted the presence of women in academia or curriculum work today. and William H. Louise was deeply affected by World War II. p.. few such role models existed for earlier generations. 1994.1 professor emerita of education at the University of Maryland. Not only was her father an air raid warden. I grew up in West Hartford. Berman. and watch the horses of one of my classmates. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. This situation changed. because women such as Florence Stratemeyer. I can recall all my teachers. Professor Berman continues: 1 Louise M. My father was a lawyer and my mother stayed home with their four children. James T. in part. which at the time was a rural area. Because we had lots of open space around. we could play in the fields. One of these recruits was Louise Berman. Communication skills and writing skills were emphasized in my elementary and high schools. Dan Marshall.

The next thing she knew her fiancé had been killed. New Jersey. encouraged the family to send Louise to college in the Midwest. She settled in Hartford and worked in a little store. While at college I took a course in personnel and guidance with the Dean of Students. Gans was very much concerned about injustice.CHAPTER 4 Muted Heretics Endure 59 I recall one very poignant story. I felt such compassion for her. . She continues: When I graduated from college I didn’t know I was going to be a teacher. she enrolled in the Department of Curriculum and Teaching at Teachers College–Columbia University. I think he probably was interested not only in how I was coming out on these tests but also the kinds of questions I was raising when looking at results. Roma Gans was my major professor during that period. And even though she worked with hundreds and hundreds of students. the president of Wheaton College in Illinois. Further study didn’t even occur to me because of my family situation: There were other children to educate. women didn’t have graduate degrees. he called me into his office and pointed out some things that I didn’t see in myself. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. But I did take a few education courses and became interested in some of John Dewey’s ideas. Louise returned home. a Pearson Education Company. and William H. to my knowledge. Louise felt that she had little choice but to attend Wheaton. Nearing high school graduation. but I stored some of his ideas in the back of my head. Despite encouragement from her high school principal to consider other options. She took the job. score. During that course we learned how to administer. such as my potential to do graduate work. in part because it would enable her to consider graduate study in English. Schubert. majoring in English literature. I had taken a fairly traditional liberal arts program at Wheaton. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. The professor came to know us both through how we took the tests and how we interpreted what we were learning from them. Besides. completing half of my master’s work that year (1950–51). the war seemed to be so close. James T. a long-time friend of Louise’s mother. by J. Sears. Leaving Illinois. In that process we took the tests. Dewey was no favorite at Wheaton. Among the people who stayed with us were two young girls. soon finding herself invited to teach as a part-time kindergarten teacher in Hackensack. because the day I left Wheaton College. one of whom had sent this huge wooden box ahead—it was her hope chest. She seemed interested in what was happening in my classroom. As a novice teacher feeling a need for some advanced help. and interpret a lot of tests. she got to know many of us. I taught half a day and attended Teachers College afternoons and evenings. Dan Marshall. As the father of progressivism.

Sears. politicians.S. that was a decade of seemingly unending economic bounty leavened by Communist fear for many Americans. three-term California governor. vice presidential nominee. Supreme Court played a major role. Schubert. state attorney general. 1993. Since its inception. SOCIAL ACTIVISM AND SUPREME COURT JUSTICE The seeds of this eventual confrontation were sown early in the civil rights movement. Gans was tuned in to the relationships between life in the city and classroom teaching. and vast class disparities” (Boyer. James T. and William H. Her course on the role of the teacher was a hands-on kind of class in which she asked teachers to know their neighborhood and their world. gender exploitation. Professor Berman’s early interest in social justice and progressive ideals grew during her professional maturation as a teacher and graduate student in the 1950s. Brown v. When mediocre Stanford Law School graduate. Board of Education had already been argued before the justices. and one-time presidential hopeful Earl Warren joined the Supreme Court as its 14th chief justice in the summer of 1953. Ferguson. That was in the ‘50s! Roma also published some down-to-earth writings.60 PART III Reestablishing Agency and Agendas (1961–1969) For example. I taught in the East Hartford public schools (1951–54) and later at the Laboratory Schools associated with Central Connecticut State College in New Britain (1954–58). She once took us on an all-night trip to New York City to observe the markets being set up. jurists. Beginning in 1954. “Only later—in some cases much later—would the nation confront in anything like a comprehensive fashion the era’s racism. nuclear and environmental hazards. p. so I moved back to Connecticut that spring to find a job. by J. judicial conservatives. I was working very hard that first year of teaching and became quite ill. Dan Marshall.Yet the Court. and the public at large have argued about the Court’s primary role as a branch of government: Is it to practice judicial restraint or judicial activism? The Warren Court would tack hard toward the latter. too. legal scholars. . and the U. and to witness life on the docks. 217). were left with no alternative but to batten down the hatches and endure. As we noted earlier. like curriculum progressives. she was furious about women not getting the same salaries as men. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. In reconsidering the separate-but-equal principle articulated in Plessy v. a Pearson Education Company. was undergoing a change of its own. to eat an early morning meal in Chinatown. Justice Felix Frankfurter—a Roosevelt appointee with a (continued) ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir.

due process. Frankfurter was an ardent advocate of judicial reason and the hopeful heir apparent of Supreme Court Chief Justice Holmes— about whom he wrote a book a year before his nomination to the Court in 1939. a Pearson Education Company. who had denounced the ruling of the Sacco and Vanzetti case in the 1920s. best characterized as “judicial restraint.” In his biography of Holmes. their judicial philosophies diverged. Both Warren and (continued) ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Frankfurter and Warren were a study in contrasts. selected by a Republican conservative (Eisenhower) whose first two choices (John Foster Dulles and Thomas Dewey) had both declined. Frankfurter extols the chief justice’s ability to “transcend personal predilections and private notions of social policy” (Frankfurter. p. an “old progressive. For Frankfurter. Frankfurter was a long-time judicial insider with a razor-sharp mind for case law and a traditionalist’s fervor for interpreting law. and communicative.CHAPTER 4 Muted Heretics Endure 61 SOCIAL ACTIVISM AND SUPREME COURT JUSTICE (continued) cautious jurisprudential temperament—had successfully avoided a mixed decision to overturn the 60-year precedent. and academic establishments. and judicial tradition. on rationality. Frankfurter had transformed his stellar Harvard Law School performance into a career as a Wall Street insider whose network of relationships. James T. 1939. although Felix Frankfurter and Earl Warren shared progressive views of a “good society. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. 45) and rely. the flamboyant Frankfurter was the consummate inside New Deal lawyer and legal scholar. extended from the business community and academe into governmental agencies and the judiciary. and William H. whereas Warren. by J.” the law was a political instrument to right social ills through sweeping decisions that the other branches of government lacked the political will or ideological conviction to make. . Rising from his German-Jewish émigré parents’ Lower East Side home. However.” were born of immigrant parents. developed close friendships with prominent jurists and political architects. and who believed that the Court should create the law when necessary. political preferences were to be sidelined in deference to judicial restraint and legal precedent. Schubert. fostered by his interpersonal and legal skills. Frankfurter’s fascination with Chief Justice Holmes reflects their similarity in judicial philosophy. and mentored talented young men who later assumed prominent positions throughout the legal. Sears. affable. In short. business. He advised presidents. who lacked recent or sustained legal experience.Warren was a judicial outsider who had little knowledge of the Court’s activities or personal contacts. A student of the Progressive Era who echoed the importance of the professional and intellectual elite in expanding democracy.An appointee of an activist president (Franklin Delano Roosevelt). political. instead. was pragmatic. and encountered controversy in their outspoken views. For Warren. Dan Marshall.

Board of Education. 1950). Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. Schubert. . Painter. Dan Marshall. this struggle set the course for the future” (Boyer. illustrates the role of both men as political activists and strategists while marking a shift from the judicial conservatism of the often embattled Vinson Court. by J. the desegregation of Little Rock Central High School. SNCC’s Mississippi voter registration efforts during the “Freedom Summer” of 1964 resulted in dozens of resident blacks and visiting young people being beaten and jailed—and James Chaney (black). In 1961. p. a Pearson Education Company. Kraemer.The request for a second hearing before the newly constituted Warren Court allowed Frankfurter the opportunity to encourage a former law clerk and now a Justice Department official. created an opportunity for a unified Court ruling in Brown based on precedent. a former minor league baseball player and political appointee of the Truman administration.and reason— a political necessity given the certainty of southern hostility. James T. The search for racial justice continued with James Meredith. to draft a compelling argument and for Warren to assume a statesman-like role in forging the 9–0. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir.Though far from over by . 1993. anti–individual rights view and refusing to overrule Congress’s restriction of free speech or to bound the search and seizure procedures—positions that Frankfurter found unjustified by legal precedent. 1990. in 1963—the same year that Dr. and Andrew Goodman and Michael Schwerner (white Jews) being murdered. Philip Elman. 215). Alabama. whose effort to attend the all-white University of Mississippi was blocked by Governor Ross Barnett in 1962. 1948) and segregated universities (Sweatt v. out of which grew the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC).62 PART III Reestablishing Agency and Agendas (1961–1969) SOCIAL ACTIVISM AND SUPREME COURT JUSTICE (continued) Frankfurter would cast long shadows on the Supreme Court well through the remainder of the century.Violent civil rights demonstrations rocked Birmingham. Brown v. a black Air Force veteran.evidence. the Court limited its role by adopting a progovernment. and William H. . delivered his “I Have a Dream” speech to tens of thousands who had marched on Washington. Sears. Although the Vinson Court had signaled the eventual end of segregation with unanimous rulings against property covenants that restricted resale on the basis of race (Shelley v. and the first Civil Rights Act since Reconstruction (1957) all led the way for the 1960 lunch counter sit-ins. 1954) “laid the foundation for a civil rights struggle that eventually confronted the whole vast reality of a racially stratified society. Martin Luther King Jr. The untimely death of Chief Justice Vinson. Rosa Parks’s civil disobedience (1955). efforts to desegregate public buses were begun by the civilly disobedient Freedom Riders led by the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) and SNCC. tightly worded decision that called for school integration “with all deliberate speed” (a phrase suggested by Frankfurter). . the first in a series of hallmark constitutional cases of the Warren Court. The Court’s Brown decision (May 17.

curriculum dissent was also in the air. Jr. one of the Central Connecticut professors who had studied with Alice Miel suggested that I make contact with her. completing my master’s and accumulating 30 credits toward a professional diploma.” She continues: For example. Efforts to keep alive the more experientialist. Marcella Lawler and Gordon McKenzie were working in suburban New Jersey . Louise knew that most Teachers College faculty “seemed to have some kind of ongoing curriculum development project. . Sears. Of course. So we decided to focus on social studies. In the case of Teachers College. Schubert. that I first became involved in general curriculum development. called The Shortchanged Children of Suburbia. and that’s what I was doing at New Britain. many of the women faculty were busy modeling their ideas. and William H. While teaching kindergarten and primary grades in Connecticut I continued at Teachers College during the summers. I chaired the Curriculum Committee—a group of some 60 college professors and lab school teachers. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. At that point I saw curriculum as composed of the separate subjects. Dan Marshall. At some point. and issues of justice were central to Miel’s teaching as well as to the teaching of several other faculty at Teachers College. [and] Alice Miel was involved in suburban New York—a project which ultimately led her to publish a little booklet with Edwin Kiester. . and their writings marginalized. Beginning full-time doctoral study in 1958. so I wrote and requested a conference. . which were closely affiliated with Central Connecticut State College. by J. The Committee realized that we couldn’t possibly explore the curricula of all the grades as they related to teacher education. James T.. This experience awakened my desire to gain more insight into curriculum development. progressive ideals of earlier decades prevailed in the early 1960s. their voices muffled. Those who would persist in working to bring such ideas back into the curriculum discourse of the 1960s were mentored during the 1950s at institutions such as Teachers College and Ohio State. though their advocates were few. We met one Saturday morning and talked about what I was doing and what I wanted to know. social learning. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. knowing how to know. a Pearson Education Company. It was during my years with the three Lab Schools.CHAPTER 4 Muted Heretics Endure 63 Modeling Compassionate and Democratic Ideals in Curriculum To be sure. Creativity. The book focused upon what schools do not teach about human differences. Louise Berman was there. she was very skilled at curriculum development.

for three days. Dan Marshall.” Herself an independent thinker. In time. for example. James T. noted creative ideas worthy of exploration. a Pearson Education Company. personal responsibility. & McKim. Professor Berman had made a good choice: In the 50s. 1947. values. and so on. Forkner. The women with whom I studied at TC were vitally concerned with social issues. and William H. assisting in creativity workshops. and energized you with the sharing of appropriate knowledge. Advisors like Alice Miel were generators of independent thinkers. an important conference took place at Teachers College where. Women faculty had extraordinarily large numbers of students because they had reputations for offering wise counsel and being completely committed to the profession. I began feeling as if I wanted to enter the curriculum field and an academic career in a more whole-hearted way. Louise selected Miel as her major professor and Lindsay as one of her doctoral committee members: “With such strong role models. by J. . Similarly. Sears. a dichotomy was evident among the faculty between those concerned with curriculum in a “pure” or theoretical sense and those interested in life in schools as their starting point. Schubert. psychologists like Arthur Combs and Donald Snygg were popularizing notions of non-directive counseling. 1957). and reallife situations that so greatly impressed Berman remained quietly alive within the early 1960s curriculum field. The concerns for social issues. In 1961. and real life situations. though a certain continuity of curricular thought often resulted from these advisor/advisee relationships. clarified what they heard. pointed out places where your perceiving might be accurate or faulty. doctoral advisors encouraged the telling of your story. supervision. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. and coteaching a course called “Social Learning in the Elementary School.64 PART III Reestablishing Agency and Agendas (1961–1969) Professor Berman worked closely with Miel. values. “two ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Developing a Curriculum for Modern Living (Stratemeyer. you had to operationalize them. Her book. both viewpoints were instructive.” Louise also benefited from the presence of faculty members Margaret Lindsay and Florence Stratemeyer. From my perspective as a student. my personal relationship with her lingered. I still pursue interests I can relate to my days of being a new advisee of Alice Miel’s. was quite influential in helping me to see the importance of considering the philosophical and psychological bases of curriculum development while at the same time giving examples of the activities and knowledge congruent with these bases. During my time at TC. Stratemeyer used to say that you couldn’t just talk big curriculum ideas. And like many other former advisees. creating an annotated bibliography for Miel’s book Creativity in Teaching.

and Theodore Brameld. Schubert. The small but committed group of curriculum dissidents who agreed with Huebner’s plea was soon gifted with the publication of the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development’s (ASCD’s) 1962 yearbook. a sense of belonging. James T. though some of their more politically charged ideas and practices would soon reemerge from the likes of Dwayne Huebner. 1962. Fraser. Laing. At the time. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. 178) and seemed to be more enthusiastically received by educators than the earlier social reconstructionist ideas offered by curriculum people such as Counts.. Heath. discipline-centered. however. and various other school subject areas (see. p. and opportunities for creative expression did little to slow the advancing juggernaut of big-budget. p. 1963. and more narrowly. “serve as excellent examples of a conception of psychology alternative to mainstream educational psychology.” To the extent that teachers had any flexibility in their decisions. by J. Thomas Hopkins. 172). a protégé of Carl Rogers. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. p.. and William H. English. 1995. 1962. How narrow were these parameters? With the publication of Robert Mager’s Preparing Instructional Objectives (1962). the text brought humanistic or “third-force” psychology as discussed by Rogers. James Macdonald. 1995. especially.CHAPTER 4 Muted Heretics Endure 65 hundred educators interested in curriculum and representative of the various academic disciplines” (Passow. Becoming. and Erik Erickson into the curriculum field. Abraham Maslow. Dan Marshall. The early 1960s produced numerous reports of these national endeavors in mathematics. Behaving. for example. error proofing the teaching–learning process reached a peak. top-down curriculum projects. and their students. Gilchrist.. L. Sears. this flexibility was wrapped within the need to adhere to the tenets of developmentalism and be accountable to the principles of behaviorism. this text had a powerful influence in the 1960s and beyond. One of the best-selling curriculum books of all time. 1962) include an essay by Dwayne Huebner entitled “Politics and Curriculum” that explores curriculum from the vantage point of political theory. 1995. iii) explored the frontiers of the curriculum field. which had dominated the school curriculum so thoroughly at the time. . Gordon Allport. Their pioneering work would be acknowledged and extended in the humanistic movement in the field later in the 1960s and during the 1970s” (Pinar et al. Combs. Rugg. R. Edited by Arthur W. a Pearson Education Company. arguing “that the curriculum field permits the use of all major disciplinary systems. Perceiving. the rapidly increasing popularity of humanistic psychology and its accompanying emphases on the importance of providing students with choices. science. pp. The chapters by Maslow and Rogers. D. behaviorism. 171–172). Eric Fromm. not only behaviorist psychology” (Pinar et al. Most were so thoroughly planned and carefully packaged that they would later be called “teacher proof. The edited proceedings published as Curriculum Crossroads (Passow. a movement appeared that provided “internal challenges to the Tylerian paradigm” (Pinar et al. Rather suddenly. 1964).

at least. and assessment as well as the apparent unimportance of the teacher (or curriculum worker) in matters of what should be taught and why. . objectives. and in communicating them in such a way that your students will be able to demonstrate their achievement of your instructional objectives. . When clearly defined goals are lacking. machine. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. The arrival of Robert Mager’s “little book” helped to move the perennial Tylerian concern for educational objectives toward inevitably more instructionoriented. measurably explicit notions of instructional (and later behavioral or performance) objectives. and William H. . Sears. a Pearson Education Company. Dan Marshall. . . This shift. 1994. or method. it is impossible to evaluate a course or program efficiently. It is a description of a pattern of behavior (performance) we want the learner to be able to demonstrate. Interestingly. . Sosniak. James T. 1994). by J. It is further assumed that you are interested in communicating certain skills and knowledge to your students. Ralph Tyler both supported and opposed this shift (see Airasian. The language of this excerpt exhibits these attempts rather explicitly and stands out as a curriculum turning point. it is important to be able to state clearly what your goals are. before you choose material. Preparing Instructional Objectives by Robert F. It is assumed that you are interested in preparing effective instruction. was rather underwhelming. . you have just finished this book. and there is no sound basis for selecting appropriate ma- ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. M a g e r Before you prepare instruction. . one-way relationships between goals.66 PART III Reestablishing Agency and Agendas (1961–1969) Benjamin Bloom had published his Taxonomy of Educational Objectives.The book is NOT about the philosophy of education. . . Schubert. Handbook 1: Cognitive Domain in 1956 (dedicating it to Ralph Tyler)—a time when the importance of educational objectives among classroom teachers. Mager’s book—itself a programmed learning text—represents the popular state of affairs of the time with respect to the direct. created serious constraints for curriculum workers.This book is about instructional objectives. nor about which objectives should be selected. (If you are not interested in demonstrating achievement of your objectives.) Why We Care about Objectives An objective is an intent communicated by a statement describing a proposed change in a learner—a statement of what the learner is to be like when he has successfully completed a learning experience. nor is it about who should select objectives. with its focus on specificity of language and lack of attention to questions of content or intentions (among other missing elements).

. a Pearson Education Company. But unless goals are clearly and firmly fixed in the minds of both parties. . is one that succeeds in communicating your intent. he will be unable to select test items that clearly reflect the student’s ability to perform the desired skills. . then. . unfair. Question From your experience. To be useful they must measure performance in terms of the goals. the best statement is the one that excludes the greatest number of possible alternatives to your goal. .Tests or examinations are the mileposts along the road of learning and are supposed to tell the teacher and the student the degree to which both have been successful in the achievement of the course objectives. A meaningfully stated objective. . Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. there are many “loaded” words. . or useless. without ever specifying just what goal the aid or method is to assist in achieving. James T. Unfortunately. one hears teachers arguing the relative merits of textbooks or other aids of the classroom versus the laboratory. is correct textual interpretation always desirable or even possible? ? ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. and William H. content.What you are searching for is that group of words and symbols that will communicate your intent exactly as YOU understand it. Sears. tests are at best misleading. by J. they are irrelevant. Unless the programmer himself has a clear picture of his instructional intent. the student knows which activities on his part are relevant to his success. . Another important reason for stating objectives sharply relates to the evaluation of the degree to which the learner is able to perform in the manner desired. Dan Marshall. and it is no longer necessary for him to “psych out” the instructor. . It is meaningful to the extent it conveys to others a picture (of what a successful learner will be like) identical to the picture the writer has in mind. . you leave yourself open to misinterpretation. words open to a wide range of interpretation. . at worst. An additional advantage of clearly defined objectives is that the student is provided the means to evaluate his own progress at any place along the route of instruction and is able to organize his efforts into relevant activities.CHAPTER 4 Muted Heretics Endure 67 terials. or that will reflect how well the student can demonstrate his acquisition of desired information. The Qualities of Meaningful Objectives Basically. a meaningfully stated objective is one that succeeds in communicating to the reader the writer’s instructional intent. .To the extent that you use ONLY such words. With clear objectives in view. Schubert. I cannot emphasize too strongly the point that an instructor will function in a fog of his own making until he knows just what he wants his students to be able to do at the end of the instruction. or instructional methods.Too often .

Dan Marshall. . . Sears. . by J. Since no one can see into another’s mind to determine what he knows. .” Until you describe what the learner will be DOING when demonstrating that he “understands” or “appreciates. . .” as used here. . the statement that communicates best will be one that describes the terminal behavior of the learner well enough to preclude misinterpretation. a Pearson Education Company. Further Defining the Terminal Behavior But simply specifying the terminal act may not be enough to prevent your being misunderstood. . means overt action).68 PART III Reestablishing Agency and Agendas (1961–1969) Consider the following examples of words in this light: Words Open to Many Interpretations Words Open to Fewer Interpretations to know to understand to really understand to appreciate to fully appreciate to grasp the significance of to enjoy to believe to have faith in to write to recite to identify to differentiate to solve to construct to list to compare to contrast . Given a list of . . Given a properly functioning . . James T.Thus. . Schubert. Though it is all right to include such words as “understand” and “appreciate” in a statement of an objective. . . Here are some examples: Given a problem of the following class . you will sometimes have to define terminal behavior further by stating the conditions you will impose upon the learner when he is demonstrating his mastery of the objective. To state an objective that will successfully communicate your educational intent. . . .” you have described very little at all. . and William H. . . Given any reference of the learner’s choice . you can only determine the state of the learner’s intellect or skill by observing some aspects of his behavior or performance (the term “behavior. . Given a matrix of intercorrelations . Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. Identifying the Terminal Behavior A statement of an objective is useful to the extent that it specifies what the learner must be able to DO or PERFORM when he is demonstrating his mastery of the objective. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. the statement is not explicit enough to be useful until it indicates how you intend to sample the “understanding” and “appreciating. . Given a standard set of tools . . . .

One good way to get started is to look over the examinations you use. . Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. or both) under which the learner will be expected to demonstrate his competence? 3. . .it is intended that the learner develop a certain amount of “confidence” in his handling of the subject matter. a Pearson Education Company. by J. . Without the aid of tools . . whether related to content or not. you can increase the ability of an objective to communicate by telling the learner HOW WELL you want him to be able to do it. only when this is accomplished will you have a sound basis for selecting the learning experiences to include in an instructional program. Schubert. Sears.To familiarize you with a strategy for preparing objectives. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. or if he is expected to acquire certain “critical attitudes. you will undoubtedly find other ways of specifying the excellence of performance you intend to accept as evidence of the learner’s success. . and you can improve your objectives by putting these standards into words. . Dan Marshall. James T. . . . . Probably the most obvious way to indicate a lower limit of acceptable performance is to specify a time limit where one is appropriate. Another way of describing criterion behavior is that of defining the important characteristics of performance accuracy. . only examples of content objectives have been used. of course. But.You will accomplish this by describing the criterion of acceptable performance. you can ask these questions of your statements to test their clarity and completeness: 1. An alternative to indicating number is to indicate percentage or proportion. As you try to write objectives that meet the requirements discussed in this book. the number of principles that must be identified.Where. Without the aid of a slide rule . and William H. Once this is done. Another way to indicate a criterion of successful performance is to specify the minimum number of correct responses you will accept. the number of principles that must be applied in a given situation. . or the number of words that must be spelled correctly. . . . . .” it is appropriate to decide what you will accept as evidence of “confidence” or of “critical attitudes” and describe these behaviors in separate objectives. you frequently intend to reach objectives other than those relating merely to the content or subject matter.CHAPTER 4 Muted Heretics Endure 69 Without the aid of references . they will tell you what you ARE using as standards of performance. Does the statement indicate how the learner will be evaluated? Does it describe at least the lower limit of acceptable performance? . .. Statements of objectives should include all intended outcomes. . . for example. Does the statement describe the important conditions (givens or restrictions. . Does the statement describe what the learner will be doing when he is demonstrating that he has reached the objective? 2. Stating the Criterion Now that you have described what it is you want the learner to be able to do. . .

1964. but there was reason for pride as well. Sears. . comedy (e. The difference was that this 1960s dissent would eventually take center stage. . James T. the early 1960s seemed to welcome a culture of dissent emanating from the previous decade’s beat generation literature (e. The civil rights struggle had opened many eyes to the problems of the marginalized and those taken for granted. Dissidence Comes Alive Strengthened by the popularity and intellectual respectability of Perceiving. In 1964 alone. Elam. films (e. Soon to follow were “mastery learning” (Carroll. & Masia’s (1964) publication of objectives for the affective domain (in which humanism meets behaviorism). GA 30338. © 1962.. and music (the Weavers and Elvis). Published by The Center for Effective Performance. There was much to set right.g. . All of this transpired as the curriculum community continued to function within Bruner’s structure of the disciplines mode (see. A. dissident curriculum voices multiplied. For a significant proportion of young. 32–33) recalls: Only action could cleanse you.g. On the Road). As Gottlieb (1987. Suite 2000. 1964).” What is your assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of this curriculum strategy? ? Reprinted with permission from Preparing Instructional Objectives. Harry Passow revisited the focus on individual development. a Pearson Education Company. we felt that the nation had awakened from its Fifties sleep. 1963). and William H. and Dwayne Huebner reassessed the dominant state of curriculum affairs. for example. white. Dan Marshall. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. . 1-800-558-4237. Reassessment and critique were also a part of the larger sociocultural landscape. morality and justice would motivate their actions.. Becoming.70 PART III Reestablishing Agency and Agendas (1961–1969) Question Imagine a set of objectives not solely related to content or subject matter that includes “all intended outcomes. Bloom. John Goodlad critiqued the national curriculum reform projects. by J. Schubert. pp. G.. The ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Krathwohl. Unlike the chilling atmosphere of the 1950s. W. middle-class Americans (forever after to be dubbed baby boomers). Ford & Pugno. 2300 Peachford Road. Behaving. and Gagne’s connecting of objectives to accountability in The Conditions of Learning (1965). Mort Sahl and Lenny Bruce). In the early Sixties.g.Atlanta. This excerpt from Mager’s text illustrates the epitome of the social behaviorist takeover of curriculum work in the early 1960s. Rebel Without a Cause and On the Waterfront).

CHAPTER 4 Muted Heretics Endure


ideals of the Founding Fathers were still alive, and the transition from the old to the new America might just be accomplished by moral force alone. Or by the political force of the New Left. From the beginnings of the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) in 1960, to the Port Huron statement in 1962, to Mario Savio and the free speech movement at Berkeley in 1964, early university protests over discipline, drinking, visitation rules, and course content led to occupied buildings, strikes, and protests, though by 1964, much of this self-serving energy would shift to antiwar efforts. This largely campus-centered dissent stood both in contrast to and in concert with the ongoing civil rights struggle, creating a kind of wholesale cultural unraveling throughout America. Common for a time, among protesters, were things like ethics, equality, and justice—everything they’d been taught in eighth-grade civics class and seen in Frank Capra movies. They expected, especially in America, everybody to get a fair deal. And they could see that nobody was getting a fair deal. . . . If the system was a fraud, it was up to them to fix it. And by action more direct and more effective than mere voting and letter writing, immediately. Undistracted, innocent, and responsible, children of the sixties brashly attacked injustice, irritation, and idiocy head on. The undertaking was, though quixotic and naive, supremely heroic. And it was massive. (Pichaske, 1989, p. 52)

Acting on Ideals, Seeking New Priorities
This sense of being driven by issues and ideals missing in the world around you existed among some within the curriculum field as well during the early 1960s. In the following passage, Louise Berman talks about this feeling as she arrived at her first university job at the University of Wisconsin in Milwaukee. There is usually some kind of a voice in curriculum work with which you resonate. It’s sometimes a small voice, but fortunately I happened to be part of that. When I was at Columbia, people like Alice Miel and Dwayne Huebner continued to sing different songs. Doing an annotated bibliography for Miel’s book on creativity propelled me to join the chorus, to venture elsewhere. That project put me in touch with people like Paul Torrance, Calvin Taylor, Marie Hughes, Wells Foshay, Ross Mooney—a whole bunch of imaginative people. Faculty at the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee (UWM) knew of my connections. In a sense, we were all part of an underground, singing on a subway platform as opposed to on the stage at Lincoln Center.
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Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir, by J. Dan Marshall, James T. Sears, and William H. Schubert. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall, a Pearson Education Company.


PART III Reestablishing Agency and Agendas (1961–1969)

Louise found exciting colleagues at UWM, including Jim Raths and Bernard Spodek, Jim Macdonald and George Denemark, Martin Haberman and Earl Johnson. She quickly became involved in a project called Creativity in Teaching, which enabled her to combine teaching with professional development and present everything through a series of videotapes (produced by public television) and study guides for teachers. All the while, she labored in an initial teacher preparation program “in which the professors spent all morning in the schools supervising student teachers and all afternoon teaching courses. In other words, you worked with the same students all day, five days a week.” But it was her evening class that caused her serious concern: I was also teaching at night—a basic graduate-level curriculum course that I think most institutions offered. I had taken many hours in curriculum at TC and had done work in curriculum development, yet I wondered what to do with these students. I started out teaching a little from this person and a little from that one until I realized this way of teaching wasn’t where I wanted to go, so I began spelling out what I believed students needed to know. I would spend nights in class talking with them about creating, about perceiving, about caring and so on. Over time I developed an outline for what eventually became my own curriculum priorities, resulting in the book New Priorities in the Curriculum (1968). I was given an advance so that I could take a few months off to write the book. I saw no educators during that period unless it was necessary: I didn’t visit the campus or talk to my former mentors. I just had to think through: Who am I as a person? What am I interested in? What’s important for students to know and be? How can curriculum be developed in a logical manner when I believe that knowledge is fluid and person-oriented? Where am I in relation to all of this? What’s my role going to be? I was reading in many areas: psychology, sociology, history, literature, and a lot in the philosophy of science. My curriculum work is eclectic, which is both a strength and a weakness. And I was aware at that point in time that my curriculum orientation was a minority perspective. The Sixties were a strange period of time. On the one hand efforts in discipline-oriented curriculum development were taking place; on the other hand, many in society were dealing with troublesome issues pertaining to freedom, morality, and ethics. I was constantly trying to balance all of this within myself by hunting for different ways of knowing, thinking, valuing and being. It was a very lonely time because I was extraordinarily aware of mainstream curriculum thought and realized I was out of step. I guess I was young enough and brash enough at the time to think that that work might have changed the course of education
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Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir, by J. Dan Marshall, James T. Sears, and William H. Schubert. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall, a Pearson Education Company.

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more. On the other hand, I never wanted to see a school that was built on New Priorities because I am a strong believer that people have to develop their own curriculum. I hoped persons would have looked at the book for insight, but I wanted people to go through the thinking and feeling processes I did. Although writing the book was a very painful process, the learnings have endured.

We Shall Overcome (and Endure) . . . Someday
Of course, some progressive and seemingly unusual ideas relating to curriculum organization did find the light of day in this otherwise constrictive curriculum environment, including modular scheduling (Trump & Baynham, 1961), core curriculum (Wright, 1963), and the call to look differently at the needs of junior high school students—the precursor of the middle school movement (van Til, Vars, & Lounsbury, 1961). ASCD continued its habit of exploring new terrain with its 1963 publication of The Unstudied Curriculum under the leadership of Norman Overly, and 1964 would bring the most careful, thorough, and creative statement in the first half of the century on the structure of knowledge in curriculum in Philip Phenix’s book Realms of Meaning: A Philosophy of the Curriculum for General Education. Nonetheless, these voices, like those of Louise Berman and others, were muted and largely ignored by the sounds of major curriculum endeavors under way. The moral imperatives that drove people such as Berman, Huebner, and Miel were no different from those at work in the larger sociocultural milieu of the day. Millions of Americans were losing faith in, working to change, simply ignoring, or planning to subvert “the system.” All, it seemed, was open to question and doubt. The new subcultures of difference born with the civil rights movement and the convergence of the beat generation, the emergence of the concept of adolescence, and rock and roll may have been easily dismissed by mainstream America in the late 1950s, but they all stood four square on center stage by the mid-1960s. As David Pichaske (1989, p. 24) explains, using the beat writers of the 1950s as an example, this was in part a result of a growing tribalism. This sense of close community, built on the principles of male friendship, more than anything else, differentiated the beats from other forms of fifties counterculture and anticipated an important element in the sixties mix: the impulse toward tribalism. The voices of Salinger, Mailer, and . . . Hemingway were individual voices. The central concern of social critics like Goodman and Whyte was the liberation of the individual from society’s annihilating homogenization. The beat shared [this concern] . . . and he, too, glorified the individual. . . . But the
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Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir, by J. Dan Marshall, James T. Sears, and William H. Schubert. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall, a Pearson Education Company.


PART III Reestablishing Agency and Agendas (1961–1969)

beat sought in a mystical fashion to communicate those experiences beyond words, to share them, to feel them with outsiders, to transcend experiences into Experience. So the outsiders with whom he shared became insiders, an in-group, a subclass, an elite. And you “made the scene” communally. The ethics of the beat subculture were the ethics of the tribe. We would see this ethic across subcultures in the 1960s: from lunch counter sit-ins to the participatory democracy of the SDS, from the growth of the underground press to the popularity of alternative schools, and from hippie tribes to the Weather Underground. By the time the Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty was signed in 1963, widespread American dissent had situated itself much closer to home around issues of race and class, power and authority. The sense of community among these subcultures and between them and a good deal of mainstream America grew real on November 22 of that year with the assassination of President Kennedy. As Annie Gottlieb (1987, p. 34) writes of the baby boom generation: That day, and in the days that followed, television became our tribal bard, weaving an unforgettable visual ballad out of live coverage, news photos, the frames of Abraham Zapruder’s home movie. . . . These were images that finally fused us into one, even as they shattered our childhood innocence. . . . now, for the first time we became conscious of our unity—and our vulnerability. SNCC’s “Freedom Summer” in Mississippi, the arrival of the Beatles in the United States, and the beginnings of unrest at Berkeley characterized 1964. “It was the first year after the presidential assassination, the first year of the new era in which the fifties images were already becoming tinged with nostalgia” (Jones, 1980, p. 106). It was also the year President Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which “outlawed racial discrimination in all public accommodations and authorized the Justice Department to move with greater authority on school and voting issues. It also prohibited discrimination in hiring. . . . The act was one of the greatest achievements of the 1960s and destroyed the legal sanctions for the segregation system” (Winkler, 1993, p. 224). On August 4 of that same year Congress approved the Tonkin Gulf Resolution and the Vietnam era began in earnest. “Over the next decade, the entire generation was clapped between the hands of war” (Jones, 1980, p. 106). And “as the world came apart, we began to come together, reaching out for physical comfort and power of our numbers. In November 1963, we watched history together. By August 1968, we were making it together in the streets, while the whole world watched us” (Gottlieb, 1987, p. 34).
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Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir, by J. Dan Marshall, James T. Sears, and William H. Schubert. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall, a Pearson Education Company.

CHAPTER 4 Muted Heretics Endure


As this chapter illustrates, the world of curriculum people had come apart as well during these four years. Gone were the precedent and form of curriculum gurus as grassroots curriculum makers, replaced by psychologists, subject matter specialists, and national efforts to supply America’s schools—regardless of their location or participants—with the best curricula that money could buy. Yet in time, as later chapters will show, curriculum workers bent on keeping alive the centrality of the student as a whole person, the unmistakable role of society and culture in shaping curriculum, the primacy of philosophical and historical questioning in curriculum deliberation, and the growing imperative to understand the forms and functions of curriculum work in new ways and from new perspectives would coalesce to form a kind of dissident tribe of curriculum people. For the time being, however, they would continue as muted heretics in the eyes of the curriculum mainstream. But they would, like the conservative Supreme Court jurists suffering through the activist years of the Warren Court, endure.

The most activist phase of the Warren Court began with the 1962 departure of Justices Frankfurter and Whittaker and the appointments of Arthur Goldberg and former football star and nonideologue Byron White to the Court. These two newest members often joined the four most activist jurists (Black, Douglas, Brennan, and Warren) to form a shifting majority characterized by its innovative approaches to constitutional analysis—a majority that would expand with the eventual appointments of Abe Fortas (replacing Goldberg) and Thurgood Marshall. Even before the departure of Whittaker and Frankfurter, however, the loss of influence of the judicial conservatives was signaled in the 1962 reapportionment decision by six justices in the landmark case of Baker v. Carr. While some state legislatures had not been reapportioned for generations and thus reflected disproportionately the minority interests of rural areas over the increasingly more densely populated cities and suburbs, the Court had steadfastly refused to enter this “political thicket” (Colegrove v. Green, 1946). Abandoning the Holmes–Frankfurter philosophy of judicial restraint, the newly emerging majority of the Warren Court adopted the principle of “one man, one vote.” In their dissent, the disappearing conservative jurists defended judicial restraint to the end.Two weeks later,Justice Whittaker,who had already withdrawn from the Carr case, announced his retirement. Although Byron White would eventually fill Whittaker’s seat, former Howard Law School dean and court of appeals judge William Hastie, an African-American, was President Kennedy’s first choice (but was eventually passed over for political reasons). Several months later, Frankfurter resigned. Replacing the “Jewish seat,” Kennedy appointed his secretary of labor,Arthur Goldberg; three years later, Lyndon Johnson pressed Goldberg to accept the ambassadorship to the United
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Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir, by J. Dan Marshall, James T. Sears, and William H. Schubert. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall, a Pearson Education Company.


PART III Reestablishing Agency and Agendas (1961–1969)

Nations and replaced him with Abe Fortas, who served through the end of the Warren Court before resigning for alleged financial improprieties. The Baker v. Carr decision was soon followed by a series of landmark decisions handed down by what Chief Justice Warren himself called “the people’s court.” These decisions dramatically altered criminal procedures (Gideon v. Wainwright, 1963; Miranda v. Arizona, 1966), the rights of privacy (Griswold v. Connecticut, 1965), and the separation of church and state (Engle v.Vitale, 1962; Abington School District v. Schempp, 1963).These and other such cases reflected a vision of the Court justices as social engineers who, in the national interest, sought to redefine the Constitution by discovering new areas of rights (most notably the right to privacy) previously absent from its most liberal reading. Behind this dominant discourse the towering judicial figure of Felix Frankfurter casts a long shadow. Justice John Marshall Harlan was the leading (and eventual lone) muted voice arguing against the chaos of the later Warren years when precedent, historical analysis, and legal form were abandoned with ever-increasing zeal in favor of swift and substantive “active justice.” Appointed two years after the Warren nomination, Harlan pummeled the Warren Court for its misuse of judicial power in forging “poor constitutional law” on the anvil of social justice. Agreeing in the case of criminal reform (where the poor were often left without counsel or protection against self-incrimination), he nonetheless dissented from Miranda—echoing Frankfurter’s admonishment that the Court stay out of the “political thicket” that rightfully belonged to legislators. Similarly, in his stinging dissent in the Warren Court’s unilateral decision to apportion state legislatures, Harlan challenged the majority’s niew “that every major social ill in this country can find its cure in some constitutional ‘principle,’ and that this Court should ‘take the lead’ in promoting reform when other branches of government fail to act.” Harlan—following in the tradition of Holmes and Frankfurter—concluded:“The Constitution is not a panacea for every blot upon the public welfare” (Streamer, 1986, p. 84). For integrity of the Constitution was the watchword; in the tradition of Franksought to judge on the merits of a case without regard to social contexts or needs. But these conservative jurists were a persevering lot.

The demise of the activist court began with Richard Nixon’s presidential election in 1968 and his subsequent appointment of Warren Burger as chief justice. Like the Supreme Court, the balance within the curriculum field during the 1960s was itself about to change.

How did the Warren Court affect the balance within the curriculum field? What issues before the current Supreme Court may impact educational policy?


ISBN: 0-536-20077-7

Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir, by J. Dan Marshall, James T. Sears, and William H. Schubert. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall, a Pearson Education Company.

singer for the rock group The Doors. The publication of 77 ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Schubert. A decade of political turmoil and social change. Rowan & Martin’s Laugh-In. Dan Marshall. James T. there were already harbingers of America’s transformation from an era of New Frontier innocence and idealism to the realpolitik of the Nixon–Kissinger legacy. from The Making of the President to The Selling of the President. language and politics changed utterly. the beginning and end of the 1960s enclosed a decade of transformation. scientific breakthroughs and technological growth. It was a span of 10 years that seemed more like a century as values and beliefs. the SNCC to the Black Panthers. by J. and the New York Mets had won the World Series. . and Blue Moon to Bad Moon Rising.C H A CHAPTER 5 Transcending a Muddled Juncture P T E R 77 5 Transcending a Muddled Juncture ▼ F rom the Singing Nun to the Age of Aquarius. urban unrest and generational conflict. Jack Kerouac was dead. a Pearson Education Company. the Saturday Evening Post had suspended publication. the 1960s are remembered for assassinations and resignations. and William H. Fortysix million Americans entered adolescence during a decade that began with the banning of the rock song Teen Angel and ended with the arrest of Jim Morrison. Sears. however. Ed to shows with more social immediacy including 60 Minutes. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. and All in the Family. an era that segued from black-and-white TV sitcoms such as Car 54 Where Are You? and Mr. the Valachi testimony to The Godfather. Hootenannies to Woodstock. Camelot to Chappaquiddick. fashions and music. As the 1970s arrived. To the watchful futurist.

by the mid-1960s. (Re)Emerging Differences and Traditions As we suggested in chapter 4. industry. Betty Friedan’s Feminine Mystique. . symbolized the important role music would play in the decade’s most significant effort: the antiwar movement. 193–194) The array of curriculum books published of mid-decade 1965 included still more synoptic texts and collections of readings joined by discussions of curriculum change (often discussions of the need to monitor and manage change). 1965).78 PART III Reestablishing Agency and Agendas (1961–1969) Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring. 1980. Still . which. pp. & May.. Sears. Two notable events took place this year as well. . (Schubert. 161). and William H. measurement and evaluation. Macdonald. the generational shift from Woody Guthrie to his son. “had become commonplace. This. a taken-for-granted fact” (Pinar et al. and Toni Morrison’s The Bluest Eye prefigured soon-to-be environmentalist. . . . Schubert. similar signs of change were apparent within the ebb and flow of curriculum traditions. by J.. The large curriculum projects had created new foci (e. women’s. too. Throughout the 1960s. ASCD published two books focused on administering and supervising curriculum work. objectives. both sponsored by ASCD. James T. but the tendencies toward the social behaviorist [tradition] were obvious. Noteworthy in this regard was the appearance of Strategies in Curriculum Development (Anderson. published in 1967 as The Humanities and the Curriculum. and sexual liberation movements. was an amalgam. and the importance of administrators in supervising curriculum and instruction) that took on the character and rhetoric of business. Other writers continued the mining of various organizational schemes as an alternative to the structures of the disciplines model. Red and Black Power. [while] a new experientialist movement began to emerge under several. the intellectual traditionalists dominated practice . Vine Deloria’s Custer Died for Your Sins. and technology. an edited collection of the works of Virgil Herrick that emphasized his attention to “organizing centers” for curriculum. Arlo. James Baldwin’s Another Country. a Pearson Education Company. who later edited this commission’s deliberations. often different guises. The association’s Commission on Curriculum Development explored the role of the humanities in curriculum work—an effort that featured Louise Berman.g. 1995. p. Dan Marshall. the massive quantity of curriculum books continued to amalgamate these traditions—a practice begun with the earliest synoptic texts. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. ASCD’s Commission on Curriculum Theory met in Chicago to try and produce a clearly articulated framework for curriculum theorizing (a pur- ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Meanwhile.

by J. The Los Angeles neighborhood of Watts exploded in racial turmoil during the summer of 1965: five August days of rioting left 34 dead. with most of this money targeted for “educationally disadvantaged youth.000 under arrest in a preview of subsequent summers of racial turmoil. Youthful historical innocence. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. libraries. and more than 4. The time to reembrace multiple curriculum traditions had arrived. young.. p. At the same time. the civil rights movement began to evidence principles of confrontation. nationality had taken a beating. the bases of U.S. and political environments within the United States. the country’s overwhelming conservative hubris: During those years. in part. the post–Korean War and Great Society era created a reopening during the 1950s and 1960s. and sporadic violence. a belief in our exceptional historical status. middle-class university students were becoming ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Dan Marshall. Doubts had replaced certainties. (McQuaid. 6) By the mid-1960s. p. and radical thought and action earlier in this century. This was a period of transitions. and conceptions of politics as sets of universalistic principles that can be applied anywhere and anytime became debatable in a world that had previously been inhabited by certainties.CHAPTER 5 Transcending a Muddled Juncture 79 pose similar to the 1947 Chicago conference discussed in chapter 2). 1. and pessimism. white. Long-quiet humanist and radical traditions reemerged during the 1960s to counter. was greeted with armed police. Given the problematic state of affairs within the mid-1960s curriculum field as well as the rapidly changing intellectual. and universities.S. and William H. which poured more than a billion dollars into schools. 173). Dr. angered protesters. 1995. a Pearson Education Company. King’s march in Cicero. coalitions. progressive. and optimism. In 1965. faith in quick solutions. Schubert. Much as the post–World War I and Great Depression era in this country created an opening for liberal. James T. cultural. Founded on principles of nonviolence. . Illinois. this group of theorists was “unwilling to adopt an exclusively ‘empirical’ or ‘scientific’ framework for theory development in curriculum” (Pinar et al. the civil rights movement had permanently altered American life.” The ESEA signaled President Johnson’s declaration of war on the culture of poverty as the white economic and political power structures of the old South crumbled and the civil rights movement migrated north and west. government situated itself in unprecedented ways into the business of public schools through the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA). the U. social.000 injured. racial separatism. 1989. Despite continuous refinements to the Tyler rationale. the popularity of humanistic psychology and its loosely related experientialist tradition had created real possibilities for curriculum people themselves to refashion their field and its work. Sears.

[W]hat we didn’t have that we should have had in the sixties was a clear relationship to the generations that had been involved before us” (in Kessler. with Betty Friedan as its first president. Dan Marshall. and individuals within the] curriculum fabric. as he titled his new book. 188). 1980. continued discussion about curriculum organization—both discipline centered and otherwise (especially “core curriculum”)—new national imperatives. in which he “wrote of the interwoven nature of [society. The same critique might be made of the transforming curriculum field. The women’s movement was born with a strong sense of its own history—a factor ignored by many of the decade’s “revolutionaries. as Angela Davis notes of herself. institutions. 1990. be they blacks. the field was presented with more synoptic texts. James T. .” Too many activists of the time. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. Broad. The National Organization for Women (NOW) formed in 1966. By and large. Sears. The 1960s were a decade of enormous identity shifting. p. but especially as members of these defined groups. by J. John Goodlad published four books in 1966. a Pearson Education Company. society’s definition and treatment of them as second-class citizens.80 PART III Reestablishing Agency and Agendas (1961–1969) politicized by the buildup in the war. p. and William H. 16) By 1966. and additional works pertaining to evaluation. Macdonald and Leeper’s 1966 Language and Meaning represented the results of an ASCD Curriculum Research Institute and included a thoughtful critique of the disciplines focus from James Macdonald. 1966) which recognized the importance of students as players in the curriculum mix. 13). . As individuals. . . their attitude throughout the sixties became one of questioning. (Kessler. . many young people began to recognize themselves as part of a growing counterculture. Curriculum. rather than accepting. p. . ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. . “expected the revolution to happen tomorrow. global desires for social justice evolved into more personal struggles as young people began to seek a sense of themselves as members of an identifiable group. Toward a Theory of Instruction (Bruner. . .000 troops deployed in Vietnam—about the same number of demonstrators who participated in an antiwar rally in Washington. . Jerome Bruner was clearly moving away from his structure-of-thedisciplines emphasis and. Meanwhile. 1990. including School. Schubert. the curriculum field was undergoing its own identity adjustment in quiet and mostly imperceptible ways. And Mary Louise Seguel’s The Curriculum Field: Its Formative Years took a look back at the early formation of the field’s varied traditions. . These three areas carried considerable inf luence in subsequent study of curriculum problems” (Schubert. . . In April 1965 the United States had some 25. gays. and the Individual. feminists or radical youth.

or as printers. consuming “Romaine Roland.” From his parents he learned the value and importance of spirited conversation and debate through dinner table arguments over “politics. my grandfather literally taught himself how to read by buying “nickel books. and while you were respectfully listened to and argued with.” He was working in a textile mill at the time and saving up his money to buy books by O’Henry and Mark Twain. Dan Marshall. Apple was a young teacher when NOW formed. Apple began work as a printer and enrolled in evening college classes. All of those kinds of things were challenged.” Graduating from high school several years early. Apple. 1994. E. personal communication. He became deeply involved in reading. political. DuBois—very strange kinds of reading material for a fifteen or sixteen year 1 Michael W. . gender. Much of my political consciousness is related to a particular kind of immigrant tradition that’s articulated in various ways in different ethnic communities.CHAPTER 5 Transcending a Muddled Juncture 81 ▼Michael W. Dostoyesvesky. New Jersey. Michael Apple understood his parents’ questioning of “teachers who didn’t treat you seriously and respectfully or who clung to the normal. you had to defend yourself. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. B. in fact. Apple: R evisiting and Revising a Curriculum Tradition Michael W. In my own community in Paterson. Or I’d be reading all of Samuel Clemens at the same time I’d be reading W. October 11. “home to the first anarchist and Communist strikes in the United States. In the following segment he describes the source of his political consciousness and its relationship to his commitment to schooling. entered teaching and later the curriculum field with a strong sense of its history and traditions. boring textbook materials. sexuality. and the idea that there are literate traditions which can raise issues about the nature of politics and culture.” Given the importance his parents placed on formal schooling and the sacrifices they made to enable their children to go to college. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. Sears. Apple. James T. have things to say. by J. and William H. Schubert. Professor Apple’s extended family reflected the politically active context of Paterson. airplane manufacturing plants. Most of my family worked in textile mills. I grew up sitting on his lap while he read Twain to me. The expectation was that children would.1 All of us carry biographies. or social reconstructionist tradition. the questioning of authority in some ways. who holds the John Bascom Professorship in Education at the University of Wisconsin at Madison. a Pearson Education Company. The stuff that came through was remarkable: the slight anger. race. Today he is one of the curriculum field’s best-known workers within what people variously refer to as the critical. Turgenyev.

a path that was almost chosen for me in some ways. but a strong element of working class socialist tradition in my family among the women and the men—there has always been this emphasis on the utter centrality of education: that through education. and Michael Apple was “dropped” from the roles within a year. He asked my mother whether her son had any interest in teaching? Well. It’s a little naive in some ways. it was the natural path to working class mobility.” first in Paterson. The idea of being involved in that was very important to me. rural prayer meeting community ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. The army gave me the dual careers of truck driver and teacher: I drove kitchen equipment and taught first aid. So going into education was. in fact. by J. if you were dropped you had a variety of choices. I got out of the army one week before school started. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. Secondly. Actually. But it had to be long and it had to be serious. “awful schooling. New Jersey.82 PART III Reestablishing Agency and Agendas (1961–1969) old. Exhausted part-time faculty hosted “huge. when it was still possible for coalitions across race within CORE. one of which was the army.” and a full-time job became too much. Schubert. Sears. I was able to get a job as a teacher. boring classes held in dirty. in contrast. I taught with what was called an “emergency certificate. He continues his story: At the time (1960). In the tradition that I come from—not only Marxist. So there’s always a connection in my mind between those kinds of struggles and education itself. That’s what I did.” The combination of youth. and William H. but the faith that education itself was one of the paths toward social. again. and because I was a warm body at a time of teacher shortage in inner city schools. and group emancipation through understanding power was always very clear. it was something I had dreamed about doing since I was about five or six. my mother happened to be friendly with the assistant school superintendent in Paterson. while attending Glassboro State at night and during the summers to get my bachelor’s degree and permanent teaching certificate. I had moved from Paterson to Pitman—a small. Between 1962 and 1966. later in Pitman. etc. While teaching in Paterson I was working in CORE (the Congress On Racial Equality). compass reading. a Pearson Education Company. learn what reality was. But my career as an academic was quite accidental. For kids growing up in poor communities you really were limited in some respects with your choices. . and deeply involved in the issue of segregated schools. With my one year of college credits and army training as a teacher. Dan Marshall.” His college classes. personal. old rooms on the top two floors of an elementary school in Paterson. and they couldn’t find anyone to go into classrooms. seemed far from serious. James T. in part because of the great respect that was instilled in me—by especially my grandmother and grandfather—for a critical schooling process. working class and other groups could.

who happened to be a pastor at a very conservative church. 1967). and a way to deal with teachers more respectfully. No. I was teaching about the history of racism in the United States and I brought in the normal kinds of reading material that all teachers have used. & Scriven. is the dominance of evaluation as a crucial step in the Tylerian curricular process: ASCD devoted its annual yearbook to this topic (Wilhelms. and the American Educational Research Association (AERA) published the first in its series of monographs on curriculum evaluation (R. political. The conference. One story told of hundreds of AfricanAmericans who had been lynched during and after the Reconstruction period. one of the parents. and cultural streams of thought channeling ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Maxine Greene. beginning to recognize its own traditionally optional paths. The dominant path of rational curriculum making remained in place. highlighted Dwayne Huebner’s recent work on temporality and James Macdonald’s call for the incorporation of “aesthetic” (in contrast to technical) rationality. in 1967. a way of getting better stuff in school. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. At the same time. by J. Along with Louise Berman. Gagne. and William H. and Elliot Eisner. Most prominent among the booklength efforts of that year. Schubert. Dan Marshall. I became very angry. The experientialist tradition was unmistakably evident in books by Leeper and Berman that year. in the mid-1960s. however. the proceedings of which were edited by Paul Klohr and published in the journal Theory Into Practice (Vol.CHAPTER 5 Transcending a Muddled Juncture 83 in southern New Jersey—where I taught sixth grade for two years. both Gagne and Glaser made attempts to tie the experientialist– humanist respect for individual difference to more behaviorist desires for systemic curricular cohesion. For example. he claimed that my lesson was simply fiction! Those kinds of things drove me to go to graduate school to try and find a way to make better curriculum. 6. Sears. Undercurrents to the Mainstream The curriculum field was. . a growing number of younger curriculum scholars began pushing the field to revisit and rethink mainstream curriculum work. I applied to Columbia University’s graduate program at Teachers College while still working toward teacher certification at Glassboro State. Surrounding the curriculum field were various (and sometimes overlapping) social. politically. about what I was forced to do there. Ross Mooney. Tyler. A major curriculum theory conference took place in 1967 at Ohio State University. Well. significant in its collection of fringe members of the curriculum field. 4). a Pearson Education Company. 1967). W. James T. came in and wanted me fired because there had been no such lynching. So we got into a long conversation in class about the history of African-Americans and the struggle that was going on then.

From civil rights marches and antiwar rallies to acts of civil disobedience. age. denounced mainstream educational institutions. and William H. change was often sought from outside of existing institutions and structures through renegade institutions (e. was that taken by the counterculture. and listening to rock and roll (McQuaid. and Carl Rogers (Freedom to Learn. to women’s and homophile activists. in the process.84 PART III Reestablishing Agency and Agendas (1961–1969) away from the mainstream.g. this generic social activism would evolve from amalgamated antiwar gatherings into collections of smaller. Its 1967 “coming out” gala in San Francisco—known as the Summer of Love—“burned the values of the counterculture permanently into the body social and at the same time slowed its forward momentum” (Unger & Unger. Consequently. Among the most dynamic of these settings were the hundreds of “free schools” and “freedom schools” of the 1960s and the later “alternative schools” of the 1970s. Schubert. political activism was a strong undercurrent in 1967. 1971). Jonathan Kozol (Death at an Early Age. The social current that most rivaled the status quo in ease of travel. 1967). by J. underground presses and FM radio stations) and alternative settings. sexuality. even the counterculture would redistribute itself into selective subgroups ranging from those in pursuit of deeper spirituality and harmony with the earth to those seeking the ultimate high or the world’s greatest rock and roll band. p. enjoying sex. the cultural landscape. a Pearson Education Company. 1989). to those using drugs. huge numbers of people often submerged personal issues of race. 1969)—who. The counterculture welcomed any and all. Thus. A larger though often different passage being forged was social activism. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Dan Marshall. or sexual identity.. and gender in favor of more global concerns for disarmament. Represented in the 1960s by organizations such as the Students for a Democratic Society. class. 415). gender. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. the New Left framed the state of social and cultural affairs in revolutionary political and economic language. peace. Ivan Illich (De-Schooling Society. regardless of race. In time. 1966). 1988. In time. . Sears.000 participants a loose alliance of people ranging from members of the Old and New Left. These efforts were spawned in part by the “romantic critics” of public schooling— including Paul Goodman (Compulsory Mis-Education. it had no apparent political or ideological agenda: its adherents were busy altering their personal mindscape and. The largely ahistorical nature of the times grew not only from the zeitgeist of immediacy and self-importance but from a shared disgust for “the Establishment” and its defenders (especially white men over the age of 30). Though it would eventually dissolve into numerous factions (including the Weather Underground). and social justice. at the October 1967 March against the Pentagon one could find among the more than 100. more distinct groups seeking “power” (often racial) and “liberation” (often gendered). however. James T. Unlike paths of activism. in book after damning book.

arguing that the disciplines of knowledge are the fundamental forms under which curriculum should be organized. and at the same time you could hopefully transform other folks who are going to be teachers. It was because Leland Jacobs. a professor at TC in language arts. TC was Mecca if you were involved in this political stuff. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. turning me from particular kinds of things I was interested in toward curriculum. you could learn an immense amount of stuff. At the time. . I’d flunked out of college earlier—to someone who found it all quite interesting. I came in. curriculum workers. first of all. etc. You could be politically active. Michael Apple had been influenced by some of these very writers. Then there was Maxine Greene. had given an in-service workshop in my school district and I was just thrilled. but in philosophy. So slowly but surely. and William H. which focused on how language works. There were three traditions and philosophies available at TC at that time. who was ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Sears. One was the analytical philosophical tradition. Though it’s odd: My major reason for going to TC was not because of the intellectual and political ferment. Jules Henry. He was so engaging and as practical as you can get at the same time. not in curriculum. You couldn’t go through that period of the middle ‘60s without reading Herb Kohl. Schubert. So there was a sense of gritty reality to my time there. James T. and reading. While TC was disconnected in some ways. Well. though he continued to search for a more politicized understanding of school problems. Another was a sort of discipline centered theory. a Pearson Education Company. Going to Columbia was a very lively kind of thing which transformed me from someone who certainly didn’t belong in a place like Teachers College—because after all. I’d read enough of the romantic critics and other kinds of folks to believe that maybe the problems with education stemmed from simply thinking about kids and teachers and curriculum and schools in the wrong ways. those connections were pretty visible for people who wanted to make them. it was the first time I had been in school full-time at an intellectually and politically exciting campus. When I began doctoral studies in 1966. quite often making films with kids or helping with integrating curriculum materials or working on black studies programs. We all got a dose of that. A lot of people at TC influenced me. Paul Goodman—people now known as the romantic critics. Dan Marshall. Throughout my time at Teachers College I was constantly working in classrooms. literacy studies. Jonathan Kozol.CHAPTER 5 Transcending a Muddled Juncture 85 ▼Apple and Curriculum Traditions As a teacher. by J. your vision of yourself changes and your vision of your career changes as well.

by J. And that started conversations which lasted for three and a half years between us. and she said. It created friendships within a tradition that was quite massive. Period. I know one person here you should speak to—Dwayne Huebner. but always caring and loving person. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. Maxine was not a jazzy type of analyst. the analytic stuff was powerful but more arid than I wanted. “You know. then said.” I owe more than I can ever say to Dwayne. But it’s not very useful. TC. a Pearson Education Company. I showed him my master’s paper. though if I were to point to people who influenced me. He and Arno Bellack were the two people in curriculum theory. Sears. this is smart. I was missing the connections between analytical philosophical work and daily school life. He said. He was a taskmaster—a very disciplined. James T. per se. And then if you’ve got some serious questions. because what you’re trying to do can’t be found in where you’re going now. the invitation was always there. You became a curriculum person because you took courses in curriculum. is it?” He listened very respectfully to me. at the time. Miel. . I recall walking into her office and telling her what I was interested in. sometimes difficult. though it provided me with some very helpful tools. “Well. Then I took a course from Alice Miel. Dan Marshall. etc. It was clear that the person I wanted to work with was Dwayne. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. and it was not political. and he said. In time I became less enthusiastic about the analytic philosophical tradition. because we were all in classes together. Schubert. “Well. my major influences in philosophy would be Maxine and Jonas Soltis. “Read these. including work exploring the linkage between the analytic and phenomenological philosophic traditions. and William H. that experience created a small group of urban terrorists. Bellack. I think you really need to change traditions here. along with some initial political material. let’s get together. I was part of a group of 10–15 folks who entered at the same time and took the same curriculum classes with Huebner.86 PART III Reestablishing Agency and Agendas (1961–1969) largely marginalized at the time because most people did not understand what critical phenomenology was about. had a mandatory sequence of curriculum courses which was quite demanding: courses in curriculum development. Dwayne taught courses in curriculum theory. and curriculum theory. In effect.” With Dwayne. but he also had a joint appointment at Union Theological Seminary. curriculum reform. which was an analytic philosophical treatment of the difference between indoctrination and training. When I first went into his office I found him loving and off-putting at the same time.” He gave me a list of specific titles and authors.

CHAPTER 5 Transcending a Muddled Juncture 87 Struggles Suggest the Beginnings of Change The collection of curriculum books published in 1968 was quite mixed in perspectives and purposes. We would go to ASCD meetings or Professors of Curriculum meetings—when they were still vital and their struggles were very. very real—or to AERA meetings and watch Dwayne Huebner or Jim Macdonald and behavioral objectives folks ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Hines. However. Michael Apple read these and numerous other curriculum books and documents. that behavioristic traditions were becoming increasingly prominent. three 1968 curriculum books signaled a burgeoning legitimacy to topics outside the realm of behavior and control. that the field. a book that illustrated how both the planned and unplanned or “hidden” curriculums are perceived and enacted within classrooms. p. cognition. ‘What knowledge is of most worth?’ ” Second. and curriculum design in an attempt to acknowledge the larger sociocultural milieu that they still wished to manage and control. 174). Sears. Compton. It was clear. While largely routine in terms of topics such as curriculum orientations and curriculum evaluation. First. A third text that appeared in 1968 was Philip Jackson’s Life in Classrooms. & Prescott) exemplified a text that argued that curriculum structures for adolescent students needed to be differently understood and constructed. it was very clear to us how the movements within the curriculum field were being transformed. These three texts represented a renewal of vibrant intellectual discussion and debate among curriculum workers anxious to resuscitate their field. . Williams. as people began to argue that we ought to have this thing called behavioral objectives. ▼Apple and Curriculum Transformation In preparation for his preliminary or qualifying examinations at Teachers College. “from the Cardinal Principles. 1995. in which she combined humanistic or third-force psychology and existentialism in critiquing the prevailing structures-of-the-disciplines orientation—a “courageous call” for new priorities at the time (Pinar et al. to contemporary ASCD documents in curriculum.” He came away with two lasting realizations. and William H. by J. itself. This book helped to reintroduce the classroom as a central site of curriculum work and renew “political” discussions of curriculum work (Pinar et al. Apple continues: During those years. was in struggle. Another was Louise Berman’s New Priorities in Curriculum. a Pearson Education Company.. The Emergent Middle School (Alexander. Dan Marshall. Schubert.. to Rice’s original studies on school spelling. for instance. that curriculum work contained multiple traditions under “an umbrella tradition of trying to answer the question. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. 174). p. authors had begun employing phrases like “social realities” and “survival of self” in the titles of books dedicated to technology. James T. 1995.

000 mark in war casualties. to Virgil Herrick and Harold Rugg. . actually had quite a strong influence on me as well. it was like swimming uphill saying. reemerge with pertinence. James T. 1988. and when the cultural outsiders found their voice” (Unger & Unger. that April. L.88 PART III Reestablishing Agency and Agendas (1961–1969) like Popham go at it in public. for example.000. p. the United States passed the 50. a Pearson Education Company. . Michael Apple was at a juncture in time when this rich tradition could. Yet in an odd way that gave us strength. turned the corner toward women’s liberation with Kate Millett’s Sexual Politics. During 1968. The growing antiwar sentiment produced a presidential candidate (Eugene McCarthy) as well as public condemnation from established religious organizations such as the Methodists and Unitarians. who was Dwayne Huebner’s best friend. What had begun as the women’s movement with Friedan’s Feminine Mystique. because these were the days of the Vietnam War and an immense anti-racist struggle. when the Vietnam War leveled off. with the addition of new and deeper insight. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. when the liberal consensus of the Sixties came apart. and Catholic priest Daniel Berrigan were all convicted of antiwar activities. and Ross Mooney. Women freed themselves from the currents of the New Left and ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Jim. exceeded a troop strength of 500. tens of thousands of students in Germany and France protested the Vietnam War in April and May. . The nonviolent civil rights movement died with the assassination of Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. Thomas Hopkins. There is a dominant culture with dominant political and economic powers. But as for the more political curriculum ideas. “Look. Sears. The year 1968 was a turning point for those in the larger society who were attempting to change the dominant beliefs and practices of its overseers. . Dan Marshall. though this was not a new fight. 532). Schubert. to George Counts and John Dewey. Yale chaplain William Sloan Coffin. Why should we assume that the curriculum field won’t have those representations as powerful at the same time?” Swimming Uphill with History at Your Back The struggle to see that the curriculum field adequately continued to reflect the political links between schools and larger political and economic powers would turn in Apple’s favor eventually. and amassed a war debt of $100. And for those of us who had been formed by the combination of politics and education activism before coming to TC. Respected physician Benjamin Spock. and presidential hopeful Bobby Kennedy was murdered in June. The political tradition in curriculum work can be cautiously traced from Huebner and Macdonald back to Theodore Brameld.000. and William H.000. we were aware that we were a minority. It was 1968 when “the Great Society petered out. when the civil rights movement stopped dead. by J.

000 women expressed their disillusionment with their place in the antiwar movement by burying “traditional womanhood” at Arlington National Cemetery and later picketing the Miss America pageant in Atlantic City. Through the cold war and Camelot eras. to gay icon in the span of a generation. and abandoned by family and friends.“Sexual deviates” were committed to state hospitals. beats. . as lesbians and gay men gained voice. It had already begun to stir . (Unger & Unger. the nation’s gay and lesbian outsiders. entrapment and interrogation. its members anxious to avoid identification or detection. dismissed from jobs. films such as Rope. . self-hatred. One rebel group still in the wings . a half-world. by J. surveillance and harassment. In Washington. and momentum. often unknowingly and sometimes begrudgingly. remanded to prisons. Stonewall was both cause and effect. Schubert. to battle cry. influence. In short. (continued) ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. which in turn was replaced by queer.” Stonewall was the most visible result of a new movement enlivened by a new generation of activists who. the nuclear family was reaffirmed and strict enforcement of compulsory heterosexuality began in earnest: blacklists and blackmail. 1988. and plays such as The Children’s Hour. a Pearson Education Company.CHAPTER 5 Transcending a Muddled Juncture 89 antiwar movements. was the homophile community. or sexual inferiority epitomized in novels such as The City and the Pillar. and various other youthful and malcontent deviants rebelled against police harassment that had for decades been tolerated. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. drag queens. [b]ut it was still a part of a social underground. p. James T. Homosexual was replaced by gay. and William H. No sector of the nation’s outsiders had more to gain from making the personal political. Dan Marshall. built on the efforts of past generations of sexual malcontents.” and those college homophile groups already in existence were transformed into “gay/ lesbian liberation fronts. Other cultural outsiders were soon to follow the example set by women in 1968. Known simply as Stonewall. 447) FROM THE HOMOPHILE MOVEMENT TO GAY LIBERATION O n three sultry June nights in 1969. many homosexuals in postwar America reflected the social conformity. this event turned from riot. near a seedy Greenwich Village bar. more than 5. denied professional licenses. Sears. . The number of campus homophile organizations increased 10-fold during the year following the Stonewall “disturbance. . purges and witch-hunts. and with it the homosexual was transformed from meek and mild mannered to demanding and confrontational. . As sexual outsiders.

only a few determined persons sought a place at the banquet table of capitalism. and Paul Goodman contributed their considerable talents to the emerging civil rights movement or other protests in the arts and education. book reviews. these groups published professional looking magazines. a government astronomer. that included news stories. Mattachine Review and The Ladder. the first organizing wedge among homosexual activists. Although many long-time activists rejected this militant new agenda. DC chapter of the San Francisco–based Mattachine Society. James T. Schubert. The traditionalists’ goals were assimilation and toleration— quite radical aims for the intolerant times of McCarthyism and the sleepy silence of the Eisenhower years. a Pearson Education Company. others embraced it. and a repudiation of the “sickness” conception of homosexuality. and the infamous Johns Committee (which clandestinely spied on civil rights groups. these homophile groups sought social acceptance and eschewed political activism with chapters in more than a dozen cities. Kameny declared war on the federal government. In 1961. . the Miami police. Sears. In a society increasingly fractured by conflicts of race. ladies dresses). Audre Lorde. Lorraine Hansberry. by J. ministers. less reliance on outside experts. Inman quickly gained statewide attention from the media. A political pragmatist. Frank Kameny. Tennessee Williams. and William H. Dan Marshall. and age. communists. Illinois became the first state to decriminalize homosexual behavior between consenting adults. some were called by it. A fledgling homophile movement began in the early 1950s with the founding of the male-led Mattachine Society and the women’s group Daughter of Bilitis. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. social class. and researchers. more important. prose and poetry. and scholarly essays (D’Emilio. and homosexuals). their sexual identities generally remained private.” Refusing to release membership lists to Florida’s state attorney. James Baldwin.90 PART III Reestablishing Agency and Agendas (1961–1969) FROM THE HOMOPHILE MOVEMENT TO GAY LIBERATION (continued) While homosexuals such as Bayard Rustin. advocating militant (for the times) tactics among the loosely confederated homophile organizations: direct action through respectable demonstrations at the White House and Pentagon (gentlemen wore suits. During that same year. Relying heavily on the professional expertise of psychologists. Inman launched a state-chartered corporation in 1964—the Atheneum Society of America—that sought “to secure the civil rights and equal protection under the law of all persons regardless of libidinous orientation. One of these was 37-year-old Florida entrepreneur turned taxi driver Richard Inman. Inman sought to abol(continued) ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. 1983). Fired because of homosexuality. gender. and his friend Jack Nichols established a Washington.This Model Penal Code became the pattern for other states and. Lilian Smith.

and civil rights movements pushed beyond the boundaries of the old order. and age set against the panorama of the civil rights movement and the Vietnam War. Gay militants enveloped in the antiwar. the classroom. a new generation of gay activists emerged whose only memories of the McCarthy era were Bette Davis and Howdy Doody. 1972. employing early feminist analysis. heavily borrowing from Marxist analysis. pp. had written: (continued) ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Stephen Donaldson and his fellow Columbia University students organized the nation’s first university chartered gay organization. 343–344) A year earlier. Sears. . there was zero tolerance for the homosexual or homosexuality in the school. adopted the Model Penal Code. with the full consciousness of their oppression. the New York–based lesbian-feminist group known as Radicalesbians. Dan Marshall. by J. 7). funded by the American Civil Liberties Union. or the curriculum. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. Social integration or polite demonstration was replaced by social separation and confrontation. This new generation of homosexual leadership also included Carl Wittman.” “radical. women’s. gender. scores of gay liberation fronts spouted on college campuses from the Carolinas to California (Teal. which rejected or ridiculed his aims as “outlandish. However.CHAPTER 5 Transcending a Muddled Juncture 91 FROM THE HOMOPHILE MOVEMENT TO GAY LIBERATION (continued) ish Miami’s antihomosexual ordinances and to rescind the state’s sodomy statute. along similarly revolutionary lines. though Inman’s biggest obstacle would remain the apathy and sometimes open hostility of the local homosexual community. Eventually. 1997. As the first openly gay man in the United States to legally challenge homosexual discrimination and criminalization (the case. 1971).S. too. Historically. Gay revolution will see the overthrow of the straight male caste and the destruction of all systems of caste and class that are based in sexism. in a mid-1960s society increasingly fractured by conflicts of race. revolution is the method by which one class overthrows another. and William H. Supreme Court). James T.” and “unrealistic” (Sears. Much like Michael Apple and his fellow students in curriculum studies at Teachers College. During this era of the Green Giant and Charlie Brown. slim-line pantsuits and miniskirts. (Jay & Young.” which concluded: Revolution differs from reform in that it means that the oppressed. create social change through their own power. who in 1971. social class. In the year following Stonewall. Schubert. a Pearson Education Company. was lost in the Florida Supreme Court and denied a hearing by the U. Florida. chap. Inman used a wide network of homosexual political insiders to influence state legislation. penned the now seminal document “The Gay Manifesto.

. The youthful Stonewall protesters’ scribbles. Gay liberation would be contoured by capitalism. although changes articulated by the radicals never materialized. forthcoming). the traditional curriculum field had become as seemingly irrelevant and illegitimate to growing numbers of educators and curriculum people as had “the Establishment. by J. for example.“They Invade Our Rights. Nevertheless. and conventional wisdom to social and political activists and members of the counterculture. Only women can give each other a new sense of self. been long in the making.This consciousness is the revolutionary form which all else will follow. . facing the basic heterosexual structure that binds us in one-to-one relationships with our own oppressors. 1972. and William H. . . Organizers emerged in a variety of communities.500 students and 100 faculty refused to attend classes in ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Similarly. . Issues of relevancy and legitimacy stood at the center of antiwar activism and countercultural growth as college and university students across the country spent their spring semester in protest. once-radical concepts and strategies articulated by Kameny and Inman became the norm. .92 PART III Reestablishing Agency and Agendas (1961–1969) FROM THE HOMOPHILE MOVEMENT TO GAY LIBERATION (continued) Lesbian is a label invented by men to throw at any woman who dares to be his equal. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. however.Within a decade nearly half of the states had repealed their sodomy statutes and several dozen municipalities had enacted nondiscrimination ordinances. Sears. patriarchal hierarchies. Schubert.” the military–industrial complex. . [F]or a woman to be independent means she can’t be a woman—she must be a dyke. Dan Marshall. a Pearson Education Company.” on the riot-torn bar’s front window—now an icon of the gay movement—was as much an effect of the homophile generation’s resistance to the mainstream as it was a cause for the burgeoning gay politics and culture before AIDS. . 3. 173. not Marxism. . and gay student groups flourished on college campuses. pp. heterosexual orthodoxies. these youthful calls for revolution were not realized. At Columbia University. (Jay & Young. Support Gay Power. James T. Stonewall—the Boston Tea Party of the gay movement—had. 1969:A Year of Declarations By 1969. like the curriculum revolution of 1969. . feminism splintered across ideological and political lines while experiencing the crushing defeats of the Equal Rights Amendment. for ours is an organic revolution . as the stonewall generation danced to disco music and engaged in conventional political organizing (Sears. . . 176) During the 1970s.

a key appearance in the curriculum field of the late 1960s was the 1969 essay by Joseph Schwab called “The Practical: A Language for Curriculum. Walton’s The Black Curriculum (published by Black Liberation Publishers. the 1969 array of curriculum books suggested a field caught in a holding pattern. As much an effect as a cause. and reemphasized prior thrusts appeared in 1969” (1980. 1995. however. This identity crisis within the curriculum field is apparent in the curriculum books published in 1969.. As the 1960s came to a close the decade’s cultural and political dark sides were showing as the war that had given it so much meaning raged on.” For the most part. 193). p. SDS and local black activists led close to 1. Like other institutions. 1969). teacher proofing. Yet even the legitimacy of the activist and counterculture movements would suffer in 1969: Charles Manson and several of his followers would be arrested and charged with multiple gruesome murders. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. and more. Curriculum people themselves had so technicized the Tyler rationale that even the act of curriculum making had become an empirical science. “Schwab and Walton each responded to a major societal problem of the Sixties by providing curriculum perspectives relative to it. . As Schubert notes: “A barrage of books that offered advice and caution for the future. 192). According to Schubert (1980. His essay. p. Dan Marshall. reviewed past developments.000 Columbia students in a week-long occupation of five campus buildings” (Kessler.” in which he argued for paradigmatic change in curriculum work. and instructional technology. “after several weeks of relatively polite protest concerning the on-campus presence of a cold war think-tank and the university’s expansion into the surrounding black community. in April. his essay was a clarion call for renewal. first delivered at an invited symposium for AERA members. injuries and death would visit the Altamont rock concert. by J. James T. it seemed the traditional curriculum field had by 1969 “lost its legitimacy” (Pinar et al. p. The two notable exceptions were Joseph Schwab’s publication of College Curriculum and Student Protest (1969a) and S. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. Yet from the perspective of published scholarly work.CHAPTER 5 Transcending a Muddled Juncture 93 mid March. Sears. Schubert. 1990. and William H. others remained on the well-trodden path toward measurement. 75). and some antiwar radical activists would accidentally die while building bombs. Although a few authors remained on the reemerging experientialist–humanist path (including those who were busy expanding the area of middle school curriculum). behavioral objectives. was the Stonewall of the new curriculum movement. 179) as well. F. ushering in an entire new field of study (evaluation) while placing teachers in a vulnerable new state of accountability (for student learning) without adaptability (in terms of what and how to teach). p. Too many large-scale curriculum projects had failed due to their global orientation. Schwab to student protests and Walton to the civil rights movement. a Pearson Education Company. discipline specificity.

and a narrow focus on any one of the generally accepted sources for curriculum (students. or society). Our excerpt from this significant essay follows (all emphases in original). as did that of his colleague. The combined attention to the structures of the disciplines. wholesale curriculum projects. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. to embrace the field of education. had invented “path analysis” in statistics as a way to solve certain kinds of unique problems. Dan Marshall. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. who wish to make the teaching–learning process (and curriculum) function better. Within this article Schwab also questions the curriculum field’s reliance on Jerome Bruner’s disciplinary structures. and the seeming omniscience of behavioral objectives had all but killed the curriculum field. who are sophisticated enough to anticipate new problems. The work of John Dewey also influenced Schwab. and William H. Sears. he argued. Schubert. by J. By 1969. subject matter. Schwab was a contemporary of Ralph Tyler whose scholarship was largely dedicated to the nature of scientific inquiry. curriculum knowledge and principles being generated from large. he criticizes the growing “accountability movement” in curriculum work that relied on findings from large-scale research studies to produce highly generalized knowledge and principles. behavioral objectives. measurement and evaluation. One of his mentors. James T.” he carefully outlines this sad state of affairs before explaining the need to see curriculum problems differently. . Additionally. Joseph Schwab was an interesting amalgam of different influences. Richard McKean. Schwab believed. are curriculum workers who wish to know and understand what goes on in classrooms. What schools need. an Aristotelian scholar in the philosophy department at the University of Chicago.94 PART III Reestablishing Agency and Agendas (1961–1969) Joseph Schwab: Coroner for Conventional Curriculum Making Schwab was a theoretical geneticist who first taught in the field of biology and genetics. Sewell Wright. He is said to have been an excellent teacher—which may have inspired him. says Schwab. a Pearson Education Company. Schwab had been teaching in the curriculum and philosophy department at the University of Chicago for quite a while. psychological emphases. revive the field. and who see their work as fundamentally practical or “deliberative” (context specific and decision oriented). Moving away from the theoretic toward a more practical form of curriculum work might. in part. 1978). Brought to the university by Robert Maynard Hutchins. though he was a well-read scholar in numerous fields (see Westbury & Wilcoff. In “The Practical: A Language for Curriculum.

By the “practical”. each relevant to the problems in a different way. . . . . . a Pearson Education Company. . . . [T]he latter holds in the case of curriculum: the curriculum movement has been inveterately theoretic. I refer . A Crisis of Principle The frustrated state of the field of curriculum is not an idiopathology and not a condition which warrants guilt or shame on the part of its practitioners. but usable focus on a body of problems is effected among diverse theories. the aim of curriculum was to discriminate the right ideas (by way of analysis of extant bodies of knowledge). . Characteristics of Theory Consider first the early. . and that these ideas functioned thereafter as discriminators and organizers of what was later learned. [in the case of theoretical enquiries] when principles are exhausted—when the questions they permit have all been asked and answered—or when the efforts at enquiry instigated by the principles have at last exhibited their inadequacy to the subject matter and the problems which they were designed to attack. to a complex discipline . .CHAPTER 5 Transcending a Muddled Juncture 95 The Practical:A Language for Curriculum by Joseph Schwa b I shall have three points. are inadequate to the tasks which the curriculum field sets them. . Dan Marshall. even where appropriate. . and its theoretic bent has let it down. . . . in contrast with the theoretic. . which is concerned with knowledge. The first is this: that the field of curriculum is moribund. and William H. . Sears. Given this view. only if the bulk of curriculum energies are diverted from the theoretic to the practical. which constitutes my thesis: there will be a renaissance of the field of curriculum . A crisis of principle arises . . concerned with choice and action. . . . The third point.All fields of systematic intellectual activity are liable to such crises . The second point: the curriculum field has reached this unhappy state by inveterate and unexamined reliance on theory in an area where theory is partly inappropriate in the first place and where the theories extant. to the quasi-practical and to the eclectic. because any intellectual discipline must begin its endeavors with untested principles. . . By “eclectic” I mean the arts by which unsystematic. uneasy. determine the order in which they could be learned by ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. . Schubert. James T. . Its methods lead to defensible decisions where the methods of the theoretic lead to warranted conclusions and differ radically from the methods and competencies entailed in the theoretic. by J. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. allegedly Herbartian efforts (recently revived by Bruner) [which] took the view that ideas were formed by children out of received notions and experiences of things. unable by its present methods and principles to continue its work and desperately in search of new and more effective principles and methods. . .

. . each is grounded in a theory as such. . . . and an intelligent minimum of taboos. and will not be in the foreseeable future. vast simplicity which grounds this purported solution to the problem of curriculum. associations. some of the numerous efforts to ground curriculum in derived objectives. Dan Marshall. psychiatry. when. each is grounded in a theory from the social or behavioral sciences: psychology. One effort seeks the ground of its objectives in social need and finds its social needs in just those facts about its culture which are sought and found under the aegis of a single conception of culture. . . Nor is it true that the lack of a theory of the whole is due to the narrowness. . Need for an Eclectic The significance of this third feature is patent to the point of embarrassment: no curriculum grounded in but one of these subjects can possibly be adequate. Interpersonal theories direct their adherents to aim for development of abilities to relate to peers. Still other searches for objectives seek their aims in the knowledge needed to “live in the modern world. defensible. James T. . Theories of actualization instruct their adherents to determine the salient potentialities of each child and to see individually to the development of each. . . that a defensible curriculum or plan of curriculum must be one which somehow takes account of all these subsubjects which pertain to man. . A third group of searches for objectives are grounded in theories of personality. Freudianism persuaded its followers to aim to supply children with adequate channels of sublimation of surplus libido.Third . in the skills required for success in a trade or vocation. Sears. . . or merely habitual specialism of ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. that there is not. however. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. each of which has its own lesson to teach us. Still others are grounded in some quasi-ethics. and William H. Schubert. . history. appropriate objects and occasions for aggressions. . . by J. . It is clear. . politics.96 PART III Reestablishing Agency and Agendas (1961–1969) children as they developed. and application. It is equally clear. . but the .Another grounds its objectives in the social needs identified by a single theory of history and of political evolution.” in the attitudes and habits which minimize dissonance with the prevailing mores of one’s community or social class. now. First. a properly undemanding ego ideal. and what is fatally theoretic here is not the presence of a theory of mind and a theory of knowledge . organization. stubbornness. they are theories concerning different subject matters. in the ability to participate effectively as member of a group. . a Pearson Education Company. Three features of these typical efforts at curriculum making are significant here. some view of the array of goods which are good for man. . sociology. and thereafter present these ideas at the right times with clarity. A theory of mind and knowledge thus solves by one mighty coup the problem of what to teach. and how. Consider. . one theory of this complex whole which is other than a collection of unusable generalities. Second. I submit.

pragmatic. . . .” of “process. . constitutes the case for one of these modes.The materials of a concrete curriculum will not consist merely of portions of “science. seats. . . with its own flavor. their specialism and the restricted purview of their theories are functions of their subject. . uneasy. It abstracts a general or ideal case.There is no foreseeable hope of a unified theory in the immediate or middle future. and William H.” On the contrary. A theory covers and formulates the regularities among the things and events it subsumes. and the eclectic. . . a Pearson Education Company. I remarked in the beginning that renewal of the field of curriculum would require diversion of the bulk of its energies from theory to the practical. on the concrete case in all its completeness and with all its differences from all other concrete cases on which the theoretic abstraction is silent. as theoretical knowledge is concerned. It leaves behind the nonuniformities. The Place of the Practical . each.The state of affairs just described . James T. shadows. . will characterize a sound eclectic. and rhetoric.As far. its vast capacity for difference and change. of arts by which a usable focus on a common body of problems is effected among theories which lack theoretical connection. Rather. the supposed beneficiary is not the generic child.The curriculum will be brought to bear not in some archetypal classroom but in a particular locus in time and space with smells. .CHAPTER 5 Transcending a Muddled Juncture 97 social and behavioral scientists. for better or for worse.Above all. Sears. the quasi-practical. . . or lyric poems. They will be particular novels.” of “literature. .They will be particular acts upon particular matters in a given sequence. . . Schubert.And I must add . in the process of idealization. their constituents will be particular assertions about selected matters couched in a particular vocabulary.What remains as a viable alternative is the unsystematic. . and conditions outside its walls which may have much to do with what is achieved inside. . syntax. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall.The significance of the existence of theory as such at the base of curricular planning consists of what it is that theory does not and cannot encompass. largely unconnected. we must wrestle as best we can with numerous. and uncertain unions and connections which can be effected in an eclectic. . Moreover. the particularities. its enormous complexity. artificially discriminated subsubjects of man. separate theories of these many. not even a class or kind of child ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. then. Dan Marshall. by J. . . theoretical enquiry may often leave out of consideration conspicuous facets of all cases because its substantive principles of enquiry or its methods cannot handle them. not of a metatheory which will tell us how to put those subsubjects together or order them in a fixed hierarchy of importance to the problems of curriculum. necessarily neglect some aspects and facets of the facts of the case. All theories . that changing connections and differing orderings at different times of these separate theories. short stories. the necessity of an eclectic. Yet curriculum is brought to bear not on ideal or abstract representatives but on the real thing.

Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. adequate by themselves to tell us what to do with human beings or how to do it. and will not be. individual children. . The beneficiaries will consist of very local kinds of children and. about children in general. . may be true. But they attain this status in virtue of what they leave out. arts which modify the theory in the course of its application. then. Question Choose a theory about education. . . about children or teachers of some specified class or kind. Dan Marshall.The generalities about science. . then. If. by J. then. . Further.What they variously suggest and the contrary guidances they afford to choice and action must be mediated and combined by eclectic arts and must be massively supplemented. . there is every reason to suppose that any one of the extant theories of behavior is a pale and incomplete representation of actual behavior. . new relations among the facets and new ways of treating them. .All the social and behavioral sciences are marked by “schools. ? Theories from Social Sciences . each of which selects from the intimidating complexities of the subject matter the small fraction of the whole with which it can deal. .Apply this theory in a manner suggested by these three arts.These are some of the arts of the practical. instruction. second. arts which identify the disparities between real thing and theoretic representation. Some areas of choice and action with respect to human behavior have long since learned this lesson. third. and William H. within the local kinds. James T. .The same diversity holds with respect to teachers and what they do. a Pearson Education Company. Sears. It follows. about literature. . there is perennial invention of new principles which bring to light new facets of the subject matter. . Government is made possible by a lore of politics. It requires arts which bring a theory to its application: first. it requires a supplement. . and.98 PART III Reestablishing Agency and Agendas (1961–1969) out of the psychological or sociological literature pertaining to the child. that such theories are not. .” each distinguished by a different choice of principle of enquiry. radically incomplete. . or curriculum. . by knowledge of some other kind derived from another source. . The theories which arise from enquiries so directed are. Institution of economic guidances and controls owes as much to unmediated experience of the market place as it does to formulas and theo- ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Schubert. and the omissions affect what remains. In short. as well as mediated. . Nearly all theories in all the behavioral sciences are marked by the coexistence of competing theories. in the light of the discrepancies. theory is to be used well in the determination of curricular practice. arts which devise ways of taking account of the many aspects of the real thing which the theory does not take into account. . .

curricular changes have their origin in new notions of person. . explicitly nontheoretic lore accumulated by practitioners. It is this recourse to accumulated lore. . It is high time that curriculum do likewise. . if any.This origin of its actions leads to two marked differences in operation from that of theory. to experience of actions and their consequences. . It is further necessary that changes be so planned and so articulated with what remains unchanged that the functioning of the whole remain coherent and unimpaired. too. A second facet of the practical: its actions are undertaken with respect to identified frictions and failures in the machine and inadequacies evidenced in felt shortcomings of its products. It is an effort without which we will continue largely incapable of making defensible decisions about curricular changes. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. a new class of educational researchers. and this would require that we know what is and has been going on in American schools. Even psychotherapy .CHAPTER 5 Transcending a Muddled Juncture 99 ries. . and modify the meaning and application of its formal “knowledge. James T. would effect its changes in small progressions. . which constitutes the heart of the practical. supplement. our efforts have had. by J. in coherence with what remains unchanged. a Pearson Education Company. . . to action and reaction at the level of the concrete case. relies as much or more on the accumulated. what we are not doing. . This is an effort which will require new mechanisms of empirical investigation. The Practical Arts The arts of the practical are onerous and complex. Schubert. . hence only a sampling must suffice to indicate the character of this discipline and the changes in educational investigation which would ensue on adoption of the discipline. and to what effect. .” its statutes. and William H. The law has systematized the accumulation of direct experience of actual cases in its machinery for the recording of cases and opinions as precedents which continuously monitor. The same requirements would hold for a practical program of improvement of education. . and much money. . and especially concerned that the effects of the pattern through time shall retain coherence and relevance to one another. not dismantled and replaced. we do not know. . group or society. new methods of reportage. as it does on theory or eclectic combinations of theory. It.These necessities stem from the very nature of the practical—that it is concerned with the maintenance and improvement of patterns of purposed action. not as basis for theoretical concerns about the nature of the teaching or learning process. . mind ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. . Under the control of theory. What is wanted is a totally new and extensive pattern of empirical study of classroom action and reaction. but as a basis for beginning to know what we are doing. a study. largely unable to put them into effect and ignorant of what real consequences. . At present. . Sears. The practical arts begin with the requirement that existing institutions and existing practices be preserved and altered piecemeal. Dan Marshall.

It requires also that there be available to practical deliberation the greatest possible number and fresh diversity of alternative solutions to the problem. They cannot be well solved by apparently new solutions arising from old habits of mind and old ways of doing things. a Pearson Education Company. Intimate knowledge of the existing state of affairs. . . . And this eye. is unconcerned with the successes and failures of present doings. . Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. . is commanded to determine the whole array of possible effects of proposed change. and the concrete case cannot be settled by mere application of a principle. . not abstractions from cases. because it institutes changes to repair frictions and deficiencies. . . and William H. The practical. . new recognitions of degrees of freedom for change among matters formerly taken to be unalterable. is very likely to miss the novel features of new problems or dismiss them as “impractical. . . . on the other hand. It must try to identify. . little or no account of the existing effectiveness of the machine or the consequences to this effectiveness of the institution of novelty. by J.The problems which arise in an institutional structure which has enjoyed good practical management will be novel problems.The practical. . . Sears. [Further]. on the other hand. . but the character of the problem. It cannot be inductive because the target of the method is not a generalization or explanation but a decision about action in a concrete situation. is directly and deliberately concerned with the diagnosis of ills of the curriculum. its formulation.100 PART III Reestablishing Agency and Agendas (1961–1969) or knowledge. to determine what new frictions and deficiencies the proposed change may unintentionally produce. . . consider its method.This depends on the eye of the beholder. . by being concerned with new things to do. .Theory. unilluminated by possible fresh solutions to problems. . It cannot be deductive because it deals with the concrete case. . present themselves to consciousness. practical problems do not present themselves wearing their labels around their necks. The other effective difference between theoretical and practical origins of deliberate change is patent. . . . arising from changes in the times and circumstances and from the consequences of previous solutions to previous problems. Commitment to Deliberation Deliberation is complex and arduous. It is deliberative. with re- ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. and effective formulation of problems are necessary to effective practical decision but not sufficient. Problem situations. As the last sampling of the practical. . new modes of attack. . does not. which give rise to suggestions of new things curriculum might be or do [with] . Schubert. to use Dewey’s old term. . early identification of problem situations. It treats both ends and means and must treat them as mutually determining one another. .” Hence the requirement that the generation of problems be anticipatory and not await the emergence of the problem itself. . James T. Dan Marshall. A third facet of the practical I shall call the anticipatory generation of alternatives.

operating viva voce and in the midst of curriculum operation and curriculum change. are required: of the teachers. . for example. and education of educators so that they can write for them and read them. The aim here is not a dissolving of specialization and special responsibilities. . it will require new channels connecting the series from teacher. Dan Marshall. . rather. supervisors.The journals will be forums where possible problems of curriculum will be broached from many sources and their possible importance debated from many points of view. Concretely. . It must try to identify the desiderata in the case. It must then weigh alternatives and their costs and consequences against one another and choose. Quite the contrary: if the variety of lights we need are to be obtained. and administrators of a school. of the supervisors and administrators of a school system. sociologist from test constructor. I shall mention only one of the new kinds of activity which would ensue on commitment to deliberation. Schubert. James T. it will require renunciation of the specious privileges and hegemonies by which we maintain the fiction that problems of science curriculum. the variety of specialized interests. historian from administrator. . . . not the right alternative. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. It must try to ascertain the relevant facts in the concrete case. By [such] means . . of the same representatives and specialists in curriculum. psychology. Similar forums. It must generate alternative solutions. the educational research establishment might at last find a means for channeling its discoveries into sustained improvement of the schools instead of into a procession of ephemeral bandwagons. . and curriculum makers in subject areas and across subject areas. and habits of mind which characterize education must be cherished and nurtured. administration. of representatives of teachers.Above all. This will require penetration of the curtains which now separate educational psychologist from philosopher. Sears. is to bring the members of this variety to bear on curriculum problems by communication with one another. but the best one. by J. .CHAPTER 5 Transcending a Muddled Juncture 101 spect to both. sociology. . . this means the establishment of new journals. and the subject-matter fields. Copyright ©1969 and 1970 by The University of Chicago. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. It will require the formation of a new public and new means of communication among its constituent members. . competencies. supervisors. what facts may be relevant.All rights reserved. It must make every effort to trace the branching pathways of consequences which may flow from each alternative and affect desiderata. supervisor. a Pearson Education Company. and William H. have no bearing on problems of English literature or the social studies. and school administrator at one end to research specialists at the other.The aim. . for there is no such thing. . .

they set out to resuscitate the work of curriculum. We felt no revolutionary overtones. political. and William H. They patiently waited and eventually critiqued the myriad of national curriculum reform projects that. Those whom they influenced over the next three decades would change the countenance of curriculum studies. to look toward other fields within and outside of education. While so much about curriculum work in the 1960s seemed headed toward even greater precision. personal. then we did phenomenology. . Michael Apple. a disparate collection of younger upstarts was about to surface. control. they shared their expanding inquiries. Across the country. was among them. Schubert. Fortunately. the field had reduced its own conventional framework (the Tyler rationale) to a mere technique. A small but sufficient number of its own people had quietly spent the 1960s working to push the boundaries of the Tylerian tradition. Joined by a handful of curriculum deviants. 176–177). With little more in common than a disdain for the present state of affairs. had predictably failed in most respects.” Internally. this small and scattered tribe of renegades understood all too well that the decade’s social. ▼On the Shoulders of Giants: Michael A p p l e The people who profoundly affected me during my career at TC were the somewhat politicized phenomenologists. It wasn’t a situation where first we did political criticism. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. by the decade’s end. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. but we were aware of multiple traditions within the field—some of which had been drawn from the others. 1995. Joseph Schwab’s critique was among “the first of a decade of attacks on the traditional curriculum field. externally. and their persistent faith in the importance of curriculum work with the many classroom teachers and graduate students they encountered through their teaching and writing. Dan Marshall. and cultural metamorphoses could not be separated from their own lives and educational work. etc. None of that was going on. and efficiency. a critical mass had formed within the curriculum underground..102 PART III Reestablishing Agency and Agendas (1961–1969) The Time Has Come for Change Ready or not. and to look within themselves for new insights and meaning. by J. pp. Most important. a Pearson Education Company. the curriculum field was poised for the very renaissance Schwab awaited. James T. all of which were in tension with each other. the field had been thoroughly co-opted by educational psychologists and subject-matter specialists. who earned his doctorate in 1970. their deep desire to inquire and understand. Sears. those who called themselves curricularists had begun to look to their field’s own history and traditions. A sort of “cardiac arrest” had taken place (Pinar et al.

James T. a Pearson Education Company. disciplining ourselves and distancing ourselves from the humanist tradition which. I don’t think there ever have been any in the field. Question From your reflections on the earlier chapters. Yet I don’t like to talk about it in terms of generational shifts. That’s why we turned to Marcuse.CHAPTER 5 Transcending a Muddled Juncture 103 There was no doubt in our minds that this was a time of generational shifts. . it was because we were trying to figure out how to make their claims more political—and make them work. Macdonald and others exerted a great deal of effort in making sure that their doctoral students knew each other. There was this sense of being children of the children of a number of vibrant voices which were dissident and striking—and caring at the same time: the humanist tradition with some teeth in it. myself. by J. Yet I can’t imagine Dwayne not allowing that he was deeply affiliated with Joseph Schwab or Virgil Herrick. and many others who were included in that tradition never saw ourselves as reconceptualizing anything. Dan Marshall. and humanistMarxists who were critics. had the right intuitions but insufficient power. that’s why I was so strongly influenced by the combination of phenomenology and Marxism I found in Sartre and Merleau-Ponty. If there was any reconceptualizing going on. Sears. But ours was a search for an economic and cultural and political form that could enable humanist values to actually take place in schools: we were both humanist and wanting to go beyond it at the same time. because Huebner was a phenomenologist and very much a disciplined humanist. Schubert. Herb Kliebard. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. very long and valuable tradition that has its roots in the very beginning of the curriculum field. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. do you agree with Michael Apple that there has been simply a continuity between generations of curriculum workers rather than a reconceptualization? ? I have always thought that I am standing on the shoulders of Counts and Rugg and Dewey and numbers of other folks from the 1920s. who were socialist educators and anti-racist educators. we felt. and a number of other radical. Certainly. and I think it’s a total misreading of history. It’s one of the reasons why I totally reject any language that talks about curriculum reconceptualists: I have never been one. Huebner. There was a sense of our trying to find something that was humanist. Polanyi. We are simply standing on the shoulders of a very. and that that tradition worked through Ralph Tyler in the same way. like DuBois. neo-Marxist. and William H.

but there are multiple politics. James T. My task is not to create the new generation of “Apples. And that’s something that I try and do with my own doctoral students. and William H. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. which is not what knowledge is most important. Dan Marshall. Schubert. recognizing one’s traditions has always been very important. by J. a Pearson Education Company. And I want them to care about a particular tradition represented by a very important curriculum question that I’ve tried to transform.104 PART III Reestablishing Agency and Agendas (1961–1969) And all the while we knew that we were standing on people’s shoulders.” I want my students to be political. That’s my task—that kind of generational shift. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. For me. yet Huebner and others insisted that we weren’t to be clones. . Sears. but whose knowledge.

. Schubert. by J. and William H. James T. Sears. a Pearson Education Company. Dan Marshall.P A R T IV (Re)Shaping the Contemporary Curriculum Field (1970–1983) ▼ CHAPTER 6 ▼ CHAPTER 7 The Renaissance Blossoms From Chorus to Cacophony ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall.

James T. when I was in the middle of fourth grade. 1 Personal communication. My dad was a pharmacist and we moved around quite a bit when I was very young. Moving around was very traumatic for me. a Pearson Education Company. Pennsylvania. Her timing—relative to the changing nature of curriculum work at least—could not have been more fortuitous for us. professor of education at the National College of Education in Evanston. imposing parish on a hill. This is true of Janet Miller. in 1945. Dan Marshall. I went to first and second grade at the St. 106 ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir.C H A P T E R 6 The Renaissance Blossoms ▼Janet L. 16 October.1 Janet happened into teaching and eventually pursued graduate school and curriculum studies in serendipitous turns. Sears. I was very shy as a child. 1994. and William H. My search for whatever community I might need really originates there. Iowa. . Illinois. Paul [Minnesota] Cathedral School—part of a big. Schubert. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. by J. I went on to spend third and part of fourth grade living in Kansas City before we finally settled in Pittsburgh. because as a non-Catholic I felt very outcast. Miller: A Quiet Pa rticipant in Curriculum’s New Era Many of us who enter the curriculum field have not spent our prior years planning carefully for such work. I was born in Ottumwa.

After graduation. one in English methods. But frankly . I think the only reason that didn’t happen with me was because I got rheumatic fever. truly thought I would teach three years and then have kids and stay home for a while. The 1970s were years of chaos. Janet headed off to Grove City College—two hours north of Pittsburgh. because at that time my career options were teacher. When I interviewed for a job at the high school in Massena. crisis. nurse. I graduated with an A. . We did all kinds of creative. that strikes at ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. which really put a halt to our family plans for a while. a Pearson Education Company. and one class of English 12D for kids who tested low. I also sponsored the cheerleaders. and then had kids. . . What would you like to teach?” So I constructed my own job: I taught three sections of senior-level Modern Literature. But I knew I would teach. I think I became an English major because I had always loved to read. and crazy things in school. Yet on a grander scale. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. New York where he had a job with Alcoa as an industrial engineer. It was great. Phil. wild. married Phil. . life in the United States itself had turned inside out and upside down. Phil and I were separated. “Well. And I loved it. Massena’s a little town on the St. James T. Arlene and Kay. I taught for six years in Massena. I had no other idea of what I could possibly do. I really. Massena’s also where I met two of my best friends in life. from the joys of teaching to the sadness and pain of a separation from her childhood sweetheart. It was. So I took Grove City’s one course in secondary education. by J. . I received a really wonderful background in English literature at Grove City College. They began dating in high school. . The 1970s Unravel It may have been fate that took Janet Miller from the expected to the unexpected. one class of juniors preparing for the New York Regents exam. in fourth grade. Dan Marshall. Schubert. “a crisis of confidence . and moved to Massena. and William H. football.B. in President Jimmy Carter’s words. secretary. taught three years. and change bracketed by the social ferment of the 1960s and the “greed is good” Reagan era. Kay taught English with me and Arlene taught French. Lawrence River. I was in eight other weddings that summer. in English in 1966. Everyone got married. about an hour and a half south of Montreal. which meant I went to every basketball. they said. soccer and wrestling match the school ever had. we’ve got four positions here. one in audio-visual aids. Sears.CHAPTER 6 The Renaissance Blossoms 107 Janet met her future husband. . By the time I was healthy enough and strong enough to consider it again. hockey. . and then did student teaching.

ethnic exploits such as The Godfather and Shaft. Schubert. our overindulgence with sexual freedom and freedom of expression. the 1970s were. It was a decade-long series of national ruptures: the ecological Armageddons of Three Mile Island and Love Canal. and William H. institutional distrust and political disillusionment. and cultural life during the 1970s. p. official unemployment reaching 9%. Iranians and Vietnamese challenged America’s military superiority. as well as the collapse of New Deal liberalism marked by the emergence of populist conservatism evidenced in Howard Jarvis’s Proposition 13. and the hearings of the House Select Committee on Assassinations. an economy of stagflation. a Pearson Education Company. including The End of Affluence. and Anita Bryant’s Save Our Children. a meltdown of political credibility with the publication of the Pentagon Papers. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. activists at Wounded Knee. The master’s-level synoptic text designed to prepare “budding curricularists to become able to influence practice” (Schubert. escapist fantasies such as Star Wars and Saturday Night Fever. post-Vietnam revisionist films such as Apocalypse Now and The Deer Hunter. creating the rust belt of riot-torn Midwestern and Northeastern cities. interest rates rocketing to 20%. This chaotic ferment was also mirrored in best-selling books. the Dow Jones Industrial Average falling below 600. and Andromeda Strain. apparent in the sculpture of Wendy Taylor. Attica. 247) ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. 187). 1995. As crisis.. chaos. and the tragedies of Apollo 13 and Yom Kippur challenged our technological prowess. inflation touching 18%. in some ways. political. Dan Marshall. the “curriculum field would be no exception” (Pinar et al. and Kent State challenged America’s moral superiority. the later Watergate revelations. Diet for a Small Planet. and clear in the birth of punk and glitter rock during the heyday of disco. Sears. Curriculum books continued to pour forth. international aimlessness and global impotence. Jerry Falwell’s Moral Majority. and our first trade deficit since 1888. Passages. a disaster waiting to happen: our overconsumption of technology and natural resources.” Symptoms included cultural malaise and personal melancholy. social. cynical political post-Watergate thrillers such as Three Days of the Condor and The Parallax View. This decade marked the collapse of the steel industry. with production declining by 10%. horror films such as The Exorcist and The Shining. by J. and the futility of individual actions and the false reality of surface appearance represented in the films Network and Shampoo. and change marked most aspects of intellectual. From the perspective of the post-Reagan 1990s. p. It was a decade when the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and the Pacific Rim nations challenged America’s economic superiority.108 PART IV (Re)Shaping the Contemporary Curriculum Field (1970–1983) the very heart and soul and spirit of the nation. James T. 1980. reflected in architecture such as Richard Meier’s Bronx Development Center. This crisis of spirit found ample expression in popular culture: disaster movies such as The Towering Inferno and The Poseidon Adventure. and our overreliance on federalism and individualism. .

242) and has been called “one of the most brilliant and influential minds the curriculum field has known” (Pinar et al. The still-popular exemplar is Tanner and Tanner’s 1975 publication Curriculum Development: Theory into Practice (now in its third edition [1995]). and William H. 1977c) by joining curriculum thought and classroom practice. P.. Schwab also had a major hand in bringing teachers (back) into focus with respect to curriculum work. his antidote was a move to the practical and quasi-practical (see chapter 5). Eventually. a new trend in synoptic curriculum efforts appeared in a more considered approach to delineating curriculum studies while attempting to historically situate the field (e. Interestingly. however.g. 1972). At the same time. mainstream curriculum workers sought to continue the legacy of the expert curriculum consultant. Like most synoptic texts of the 1970s—the amalgamistic sort presented as free of ideology—curriculum development remained central while curriculum evaluation grew in prominence. developing localized curriculum policy became entangled with measuring success through curriculum evaluation (e. and Parlett (1977) published a thoughtfully skeptical response to such measurement fervor titled Beyond the Numbers Game: A Reader in Educational Evaluation. saw a huge influx of interest in attempts to solve curriculum problems at large.. Frymier & Hawn. 1979. p. 1976). 1977. 1977a. Schwab. 1995. James T. 1977b. 1994]). and Shores while staying focused on the development of curriculum. Hamilton. 1976. Textbooks aside. Hamilton. a Pearson Education Company. Short & Marconnit. Rubin. 1978] and The Educational Imagination [Eisner. the earlier ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir.. Jenkins. A. 1970. Lewy.g. Goodlad’s The Dynamics of Educational Change: Toward Responsive Schools (1975) exemplifies this effort. most mainstream curriculum writing throughout the decade remained intent on influencing practice (e. King. Clearly. 1978. often through setting curriculum policy. . who directed “the turn taken by curriculum writers in the Seventies” (Schubert 1980. In part. a consequence of the previous decade’s national curriculum projects and their requisite funding accountability. reminding the field that how we come to know is as important as what we think we know. Stanley. Schubert. 1968. 197). Zais. Macdonald. by J. Attention to evaluation grew in weedlike fashion. Adopting the epistemological stance of social behaviorism. English. Others would soon follow (most notably. Qualitative Evaluation [Willis. Taken together.. p. Sears.CHAPTER 6 The Renaissance Blossoms 109 remained popular.g. such books signaled an effort to elaborate on the parameters of curriculum work as articulated in earlier “standard works” by Taba or Smith. Much concerned about the values of the social and behavior sciences turning completely in the neopositivist direction (empirical design and measurement seeking broad generalization). Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. This large-scale policy and measurement direction was precisely where Joseph Schwab did not want the field to head. Taylor & Cowley. Dan Marshall.

in the case of a new generation of collected readings. another “significant variation” in curriculum books emerged in the 1970s: books highlighting “contrast and commentary. ASCD. helped to shape the field’s major concerns (e. open education. Bellack & Kliebard. came alive through such practices as affective education. by J. to a lesser extent. 1980. and William H. personalized education.” which both “sharpened problematic areas” (e. 1984). Eisner & Vallance. as exemplified in ASCD’s Schools in Search of Meaning (1975). Sears. confluent education. 1985. the humanistic psychology promoted by ASCD was intellectually. all of whom wrote from a teacher’s autobiographical vantage point without any initial understanding of their progressive heritage (Marshall & Sears. a Pearson Education Company. and Michael Apple. in the experientialist line of curriculum thought” during the 1970s (Schubert. .g. remained prominent in its promotion of these and related ideas. and often ideologically unrecognizable from the early works of people such as John Holt. 1972). Like the so-called romantic writings of the 1960s and early 1970s. This influence. John Steven Mann. What humanistic and third-force psychology provided the field of curriculum more than anything else was an opportunity to recognize that schooling had become absurd. p. Jonathan Kozol. that we had left people out of curriculum work. race and class politics). Dan Marshall. As Schubert (1980. 1977. this sort of “personal humanism” greatly appealed to teachers. a more unnerving “sociopolitical humanism” was being shaped and discussed through mainstream outlets. Ironically. Purpel & Belanger. coedited by James Macdonald and Esther Zaret (a former Macdonald student) and featuring chapters by Dwayne Huebner. 1988. Gress & Purpel. 1974) and. pp. Personalizing the curriculum had already been complicated by ideas borrowed from existential philosophy. politically. but the importance of the classroom teacher as an active agent had largely disappeared in the mainstream of curriculum work during the 1950s and 1960s. phenomenology.g. James Hearndon. The centrality of the teacher as a living force in understanding the nature of curriculum work took on great importance in other ways as well. 243).. Yet as this personal humanism was being popularized. and Herb Kohl (who were steeped in the humanities and philosophy in particular and. theology. represented early in the decade by Weinstein and Fantini’s Toward Humanistic Education: A Curriculum of Affect (1970). and depth psychology. James T. and autobiography as well as insights from the humanities. 1978.110 PART IV (Re)Shaping the Contemporary Curriculum Field (1970–1983) work of curriculum progressives paid serious attention to teachers’ place in the work of curriculum. 271) note. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. Schubert. still the organizational “home” to most curriculum people as the decade began. perhaps a profound one. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir.. William Burton. What began as a humanistic psychological look at curriculum and schooling evolved into “a new variation. Sears & Marshall. and values education.

1994.CHAPTER 6 The Renaissance Blossoms 111 ▼A l ex Molnar: C reating an Unconventional Niche in Curriculum Alex Molnar. . James T. She married at 17 and moved out of the house. While I was a good kid. so for most of my childhood I was raised by my mom. I did quite well in English and history because I was interested in them. shooting hoops. and I frequently spent time alone. and teaching was a degree he could complete relatively quickly. Dan Marshall. Sears. I started teaching high school at the age of 20. He became “pretty much a straight ‘A’ student” and chose teaching as a career not only because it interested him but because he had a family to support. my second year course involved four themes: 2 Personal communication. Alex is a practicing psychologist. My dad died when I was nine. by J. yet during my senior year I signed up for the lowest track math/science classes and spent probably three and a half hours a day in physical education hanging around lifting weights. I taught junior-level World Civilizations in my first year. He continues: I graduated from college in 1966 with a history major and both political science and education minors. I had a great time in elementary school and throughout high school. Schubert. too. a Pearson Education Company. I was draft exempt because I was married and also the father of a child. I can’t say that school was terribly important to me. Today. I was certified to teach grades six through twelve but couldn’t find a job teaching high school. I just didn’t apply myself and wasn’t properly deferential to adult authority. I was more or less impervious to school. February 6. so I was planning to enroll at Northwestern University and get a degree in African history. After graduating from high school in 1963. in 1966. and during my second and third years I taught senior-level courses that I wrote. you might say. and William H. 1946. Alex immediately began college and married at the age of 18. came to the curriculum field with a highly developed sense of sociopolitical humanism. So. which interested me. I was largely regarded as a child who had terrific potential but was unlikely to ever realize it. So I had a very small family. though. I had one sister who was almost 14 years older than me. in Chicago. in addition to his teaching and continued social activism. But that was during the war in Vietnam.2 I was born on Wednesday. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. 30 October. I recall thinking that school was fun. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. For example. and that October a job opened up at the high school I had graduated from when a teacher was drafted. swinging on ropes. During the 1970s he worked closely with James Macdonald and joined the struggle to reinvigorate the work of curriculum. professor of curriculum and instruction at the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee.

the only school that put up the money was the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee. and war. We had no required textbooks and we never spent more than 50% of our scheduled time in class. and William H. designed to educate just 18 people to educate their fellow teachers. by J. and so on. We applied to graduate schools all over the country together. I mean. very intense. I chuckle. We were a multi-racial team. very much like a community. So it was a terrific school for somebody with a lot of ideas and interests in doing different things. Upon completing his master’s. Sears. work on curriculum. values clarification. James T. . but this school was built around the teacher. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. During that year (1969–1970). now. As Alex explains: Through this program I became very immersed in what was then called third force psychology. intolerance. the environment. three white guys and a black guy. myself and three other guys decided to see if we couldn’t go on to get our doctorates together at the same place and set up an experimental teacher education program as kind of an extension of the work we’d been doing at Southern Illinois and also as a way of earning our doctorate. with quite diverse backgrounds. In my third year I taught a course on African-American history that I developed. I had heard about behavioral objectives and all of that. one of the coauthors of the book Values and Teaching (Raths. having authentic relationships and so on was certainly in the air in the late ‘60s and it was something that the faculty at Ridgewood had talked about and debated and tried to figure out. the rest being available to plan. So. with all night or weekend sensitivity groups. Well. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. But I didn’t really know much about it until I arrived at Southern Illinois University and found myself in it up to my eyeballs. and meet with students. expressing your true feelings. he applied and was accepted into an unusual residential program for experienced teachers run by Merrill Harmin. Dan Marshall. & Simon. Harmin. It was run from a little farmhouse out in the field there in southern Illinois. Schubert.112 PART IV (Re)Shaping the Contemporary Curriculum Field (1970–1983) poverty. I can’t say that I was ever terribly interested in any of this beforehand. It was very. Alex soon began a master’s degree in history. the whole idea of sensitivity training. he also earned a certificate in educational administration. Ridgewood Community High School was among the first high schools in the country to employ flexible modular scheduling and faculty teams. UWM was kind of a wide open place at that point because they had just begun a new doctoral program in urban education and were looking for a way to attract some high quality doctoral students. and though a couple of schools were indeed interested. Once teaching. a Pearson Education Company. because it was an all-white school and the course was considered quite extraordinary at the time. 1966). along with humanistic education. This was a live-in program.

More numerous. later wrote with others: “It ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. UWM brought us there to work on our doctorates together and set up this experimental teacher education program. 1973). 1972). gaining momentum within the emerging field of school-based curriculum evaluation while simultaneously losing space within the curriculum literature as more “complex” ideas found life in print. dismantling conventions seemed natural. Kuhn’s significantly revised The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. however. As Pinar. 1973). Hannah & Michaelis. It was still too early for the overall field to embrace the symbiotic relationship among school. a thorough. Generally speaking. Feminist Resources for Schools and Colleges (Ahlum & Fralley. Ironically. Cultural Revolution. and culture. Curricularists could now begin to take a critical look at the causes of this crisis. James T. 1977) continued through the decade. deeply invasive critical report on public schools. 1972.g.CHAPTER 6 The Renaissance Blossoms 113 in the fall of 1970. 1980. though a handful of books that appeared during this period pointed in that direction through titles such as Black Studies: Threat-or-Challenge (N. Ford. And that’s where I met Jim Macdonald. Work begun by individuals such as Mager (whose Preparing Instructional Objectives enjoyed a second edition in 1975) and others (e. . Schubert. Silberman’s Crisis in the Classroom. mainstream curriculum workers entered the 1970s with a mission to fix what was wrong with schools through the building of better curricula using more sophisticated tools and measures. constituted a second warning offered in language that everyone could readily understand: our schools had lost their meaning. by J. Drumheller. and William H. and Curriculum Theory (Pinar. were those who argued for a need to sharpen the procedures and principles used in developing curricula for schools. The need for this intellectual and practical deconstruction and reconstruction was evident in two works published in 1970. But for those involved in education and curriculum at the time. intellectuals seemed finally to begin to appreciate “that the conventional paradigm of scholarship in any given era is not the only possibility” (Schubert. A. Curriculum and the Cultural Revolution (Purpel & Belanger. Heightened Consciousness. 1973. society. The Slow Dismantling of Convention For some.. which included the failed curriculum reforms of the previous decade. 1978). Baker & Popham. and Curriculum for Better Schools: The Great Ideological Debate (Schiro. Dan Marshall. p. a Pearson Education Company. Alex would find himself at the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee working closely with James Macdonald who was himself in the midst of theoretically dismantling the conventional field of curriculum. the author of one of these seminal books. 1974). Sears. In the first. the idea that four friends would expect to be accepted to a doctoral program in all-or-none fashion and that their purpose would be to design an unconventional initial teacher preparation program may seem hugely presumptuous. 240).

these internal curriculum struggles were not unlike those found elsewhere. Tennis is a good example of this phenomenon. following a decade when large-scale curriculum work had been taken over by outsiders. by J. though “their function during the 1970s was to reconceptualize the character of the American curriculum field. Freely borrowing from the rules. and outright internal struggles. sanctioned by its own leaders and organizations. During the early part of the fourteenth century. politics. p. scoring. This sort of resistance to unpredictable influences by the “keepers of the curriculum field” is certainly understandable. if not truncated. 186–187). struggles within the curriculum field differed in function if not in form from their progressive antecedents. and William H. Sears. .But variations and rule changes quickly appeared. Dan Marshall. and equipment of related games. Whenever we find something that was created. But the deeper struggle during this era would be over the very nature of curriculum work itself. Here.Wingfield added these to an hourglass-shaped playing court. the Greek command for “play ball. INDEED Tennis has a long and distinguished.g. and managed so as to control not only the rules of the game but also who plays it. history. a Pearson Education Company. James T. jeu de parre was played in France with the ball hit by the player’s hand. developed. the multiple directions taken during the curriculum theorizing efforts of the 1970s (e. and popularized by a self-identifiable group of people. in part. the traditional paradigm attempted to insulate itself from these indications of ‘cultural revolution’ ” (Pinar et al. 1995.. Historically. both conceptually and methodologically... The field would shift from a primary and practical interest in the development of curriculum to a theoretical and practical interest in understanding curriculum” (Pinar et al.who developed it as an outdoor sport for the ladies of his British castle. Patenting the game as Sphairistike. Schubert. pp. 209). Somehow.The modern game of lawn tennis is attributed to Major Walter Wingfield. we are eventually likely to see slippage. In general. compromise. Its roots have been traced back to the early Romans and Greeks.114 PART IV (Re)Shaping the Contemporary Curriculum Field (1970–1983) was becoming clear that the conceptual and instrumental ‘tools’ provided by the traditional paradigm of curriculum development no longer adequately addressed rapidly changing social and cultural realities. 1995. TENNIS: A CIVILIZED SPORT.” Wingfield’s lawn tennis rules were published in pamphlet form during the early 1870s. autobiography. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. phenomenology) reflect some of the themes developed by the early curriculum progressives. The most significant revisions to Wingfield’s game were made and published by the Marylebone Cricket Club in 1875 and recodified by the All England (continued) ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir.

residents enjoyed Tennis Week. such as four-time champion Bob Wreen.As the game evolved. and the Astors. 61). .There was neither a grandstand nor a press box and neither prize money nor “guarantees. held in 1877 at the Wimbledon Club.” Tennis was an amateur’s game that required “money to play it. .The first British lawn tennis championships. James T. Schubert. an American visitor. INDEED (continued) Croquet Club. College athletes turned tennis players. by J. [While] a handful of teaching professionals at a few clubs . . p. Mary Ewing Outerbridge. New York. and the serving location moved. The game was increasing in speed. Massachusetts. derived direct financial benefit from the game . After World War I. and Tuxedo. The first national championship was held on Staten Island in 1880. enjoyed lavish parties and bathed at Newport’s fashionable Bailey’s Beach. Heralded as an exciting new game for America’s gentry. In the winter of 1874 while vacationing in Bermuda. who built million-dollar “cottages” of opulence. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. employed the revised Marylebone rules. . expanding in the number and styles of players. Here. the length of the court extended and its width shortened. money that one earned or one’s father earned. lawn courts soon appeared in Nahant. 1957. nothing accrued. to the amateur player himself” (Cummings.The court’s hourglass shape was abandoned in favor of a rectangle. but the tournament was moved to the exclusive enclave of Newport a year later (where it remained until 1914).CHAPTER 6 The Renaissance Blossoms 115 TENNIS: A CIVILIZED SPORT. He introduced his cannonball serve and overhead return to the Newport leisure class. and William H. competing literally within a boundary of wooden chairs—called “socialities”—placed around the court’s edges to accommodate the audience of well-heeled women. the Newport of the 1890s was the summer watering hole of the Belmonts. dressed in elaborate summer gowns. shaded by silk and lace parasols. marked the movement of tennis toward a more popular and fast-paced game. During these early tournaments most of the players came from major eastern cities. . a Pearson Education Company. with its annual men’s singles champions of the United States Lawn Tennis Association (USLTA). In 1892 a portable grandstand replaced chairs around the court’s edge at Newport. whose dwindling membership and empty croquet lawns necessitated accommodation with this new lawn sport. scoring methods changed to 15s. with a grandstand built around clubhouse (continued) ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. which was equally shocked by his proletarian parentage. Dan Marshall. Sears. had the “grand fortune” to experience Sphairistike at the British garrison. the championship site moved to Long Island’s Forest Hills. a Californian whose father worked at the government mint. Rhode Island. Newport. either directly or indirectly. . . . and escorted by men in formal attire topped with stiff derbies. During the era of robber barons and no income tax. the emergence of Maurice “Mac” McLoughlin. and attracting public interest. the Vanderbilts.

no questioning the umpire. . Clearly. Etiquette. by J. tennis was a game of style and convention. the economic disparities of North and South. Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) and mutually assured destruction (MAD). . The century of Pax Americana continued with coup d’etats backed by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) as the ancestral remnants of Pax Britannica imposed direct rule on Northern Ireland.The book admonished that “[t]o play in any other color [than white] is a great mistake in the eyes of one who knows tennis. Nationally. and “no remarks about players since their family or relatives may be in the audience” (p. 137). remained traditional. too. a Pearson Education Company. Much like those in the Negro Baseball League. But serious conflict loomed.000 people. Transition and Transformation The 1970s were a time of modernist conflict. In tennis it isn’t to be done” (p. the “China card. INDEED (continued) courts to accommodate 15. and William H. 154). the American Tennis Association was formed. Player etiquette included allowing the foreign player to enter the court first and ignoring bad calls. 1928) devoted two chapters to dress and etiquette. the fall of the Shah and Somoza. During this time. . James T. Sears. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. protest. It was a world divided: the cold war certainties of communism and capitalism. It was a geopolitical chess game of détente.” and Olympic tragedy. and boycott. Dan Marshall. The war in Vietnam continued as Nixon’s “incursion” into Cambodia sparked campus violence. as were separate singles championships for black players. the Supreme Court adjudicated but did not resolve the abortion conf lict while violence erupted over forced busing. fueled by struggles over power and control much like those so evident during the 1970s in the United States. Such troubles appeared in TV sitcoms including the top-ranked All in the Family. .The 1928 book Tennis (Wills. as well as in real life ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. International tensions continued in the Middle East as Arab countries invaded Israel on Yom Kippur and quadrupled oil prices in a 12-month period. Such were the shared understandings of a sport played almost exclusively by and for the well-to-do—understandings shaped by those who created and controlled its conventions. and the philosophical differences of East and West. in which an embattled Archie lived with his intellectual “meathead” son-in-law near the upwardly mobile Jeffersons. audience etiquette included no applause except at the end of rallies. Schubert.116 PART IV (Re)Shaping the Contemporary Curriculum Field (1970–1983) TENNIS: A CIVILIZED SPORT.African-American tennis champions such as Reginald Weir and Althea Gibson were never able to test their talents and skills against white stars.

Zen centers and food co-ops. She recalls: ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. and William H. magazine. activating groups such as the Concerned Women for America and the Eagle Forum. from Big Blue to Small Is Beautiful. I knew that I’d have to finish my master’s if I wanted to be on my own as a teacher. of transformation: from Karl W. Driven by the economic need to complete her master’s degree in order to continue teaching. I substitute taught for a year but it was probably the worst year of my life. The decade witnessed the building of infrastructures on both the Left and the Right. from Good Housekeeping to Ms. an era of self-obsession and self-reliance marked by the collapse of idealism and the resurgence of cynicism: Club 54 and The Farm. and change as she set out to reformulate her life. Janet enrolled in the English education program at the University of Rochester. James T. Often characterized as the “me decade. I was just devastated not to have my own classes. a Pearson Education Company.” the previous. from the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution to the War Powers Act. plus I had another graduate course from SUNY Potsdam. the American Party. It was a time. In response to voter apathy and alienation arose the Citizens Party. When I separated from Phil in 1972 I moved to Rochester. and the Committee for the Survival of a Free Congress. The transformation Janet Miller underwent in 1972 also involved crisis. of public interest research groups and voter referenda. because in New York you have to get a master’s within five years to acquire permanent credentials. to John Paul II. How to Be Your Own Best Friend and Greening of America. William Pinar as her academic adviser.CHAPTER 6 The Renaissance Blossoms 117 when motorists fought at neighborhood gas stations over a few gallons of fuel. She was assigned Dr. too. from activists Tom Hayden and Angela Davis to Representative Hayden and Professor Davis. chaos. New York. of MIRVs and MXs. Dan Marshall. by J. from the death of John Wayne to the $16 million inauguration ceremony of Ronald Reagan. Altamont and Farm Aid. It was the time of Earth Day and May Day. In response to the crisis of faith in politics came liberation theology and the Moral Majority. pet rocks and preppy alligators. from the Beatles to Queen. Sears. In response to the energy crisis came groups such as New Hampshire’s Clamshell Alliance and David Rockefeller’s Trilateral Commission. existential 1960s turned into the pragmatic (some say narcissistic) 1970s. of DDT and SST. Schubert. In response to the feminist movement Congress passed the Equal Rights Amendment. . This was a transitional era wherein many activists turned inward and liberationists turned outward. my own students—not to mention my own home. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. My friend Kay and I had gone to Columbia University for six weeks in the summer of 1967 and taken two literature courses.

Well. a Pearson Education Company. However. within a month she realized that she was too interested in the new ideas she discovered in her master’s classes to continue teaching high school. Schubert. Sears. I was an English major. Lang and Maxine Greene. Bill was having us read things by people I had never heard of before and a lot of the teachers in that class kept saying.118 PART IV (Re)Shaping the Contemporary Curriculum Field (1970–1983) In January. D. her former adviser. I began taking classes. I actually taught a class with him as part of my teaching assistantship. And Paul’s brilliant mentoring in curriculum studies changed my life. and we became friends. . His name was Bill Pinar. Don Bateman and Paul Klohr were wonderful people to have as mentors. such as structures of power relations. this feels like me. I had no idea about any educational components of my studies in English. As Janet recalls: Once I got to Ohio State. In 1974. so I was lucky enough to be able to sit down with Don and Paul and work out a program that let me take courses in both areas as well as meet the university requirements. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. and his was a totally new world to me. James T. and William H. so we were reading people like Paulo Freire. It’s set in the 1800s and really considered one of the first feminist novels around because it’s about a woman’s awakening to her own sense of being and really is a fairly stringent critique of patriarchy. Janet took a full-time job teaching English at Honeoye High School in southern Rochester. After she earned her master’s degree. I remember one novel I read in one of my master’s English classes. During my master’s work at Rochester I was also exposed to ideas about curriculum and teaching that I had never thought about before. you were pretty free to construct your own doctoral program. everyone was an English teacher of one sort or another. I read that novel and thought gosh. by J. That’s where I met Madeline Grumet. At the time. you know. shoot. In my first class. Dan Marshall. or the sort of psychoanalytic tack that Bill was heavily into in terms of how we construct our realities of classrooms. Kate Chopin’s The Awakening. no real background in education per se. 1973. but this was a master’s in English education. With the help of Pinar. Don was at the height of his radical period. it started to become a little clearer to me what I was embarking on. who was just starting her master’s also. The class was taught by this very mysterious 24-yearold (I was 27 at the time) who had us reading things by Louise Rosenblatt and others in English education as well as works by R. “What’s he talking about?” I was sort of amazed and intrigued. Janet decided to head to Ohio State University for doctoral study with Don Bateman in English and Paul Klohr in curriculum theory—Pinar’s own doctoral mentors. I hadn’t had any idea about any of this. We were reading all ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir.

Curriculum theorizing came to prominence in the 1970s in a way that had not been seen for many decades. more recently. 187) that would be corrected through political curriculum scholarship of the 1970s. Janet Miller began doctoral studies during a period of uncertainty within the curriculum world and accompanied by an outstanding thinker (in Janet’s case. Overall.” Moreover. Question These terms are umbrella characterizations of profound ideas about the human condition. 1992. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. Overly’s The Unstudied Curriculum and Snyder’s The Hidden Curriculum. depth psychology. and in Alex’s case.. Macdonald is credited with. phenomenology. The flurry of social reconstructionist curriculum work popularized in the 1930s and 1940s by Counts.g. . . and others had been almost singularly kept alive into the early 1960s by Theodore Brameld. and existential philosophy rather than the standard areas of developmental (and. It was just an unbelievable sort of immersion. among other contributions. a Pearson Education Company. 1972) became a major impetus for resuscitating “critical” reconstructionist developments in the field.CHAPTER 6 The Renaissance Blossoms 119 over the place in a very interdisciplinary kind of way. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Jim Macdonald). however. his own career “spans what we might tentatively call the four theoretical movements of the field: scientific thinking. . literature. And I was free to create my own direction. p. Macdonald. We are referring here to theorizing that leaned heavily on such schools of thought as European critical and neo-Marxist thinking. A Field in Search of Meaning Like Alex Molnar. James T. and William H. One early proponent (though he eventually moved beyond this perspective) was James B. as did further development of Jackson’s (1968) notion of the hidden curriculum (e. It opened me up to the understanding that curriculum is not just about this traditional conceptualization but also about interdisciplinary understanding of how knowledge gets constructed in the world. Dan Marshall. mainstream curriculum work had developed an “apolitical blindspot” (Pinar & Bowers.What books or individuals would you associate with these ideas? How can they affect our understanding of curriculum? ? For example. Rugg. . foreshadowing “the move to reconceptualize the field” in his 1971 article titled “Curriculum Theory. Schubert. humanistic and cognitive) psychology from which the curriculum field had previously borrowed. by J. Sears. both published in 1970). Paul Klohr. Paulo Freire’s Pedagogy of the Oppressed (1970.

217. So I would not call him a directive kind of a guy. by J. Jim didn’t produce disciples. because you have faith in them and believe that if you got stuff out of their way they would never let you down. In that regard I don’t think Jim provided me with a very solid foundation in curriculum history or any other field.” And he said. and transcendental thought” (Pinar et al. I got to know Jim because he was then director of doctoral studies. He had high standards. too. not a curriculum theorist per se. and learned about Macdonald’s various curriculum journeys “retrospectively. As a doctoral advisor he once told me that you should only work with people you love. Bob Ubbelohde.” I said. As a preface to Macdonald’s work titled “A Transcendental Developmental Ideology of Education. pp. At the time of Macdonald’s death in 1983. Alex Molnar talks about his doctoral advisor. Because I came there with a ton of credits as well as a master’s and a specialist’s degree. He did what he said he’d do: he ran interference. James T. Schubert. And Bob was in the curriculum field because he had chosen the curriculum field! Jim and I and Bob spent a lot of time together discussing issues and lots and lots of things we were reading. Dan Marshall. One day I said.120 PART IV (Re)Shaping the Contemporary Curriculum Field (1970–1983) personal humanism. the bulk of my doctorate ended up being independent work. I assumed I would be. had been in the doctoral program at Madison and moved to Milwaukee expressly for the purpose of working with Jim Macdonald. and William H. And I did a lot of that with Jim. 218). Although he was not one of the principal people involved in bringing us to Milwaukee.” And that was pretty much it. He expected a lot. a Pearson Education Company. he didn’t demand anything. 1995. okay. Descriptions of Jim Macdonald will differ depending on who you ask. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. I took a curriculum theory course from him the first semester. Alex recognized Macdonald as an intellectual.. One of the other doctoral students who Jim advised. . But I can’t really say that any of it had any particular attachment to something that in a technical sense might be called curriculum. After working with Virgil Herrick at the University of Wisconsin–Madison (as did Huebner). sociopolitical humanism. Macdonald held four positions before his University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee professorship.” an excerpt of which appears in this chapter. “Yeah. he held a distinguished professorship in education at the University of North Carolina–Greensboro. Sears. “I just assumed you were going to be my major professor. During his doctoral program (1970–1972). in dribs and drabs. I had no consciousness of something called a curriculum field when I arrived at UWM and I’d never heard of Jim Macdonald. “Yeah. and that your job was to get things out of their way so that they can do what they want to do. But he just allowed me to produce a lot. He wrote a lot.” As Alex puts it: ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir.

Dan Marshall. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. Sears. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. 4 (November 1972). Jim never really discussed himself within that situation either: and he participated in it! In our curriculum theory classes we didn’t get any kind of didactic exposition of the field and what he was trying to do within it. curriculum—or any intellectual discipline—was really only a device for extending your intellect.CHAPTER 6 The Renaissance Blossoms 121 I never felt as though I was some new generation of curriculum scholar. for example. 1974). No. It is clear to me that there are at least two other potential ideologies that I am calling radical and transcendental developmental. 449–96. I read some things and people quoted Schwab a lot. he explores his thinking regarding the importance of moving beyond the sociopolitical humanism (political ideology) of his earlier times toward a place that is best described as transcendental. Mac do nald he title of this chapter was prompted by the recent Kohlberg and Mayer article entitled “Development as an Aim of Education. . that’s what we talked about. In the following excerpt from his 1973 Rochester curriculum conference presentation (Macdonald. and to the extent we talked about those things. Jim encouraged that. I don’t really think that Jim would have ever called himself a curriculum person in the sense most people define a curriculum person. or perhaps he made what he was interested in studying be curriculum. Jim Macdonald was a curriculum person because he made curriculum be what he was interested in studying. A Transcendental Developmental Ideology of Education by James B. They were just what Jim Macdonald was thinking. And I don’t think it was necessary for Jim Macdonald to be a professor in something called curriculum because for Jim. developmental.”3 They talk about three ideologies: romantic. But I wasn’t terribly interested in it. James T.” Harvard Educational Review 42. continuing to explore his interests. And while we read some of the papers he was writing at the time. and cultural transmission. where he had come from and so on. . Schubert. . I mean. . . James Macdonald was on a life journey during the 1970s. there was no historical context in terms of what he had written. of the ideas being promoted by Joseph Schwab in ‘69 and ‘70 regarding the moribund curriculum field. I had little consciousness. . 3 T Lawrence Kohlberg and Rochelle Mayer. he just had us attempting to theorize. and I didn’t care one way or another. and William H. I’ve always been what I wanted to be. Instead. . It is my contention that the radical and transcendental ideologies are the most potentially useful in the modern world.“Development As the Aim of Education. a Pearson Education Company. by J.

lies developmental ideology. a Pearson Education Company. . for the radical model is weighted on the side of social realities. as is the developmental. . Knowledge is the outer reality.Thus rational ethical principles. by J. and it refers directly to the inner experience of the self. Pedagogy of the Oppressed (New York: Herder and Herder. . However. Knowledge in this ideology is said to be existential or phenomenological. the “objective” world. . on the other hand. and they serve as developmental means and ends. 1970).The ethical theory of the romantic is based upon the freedom of the individual to be himself. . the romantic conception is mainly from inner to outer. . Dewey’s method of intelligence and the cognitive-developmental work of Piaget with its concern for inner structures and outer structures encountered in interaction are the psychological models for this ideology. it had a fundamentally different interpretation of the dialectic. Thus. Schubert. the cultural transmission from outer to inner. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir.Value theory is either an ethically neutral stance or a social relativism that accepts the present cultural values for which there would appear to be consensus. and the developmental is dialectical. .Truth is pragmatic in that it depends upon its relationship to the situation in which we find ourselves. Kohlberg and Mayer assume that the radical position is equivalent to the romantic. .122 PART IV (Re)Shaping the Contemporary Curriculum Field (1970–1983) The romantic ideology . p. serve as arbiters for defining aims. in the sense that it is neither a model of inner experience or outer experience but a dialectic between inner and outer. 4 Paulo Freire. as the work of Paulo Freire4 shows. 186. Truth is self-knowledge and extends to others by sympathetic understanding of other selves. the inner and outer aspects of ideology and the dominant directions of the critical flow of the human encounter. The developmental and radical models look identical only on the surface. thus emphasizing environmental structures. Dan Marshall. or at least they use these terms interchangeably at times. Analysis of these ideologies suggests . . that can be found in sense experience and culturally shared.Values are based upon ethical universals derived philosophically. Essentially the individual is shaped by his environmental experiences in terms of the associations and stimulus-response sets he encounters and acquires. Sears.The progressive position assumed that democracy was the ideal social reality and continued its analysis of the interaction process with that assumption in mind. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. . . James T. assuming that individuals. when free.The transaction itself creates reality which is neither an inner nor an outer phenomenon. . The cultural transmission ideology is grounded in behaviorist psychology. Between these two. is essentially based upon an analysis of why democratic ideas are not realized. and William H. Knowledge is equated with a resolved relationship between inner experience and outer reality.The radical model. is fundamentally concerned with human nature and the unfolding or maturation of the individual.This I believe to be in error. . are essentially good unless society makes them otherwise. . but something else.The political radical is committed to a dialectical model. not the actual values of the child or the culture.

.The institutionalization of nuclear and electronic technology . but its impact has essentially been to produce a difference in kind (instead of in degree) in the condition of human existence. Kohlberg and Mayer’s three ideologies are “over the hill. electronic-computerized. a Pearson Education Company. Dan Marshall. developmental theory is culture and society bound.Yet I find this historical view limiting in its materialistic focus. [emphasis added] . Given the level of analysis of the radical. I feel that. and I suspect that it is grounded fundamentally in the Industrial Revolution and reflects the same linear rationality and conceptualizing that characterizes the rise of science and technology. It further posits that the way people live together is determined essentially by the structure of our economic arrangements. . the individual cannot fully develop out of the very conditions that are central to the improvement of human life. Only when new social conditions arise will we be able to begin to empirically identify and talk about human development in the new social context. radical ideology claims that liberal developmental ideology and romantic ideology are embedded in the present system. At this level of analysis. this is a special reading of the past that helped make sense out of the nineteenth-century present. it is the feeling I have that it is also one step behind the world. . and the distribution of goods and services through the possession of power. Like all history. as McLuhan once said. .CHAPTER 6 The Renaissance Blossoms 123 The radical point of view takes off from the essential proposition that the critical element in human life is the way people live together. I believe we have entered a new hierarchical level with our electronic world. if only a few feet. . James T. . .What we need is some way to look beyond. . we are traveling down a superhighway at faster and faster speeds looking out the rearview mirror. singlemedia machine world.” so to speak. I propose that the structure of the world environment today must be approached through the existence of a nuclear. .That is. It does provide us with some idea of how straight the road is ahead. . but the political view is in the mirror. The radical view of education in its political manifestations does provide us with a historical analysis—as well as with concepts for analyzing contemporary phenomena. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. . the emphasis upon the individual and his unfolding or developing necessitates an acceptance of the social structures as status quo in order to identify in any empirical manner the development of the individual.The world today is not the same. My problem with the radical or political view of curriculum is not its level of analysis or the questions it asks. and it is bound to the kind of a system that structures human relationships in hierarchical dominance and submission patterns and alienates the person from his own activity in work and from other people. by J. and William H. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall.Thus. Sears. and a different reading of history is needed to help make sense of our contemporary world. It is a “social science” of human relations and a “science” of history. . per se. multimedia technology rather than the more linear. . . This passage may have seemed gradual. is an operating pattern. a cultural milieu that has never existed before. The radical-political perspective as a base for curriculum thinking does not adequately allow for the tacit dimension of culture: it is a hierarchical view that has outlived its usefulness both in terms of the emerging structure of the environment and of the psyches of people today. instead. Schubert.Thus. the ownership of means of production.

[The outer dialectic deals with] the explicit knowledge systems of the individual and the situational context within which he acts. Schubert. . Sears. . they do not see that they share the same technological world view—what liberals love. . a relatively unsatisfactory position. that within the limits of [this dialectic] there can be no access to values or ethical principles that do not arise out of a utilitarian reflection upon the objective historical or personal consequences of human activity. Humanity will eventually transcend technology by turning inward.Thus. . . . . A Transcendental Developmental Ideology A transcendental ideology seems to be necessary because I find the source of value positions to be inadequate in the other four.Thus. by J. . however. they are also dominated by the need for survival and power sources. .This represents a position similar to that held by radical ideologists. Out of this will come the rediscovery of human potential. . Now all people must serve the technical “gods” in some nonthreatening way in order to insure social and perhaps personal survival. Curriculum thinking should be grounded in cultural realities. however. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. radicals hate. . Dan Marshall. Central to this discontent is the cognitive orientation of reflection as the method of intelligence and the only source of analysis for human activity. .A dialectic exists not only between the individual and his environment but also within the individual himself. In my own developmental speculation I see the present and future technological domination of man as a step in the road toward human evolution. the only viable alternative that allows a human being to continue to experience oneself in the world as a creative and vital element. in other words. .Without positing a method of reflective intelligence based upon an analysis of the consequences of human activity. there could be no assessment of “good” other than a bare survival adjustment to reality. In other words. .Technology. . It is a true reflection of the state of human beings. and both are equally possessed by technology.124 PART IV (Re)Shaping the Contemporary Curriculum Field (1970–1983) The sense of powerlessness and impotence we feel is not a sign of alienation in the traditional Marxian sense. . . Utilitarianism as a source of values is. an a priori valuing of rationality is necessary in utilitarianism. It does not allow or account for phenomena in human experience that have been readily apparent to persons throughout history and in contemporary society. . as far as it goes. much in the manner of most other animals. . and William H. . . . We have in effect created our first man-made gods in material form. . . . James T. It is clear. . My position is best approached through the concept of a dual dialectical process. Political action and political analysis of the human condition is now too limited a perspective with which to view our conditions of existence. Precisely because radicals have been so busy pushing and tugging at the means of production and distribution. No longer are we dominated by the owners of the tools of work. . . I find all four ideologies unclear in their ontological and phenomenological grounding. . . . is a necessary development for human beings in that it is the means of externalizing the potential that lies within. a Pearson Education Company. . .Where does it come from? ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. I would agree that human activity is in part created by the reflective transaction of human consciousness in situational contexts. .

“Today there is a wide measure of agreement . . The inner dialectic of the self is a critical element if we are to advance the position that culture is in any way created by human beings. but the validation of values would seem to demand some source other than explicit and rational knowledge. are articulated in the lives of people by the dual dialectic of reflecting upon the consequence of an action and sounding the depths of our inner selves. Eng. Only a process something like this can explain why “what works is not always good. as well as language usages. or serial and synchronistic bases point directly toward the awareness of another ground of knowledge in human being. and William H.The self. It seems doubtful if any knowledge is “harder” than modern physics. .CHAPTER 6 The Renaissance Blossoms 125 That this gives only a partial account of human being is indicated by the second [inner] dialectic. . a Pearson Education Company. The possibility of value may well be limited in alternatives by the individual-biological-social dialectic. . knowledge is not simply things and relationships that are real in the outer world and waiting to be discovered.Thus. and the possibilities of accessibility to knowledge from “hidden” inner sources operating on acausal. .: Cambridge University Press. The Mysterious Universe (Cambridge. in other words. . . An epistemology must further come to grips with the so-called hard knowledge of our culture. 1937). Schubert. Personal in the sense that all cognitive constructs are grounded in individual personal meaning and that our shared culture. 5 Sir James Jeans. . between the explicit awareness of the individual and the nonexplicit nature of the individual. . or integrative. As Sir James Jeans5 said. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. . to counterbalance purely technological rationality. . Sears. . by J. what. Components of Epistemolog y The epistemological components of a transcendental ideology are grounded in the concept of personal knowledge. is composed of both conscious awareness and unconscious data at any given time. Values. . Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. I believe. is simply weighted down with the baggage of philosophical and materialistic biases. . referring to the idea that the created culture of human life is a common set of personal constructs. . serves as a pragmatic survival device. This outer necessity does not change the fundamental nature of knowledge. p. the universe begins to look more like a great thought than like a great machine. and it is instructive to note epistemological implications found in the knowledge of modern physical science. or the fantastic possibilities and implications of our most advanced fields of inquiry.” Some dual dialectic is also needed to explain the existence of reason. that the stream of knowledge is heading toward a non-mechanical reality.” . and why are far more open questions than we are often led to believe. but it is a process of personalizing the outer world through the inner potential of the human being as it interacts with outer reality. 172. How. . . Dan Marshall. . or aesthetic rationality. . James T. At this level I am . An epistemology that does not recognize tacit knowledge components.

. . Further. . . Meditative thinking. Centering as the aim of education calls for the completion of the person or the creation of meaning that utilizes all the potential given to each person. . which facilitates the process of centering. Playing. It is a human experience facilitated in many ways by a religious attitude when this attitude encompasses the search to find our inner being or to complete one’s awareness of wholeness and meaning as a person. Rather than fostering the activity of thought in a functional.126 PART IV (Re)Shaping the Contemporary Curriculum Field (1970–1983) Centering as the Aim of Education The aim of education should be a centering of the person in the world. . what he explicitly knows through social praxis. centering does not mean self-actualization. . . Dan Marshall. and William H. .As such. It is essentially what William James called a religious experience. for that process . Thus. Sears. and it is fundamental for locating oneself in time and space and for providing cognitive awareness that may facilitate centering. Discourse on Thinking. and the process of centering utilizes the data of an individual’s culture. is filled with assumptions about personality development that seem arbitrary and somewhat closed to me. . it is a process one enters into. the process of “playing” would seem to be necessary to facilitate pattern making and to provide for self-regulation of activity. . This critical process reflects itself in the need to transform reality symbolically. .Thus. why in the sense of examining the fundamental meaning of things. . by J. 6 ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. . Centering does not mean mental health. . the question of the objectives of a transcendental curriculum must be seen in process terms also. . 93. Play in this sense refers to playing with ideas. . . . The attitude and activity of play is a critical aspect of the patternmaking process. a problem-solving process. pattern making would emphasize the creative and personal ordering of cultural data as the individual engaged in activity. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. it merely places this knowledge in the base or ground from which it grows. But processes . . Schubert. we must foster what Martin Heidegger6 called Martin Heidegger. p. to create order in search of meaning. . . Pattern making. centering is the fundamental process of human being that makes sense out of our perceptions and cognitions of reality. . It in no way conflicts with the accumulated knowledge of a culture. . and other people. a Pearson Education Company. James T. . . 1966).Thus. . “Why” is the fundamental thought question for a transcendental ideology. refer to the engagement of the individual in human activity. . . . The idea of centering may be found in a wide variety of sources throughout history and the contemporary world. .There are a number of possible processes that would facilitate centering. .As such. Harper Torchbook (New York: Harper and Row. . . utilitarian way. Centering takes place within the culture of the individual. things. . . . . The Processes in Curriculum Centering is the aim of a transcendental ideology. Spiritual energy does not shape the explicit knowledge of the person in absolute or noncultural ways.

it is clear by the way we educate the young that we do not consider the biological aspects of the person to be relevant to the real business of education. intuition to dance and music. imagination as the ability to picture in the mind what is not present to the senses is a perceptual power that involves the whole person. . The education of perception. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. a Pearson Education Company. . nothing can be accepted simply on its own terms in its social utility. intuitions. from the play of children emerging from their feelings. sensations.e. . we must encourage the young to say both yes and no to culture and probe the ground from which our culture arises. . I am sure that the creation of altered states of consciousness is a human potential that is important to the process of centering. . 7 8 Herbert Read. Another way of approaching pattern making. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. Schubert. Although we rarely admit to a mind-body separation on a philosophical level. It is clear that the guidance of much of the arrangement of physical facilities. The aesthetic principle. Imagining. . Education through Art (London: Faber and Faber. James T. and it would seem to me that far more attention should be paid to this phenomenon. dancing.CHAPTER 6 The Renaissance Blossoms 127 a “releasement toward things” and an “openness to the mystery. Dan Marshall. . Alan Watts8 has said. and thinking.Thus. as useful and necessary as they are. 308. Read called the guidance of human education by the aesthetic principle the natural form of education . Rather. . and making or crafting are important in a transcendent ideology. The body and our biology. . Physical education. on the contrary. . . and individual expression must come from what Herbert Read7 called the aesthetic principle. . Alan Watts. Our verbal culture and language culture and language forms. p. [which] should move from feeling to drama.To be at home in our bodies is critical for human centering. .” Thus.] coming to grips with our own biological being and all that it means. the individual could gradually grow toward cultural art forms guided by the aesthetic principle. Then. . imagining as a process in contrast to verbalizing. . Sears. interpersonal relations. have also become the dominant form of thinking and expressing ourselves. provides an internal referent for the external world. playing music. . that puts him in contact with the ground of his being. the activities of dramatization. is “the fundamental discipline of life” . by J. In My Own Way (New York: Pantheon Books. . rather than in the sense of a functional psychological mechanism. . . 1958). Thus. and thought to craft. through meditative thinking. sensation to visual and plastic design.. . play. Imagining. Thus. and William H. the emphasis upon cognitive-verbal learning not only separates us from our inner resources but it divorces us from our biological organism. and meditative thinking comes through the activity of . . [i. 1972). I refer to perception in the sense of William James’s many other worlds of consciousness that exist aside from our present one. . designing.

. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall.Teachers cannot be said to understand children simply because they possess a considerable amount of explicit knowledge about them.The task of both student and teacher is the development of their own centering ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. for being fully there in the presence and as a presence to the other. . to understand him is to be able to write a poem that captures his essence. perhaps. engaged in the art of living. .When we understand each other.128 PART IV (Re)Shaping the Contemporary Curriculum Field (1970–1983) Question Are there other processes that could facilitate centering? How might a “teacher in process” integrate each of these processes into his or her relationships with students and their mutual journey toward understanding? ? The Teacher in the Process The developmental ideology of Dewey. the relationships between students and teachers are mutually responsive to the aim of centering. we create a shared poem of our existence.That is. a Pearson Education Company.When we make a poem of the other in ourselves. The teacher in such a process is. Dan Marshall. . we do not trap either in categories and classes. Understanding is a deeper concept. and calculating. . Understanding provides the ground for relating.A transcendental ideology would shift the predominant rationality toward the aesthetic. therefore. . the predominant rationality of the teacher is still a technical process of planning. Science “adds up”.The explicitness of science is in contrast to the unity and expressiveness of poetry. Schubert. Implicit understanding is to poetry as explicit knowledge is to science. intuitive. for example. for what Huebner called a continuance of the joint pilgrimage. The key distinction between these two developmental ideologies is the fundamental difference between knowing and understanding. . . Piaget. . poetry integrates. It demands a sort of indwelling in the other. . The teacher from a transcendental point of view is also in process. and William H. manipulating. even though the intentions and relationships are. . . . . Sears. than those found in cultural transmission ideology. perceives the teacher to be a person who comes to know the students but who also makes judgments about the long-range implications of experiences on the development of the children. . . James T. explicit knowledge is its rational handmaiden. . . Understanding is the crystallization of our aesthetic knowing. by J.To know a child is to describe his characteristics. . . . . and others .Thus. and spontaneous in the mutual process of centering. . . more humane. This is the process of locating one’s center in relation to the other: to “see” one’s self and the other in relation to our centers of being. In a secular or psychological developmental ideology . the developmental aim of centering is as valid and important to the person of the teacher as it is to the child. a touching of the sources of the other. . .to touch and be touched by another in terms of something fundamental to our shared existence.

. and I got a lot of strength and energy from my academic work realizing that others were out there exploring these ideas and perceptions around women. Jack Holton. I was at Ohio State during an absolutely golden time. Berkeley. California 94702. a time to let go. . . a Pearson Education Company. Instead. The early 1970s were an important time. Leigh Charliotte.CHAPTER 6 The Renaissance Blossoms 129 through contact with culture and society. with fellow students like Craig Kridel. Schubert. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. James T. It is primarily a willingness to “let go” and to immerse oneself in the process of living with others in a creative and spontaneous manner. too. Copyright 1974 by McCutchan Publishing Corporation. Women’s lives and work have remained fundamental to Janet’s curriculum efforts since her days as a doctoral student. yet unable to turn back. These were the very beginnings of my exorcism. I was taking courses like philosophy. Janet Miller’s life seemed in synch with Macdonald’s ideas regarding “the art of living” through a process of “centering. Madeline and Maxine Greene. But I never had one course that focused on women in any way. It was just like it erupted in me—the intertwining ideas of what I was reading about. *From William Pinar: Heightened Consciousness. Sears. and film theory plus talking with Bill. Dan Marshall. Cultural Revolution. literature. and William H. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. women in education. finding myself totally and abruptly removed from any life I had ever known heretofore and being really scared yet totally excited about it. While there. and Curriculum Theory.” It was. and the culture we exist in as a medium for developing our own centering. Feminism by then had moved into the arena of literature studies. what was happening to me and what I was feeling really coincided. bringing as much of their whole selves as they can to bear upon the process. for the larger ongoing struggle to understand. others. for Janet. Letting Go of the Past In so many respects. I don’t know what the hell I’m doing. but I can’t go back. having faith in ourselves. Having no idea what any of it meant and no idea of what anything would mean in the future. women in society. I remember thinking well. I developed a better sense of curriculum studies because of all the courses I had with Paul Klohr. And of course. by J. as well. Permission granted by the publisher. Bob Bullough. I remember in 1974 listening and reading and thinking about things that had happened to me personally. . the curriculum conferences were happening then. and George Dixon. Because we studied with Klohr we had a background in history of curriculum.

But the burden of poverty was mostly shouldered by women and children. money. by J. and the poor. nothing seemed right. and educators slipped to record lows as money got tight. . the 1970s warranted few reasons for celebration. black economic gains paled in comparison with those of whites. Dan Marshall. 30 years later that figure had doubled. and change the gendered status quo—a struggle known then as the women’s movement. and the proportion of all nonwhite families headed by women increased in the 1970s from one in five to one in three (a proportion that would rise to two in five by 1980). Yet despite exuberant 1960s activism among women. Two-thirds of poor black families were absent a father. gender. the proportion of whites in these northern urban schools had declined significantly.“Big Bill” Tilden. and control lay at the heart of the controversy that engulfed the sport of tennis. he not only appeared in plays and films but also wrote tennis books and newspaper articles—all for a fee. with a disgraced American president. Although fewer than one in seven black children attended segregated schools in the South. Combining 100 of the top-grossing black-owned businesses would form only a midrange corporation on the Fortune 500. In 1940 only one-quarter of adult women held jobs. a Pearson Education Company. while during that same period the ratio of the female-to-male pay range actually declined from 63 to 57% with white women earning 54 cents on the Euro-male dollar. By 1974. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. Nationwide. trust and respect for physicians. Even among the rising middle and upper-middle class.” however. voter turnout for the congressional elections was the lowest since World War II—38%. As youngsters returned to school following their summer recess in 1970. TENNIS AT THE CROSSROADS Back in those “good old days. issues of race. When Carter assumed the presidency fewer than 1 in 10 whites lived below the poverty line compared with nearly one-quarter of Hispanics and one-third of blacks. though this burden was not shared by all. Sears. minorities. The percentage of nonvoters rose from 18% in 1964 to 42% in 1972. Voter apathy was also deepening and widening.Tilden— the first “bad boy” of tennis—pushed the issue of his amateur status like he did the game’s own etiquette.As the number-one-ranked player throughout the decade. by 1975. Schubert. and the “good old days” slipped away. The 1970s were a decade of economic recessions.The roaring 1920s produced the first tennis superstar. and William H. James T. two of every three African-American children went to a school with a student population that was 95% black. more than three-fourths attended such schools in northern cities. class.130 PART IV (Re)Shaping the Contemporary Curriculum Field (1970–1983) articulate. By 1980. year-end corporate profits for white-owned businesses had increased 25-fold over profits generated by black-owned enterprises. (continued) ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. lawyers.

By the late 1950s. and retain top players and large audiences. Pursuit of history proved to be another distinguishing characteristic of the curriculum field during this period. the Greenbrier Golf and Tennis Club violated this position by holding the first U.At an impasse. . by J. But as the game transformed from a leisure activity into a full-time sport. In 1937.” Blocking the tournament. Open tennis championships. of the curriculum field. a Pearson Education Company. the tennis professional had arrived while the use of club facilities for professional matches or mixed professional–amateur exhibitions (known as opens) remained forbidden by the USLTA. other countries— most noticeably Australia—joined in support. Pyle irrevocably changed tennis by forming the first professional tour.” like Tilden. James T. Revisioning Curriculum History Knowing the history of tennis allows us to appreciate the numerous struggles and forces that have helped to shape the game as we know it today. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. Originally viewed as a leisurely activity pursued by persons of status and wealth. of course. whose own history would come to a crossroads a few years later. sports entrepreneur C. saving face only in its refusal to end the amateur–professional distinction. Sears. Britain. When it became clear in 1968 that leading amateur players planned to participate at Wimbledon. easily enticed amateur greats such as Suzanne Lenglen and Vincent Edwards into their ranks. The 30-year debate between amateur and professional status reached a peak in the late 1960s when major tennis countries such as the United States. In 1926. Players who “turned pro. the loss of outstanding amateur talent had nearly devastated the ability of the USLTA to build. Tennis was at a crossroads. Dan Marshall. attract. and William H.England challenged the International Lawn Tennis Federation (ILTF) by declaring the 1968 Wimbledon Tournament an “open championship. Schubert. the federation.All amateur participants were subsequently suspended. the ILTF voted unanimously to hold open tournaments. and the entire sport. which feared the impact of such competition. and often inflated travel expenses). Tyack’s The One Best System ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. and France supported open tournaments only to find their will blocked through a United Nations–like structure composed of the smaller federation countries (led by tennis giant Australia). seriously jeopardizing the Davis Cup.S. It also handicapped American efforts to regain the Davis Cup and resulted in the rise of the “shamateur” (amateurs who received complimentary rackets. clothing. This mostly wealthy group of tennis players made the latter as unseemly as it was unnecessary.Accepting the inevitable. C. the ILTF committee suspended the British Lawn Tennis Association. The same can be said. money increased in importance.CHAPTER 6 The Renaissance Blossoms 131 TENNIS AT THE CROSSROADS (continued) Traveling the circuit of a half dozen or so championships as an amateur tennis player brought fame and social prominence but not money.

” Begun in 1973 with 45 members. Education and the Rise of the Corporate State (Spring.132 PART IV (Re)Shaping the Contemporary Curriculum Field (1970–1983) (1974) appeared as historians Herb Kliebard (1970) and Larry Cuban were busy exploring curriculum history for the National Institute of Education’s Curriculum Development Task Force. L. as exemplified in Class. Dan Marshall. W. The Great School Legend (Greer. 1976). Louise Tyler’s A Selected Guide to Curriculum Literature: An Annotated Bibliography (1970). The American curriculum field had discovered a growing interest in its history. During this decade we also begin to see collections of individuals’ work (e. p. 1980). 1995. In essence. Foshay. 1971).g. and William H.) at Teachers College to discuss the importance of historical study within the curriculum field. this SIG. And Dwayne Huebner continued his call for “a need to examine curriculum historically. 1976). Anderson & Macdonald. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. Davis. Ralph Tyler. Education and Social Control (Sharp & Green. . a Pearson Education Company. with the present situation very much linked to both the past and the future. In time. Violas. and Schools (M. Katz. Willis. Indeed. Yet in its earlier and smaller days. Schubert. and Schooling in Capitalist America (Bowles & Gintis. provided welcome spaces of encouragement for the historical study of curriculum work—despite Schwab’s criticism that a sure sign of a dying field was its retreat to the past. “revisionist” turn in educational history. Laurel Tanner gathered a group of people (including Wells Foshay. 1975). 1973). Davis Jr. 1975. Perspectives on Curriculum Development. B. was the sharp. 1985). pp. commissioned in 1975 (see Pinar et al. however. Bureaucracy. In 1977. 1974/1976). & Schubert. . Sears. L. 213). which had its first official meeting in Toronto in 1978. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir... the SIG grew to more than 300 members and changed its name to “Critical Issues in Curriculum” (see Short. Another small cadre welcoming this new emphasis on historical understanding was a newly formed special interest group (SIG) within the AERA called “The Creation and Utilization of Curriculum Knowledge. ASCD’s yearbook celebrating America’s bicentennial. L. . James T. along with the SSCH. . This small group eventually formed the Society for the Study of Curriculum History (SSCH). 1972). the SIG welcomed and promoted the exploration of new ways of thinking about curriculum. 1995. a view the majority of curricularists found eccentric at best” (Pinar et al. 1776–1976 (O. these “new histories” of American schooling raised troubling questions about the complicity of curriculum workers in helping to create and sustain problematic situations. by J. What seems to have awakened most interested curriculum workers. & Spring. and the reprinting of a 1948 book titled Bibliographical Essays on Curriculum and Instruction (Brickman. Roots of Crisis (Karier.. Arno Bellack. this group welcomed a young doctoral graduate named Schubert. whose early historical and bibliographic research later became the basis of Curriculum Books: The First Eighty Years (Schubert. 207–208). Gordon Mackenzie. Lawrence Cremin. 1975). 1972). and O.

Corey. in the teacher-as-researcher work explored by Foshay. a Pearson Education Company. Michael Connelly. Alice Miel. Taylor. And Ian Westbury and Neil Wilkof produced a collection of Schwab’s work in 1978 called Science. For example. 1995. sought an international focus as she and Louise Berman published In the Minds of Men: Educating the Young People of the World (1970. European political and cultural perspectives significantly impacted U. popularized by Britain’s Lawrence Stenhouse (1975). Curriculum. ASCD’s major upheavals during its 1969 and 1970 conferences (see Pinar et al. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. 209–210) had politicized a significant number of curriculum workers. they truly came of age in the 1970s thanks to international efforts.CHAPTER 6 The Renaissance Blossoms 133 The Hassles of History Making The early 1970s converged an interest in U. For example. too. Joseph Schwab’s work was pivotal in internationalizing curriculum study. This is a difficult and arbitrary focus that. Dan Marshall. both would promote the World Council for Curriculum and Instruction. As a whole. Numerous European authors found their educational ideas available within the United States via England’s Open University Press and the eminent publishing house of Routledge & Kegan Paul. Miel. edited by Philip H. And although curriculum-specific journals had their beginnings in the 1960s.. Later.S. who had studied with Schwab at the University of Chicago. U. Young’s Knowledge and Control: New Directions for the Sociology of Education (1971). For several years. D. And the Journal of Curriculum Studies. the radical caucus within ASCD and the AERA SIG worked to collectively personalize the lives and work of like-minded curriculum workers like never before. Yet despite the We remind the reader that ours is a story focused on American curriculum work. Michael Connelly (1992). Reid later published Thinking about the Curriculum: The Nature and Treatment of Curriculum Problems (1978). curriculum workers in the direction of theoretical inquiry at an important moment in our history. . Jean Clandinin and F. curriculum theorizing. At the same time. in 1975 Decker Walker (who studied with Eisner) published a book with Britain’s William Reid called Case Studies in Curriculum Change that connected curriculum deliberation with policy decision making. curriculum history with the intensification of seemingly offbeat ideas and constructs within the field as well as an influx of international scholarly work10 in a way that seriously disrupted the status quo of mainstream American curriculum work. 10 ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. pp. who was later joined by William Reid and Ian Westbury (who was also influenced by Schwab while at the University of Chicago). as our tale continues. many of these members (among them Steve Mann and Alex Molnar) functioned within what was called the radical caucus. came to prominence in England. becomes unnatural and difficult to maintain. During the 1970s.S. Sears. curriculum workers reciprocated. Schubert. and Liberal Education. for example.S. 1972). James T. and since refined and advanced by the work of Canadians D. This internationalization of curriculum studies can be seen throughout our field. for example. our international curriculum colleagues pushed U. One of the most influential publications in this respect was Michael F. including James Macdonald. see also Razik. which expanded Schwab’s notion of deliberation.S. by J. and William H. and others at Teachers College. At the same time. the largely informal publication known as “Curriculum Theory Network” became Curriculum Inquiry—an international journal under the leadership of F.

. . by J. And since promoters were now putting all the money they used to give us under the table into the prize-money pot . sometimes 5 to 1. . although . . . pp. . By 1978. business franchises. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall.At some tournaments . Dan Marshall.The disparity with prize money started right with that first open. and teachers” (Pinar et al.Tournament play surprised many.000. coinciding with greater involvement of girls in high school sports (the number of girls involved more than doubled between 1971 and 1973). . American Jimmy Connors collected $175. Inevitably. 1973 marked the year when Bill Pinar (at the University of Rochester) hosted the first in a contentious series of nonmainstream curriculum theory conferences. in different events. even recalcitrant Australia found attendance booming and public interest soaring. By 1969. . 208). (King. the 1973 Rochester gathering would become the first sanctioned event in the rebirth of curriculum studies. . and William H. however. Schubert. came from endorsements.134 PART IV (Re)Shaping the Contemporary Curriculum Field (1970–1983) organization’s long-standing “efforts to bring together professors of curriculum.The size of the purse was often dwarfed in comparison with income from commercial endorsements. James T. . . Sears. . In the United States the ratio was 4 to 1. Billie Jean King’s leadership was pivotal: Tennis was one of the few major spectator sports where men and women had traditionally competed together. FULL CIRCLE TRANSFORMATIONS For the game of tennis. we were worse off than we’d been in the good old shamateur days. it became pretty clear that it was a sport controlled by men who were unwilling to even think about giving women a fair shake. One-half of Billie Jean King’s 1972 income of $200. . . But the revitalized sport of tennis only grudgingly included a larger role for women (for whom the game was ostensibly invented). [women] didn’t get a cent unless we reached the quarter finals. . 100–101) (continued) ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. . p. Similar to the 1968 Wimbledon tournament in relation to tennis. Most important. With tennis reborn as an open sport. Here. school administrators. .As tennis staggered toward professionalism. . and tournament “guarantees” for big-name players even before they stepped onto the court. for example.000 for his Wimbledon victory—in sharp contrast to the Wimbledon umpires. ASCD would shrink in importance to curriculum scholars by the decade’s end. . who received a princely sum of $50 per match. 1995. . 1974. a Pearson Education Company. big money followed. school district curriculum supervisors. 1968 at Wimbledon marked the first sanctioned meeting between amateur and professional players. . .. as top-ranked amateurs such as Arthur Ashe often beat professional foes. prize money skyrocketed.

James T. Open for tennis. . and garnered headlines equal to those of Australian Rod Laver and American Arthur Ashe.S. curriculum’s “misfits” had begun their own small gatherings in 1973.As a leader and eventually president of the newly formed Association of Tennis Professionals. animated by public interest. .. Assisting the Blossoming of Contemporary Curriculum Studies Like Wimbledon and the U. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. had been transformed from an amateur sport among the well-heeled aristocracy to a professional career opportunity open to a more diverse collection of players.Ashe observed the loss of “cooperation and camaraderie” among players who scrambled for the pots of money now available and who viewed the “concept of values and standards . 1993. ASCD’s annual conference was the place for curriculum people. Sears. p. and William H. 66). [as] quaint and obsolete. p. annual performance gatherings play a key role in the life of every profession. by J. 1993. Until the 1970s. a Pearson Education Company. self-centered crowds.When open tennis arrived. By the end of the decade.Australia.CHAPTER 6 The Renaissance Blossoms 135 FULL CIRCLE TRANSFORMATIONS (continued) King ultimately formed the Women’s Tennis Association. television coverage.500 clubs in the United States. France.Tennis.There were more than 2. had an effect on curriculum work similar to that of the opening up of tennis: turmoil. the game had changed in other ways. . Schubert. And while that venue surrendered its importance by the decade’s end to the annual AERA meeting. and megacorporate sponsorships. like wooden racquets” (Ashe & Rampersad. and Britain) pursuing a “reactionary strategy . These meetings. Notably. Ashe’s 1970s activism also helped to change the game. held at different locations until 1979. [resisting] change in defense of privilege and a stuffy conception of the tradition” (Ashe & Rampersad. began a women’s sports magazine. Dan Marshall. . . impeding us at almost every turn .Ashe (like King) found the ILTF and the Big Four (the tennis governing bodies of America. and the number of tennis tournaments multiplied as well-equipped stadiums holding tens of thousands of paying spectators replaced stodgy country clubs with small. tennis has come full circle from a game for the rich to a game of the rich. Each has a different perspective on those particular events. battled and beat Bobby Riggs. Alex Molnar and Janet Miller each played a role in the revitalization of the curriculum field during this time and helped organize these curriculum theory conferences. as the following exchange suggests. . organized the Virginia Slims circuit in 1971. . 66). Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall.

Schubert. but I don’t remember very much about the 1975 curriculum conference. coming from where I had in my life and the way I got through school. he did buy me a plane ticket to the ASCD convention in St. . I knew that some people saw him as a kind of guru. they had a curriculum theory conference in Rochester. Janet: I was a master’s student at Rochester for the 1973 conference and a doctoral student at Ohio State the next year for the University of Cincinnati conference. I didn’t regard many of these folks as serious people. This is just an excuse for trotting out your own internal dialogue and calling it curriculum. When I looked at some of this stuff I said. I can remember being on the University of Virginia campus and sharing a room with Jim and all that. I remember I roomed with Jim. a Pearson Education Company. Afterwards. by J. Janet Miller recalls these earliest conferences in rather stark contrast to Alex’s perspective. I don’t want to make too much of this. I mean. 1975). Dan Marshall. I really got involved in the radical caucus at a time when it was becoming more of a presence in the organization. making myself absurd. “This is curriculum? Not in my book. Sears. I mean. in fact. Anyway. In May. I did attend the 1975 conference at the University of Virginia. but I don’t think he cared much for that. I never knew about the second one of these off-shoot conferences at Xavier University except for my work with Steve (see Mann & Molnar.136 PART IV (Re)Shaping the Contemporary Curriculum Field (1970–1983) Alex: Jim Macdonald never asked me to go to an AERA meeting. but it was more complete than this sort of intellectual fathering or mothering that goes on. A lot of the people associated with the radical caucus of ASCD felt very close to Jim and that’s how I got to know Steve Mann. However.” At the same time. particularly since I was very well informed about humanistic psychology. I was sort of dismissive of their work. though he was active. So I was having a great deal of difficulty reconciling my own membership in something called the academic community. though I can’t really remember why I was there. James T. I had a sort of arrogant idea about academics. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. I had some serious doubts about whether or not I was. Louis in 1971 or 1972. 1973. and William H. while the world was going to hell in a handbasket. During those first two curriculum conferences I ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Maybe it was just to spend some time with Jim? Ours was really a kind of father/son relationship. I tended to regard them as sort of privileged poodles yapping around about nothing terribly important and establishing academic careers which were in some existential sense not very important at all. I was having considerable difficulty respecting the academic community or regarding myself as an academic. I didn’t even know it took place until afterwards: Macdonald never told me. In fact.

and people were excited because they thought something important was really happening—though nobody could name it. By the end of the Virginia conference plans had already been made regarding who would organize the next one [it would be Alex Molnar]. At Rochester. Dan Marshall. Sears. by J. a phenomenological perspective in psychology—that’s Bernice Wolfson. I was always able to talk to Bill [Pinar] about it and that was incredibly instructive in terms of helping to situate each person’s perspective within a larger history. historical artifacts in the form of Ralph Tyler. JCT’s [Journal of Curriculum Theorizing] relationship to the field. Those were the key presenters. He continues: Alex: Many of the ways in which curriculum was being talked about at the 1975 Virginia conference seemed silly. When the conference moved to Virginia (1975). . There seemed to be a huge number of graduate students there from Rochester. a Pearson Education Company. But it took me a while to understand why it was all important. James T. I remember taking notebooks full of notes and then going home and thinking I have no idea what all of this means. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Ohio State. I don’t think anybody was naming it as such. helping to see connections. how this work differed from the mainstream field. other than I heard presentations by people who I had started to read. For Alex. I remember Chuck Beegle [the conference organizer] had a big party afterwards. and why it was important to provide a means for the type of work that was emerging. Jim Macdonald and several others. That entire Macdonald era was very influential to me. and William H. although I was also drawn to Dwayne Huebner and Jim Macdonald.CHAPTER 6 The Renaissance Blossoms 137 had no idea what was going on. though we had lots of sectionals. so I volunteered to organize a conference for the following year that in my view represented a somewhat more serious approach to the work of trying to think through what curriculum was and what was important about it. And I did just that. although the word reconceptualist had by then been used in a 1971 article by Jim Macdonald. a kind of hermeneutic analysis represented by Dwayne Huebner. The most predominant among them for me was Maxine. and other places. It was a political event within the field— that’s why I did it. Schubert. I remember giving a paper there and feeling for the first time like a part of something that was happening. none of what he’d seen at Virginia seemed of much importance. “Well okay. where I first heard Bateman and Klohr speak. So every year I began to feel a little more like I understood the conferences in relation to the curriculum field and then later. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. But. I sat down and said. what do I want to talk about here?” Then I just invited people: a different point of view with regards to the humanities represented by Elliot Eisner.

Schubert. At the conclusion of the (1976) Milwaukee conference I felt that I had accomplished what I set out to accomplish and figured that was it. and Curriculum Theory (1974). along with some experimental elements done within a context. indeed a sense of the fundamental interconnectedness of these theoretical interests. Cultural Revolution. I heard something about the journal.. Sears. . The basic division occurred between . by J. They didn’t seem important enough. . and autobiographical. JCT. 223) This division coincided with places of graduate study (University of Wisconsin–Madison and Teachers College versus Ohio State University and the University of Rochester. 1973. James T. followed by his 1975 collection titled Curriculum Theorizing: The Reconceptualists (1975). The 1973 founding conference thematically mapped the various projects of the reconceptualization as political. Thus. . 223). historical. [those interested in] macro-structural issues and [those] more interested in the individual. 1995. I was dismissive of it on a number of different levels. Pinar published Heightened Consciousness. p. but that was my last one. However. afterward. a Pearson Education Company. So while I certainly was aware of Bill Pinar’s work and this whole coterie of people associated with what was loosely called reconceptualism. 1995.138 PART IV (Re)Shaping the Contemporary Curriculum Field (1970–1983) Look. Published collections of the papers from these early conferences have become requisite historical readings in contemporary curriculum history. we can more readily see Alex Molnar’s frustration with the early conferences when we note that following Pinar’s (an Ohio State graduate) hosting of the inaugural 1973 conference was Tim Riordan’s (another Ohio State alum) 1974 event at Xavier University. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. . The 1975 gathering at ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. . my job was done. Dan Marshall. . I’m a combative kind of guy and I have my values. The 1976 conference would not be ahistorical and would have a solid set of ideas that you could sink your teeth into. (Pinar et al. I quit paying attention after Kent because the subsequent conferences weren’t interesting enough to me. and William H. While the Rochester conference conveyed a sense of the intersections of these projects. but stuff like that was sort of unextraordinary to me at the time because I was doing other things. p. Some of the major papers from Alex’s 1976 Milwaukee conference appeared as Curriculum Theory in 1977 (edited by Molnar and Zahorik and published by ASCD). subsequent conferences revealed antagonisms not evident in May. The following year (1977) I went to the curriculum conference at Kent State. After the initial conference in Rochester. respectively) in that the affiliation of each year’s conference organizer “reveals this institutional as well as thematic aspects of this division within the movement” (Pinar et al..

Concerned with the potentially disabling power struggles over conference location and ideological direction. Mike Apple and Elliot Eisner. though a University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee graduate himself. like the Milwaukee gathering. what we shared was the interest of knowing that no matter what particular vantage point you spoke from it was still important to get all of these contrary ideas out there and to try and do it in a collective way so that there would be some momentum. by J.) from 1979 through 1982. In terms of the journal and the conferences after 1978. seemed heavily populated by the “political” or “structural” contingent of contemporary curriculum thought. the whole idea was let’s just keep going and see what happens. All of us were against the major technical paradigm. Dan Marshall. JCT began publication that year with Janet Miller and Bill Pinar as editors. Schubert. Coincidentally. then to the Bergamo Conference Center outside of Dayton. another Ohio State graduate. Miller and Pinar—through the auspices of JCT—took over the sponsorship and organization of this increasingly popular event. And if people want to be there and want to participate. Little by little. And others refused to even be identified with the reconceptualist effort in curriculum studies: people like Maxine Greene. People like Jim Macdonald had been talking about differing viewpoints or differing ideologies and theoretical frames within which people were working. I don’t think that ever went away. so that these ideas just wouldn’t get eaten up either by each other or by the larger forces of the dominant paradigm. Although Jim Macdonald had tremendous influence on everybody. Sears. D. there was never any overt agreement amongst the various players from these differing ideologies. had deep ties to both Jim Macdonald (a Madison alum) and Steve Mann (another Madison graduate and Marxist scholar). James T. near Washington. new turf was identified and old turf refashioned by curriculum workers. Molnar. and William H. moving it to the Airlie House (in Virginia. and direction of this overall theorizing effort. A lot of it still became turf and ego wars among some of the main players. Ohio. Individuals and small groups that ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. The conference returned to Rochester in 1978 and was held at the Rochester Institute of Technology and organized by Ronald Padgham (an alum of the University of Rochester). there’s room there to do so. By this time. Janet offers her impressions of why events played out the way they did at the time: The tensions were very apparent in 1978. a Pearson Education Company. troublesome rifts had developed between numerous curriculum theorists over the nature. . The Kent State meeting in 1977 was organized by Richard Hawthorne (UW–Madison) and. suggesting that we seek some position of collective agreement. control. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. from 1983 through 1993. year after year.C.CHAPTER 6 The Renaissance Blossoms 139 the University of Virginia was put together by Charles Beegle.

pp. James T. Despite the various egotistical and ideological spats that splintered their collective strength. 230–238) present a detailed description of what transpired afterward. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall.” Following this prestigious major address. 231). Dan Marshall. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. “the situation for traditionalists became critical and intolerable” (p. Pinar was asked to represent them and their “reconceptualist movement” by delivering the very first ‘state-of-the-art’ address to the curriculum division of AERA in 1978. (1995.140 PART IV (Re)Shaping the Contemporary Curriculum Field (1970–1983) had grown to sizable collections of irreverent curricularists met yearly on their own and within the AERA SIG they populated and managed to publish collections of their work as they struggled to alter the parameters of what was “appropriate” curriculum scholarship. Whether ready to accept a collective label (“the reconceptualists”) or not. Sears. and William H. Pinar et al. they were fashioning the renaissance from within the field. Schubert. . a Pearson Education Company. the threat to the traditional field seemed to be contained. however. by J. We will pick up the story from the perspective of one of the actual participants in this significant. the dominant curriculum paradigm would be destroyed from within. open struggle for control of the field during the late 1970s and into the 1980s—Henry Giroux—in chapter 7. and Maxine Greene served as respondent. As they note: “As long as the movement to reconceive the field appeared marginalized in conferences attended mostly by those committed to the movement. In time. Suffice it to say that the many different inquiries and forms of work we take for granted within the contemporary curriculum field did not come about without some ugly wrangling. John McNeil was selected to represent the field’s mainstream.

Eisner. He is equally recognized for his work in the area of evaluation and qualitative inquiry. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. now in its third edition (1994). Sears. perspectives. who has never felt comfortable being recognized as a contributor to the reconceptualization of contemporary curriculum work. . With a doctorate in curriculum studies from the University of Chicago and a formal background in art. Schubert. James T. expressive objectives. became active in the field during the late 1960s. the renaissance of curriculum studies had come of age. In addition to the concept of null curriculum. aesthetic cognition. American curriculum workers exploring new ideas. enactment. Eisner’s conceptual work revolves around ideas of classroom experience. Eisner. and William H. Dan Marshall. he is perhaps best known for introducing into curriculum discourse his ideas of educational connoisseurship and criticism.C H A CHAPTER 7 From Chorus to Cacophony P T E R 141 7 From Chorus to Cacophony ▼ 141 William Pinar’s 1978 address to the curriculum studies division of AERA debuted a revisionist curriculum juggernaut. a Pearson Education Company. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. introduced aesthetic theorizing and aspects of functional curriculum making within a historical framework. and multiple forms of knowing. The Educational Imagination. some of his earliest work expressed a critical view of the potential of technology and behavioral objectives to minimize the expressive role of the teacher. First published in 1979. and paradigms were moving the Tyler rationale off center stage. Among the rogues’ gallery of curriculum “discontents” who bore credit for this coup was Elliot W. by J.

and William H. . Dan Marshall. this is precisely the argument made by secular and religious conservatives. . this nation has seen the emergence of individuals. . systematics that yield predictable forms of student behavior is the desired end in view. . according to Bereiter. . Eisner presents his understanding of the current (late 1970s) field of curriculum in three parts: present. For Glaser [1963]. Mager’s monograph on instructional objectives .What. . one can purchase them from the Instructional Objective Exchange that Popham has established in Los Angeles. even when they lose what might be educationally significant in the translation. they should not attempt to influence the values or visions that students hold. . succeeds in reducing educational aspirations into test items. according to Bereiter. .That. however. Eisner The position that Tyler advocated regarding curriculum planning is in many ways a far more liberal and far less mechanistic position than the views espoused by those who made their curriculum mark during the 1960s. What follows is his 1979 image of the future of curriculum studies. Popham [1969] follows this [technical] tradition. a Pearson Education Company. For each of these individuals. provide training. then. . the essential characteristic of curriculum and instruction is that it be a planned. . trained not in the curriculum field but rather in psychology. Perhaps the ultimate position that this line of thinking has led to is found in Bereiter’s [1972] argument that schools are misguided in their attempts to educate students. [focusing] on how one should form objectives—and if one cannot or does not want to create them. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. one of the central problems of teaching and curriculum planning is that of finding or creating the correct sequence of tasks for a student. and future. developing both curriculum materials and ideas about curriculum planning that have had considerable impact in the field of education. . past. . is for the family. Schubert. . sequential series of steps that leads to ends that are known in advance and that are realized with a minimum of pedagogical efficiency. is to . James T. again. From the 1960s to the present [1979]. by J. The problems with Bereiter’s views in this regard are abundantly clear. Sears.142 PART IV (Re)Shaping the Contemporary Curriculum Field (1970–1983) We begin this chapter with a substantive excerpt from The Educational Imagination: On the Design and Evaluation of School Programs. Where We Are Going* by Elliot W.The role of the schools. . In his opening chapter. Question A generation later. is the appeal of this view and its benefits for educators who embrace it? ? ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir.

. to engage in philosophic inquiry.To engage in other forms of inquiry. . but also within the methods that people believe appropriate for educational evaluation.“think pieces. then it appears reasonable to specify those behaviors and to set up the mechanism through which they can be measured. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. . this is not surprising. by J. . . In many schools they influence how curricula will be organized and how teaching will occur. . . What is measured then is emphasized in school programs because measurement becomes the procedure through which educational quality is determined. . .When this occurs. . I believe that these practices have had deleterious consequences for the curricula that are provided to children in American schools. Sears. But surprising or not.The desired image of the educational researcher is that of a scientist who as far as possible emulates his colleagues in the natural sciences. James T. Schubert. because counting or measuring .What happens is what Lewis Mumford [1934] described in the 1930s:The technology we design to expand our freedom and flexibility becomes our constraint. Because evaluation methods are largely the offspring of the educational research community as it is presently defined. the fields that are most amenable to measurement are measured and those that are difficult to measure are neglected. as they say. Dan Marshall. .When combined with a reward structure to care for problems of student motivation and a set of minimum standards to ensure the public of good-quality education.To do research has come to mean to do scientific inquiry. we have a complete system—at least in theory—for the management and control of school programs. . . The consequences of scientifically based approaches to educational evaluation extend beyond the issue of what subject matters should be emphasized. . Consider the influence these views have had on educational research. and to do such scientific inquiry in education has meant to do inquiry in which variables are identified. perhaps. provides the illusion of precision.CHAPTER 7 From Chorus to Cacophony 143 What is perhaps not so clear are the consequences that views such as these have not only for the field of curriculum. For the curriculum of the school this means that evaluation practices . . measured. . but for education and educational research in the United States. a Pearson Education Company. to do historical or critical analysis of existing educational or social problems. The consequences of the scientific view for education as a field and for curriculum as a part of that field emerge not only within the conception and conduct of educational research.” a phrase that is curiously pejorative. and William H. To pursue such activities is to write. One of these consequences is to reduce the term evaluation to measurement. . ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. . and analyzed statistically. influence to a very large degree the kinds of programs that will be offered to the young. If one conceives of the curriculum as a kind of assembly line that produces at predictable intervals a certain complex of behaviors. Educational practices based on a scientific model too often become not a tool for improving the quality of teaching and learning but rather an impediment to such ends.To count is somehow better. is not to do research. . .

Fifth. including curriculum development. to focus attention on highly discrete and highly defined tasks. Sears. Schubert. Finally. the consequences for curriculum of the interest in control measurement have been to break up complex tasks into small. . . Third. the dominance of a scientific epistemology in education has all but excluded any other view of the way in which inquiry in education can legitimately be pursued. built into the technology of test construction. one is struck by the sober. as a technology that uses knowledge provided by the social sciences as the primary basis for its management and control. under such assumptions. The result of such assumptions in educational practice is to regard the pupil as an essentially passive material to be molded by the impact of the treatment. and to assess after each task in order to determine whether the objectives of the tasks have been achieved. the following seem to me to be important. and complex to evaluate. . positivistic. . . . been preoccupied with control. and William H.The testing movement that has grown out of the field of educational psychology depends on assumptions that required a uniform set of test items and a uniform set of methods of test administration to measure educational achievement. almost microunits of behavior and in the process to render much of the curriculum meaningless to children. . All in all. the kind of science that has dominated educational research has . a Pearson Education Company. .144 PART IV (Re)Shaping the Contemporary Curriculum Field (1970–1983) What is truly sad is that those of us in the field of education . . . the best way to do it is to disallow the adventitious. . . Indeed.The offshoot of this view has been to regard educational practice. humorless quality of so much of the writing in the field of curriculum and in educational research. . In the field of curriculum this has found its apotheosis in the aspiration to create teacherproof curriculum materials. First. the major function of tests was to differentiate student from student on a common scale. . In teaching it has manifested itself in the belief in the diagnostic-prescriptive model. . In school evaluation it has showed up in an input-output model of productivity. . . . . . If one is primarily interested in control and measured outcome. Dan Marshall. a consequence of these assumptions has been the preoccupation with standardized outcomes. hard for educators to manage. James T. undermined any educational inclination to cultivate the student’s positive idiosyncrasies or to use forms of assessment that were different for different students. . . Second. until quite recently. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. . . . . when one looks back on the consequences the behavioristic. Such practices. . . . Seldom have the basic assumptions underlying such beliefs been subject to the kind of critical scrutiny they deserve. scientific tradition has had on education in general and the curriculum field in particular. . little or no role can be given to the pupil for participating in the creation of his or her educational program because the provision of such opportunities would make the system difficult to control. . . . by J. Fourth. .The aspiration is for an errorless program. . have so seldom tried to help the public understand the complexities of education as a process.The tacit image is that of an assembly line.The tendency toward what is believed to be scientific language has resulted in an emotionally eviscerISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir.

. courageous students of education are beginning to look elsewhere to find ways of dealing with the problems of practice. that use methods outside of as well as inside the social sciences to describe. and William H. James T. both in the 1930s and in the 1960s: namely. Steve Mann. Decker Walker. Mike Atkin. any sense of the poetic or the passionate must be excised. . . Evaluation methods should be instrumental to the ends we seek. . . Philip Jackson. Gene Glass. Now the significance of this discontent is the promise it provides for the development of new ways of conceptualizing educational problems. Sears. I believe we need theory that unapologetically recognizes the artistry of teaching and that is useful in helping teachers develop those arts. and Robert Stake are a few. as Dewey himself said. a Pearson Education Company. but that there is little that conventional forms of educational research have to offer educational practitioners. and myself. by J. even if we grant that there is something to apply.We need to avoid the pitfall that so many progressives fell into. that are not limited to one set of assumptions about how we come to know. for example. as so many of them do now. Ulf Lundgren in Sweden. Donald Campbell. and pursuing educational aims [emphasis added]. Now the reason for the paucity of scientifically based educational practice is not that teachers are ignorant or recalcitrant or unwilling to use what’s new and effective. Herbert Kleibard. teaching. There are others within the curriculum field itself who have long held this view: Mike Apple. and Hartmut von Hentig in Germany. scientific conclusions have to be artfully interpreted and applied to particular educational situations. . .What I think is beginning to occur is that more and more of the really bright. Jim Macdonald. In Europe people like Torstein Harbo in Norway. represent individuals whose views of curriculum.What I believe we need are approaches to the study of educational problems that give full range to the varieties of rationality of which humans are capable. the infatuation with vague rhetoric that has little intellectual rigor. and to evaluate what occurs in schools.The line of former educational scientists that are engaged in this search is growing longer. Instead. ways of talking about educational problems that are clear but not stilted. they should not. Joseph Schwab. Cool.CHAPTER 7 From Chorus to Cacophony 145 ated form of expression. Lee Cronbach. mechanistic language devoid of the playfulness and artistry that are so essential to teaching and learning. . Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. . to interpret. formulating educational questions. the aspiration is to be value neutral and technical. . dispassionate objectivity has resulted in sterile. Schubert. . and I believe the field of education has worn such blinders for too long.The model of ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. the tendency toward romantic obscurantism. I believe that we need evaluation methods that exploit the variety of expressive forms through which we understand and make public what we know. We need evaluation methods that give students the opportunity to use. . What we badly need are models that are heuristic and useful. Lou Smith. Lawrence Stenhouse and Barry Moore in England. artistic forms of expression as intellectually legitimate and that cease penalizing students whose aptitudes and interests motivate them to work in such areas. and evaluation are considerably more complex than can be encompassed by a simple means-ends model of educational practice.At the very minimum. impede the realization of such ends. . Dan Marshall. Orthodoxy often creates blinders to new possibilities.

. Dan Marshall. . Sears.146 PART IV (Re)Shaping the Contemporary Curriculum Field (1970–1983) the teacher as a scientist who first hypothesizes before he or she acts may fit some aspects of teaching but certainly does not fit all of teaching. . the legal adversary model of evidence. Art criticism. To deal with the newfound appreciation of experience will require methods that differ markedly from those of behavioristic psychology. . . . *Educational Imagination: On the Design & Evaluation of School Programs by Eisner. I believe we need to be willing to recognize the interaction between the character of the curriculum and the kind of teaching that occurs.Whether the salient model will turn out to be a literary form of ethnography. Attention only to what the school explicitly teaches or to what students do may be misinformative with respect to what they are learning and experiencing. . that will be useful for revealing the subtleties of its consequences for all to see. For too long we have operated as though decisions about school organization were one thing and decisions about curriculum were something else. ©1985. What I believe we are seeing is the emergence of new models. The precedent for such inquiry already exists and is found largely in the work of continental philosophers. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. All of us who work in schools. by J. Upper Saddle River. . James T. . . Schubert. whether elementary schools or universities. .As students of the hidden curriculum have told us. I believe the field has more than ample room for these three models and for scientific models.We need to try to understand these interactions if we seek intelligently to bring about significant change in schools. Inc. or the model of art criticism is not yet clear. . and William H. . new sets of assumptions that are finding increasing acceptance in the professional educational community. in particular. a Pearson Education Company. E. has much to offer to help us understand the arts of teaching and the qualities of the particular situations in which curriculum decisions must ultimately be made and applied. and the ways in which the school is organized and how the reward structure of the school is employed. .The fertile but unplowed field of art criticism is also available to us. I believe we need to develop methods that will help us understand the kinds of experience children have in school and not only the kind of behavior they display.new paradigms. Also promising is the tradition of ideographic inquiry and the analysis of the practical in education. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. . I believe its potential utility for the study of educational phenomena is quite promising.The behavioristic-positivistic tradition in American educational research tended to regard experience as unknowable and focused therefore on what children did. . Reprinted by permission of Prentice-Hall. . For what I believe the study of education needs is not a new orthodoxy but rather a variety of new assumptions and methods that will help us appreciate the richness of educational practice. students learn more than they are taught and teachers teach more than they know. as well. NJ.. . Finally. work and live within a culture. . This culture functions as an organic entity that seeks stability yet reacts to changes in one part from changes made in others. .

James T. President Carter’s “national malaise” speech of 1979 articulated our collective disquietude. Sears. and others questioned educators’ confidence in the old scientific paradigm of curriculum construction. Pinar. the scientific designation of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) propelling abstinence-based curricula and diminishing support for gay rights. the crossing of Pope John Paul II over the communist border or the refusal of 50 nations to journey to Moscow for the 22nd Winter Olympic Games. ambassador to Afghanistan. The early 1980s also brought a balkanization of peoples.000 on a black granite wall guarded by infantrymen. Carter presided over a nation under siege. from the takeover of the Iranian embassy with its 444-day-by-day countdown on nightly television to an assassination attempt on the chief of Allied Forces in Europe and the successful assassination of the U. and the dedication of the Vietnam War Memorial inscribing the names of 58. a recalcitrant Democratic Congress. Boundary disputes and the resurrection of old border controversies has characterized the last quarter of this century much as it did the first quarter: the emigration of 120. Decline in the confidence of conventional curriculum thinking and practice bottomed out in the late 1970s. Despite successes with the Camp David Accords and Salt II. Northern Ireland. Greene. Schubert. or the United States— ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. During the second half of his presidency. a Pearson Education Company. the neoconservative revolution was evident to all: the publication of A Nation at Risk decrying poor test scores equated to a declining share of the global market. the richness of educational practice and the subtleties of its consequences became more apparent. From the ashes of the 1970s slowly arose the Phoenix of political conservatism to dominate the remainder of the century.S. religious wars of intolerance in Lebanon. As Eisner. Dan Marshall.000 “undesirable” Cuban refugees or a flood of Mexican refugees over America’s 1.000-mile “unprotected” border. The conservative onslaught of the 1980s began in earnest in 1979 with the defeat of liberal Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau and the election in England of Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher.CHAPTER 7 From Chorus to Cacophony 147 Among growing numbers of his curriculum peers. by J. the Carter presidency was also under domestic siege by Ted Kennedy’s electoral challenge. effectively challenging progressive assumptions about the role of the state in social and economic progress as well as individual and collective rights and responsibilities. Eisner was about the work of creating new bases for a revitalized field of curriculum studies. as did the decline in our national confidence. . A year later Americans voiced a resounding “no” to his question “Are you better off now than you were four years ago?” and elected Ronald Reagan—whose campaign proclaimed “It’s morning in America!” By 1983. disputes between Iran and Iraq or the United Kingdom and Argentina. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. and a significant tilt toward the political right. and William H.

T. This was the case with Henry A. Giroux. dink) and variegated consumers in the marketplace (e. the 1970s legacy of political cynicism and corporate weariness was no match for the feel-good era of the 1980s American family led by Ronald and Nancy Reagan. thirty-something. It was a very difficult transition for me. most educators come from working. and I found myself moving to a public school in that neighborhood during the 7th grade. beamer. My parents never owned a house. The language of the early 1980s (e. Recognized as one of the current field’s earliest spokespeople to develop a contemporary critical or political perspective. We ended up living on the third floor of a three family house in a new neighborhood. These were trying times for the working and middle classes. yuppie. particularly since the neighborhood was a very tough place. who currently holds the Waterbury Chair in Secondary Education at Pennsylvania State University. and William H. the proportion of mothers with children five years of age or younger working full.and middle-class families. and Pat Robertson declared “cultural war” on American others. Divisions also became more evident along economic borders. Bean versus JC Penney) marked the economic disparities arising within a generation.. In American popular culture. Missing and E. The shrillness of leftist critique and liberal angst fell against ears deafened by the conservative sirens of optimism and nostalgia. the proportion of heads of households between the ages of 18 and 24 who owned their home dropped by one-third. James T. That’s when I got involved playing basketball as a way to negotiate the neighborhood and to in some way establish my own identity outside of the traditional options of either gang violence or doing dope. Sears. Historically. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall.g. James Dobson. . 1995.. for example. Sharper Image versus Radio Shack and L. a Pearson Education Company. 1 Personal communication.148 PART IV (Re)Shaping the Contemporary Curriculum Field (1970–1983) where Jerry Falwell. During a span of 20 years. Schubert.or part-time doubled to 47%. Meanwhile.L. Richard Vigerie. I went to Catholic schools for about seven years before my neighborhood was taken over under the right of Public Domain and the entire community was dispersed.g. Rhode Island. I came from a small family: just myself. by J. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. he spent a number of years negotiating economic and intellectual borders to arrive at that curricular position. Dan Marshall. and the percentage of pretax income needed for mortgage payments on a median-priced home doubled. visible in contrasting movies and plays of this time: Norma Rae and Coal Miner’s Daughter. the median American family income dropped 10% and unemployment rose to its highest level since 1941. In his words:1 I grew up in a working class neighborhood in Providence. my sister and my parents. 22 March.

he dropped out “before the basketball season even started in 1961. . Gorham State [now the University of Southern Maine] was a liberal arts normal school mostly educating teachers. This was in 1966. they gave me a scholarship. he again began college. but I knew he was involved in the anti-war movement. but I immediately went on to get a master’s in history at Appalachian State. and William H. he was raising questions that were extraordinary to me. I was very lucky to grow up in that decade because it had a profound effect upon my politics. Schubert. Being at Appalachian State was a profoundly moving experience for me. The anti-war movement in this country was really quite strong then. I had no sense that questions could come from a place like that. a Pearson Education Company. and we were imbued with taking up a social field that smacked of giving something to others. I became a Teaching Assistant for a guy who was very political. Giroux’s political understanding of curriculum would later flourish against the backdrop of conservatism and nationalism. James T. Teaching was seen as a vocation. I began as a biology major [but eventually] switched and became a history major. I had heard that there were chapters all over the country and that a Gorham professor—a history professor—who was in SDS was going to Appalachian State. remembers little about his academic experiences beyond “a sense of being trapped” as a workingclass kid at the lower end of a tracking system designed to maintain social distinctions. He continues: I got a scholarship to a place I didn’t know anything about. Well. Berman. I didn’t know him personally. There was a real deep sense of the ethical relevance of your job. His basketball playing earned him a college scholarship. who attended Hope High School. Actually. it was really about what kind of contribution you could make to public life. actually. During my junior year my interest in secondary education really peaked. and though he was the first in his family to go to college. So I applied there. and I went. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. I mean. That year proved to be a political education of the absolute first order. Macdonald. Dan Marshall. Careerism wasn’t the primary motivation. I graduated from Gorham State in 1967 certified as a high school teacher. I mean. by J.CHAPTER 7 From Chorus to Cacophony 149 Henry. I thought teaching sounded like a good profession.” After working for two years. and the like seemed most apparent and relevant to a ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. working with kids is something I can live with. this guy was raising questions that I simply had no answers to. It was during this era that the “unusual” curriculum work begun earlier by Huebner. and that was really my first introduction to a kind of discourse which I had to grapple with. and I had gotten caught up with a group known as Democratic Socialist Organizing Committee (DSOC) and had been involved in some SDS work prior to that. Sears.

1980. Glatthorn. Doll.g. Two of the more unusual curriculum texts of this period premiered in 1983: Okazu’s The Encyclopedia of Curriculum.. James T..g. The nature of this work ranged from broad Canadian overviews of curriculum (Werner. as did curriculum books devoted to notions such as change. Shepherd & Ragan.g.150 PART IV (Re)Shaping the Contemporary Curriculum Field (1970–1983) new generation of curriculum thinkers. 1982) editions. a Pearson Education Company.. 1982. . 1995). Moreover. management. and William H. 1983) would appear. conventional texts on curriculum planning. Okazu’s encyclopedia was one of numerous international curriculum publications pouring into the United States between 1979 and 1983. and sixth (e.. Yet change was in the making: shortly after the popular Models of Teaching (Joyce & Weil. published by the author. English. (Schubert. Oliva. fourth (e. shifting the nature and focus of that discussion. In fact. 1980. third (e. models. 1997) as the press for developing curriculum policy and shaping curriculum change in schools rolled on during an era of convention. pp.g. evident in the most significant contributions of 1979: Eisner’s The Educational Imagination (third edition. Sears. . Alexander. C. Saylor. numerous long-standing. 1995). Trump & Miller. fifth (e. 1980. Hass. To this end three categories of literature emerged that: (1) discussed curriculum implications of the changing and pluralistic culture. and (3) exposed and analyzed influences of political and ideological factors on curriculum thought and practice. Curriculum “readers” remained popular. and Apple’s Ideology and Curriculum.. 1996). 1980.g. 1981). 1987. 1980. Goodlad’s Curriculum Inquiry: The Study of Curriculum Practice. Teacher Thinking: A Study of Practical Knowledge (Elbaz. for example. 1996) married expert knowledge with the presentation of curriculum content. by J. Tanner & Tanner. standard synoptic texts enjoyed their second (e. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. To nobody’s surprise. 1982. and theory continued to be good sellers (e. 262–263) These were the years when the various traditions in curriculum studies were joined by and sometimes combined with new disciplines to produce the numerous discourses and texts that have become part of contemporary curriculum work (see Pinar et al. 1979).. (2) continued the trend of foundational studies in education by embracing curricular dimensions of them. R. 1994). published in Japan. Multidimensional and eclectic are apt descriptors for the curriculum books published between 1979 and 1983. [and] a broader base of knowledge derived from several disciplines and from practical settings. . development. and William van Til’s My Way of Looking at It: An Autobiography.g. Dan Marshall. Schubert. however. and systems. by 1979 the political tradition introduced during the field’s early years had become elemental: The notion was clear that defensible conceptions of curriculum needed to grow from a complex context . 1979) to Scottish media resources (Gillespie. 1983.. & Lewis. 1980) and from ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. too.

Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. O’Shea. educational computing was the topic in schools during the early 1980s. . too. Hicks & Townley. As our understanding of curriculum work expanded internationally. Ruxanoff. 1980) to curriculum projects in Northern Ireland’s postprimary schools (Sutherland. Sears. For example. 1979).CHAPTER 7 From Chorus to Cacophony 151 British attention to school ideology (Barton. Computers. and William H. Early childhood education as a new service sector in curriculum was under way in earnest. by J. 1982). including special. 1983. gifted. competed for school space. Hinson & Hughes. TV fused with music as major recording labels merged with multinational conglomerates and produced megastars: Prince. O’Neil. James T. between education. who challenged sexual taboos in Like a Virgin. Seidel. and the outrageous campiness of Boy George. 1983. 1979. Anderson.g. Kepner. Similar images found popularity in movies and plays such as Tootsie. Grady & Gawronski. Radabaugh & Yukish. Once public education was defined as the least restrictive environment for students with special needs. and La Cage aux Folles. & Hunter. Victor/Victoria. 1980. and multicultural education.g. Following publication of the wildly popular book Mindstorms: Children. Berman & Miel. and business began to erode. with his sexually explicit lyrics. Dan Marshall. younger and younger children found their way into the care of others as public schools slowly expanded to include regular kindergarten and even preschool options. During the early 1980s. who coupled romantic lyrics with libidinous dancing. The challenging economic conditions of the late 1970s and early 1980s forced more women into the workforce and more families to produce a second income. Simonson. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir.. the number of texts on the curricular and instructional aspects of cyberspace exploded (e. and Powerful Ideas. the special education field grew at a blistering pace in its attempt to situate but not decontextualize its knowledge and economic base. 1982). The boundaries. 1981). consumerism. 1980. 1981.. 1981. Curriculum texts published between 1979 and 1983 spoke directly to the issue of special needs students in the United States (e. bisexual and androgynous pop music images proliferated during the pre-AIDS 1980s. As Big Blue and an upstart garage-born company. Best-selling business books such as In Search of Excellence became educational texts. 1982. This confluence of demands for a workforce to compete in a global economy and the progressive impulse for global education also prompted other conventional curricularists to ponder and speculate (Haas. & McCartney. Schubert. & Walker. Federal legislation played a significant role in commodifying other new space for curriculum work. 1982. 1983). Shane & Tabler. economics. and computerization were joined. popular culture. a Pearson Education Company. so did our awareness of education and schooling as a global (or perhaps multinational) enterprise (Becker. Madonna. Apple. Michael Jackson. entertainment. Meighan. Here capitalism. and politics blurred.

With the successes of the Soviet space program and the well-publicized missile launch failures of the United States. the deployment of cruise missiles in Europe and the development of strategic defense capability in the laboratories. Schubert.” In Reagan’s America. James T. where the stars and stripes fluttered in the breeze of multinational entrepreneurialism. Sears. Television was no longer bounded by the three major networks.S. Beneath the veneer of a monolithic NASA and our nation’s space policy lay competing factions and interests whose goals and motivations varied as much as galactic configurations. a reflection of the post–Korean War era. the efforts of NASA again seemed awesome.152 PART IV (Re)Shaping the Contemporary Curriculum Field (1970–1983) USA Today became the country’s first stylistically entertaining newspaper. From mythic films such as Blade Runner and Star Trek to the fact-based fiction of James Michener’s Space or Ron Howard’s astronaut film The Right Stuff. Reagan’s Pax Americana mixed easily with topgrossing movies such as The Empire Strikes Back and Raiders of the Lost Ark and popular televisions shows such as Morton Downey and Family Ties. in part. and Channel One became the first nationwide television station to beam news and ads directly into classrooms. rugged individualism. it was morning in America. Dan Marshall. the first reusable space shuttle. computers were no longer restricted to corporations. a Pearson Education Company. and the victorious U. technological backwardness and international humiliation gripped the American psyche. His was an inspiring goal and a calculated strategy. On the rebound. political. the history of America’s exploration of space is rooted as much in myth as in reality.These early aerospace failures were. Gagarin and Glenn. space shuttle Columbia. .000 jobs throughout the military– (continued) ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir.The Eisenhower distrust of the military–industrial complex translated into fewer military expenditures and a three-year loss of 143. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. the successful maiden flight of the U. and nascent nationalism: the invasion of Grenada and the blockade of Nicaragua. educational. Apollo 11 and Apollo 16. and the orbiting space station. Columbia and Challenger.S. and William H. space—the new Western Frontier of guns and greed—once again captured public attention. A bullish stock market. by J. military. to the fiction-turnedfact developments of the Hubble Telescope. and scientific interests. and the creation of “life” was no longer the exclusive domain of nature. THE FALL OF NASA The names are familiar: Sputnik and Explorer I. Fact merged with fiction in the 1980s. Like these icons of space exploration. hockey team all shed light in the dawn of the “city on the hill. President Kennedy’s 1961 decision to announce a human lunar landing by the end of that decade brought together corporate.

General Electric. The new Kennedy administration appeared equally lackluster about new military projects. Just as the huge influx of military bases had found root in southern soil a generation or two earlier. and Grumman. Within Kennedy’s calculation. Kennedy understood the political power of massive federal outlays in space facilities.1 billion at the height of the Great Society in 1965. Sears. McDonnel Aircraft. Federal support for university scientific and research endeavors increased from $170 million at the midpoint of the Eisenhower era to $1. major institutions of higher education reaped huge windfalls through direct and indirect research grants. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. . most applications directly benefited industry and the military. Boeing. $146 billion had been spent for research and development. with another $46 billion in direct expenditures—nearly 20% of which landed in a handful of pivotal southern states. and Houston’s Land Operations Center. These groups represented different constituencies with different philosophies and histories. Though the technology transfer brought about some consumer goods. Billions of corporate-directed dollars found their way to a handful of businesses. by J. was the importance of the South for the 1964 presidential election and the critical role of key Dixie senators for prospective domestic legislation. NASA was less of a single organization than a series of interlocking corporations. New Orleans’s Michoud’s Assembly Facility. Kennedy’s program would wrench military control from space endeavors and subordinate the military’s view that “space is a place. James T. ranging from freeze-dried food and thermal underwear to cordless razors and nonstick cookware.The three research centers (continued) ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Seeking to corral Texas and Florida. so this era brought another wave of federal largesse: Huntsville’s Marshall Space Flight Center. new facilities and equipment. By the end of the decade. more than 400 institutions. Schubert.CHAPTER 7 From Chorus to Cacophony 153 THE FALL OF NASA (continued) industrial manufacturing sector. a Pearson Education Company. and computer technology exploded exponentially. Kennedy sought to jump-start America’s space program not only to elevate its image at home and abroad but also to strengthen civilian control over the military and shore up several constituent groups. had received NASA funding. and William H. including elements of the old National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics (NACA). not a mission” to NASA’s orientation of exploration and experimentation. Dan Marshall. The economic and political benefits of outsourcing contracts for the new space programs were significant. and subsidized graduate student and faculty support. Fueled by the 1960s faith in science and technology coupled with a systems management approach. As the number of scholars with expertise in science. too. By 1979. engineering. Cape Canaveral’s Manned Space Center. located in every state and two territories. In its early years. including North American Aviation.

this concert of interests was already unraveling. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. capitalism. launching. antiwar activists skeptical about the militarization of space. long-term strategic policies. a public at large increasingly disillusioned by the failure of technology and science to create a new society. resulted in a bloated federal budget (the federal expenditures of one year amounted to more than the entire decade of the lunar project) while the military–industrial–educational infrastructure facilitated the war effort and radicalized a generation of curriculum workers. by J. Schubert. NASA itself was divided regarding the priority of these missions. Yet by the time Neil Armstrong fulfilled Kennedy’s mandate.154 PART IV (Re)Shaping the Contemporary Curriculum Field (1970–1983) THE FALL OF NASA (continued) located at Lewis.The Vietnam conflict. all of these high-profile projects failed to gain support. Ames. and Langley—given their experimental aircraft history—emphasized repeated testing coupled with extensive research. though ultimately. which escalated under Johnson. . and controlling satellites. and William H. business. and a military–industrial complex already overcommitted to Vietnam resources. though allowing for contracting of system hardware and software. James T. As the 1970s approached. and the military—not unlike the newly emerging field of curriculum studies. a Pearson Education Company. It was time for NASA to transform itself. Even before the July 1969 lunar landing. Set adrift in the political arena. NASA’s post-Apollo prospects quickly ran up against a conflation of liberal congressional opponents more concerned with meeting earthly social goals. Sears. From the Army Ballistic Missile Agency. with lesser projects including an orbiting space station and reusable shuttle craft. and militarism. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. was the product of a variety of different interests represented by groups that at times had different goals and strategies though they shared a commitment to science. highlighting their own technical capability. focused on in-house building. The space program. and consistent and adequate funding. the Nixon administration considered alternative NASA missions in a post-Apollo space program.The era when NASA largely controlled space operations and influenced space policy while receiving a near carte blanche for expenditures was at an end. From the Air Force Ballistic Missile Program came a centralized management culture along with a greater emphasis on ground tests and overall system testing. the space program unraveled because it lacked a coherent mission. which. It was only due to NASA’s high-profile image and performance record that its administrators were able to rise above these more parochial interests. German rocketeers worked in Huntsville and Michoud. then.The most ambitious was a human landing on Mars by 1980 (at a projected cost of $100 billion). Dan Marshall. NASA’s budget was already shrinking and its workforce diminishing. unified in its opposition to positivism.

I was totally independent of the school’s curriculum resources. I often taught my own courses. Dan Marshall. And it really provided an academic opportunity for people like myself because in effect. while NASA transformed itself and presidential politics entered contemporary infamy. where I taught from 1969 to 1975. one of which was a feminist critique of Henry Miller. I remember coming home one day—I was teaching a course on feminism that year—and turning on the radio and hearing this right-wing guy saying. put them in the library on reserve. Remember. I taught a course on feminism. by J. ready to go into teaching. I got my own films. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. Plus. I taught in a high school with three or four others who were political as well. Sears.CHAPTER 7 From Chorus to Cacophony 155 Freedom and Beyond During the Nixon years. it opened the way for interdisciplinary teaching in the high school.” and another guy who eventually became the music reviewer for “The Boston Globe. I left Appalachian State a highly politicized guy in 1968. “Well. Rhode Island. The protesters objected to all of the language being used to identify Miller’s sexist ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. this was when social studies was emerging in high schools as an effort to balance the typical focus on history alone. Henry Giroux was transformed by the politics of teaching and curriculum. Henry Giroux. not me. . My education around pedagogy. is teaching at Barrington High School. James T.” Of course. and William H.” We all hung out together and talked about our teaching. and my kids read those books. a Pearson Education Company. cultural studies. But those years also produced some real squabbles. That was a very political period in my life because I was heavily involved in reading and study groups. you’ll be pleased to know that the author of Sisterhood is Powerful. a course on alienation. I remember teaching Wilhelm Reich to the high school kids. articulating one of a burgeoning number of competing interests that reflected different priorities and nuanced philosophies. I went to Baltimore and taught for a year before ending up in Barrington. Schubert. so questions of pedagogy were constantly creeping into our discussions all the time—less around pedagogical practices than content. I bought my own books. immediately the right-wing organized and attacked the books in my class. including a guy who eventually became a writer for “The Providence Journal. We were really focused on what to give these kids. Robin Morgan was the author. Soon he would join in the transformation of the curriculum field. Well. and politics all took place during my years as a high school teacher because the period from ‘68 to ‘73 was an immensely political time in this country. and renting films from the American Friends Committee.

” This was also the period during which he sought a way to talk about the elements of his teaching that he disliked. Suddenly. among those in attendance. And from that struggle I learned that the real issue is to make appeals for the possibility for students being the best that they can be. absent today’s “heavy-handed curriculum mandates. . I argued that without being able to enlarge different theoretical discourses. which means that they sometimes have to cross borders that are uncomfortable for them.156 PART IV (Re)Shaping the Contemporary Curriculum Field (1970–1983) language. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. or citizenship for that matter. sweet man who was willing to suspend his own fascination with people who supported his views. My argument wasn’t against censorship. Ted Fenton was a very open guy. and William H. He recruited me to Carnegie-Mellon to do a doctorate. He recalls reading Pedagogy of the Oppressed (Freire. this widespread interest developed naturally from the heavily funded national curriculum projects of the 1960s. curriculum evaluation remained popular throughout the late 1970s and early 1980s. Dan Marshall. That was a deep and profoundly political moment for me because it transformed the nature of my own discourse about how to talk about issues. The degree of curricular freedom enjoyed by Giroux and other teachers in the late 1960s and early 1970s evaporated with the press for curriculum evaluation. And that’s a very different kind of argument. I was lucid enough to convince the liberals in the audience that the real issue to consider was critical thinking. including Miller’s language itself. and ended up asking Fenton a lot of political questions. A topic of interest not only in policy and practical situations but also in concept and theory. I learned to focus on the relationship between issues and how they structured or affected people who took them up. Fortunately. Henry remembers these as “open space” times for teachers. students would be provincial and unprepared for college. Schubert. James T. He recognized that my oppositional positions articulated something that he could accept as important and so. 1970) one night and realizing the following morning that it had changed his life. Sears. What happened was. a very wonderful. given by Edwin Fenton. I attended an inservice seminar on Kohlberg’s stages of moral development. But I won the battle. all of my books were taken off the library reserve shelf and I had to appear at a public meeting with 300 people to defend the books. it was for pedagogical practices that promoted critical agency. a Pearson Education Company. Rather than focus on the issue as inherently wonderful in itself. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. I won the argument. he singled me out. He describes what happened afterward: The following year I left high school teaching and headed to Carnegie-Mellon. by J. As we discussed earlier.

” which he characterized as “decidedly left of center. (For a detailed account of Jackson’s points and the follow-up reactions to them.. pp. whose curriculum work continues to influence the field. by J.. Curriculum Studies) invitation to present its second state-of-the-field address in 1979. Briefly. while obviously new with respect to his aesthetic perspective. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. suggested that teachers could be their own curriculum evaluators. Jackson discussed two particular shifts: one “toward a wide assortment of intellectual traditions. Jackson titled his thoughts “Curriculum and Its Discontents” (1980). Henry Levin. E. efforts were under way to complicate the landscape of perceiving and judging curricular efforts. Young and David Hamilton of Britain. and John Goodlad. McCormick & James. a Pearson Education Company. for a sense of the passionate. 1981. p. 233–236. Frank Chase. highly sophisticated and critical paths toward making pragmatic decisions related to practice) as were Eisner’s teachers at Chicago. Schubert. Boruch. for a sense of the practical. Eisner dedicated this book to five of those “teachers who made a difference”: Phil Jackson. 1995. Responding to Pinar’s 1978 address and borrowing the sentiment expressed by Eisner in our opening excerpt. James T. Davis (1980). 233). and William H. and Guba and Lincoln (1981) began their work in naturalistic forms of evaluation at the same time that Stephen J. Dan Marshall. Ben Bloom. 1983) in their efforts to explore this highly sophisticated terrain. for a sense of the classical. see Pinar et al. for example. Sears. with some discontents moving closer to and another group moving further from practitioners (Pinar et al. and Elliot Eisner (his former student) of the United States as among the “discontents” who were shifting the nature of curriculum work. Gould published The Mismeasure of Man (1981) in an attempt to confound our ways of thinking about what we “know.g. With calculated humor. however. accepted AERA’s (Division B. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. Cronbach et al. Wortman.) Jackson’s 1979 AERA presentation succeeded in fanning the maelstrom prompted by Pinar’s 1978 address.. 1995. & Cordray. for a sense of the compassionate. were as eclectic in their purpose (i. pushing lots of people’s “hot buttons” with his thoughts—including Henry Giroux’s. Ulf Lundgren of Sweden. was Eisner’s The Educational Imagination. and William Pinar.e. Jackson pondered the changing nature and purpose of the curriculum field and expressed caution with regard to the presence and efforts of these discontents. for a sense of the rational.CHAPTER 7 From Chorus to Cacophony 157 While veterans in the field such as Cronbach (1982.. D.” and the other a shift in direction between academics and practitioners. Jackson recognized Michael F.” The book that caught the widest attention with respect to curriculum evaluation. . Discontent and Divergence in the Field Philip Jackson. Joe Schwab. Joseph Schwab.. The ideas he presented. 1980) and Stufflebeam and Webster (1980) were joined by others (e.

and others in which curriculum theory was being highly politicized from at least three or four different perspectives. Besides Fenton. Yet. Well. a lot of people read that term as an attempt by Bill to in some way establish a kind of incestuous theoretical political community. and I was utterly terrified. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. There were too many diverse people who took up the term to have it be one of membership in an exclusive club. he sensed the excitement of “fighting real dinosaurs” while shaping a new curriculum discourse. So my interest in the curriculum field began to emerge right then in 1975. I defined myself as a curriculum theorist then. a Pearson Education Company. Tony and I were very interested in the notion of hidden curriculum. I mean. But I went up and I bumbled my way through a response. by J. Ron Brandt. James T. Jackson got up and made a joke of it. Schubert.158 PART IV (Re)Shaping the Contemporary Curriculum Field (1970–1983) Carnegie-Mellon had a very active social studies curriculum development agenda when I arrived there in 1975. . . “Why don’t you write a piece on this?” So I did.” I was terrified. I began working with Tony Penna. there was a lot of work emerging from Bill Pinar. I saw that term as a verb more than I did a noun. at Carnegie-Mellon. who really began to introduce me to critical curriculum theory in a very profound way. and I turned to Roger and said. As for that period being identified as a time for reconceptualizing curriculum. “Somebody has got to respond to this.” So I got up to respond and they said. Sears. Having completed his doctorate and taken a position at Boston University two years earlier. from a political perspective. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Henry found a “forum for communities of like-minded people” in the annual AERA conferences. but I was interested. and William H. I was a young assistant professor . in broader issues of curriculum theory and practice. This is absolutely outrageous that they’re doing this. even though there were a lot of laments about whether or not the field was dead at that time. I was sitting with Bill Pinar and Roger Simon. came up to me and said. I also explored social studies as a critical practice because Ted was doing that kind of work. . and Madeleine Grumet. Connecting with curriculum people as diverse as Roger Simon. As he tells it: I went to a session at AERA in 1979 where Phil Jackson and a number of others were supposed to be talking about the reconceptualist movement. David Purpel. Dan Marshall. Afterward. his 1979 attendance at AERA proved historic. At the same time. I mean. it never occurred to me that Bill Pinar was attempting to define a school of thought by using that term. “Come up to the microphone. I never read it that way. Michael Apple. Jean Anyon. the Editor of ASCD’s Educational Leadership.

Dan Marshall. Actually. by J. By 1981. however. the Soviets successfully launched their Salyut 6 space station in 1977. top administrators grew less able to insulate NASA from outside political and economic forces. WEATHERING THE COMING STORMS ike the newly emerging divergent curriculum field that Pinar proclaimed in 1978 and Giroux defended in 1979. administrative employees increased in number and were twice as likely as engineers or scientists to receive promotions. NASA was considered a high-performance governmental organization. public opinion of the program’s importance continued to decline. terribly misrepresenting. .With the space program’s tasks largely reduced to launching weather and communication satellites. except to maybe open up a few eyes and allow people to realize that there are alternative discourses around that they could appropriate. As NASA reduced its overall workforce.CHAPTER 7 From Chorus to Cacophony 159 “Toward a New Sociology of Curriculum” was a sort of official response to what I thought was a very distorted. housing cosmonauts in space for nearly a year at a time. the event got me labeled as a radical Marxist writing about curriculum. But that piece cost me a significant number of contacts in my career. Reductions in force began in 1972 and extended through 1975. however. I had to live with the legacy of that speech and article for quite some time afterwards. such as James Fletcher. and William H. James T. devastating NASA’s high-performance culture. a Pearson Education Company. (continued) L ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. As the U. assumed a more practical approach to space leadership. NASA was spending at one-quarter of the level it had eight years earlier and the number of contractors working with NASA had dropped by two-thirds. Schubert.S. NASA had also undergone a metamorphosis.With declining budgets and dwindling political payoffs. By 1975. highly prejudicial. Sears. space program struggled to survive congressional underfunding. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. I had no indication that it would have any inf luence whatsoever. an even larger Soviet modular space station. was operational. Salyut 7. and utterly unfair attempt by mainstream “liberal” curricularists to come to grips with some of the discourses that Pinar and others were developing. and a new generation of managers. A number of unusual things happened and I really became blackballed. public disinterest.The James Webbs and Wernher von Brauns were gone. At its outset. with its leaders overcoming or circumventing bureaucratic impediments toward their mission. I never really saw it as more than an introductory piece that I hoped people would read. and loss of a coherent long-term strategy and organizational ethos.

which boasted 30. initiated by the L5 Society established in 1975 around the ideas of Princeton physicist Gerard O’Neill. . its organizational structure and ethos now transformed. its new.As the force of NASA’s original “technical culture” became a memory and shuttle flights became more routine and repetitive. with 125. A variety of outsiders aided in the rebirth of NASA and the transformation of the space program. popularly known as Star Wars.160 PART IV (Re)Shaping the Contemporary Curriculum Field (1970–1983) WEATHERING THE COMING STORMS (continued) In 1978. potentially wasting material resources). a greater reliance on computer simulations. James T. was followed the next year by Wernher von Braun’s National Space Institute.000 members. promilitary space policies also emerged. 52 universities. Finally.000 members favoring general space exploration. supporting funding for the Galileo probe but not for the Reagan administration’s Strategic Defense Initiative. In this tense environment of the early 1980s. ranging from the Planetary Society to smaller and more focused membership organizations such as the Space Cadets. NASA had again become an organization with a purpose. Although NASA still championed its role as an R&D organization in which innovation and change were foremost.” and the latter group successfully lobbied to prohibit NASA from flying com- (continued) ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. including the American Space Foundation and High Frontier. By 1980. In 1981. and even delegated much of contractor oversight to consulting firms. surrendered control to external contractors. formed by Nichelle Nichols of Star Trek. Nearly 100 space groups were active by 1983. Dan Marshall. By 1989. many of its employees felt otherwise. and the Hpatia Cluster. Sears. lobbied for scientific (rather than commercial or military) space exploration. composed of 58 corporations. with its decreased tolerance for failure and sparse support for testing (and. Nevertheless. Political action groups that promoted conservative. 88% of total NASA moneys went to such contractors. Carl Sagan’s Planetary Society.000 members. by J. and 5 national trade and professional societies—and the Aerospace Industries Association. its employees found dwindling rewards for either quality or control. which represented feminist interests in space. and self-correcting in-flight devices took hold. a Pearson Education Company. and William H. NASA celebrated the completion of its second decade in existence. two specific trade groups proved potent in the repopularization of space endeavors: the National Coordinating Committee for Space—whose member groups included 21 corporations. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. thus. administrative culture developed a reliance on outsourcing more and more technical activities. ground tests. Schubert. the former group submitted a consensus document to the Reagan administration entitled “Future Directions for National Space Policy.The formation of space interest groups. which by 1985 had 50.As NASA lost its technological expertise.

perhaps the only common characteristic of the different interest groups in curriculum was an opposition to the Tylerian status quo. Schubert. Having gone from a pre-Apollo no-holds-barred vision of humans conquering space to a bloated. and renewed public interest. a Pearson Education Company. NASA’s high-profile space shuttle program would take the agency and the country itself to the frontiers of the coming millennium. So they talked about language and psychoanalysis and sexuality. There was enormous division even then among and within various groups. the work of Michael Apple and others was about political economy and economics. political pressure. esoteric gaggle of self-insulated scientists and experts who could not seem to organize themselves to cope successfully with external realities. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. But meanwhile. Henry Giroux recognized some of these diverging interests at the time: We were reconceptualizing the field.And though no American astronauts would visit space between 1975 and the first orbital flight of the space shuttle in 1981. there was a lot of fallout from the more heavy political types and others who somehow wanted to distance themselves. Shaped by economic constraints. Culture was not much of an issue for them—certainly not as a determining force in its own right. NASA’s leaders literally reinvented the organization’s culture and operational structure. By the mid-1980s. Whereas Bill Pinar and others were attempting to take up culture as a force equally as significant as certain economic determinations. At the time. The caucus served as a forum for members interested in space exploration and commercialization as well as a coordinating arm for legislation in the three major committees that deal with space policy. NASA had weathered its worst storm to date. dozens of special interest groups helped bring NASA back into cultural prominence. . and William H. managerial culture. one division was around economics and culture. Orbiting outside the Curriculum Field The role of diverse special interest groups in the resurgence of NASA’s importance was similar to the role of divergent interest groups in the reshaping of contemporary curriculum work. by J. James T. Such trade group influence was also evident in the formation of the bipartisan congressional Space Caucus. organized in 1982 by Representatives Daniel Alaska and Newt Gingrich. Sears.CHAPTER 7 From Chorus to Cacophony 161 WEATHERING THE COMING STORMS (continued) munications satellites on the shuttle and to allow private enterprise to engage in space flight. In a way that was really quite remarkable in that these were all taboo topics. For example. Dan Marshall.

At the time. including Michael Young. and Stanford—and laying claim to differing curriculum legacies. infusing that language into curriculum theory while Michael Apple and others were talking about the political economy of curriculum theory. and Maxine Greene has always been a source of enormous inspiration for me. Paulo Friere more than anyone. my work has always been more expansive. and Tom Popkewitz’s early work. James T. and Geoff Whitty. I found Ulf Lundgren’s work very important in terms of looking at European perspectives. Sears. And.” he could remain interested in the entire field and benefit from its varied representatives. As he notes: I thought Dwayne Huebner’s work was stunning when I read it. power. I was writing about critical theory and cultural politics. Schubert. and William H. I was also reading theoretical work not directly connected to education. Madison. Michael Apple’s Ideology and Curriculum was enormously significant for me. I found myself reading a lot of different people. That was an attempt to in some way rephrase the field by virtue of appropriating a different language—to bring in the Frankfurt School stuff. The distinctions in contemporary political scholarship noted by Giroux—distinctions among the varied Marxist discourses in this case—would eventually become linked to internecine struggles. Wisconsin. . particularly critical considerations of radical democracy. Teachers College. a Pearson Education Company. Bill Pinar had an enormous influence on me in terms of the early edited books that I read. Like anything else. Marxism has a number of theoretical discourses and I found myself appropriating the more critical work and bringing that to education. Stanley Aronowitz’s work in education was utterly brilliant. often as ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. focusing on broader critical traditions. I thought Jim Macdonald’s work in curriculum theory was the most progressive I had seen during the late 70s and early 80s. Jean Anyon’s. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. Being “unattached. And although their focus created a much needed discourse. Dan Marshall. of course. I began to bring those fields together and talk about the new sociology of curriculum. including Herbert Marcuse. and culture in ways that might be helpful for theorists trying to in some way establish wider interdisciplinary spaces and political projects when considering curriculum theory and practice. by J. I was also finding a close intersection with the new sociology of education emerging in England. Valerie Walkerdine. Walter Benjamin and other members of the Frankfurt School.162 PART IV (Re)Shaping the Contemporary Curriculum Field (1970–1983) At the same time. Henry recognized a growing collection of “divisive networks” represented by different universities—Ohio State. as were Tony Penna’s.

Dan Marshall. and other discourses or texts numbered more than a dozen by 1983. coinciding with the education community’s introduction to Schön’s Ref lective Practitioner. curriculum books representing political (by far the most prolific discourse). . As events unfolded. Hug. a Pearson Education Company. Like a leaky faucet. Henry Giroux had begun to see limitations within the curriculum field and its historic linkages to schools and schooling. And like the curriculum field. While much of this development is apparent through professional journal publications and conference presentations (see Pinar et al. to the remarkable 1983 collection of descriptive studies of schools published separately by Boyer. During the early 1980s the ideas that were shaping contemporary curriculum work grew in both number and sophistication. I left Boston University in 1983. curriculum books provide undeniable evidence that the state of the field had changed. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall.CHAPTER 7 From Chorus to Cacophony 163 much about individual and collective identities as they were about individual and collective ideas. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. to the 1982 appearance of noted efforts to understand school change published by both Fullan and Sarason and the philosopher Mortimer Adler’s promotion of the Paideia Proposal. this curriculum smorgasbord would be overshadowed in national importance by the publication of A Nation at Risk in 1983. but by that time I was losing my interest in curriculum theorizing—in part. 1982.g. 1995). 1979. From the 1981 publications of Wigginton’s Foxfire experiment and Holt’s invitation to homeschooling. Sears. however. Schubert. phenomenological. the field of curriculum theory is about theories of schooling and really not about broader issues such as popular media or popular culture. the post–World War II trickle of nonmainstream curriculum books—which grew persistently during the late 1960s and early 1970s—had become a slow but continuous flow by the early 1980s. many new curricularists were busy distinguishing themselves from each other as well. Having authored. by J. and Lightfoot. 1981. Just as historical work had become a valued and respected discourse within contemporary studies (e. Once again. or coedited five curriculum books by 1983. Berman. Goodlad. Schubert. only this time. Bullough.. Having succeeded in illustrating that their work was not about the dominant curriculum paradigm. 1983. the blame would be spread beyond the curriculum field itself into the schools and universities that prepared schoolteachers. the connections between curriculum work and the results of schooling would be criticized. and William H. To me. books about education and schooling from this period suggest a similar diversity. 1980). coauthored. because it was about the schools.. James T. education-related books in print by 1983 suggested limitless possibilities for understanding schooling and curriculum differently. Kaestle.

among others. outside of education. Ultimately.S. Sears. I was being invited to a lot of places and writing for a lot of journals outside the more narrow curriculum field. including but not limited to schools. RECONCEPTUALIZING SPACE iroux’s suggestion that the contemporary curriculum field needs a more expansive and well-articulated mission brings us back to the born-again NASA of the early 1980s. and the more interesting people in curriculum theory had begun to move out. and those journals were almost completely dominated by particular schools of thought. began Landsat—an earth observation satellite program that markets its data though private enterprise. From the Kennedy administration to the eve of the Reagan era. Dan Marshall. the Department of Energy and the Department of Transportation. for example. As space became more commercialized in the 1980s. By that time. NASA established an office of commercial programs in 1984 to encourage entrepreneurial activity by providing seed money and reducing bureaucratic impediments. funneled substantial financial and bureaucratic resources into NASA’s efforts. James T.164 PART IV (Re)Shaping the Contemporary Curriculum Field (1970–1983) Question Can you think of ways in which popular culture and theories about it may be related to curriculum and instruction? ? There was also a limited number of journals you could write for if you were in curriculum. NASA received its first clear mandate since the Kennedy administration and moved from primarily a political showcase to a commercial zone of opportunity. In addition to the Department of Commerce. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. I felt that the field was much too narrow for me. Handed Reagan’s space policy. So by the mid-80s. I wanted to widen and broaden my correspondence with teachers. it also became more militarized. That’s around the time I quit attending AERA. and William H. by J. Schubert. the efforts and activities of trade in combination with political and space-related interest groups helped significantly to reinvigorate the U. space effort in general and NASA in particular. . a Pearson Education Company. overall military spending as a percentage of the federal budget had been halved. The most interesting journals were cropping up elsewhere. Corporations such as RCA and Hughes Aircraft. As part of the Reagan administration’s goal of rearming and modernizing the mil(continued) G ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. and so I situated myself more broadly within the field of education and addressed the educational force of the wider culture.

At the same time. From the joint chiefs of staff. the movement to reconceptualize the curriculum field lost the cohesive bonds that maintained the coalition during its first years of struggle and enthusiasm. . to the Air Force. Different Hurdles By the summer of 1983. gendered. the space program had departed from its trajectory set a generation earlier. As Pinar and his colleagues (1995. This “detached. and concentrated on understanding curriculum in all its complexity” (Pinar et al. autobiographical. 236). Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. as Pioneer 10 traveled the 2. space policy. 238) put it: By the early 1980s. Opposition to the traditional field was no longer powerful ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. A new configuration of interest groups finding voice within a changed sociopolitical landscape had reconceptualized the U. aesthetic. 1995. Dan Marshall. By that fall.a. space effort. Star Wars) and the space resources needed for the operation of intercontinental ballistic missiles enabled the military to assume a leadership role in U.” scholarly field of curriculum would face continued internal struggles throughout the decade. a Pearson Education Company. and the social engineers. the post–Nation at Risk period would bolster the field’s most conservative. the Department of Defense was now a major factor in NASA’s future. p. The Kennedy administration’s position of civilian control over space and the Johnson administration’s goal of demilitarizing space had both been vaporized. But as “the nation’s schools slipped further [during the 1980s] into the hands of the business community. by J. bureaucrats. p.S. the curriculum field was about to experience another wholesale pummeling. whose deputy undersecretary for space systems supervises the National Reconnaissance Office as well as Space Command. conventional elements.S.k. the 1981 Department of Defense space budget actually exceeded NASA’s expenditures.The enormous funding and political support for the Strategic Defense Initiative (a. and other texts had found their way into the syllabi of curriculum teachers around the United States. Schubert. Like the post-Sputnik hullabaloo. and William H. even the most conventional courses would have difficulty ignoring the growing accumulation of issues and ideas being produced by the new vanguard of contemporary curriculum studies. efforts to understand curriculum through political. the scholarly field of curriculum detached itself. Continuing Journey. Sears..CHAPTER 7 From Chorus to Cacophony 165 RECONCEPTUALIZING SPACE (continued) itary. who help to oversee space activities.7 billion miles beyond earth to leave our solar system. the politicians. James T.

. atheoretical field of the pre1970 period. as the movement had succeeded in delegitimating the ahistorical. James T. .166 PART IV (Re)Shaping the Contemporary Curriculum Field (1970–1983) enough a force for coalition. . Dan Marshall. by J. Schubert. Its success was its demise as a movement. with the burgeoning of feminist theory. with the emergence of autobiographical studies as a major force in the field. Sears. and the appearance of poststructuralism in curriculum studies. the original reconceptualist movement can be said to have disappeared. with the concurrent expansion of existential and phenomenological scholarship . . ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. With the continued resistance of Marxist scholars to a multiple-perspectival conception of reconceptualization and curriculum. and William H. a Pearson Education Company. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. The implications of both the detachment of curriculum scholarship and the demise of the movement to reconceptualize curriculum work are explored in the following chapters.

and William H. . by J. James T. a Pearson Education Company. Dan Marshall. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. Sears. Schubert.P A R T V The Uncertainties of Contemporary Curriculum Work (1984 to Lately) ▼ CHAPTER 8 ▼ CHAPTER 9 Implosion and Consolidation Imagining the Postmillennial Curriculum Field ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir.

Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. 1989. 387). Within that book. “Lyotard brought together for the first time diverse threads and previously separate literatures in a prophetic analysis . by J. Knowledge and power have been revealed as two sides of the same coin. . and William H. Dan Marshall. . More than an intellectual phenomenon. however. With respect to the status and functions of knowledge in highly technological societies. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Lyotard asserted that “the traditional [scientific] legitimating ‘myths’ or ‘metanarratives’ of the speculative unity of all knowledge and its humanist emancipatory potential have allegedly fallen away. 93). This postmodern turn in how we come to understand our world washed over the curriculum field. 1995. a Pearson Education Company.” He explained his assertions through an “analysis of language-games signaling both a return to pragmatics and an elevation of narrative as a mode of thinking in its own right” (Peters. Sears. p. James T. Schubert. the postmodern condition forever disrupted much about life as we had come to make sense of it. . p. believed to signal an epochal break not only with the so-called ‘modern era’ but also with various traditionally ‘modern’ ways of viewing the world” (Peters.C H A P T E R 8 Implosion and Consolidation ▼ 168 Jean-Francois Lyotard’s The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge was translated into English in 1984.

contradictory. L. and enhanced software packages as genetic engineering and fingerprinting opened up new investment opportunities. Silicon Valley entrepreneurs amassed huge fortunes by launching mouses. On the f loor of the Rift Valley of Kenya. was unearthed. Miller made “eccentric propositions” while Raywid and her associates found “pride and promise” within the same teachers and schools that both Brown and Darling-Hammond found near “crisis. and William H. Back to the Future. President Ronald Reagan and other world leaders commemorated the 40th anniversary of D day as Soviet cold warriors Breshnev. In Paris and Atlanta. . There were also odd cultural juxtapositions: Neil Simon’s Biloxi Blues and Larry Kramer’s The Normal Heart played on Broadway.CHAPTER 8 Implosion and Consolidation 169 Juxtapositions Disjunctive. a Pearson Education Company. Sears. As American politics and culture imploded. U. by J. Scientists engineered the first frozen embryo birth and the first surrogate conception and cloned their first mammal (a sheep) and their first extinct species (a zebra fish). our earliest known ancestor. On a wind-swept battlefield at Normandy. 32-bit chips. The year 1984 marked the world’s largest corporate merger (Standard Oil of California acquired Gulf Oil) and the country’s highest rate of bank failures since 1937. Boy George and George Michaels produced platinum-selling albums. Meanwhile.” Craft talked of “multicultural opportunities” while Eisner presented evaluation as an art. Schubert. and unsettling are apt descriptors for both postmodernism and the year 1984. Similar to the varied expansion of culture and technology. and Chernenko succeeded one another in quick fashion. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. the Texas Board of Education debated a decade-old ban on the teaching of evolution as scientific fact. James T. researchers announced the discovery of HIV as half a million AIDS cases were reported worldwide and Advocate Men premiered in gay bookstores. Andropov. representatives of the United Kingdom and China finalized an agreement to return this capitalist isle to communist rule. and The Color of Money. the curriculum books of 1984 showed an expanding and unsettling diversity as witnessed by their titles: Finn and others fought “against mediocrity” and J.S. Meanwhile. Garrison Keillor’s Lake Wobegon Days and Anne Tyler’s The Accidental Tourist sold briskly at bookstores. resulting in an eventual $300 billion government bailout. Dan Marshall. on the Westernized island of Hong Kong. The Color Purple. a 5-million-year-old jawbone of Australopithecus afarensis. While DNA analysis revealed the genetic difference between chimpanzees and humans to be barely 1%. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir.” Dunkel produced an “epitaph for innovation” in the year that Noddings explored “intuition” and Gilbert offered an “impotent image of ideology. and Blue Velvet ran in cinemas. an ever greater concentration of wealth coupled to technological advances arose.

Without such tempering. Virginia: The generation of Michael Apple and Bill Pinar is giving birth to another group of curriculum theorists. James T. Sears. began his writing career by quoting Ecclesiastes: “One generation passeth away. our allies in political action. James T. and another generation cometh. the generational dialectic ceases. and both Tom and Noddings (in her book Caring) discussed morality and teaching. then it must belong to all. The prophecy was fulfilled. Sears. Patti Lather. Dan Marshall. One among this generation. The land belongs to neither the theorist nor the practitioner. Schubert. . cleansed the spirit. . pp. Nearing the journey’s end. If it is to belong to any. Only through collective struggle will this land blossom and bear fruit.” Graduating from Indiana University in 1984 under the tutelage of Norm Overly (an Ohio State graduate who studied with Paul Klohr). My colleague. by J. . Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. intellectual abilities. As part of that new generation. Theory must be tempered with practice. I acknowledge my intellectual debt to them as well as to their mentors and to their mentors’ mentors. He rested on the mountainside. these people have been chided for their lack of social vision. Moses shepherded his people for forty years as they traversed the arid Sinai land. and educational commitment. 24–25) ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. and William H. In the future. the future homeland of his children and his children’s children. . the prophecy is unfulfilled. This experience fostered reflection. a Pearson Education Company. (Sears.170 PART V The Uncertainties of Contemporary Curriculum Work (1984 to Lately) Rubin saw artistry in teaching. . these people must become our collaborators in curriculum research. He saw Cannan. argues that we must develop a sense of “apocalyptical humility” rooted in a respect for and understanding of the earnest practitioner.” Within this land of valleys the common practitioner dwells. My generation must depart the solitude of the desert and thin air of the mountain to journey into the “promised land. As part of that new generation. . . 1985. and our disciples through pedagogical practice. and renewed commitment. . The 1980s saw a new generation of curriculum workers entering the field. . Moses gazed across the Jordan River from Mount Nebo. In the past. . I recognize that their critiques and theoretical programs now require an intellectual and cultural closeness with our constituency in order to effectively shape schools of the future and to reshape theories of the past. Sears presented his vision for the curriculum field at the 1983 Curriculum Theory Conference held in Airlie.

Tom Barone. The gender mix had shifted considerably. Madison. My parents. The first. It was then I decided this was not what I was cut out to do. 1996. the racial and ethnic composition showed signs of variation. . six contemporary curriculum workers illustrate these differences and. Chicago. of course. my family was flat out racist and I recall always being uncomfortable with that. not to mention with their predecessors. My family on my father’s side is Italian. I’m third generation. Entering Loyola in 1964 as a premed student. very close to Lake Pontchartrain.1 I grew up in New Orleans. this contemporary group exhibited a far more eclectic range of backgrounds and interests—including their personal and professional ties to teaching and schooling—that allowed them to understand their field in complex and sometimes paradoxical ways. that assignment was an act of clarification for me. Sears. Further. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. “I worked at a small hospital in inner city New Orleans. Reclamations and Reformations In this chapter. James T. a Pearson Education Company. moreover. In fact. They were always restaurateurs and none had gone to college or had ever seen that as a way of making their way in the world. And. uncle and aunt owned an Italian seafood restaurant there. Dan Marshall. and members’ points of origin had multiplied well beyond the curriculum hotbed universities of Ohio State. by J. reflect an array of curriculum discourses that distinguishes the field in the postmodern age. was completing his sixth year as a faculty member at Northern Kentucky University in 1984. that I was going to be something close to a medical doctor or a dentist. and Teachers College. I had a professor at Loyola University of the South who was quite skeptical about the war. Wisconsin. Tom’s transformative experience occurred in the summer between his sophomore and junior years. We had to write position papers. and William H. than had previous generations.CHAPTER 8 Implosion and Consolidation 171 This newest generation of individuals earning their curriculum doctorates during the 1980s had less in common with each other. he remembers: 1 Personal communication. professor of education at Arizona State University. My family lived in what’s called the Gentilly area.” Switching his major to history and political science without regard for the career implications. Vietnam was happening. Schubert. grandparents. But somehow it was always expected that I would go to college. as a group. 19 October. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. I recall that I was always the person in our family who was much more sympathetic to the position of blacks.

Our family was very conservative to the point of being puritanical. After a year of “back-breaking labor.172 PART V The Uncertainties of Contemporary Curriculum Work (1984 to Lately) I really didn’t decide on going into education until my fifth year. so not much emphasis was placed on education. private high school. James T. decided to leave and recommended me to the headmaster there. I decided I’d better find out what this war business was all about since I would probably be there very shortly. spent his formative university teaching years (1986–1995) at the University of Utah in a joint appointment between the Departments of Education and Ethnic Studies. the civil rights movement is pretty intense. by J. currently an associate professor at the University of Illinois at Chicago. Ours was a small family: mother.” The year Tom entered Loyola. Neither of my parents was educated beyond high school. I declared a major in poli-sci. I took this job teaching history and government. Pentecostal. But that all changed around the time I was finishing elementary school when my father died of leukemia and my mother remarried a “sinner. so I agreed to work toward my permanent teaching credentials and continued teaching there until 1974.A. a Pearson Education Company. . I met new friends and remarkably. . Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. In 1968. Watkins. Bill enrolled in junior college but soon “flunked out. My church was my world. 19 September. he also began as an “accidental” teacher. I quickly decided I really liked doing that. biblethumping. Sears. My father was a fundamentalist. hell fire. Schubert. So. Like many other young men. my family migrated to southern California: I’m a product of south-central L.” Tracked into vocational courses at a “pretty tough” high school. the war is beginning to heat up in Vietnam.2 Early on in my life. 1996.” he wrote to the college seeking readmission. .” but what happens next is the real transformation. Dan Marshall. in 1968. I was an honors student! 2 Personal communication. Bill “liked school . preacher. Born in Harlem. more for social than intellectual reasons. Upon reentry Bill “got serious. becoming a teacher was extremely accidental. a metamorphosis happened: I became interested in the anti-war movement. I started paying more attention to my history and political science classes. For me. Bill Watkins entered. and William H. Then. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. father and two children. so I went every day. Shortly after Tom Barone left classroom teaching.” turning to a job in the garment industry. We considered this life as preparation for the next. within a year. We pretty much rejected worldly acquisitions. except for Bible studies. It happened that a friend who was teaching in a small.

CHAPTER 8 Implosion and Consolidation


As a senior, Watkins found himself actively recruited by law schools and graduate departments nationwide. However, the more his “politics became radicalized, the less interested [he] became in law school.” Faced with the decision to enter law school, Bill chose to return home to Brooklyn: “I was married and we had a small son. I had a bachelor’s degree, but the job market wasn’t real great. . . . I worked a number of jobs. I also worked as a community organizer and a house husband.” In 1975 Bill found himself teaching in Chicago’s Garfield High School, “hired on the provision that I seek state teaching certification. I had no concerns about being a teacher: if anyone was ever prepared to interact with tough, inner-city kids, I was. Besides, I was a people person and already kind of a street intellectual.”

Teaching and Theorizing
By the mid-1980s, teachers were center stage in the curriculum field as their work (Connell, 1985) and the study of curriculum often became inseparable (see, for example, Apple, 1986; Barrow, 1984; Clandinin, 1986; Jackson, 1986; Lieberman & Miller, 1984; Powell, 1985). One result of this blurring was the metamorphosis of a long-standing debate concerning whether and how curriculum ought to relate with classroom teaching and the institutional processes of schooling. Another was a growing disillusionment among some curriculum workers at the annual curriculum theory conferences held at Airlie House in Virginia from 1979 through 1982 and then at the Bergamo Center in Ohio into the early 1990s. The annual conference was imploding as the “reconceptualists”—a term long abandoned by its creator, Bill Pinar—splintered into a multiplicity of genres. Decade-long theoretical fissures, such as those between Michael Apple and Bill Pinar, had expanded and become exposed in personal conf licts at Bergamo, where divisions erupted between feminist men and women, economic and cultural Marxists, poststructuralists and postmodernists, lesbians and gay men. Sources for these frictions included the proper relationship of theory to practice, the use of language to clarify or obscure curricular insights, and the authority of the curriculum theorist vis-à-vis the classroom teacher. For example, critics eventually shut down the gathering’s annual “title contest,” which awarded dinner prizes to those contributing the most clever fictional paper titles—a comic reminder for some of the distance between the conference and the classroom. Others more directly challenged conference participants. In one paper, Sears (1988) critiqued the language games played by some contemporary curriculum scholars, comparing these theorists with those cavorting in the illusionary safety of Berlin cabarets while events such as Crystal Neicht unfolded. In another, Ellsworth (1989) challenged critical theorists by asking a disarmingly simple but

ISBN: 0-536-20077-7

Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir, by J. Dan Marshall, James T. Sears, and William H. Schubert. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall, a Pearson Education Company.


PART V The Uncertainties of Contemporary Curriculum Work (1984 to Lately)

heretical question: Is critical pedagogy really empowering? All the while, contemporary curriculum discourses grew, accumulating such forms as mythopoetics, semiotics, ecology, Ricoeurian hermeneutics, aesthetics, psychoanalysis, postformalism, biographic and autobiographic praxis, deconstructionism, race, teacher lore, feminist methodology, and queer theory. Controversies within contemporary curriculum work that centered on theory and practice resulted in the development of a special issue of Theory Into Practice (Vol. 31, No. 3, Summer 1992) entitled “Grounding Contemporary Curriculum Thought.” Placed throughout this chapter are excerpts from this special issue penned by authors who represent different perspectives in this theory–practice debate. In the first of these, Bill Schubert describes how his own curriculum theorizing is enhanced by the many classroom teachers (also theorizers) with whom he works.

Practitioners Influence Curriculum Theory
by William H. Schubert

My commitment to interest-based project learning was influenced by reading
Dewey . . . [though] my interest in Dewey’s work would not have been as receptive had it not been for my work with elementary students in student teaching. Similarly, even that practice cannot be seen as the initiatory point, because I decided to be a candidate for teaching certification for more academic reasons; namely, I wanted to share with others the powers of ideas in making sense of one’s life. . . . My elementary school teaching experience taught me that the question of greatest import was a philosophical curriculum question:What is worthwhile to know and experience? This Spencerian question (Spencer, 1861) must flow in the lifeblood of teachers in their daily activities. Everything they do is contingent upon some image of what is worth knowing and experiencing. Moreover, to address this issue seriously invokes questions about what it means to live a good life and contribute to a society. It probes to basic values about human nature and the nature of reality, the character of knowing and knowledge, the aesthetics of environmental patterns and images that guide educative decision and action, the nature of sound reasoning, and the continuous quest to seek goodness in the lived consequences of educational decision. . . . My teaching of graduate students, thus, became an inquiry into their images of curriculum development as teachers. I was bombarded by story after story of teachers who found generic curriculum guides and textbook recipes inadequate, and writing lesson plans to be an exercise without mileage beyond the student teaching experience. . . . William Pinar (1975) drew together writings by Greene, Phenix, Macdonald, Huebner, and . . . [others] under the label “curriculum theorizing.” The term,

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CHAPTER 8 Implosion and Consolidation


I felt, enlivened the work of curriculum theorists, taking away the necessity of producing theory, which carries a more brittle and dusty image of something finished and on the shelf. . . . Theorizing was a kind of reflection, an image of the need for continuous reconceptualizing of the flow of experience. It seemed implied that this would include theorizing by practicing educators, but the reconceptualist image was too often relegated to academics alone. The best teachers I have known as graduate students seriously strive to engage in their own version of curriculum theorizing. . . . If given a chance, teachers who theorize not only test ideas they find in graduate school in their practice setting, they also test the worth of what they read and hear in graduate studies with ideas generated from practice. . . . [Teachers] who are immersed in practice have again taught me that we need additional information upon which to make sound curricular decisions.We need general knowledge about the implicit curriculum that resides in spheres of student life outside of school, and perhaps more, we need to encourage and enable educators to discover the idiosyncratic patterns of outside curriculum in the lives of students in their schools and classrooms, and what they have learned from these outside curricula. One of the greatest contributions scholars can make is to acknowledge and facilitate such inquiry by teachers. . . . Similarly, one of the greatest contributions teachers can make (and have made to my theorizing) is to tell scholars more about the ways they theorize in the concreteness of their educational settings.

Source: Schubert,W. H. (1992). Practitioners influence curriculum theory:Autobiographical reflections. Theory Into Practice, 31(3), 236–243. From a theme issue on “Grounding Contemporary Curriculum Thought.” Copyright 1992 College of Education,The Ohio State University.

The End of Science in the Postmodern Era
Schubert notes the importance of what students learn from the implicit curricula that lie outside classrooms. These idiosyncratic patterns of “external” learning have a kind of paradoxical relationship to the “concreteness” of teachers’ classroom workspaces. Ultimately, Schubert joined with Lyotard in raising questions about legitimate knowledge and the hegemony of the scientific metanarrative. Lyotard’s major working hypothesis was “that the status of knowledge is altered as societies enter what is known as the postindustrial age and cultures enter what is known as the postmodern age” (Lyotard, 1979/1984, p. 3). Articulating antimodernist views of the primacy of scientific knowledge, he argued that “the ‘leading’ sciences and technologies—cybernetics, telematics, informatics, and the growth of computer languages—are all

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Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir, by J. Dan Marshall, James T. Sears, and William H. Schubert. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall, a Pearson Education Company.


PART V The Uncertainties of Contemporary Curriculum Work (1984 to Lately)

significantly language based and have transformed the two principle functions of knowledge: research and the transmission of acquired learning” (Peters, 1989, p. 98, emphasis in original). Thus, the relationship between language and the creation and transmission of knowledge becomes problematic in terms of justifying and controlling knowledge. For Lyotard, “science has always justified its claim to truth—and thus power—by having recourse to the dominant ‘metanarratives’ of metaphysical philosophy” (Lea, 1987, p. 89). Briefly, these metanarratives or stories (which provide legitimacy to all other stories) claim that social emancipation is achieved through the acquisition of ever more refined forms of scientific knowledge. More knowledge allows us to take more control over our physical world. As cognitive beings, we are ultimately in search of metaphysical myths—transcendent, unified, or totalizing forms of explaining our unity and being. Lyotard and other postmodernists characterized these metaphysical myths as being in crisis, as harmful to smaller, oppositional narratives, and as ultimately losing their authority in the postindustrial age. Lyotard analyzed these crises by exploring both scientific knowledge and its sustaining metanarratives as language games. A language game is played by two or more people in conversation. Each sort of utterance—denotative, prescriptive, performative, and so forth—becomes a separate language game in that it has its own rules concerning what it is, what it means, how it is used, and the like. In a given conversational exchange, therefore, numerous such games will exist, each with a unique set of rules. No two games will necessarily relate because each sentence is a move that may establish a new rule (and so a new game). Thus, what we have are agreements between and among people to play these language games with the utmost communicative flexibility. What we cannot have, using this analysis, is a situation in which any single utterance or collection of utterances has meaning or value outside of the game and its players—unless the game is being controlled. Metanarratives represent such institutionalized or controlled discourses. The metanarratives that serve to legitimize science and scientific knowledge are, for Lyotard, nothing more than grandly constructed language games. Given that no game translates into another, and that each game contains the potential for flexibility of moves, there can be no grand, legitimating metanarrative for science, no unifying principle, no universal metalanguage. In essence, there can be no more “science” as we know it: a search for some ultimate and collective truth.

What are examples of metanarratives in education? Have you participated in any language games played by educators?


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CHAPTER 8 Implosion and Consolidation


Despite more than two decades of assault against scientific curriculum making, mainstream curriculum texts still identified with scientific interests in curriculum design, development, and implementation. Complementing the 1984 republication of Caswell and Campbell’s 1937 Readings in Curriculum Development was an array of traditional synoptic texts (e.g., R. C. Doll [sixth edition 1986; 1996]; Hass, 1987; McNeil, 1985; 1996; Ornstein & Hunkins, 1987; 1998; P. H. Taylor & Richards, 1985; Unruh & Unruh, 1984; Wiles & Bondi, 1984; 1998; Wulf & Schave, 1984). The field, too, remained obsessed with subject-specific knowledge in the arts (Abbs, 1987), science (Champagne & Horning, 1987), history (Portal, 1987), the humanities (Cheney, 1987), mathematics (McKnight et al., 1987), and technology (Committee on Research in Mathematics, Science, and Technology Education, 1985). In Content of the Curriculum (1988), for example, Ron Brandt presented the 1988 ASCD yearbook as a collection of essays detailing what schools should teach in 10 content areas. Viewed as timely in light of recent attacks on curriculum workers (e.g., A. Bloom, 1987; Cheney, 1987; Hirsch, 1987; Ravitch & Finn, 1987), Brandt decided against “responding in kind” and for “the continuing struggle of deciding what schools should teach” (Brandt, 1988, p. 3). After employing Eisner and Vallance’s (1974) conflicting conceptions of curriculum, Brandt noted that “discussions of curriculum necessarily proceed from assumptions about the nature of knowledge and the purposes of education” (p. 5). However, he then shifted this truism to the background to bring focus to questions of subject matter content within largely ahistorical, apolitical, and narrowly defined disciplinary contexts. In contrast, others challenged educators to think beyond technical designs and traditional organizations of subject matter (e.g., Aronowitz & Giroux, 1985; Bowers, 1984; Schön, 1987; Soltis, 1987). A variety of works (e.g., Anther, 1987; Lloyd, 1987) seemed to intersect with a more complicated picture of the struggles inherent within curriculum work (Popkewitz, 1987), ranging from social issues (Molnar, 1987) and nonsexist curricula (Parker, 1984) to contextualized knowledge (Altbach, 1987) and multiple ways of knowing (Eisner, 1985). These challenges to the scientific metanarrative were eventually felt in the synoptic textbook market. J. P. Miller and Seller’s Curriculum: Perspectives and Practices (1985) was unusual at the time because it presented three differing metaorientations or positions to curriculum (transmission, transaction, and transformation) along with philosophical, psychological, economic or social, and historical contexts for each position. Further, their “transformational” position included ideas that connected elements of mysticism, transcendentalism, spirituality, and humanism to curriculum work. The following year, Schubert’s synoptic text Curriculum: Perspective, Paradigm, and Possibility (1986) fully integrated an

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PART V The Uncertainties of Contemporary Curriculum Work (1984 to Lately)

historical context within a panoramic representation of curriculum studies and became the first such text to deal seriously with the “reconceptualization” of the curriculum field. Clearly, undermining given frameworks—be they cultural or curricular—was the game in play by the mid-1980s as a host of contradictory images lay strewn across the social and educational landscape.

Textual Paradoxes in Life and Print
Crack first appeared on urban streets in 1985—the same year that the 99-year-old Coca-Cola morphed into New Coke (then back into CocaCola Classic), that Barbie dolls surpassed the entire U.S. population in number, and that the amount of time American youth spent gazing at television screens exceeded their classroom instructional time. The following year, as the country held its first official observance of Martin Luther King Day, the Supreme Court reaffirmed a Georgia statute that made consensual sodomy a criminal offense. And while actor-turnedpresident Ronald Reagan addressed the nation about a secret arms deal, stunned television viewers witnessed a resurrected Bobby Ewing on Dallas, learning that the entire 1985 season merely represented a dream. The curriculum field mirrored these paradoxical phenomena as “the effort to understand curriculum as poststructuralist, deconstructed, postmodern text . . . burst onto the scene” (Pinar et al., 1995, p. 514). In curriculum books, many new voices collided while engaging in analytic explorations and language games. In 1985, Cookson and Persell published Preparing for Power in contrast to the third edition of McNeil’s Curriculum: A Comprehensive Introduction; Ravitch produced The Schools We Deserve while Fantini and Sinclair gave us Education in School and Nonschool Settings; and Oakes presented Keeping Track: How High Schools Structure Inequality as Rosales-Dordelly and Short gave us Curriculum Professors’ Specialized Knowledge. These paradoxes were often played out in the daily lives of those preparing to become curriculum workers. Like Tom Barone, our next two contemporary curriculum workers explored medical careers. Mary-Ellen Jacobs spent 14 years working in the medical field while maintaining strong personal interests in writing, literature, and women’s studies. Eventually, however, she too would embark on a teaching career. Currently among the faculty at Palo Alto College in San Antonio, Mary-Ellen was born in Baltimore.3


Personal communication, 6 October, 1996.

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Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir, by J. Dan Marshall, James T. Sears, and William H. Schubert. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall, a Pearson Education Company.

I became disenchanted with journalism. Returning to school for premed studies. I was with the nuns in grades 1–9. After graduating from high school in 1967. though. I could get some tuition help through the Army Nurse Corps’ student nurse program. My original goal in life was to be a pharmacist. English was always a part of my life. and William H.” Within a few months. and I’ve always been a reader and a writer. Nursing was something I did.CHAPTER 8 Implosion and Consolidation 179 My father was a civilian chemical engineer working with chemical and biological warfare for the military. Her poem about openheart surgery patients won first place. James T. entitling her to attend a weeklong writers’ conference at Middlebury College in Vermont. but I always knew there would be something else that I would do. by J. Sears. Drama was another powerful element in my life. though. eventually teaching English at a community college. And I joined up. Mary-Ellen sensed “that [her] pursuit of the arts was just self-gratifying in contrast to nursing—which was doing something to help other people. where she was “petrified of the patients.” She had also realized that Alverno was “too small for [her] tastes” and transferred to Marquette University to become a journalism major. and my parents again hit the ceiling.” As a college senior. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. as a ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. to study the arts as a double major in English and French. My mother was an elementary teacher before she moved into high school English. That blew my parents away! After that first semester. a Catholic women’s college in Milwaukee. “But in the mid-’70s. Schubert. I switched over to a public high school when I was in 10th grade because the Catholic school didn’t have adequate science equipment. As a nursing student. Mary-Ellen was “way off the edge. she had developed a rapport. . The first week I was there I got myself a job as a nurse’s aide at a nursing home in Milwaukee. she took her first-ever job at a nursing home. my father told me that if I wanted to be a nurse. I often felt like I shouldn’t even be there. “which my instructors said they couldn’t understand.” writing poetry about her psychiatric nursing experiences. a Pearson Education Company. The following summer. I was also able to do music and drama in the public high school. Mary-Ellen entered Alverno College. so I switched to the nursing program. “It was a powerful experience which left me feeling torn about who I was at that point. Mary-Ellen entered a national writing contest sponsored by the American Journal of Nursing. Meanwhile.” After graduating from Marquette in 1971. she spent the next three years as an Army nurse. she eventually applied for medical school admission. As soon as I’d done that. Dan Marshall.

and he would talk about that at home— about better ways of doing things. the question was. where she earned her master’s degree in English and became intrigued by women’s studies. James T. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. and I hated it. and that it had a very fine women’s and gender studies program. My parents were very progressive.” Mary-Ellen entered the Ph.s in English. in the same house I grew up in.C. I also hated school for the most part. where children who were not wanted for one reason or another were sent to live. Sears.’ After two years of medical school rejections. in time. Unhappy with this particular posting.180 PART V The Uncertainties of Contemporary Curriculum Work (1984 to Lately) nurse and a woman applying for a position in medical school. 19 October.” she soon realized. For the most part. by J. she “went. Schubert. 1996. So while I saw some things that I really didn’t like and couldn’t put a finger on about schooling. Reentering the Army allowed her to pursue and complete an anesthesiology program. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. as liberating and valuable and potentially much different from what I had experienced. Susan was very quiet—a “good girl. At least it felt that way to me. .” As Mary-Ellen Jacobs practiced anesthesia in Washington. Louisiana. and a lot different from my own. into the curriculum field. Susan is currently an associate professor at Western Michigan University. I saw children in situations that were difficult.. or education. after which she was assigned to Walter Reed Army Medical Center. Susan Edgerton was busy cloning DNA at the Louisiana State University School of Medicine. ‘Why do you want to be a physician? You already have a career. 4 Personal communication. but her roots are southern:4 My parents still live in Ruston. Going to college was one of the operational assumptions in our family. she headed west to the University of Texas in Austin. D. Dan Marshall. I also saw schooling. With undergraduate and graduate degrees in chemistry.D. So as a young child. program at the University of California– Davis in 1977. I decided to head for the best graduate program in English. a Pearson Education Company. and William H. I did everything I was supposed to do. My father was a professor of special education and my mother was an occupational therapist at the Ruston State School. liberal democrats: my father raged and ranted over the injustices he saw when he was out in schools. anyway—in part knowing that the University of Maryland was close.D.” Leaving high school in 1973. I was confused about what made me uncomfortable with high school because I had always been a good student. Susan’s search for an appropriate life fit eventually drew her into the classroom and. “It struck me that there were no jobs at all for people with Ph.

So. (1995. With an uncertain confidence. it is this antagonistic blend of the political and autobiographical that unites the six distinctive biographies in this chapter and that underlies Deborah Britzman’s contribution to the 1992 special issue of Theory Into Practice. Dan Marshall. I stress these relationships between institutional structures and structures of feeling because part of my commitment as a teacher educator is to encourage future teachers to articulate the relationship between the perspectives and ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. “the individual is social and society is comprised of individuals. Graduating from Louisiana Tech in 1977 with a chemistry degree. Susan went back to the University of Texas to work on a doctorate in organic chemistry and natural products synthesis: I was very uncomfortable. “I was also interested in teaching. The program was extremely male dominated. rarely is there space for articulation. Sears. she returned to Louisiana and a job at the Louisiana State University School of Medicine. Mary-Ellen and Susan sought an equilibrium between what they felt compelled to do socially and how they desired to live personally. This dynamic between structures is. by J. I was not fully committed to the program because it just didn’t encompass everything I was interested in.While institutional structures strongly affect thought and feelings. Part of what kept me away from teaching was that I did not want to do something that was a traditional female occupation. James T. yet it demanded complete and total commitment to a pretty narrow realm. then. Structures of Feeling in Curriculum and Teaching by Deborah P. a Pearson Education Company. although she had become interested in philosophy.’ ” However. 565).” Following her master’s coursework. for the most part. she completed a master’s degree in organic chemistry in 1983. Britzman Feelings are made in social relationships. as those who approach curriculum from a primarily political–social vantage point have a tendency to “erase the individual and his or her experience in a fascination with abstractions such as ‘cultural reproduction. in the words of Pinar et al. which is not untypical of graduate programs in the physical sciences. and commitments toward social life that students already hold because of the lives they live. desires. fundamentally experienced as antagonistic. This paradoxical relationship between self and society has long been a dynamic within curriculum work as well. Schubert. . p. . . Also. . alludes to the complex array and disarray of the feelings.CHAPTER 8 Implosion and Consolidation 181 After a year in Texas she returned home.” Indeed. and William H. I ended up in chemistry.The structure of feelings. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall.

Insofar as rugged individuals would like to see themselves as the sole authors of their identity. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. . . and William H. Britzman talks about stories and histories. Question Like Schubert. and power. Schubert. At the same time . June Jordan’s (1988) essay. Swallowing my astonishment meant that I had to take as credible the kinds of complications these students offered.The seminar is composed of graduate students in English studies. and relations of power regulate the self. Graduate students in the English seminar seem to hold tightly to the construct of the rugged individual. . Jordan re-constructs how she must first persuade her African-American students to look again at the treacherous meanings and antagonistic relations of power summoned by language when dominant forms of White English are the criteria from which to judge literacy and oral forms of Black English. . . The pedagogical problem was how to link [their] stories to the larger histories of domination and subordination and thus understand individual lives in relation to the social contexts they act within. their concerns forced me to rethink my own expectations of how students should respond. . It is their first encounter with questions of pedagogy in English education. . in the power to single-handedly rise above not just the constraints of history and culture—the messiness of everyday life—but the constraints of identity. they are resistant to acknowledging the fact that sociality is governed by relations of power. . a Pearson Education Company.” offers a powerful example of what issues are at stake when teachers and students make sense of the relationships between curriculum and social life.At the same time. Dan Marshall. James T. . I was enacting my own extensive academic socialization by assuming the curriculum as the only authorized experience. As I struggled to make sense of which problems students were responding to. . an introductory summer seminar [I teach] in English education. social location. . . Sears. . “Nobody Means More to Me Than You and the Future Life of Willie Jordan. . I am obligated to understand the perspectives of those I encounter in teacher education in order to do more with my own. by J.The academic socialization of these students made it impossible to value their own voices and encounter the texts of their own culture on its own creative terms. What kinds of subjugations were working within my teaching practices? On one level.182 PART V The Uncertainties of Contemporary Curriculum Work (1984 to Lately) identity struggles of their students and what this means in terms of their own pedagogy and identities. of how we go about the vulnerable work of connecting individual lives to ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir.Within a multicultural society. I now believe they were responding to the spaces in my own pedagogy. how can we create curriculum space for student voices? ? The dilemmas of students dismissing outright the more distressing relations between stories and histories also work through .

though. still revolved around one of four major philosophical approaches well articulated in The Struggle for the American Curriculum (Kliebard. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. may be more significant than what is presently being perceived. James T. interest groups ranging from the most traditional (Kliebard’s “humanists”) to the more radical (Kliebard’s “social meliorists”) continued their decades-long quest for the hearts and minds of America’s youth. it might create more critical ways for addressing the uneasy relationship between structures of feelings and structures of institutions. or to use Pinar’s organizational schema.” will likely shape contemporary curricular efforts well into the next century. D. Dan Marshall. firstrate graduate programs producing a new generation of curriculum workers. a Pearson Education Company. In the mid-to-late 1980s. Exploring the controversies of our time coincidentally means attending to the controversies and deep investments of the self. Implosion and the Search for Efficiency Greatly influenced by the humanities.And yet. and Stanford—were giving way to diverse.The Ohio State University.The social orientation may well begin to open spaces for new relationships between theory and practice. P. and social theory. These genres. Source: Britzman. The disturbing continuities between the academy and the field. and William H. From a theme issue on “Grounding Contemporary Curriculum Thought. “discourses. the “majors” of the curriculum field—including Ohio State. 252–258. 31(3). Structures of feeling in curriculum and teaching. then. the subjugating moments of this seminar eased when we began to address the complications that do spring from the underside of teaching and learning. by J.” Copyright 1992 College of Education. (1992). the meanings of subjugation are far more slippery than the teacher’s power to authorize experience. the arts. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Sears. On another level. and of how we learn to tolerate the detours of experience—the times when learning does not mean progress and when curriculum antagonizes the students’ hopes and desires. By mid-decade. Curriculum work. Teachers College. . Theory Into Practice.The dynamics of subjugation are also enacted when students dismiss the stories and lives of others as irrelevant to their own. These are the more interesting dilemmas posed by theory and practice.CHAPTER 8 Implosion and Consolidation 183 persistent social dilemmas. 1986/1995). There still remains the dilemma of what it might mean to consider the vulnerabilities of experience: the clash between one’s theories of how individuals should act and the actual enacted practices that beguile the meanings we make. the postmodern curriculum era witnessed the emerging of a complex collection of curricular forms and understandings. Schubert.

accompanied by the third edition of the popular Models of Teaching (Joyce & Weil. Department of Education. editing part I of the NSSE’s 87th yearbook. and Giroux examined the role of Teachers as Intellectuals (1988b) and described Schooling and the Struggle for Public Life (1988a). p. 1986. 1988) penned more complex thoughts on what teachers do well.184 PART V The Uncertainties of Contemporary Curriculum Work (1984 to Lately) Within curriculum books we find that as historians such as Kliebard and Cuban (1986) situated present-day problems and issues of education. 1). Egan (1986.S. Smith. James T. 1986). a Pearson Education Company. Connelly and Clandinin (1988).. 8) declared victory for the “reconceptualists. it takes some years for everyone. Joyce. others focused on its positive (e. van Til. & Dwyer. 1986). Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall.. 1986. (e. he added: ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. and possibilities in The Curriculum. and Jackson (1986. Prunty. 1988. Dan Marshall. he continued: “Like a disappearing star in another galaxy. with some authors (e.” observing “that Tylerian dominance has passed. Clandinin (1986). Most oddly juxtaposed in 1988 were Laurel Tanner’s thoughtful Critical Issues in Curriculum and William Pinar’s eclectic Contemporary Curriculum Discourses. identifies “school administrators and supervisors and professors of curriculum and supervision” as diverse curriculum workers who “share responsibility for the interactive functions of curriculum development and professional development” (L. by J. Apple (1986) explored the political economy of class and gendered relations in Teachers and Texts. p. however.. 1986. Franklin. Schubert.” As a footnote to this statement.g. Shor explained the application of Freire for the Classroom (1987). Kleine. The fact is that to a remarkable extent reconceptualization has occurred. On the one hand we find Handbook of Research on Teaching (Wittrock. 1986) wishing to “improve” schools and others. McLaren. This same traditional range was evident in books about schooling and life in schools as well. Meanwhile. 1989) pushed the conversation of teaching toward “story telling.” and van Manen (1986) spoke of teaching’s “tone. . Perhaps the most vivid display of this range can be seen among the publications about teachers and teaching. Roman and ChristianSmith (1988) considered Feminism and the Politics of Popular Culture. Sears. Beyer and Apple (1988) investigated politics.” In lyric praise of his generation’s efforts.. Shor. 1986) or seamier pasts (e. Meanwhile. and William H. Tanner. Hampel. depending upon his or her location.” From the critical tradition. 1986) aiming to bring a meliorist critique to how we make sense of these institutions. Meanwhile. problems.g.g. Wexler (1987) conducted a Social Analysis of Education. 1986). and Lesko (1988) told of Catholic high school rites in Symbolizing Society. itself symbolic. to see this.g. Pinar (1988a. 1986/1996) and the government’s own What Works: Research about Teaching and Learning (U. Tanner.

soul. 7). and Wigginton (1985) kept spinning folktales of the Foxfire experience. Curriculum-specific texts emphasized the bread-andbutter aspects of curriculum work such as leadership (Glatthorn. when RCA released a five-record set. most educational writers sought unifying themes or denounced the trend toward “disunifying” the culture. 1987). 1986). Lawton. 1986. a trend that Pinar recognized in 1988. the music industry would lose its identifiable range of musical genres (rock. were swept by Michael Jackson. Others continued to extol continuity (e. Chittenden & Kiniry.g. descriptive categories multiplying and dividing. Gorter. As differences grew among cutting-edge curricularists. who won an unprecedented eight awards. and William H. social meliorists. 1987). A dozen years later. and texts losing their singular readings. Sears. 1986. Paradoxically. though.. by the late 1990s music would no longer be clearly categorized as rock. 1987). with the music industry consolidated through megamergers and vertical and horizontal integration. still. and classical). G. with Seal and Annie Lennox dominating the annual event. Dan Marshall. p. 13) This post-Tylerian transformation of the curriculum field. In 1984. management (English. James T. and feminist studies) were giving way to more complex or fractured discourses. Leithwood.. Elvis: 50th Anniversary Collection. Kirk. of excellence in schools. the coveted Grammys. phenomenological studies. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall.g. country.. was already undergoing its own transformation as the traditional groupings articulated by Kliebard (humanists. Gordon (1986) addressed the link between democracy and progressivism. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. the number of record labels and Grammys grew. Schubert. Artists in the music industry. Similarly. country. the “core curriculum” (e. like curriculum scholars. soul. admitting that his as well as others’ work “fits in no one category easily” (1988a. despite the concentration of ownership within the music business. . aesthetic criticism. Gorwood. Fantini (1986) and Tomlinson and Walberg (1986) spoke. 1986. by J. 1986). and the field’s bedrock practice of curriculum planning (e. basic skills (Choate. and social efficiency advocates) and Pinar (political analysis. 1986). developmentalists. T. Kelly. or classical as many musicians revealed postmodern identities. the major ideas which constitute the contemporary field of study have yet to make their way to colleagues in elementary and secondary schools. contradictory events becoming seemingly commonsensical. 1986. found themselves on the cusp of the postmodern era with ambivalent images set side by side. 1987).g. a Pearson Education Company. and course design (Earl.CHAPTER 8 Implosion and Consolidation 185 While the academic field of curriculum studies has been reconceived. awarded by the National Academy of Recording Artists and Sciences. (p.

Dinnerstein. Lyotard suggests that we “move to a notion of the unrepresentable. Although one may find evidence of a central or core genre (e. 1989). Ideology. By the early (continued) ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 W Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir.” have consistently accounted for the majority of record volume and revenue. and William H. Dan Marshall.g. this technological understanding or rationale for developing. . He refers to this phenomenon as the performativity principle. “The Having of Wonderful Ideas” and Other Essays on Teaching and Learning (Duckworth. transmitting. p. 1985). though an unmistakably diminishing one as growing numbers of curriculum writers struggled to represent the unrepresentable. . which resists the logic of performativity and which therefore serves as the basis for an idea of justice based on the acceptance of . and Values (Edel. and Columbia) produced about 70% of the Billboard hit records. Anderson. Changing Our Minds (Aiken. . As we have illustrated. the largest record labels. To prevent this terroristic denial of difference. When this happens. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. and those that do not serve this common end disappear.186 PART V The Uncertainties of Contemporary Curriculum Work (1984 to Lately) Lyotard’s critique of technologized postindustrial Western thought and life in The Postmodern Condition (1979/1984) centers on the growing need to reduce language to its most efficient uses. four majors (Decca.This handful of labels has also generally dominated the recording industry’s chart list. Examples of curriculum’s multiple discourses during this period include Human Interests in the Curriculum (Bullough. 1984). RCA/Victor. by J. 574). Lensink. performativity remained a force within the curriculum field. 1986). to that . & Holt. what Lyotard refers to as a “terroristic denial of difference” occurs: all language games are treated as equal in service to some preestablished whole. Goldstein. and Reading Curriculum Theory (Reynolds. feminism or political analysis) within these examples. . During the late 1940s and early 1950s. From the postwar to the postmodern era. Sears. 1992. and legitimating knowledge replaces a philosophical understanding. Capitol. multiple discourses or differends” (Poster. PERFORMATIVITY AND UNREPRESENTABILITY: POSTMODERN POP AND CURRICULUM STUDIES e can see this emerging acceptance of multiple discourses at work in the evolution of both the music industry and the contemporary curriculum field. or “majors. naming or categorizing such texts would be the sort of futile exercise abandoned as nonsensical by contemporary curriculum workers. 1987).. noting that this principle comes into play in various aspects of life—including the production and transmission of knowledge—that succumb to a logic of performance aimed at maximizing the overall efficiency of some greater system. James T. Schubert. 1988). Interpreting Education: Science. Ultimately. . & MacCorquodale. The Tone of Teaching (van Manen. a Pearson Education Company.

independent record companies (known as “indies. In 1983. Flashdance. increasing their single record share from 6 to 15%. Commodore. (continued) ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Sears. Dan Marshall.” or specialties) have focused on specialized genres of music considered too financially or politically risky for the majors. children’s. The British invasion of rock music. and William H.” with artists such as the Miracles. Jerry Lee Lewis. and Synchronicity. the music business was recovering from the great Crash of ’79. Beginning in the 1950s. enabled the majors to once again control hit record production. with the rest marketing primarily in the gospel. by J. Memphis-based Sun Records. independent record companies grew in the early 1980s.This “communal music. such as A & M (Tijuana Brass). and Junior Parker. classical. which witnessed corporate downsizing and the release of numerous artists from their contracts. James T.These forces mirrored those of two generations earlier. these labels accounted for only one-quarter of the Top-Ten hits. Three events in the early 1980s contributed to the rebounding of the music industry after the ’79 crash: the birth of music video coupled with a $20 million venture between Warner Amex and American Express. Johnny Cash. the emergence of new blockbuster albums such as Thriller.CHAPTER 8 Implosion and Consolidation 187 PERFORMATIVITY AND UNREPRESENTABILITY: POSTMODERN POP AND CURRICULUM STUDIES (continued) 1960s. and country labels including Blue Note. Stevie Wonder. By the 1990s. the baby boom. Elvis. the decline of disco and the jukebox. appeared on blues. by 1979. Tamal and Gordy. . In the 1960s and 1970s. fragmentation of AM radio listeners. and the advent of computer disk technology. and the bureaucracy of these corporate giants. Schubert. however. and the rise of punk (not to mention multimillion-dollar recording contracts) resulted in a nearly $1 billion decrease in revenue during the interim four years. a Pearson Education Company. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. organizational overhead. and ethnic genres. and Capricorn (the Allman Brothers Band).” such as the hillbilly and race records of the 1920s and 1930s. Vocalion. however. the Motown label produced its “Detroit sound. a generation later. Marvin Gaye. many independent labels had been acquired by the majors. coupled with California surf music and later with the Haight-Ashbury sound. which led to consumers replacing their vinyl record libraries and producers increasing their profit–cost ratio. other indies secured marketing niches by forming around one artist. and later the Supremes and the Jackson Five all recording on Motown or its subsidiary labels. folk. Carl Perkins. Brunswick. represented notable artists including Elvis Presley. and a dwindling teenage market to home taping. Faced with decreasing sales.Apple (the Beatles). increasing costs. and Okeh. which produced rhythm and blues (R&B) and country rock. 86% of Billboard activity was back in their hands. Factors ranging from economic hard times. and the long-playing record ushered in postwar prosperity. jazz. when the radio and the jukebox rescued the industry during the Great Depression and when. Historically.

and Duran Duran. Growing up in New Jersey. previously underpromoted groups to the 24-year-old-and-under market—consumers with little interest in aging rock stars or disco. New Jersey. his mother a seamstress. Soon other cable networks such as the Nashville Network. Peter Hlebowitsh is an associate professor at the University of Iowa. the son of Nigerian and Brazilian parents. Peter was no more or less inspirationally or ideologically drawn to this career than most other classroom teachers or curriculum workers. and Black Entertainment Television were narrowcasting into other niche markets.2 million homes with a mostly young white male audience. had also crossed musical genres. Depeche Mode. a student of flute at the prestigious Royal Academy of Music and later the orange-haired singer of the early 1980s synth-pop band the Eurythmics. . By the late 1990s. as evidenced by Peter Hlebowitsh and Petra Munro. Sears. who fused disco and new wave with hits such as Let’s Dance. Born-again pop stars like David Bowie. a Pearson Education Company. extensive exposure was given to “new romantic” groups such as Spandau Ballet. was the introduction of new people with different life experiences and worldviews into their respective fields. his father a brick maker. soul. Peter’s family lived in one side of a duplex. not surprisingly. Similarly. James T. and William H. Motown-influenced British group Culture Club also benefited from this marriage of music and television. Dan Marshall. Partly relying on European video clips. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. blues. His work as an educator began in an elementary classroom in Princeton.188 PART V The Uncertainties of Contemporary Curriculum Work (1984 to Lately) PERFORMATIVITY AND UNREPRESENTABILITY: POSTMODERN POP AND CURRICULUM STUDIES (continued) The development of MTV also introduced new. Schubert. From Teachers to Texts Contributing to these new musical genres. mixed rock. VH1. musician and listener would both splinter into a multiplicity of genres and alter identities. Human League. and folk. which spearheaded the electropop movement of crystalline electronically synthesized music. MTV was “narrowcasting” a short rotation list of album-oriented and pop rock artists—excluding specialty music such as country. As the record industry consolidated through corporate mergers and the acquisition of independent labels. and the postpunk. in 1981. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. This influx is certainly true within curriculum studies. Annie Lennox. by J. pop. By 1984. and soul—into 18. Though certified to teach when he completed college. as the dollar volume of records surpassed the precrash $4 billion mark. the mid-1980s marked the beginning of an unparalleled fusion of musical genres and crossover recording artists. where he has been since 1993. The former architecture graduate and electrical engineer Seal.

though. lawyer. I attended elementary school during the Cold War. But I really hit it off with the principal. so there was no effort whatsoever to be responsive to Russian culture. Although it was very naïve. was highly cosmopolitan. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. a Pearson Education Company. . It’s a peculiar thing because I was sure I was going to college. 21 September. Princeton was a different place for me—a very preppy place. and William H. so I could grow and develop. Peter continues:5 We lived in a small part of South River called the Russian Alley. itself. or traditions. language. And she allowed me to make mistakes. Sears. what we called the American kids— second and third generation Americans who had lost their strong ethnic identification. Eventually traveling to Belgium. Schubert. I grew up speaking Russian. I spoke Russian when I started school. Despite the lack of cultural sensitivity. or engineer. He immediately took a long-term substitute teaching job and by the following spring was hired to teach third and fourth grades in the Princeton Regional Public Schools: As a kid from the Russian Alley. And. as he worked his way from junior to senior high school. by J. eventually earning a degree in social studies with elementary teaching certification. Peter gained friends in an elementary school he enjoyed attending. My mother had about a third grade education and my father no more. of course.CHAPTER 8 Implosion and Consolidation 189 His parents met in a European refugee camp after Germany’s invasion of the Soviet Union. Peter found himself poised for college. Dan Marshall. yet I had no idea what I was going to do when I got there. Peter attended Rutgers.” Nevertheless. Plus. Graduating from high school in 1976. as he entered junior high: “It was an entirely new world because the selfcontained classroom was gone and we had this departmentalized structure. I had no strong ambition in terms of being a doctor. though the town. This situation changed. 1996. 5 Personal communication. they immigrated to the United States after the war. James T. with groups of Polish speaking kids and Hungarian speaking kids. their education being interrupted by the war. all the sort of angst of puberty started to kick in. I remember really for the first time sensing that we were being graded by ability levels—I certainly knew I wasn’t in the highest ability group. who had a lot of faith in me and gave me all kinds of opportunities to make my own decisions. The school was committed to Americanizing us. as long as I didn’t repeat them all the time. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. somehow they got the idea that school was the way to improve your lot.

313–314). as noted by Pinar et al. Petra came to teaching with a strong political identity. . the tradition Michael Apple discussed in chapter 5. very white. and gender in the 1980s. and poststructuralist and postmodern discourses. Dan Marshall. by J. some would say. racial. James T. it became divided. and. she felt a conflict between her teaching success and her struggles with forces impinging on that success. Petra is a first-generation U. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. very sheltered. Like Peter. 1996. this discourse changed: As [political analysis] grew voluminous and more complex. Sears.190 PART V The Uncertainties of Contemporary Curriculum Work (1984 to Lately) Political analysis of curriculum. punctuated by heated controversy and criticism from inside as well as outside the sector. Freshman Studies. 21 September. an associate professor at Louisiana State University. class. so did the range of interests. The kids just burst out laughing because they had never seen anything that hilarious in their lives. very upper-middle class. Yet during his five years of teaching in the Princeton schools. Petra’s journey to curriculum took her through this contested terrain of curriculum as political text. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. As the sector expanded. When I started first grade I didn’t know any English. self-enclosed. Probably the pivotal experience that describes my childhood was going up to my teacher on the first day and curtsying. As you will see. And like both Susan and Mary-Ellen. and William H. So I pretty much became a loner. Schubert. such as feminist. Our final guest in this chapter is Petra Munro. Because I didn’t make a lot of friends and didn’t know the language. my escape came through books. All core classes were taught thematically with a project orientation similar to that implemented a generation earlier by Carlton Washburne at nearby Winnetka. The next phase. pp. was marked by continued incorporation of nearby terrains. Like Bill Watkins. and. (1995.6 I was born in Germany and came to the United States when I was six-years-old. a Pearson Education Company.S. like Tom Barone. Petra was constantly at work trying to locate herself within the space between personal and professional meaning. citizen who entered teaching with formal certification. By the time Petra reached high school in 1972 she was part of an experimental program. was again a fundamental discourse within curriculum studies by the time Peter began teaching in 1981. I remember spending a lot of my childhood just sitting in my closet reading and writing in my journal. incorporating notions of critical pedagogy and literacy as well as issues of race. I was brought up in the northern suburbs of Chicago. including hostile ones. While finding 6 Personal communication.

“That’s where I began to connect African history to Marxist theory. You know. Dan Marshall. Before that time I had never imagined being a teacher. she worked with African historians Donald Crummay and Charles Stewart. worked odd jobs. meeting world help organization people. and to theories of oppression. Petra entered DePauw University. That was really my first experience working with adolescents. Petra spent the second semester of her sophomore year in Africa. Our program provided a place where they could talk about those kinds of issues. and exploitation. a Pearson Education Company. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. I met my best friend from high school in French class.S. and seeing how U. I got advanced German right away and started reading Hesse. capitalism was impacting the economies and politics in those countries made me realize the need for African history and Third World history at the high school level. After graduating from high school during the country’s bicentennial year. and Kafka. James T. insulated Indiana college. “I was supposed to go to college and find a husband—not an education. After transferring to the University of Illinois.” As Petra remembers: I played in the band but I wasn’t a real band person. Goethe. and I enjoyed it tremendously. Never. Petra journeyed to Europe. . and William H. these young women were not allowed by their parents to go out by themselves or to date. I didn’t fit in with the jocks. So again. I just didn’t fit into any of the groups.” she still didn’t feel like she “fit in. you’re sort of odd if you were a girl and wanted to be smart. Raised as devout Muslims. I ended up working with a youth group of Turkish women who had emigrated to Germany for work. I focused on doing homework and getting straight A’s. Sears. During the next two years she hitchhiked. and engaged in political activities. Schubert. Being in Ghana and Nigeria and getting a much more global perspective of the world. This “pivotal experience” brought her to an understanding that she could not return to this small. with diploma in hand. and I hadn’t had a curfew in two years at home. That’s when I first read Freire’s Pedagogy of the Oppressed. inequality. The other thing that propelled me into teaching was . I was supposed to go somewhere to college and get some more manners and enough knowledge to be able to talk and converse at cocktail parties. We both read a lot and were curious.” She found DePauw an alien environment: “There was a curfew at 11:00.” An African history major. realizing that I had never learned anything about Africa in high school. . . Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. to colonial literature. Teaching was women’s work.” In the fall of 1980. by J. That got me thinking about maybe working with high school kids.CHAPTER 8 Implosion and Consolidation 191 this “an incredible experience.

and public life (e.g. Schubert. Curriculum Sampling By the closing years of the decade. Looking to the past to understand present interconnections among economic. by J.g... 1988) also pushed themselves beyond the political while theorists such as Bowers (1988) and Cherryholmes (1988) had. 1989). 1989). . 1987.. Pagano. and social forces (I. 1988). Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. Jervis & Tobier. 1989. 1988. and William H. Giroux. others clearly had the sense that curriculum had “gone astray” (Hoffman. & Whitson. personal. Simon. others pushed the epistemological and ideological parameters of curriculum work. Beyer. Greene. M. James T. Feminist writers (e. 1987). D. F. a Pearson Education Company. B. One of the most complex. Giroux. curriculum. 1988. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Political analysis was well established by the late 1980s (e. As scholars from varied positions and perspectives chose to situate their discussions within the larger context of democracy. 1988. Giroux. 1988. Dalton. 1988). These writers were just as concerned with students “learning to question” the “fractured meaning” of their “lives on the boundary” as they were with exploring “civic education” and the “teacher as text. 1989) and the ways in which teachers’ and students’ lives interact pedagogically (Freire & Faundez. 1988. 1988. Curricularists also focused on teachers (e. by this time. though some of its long-standing proponents had begun to broaden its working parameters (Beyer & Apple. citizenship. Katz.192 PART V The Uncertainties of Contemporary Curriculum Work (1984 to Lately) After her travels. 1988b). cultural. While some were at work developing a “postliberal” theory of education and curriculum (Bowers. On a lark. curriculum workers were borrowing freely from a rapidly growing identity menu. 1989).g. 1989). Spring. Sears. 1988. she began her high school teaching career in suburban Chicago. Kirk. and the moral and spiritual crises in education (Purpel. Beyer. curriculum writers borrowed freely from a variety of academic disciplines while focusing on cultural struggle and everyday life (Giroux & McLaren. Goodman. & Contributors. Aiken et al. staked out ecocultural and poststructural positions. she enrolled in an education course taught by social studies educator Ben Cox. 1988. 1988a. Oliver & Gershman. 1986. she switched from history to education. 1989). 1989. the competitive ethos (Nicholls. 1989. Goodson. Connelly & Clandinin. 1987).. Engle & Ochoa..” Others extended analyses and understandings of pedagogy.g. 1988. Feinberg. and the purposes of schools outside of classrooms and schools. Inspired. In the fall of 1984. Butts. Petra returned to the University of Illinois for graduate study in history. sophisticated works of 1988 proved to be Madeleine Grumet’s Bitter Milk (1988a)—a work that brought together numerous intellectual discourses. Dan Marshall. Jackson & Haroutunian.

There was also the short-lived band Electric Flag. and Jackson Browne’s country folk. barroom brawls. In the 1970s. Bob Dylan and Donovan’s fusion of folk and rock. blues. 1990. Dan Marshall. helping to found modern soul music. Sears. which combined jazz. country. During this same period. George Harrison. Meanwhile. In the 1950s. By the 1980s. and rock music with the advent of Nashville Skyline. Led Zeppelin. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. Jeff Lynne. Sam Cook. merged gospel music with secular themes. By the mid-1980s he had repudiated conservative Christianity with the release of Infidels and integrated reggae. a subcategory of country music—honky-tonk—blended swing. Bob Dylan’s transformation created new musical genres. Also during the 1970s the Allman Brothers Band expanded jazz “boogie jams. most notably. Linda Ronstadt’s and the Eagles’ blend of country and rock. dance music. jazz. By the late 1970s and early 1980s. while the dance productions of Madonna and Michael Jackson dissolved established notions of pop singing and performing. garnering Dylan’s first Grammy for Best Rock Vocal Performance. Tom Petty. (continued) ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. and uncertain jobs sung by the likes of Tammy Wynette and George Jones. MTV’s musical specialty show Yo! MTV Raps. and rap in the album Down in the Groove. and Palmer to metal guitarist Eddie Van Halen integrated classical music with rock. Lake. . it “constantly steals from other sources. and. and rock. Germany’s Das Furlines pioneered the punk–polka genre as England’s band the Police blended punkish energy and rock style with reggae and jazz. Neil Young journeyed from solo acoustical ballads to sweet country rock to heavy metal distortion. in the early 1960s. with its single Gotta Serve Somebody. We also witnessed the metamorphosis of older stars who sparked new genres or subcategories of music: David Bowie’s traveled from glitter rock to folk to blues. by J. The 1980s also brought unparalleled success for crossover artists and rap music. and the Traveling Wilburys (Bob Dylan. more critically stated. and country with lyrics about unrequited loves. the fusion of American and African musical styles abounded in Paul Simon’s Graceland and the British duo Wham!. while James Brown stripped gospel blues to minimalist punk and Sly Stone later fused punk with rock. p. and Roy Orbison). hosted by Fab 5 Freddy.including Julio Iglesias with Willie Nelson. 216). Canned Heat. Schubert. he had christened Christian rock. American popular music has to some degree always freely borrowed from the musical menu.CHAPTER 8 Implosion and Consolidation 193 WHEN THE MUSIC DIED Of course. blues. and ZZ Top borrowed heavily from early blues. James T. Dylan had fused country. Other diverse bands such as the Rolling Stones. Sweat. as did guitarists such as Eric Clapton and Stevie Ray Vaughan. Santana added Latin rhythm and those ranging from progressive rock performers Emerson.” Bands such as Chicago and Blood. folk. creating its own encapsulation by transgressing any sense of boundary and identity” (Grossberg. and William H. releasing Slow Train Coming. and Tears pioneered jazz-rock. a Pearson Education Company.musical fusions appeared in unlikely pairings.

Schubert. a Pearson Education Company. 808 State emphasized groove over technical expertise. emerged later in London. Mostly middle-class. all this stylistic fusing and musical boundary devolution made it increasingly difficult for traditional critics and consumers alike to define popular music. James T. hard-core rock. and techno. contributing to the techno-rave sound with hits such as Pacific State.’s Cultural Literacy (1987) and Allan Bloom’s The Closing of the American Mind (1987) reached best-seller status. was the first major rap artist to cross over to pop charts with Please Hammer Don’t Hurt ’Em. Oliver North became a media hero during the televised hearings that implicated (continued) ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. and curriculum had vanished as well by the late 1980s. Germany’s Einstürzende Neubauten.Hammer. the Dead Kennedys. blended hip-hop with southern folk blues instrumentation of harmonica and acoustic guitars laced with gospel-tinged lyrics. technically fused African or Latin rhythms and reverb with deep drum and bass to a sped-up disco beat. and other industrial sounds such as amplified air-conditioning ducts and burning oil. integrated percussion and guttural vocals with guitar distortions. the Beastie Boys became the first white group to successfully sell rap. house.Toni Morrison’s Beloved received the Pulitzer Prize in fiction in the same year that E. the world’s first industrial band. The American Music Award for Best Black Male Vocal in 1989 was awarded to the British singer George Michael (who is not black). pain-filled youth slam-danced to hard-core music and bought hundreds of thousands of records. One of the best-known bands of the 1980s.A Manchester techno dance band from the late 1980s. acid house. power tools (ranging from jackhammers to power drills). Run-D. Another crossover rap group.Terminal Preppie. recording songs such as Winnebago Warrior. singular readings of reality within politics. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. Ultimately. as independent recording companies tapped into this new genre. ballroom. the majors bought or forged distributor agreements with independent labels. by J. The disco and punk of the 1970s also set the stage for a number of later genres. including hip-hop.C. and William H. rap. Sears. signed by Capitol Records for a multi-album contract. Dan Marshall. culture. established its own label. industrial. originating in Chicago’s Warehouse Club (hence its name). while a year later the white rapper Vanilla Ice hit number one with his album To the Extreme. Arrested Development. Quickly becoming mainstream. And.194 PART V The Uncertainties of Contemporary Curriculum Work (1984 to Lately) WHEN THE MUSIC DIED (continued) popularized this urban folk poetry set to music. emerging from the hard-core punk New York underground. Hopelessness and despair distinguished the angst and anger of generation X punk. . House music. the Circle Jerks. collaborated with Aerosmith to fuse inner-city rap with heavy metal and attracted a segment of the white hard-rock audience.The early 1980s marked the emergence of urban-based groups such as Black Flag. acid jazz. Hirsch Jr. D. and Nazi Punks Fuck Off. inspired by 1970s groups such as The Clash and Sex Pistols. and Offspring.M.crossing into the mainstream with License to Ill in 1986.A psychedelic version of house music. As if “reality” was not hard enough to pin down within the music world.

the line employees doing their jobs. .There is virtually no talk among school people of the curriculum as interactive or constructed. philosophical. become thus reduced to fit into mindless. . My heart and best intentions still tell me this is true. and realities. expresses concern about the need to bring together critical theorists and those working in schools. Members of the music world found themselves both shaping and being shaped by the forces around them as they worked across boundaries and through unknown terrain. Equally common (but less discussed at the university) is a practically universal condescension and patronization toward teachers. . and William H. Meanwhile. though in the eyes of some the tensions inherent in choosing direction did not bode well for common hopes. The teachers are clerks. many of its artists and listeners (old and new) were busy doing the same. had individually and collectively begun these identity reconstruction projects. . ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. . cultures. Ideas that are potentially transforming . but the larger reality has overwhelmed whatever might have been hopeful there. of teachers as transformative intellectuals or moral agents. Struggling to redefine its multiple selves. too.” Shifting Ground As the 1980s ended. . something bought and sold. a Pearson Education Company. Talk of school improvement generally means buying a different package and inserting it into the existing structures. President Reagan’s response to these congressional testimonies epitomized a postmodern playfulness: “A few months ago. The Shifting Ground of Curriculum Thought and Everyday Practice by William A ye rs The curriculum is a thing. theoretical. . Sears. James T. the music industry had lost its historically established identity. but the facts and the evidence tell me it’s not. . a graduate of Teachers College and former SDS leader. packaged and delivered.” The name remains. toward the practical.CHAPTER 8 Implosion and Consolidation 195 WHEN THE MUSIC DIED (continued) him in the Iran–Contra debacle. just before lunch. Schubert.” or “We do character ed. Bill Ayers. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall.This is as true for critical theorists as for empirical analytical academics. It is a commonplace for academics to be dismissed by school teachers as being impractical. . In the following Theory Into Practice excerpt. identity construction became a part of the decade’s shared workload. While rules changed and foundations shifted or crumbled. airless spaces: “We have a critical thinking unit first thing in the morning. I told the American people I did not trade arms for hostages. Educators. by J. Dan Marshall.

Sears. and from the relative safety of academe. by J. for a continual desire to see more. . Dan Marshall. yes. Critical theorists espouse praxis. a Pearson Education Company. to spontaneity.Theory helps us to organize the world. Source: Ayers. and they are moving with courage and hope.to make some coherent sense out of a kaleidoscope of sensations.We should be for intellect. They are searching for new ways of thinking and doing.The Ohio State University. then. 259–263.Without theory we would collapse exhausted from our encounter with experience. to know more. and I consistently find a complex grasp of the subtleties of control embodied in the lunchroom and the playground as well as the classroom.196 PART V The Uncertainties of Contemporary Curriculum Work (1984 to Lately) The problem is that unlike the “critical theorists” of the 1920s or the 1960s. [T]here is no proper way to ground curriculum thought in school practice outside of doing it. Theory is important. none too provocative. students. a complex integration of political action with intellectual inquiry. stop waiting for the big moment when we can be strong. We should resist dogma—theory as a closed. that what we do or do not do matters in its detail. justifying framework that hides reality. into the unknown. .” Copyright 1992 College of Education. to contradiction. . . . . to ambiguity. As a public school teacher in Chicago during the 1980s.W. . and William H. away from the taken-for-granted .And.And we should be for a morality linked to action. 31(3). and correct. James T. those who profess critical theory today are most likely to do so in a language that is arid and arcane. Living in the world is also what we do. Where are the voices of classroom teachers struggling with these questions? Where are the insurgent alternative schools? What role do critical theorists have in making any of this happen? People involved in changing schools have taken an important first step . courageous. . I often ask school people whose interests are being served here. . In fact. (1992). Bill Watkins— now a colleague of Ayers—knew that curriculum thought had to remain connected to school practice. We can. . and teachers to see the workings of politics and power in schools in much greater detail. . [M]aking theory is simply what human beings do. to the next utterance in the dialogue.to sort out the details. . that we embody a stance and a social statement in our experiences. . . and get on with the business of living as if it made a difference. but tend to be heavy on the latter and light on the former. We can resist the notion that ideas flow from thinkers to doers. As he tells it: ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. . our choices. our daily lives.We should also know that there is no politics without people. Schubert. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. We should be reminded (as the women’s movement so powerfully taught) that the personal is political. . Theory Into Practice. In this context I have found that no question is too radical.We should stay alive to questions. . I have consistently been pushed by parents.The shifting ground of curriculum thought and everyday practice. From a theme issue on “Grounding Contemporary Curriculum Thought.

Sears. to cultivate the capacity to know aesthetically. [and] to comprehend the teacher and his or her work as inherently aesthetic” (Pinar et al. because I’m sick of Bloom. I had no lesson plan and no clue. Necessity overcame boredom: “I mean. The previous teacher had left rather abruptly. Tied historically to issues of power and control. . His persistence caught the eye of one professor. While seeking his teacher certification. Barone was looking for a way to satisfy his desire to theoretically understand and enhance his own practice. But I don’t think I’ll go on in education. . John Dewey. Watkins persisted. and Dewey. so there was some sort of teacher’s assistant in the room. James T. Tom continues his story: ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. ..” As an African-American. Nevertheless. I slogged through the certification classes. In need of a teaching certificate. so he turned me on to other authors who I found absolutely fascinating. That one book did more than any other to forever tie me to the curriculum field. racial discourse in curriculum grew from the postmodern crises of identity and representation. Kind of. in every course there was Benjamin Bloom. Finding doctoral studies exciting and the program more flexible than that of his previous graduate work. In his case. Bill Watkins found himself entering the curriculum field at a time when curriculum was coming of age as a racial text with an importance of its own. . and Ralph Tyler. I looked at this woman and said. Similar in some respects to Watkins’s need to find a place for himself within curriculum studies. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. by J. you’re the teacher. Bill enrolled at the University of Illinois at Chicago. Don’t you know?” So I just looked at the kids and started talking. “Well. 1995. he enrolled in a curriculum course at the University of New Orleans. Bill Schubert: He said I’d been one of his best students and wondered if I’d thought about going on? And I said. and William H. “Well yeah. Tom Barone. “Well. too. what do I do?” And she looked at me and said.” We had come to know one another and Bill had read many of my papers and saw that I was kind of radicalized and political. it was Elliot Eisner’s work with aesthetics. 604). Bill “saw a place for [his] politics within curriculum studies. never skipping a beat. Tyler. When I read Michael Apple’s Ideology and Curriculum I found it orgasmic. Schubert. was drawn to curriculum by one of its (re)emergent and distinguishable discourses. Dan Marshall. p.CHAPTER 8 Implosion and Consolidation 197 On my first day of teaching. a place for a politically conscious individual. a discourse that sought “to understand the role of the imagination in the development of the intellect.” Realizing that with just a few more courses he would earn a master’s degree. a Pearson Education Company. I walked into my class really interested.

radical even. I had read some ethnography and I realized that you could use thick description. Schubert. somewhat to the chagrin of Elliot. It was considered fairly unusual. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. Dan Marshall.198 PART V The Uncertainties of Contemporary Curriculum Work (1984 to Lately) That was probably the moment at which I became intrigued with the field of curriculum. I thought maybe what I could do would be to become a teacher educator. I had previously understood this dissension at an intellectual level with no real sense of the human passion behind it. Maybe that’s the path to power here? Carefully reading the works of curriculum writers. p. 848) and it ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir.. . I could see how this curriculum course connected with my philosophy background. and William H. I read a couple of articles by Elliot Eisner and knew almost immediately this was the person who made the most sense to me. Tom attended his first reconceptualist conference at Airlie. Tom pondered where he would enroll if he was to pursue advanced study. and Eisner. which he did. a Pearson Education Company. Barone also came to understand the curriculum field through courses taught by professors such as Decker Walker. I don’t know that I had read any examples of the kind of writing I had in mind at the time.” Among the major curricular camps’ representatives “you could actually see the tension in the curriculum field being played out before your eyes. 1995. I was also interested in the new journalism. excited about moving from a more quantitative and technical curricular orientation to one that was more qualitative and holistic: Actually. James T. I remember for the first time really reading Michael Apple’s work and being influenced by his ideas.” Tom applied to Stanford in 1974. “One night in the Tulane library. While at Stanford. who “broadened my spectrum of understanding. “It was an eye-opening experience because there seemed to be so much rancor and divisiveness. But I knew that Elliot would provide a kind of cover for me to do that.” Reconstructions Few would deny that by the late 1980s curriculum had become an “extraordinarily complicated conversation” (Pinar et al. to think about writing the kind of dissertation that I had in mind. I sensed that opportunities were being lost and that the traditional structure of the school was lacking in many ways. Sears.” After completing his doctorate in 1978 and while teaching at Northern Kentucky University. Tom Wolfe and Joan Didion and wondering why the heck can’t we write that way and have it be legitimate in terms of educational research. What appealed to me about education was that it had that balance between practice. reading people like Norman Mailer. by J. who was working through his naturalistic approach to curriculum development.

for that matter. for example. at least with respect to the books one might peruse. with several centers of focus. this revision eliminated two former sections: curriculum engineering and the nature and formulation of objectives. curriculum planning. Here we return to the stories of Susan and MaryEllen.. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Sears. Here. including the need to reread past decisions and changes. In place of its “bland eclecticism” and “paradigmatic unity” we see a move “away from curriculum as institutional text” to a situation that. had changed. and William H. . the field’s long-standing fascination with institutional discourses had been permanently disturbed—for better or for worse. Mary-Ellen Jacobs drove to the University of Maryland campus at College Park to pick up a catalog of spring courses. Dan Marshall. readers come away with an overall sense that the curriculum field had indeed. social class. Consciously organizing previously published curriculum writing to illustrate the field’s breadth and complexity. and cultural politics).CHAPTER 8 Implosion and Consolidation 199 had become nearly impossible to categorically discuss curriculum books. The unusual array of topical curriculum books in 1988.” No longer contained within conventional discussions of subject matter. by this time. William Pinar (1988) arrayed six different perspectives on curriculum theorizing in his carefully titled reader. had become “particularistic and even balkanized” (Pinar et al. no longer bound exclusively to schooling. become “complicated. Contemporary Curriculum Discourses. 1988) to organic (R. 1995. p. moral education. Through biography as curricular text we can see how individuals reconstructed themselves and their work. a Pearson Education Company. P. in education. 1988) and holistic (J. 1988) was emblematic of the changing times. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. in lieu of talk about subject matter content. 849). including political or critical analyses such as those of Apple (1988) and Anyon (1988) and phenomenological analyses such as those of van Manen (1988) and Grumet (1988b). 7). in Pinar’s words (1988a. he situates theorizing from varied positions. In lieu of these traditionally bread-and-butter curriculum topics. she discovered it offered no evening classes: “Talk about elitism: you could only do women’s studies during the day!” Hoping to run the Army’s anesthesia school and knowing that the woman then in charge had a Ph. Hunter & Scheirer. or critical issues. Miller. 1988)—is a clue that the curriculum field. While visiting the women’s and gender studies department. Schubert. In contrast. With aesthetic criticism and phenomenology elevated to an equal status with political analysis. p. James T. for example—from modular (Moon.D. The publication of the second edition of the popular 1978 reader Curriculum: An Introduction to the Field (Gress & Purpel. the editors inserted a new section on the hidden curriculum (including work on sex bias. 1988) and negotiated (Johnston & Dowdy. In January 1983. by J. organizational schemas. or functional procedures and.

I began to see that I could put my knowledge of English and literature together with thinking about nursing education and other aspects of my life. who was using the Saylor. “even though I knew nothing about education. a Pearson Education Company. So Pinar’s book really changed me. but I really loved what I was doing at the University of Maryland. I had to do a paper. I didn’t want to be a teacher. but I still had no idea what curriculum was and no idea if I belonged or whether I should get a degree from that area.200 PART V The Uncertainties of Contemporary Curriculum Work (1984 to Lately) Mary-Ellen looked over the graduate course offerings in education.” In January 1986 she committed to the Ph. I was asked to return to teach English at Howard High School the following year while my former cooperating teacher there was out on maternity leave. program full-time.D. That year as a teacher really gave me a sense of what schools were about and what I was about as a teacher. But I decided to keep taking classes and switch over to the curriculum program. and William H. Mary-Ellen was referred to Louise Berman: Louise invited me to an end-of-semester get together at her house the following week—you know. she enrolled in a master’s program to earn a secondary English certificate. too. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. by J. come out and meet students and faculty and talk to them. so “it wasn’t long into [her] stay at Maryland before [she] recognized that the curriculum field was contentious. Sears. Mary-Ellen began to wonder about her future. I had no idea what curriculum was. James T. Mary-Ellen found herself totally bored by the whole thing. and Lewis (fourth edition. other than the category of space where my courses were located in the catalog.” Since she had never taught in public school. after considering a move from women’s and gender studies into education. Alexander. I did go.” she recalls. Schubert.” Combining her interests in feminist ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Taking an introductory curriculum course with Berman. . Though she enjoyed her courses at Maryland. in part because in [a previous] course we had used Pinar’s Curriculum Theorizing: The Reconceptualists [1975]. Dan Marshall. and I remember picking up Pinar’s book for some reason and really looking at it.” Toward the end of that first semester. But I remained in the program and they arranged a very non-traditional student teaching internship in a whole lot of different schools doing English and language arts with K–12 kids. “I simply began taking courses. 1981) synoptic curriculum text. feminism had remained important for Mary-Ellen. “I loved doing clinical anesthesia. “Wanting to get started immediately. I wanted to get my doctorate. Since 1979.

. by the gender system that forms and deforms us. I learned a tremendous amount just preparing for that class. by J. too. ultimately realizing that.CHAPTER 8 Implosion and Consolidation 201 studies. Sears. because I felt like I had found something that was bringing back earlier interests and combining them with later ones. physics. Like Mary-Ellen. James T. at the center of the field. Dan Marshall. In 1988. . but we would focus on ourselves in relation to other cultures. physical science. While Susan attended graduate classes at Louisiana State University’s Shreveport campus. and women as curriculum theorists. she taught one middle school mathematics class along with chemistry. literature. The most profound aspect of their work is perhaps their persistence in not categorizing or compartmentalizing our understandings of curriculum. and William H. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. curriculum. She remembers: ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Susan would see the contours and controversies within the curriculum field from her emergent vantage point. biology. Schubert. “I wasn’t just writing about Maxine Greene: in many ways I was writing about myself. which I taught for three years. feminist curriculum theorists and others committed to gender analysis will no doubt continue to confront the ways all of us . works at this central place in curriculum.” By pursuing her interests in curriculum as a gendered discourse. too. Yet it was an opportunity to teach anthropology “and do anything with the course I wished” that deeply affected her future: I decided to teach cultural anthropology and look at what I was calling at the time contemporary American culture. In other words. Mary-Ellen came to appreciate the long history of women who had spent their careers questioning curriculum tradition and waiting to be taken seriously. we would not focus our gaze on so-called primitive or third world cultures. are affected . . . p. Mary-Ellen used her dissertation to explore the work of Maxine Greene. It is urgent work . a Pearson Education Company. While employed as a chemist. Returning again to Pinar et al. . Susan Edgerton. and advanced-placement chemistry. And that was a turning point for me. she learned of a teaching position in Shreveport at a local private school. . Joining the faculty in 1984. 403): Perhaps no other single discursive configuration in the field circulates these traditional concepts into a kaleidoscopic theoretical whole as effectively as that sector of scholarship which labors to understand curriculum as gender text. in Mary-Ellen’s words. As the 1990s unfold. . (1995. Susan left teaching for Baton Rouge and full-time doctoral studies. Bill Pinar had become chair of the curriculum department at Louisiana State’s main campus in Baton Rouge and created a program that linked graduate study in curriculum at regional campuses with eventual doctoral residency at the main campus.

and no rule of judgment applicable to all arguments. . but she “left that program under no illusions that there was some sort of unified curriculum field. But reading Maya Angelou’s autobiography sent me in a new direction. James T. All of a sudden I felt like. That exploration ended up becoming a book. So those were my teachers. a Pearson Education Company. Western philosophers have sought a collective voice to represent unified positions or metanarratives regarding knowledge and truth. Schubert. a Faulkner scholar in the English Department. primarily. . . Lyotard’s The Postmodern Condition (1979/1984) represented a clear incredulity toward such metanarratives and universal reason. Bill invited me and Joe Kincheloe to present with him at AERA and Bergamo on something about the South. by J. I started reading more literary kinds of things as well as critical theory. According to Peters (1995. it is perhaps no wonder that there is no one ruling or hegemonic genre. that everything I need. As a doctoral student between 1988 and 1991. self-reverentially.”. The intellectual environment was exciting. and Tony Whitson. Sears. 388): the reason why Lyotard’s work has given rise to such controversy is that it epitomizes. Curriculum as Social Psychoanalysis [Kincheloe & Pinar. 1991]. Edgerton saw the faculty as respectful of one another and their differences. p. etc. .202 PART V The Uncertainties of Contemporary Curriculum Work (1984 to Lately) Meeting Bill Pinar. is in literature? But just being around Bill and the other faculty in Baton Rouge introduced me to a whole new body of literature. the very conditions for discourse in the “postmodern condition. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. . Where multiple parties are involved from a variety of genres of discourse. almost. This postmodern medley of nanonarratives promotes cultural heterogeneity and difference while recognizing that such a situation will inevitably contain “differends”—fundamental conflicts between parties ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. . To prepare for those presentations. Dan Marshall. though I also worked with Richard Moreland. He had brought in Leslie Roman and Cameron McCarthy—contemporaries who had worked with Michael Apple at the University of Wisconsin—and Jacques Daignault. Bill Doll.” Metanarratives and Nanonarratives:The Postmodern Curriculum Condition Throughout the twentieth century. and William H. no overarching meta-discourse. philosophy. was very important. each with a different perspective or argument. because suddenly I discovered literature. eventually. which was an important part of my life before. why didn’t anybody tell me that everything is there. language-game or metanarrative.

1995. They differ markedly. or institution of higher education is no longer “Is it true?” but “What use is it?” In the context of the mercantilization of knowledge. The narrative function has been dispersed into many language elements. including critical postmodernism. by J. we turn to William Pinar. . Sears. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. by design. 865). however. 1979/1984. requires metanarratives). For Lyotard. these newest curriculum dissidents were united in their rejection of curriculum “performance” as the power-based legitimizing notion of a technological metanarrative: The question (overt or implied) now asked by the professional student. Since the mid-1980s there has been a strong and unmistakable emergence of these nanonarratives within the curriculum literature. was no more. Per Lyotard’s analysis. the “rule of consensus . became real as the field (d)evolved into curricular particles. and phenomenology. Dan Marshall.. who holds fast to the position that pleas for peaceful coexistence between theory and practice are misguided and that these “worlds apart” must remain as such. No longer searching for curricular consensus or consolidation that would merely return us to the state of reductive homogenization of varied multiple interests (which. We are left with only ‘language particles’ ” (Peters. p. all eroding the dominant Enlightenment paradigm and exposing its oppressive metanarratives. feminism. 51) Despite their diversity. Schubert. . the State. The positivist metanarrative that had dominated the field since its genesis. p. the relative value of these language particles for the construction and legitimation of curriculum knowledge and identity. and against which oppositional voices had waged unflinching assaults. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. each with its own pragmatic valencies.CHAPTER 8 Implosion and Consolidation 203 that cannot be equitably resolved for lack of a rule applicable to all conflicting parties. James T. In our final selection from this collection of essays. 1995. more often than not this question is equivalent to: “Is it salable?” And in the context of powergrowth: “Is it efficient?” (Lyotard. all of the Theory Into Practice selections excerpted here reject this performativity principle. a Pearson Education Company. had enfolded and spawned scores of curriculum genres. eschatology. and created “problems of cross-discourse communication” (Pinar et al. These oppositional discourses. including critical theory. feminist poststructuralist methodology. has been finally rent asunder. and autobiography. as well as the recognition and reading of curriculum texts and discourses. the aim of philosophy is not to resolve differends but rather to detect (a cognitive task) and bear witness to them (an ethical obligation). It was into this fractured curricular world of overlapping and rapidly changing boundaries that the new generation of curriculum scholars entered. and William H. on the actual and desired relationship between theory and practice. As the 1980s concluded. 389–390). . p.

those of us who labored to reconceptualize the ahistorical. atheoretical field we found in 1970 (Pinar. and William H. . P i n a r D espite the disguised political motives for the current school reform movement and the “bottom line” character of reform. . . determined to help realize the educational ideals of teachers. easily indignant. . who embrace this time of opportunity and work with the schools. Our presence may prove more valuable in the longer term if we continue to point to other worlds. . even if it represents only an “advance” back to the 1960s. brittle. the school is not ideal “ground” for “curriculum thought. teacher educators. Dan Marshall. not just the massive retreat from the innovations of the 1960s. It is as if long ago they lost hope for significant change in the schools. . true help may involve more than the provision of practical answers to everyday problems. Sears.” For the foreseeable future. Perhaps teachers will be granted greater discretion over instructional method. . Certainly some segment of the curriculum field will devote itself to assist in the design of the corporate school curriculum. Schubert. . a Pearson Education Company. 1975) have always seen a more complex calling for the curriculum field (Pinar. and students. spaces in which the demands of the state and of the principal. . understood.The theoretical wing of the reconceived field aspires to ground itself not in the pressured everyday world of the classroom but in worlds not present in schools.” directed to “manage” learning that is modeled after corporate work stations. and students can be viewed. I applaud those .A change as modest as a return to electives and flexible scheduling would constitute a remarkable advance. and reframed as questions posed to ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. pressured to raise the test scores of students who may not have eaten that day or slept the night before. and in lived experience that is not exclusively instrumental and calculative. one might say that the times defeated them. although greater discretion over curriculum strikes me as less likely. I believe some measure of educationally sound reform can be made at this time. Many teachers today seem hardened. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. this is a time of genuine opportunity. by J. 1991). James T. Because the organization and culture of the school are linked to the economy. However.204 PART V The Uncertainties of Contemporary Curriculum Work (1984 to Lately) “Dreamt into Existence by Others”: Curriculum Theory and School Reform by William F. If theory does not exist to provide practical solutions to everyday problems.As much as we are pulled to help our school colleagues. These “worlds apart” from the pressure and instrumentality of the daily classroom may seem valueless to the harassed teacher. while devising creative and self-affirmative strategies for teaching. parents. It is as if long ago they lost hope they could teach all children. worlds that might enable our school colleagues to achieve sufficient distance from the daily pressure to make a separate peace. in ideas marginal to the maximization of profit. sullen. teachers will be trained as “social engineers. If that is true. why does it exist? Theory must create spaces apart from the pressurized sphere of practical activity.

critical. Schubert. pleasure. perhaps interesting. Being a theorist does not mean being a celibate in terms of everyday practice. Theory must stay out of bed with current reform in order to remain free to theorize modes of knowing and knowledge linked with neither the factory nor the corporate model. to enlarge the perception and deepen the intelligence of the participants. well worth our labor. School reform that moves us from the factory or the assembly-line model of schooling to a corporate model will probably produce welcomed if incremental improvements in test scores and in the quality of life in schools. if we can teach. it will seem pointless indeed. are conceived by others. deepened. By living in worlds apart from the everyday. we might participate in the daily world with more intensity and intelligence. and ourselves. politics. F. From a theme issue on “Grounding Contemporary Curriculum Thought. Dan Marshall. James T. if we can make friends with our colleagues struggling in the schools.To the novice teacher eager to earn “merit” salary increases by effective problem solving in the corporate school. However. more profound issues of identity. politics.CHAPTER 8 Implosion and Consolidation 205 oneself. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. (1992). create passages—to borrow Daignault’s phrase (1992)—to travel from here to there and back again.W. continues to wait in other rooms while policymakers and politicians wrestle with the excitement. and William H. Sears.While harassed practitioners may find such theory not immediately translatable into practical action. It does not mean one cannot function successfully in the corporate school. provides a lived distance sufficiently apart from the everyday to support self-affirmative. 31(3). 228–235. and frustration of programmatic conceptions. much later. Such theory might allow us to participate in school reform in ways that do not hypostatize the present. a Pearson Education Company. allow our labor and understandings to function as do those in psychoanalysis.“Dreamt into existence by others”: Curriculum theory and school reform.These would be genuine accomplishments. However. Theory Into Practice. We must not do so with arrogance but with the humility that accompanies the knowledge that we. providing advice and assistance.We theorists must continue to create separate rooms of our own in which we try to see past the corporate model. Source: Pinar. to be reserved for later. . build bridges between the realms of theory and of practice. it will seem fanciful.The constituency of theorists may not be in schools at this time. intelligence. What value is theory to the practitioner? To those teachers hardened by 20 years of conservative reaction. Being a theorist does not mean being dissociated or inefficient. too. by J. broadened. and experience. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. situated in history. in underlining the arbitrariness of current practice.The Ohio State University.” Copyright 1992 College of Education. and creative curriculum and teaching. but rather. Being a theorist does mean that contemporary curriculum organization and the modes of cognition it requires can be bracketed. enlivened by the voyage. they may find that such theory. to notnecessarily economic forms of human organization. and experience will tend to be ignored unless theory stays out of bed with practice. then we theorists might participate with subtlety and acumen in school reform.

Peter “kind of wanted to be like Dan.” He continues: As a doctoral student planning to become a participant in the curriculum field. W. this engine of social reform and progress. a self-described “utility player. and interaction with children. While teaching a doctoral seminar in curriculum theory. many—particularly those from prior generations—were troubled by the accompanying distancing of curriculum theory from school practice. and William H. Schubert. the reconceptualist position became a focus of Peter’s exploration. re-negotiated way of looking at the school. Peter says. and transgression.206 PART V The Uncertainties of Contemporary Curriculum Work (1984 to Lately) Though a growing number of curriculum workers in the late 1980s embraced the postmodern condition. After graduating in 1987.” he taught courses from general methods to introduction to research. the study of education. which connected me with Dan Tanner. And that kind of progressivist spirit didn’t really exist in my teacher training courses at all. would eventually critique this condition. Enamored by Tanner’s “adventuresome life” of traveling. of course. Peter first encountered Dan Tanner. and the subject-centered traditional humanist traditions. Dan Marshall. had that big textbook which he believes is representative of the traditions of the field [Tanner & Tanner.” In pursuing his doctorate at Rutgers. irony. or a progressive experimentalist. mainly the child-centered. Post campus. Daniel Tanner—Peter took the rapid legitimation of this new curriculum inquiry seriously and head on. I think I was made well aware of its varied traditions. including Peter Hlebowitsh. I had had a lot of education classes. James T. Hlebowitsh gained “a better sense of the important contribution that curricularists can make to giving coherence and identity to the school experience. Unlike many senior curriculum people—including his mentor. 1995]. Viewed as outside the curriculum field’s boundaries by Tanner. a Pearson Education Company. consulting. Two years later he became the general program director for the curriculum theory and development program at the University of Houston. He did spend a lot of time fashioning the other perspectives or traditions. I suddenly discovered a whole new. But he also insisted on us reading primary materials. welcoming displacement. Pursuing a master’s degree to elevate his place on the district’s pay scale. Sears. A few. “I began to get interested in this whole section of the field that Dan Tanner hadn’t paid much attention to. who was teaching at Rutgers: It was complete fortuity that I chose curriculum. [and] I spent a ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. and meeting important people. Dan. . he first taught at Long Island University’s C. writing. Certified as a school teacher. But in Dan’s classes. Dan is very much committed to seeing the school as this upbuilder of democracy. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. by J. It was clear that Dan was working out of the tradition of Dewey. the social efficiency. and identified himself as a social experimentalist.

Jan Jipson (who had worked with Michael Apple). along with good old accountability. Driven not only by a desire to revise what he believes to be faulty historical accounts and interpretations of the field’s forebearers (especially Ralph Tyler).” She worked with an eclectic group of faculty with strong but very diverse theoretical foundations. like Susan. Sears. 1981]. When told that she could no longer teach a six-week course on pre-Columbian civilizations. Harry Wolcott. So my first readings in curriculum confirmed that there were people out there who were doing things and thinking in these ways. seeks consolidation among the potpourri of today’s curriculum voices. The curriculum soon became uniform.” Upon reflection she notes: “I had been given freedom. I’m out of here. an effort to reinsert what he understood to be the “early progressive” discourse within the continuously nuanced collection of post-traditional curriculum conversations. . She also read heavily: I just lapped up the readings I did in curriculum theory because in many ways they spoke to my experience. and William H. I already considered myself a feminist. At the time.” Although Petra applied to the University of Chicago.CHAPTER 8 Implosion and Consolidation 207 great deal of my time trying to formulate a new. enjoyed her intellectually eclectic doctoral program in curriculum. it ranks right up there with going to Africa for the first time. As Petra explains: I probably would have stayed [more than five years] teaching high school because I felt a great deal of success and I loved working with kids.” Peter’s avid entrance into the kaleidoscopic contemporary curriculum field presents the inevitable postmodern paradox—that is. she declared: “That’s it. which “ended up being an incredible experience for me. Peter. and Chet Bowers. OBE took that away. Madeleine Grumet’s Bitter Milk [1988a] was a revolutionary textbook. finding her place within the contemporary curriculum field was a welcome challenge for Petra Munro who. Dan Marshall. James T. Eisner. like William Reid (1992). Schubert. and I definitely considered myself a political activist. I mean. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. That’s when I was introduced to Michael Apple. Problems of consolidation notwithstanding. But around 1987. Northwestern. and Stanford. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. the Berlaks [Berlak & Berlak. her husband at the time would only move to Oregon. outcome based education [OBE] hit our district like a sledge hammer. She reluctantly enrolled at the University of Oregon. and also feminists. including David Flinders (a student of Eisner’s). more detailed criticism of this newest paradigm because I felt it was actually threatening the very heart and soul of the field itself. by J. a Pearson Education Company. I was treated as an intellectual—someone who had the skills and competence to decide what was appropriate in the classroom.

Before leaving our solar system. Voyager II (launched in 1977) transmitted data from the planet Neptune while on this planet. waged a war against cocaine (including crack). George Bush easily won the general U. high. You know. which “had a meat market quality to it. gentler nation” bathed in “a thousand points of light” promoted volunteerism while Bobby McFerrin’s tune Don’t Worry. though. now the nation’s drug czar.S. The Berlin Wall came down. arresting one-time ally Manuel Noriega. Bush’s call for a “kinder. and William H. The year that Francis Fukuyama (in The National Interest) announced “the end of history.” Eclectic Connections Though Jesse Jackson became the first African-American presidential candidate to win several state primaries. a Pearson Education Company.” Petra would eventually enter the curriculum field knowing that the Bergamo conference “was going to be. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. Ronald C. Sears.” the aging Rolling Stones grossed some $70 million while on tour. And. Some history. To be sure.208 PART V The Uncertainties of Contemporary Curriculum Work (1984 to Lately) In Petra’s second year of doctoral work. Be Happy captured Grammys for both song and record of the year. That his was the year’s only synoptic text was indicative of the metamorphic state of contemporary curriculum work that the decade had wrought and suggestive of its future. by J. in some way. Two-parent families accounted for only one in four American households. James T. former education secretary William Bennett. changed little. Curriculum Improvement: Decision Making and Process. Schubert. . And. the unconventionallooking pop duo Milli Vanilli. and the United States invaded Central America. presidential election in 1988. admitting that they never actually sang on their multiplatinum album. as the Rolling Stones extended their quarter century of rock ’n’ rolling in 1989. home. as Bette Midler and Bonnie Raitt accepted their 1989 music awards. Doll published the seventh edition of his 25year-old book. which was being used regularly by 1 in every 100 sixth graders. contradictory images. The following year was marked by other improbable. Dan Marshall. raised issues of identity and representation within popular music culture. and a playwright was elected as president of Czechoslovakia. What kind of language should we be speaking? What’s the role of theory in the classroom? Where do feminists fit into the field? In contrast to her initial reaction to the AERA conference. It was exciting to see people grappling with issues like. Jan Jipson took her to Bergamo: My very first impressions included wondering about the language and some of the discourses and how convoluted they were. high theory. and Tracey Chapman sang of dislocation and unrest. The Chinese army slaughtered demonstrators in Beijing’s Tiananmen Square. some published works continued ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir.

popular music.M. chose to pursue more complex discussions. oversized pants. by J. 1989) to develop and document (Armstrong. So much borrowing. centrists within the field viewed such curricular deviations as moving far astray from curriculum and instruction. which also included P. referencing and sampling to shape a new form of music. hip-hop used bass lines and looped drum tracks woven with guitar riffs and digitally sampled sound to create counterhegemonic narratives that reflect urban disillusionment and alienation. and William H. 1988/1997. tracks varied in length. Dawn and Basehead. Using instruments of modernist technology such as computers. Vygotskyan social constructivism and Piagetian biological constructivism. 3 Feet High and Rising. however. semiology. Some music does. Winters. and race. stand out. 1989). Schubert. graffitied subway cars. sequencers. postmodern anthropology. 1989) the curriculum. clearly signifying the advent of postmodernism: “De La Soul’s debut LP was unexpectedly hailed as the Sergeant Pepper of rap. 1989). and diffusion made it impossible to keep up with the industry’s postmodern array of categories and subcategories. too. . 1989) and central office administrators (Pajak. sampling from such diverse sources as literary and aesthetic theory. too. though. bending the rules of sequencing.CHAPTER 8 Implosion and Consolidation 209 to focus on ways for curriculum leaders (Martin. sampling and the use of digitally synthesized sounds signaled the arrival of postmodernism to popular music: (continued) ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. rhyming became more relaxed and informal and a whacky brand of humour was introduced” (Harley. and the digital audiotape.Associated with aspects of hip-hop culture such as break dancing. gender. Saussurean linguistics. 1993. 1989) or manage (Oliva. & Saif. 1989). A growing number of curriculum writers. Perhaps the subcategory that best characterizes the emergence of the postmodern musical age is hip-hop. Sears. and feminist psychoanalytic analyses. Choosing light rhythms and a quasi-hip attitude. and vocational education (Finch & Crunkilton. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. liberation theology and biblical hermeneutics. Dan Marshall. wrote on conventional curriculum and instruction topics such as grade-specific efforts (Klein. a Pearson Education Company. chaos theory. Glatthorn. Preedy. went against the hip-hop tradition of machismo rap lyrics. De La Soul sampled from obscure recordings and television shows. 218). computing (Crompton. James T. p. drum machines. had gone astray from its narrow and predictable genres and its historical demarcations by age. Some. crews and posses. postcolonial theory. Its 1989 album. De La Soul was the first of the alternative rap groups. genre bending. and upturned baseball caps. POSTMODERN POP From the vantage point of the conventional. Sonic space was opened up. Needless to say.Adidas tennis shoes.

. by J. all possibilities are available to both the artist and listener . generating sales three times that internationally. . and classical. . 210–213) As the 1980s ended. . pp. . music industry was a $6. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. No one final meaning can be constructed from a sound collage. Dan Marshall.There is no longer an author. a Pearson Education Company.5 billion industry domestically. is given the chance to direct the flow of sound. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. . . . Sears. as opposed to instrumental reason. the U.The imagination. Schubert. In the curriculum field.210 PART V The Uncertainties of Contemporary Curriculum Work (1984 to Lately) POSTMODERN POP (continued) By ripping words away from the socially designated relationships meaning can no longer be assumed and the power to define has been usurped. (Coreno. Rock music accounted for nearly one-half of record sales. followed far behind by country-western.S. with about 15%. . .The rearrangement of voices and sound returns musical creation to anyone who chooses to practice the deconstruction. with less than 5%. “reconceptualist” or contemporary curriculum discourses now accounted for a sizable proportion of presentations at the August AERA annual meetings as papers and presenters in Division B (Curriculum Studies) appeared more like an outgrowth of the once-mischievous Curriculum Theory conferences than the ingrown metanarrative of scientific research that had long distinguished AERA. . . [to] the opening of a channel to a subjectivity outside the territory claimed by meansends rationality.Avant-garde music frequently employs this strategy of decontextualizing cultural voices. just a jumbled concoction of voices vying to be heard above the din. and William H. James T. Now. 1994.

and designer jeans. Schubert. and economics shifted dramatically as the world inched toward the second millennium. the 1990s served up financial misdeeds of trader Nicholas Leeson and the subsequent bankruptcy of Bearings. politics. The American war machine visited the Persian Gulf and Serbia as a Democratic-controlled Congress held hearings on the Iran–Contra affair. a few years later. we transitioned from warheads targeted on the “evil empire” to capitalists’ invasion of Red Square with hamburgers.C H CHAPTER 9 Imagining the Postmillennial Curriculum Field A P T E R 211 9 Imagining the Postmillennial Curriculum Field ▼ B eyond the threshold of the postmodern age. The 1980s brought the fiscal improprieties of junk bond king Michael Milken and the securities fraud of Drexel Burnham Lambert. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. scientists went from cloning sheep and extinct species to patenting the first genetically engineered vertebrate and creating antimatter. James T. Dan Marshall. we went from the declaration of emergency law in South Africa to the presidential election of Nelson Mandela. From the mid-1980s to the mid-1990s the top-rated television shows changed from Dallas and Dynasty to ER and Seinfeld. Sears. When the cold war officially ended in 1992. by J. In politics. a Republican-controlled Congress impeached the President while American forces hunkered down in Bosnia. and from “It’s morning in America” to the Contract with America. soft drinks. a Pearson Education Company. As the Moral Majority was eclipsed by the Christian Coalition. . 211 ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. and William H. There were also constants during this era. popular culture.

6 billion. . film. In the entertainment industry. where it had hovered since the mid-1960s.8 billion. This same period produced a consolidation of power and influence.212 PART V The Uncertainties of Contemporary Curriculum Work (1984 to Lately) Yet the 1990s have made cultural and political differences even more evident in contrary events. economic. a Pearson Education Company. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. by J. precursing America’s worst case of violent domestic terrorism in Oklahoma City. the Beatles’ Revolution helped sell Nike footwear. “the idea is to move the creative material across as many outlets as possible to justify production” (Burnett. In the age of postmodern pop. James T. synergy became the byword. CONSOLIDATED DIVERSITY:THE CONTEMPORARY MUSIC SCENE Although vertical integration was no stranger to the music industry— evidenced by the manufacturing of musical stand-ins like the Monkeys. sports. Simpson was found not guilty yet responsible for two murders. Schubert.” wrote the author of The Global Jukebox. and Milli Vanilli or the marketing of musicians such as Elvis and the Beatles—the 1990s witnessed an unsurpassed intensity in this respect. With such consolidation within the entertainment industry (which now encompassed music. Corporate machinery cranked out multimedia merchandising.4 billion.This marketing synergy extended beyond rock music. Westinghouse Electric absorbed the last independent network (CBS). as evidenced in the financial successes of the Three Tenors and country’s Garth Brooks. J. television. and publishing). 1996.000. This unparalleled increase of stock valuation was coupled with an equally unparalleled corporate concentration. O. David Cassidy. Viacom acquired Paramount for $9. and William H. Musk Oil greased a Rolling Stones American tour.The group New Kids on the Block (another corporate creation) generated revenues of nearly $500 million annually during its heyday—80% of it from merchandising. and Time-Warner took over Turner Broadcasting for $19. Absent the cold war frame with its ever-present threat of nuclear Armageddon. regional international hostilities escalated while our own regional and ideological hostilities around environmental. radio. “As audiences become fragmented. (continued) ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Terrorist bombs exploded at the World Trade Center and two teens orchestrated a massacre at Columbine High while federal agents precipitated shootouts at Waco and Ruby Ridge. Dan Marshall. Here we explore the paradox of consolidated diversity by returning to our cultural icon of popular music—a paradox helpful in situating ourselves within the contemporary curriculum field. ranging from books and magazines to film soundtracks and music videos. newspapers. Disney bought out Capital Cities/ABC for $16. Sears. for example. p. and human rights practices expanded. From 1984 to early 1999 the Dow Jones Industrial Average grew tenfold from 1. 22). and Lou Reed’s Walk on the Wild Side promoted Honda motorcycles.

Schubert. Polygram is owned by the Dutch electronic business Philips. these majors were now themselves subsidiaries of larger electronics and communications transnational conglomerates. and global market penetration by the six majors (which reaped nearly 90% of U. the only remaining Americanowned major. and Mercury. Ironically. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. (continued) ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Blue Note. the music industry became more concentrated horizontally.Warner is a partner of the Time-Warner media conglomerate.This decade also evidenced an interdependent relationship between the majors and other so-called independent record companies (such as the Dead Kennedys’ Alternative Testicles label) through licensing and distribution agreements in “a web of mutually dependent work groupings radiating out from multiple centers” (Negus. resulting in a marked decrease in the number of artists signed to the majors and given lavish promotional campaigns and an increase in absorption of new sounds and musicians into the music industry. Capitol/EMI is a division of the British-owned Thorn/EMI.CHAPTER 9 Imagining the Postmillennial Curriculum Field 213 CONSOLIDATED DIVERSITY:THE CONTEMPORARY MUSIC SCENE (continued) At the same time. Characterized by greater divisional autonomy. The globalization of the record industry. by J. 1992. By the mid-1990s. and subcontracting. p. Yet in spite of this consolidation. quickly moved the majors into niche markets by acquiring or buying controlling interest in formerly independent labels such as Columbia. This consolidation of the music business also reduced the number of independent record distributors. formerly Decca. worldwide sales of recorded music exceeded $20 billion. which also produces computers and guided weapons. in connection with the fragmentation of listeners exposed to seemingly unlimited choice among cable and satellite television and AM and FM radio stations. niche marketing. a Pearson Education Company. Thus. 18). diversification across musical genres reduced economic risk in case the market bottomed out in one segment.Virgin. these multinationals during the 1990s utilized post-Fordist organizational webs. Elektra/Asylum.S. as happened with disco. RCA Arista was purchased in 1986 by the European Bertelsmann Publishing Group. Sears. Conglomerate ownership of former independent labels also created a farm system to scout and market new talent and sound. James T. rock’s proportion of the domestic sales pie had dropped to about one-third. they allowed for quicker response to the demands of the cultural marketplace. By the mid-1990s. forcing the remaining indies to enter into distribution contracts with one of the six multinationals through buy-ins and distribution deals. and William H. as country music surged in popularity. is a subsidiary of the Matsushita corporation. with music revenues accounting for only 10 to 30% of their total sales: CBS is now a subsidiary of Japan’s Sony Corporation. and MCA. musical genres proliferated. In operating these formerly independent labels. . Dan Marshall. record sales) approached 80% worldwide. Motown.

Peter Lang. Rowman and Littlefield. globalization and postcolonialization. and Teacher Empowerment and School Reform (Giroux and McLaren). How do we understand the millennium’s last decade. review. technology and ethics. and William H.g. and (Homo) Sexualities (Sears). and Drexel Burnham Lambert filed for bankruptcy (the latter awarding executive bonuses of $200 million two months before declaring insolvency) while the new robber barrons of technology such as Bill Gates. TWA. Making Sense of It All Meaning making seems the order of the day in the polyglot 1990s. James T. and Garland) are relying more on manuscripts acquired from distinguished curricularists overseeing their own series such as Studies in Curriculum Theory (Pinar). Sears.g. and the breakdown of disciplinary boundaries that created engineered life forms and cyber-biotechnology have pushed the world into a state of uncomfortable reorientation around issues of state power and corporate authority and their relationships to race and racism. Meanwhile. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. and redefine that which we thought we knew or saw or felt or understood across the crosscultural landscape. We see occasions for this need to rethink. Rowan (whose generous gift to Glassboro State College in New Jersey prompted the college’s trustees to rename it Rowan College) give away literally hundreds of millions of dollars? How do we make sense of a domestic economy that has produced massive layoffs and increased poverty rates while at the same ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Critical Education Practice (Steinberg and Kincheloe). Lawrence Erlbaum. Giddens.major university presses are moving away from publishing monographs that may sell a few hundred copies toward the midlist trade market largely abandoned by the publishing conglomerates. renegotiate. and Henry M. and Free Press as an imprint of Simon & Schuster).. Schubert. Ted Turner. SUNY Press. we see little difference. Given the significant proliferation of curriculum discourses coinciding with the consolidated growth in educational publishing. a Pearson Education Company.This postmodern condition is no more or less true of contemporary curriculum work than it is of contemporary popular music. Longman as an imprint of Addison Wesley. Curriculum. Jossey-Bass by Macmillan.214 PART V The Uncertainties of Contemporary Curriculum Work (1984 to Lately) CONSOLIDATED DIVERSITY:THE CONTEMPORARY MUSIC SCENE (continued) Production.As major textbook publishers are acquired by multimedia conglomerates (e. 1990. in which major institutions such as Macy’s. and consumption of cultural products are the consequences of modernity propelling us into a postmodern world (Appadurai.. the collapse of the Asian boom and the presumed linkage between global markets and local democratization. Cultures. 1990). a growing number of independent and university presses (e. Merrill by Prentice-Hall. . by J. Dan Marshall. distribution. The demolition of the Berlin Wall and the diminution of post–cold war German expectations.

thinking. Gone are the days when a half-dozen universities (e. each housing one or more curriculum people who pursue the work of teaching. James T. . Creating and sustaining a discernible curriculum identity in higher education is difficult during this era in which curriculum scholars work to be notably different. developed by curriculum workers such as Miel and Taba. the Professors of Curriculum group. Sears. Faculty at those few places with large curriculum studies programs seldom participate in collaborative inquiries common two generations ago at Teachers College (which has slowly lost its own curriculumspecific prominence). The curriculum field of past generations—led by a handful of intellectuals such as Dewey and Bode. curriculum workers and the works they have produced during this postmodern moment at the precipice of the millennium are no less contradictory. Teachers College and Ohio State) contoured the curriculum field through collections of faculty and their impact on armies of graduate students. coincides with the disappearance of a distinguished collection of noteworthy curriculum scholars with whom students could interact.CHAPTER 9 Imagining the Postmillennial Curriculum Field 215 time providing the lowest unemployment rates in nearly 25 years and encouraging unabated economic optimism in consumers? Not surprisingly. the SSCH. The slow disappearance of curriculum studies at the University of Chicago. are institutional decisions that have undermined programs with distinguishable curricular identities. the AERA Special Interest Group on Critical Issues in Curriculum. from the beginning to the end of the century. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir.. the Curriculum Teachers Network of the ASCD. the bending and blending of curricular genres is the state of the curriculum field—absent institutional consolidation. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall.g. Related to this disappearance. for example. by J. Like the music industry. and writing about (while occasionally working in schools to develop) curriculum. Thus. and the American Association for Curriculum and Teaching. Dan Marshall. The result has been localized diversity. and William H. Redefining the Definitive: Challenging the Literary Curriculum Canon Portraying the literature that best enables us to understand this curriculum diversity has become a daunting task that invokes many questions: Should curriculum literature be defined as the writings of those who selfidentify with the curriculum field through membership in one of several organizations or regular attendance at select national conferences?1 Should curriculum literature be defined as books with the term curriculum in the title or work produced by authors who frequent the pages of 1 These include Division B (Curriculum Studies) of the AERA. of course. a Pearson Education Company. curriculum studies has evolved from a handful of renowned sites and programs with collections of noteworthy curriculum luminaries to myriad locations around the country. dominated by scions of technical or disciplinary mastery and contested by rival curriculum siblings—no longer exists. Schubert.

1994. James T. 1993. the hidden curISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Today’s curriculum workers also turn frequently to people such as Howard Gardner. Haynes. Hunter. 1993). 1995. Hawthorne. & Ben-Avie. Schubert. by J. Hess. R. 1995.. Hirsch—authors often cited by self-identified curriculum people but who have seldom frequented the officially designated curriculum circles? In the past. Morrison. and Jean Houston. and William Daggett. the philosophy of Jane Roland Martin. a Pearson Education Company. Oliva.216 PART V The Uncertainties of Contemporary Curriculum Work (1984 to Lately) prominent curriculum journals such as The Journal of Critical Inquiry into Curriculum and Instruction. and Robert Coles. fifth edition. second edition. Ancess.. Ben-Peretz. who dominate the upscale market of keynote speakers for educational institutes.. 1992). Mary Belenky. 1992. bell hooks. 1993/1998. 1993. . 1990. 1996. fourth edition) and reflects the field’s postmodern zeitgeist.g. 1996.. Carl Glickman. 1993). D. C. including curriculum in small schools (Fliegel & MacGuire. Tanner & Tanner. Posner. 1993. Doll. Clifford Geertz. 1995. 1997. the sociology of James Coleman. Textual curricular variations also have emerged. the psychology of Carol Gilligan. Diane Ravitch. and in-service programs. S. & Otis-Wilborn. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. Molefi Asante.g. Henson. Jonathan Kozol. and the radical theory and practices of Ivan Illich and Paulo Freire—has impressed and influenced curriculum people. These synoptic texts tend to canonize the curriculum field by focusing on commonalities and variations that have occurred within traditional genres of curriculum discourse. Posing these and other questions from multiple positions challenges the curriculum representations canonized in standard synoptic texts (e. Longstreet & Shane. DarlingHammond. sixth edition [previous editions were edited by Hass]. Interestingly. Hass & Parkay. curriculum evaluation (e. Hannah Arendt. Paris. M. Heidi Hayes Jacobs. ninth edition.g. fourth edition. the work of numerous scholars outside the field of curriculum—including the history of Lawrence Cremin. C. and large-scale reform efforts (e. Richard Rorty. Wiggins. one readily finds frequent reference to many who would not be called educators. 1994. Linda Darling-Hammond. 1994. third edition. 1991. 1996. Michel Foucault. Sears. Wiles & Bondi. or Curriculum and Teaching? Might today’s curriculum field be identified through intellectual genealogy—that is. such as Cornel West. Ornstein & Hunkins. 1991. Most of these organizational frames are available under the perennial categories found in Jackson’s (1992) Handbook of Research on Curriculum and other recent books that address curriculum implementation (e. and E. Comer. Even within a more narrow representation of contemporary curriculum literature. Marshall. third edition. 1995). McNeil. Meier. Deborah Meier. Pratt. 1995. JCT. 1998. Dan Marshall. & Falk. 1995. Hirsch. McCutcheon. 1995. Amy Gutman. and William H. as writings produced by those who have studied with major curricularists? What about authors such as Madeline Hunter. Sears. many within the contemporary curriculum field also find support from a growing number of full-time consultants such as Art Costa. 1993. Neill. Marsh and Willis. Joyner. Sizer. 1996. conferences. the educational reform of Maria Montessori and A. Fullan.g.

1994. 1994a). Pinar et al. and students as curriculum theorists (Nicholls & Hazzard. Initially formed as a counterhegemonic intellectual force to curriculum as development. Weis. began his career by critiquing behavioral objectives and offering a notion of evaluation that involved educational criticism and connoisseurship (see chapter 7). 1998a. J. and William H. Trudell. 1991. aesthetic text (Eisner. James T. 1996. 1992. 1990.2 Question As a curriculum worker. 1999. Greene. 1995. Expanding Genres The narratives in this volume underscore the intersections of biography and scholarship as the work of each has created new niches in the marketplace of curriculum studies. by J. Delpit. 2 Other textual categories developed by Pinar et al. New curriculum discourses or genres (Pinar. 1995) are found through fusions of personal and professional (con)texts— a point underscored throughout this book. and relating curriculum to broader notions of cognition (Eisner. this long-standing identity as institutionalized canon—an identity shaped from its earliest association with schooling—has certainly floundered. 1991. caring and development of basic beliefs through schooling (Noddings. 1994). Moffett. Elliot Eisner. These recent texts provide evidence that curriculum studies is not waning as an important field of schooling. Schubert. 1992. However. (1995) with their corresponding authors are racial text (Carger. Epstein & Sears. 1990). and international text (Estava & Prakash. 1993. 1995). His refined views throughout the 1990s advocate broader ways of knowing applied to teaching and learning. phenomenological text (Pinar & Reynolds. imaginative orientation to educational research. L. Foster. Flexible Identities. 1997. Nicholls & Thorkildsen. . Dan Marshall. Bullough. Kridel. & Shaker. van Manen & Levering. Miller. within some graduate curriculum studies programs and some national conferences these discourses have ironically assumed (neo)canon-like status. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. as more curriculum writing moves away from the field’s once singular emphasis on curriculum development. 1994. 1996. 1993). Gutek. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. theological text (Freire. 1996). 1991. 1994b.. biographical and autobiographical text (Graham. 1993).CHAPTER 9 Imagining the Postmillennial Curriculum Field 217 riculum of media and sexuality in classrooms (Ellsworth & Whatley. 1995). 1997. Fine. promoting an arts-based. a Pearson Education Company. what new discourse might you propose from the fusion of your (con)texts? ? These discourses can generally be traced to the curriculum fermentation of the late 1960s and early 1970s. Sears. & Mun Wong. Powell. 1997). 1993). for example. 1996.

caring. And Louise Berman’s powerful admonition in the late 1960s for schools to embrace a curriculum of new priorities (see chapter 4) has evolved toward a collaborative investigation of curriculum as a phenomenological search to interpret the meanings of questioning. dealing with matters of official knowledge (1993) and cultural politics (1996) that actually create or subvert democratic education (Apple & Beane. detour. 1994. a talk-show host for Wisconsin Public Radio.g. Recent political (con)texts (e. she more recently focuses on public issues such as the political and social imagination (1995). Apple has both complicated and refined his earlier analyses. the private vision. and the existential plight of teachers. and dwelling vis-á-vis life itself (Berman.g. like that of others. Dwayne Huebner moved from focused sociological analyses toward an interest in the spiritual nature of life. James T. eventually taking an appointment in the 1990s at the Yale Divinity School. and aesthetic languages.. Seasoned. While James B. and a frequent critic of corporate involvement in the public schools. 1995). 1998a. 1991. by J. His work. 1995) that expanded the curriculum studies universe in multiplexed directions. Anyon. From the advent of postmodern and poststructuralist scholarship of the early 1980s. Sears. and deconstructional (e. curriculum applications further fractured into a multiISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. In the 1990s. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. 1996). 1997. participating more directly in the political arena as consultant to the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction. William F. Hultgren. flexible scholars and practitioners such as these have inspired a generation of scholarship representing variations and subgenres of contemporary curriculum work. . has expanded considerably to include the identification and exploration of discourses (Pinar et al. psychoanalytical. 1991).218 PART V The Uncertainties of Contemporary Curriculum Work (1984 to Lately) Although Maxine Greene’s early work brought the humanities to bear in exposing the gulf between the public school. including autobiographical. too. Forthcoming. a Pearson Education Company. alienation. Rivkin. phenomenological. Schubert. ethical. journey. not only in schools but also within the broader interplay between education and power in schools and texts.. while his student Michael Apple opened up new languages of inquiry into the ideological ramifications of curriculum. 1996. Pinar was influenced intellectually by both Huebner and Macdonald.. In Curricular Language and Classroom Meanings (1966). Lee. Pinar. Pinar began in the 1970s to characterize the emergent reconceptualization of curriculum studies that would rearticulate the field. Macdonald continued to vigorously challenge positivistic assumptions and technocratic orientations within the curriculum field until his death in 1983. have arisen from a generation of evolving critical curriculum studies. & Roderick. Apple. Freire. Dan Marshall. and William H. his student Alex Molnar moved from a participant and organizer of early curriculum conferences (see chapter 6) to a disassociated critic of curriculum studies. 1992). Huebner called for the curriculum field to move beyond preoccupation with technical and scientific languages to embrace new meanings through political. Kincheloe & Pinar. Pinar & Reynolds.

DeCastell & Bryson. difference (1993). and William H. 1992). with then current thinking in philosophy. Sears & Williams. 1997..g. deconstructionism. focused on the hidden curriculum of schools and ways to sociologically understand and critique its impositions. poststructural discourse. the canonization of traditional curriculum texts wrought by the field’s consolidated singularity of focus on schools has been effectively challenged by two generations of curricularists and the field’s subsequent canabilization through fused intellectual discourses and expanded curriculum genres—associated as much with individuals as with the genre itself (i. 1999. 1999. Lankshear. Casey. Foster.. 1992c. for example. the United States was sorting through the political. Our collective national desire to articulate some recognizable sociocultural identity permeated the landscape. draws from philosophy of science. E. by J. and queer theory) to become more broadly constituted as gender text (Britzman. Slattery. 1997. 1991. Stanley. In short. Henry Giroux’s work in the late 1970s and early 1980s. 1997) to postmodern science and theology (W. economic. 1991. 1996. James T. 1993. including work (1992). he has moved beyond schooling to other educational venues of identity and culture. (Fore)Grounding Curriculum Studies: A Review A century ago. 1997. 1995. Dan Marshall.e. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. coinciding with the nation’s growing commitment to establish common. and cultural studies (Giroux & Shannon. a Pearson Education Company. These massive efforts to reformulate the relationship between schooling and society combined.CHAPTER 9 Imagining the Postmillennial Curriculum Field 219 plicity of genres ranging from critical postmodernism (Giroux. Giroux. 1997. McLaren. social. psychology. synergistically. for example. Kincheloe. popular media (1994). Today. moving itself closer to the heart of all cultural forms that educate. Feminist thought—sometimes considered an appendage to early critical social theory—has embraced other theoretical traditions and methodologies (e. and other foundational aspects of education and schooling (what we would call educational studies in the most general sense) to produce the curriculum field. public schools throughout the land. McLaren. This was a field of study born of necessity. Schubert. Epstein & Sears. naturalistic inquiry. Given the national commitment to educate the masses. 1990. 1997. Sears. Sears. 1991. 1995. the long-standing Western European response to the question “What knowledge and experiences are most worthISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. 1993. and qualitative inquiry to develop feminist research methodologies that are (dis)enabling. Noddings. Lather & Smithies. Lather. localized diversity). 1997). Pagano. Curricularists’ thinking is evolving from a focus on curriculum as a phenomenon of schooling to curriculum as a more pervasive social and cultural phenomenon. Pinar. As a result the curriculum field has largely relinquished its technical position to schooling. 1993. Lather’s work. 1998. Letts & Sears. . and spiritual chaos of the post–Civil War industrial era. Doll. & Peters. cultural. Gaskell & Willinsky. 1992. 1997).

Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. However. as curriculum making reached its pinnacle of productive value during this period. This is not to suggest that curriculum work was ever truly dichotomized: typically. represented the inseparable yin and yang of thought and practice. and for many others. community. The field had entered its golden age. since their inception. questions about the meaning of worthwhile. As Kliebard (1995) documents. we see that by the end of World War II curriculum studies had formed a self-identity by foregrounding its institutional work (and situating itself among the equally new fields of instruction. and relative safety and certainty. for many Americans it seemed anything but golden. teachers. a Pearson Education Company. supervision. structure. practical ones.and late-twentieth-century social movements. Sears. by J. and for obvious reasons. curriculum theorizing—highly apparent in our field’s most productive and provocative practices—assumed a diminishing role in the early development of curriculum work writ large. Important exceptions to this tendency notwithstanding. sandwiched between early.220 PART V The Uncertainties of Contemporary Curriculum Work (1984 to Lately) while?” seemed obviously inadequate and inappropriate. suggests a period remembered as those “reasonably good years” of prosperity.” not because it was necessarily such a wonderful or undeniably valuable period in our collective history (indeed. simplicity. the same can be said of the curriculum field. curriculum studies and curriculum work have. Elliot (1996) calls the period between 1945 and 1963 the “Golden Age of America. foundational aspects of this great conversation (questions about learners. As universities expanded their curriculum departments and the ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. James T. knowledge. had come to be generally understood—and valued—as curriculum making. To be sure. As we have attempted to show in this volume. Schubert. theory and practice are mutually informative efforts within any area of study. the past 50 years of curriculum history mirrors the tumultuous changes we have witnessed across America’s sociocultural vista. the highly institutionalized context that bore curriculum studies worked against a seamless synergy of these two forms of curriculum work. itself) to become an all-out struggle for the hearts and minds of America’s youth. and William H. By midcentury. it did not take long for the larger. Early on in this struggle. the truly fundamental curriculum questions began to be eclipsed by their institutional corollaries pertaining to school-related issues of content. Dan Marshall. it was fool’s gold at best) but because this age. and administration) and backgrounding its theoretical work (and necessarily distancing itself from other areas of educational study). and curriculum work in particular. and. curriculum studies in general. and procedure. As this book illustrates. By and large. . most important. But the sheer force of the project at hand—formalizing and institutionalizing common schools within a decidedly uncommon country—combined with the slow shaping of the distinguishably new and unique field of curriculum studies led to an uncomfortable schism between the intellectual–theoretical foundations of curriculum work and its more immediate.

long-term curriculum projects toward brief. Eschewing curriculum’s localized singularity meant critiquing or abandoning not only the field’s authoritative institutional discourse but its cumulative body of literature as well. . curricularists enthusiastically crossed what were previously taken to be noncurricular disciplinary borders. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. worshipping” differently. international security. along with its preeminent context of institutionalized schooling and its predominant (institutional) discourse. and in which ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. philosophers. the field began to move beyond its pro– and anti–Tyler rationale bifurcation. stretching curriculum thinking through new and renewed discourses and constructing their own distinct curricular identities. Looming on the curricular horizon. speaking in diverse tongues. in-service workshop encounters. began to morph. was a major coup led by outsiders (psychologists. Curriculum work still included university teaching. Dan Marshall. Again. From the late 1960s to the early 1980s America upended its golden notions of family and community. cultural regionalization. A relatively small. 1996). The field’s primary discourse was overwhelmingly unitary and insular. Sears. James T. identifiable group of authoritative personalities working in a range of institutions had a singular focus to guide school districts in producing curricula. It was during this period. that curriculum studies. Here. and individual representation has led to a “tribalization of America. a Pearson Education Company. while these noncurriculum people were busy building national-scale school curricula. though. by J. and William H.CHAPTER 9 Imagining the Postmillennial Curriculum Field 221 common school dream in America hit its institutionalized stride on a wave of unprecedented growth. The 1980s and 1990s have brought Americans further into fragmentation. and politicians among them) and supported by generous funding from government and foundational coffers. foreshadowing the age of individualism (Elliot. the curriculum field revealed a localized singularity. Schubert. but for new group affiliations and publishing outlets. This ousting of curriculum experts from their own self-constructed domain paralleled the national period from the early 1960s to the early 1970s. parallels can be drawn to contemporary curriculum history. when all forms of authority (particularly governmental) would be seriously undermined. As intellectual and ideological fissures developed within the anti-Tyler faction.” in which as citizens “we enter the public square from separate communities. Writing and publishing grew in importance for contemporary curricularists. Theoretical and practical cracks in the relationship between school and society produced a renaissance in the field as curricularists allied themselves with a growing array of marginal discourses. many looked elsewhere—not only for places to meet. The number of openly theoretical curriculum workers grew. The confluence of issues arising from economic globalization. as did appearing at professional conferences. though contact with K–12 educators had shifted away from intensive. Largely abandoning the ASCD’s annual “family reunion” during these years.

right/wrong. More than ever. HIV education. p. criticism.” “When Guns are Outlawed Only Outlaws Will Have Guns”) as a variety of ideological and theological positions get reduced to competing binaries: us/them. even those in the field who maintain a clear interest in schooling now stretch their curriculum efforts well beyond the field’s narrow. Today. and William H. and Benjamin Bloom. Philip Jackson. curriculum emerged out of broad-based sociocultural discussions about and interests in common schooling. and Kridel (1988) have called curriculum genealogy.222 PART V The Uncertainties of Contemporary Curriculum Work (1984 to Lately) complex issues become reified into simplistic slogans (e. and intersections with surrounding discourses have resulted in the tenuousness that now characterizes our contemporary curriculum renaissance. Herzog. Frank Chase. “Abortion is Murder. Lopez-Schubert. Eisner’s students were influenced by his emphasis on aesthetics. where he was also influenced by Joseph Schwab. Dan Marshall.g. James T. a Pearson Education Company. if not detach. and evolution. For example. multiplication of subgenres of thought. (Sears. the educational imagination. 1998. Sears. we explore several mentor–student connections to illustrate the proliferation of novel and important curriculum publications in the 1990s. consciously distancing itself from its related discourses in educational studies (in order to create its own identity) and eventually privileging its practical over its theoretical work—only to witness this entire scenario unravel after pausing to enjoy the golden age. venues for their dissemination. Posner. Indeed. . 40) As a field of study. One way to appreciate this current state is to look at mentor–student connections—what Schubert.” “The Christian Right is Neither. This proliferated presence in higher education institutions. explicitly. A Genealogical Look at Today’s Curriculum Field Our contemporary inability to bring curriculum studies into sharp focus represents the struggle among the field’s high-profile personalities and their adherents to distance.. where his ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Schubert. institutional boundaries. by J. left/right. with developing or making school curricula. Housed in a growing number of colleges and universities. power. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. Decker Walker remained at Stanford. Elliot Eisner studied with John Goodlad at the University of Chicago (Goodlad having studied there with Ralph Tyler). curriculum work from its schoolbased moorings. and connoisseurship as a platform for qualitative research. and identity and local issues of long division. among other areas. In the following. sinner/saint. As Tom Barone discussed in chapter 8. today’s curricularists work diligently in establishing their “market niche” by writing for an expanded number of book publishers and professional journals owned or controlled by a score of multinational corporations. curriculum people teach courses that have little to do. the curriculum field finds itself stretched between global issues of culture. win/lose.

James Henderson (1992. We see further indication of Klohr’s interest in having his advisees follow differing paths. Through his students. 1993). Klohr also advised William Pinar at Ohio State. 1996) took his connoisseurship into reflective teaching and transformative leadership (Henderson & Hawthorne. & Crow. & Shaker. devoted his professional life to the unstudied curriculum. James T. was a serious student of the Eight Year Study (directing the most radical of the 30 schools in the study) who later brought progressive perspectives to professional organizations such as ASCD. Klohr. Imber. Gail McCutcheon (1995) has focused primarily on collaborative curriculum making with schools from a qualitative platform. Schubert. Walker & Soltis. and ecological responsiveness to matters of curriculum and teaching.CHAPTER 9 Imagining the Postmillennial Curriculum Field 223 work. A look at some former students of Paul Klohr also shows a divergence of inquiry paths that move creatively apart from the traditional curriculum development emphasis of the field. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. contemporary policy matters. including Patti Lather and James Sears. 1995). by J. 1990). Bullough. Bowers (1992) on several occasions to create responsive curriculum from a new ecological perspective (Bowers & Flinders. 1996) to teacher education—particularly the life history of teachers (Bullough. Overly’s students. Eisner’s work has been expanded to include practical deliberation. Knowles. 1995) and at-risk students (Donmoyer. then. A. work in arts education from a nonschool perspective. a Pearson Education Company. 1990. 1997). have championed other subgenres while mirroring Overly’s passion for justice and rigor as well as Klohr’s belief that students must pursue their own curriculum paths. And David Flinders has worked with C. and written about policy matters such as the knowledge base for school administration (Donmoyer. fictional and literary nonfictional educational writing. . Their students. and William H. Stephen Thornton. associated with Schwab’s practical deliberation. co-editor of the International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education. such as James Scheurich. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. & Scheurich. An early student of Klohr’s. Klohr was noted for his teaching and encouragement of doctoral students. 1997). and global curriculum through his writing and his leadership in ASCD and the World Council of Curriculum and Instruction. Sears. and feminist biographer Louise Allen (In Press) are the next generation of this curriculum line. has turned much of his work toward social studies education. as feature editor of Educational Researcher in the 1990s. while Robert Donmoyer has embraced a range of issues about educational research. and those he mentored went on to mentor others with similar inspiration. Dan Marshall. 1991). collaboration in classrooms using educational criticism as an evaluational basis. Norm Overly. brings aesthetic perception into institutionalized curriculum problems in novel and enlightened ways (Walker. while compiling with David Flinders (also an Eisner student) a book of readings depicting key publications in curriculum studies over the years (Flinders & Thornton. who studied with Harold Alberty (pupil of the renowned Ohio State University philosopher of education Boyd Bode). lifelong learning. ranging from history and biography (Kridel.

Dan Marshall. Kathleen Casey (1993). Perhaps most important in Apple’s scholarly evolution has been the influence of female doctoral students who incorporated feminist theory and scholarship into his ideological analyses. Apple’s ideological critique of curriculum has evolved through his interactions with and contributions of former students such as Landon Beyer.224 PART V The Uncertainties of Contemporary Curriculum Work (1984 to Lately) The curriculum books of the 1990s have advanced deeply personal. a Pearson Education Company. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. Patrick Slattery (1995) drew from both theological and postmodern texts to create a postmodern perspective on curriculum development. Schubert. Mentored by Huebner during his doctoral studies. and Susan Edgerton (1996) has contributed to an integrated emphasis on identity through explorations of multiculturalism and cultural studies. 1996) and blended theory and practice (Beyer. and William H. William Reynolds’s work has contributed to our understanding of curriculum as a hermeneutic. philosophic. they actually can become quite complex and elaborate. Daniel Liston (Liston & Zeichner. including Steve Mann’s mentorship (before leaving the curriculum field) of George Willis and William Doll. Pinar & Reynolds. Cameron McCarthy and Warren Crichlow (1993) interrogate race and identity matters. writes persuasively about democratic elementary schooling. Sears. Another student. by J. Willis has furthered work on ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Jesse Goodman (1992). who has provided a set of social visions for progressive education (Beyer & Liston. who shares Beyer’s commitment to teacher education. Of course. has contributed to gender and autobiographical curriculum while advancing the field through her active involvement with the JCT and its related annual conference. looks at teachers as embodiments of curricular assumptions as they give of their lives to students in an effort to overcome constraints of control and competitiveness. 1994. . Intellectual networks function to deconstruct and reconstruct ideas and practices encouraged and promoted within one’s doctoral program of study. Janet Miller (1990). including Kenneth Teitelbaum (1993) in reconsidering socialist Sunday schools and Linda Christian-Smith (1991) in focusing on romance novels relative to teenage girls. Michael Apple is perhaps unrivaled in his influence on contemporary curriculum. 1991) exposes contradictions between democratic possibilities and capitalist schools. Tony Whitson (1991) draws on his experience and knowledge as a lawyer in his journeys into semiotics and curriculum theory. And though we have used these genealogical connections as a way to identify book-length curriculum literature published in the 1990s. 1992). phenomenological and deconstructed text (Martusewicz & Reynolds. and spiritual explorations of life and curriculum as a result of Pinar’s mentoring. we have chosen but a handful of examples: more could be said about Macdonald’s advisees. And numerous others have convincingly posed the need to bring ideological curriculum critique to nonschool venues. a master’s student of Pinar’s and a doctoral student of Klohr’s. James T. for example. In the 1990s. 1996). For example. and Andrew Gitlin (1994) joins political activism and educational research.

as curriculum scholarship strives to reconcile not only its binaries (as Dewey so often admonished in the early half of the twentieth century) but also the numerous unexplored and unnamed territories between them. geographic. and William H.CHAPTER 9 Imagining the Postmillennial Curriculum Field 225 aesthetic (Willis & Schubert. and Laurel Tanner (1997) has offered contemporary lessons from Dewey’s laboratory school. Independently. Huebner. Daniel Tanner and Laurel Tanner. and synoptic (Marsh & Willis. Sears. Some of this critique of contemporary curriculum work is carried on by prominent students of Daniel Tanner. Pinar. Daniel Tanner (1991) has looked carefully at links between progressive education and democracy. 1991). 1993). And while Alex Molnar (1997) takes on the massive influence of corporate business interests in schools. Macdonald’s seeds and memories thus remain quite alive within the field. William Wraga (1994). Schubert. With limitless space. Giroux. construction and deconstruction. another critic of much contemporary curriculum theorizing. For example. and others by use of a context of progressive literature. Dan Marshall.. published the third edition of their synoptic text (Tanner & Tanner. James T. the Tanners’ work draws heavily from Dewey and the progressive and social reconstructionist curriculum history of the first half of the twentieth century. Peter Hlebowitsh (1993) continues to criticize the lines of scholarship represented by Macdonald (1995). 1995) dimensions of curriculum. In sum. by J. Standing at the edge of the twentieth century’s final decade. But what of the future. a Pearson Education Company. we could develop genealogical connections from numerous other curriculum workers to recently published curriculum books. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. lie places where both notions take on some new. for the most part. transcendent meaning when considered not as polar opposites but as complements. for example. and numeric—not to mention intellectual and pragmatic—expanse of today’s curriculum landscape. Interestingly. while Doll (1993) has presented the first comprehensive rendition of the postmodern for curriculum theory and practice. Curriculum practices have begun to reflect ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. historical (Willis et al. . 1990). makes historically based arguments for the comprehensive public high school as the source of potential for Deweyan progressive democratic ideals. but the two remain highly critical of and seldom acknowledge contributions made by curriculum scholars associated with the renaissance of contemporary curriculum studies. Apple. the next century of curriculum studies? Peering into the Millennium Somewhere between progress and retrogress. curriculum workers prone to reflection acknowledge that dichotomies have imploded. current curriculum work has come to reflect the demographic. That place might aptly be characterized as the postmodern condition. David Purpel (1989) seeks to remedy the neglect of the spiritual in education at large. 1995) on the heels of History of the School Curriculum (Tanner & Tanner.

Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. while numerous curriculum workers continue their efforts to improve content and enhance instruction. 36–37) and wonder if curriculum “specialists” still provide worthwhile service. 1995. we are the least politically powerful group to be able to act on that knowledge. to make the old new again. certainly much more complicated than most politicians and many colleagues in arts and sciences realize. we should see this as a moment that calls for us to accept and work ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Yet from my perspective. in real political terms. 858). our earliest purposes? Have we overemphasized reconstruction and underemphasized renewal? Renewal requires a commitment to tradition(s)—a desire to fashion again from a core that was once new. this core—our traditions—is represented through answers to fundamental questions of worthwhile knowledge and experience offered in service to formal. Today. Sears. Where does all of this messy. Jackson is doubtful. J. Historically. Instead. In this respect. although one would hope not (Pinar et al. I resonate with Jackson’s (1992) discussion of service relative to contemporary curriculum work (pp. others continue their exodus from the historically “primitive” and “stif ling” holds that schooling maintains on the curriculum field. Have we moved too far from our traditions. if not firmly rooted. . but. we cannot afford to jettison these traditions or this service any more than we can afford to have them dominate our work. Thus. a Pearson Education Company.226 PART V The Uncertainties of Contemporary Curriculum Work (1984 to Lately) multiple forms of theory just as curriculum theory has begun to echo the complex and important. we are in the odd position of knowing much more than the other groups who act as stakeholders in the curriculum. Among the many paradoxes this state of affairs has created is the one pertaining to curriculum knowledge and efficacy: We now understand the curriculum to be even more complex than our predecessors understood it to be. Within today’s field. developing one of the cultural icons discussed earlier in this essay book. work of classroom practice. the acknowledged relevance of our traditions seems uncertainly shared by growing numbers of curriculum people. Within our field. proffers an analysis. Dan Marshall on Curriculum Edginess:The Paradox of Reconstruction and Renewal Today’s curriculum field leaves me edgy. and in the narrowest sense. yet I wonder whether we have not lost some integral part of our essence along the way. The past three decades have seen American curriculum workers institute and undergo important changes. Schubert.. Perhaps this is one price of understanding. Dan Marshall. fragmented talk leave us? Or potentially take us? In the following pages each of us. our core traditions are germane to schooling and our work serves those involved with schooling and education. p. James T. institutional efforts toward education. by J. and William H. I am edgy.

a Pearson Education Company.g. and Catholic lifestyle. for many adult Catholics. Dan Marshall. Vatican II made it clear that “the Catholic life” was to be lived in a way that would promote clear positions with respect to social justice. or so it would seem. Since then. James T. At the same time. contraception. and international conflicts. Priests Associated for Religious. p. Changes in Catholicism occurred in three basic forms: structural (in terms of ecclesiastical authority). creating a significant ecclesiastical rift within the Catholic populace that ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. and abortion. In contrast. numerous theologians have dissented. the dictates of Vatican II seemed to coincide with the contemporary struggle for women’s rights. the Church gave voice to diverse collections of the faithful (e. Vatican II addressed two macrolevel concerns: the promotion of global Christianity (ecumenism) and the modernization of Roman Catholicism. the National Black Sisters’ Conference. and Social Rights [PADRES]. Within the United States specifically. recognizing that in doing so it would create. purturbing labor of curriculum reconstruction and renewal—much like contemporary Catholics within their own disturbing situations. 1993. an inevitable state of disequilibrium between the old and new Church. Schubert.CHAPTER 9 Imagining the Postmillennial Curriculum Field 227 within and through the difficult. two important bodies—the National Conference of Catholic Bishops (NCCB) and the United States Catholic Conference (USCC)—were created to oversee American Catholicism.. the church maintained that artificial contraception was immoral. by J. But the most lasting and disturbing results of Vatican II pertained to reforms expected within private and public Catholic life. . That is. the council had few problems creating “a new Catholic consciousness about the historically conditioned nature of many things Catholic” (Carey. 116). Sears. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. But in a 1968 papal encyclical on human life (Humanae Vitae). the Church aimed to update itself while remaining true to its basic character. However. and William H. liturgical. Moreover. Changes in liturgical and pious practices are what older Catholics struggled with most immediately. These postconciliar changes in Catholic life ultimately found their combined dissonance when it came to women’s lives. Beyond the elimination of practices such as meatless Fridays came wholesale changes in the Church’s most publicly mystical practices surrounding its sacraments and liturgy. Structurally. the church both reinforced and diluted its historically hierarchical system of power and authority. to be at once old and new has forced later generations to struggle with the continuous discomfort of embracing a Catholic identity. worldwide Christian unity remains a postconciliar dream. economic equity. The Church took a stand on personal. private morality that seemed to focus specifically on American Catholics in its reinvigorated prohibition on extramarital and homosexual sex. In the early years of the new Church. To date. and the Leadership Conference of Women Religious) regarding Church matters. Reconstruction and renewal were dual purposes in what the Catholic Church set out to accomplish with Vatican II (see chapter 3). Educational.

Preconciliar Catholicism “was gradually replaced by a variety of new forms that emphasized the sacramental. 1993. 17). practicing U. . From the more conservative Opus Dei and Catholics United for Faith to the more liberal CORPUS and Catholics Speak Out. Rome often declares a particular theology normative. and active dimensions thought to be grounded in the public liturgy. . this pope is guilty of maintaining a “Roman narrowness”: Instead of harbouring a diversity of legitimate theologies.S. Catholics associate with dozens of ecclesiastically eclectic organizations. as though the church should be nothing more than a free market of ways of believing from which everyone can choose what he or she wishes. . 1997. This state of affairs has been brought into relief by the firm leadership and conservatism of the current pope. The issue here is not simply the modern or post-modern question of pluralism. by J. all command attention “because they sense and seize the opportunity for radical change afforded by a historical period in which everything Catholic seems to be up for grabs” (Appleby. Sears. James T. 1997.S. but in tense and paradoxical relation to both stances. in simultaneous engagement and disengagement. AfricanAmericans. today’s pope is praised as having done more than anyone since John XXIII to take Christianity and the Christian Gospel into the twentyfirst century. Schubert. Catholic spirituality. No church wants that.S. Roman narrowness takes precedence over Catholic breadth. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. fully answerable to a ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. [He sees] a Church standing in neither pure transcendence of the world. Today. 38–39) Conversely. youth. women. pp. 141). Issues such as contraception and abortion soon led to significant declines in the number of U. a Pearson Education Company. . the divorced. What revived Catholic fervor was an eventual shift in U. communal. Catholics as well as in measures of their religious identification and willingness to follow Church authority. and Hispanics all found their way into American Catholicism during the 1980s. The issue of contraception would later be eclipsed by that of abortion—the place where private and public Church practices clash as the personal becomes the political. p. and personal experiences of modern Catholics” (Carey. (Frieling. Dan Marshall. the Bible. nor as a signatory party to the quarrels of the world’s principalities and powers. p. and William H.228 PART V The Uncertainties of Contemporary Curriculum Work (1984 to Lately) endures to this day. In the words of one supporter. Charismatic and evangelical movements together with diverse forms of spirituality that focused on the special needs of adults. In the eyes of his critics. John Paul II has convincingly articulated a post-modern (rather than neomedieval) understanding of the Church and of its paradoxical standing in this world. John Paul II. What is at stake is the issue of how to preserve the truth of the gospel.

What we do have. 1988. A new student to curriculum studies in the waning 1990s. like a new convert to Roman Catholicism. is an historic purpose—a mission born in service to those participating in formalized. the newcomer soon realizes that he or she has come to a place for which no stable. and a collective sense of moral. whether entering the curriculum field or the Catholic Church. we will forfeit all hope of serving educators and students in schools and other educational settings. Although this state of affairs has a great deal to do with late-twentieth-century commerce and technology. inches forward while looking back. shared working definition currently exists. Sears. like American culture. And if we cannot provide such service in intellectually complex and varied forms representing multiple frames of reference. We must return to questions of curriculum purpose and service. however. If that happens—and it has been happening since the 1960s—we will be left serving only ourselves. institutional settings. To ignore the long-standing institutional narrowness this tradition has had on our work is no more grave a mistake than to ignore its fundamental relevance to our necessary renewal. by J. and cultural rupturing of the midcentury’s golden age. with respect to the U. Ironically. Philip Jackson doubts whether contemporary curriculum workers can recapture “the spirit of optimism and the sense of mission that clearly marked the first two or three decades of the emergence of curriculum as a field of study” (1992.S. Unlike today’s Catholics. and spiritual uncertainty. when we sever our ties to our traditions and cease attempts to advance thinking relevant to our field’s fundamental questions. it has everything to do with our intellectual. certain of the fundamental goodness of the increasingly diverse voices and positions resulting from individual freedom and choice. Dan Marshall. 70) In contrast. Schubert. James T. . curriculum renaissance. Institutional discourse must continue to influence our work if we hope to continue to influence educational institutions and those within them. We must find some way to serve without remaining a servant to our institutionally grounded traditions. we have no gospel truth to preserve nor do we have (or need) a central authority figure charged with representing that truth. When we abandon that purpose. then the renewal of our field is unlikely. 37). ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Working within a cutting-edge field such as curriculum produces edginess. would quickly sense a suspicion of authority. If we cannot be of general service to those who work to educate others within formal. (McClay. an overwhelming emphasis on individuality and one’s immediate community of believers. political. and William H. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. p.CHAPTER 9 Imagining the Postmillennial Curriculum Field 229 perfection which the imperfect Church is inexorably required to embody. then renewal of our field is simply unimportant. p. a Pearson Education Company. social. institutionally based education. yet uncertain of where (if anywhere) these voices collectively belong in relation to what (if anything) they collectively accomplish. Today’s curriculum culture.

a generation of queer theorists and scholars. neo-Marxism.230 PART V The Uncertainties of Contemporary Curriculum Work (1984 to Lately) James T. is already replacing work cubicles and the morning rush hour. it will be cyberspace. and enfleshed identities will be irrelevant in this cyberculture. or positivism—find themselves quickly distanced from cyberculture—and the curriculum field. flattening hierarchical communications. Schubert. this trend will shift from phenomenon to norm. once-chided curricularists will find themselves allied with curriculum workers. The virtual workplace. the game has changed. music. by J. new informational technologies—only now on the horizon—will end the industrial age of schooling and its reliance on the print medium. gender. in which individuals are linked to cyberspace. and corporateoperated educational academies will eventually end the hegemony of government-run public schools and the role of the public educator. I have criticized curriculum for distancing itself from schooling (1992c)—a phenomenon underscored by Pinar (1992) as he stressed the reluctance of curriculum theorists to “get in bed with” curriculum workers who. and sexual identities. and William H. and school buildings. Dan Marshall. Although these futuristic images may be new or unwelcome to some curricularists. The emergence of the Internet. Modernist theories that presuppose discipline boundaries. a Pearson Education Company. however. and film will constellate the new “net. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. in the 1980s and 1990s. . building on earlier scholarship of the Stonewall era. homeschooling. James T. Indeed. and sexual lives suspended in a culture of beliefs. the common school of the modernist era will not simply be linked into cyberspace. curriculum scope and sequence. racial. Ultimately. hierarchical structures. and disembodying racial. it appears that the nature of curriculum work is changing as the nature of education changes—in large part due to our entrance into the cyber age and the devolution of institutional structures. Schools and curriculum will cease to exist as we have known them since the days of Horace Mann. It is only a matter of time before we are linked in cyberspace. as those operating from more modernist frameworks—be it progressivism. have become foot soldiers in the cultural war for standards and standardization. is leading to rapid and radical institutional changes from the workplace to the classroom. databases. and chat rooms with traditional forms of media communication such as television. coupled with the rapid development of computerized communications. Sears on Cyber Curriculum in a Postcorporeal Culture In the past. Soon. The current movement toward charter schools. As corporations become more information driven and further reduce overhead in global competition. is already documenting the problematics of living gendered. teacher as mediator of knowledge. Sears. Thus. As we approach the millennium.culture” currently leveling knowledge boundaries. Virtual communities linking Web sites.

gay studies was much like disco. journals such as Feminary. hip-hop is a postmodern pastiche of samples and images ripped from one context and placed into another— precisely what queer studies and theories do with respect to cultural identities.g. Steinberg.g.. and understandable to the lives and politics of everyday people. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. 1997. This work generally reflected sexual essentialism and gender biases (e. and class (e. in press). Sears. Jean-Francois Lyotard (1993). 1998. Boswell.. Sinfield. and Sinister Wisdom). religion. Hawkeswood. James T.g. identity politics ushered in queer theory and queer studies. J. by J. Here. 1996). was transformed into gay liberation by a collection of scholars and activists who formed the Gay Academic Union in an attempt to establish an academic beachhead for gay studies. Queer studies is to gay studies what hip-hop is to disco. Conversely. Within a generation. Michel Foucault (1978. By examining sexuality in relation to society rather than in relation to other individuals. which rose out of the New York gay culture to challenge the prominance of FM rock.CHAPTER 9 Imagining the Postmillennial Curriculum Field 231 Following the Stonewall riots in June of 1969. 1980). Dan Marshall. Amazon Quarterly. gendered and sexual identities were presented as elaborate constructions based on discourse and cultural practice (Greenberg. Sears. 1994. 1993). 1988). Epstein & Johnson. 1975) and frequently tinged by feminist separatism (e. an impressive volume of culturally diverse and sexually complex scholarship developed. 1991. often weighted with leaden Marxist analyses (e. region. 1993). Rubin. Katz. 1976). and William H. 1986) or the (re)construction of butch–femme categories in Buffalo workingclass women’s bars (Kennedy & Davis. sexual. G. The challenge for queer scholars is to make their ethereal concepts meaningful. 1997. gender.. race.. the homophile movement. Schubert. yet educators ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir.g. and Eve Sedgwick (1990. the bridging of man–woman among two-spirit Native Americans (Williams. argued that sexuality is an inherently meaningless concept that only assumes meaning within an historical context such as the scientism of the nineteenth century. 1996. for example. a Pearson Education Company. 1996) or the meaning of same-sex relationships in Renaissance Florence (Rocke. Just as we would not have hip-hop without disco. Beck. 1996. Boykin. the focus is on the deconstruction of binary identities and the construction of multiple racial. and class positions vis-àvis their representations in culture (Morton. Detailed studies documenting these positions and representations include the nineteenth-century phenomenon of same-sex relations among Mormons (Quinn. Gay Left Collective. as well as the myriad intersections of identities along axes of gender. 1994). 1996. Born in resistance to the hegemony of heterosexual relationships. real. Postmodernists in curriculum have theorized about textual understandings and their translation into pedagogical practices. Under the influence of Foucault and other intellectuals such as Judith Butler (1990. Eng & Hom. however. 1989. Off Our Backs. 1997). Raffo. chronicled in chapter 5. 1980. . Today. 1980. we would not have queer studies without gay theory.

In this scenario. the rejection of gay white Eurocentrism (e.g. Watney. Tsang. instead. multidimensional subjectivities. 1996). grandparents. postmodern praxis is already evidenced in the discursive reevaluation of AIDS. and a sense of direction) and to unleash imagination in action with careful attention to consequences. movies. I think of my parents. I think back to growing up on a farm in Indiana. the postmodern intersection of sexualities with technologies will become more evident as the power of language and text extends into cyberspace and multiple sexualized positionalities proliferate (Morton. Like those whom I try to influence with similar reflective questions. and television shows ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. 1987). In this postmodern world where essences are fleeting and identities ruptured. a Pearson Education Company. James T. they can become revisionists for hyperrealities of consciousness. by J. Far-fetched? Today. our modernist universe of human/machine.232 PART V The Uncertainties of Contemporary Curriculum Work (1984 to Lately) have just begun to grapple with multimedia textualities. William H. 1999. if not exhaust. Increasingly. Epstein & Sears. within the community of sexual discourse. “safer sex. because they begin in the lived experience of those with whom I work. and multiplexed narratives.. 1998). nurturing family of educators with high (but not too high) expectations. 1995. In the near future. I have found some approaches that move toward both dimensions of purpose. and William H.g. s/he. However. Schubert on Life’s Curricula Beyond School As a contemporary curriculum worker. Through the twin development of virtual realities and cyber technology. When I think about the origins of the work that I do as a curriculum professor. Rofes.” primary schooling and sexuality education (e. and great aunt who conjured up stories and characters to imagine with me. Silin. I seek to inspire reflection that builds personal theory (philosophy. Dan Marshall. as players assume sexual personae to explore. the body itself will be transcended as cyber-constructed subjectivities enter into an electronic game room wherein who one is becomes defined by who one chooses to be. 1995. entering into cyberspace strips one of sexual identity. The chat rooms and virtual realities of today will become our digital bedrooms and multiplexed sexualized realities of tomorrow. mind/body disappears.. curricularists will no longer be tethered by schools or theoretic dogmas. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall.g. I turn to my childhood and youth. knowledge.. In the process. I reflect on the skills. modernist technologies that allow us to enter into cyberspace have embedded within them the seeds of our corporeal destruction. creating multidimensional stellar bodies. Letts & Sears. Schubert. Boykin. 1999. values. and values that enable me to do this work. 1996). an only child in a loving. Sears. Too. . during the past decade. various sexual subjectivities and positionalities. I reflect on books. beliefs. and Sex Panic’s assault on the negation of sex and desire within the gay male community (e.

. present. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. I think about the sports we played and watched. by J. curriculum work. becomes apparent when one thinks of education . p. for now. sports. the 1970s transformed the game and the profession of tennis from an upper-class spectator sport played for silver bowls and bragging rights to an open-class parade of high-profile athletes vying for big money. a Pearson Education Company. Taken separately. 8) argues that professional tennis in America is a “game that. More than any schooling. my past and present informal experiences with family and friends are the seedbed for almost any skill. Today. friends. overcoming. . I am convinced that niche theory pertains directly to the cultural exemplars or varied tales we have presented. and for the past 20-some years. . students. has misplaced its soul. and clients. and planning for and engaging in extensive family travel during summer vacations. colleagues. . p. and sharing.CHAPTER 9 Imagining the Postmillennial Curriculum Field 233 that were sites of thinking aloud about the world and social life. the natural world around us. knowledge. Each of these icons has been and continues to be a powerful public educator. or value that I could identify. not merely an analogy. each—like the game of tennis and its changing scope—illustrates questions we could raise about American culture generally and. Sears. 14). I wonder.” As noted in chapter 6. these icons illustrate what Bailyn perceptively called for “when one assumes a broader definition of education and a different notion of historical relevance [which] . Moreover. the parallelism of their analogy breaks down in a postmodern universe where parallel lines can meet. When I think about what we have written in this book. Schubert. the fun and laughter. and popular culture. by way of analogy. Their influence gains meaning as professional relationships become personal and embedded in the culture that surrounds me. Dan Marshall. pondering. the most profound curriculum of my life is an outgrowth of interaction with my wife (Ann). and possible futures. each icon not only responds to a societal niche but is actually a form of public education in its own right (Cremin. other family members. These activities and the loving interest that accompanied them were my most important initial curriculum. Taken together. being. and William H. children. In what sense. everyday problem solving. While each cultural icon represents a parallel story to developments in the curriculum field. the most worthwhile curricula for me have derived from informal and sustained interactions with mentors. cooperative work. . Stinson (1993. my journeys of learning—journeys that connected my past. doing. All of these experiences inspired my images of what is worth knowing. Now the sport is so popular that it often commands major headlines. is this a loss of soul? Should working-class desire to vie for big money be seen as a debasement that makes one want to return to an upper-class sport that raises the flag of pure “honor” on a hill of oppression— a position that enables expenditure of time and energy without concern ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Even in school settings. as the entire process by which a culture transmits itself across the generations” (1960. 1976). James T. the arts.

calling it “meaningless tennis” (see Atkin. race. movies. or ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. or even keen insight into the wisdom of technique in danger of being lost could all be justifiable reasons for saying that appearance money is worth it? Would this not be analogous to paying a good conference participation fee in the curriculum field to semiretired curricularists Dwayne Huebner. Clearly.g. sports had become an important cultural icon in American life. Andre Agassi–John McEnroe exhibition tour of 1992) are deemed less worthy to watch if compared with the younger players who are now in the top 10 or 20 in the world. Nike. some harm (even sham) can be identified. and New Balance uses sports celebrities to market footwear that broke the $100-per-pair barrier. one should look seriously.. Louise Berman. James T. however. Sports had become a common ground that seemed to transcend differences. . 1997. The increased popularity of sports in America has reached many with a message of active fun. Ted Aoki. organized sports in general. what would be analogous to open-class tennis? Would it include teachers. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. nostalgia. This does not. and professional sports in particular. and intently at the whole impact of sport on American life. But today’s professional sports have also become a multibilliondollar business. and celebrity. Before condemning tennis as a fallen angel wrought by media hype. I assume this label is offered because the once-great performers (e. Laurel Tanner. In a time when Reebok. computer software. a Pearson Education Company. John Goodlad. by J. Sears. might today’s curricularists be creators of popular music. and William H. and video games? Further. p. carefully. not trivial when compared with mere passive spectatorship. Dan Marshall. negate wholly the positive role that sport via mass media plays in the life of the average viewer. But is it not possible that historical awareness. one that has fused with television to make the difference between media and athletics virtually indistinguishable. and students who are often (usually) left out of curriculum decision making? Or if the analogy is with highprofile big money. gender. but that is far from the whole story. representing ideals of equity. some might decry the phenomenon of “appearance money” wherein popular tennis players of the past now draw crowds and endorsements. and hard work rewarded. is it not possible that both would have something valuable to offer? By the 1990s. sales. books and magazines. or Paul Klohr in an effort to experience their insight? While current curriculum stars can offer insights that depart from those in retirement. Schubert. equal opportunity. television programs. 12). Much of televised sport and talk about it is doubtless connected with the automatic camaraderie experienced by even the partial athlete who joins in play with others regardless of class.234 PART V The Uncertainties of Contemporary Curriculum Work (1984 to Lately) for money? Is it not easier to strive for “pure honor” if bread is on the table and money in the pocket? If the recognized curriculum field is analogous to upper-class tennis. parents. have become spectacles replete with symbol.

passion. looking more to goals of appearance and endorsement than to the essence of the game itself. is that curriculum scholarship (asking and acting on the basic questions of worth) is going on in many places. as in curriculum. Some might see her father as insightfully knowing how to prepare Venus and her sister for the competitive world that surrounds and creates tennis. They often have insight about need and interest not available in formal institutions of education. Venus Williams. Love of the game is part of the whole picture. Some might see one of today’s meteoric stars. more money. by J. raised in the projects of Compton (coached by her father). The more populist base of tennis (and most popular sports). may well have been engendered by what many criticize as evil media hype. The analogy for the curriculum field. who has made it to the finals of the major tournaments. whether framed in tennis or other sports. And this picture. these neocurricularists can be thoughtless. accomplished ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. . James T. youth. Schubert. Some already see her legacy as bringing personal pride. as a result of both personal striving and media promotion. other women tennis players. Like recognized curriculum workers. Sears. not the money and the glory. television and movie producers and writers. Castigators might see the Floridian tennis camps for children as fostering indoctrination in the drive for glamour and money. and William H. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. as if she suddenly became a walk-on who would revolutionize the game. Others might see her as emblematic of rising to humanistic heights without the aid of the system. In tennis. which is surely evident in watching Venus play. ASCD. can be seen as a democratizing of the sport with increased opportunity to play. and new personalities and stars to someday play at center court. At the same time. including the mass media. Dan Marshall. Others would see these camps as inspiring settings in which the game is of first concern. and inventors of computer and video games often do ask deeply what children. Whether Venus Williams’s legacy will be that of humanizing and personalizing the game in the face of commercialization or changing a dimension of the social order remains to be seen. Yet. a Pearson Education Company. But so can members of AERA. and Professors of Curriculum. Others might see her as supported by Nike and other business interests until it was timely for her to emerge. there are many degrees of both good and evil intent and consequence. Some might wonder why the same rise was so short-lived for Zina Garrison. Or emphasis can be placed on greedy promoters who endlessly seek more tours. self-centered.CHAPTER 9 Imagining the Postmillennial Curriculum Field 235 other differences. partly fueled by media attention. who might not have had a strong fit with media image culture or might not have emerged at the right time. and joy to the game. as I see it. and hungry for money and fame to the exclusion of all else. the moving to greater inclusiveness. as an aberration—an African-American girl. all of us need. popular musicians. The situation is far too complex for a unidimensional interpretation.

psychological. We need to look at any source that fashions our character and perspectives. Similarly. and gangs to television. churches. and promote human growth through collaboration inspired by such study. rather. the curriculum field itself will need to be radically altered if it is to respond intelligently. learn from them. . and be in order to live worthwhile lives. It points to a broadened and deepened spirit of dialogue in which diverse interests struggle together. is that multiple and simultaneous interpretations and histories need to prevail and be sustained. and a whole array of artistic. Martina Navratilova furthered the cause of gay and lesbian rights and acceptance. and Monica Selles exemplified the heart of comeback after being stabbed on the court. Dan Marshall. James T. software. The authors of our outlooks on the world. meaning. I am advocating that the neglected curricula that daily shape the character and ideals of us all be given due attention along with our focus on schools. curriculum discourse can no longer be seen solely as discussion among a few well-published scholars in noted universities. Curriculum discourse must embrace all dimensions of society (including the most influential ones in the mass media) that address basic questions about what we need to know. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. compassionately. these include the school and the host of neglected realms of curriculum from those in families and homes. Sears. then. including those that are popular at grassroots levels and those supported by mass media. Moreover. print media. do. critique. I doubt that schools as we know them will prevail. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. scouts. a Pearson Education Company. Schubert. We need to study these whatevers. how we infuse them with meaning. In the long run. not to mention the yet unknown journeys that the future has in store. are the curricularists we need to join in mutual exploration of possibilities for the creation of defensible futures for us all. and William H. we should expand our horizons to see curriculum as whatever brings insight. and contributory action. his legacy of social critique does not call for a return to the nostalgic days of upperclass tennis for those who could afford to be honorable because they had no economic worries. How we respond to these journeys. and cultural experiences.236 PART V The Uncertainties of Contemporary Curriculum Work (1984 to Lately) as much: Billie Jean King contributed significantly to gender consciousness and parity. by J. and compassion. scientific. A central point of analogy between tennis and curriculum. For me. movies. technological. clubs. I am not advocating removal of curriculum studies from its original role of service to schools. those (including ourselves) who create our images of life. purpose. depends on what realms of practice and policy our field will embrace. video and video games. music. political. interpersonal. We cannot be content to be harbingers only of what schools alone might be. Although the tragic and untimely death of Arthur Ashe may be correlated with decline in the honor of the game. and imaginatively to the multiplicity of educational journeys on which we have already embarked in today’s world.

and I must continually question what makes it possible for me to think that there are such things as feminism or poststructuralism—or a field of curriculum. What I call the curriculum field is simply whatever I want to do. Sears. merely a study of how to have a world. though at this point calling myself that is more of a political thing. a Pearson Education Company. But where might all of this pondering take us? We conclude this contemporary curriculum memoir with the reflections of our numerous curriculum guests who. an era of complex. Having said that. as Jim Macdonald used to say. what knowledge is of most worth and why? How should that knowledge be organized. I can’t separate the two. I’ve always believed that teaching is curriculum. Such contemplation (and the actions it produces). I’d definitely say feminist. and yourself on the future of curriculum work and contemporary curriculum studies.” consider the past and future of curriculum work. Petra Munro: If I had to categorize myself. in the following “conversation. Sears. Mary-Ellen Jacobs: I’ve never quite felt like I was a member of the curriculum club. in all its forms. the days of canonical thinking are long gone from the curriculum field. but on a political. For me. represents a manifestation of these very questions about worthwhile knowledge and experience. Schubert. As their lives and thoughts illustrate. and evaluated? And what role should educators and students. things are a lot more ambiguous and recursive. This doesn’t frighten me on a theoretical level. parents and the community. Schubert. James T. day-to-day level it does frighten me. deliberative action lies ahead. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. Alex Molnar: I think curriculum is. and future becomes work that transcends mere intellectual exercise or interest. Dan Marshall. Building on their (and your) scenarios. . present. by J. taught. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. any and all contemplation of the field’s past. professional organizations and multinational corporations play in these decisions? ? A Final Conversation Assuming that our field remains firmly rooted in the fundamental questions raised earlier. Although I have a lot of critiques of feminism I am adamant at this point to continue to call myself that because of the current conservative backlash. This narrow thing called the curriculum field just doesn’t hold my interest any longer. and William H. it’s also a category I want to give up.CHAPTER 9 Imagining the Postmillennial Curriculum Field 237 Question Imagine a conversation among Marshall. because to give up a category has political consequences.

until the 1980s. For example. to others it’s a matter of introducing kids to different cultures. a Pearson Education Company.238 PART V The Uncertainties of Contemporary Curriculum Work (1984 to Lately) Bill Watkins: I’ve always seen myself as a social scientist. when you talk about multicultural education you are talking about many. James T. Sears. Schubert. Today’s curriculum field is definitely alive—not so much because we have really thought through and become immersed in significant curriculum issues. Petra Munro: I’m not sure I agree that we’re getting nowhere. because to a certain extent you’re in the field if people say you are. but rather because all of these other issues have come into play. Alex Molnar: But who’s in the field of curriculum? That’s kind of a rhetorical question. To some it’s equity. and we’re working within an institution that gives rewards and allows people to feel relatively safe because it calls them curriculum people—thinking that everyone knows what that means—we’re in a tenuous position. by J. we have to also recognize that we work in institutions that. Dan Marshall. and William H. Yet it’s all of these related issues that contaminate genuine curriculum improvements and contribute to our getting nowhere. it’s almost impossible to deal with anything related to curriculum in any sort of orderly fashion. That’s why people like Michael F. Louis Rubin: Forty-five or fifty years ago when curriculum theorists decided that they could usefully alter the instructional curriculum in a place like Pasadena. . Today. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. and there wasn’t nearly the amount of bureaucratic congestion we have now. I’m very committed to working with teachers and grad students in terms of having ours be a field with a lot of room for them to see themselves in. That’s what curriculum people were about. never had second thoughts about what a Department of Curriculum and Instruction was about or what a person who did something called “curriculum” was about. So if we can’t embrace those earlier. regardless of their ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. but that very perception is one important reason why I think people in curriculum theory have to stick together—because I think we are under attack in some ways. they simply went out and did it. Young and Basil Bernstein meant so much to me during my studies and allowed me to feel like I had found a place within the fields of education and curriculum. Petra Munro: I think to the extent that any of us are willing to allow these labels to fall by the wayside. D. and to still others it’s a means of fighting for feminist rights. many different things depending upon the view of the particular person concerned. narrowly historical notions. Life was in a slower gear then. Now they have a lot of doubts about that.

Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. I hope that we begin to think about the field of curriculum more broadly than just the property of curriculum theorists. independently. Given the perturbations we see in society. and William H. I also felt that it was getting boring. help to reform education in the long run in democratic ways. I hope. Yet if we alienate teachers. schools appear ever more important in the lives of children. James T. Schubert. So we need to connect with schools while also trying to simultaneously disconnect to some extent. we get co-opted by schools and we can’t theorize. . and to translate. as we might be able to. Henry Giroux: I agree that curriculum theorists should be less incestuous. although ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. and that’s got both positive and negative aspects. Susan Edgerton: There’s a great deal of pressure on people in our field to connect our work with schools. Our field is enriched through its diversity. I really didn’t see a lot of new work emerging. to work back and forth between those. These are the ideas plaguing me now: Finding ways of opening up our language and ways of reaching a broader audience that will help to make the curriculum field more democratic and in some way. because I was interested in combining a number of fields and curriculum theory basically had no discourse to do that at the time. And if they do. the role of school in the life of the learner seems to be taking on more significance rather than less.CHAPTER 9 Imagining the Postmillennial Curriculum Field 239 theoretical perspectives. Peter Hlebowitsh: The source of that pressure you mention is obvious to me. by J. Negatively. and if that’s the case then somebody’s got to take that on and deal with those kinds of things. if we theorize without any sense of what’s going on in schools at all we’re liable to never be translated. It would be my hope that schools of education would have a hand in that. I don’t know why there can’t be a lot more teachers who are also curriculum theorists. Positively. We’ve become so very narrow that we speak only to ourselves. To be continually rethinking and questioning our assumptions within the political context of education—that’s our work. there’s no hope that we’ll survive. but the general public—because important decisions are being made and our voices are not being heard. Sears. I have enough of a political agenda to think that being translated matters. and I’m hoping for this kind of democratization of the curriculum field. Tom Barone: Our lens isn’t wide enough for me. I drifted away from the curriculum field. only curricularists would be able to do that well because they would have the widest lens. a Pearson Education Company. Petra. even as the major decisions about our lives are being made elsewhere. If you look across the social landscape. Like Petra. Dan Marshall. We need to be addressing a larger group of people—and I don’t just mean practitioners. in part.

. For me. People didn’t read the history of the field well and consequently. On the other hand. James T. and how what is taught comes to be taught. That’s really the base of all this interdisciplinarity. Alex Molnar: The curriculum field has long lacked an historical understanding of itself. Schubert. Mary-Ellen Jacobs: I have to disagree with these concerns about narrowness and an inability to combine fields. curriculum is a manifestation of industrial culture relative to. which is to help put schools and teaching and the experience of classrooms in a provocative light. Sears. But we’ve become so interested in extending the tower that we’ve maybe lost sight of its base. design. and teaching differently. Peter Hlebowitsh: But not without problems. and William H. Curriculum is very much a piece of those historical developments. for example. Dan Marshall. I think such a range has really broadened and enlivened and made richer the whole study of the field. teachers. the collapse of the nation state as an organizing principle and the ascendance of international capital markets as the dominant factor in the construction of social life around this planet. that the whole field is somehow captured by this malevolent desire for social control and that Tyler.240 PART V The Uncertainties of Contemporary Curriculum Work (1984 to Lately) it always suggested it was new. curriculum—and weave them together to help us see classrooms. Yet few curriculum writers do much with this in terms of its practical manifestations in the daily lives of children and teachers in the schools. and especially history. While the curriculum field has developed a tolerance for many views. including the new curricularists: burdens of practice. himself. maybe the problem with becoming interdisciplinary is that we lose the base. literature. What was so radically new to me about reconceptualized curriculum was its attempt to combine a lot of different disciplines—philosophy. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. psychology. I think the field has to talk about its base—the burdens that have to be carried by all of us. they re-invented parts of that field thinking that they were inventing something different. we now ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Janet Miller: Today’s curriculum studies range from historical works to issues of development to far-reaching analyses of discourse. unity. Henry raised the issue of history: I feel there’s been complete mismanagement in our historical interpretation. by J. was a behaviorist with genes from Franklin Bobbitt. especially the position that the whole history of the curriculum field is somehow equated with Franklin Bobbitt and social efficiency. Peter Hlebowitsh: That’s why we need some reconciliation within the contemporary curriculum field. a Pearson Education Company.

including culture and politics. As part of a second generation of curriculum people I was very much drawn into the curriculum work of the 1960s—as Caswell was a generation earlier. . have been very much aware of a passage of generations. especially. Actually.” but such direction was infrequent from her. Michael Apple: When I work with doctoral students I want them to stand on the models that I was given and at the same time to reconstruct them. But I feel real comfortable with what I’m doing today. we knew that we were standing on people’s shoulders. I think there’s a place within curriculum studies for me. Schubert. Now there were times when I wish she would have said. Alice Miel established a healthy setting for furthering independent and interdependent thinking and feeling by using a non-directive approach. and I feel compelled to take my place. yet Huebner and others insisted we weren’t to be clones. now become yourself. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. “Do this” or “Do that. by J. I see myself as standing on the shoulders of DuBois and other black radical educators. too. As students. Louise Berman: My advising experiences at TC were different. For example. a Pearson Education Company.CHAPTER 9 Imagining the Postmillennial Curriculum Field 241 need what Bill Wraga calls a restoration: We’ve had a reconceptualization and now we need a restoration back toward where the institutional traditions of the field point. Henry Giroux: But understand that the notion of “widest public mandate” takes us into other terrains. I felt it was a lot more focused. I found the earlier phases of the contemporary field [between the 1960s and early 1980s] much more political than the later phases. Bill Watkins: I liked the curriculum field a lot more in the mid1980s than I do in the mid-1990s. but some of the stuff today I just don’t feel connected to. really tough. the curriculum generation of the ’30s had come to an end. by the time the major curriculum projects of the ’60s arrived. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. James T. Sears. then. To strike that balance is really. In my own advising I want to get out of students’ way but I also want to energize them and to ignite some kind of intellectual spark.” That’s my task—that kind of generational shift. “Okay. Michael Apple: When I was a doctoral student there was no doubt in our minds about such generational shifts. Arthur Foshay: I. Embedded in that is bringing the field back to seeing the public school as its main constituency and working with the highest of ideals toward the widest public mandate. I felt real connected to the discourse between 1978 and 1988. Dan Marshall. and William H. As Huebner and others at Teachers College would eventually say.

Loosening this previously narrow definition has incredibly enriched the field and provided numerous avenues for curriculum inquiry. Dan Marshall. Where it’s going to go after that. even reaction before things change. I think it’s done nothing but enrich our understanding of what we might begin to conceptualize as curriculum. I think that curriculum faces some of the same dilemmas. Susan Edgerton: What’s to become of the field of curriculum? Who knows? Some of the issues around its identity parallel those which cultural studies faced in England back when they were trying to decide whether or not to departmentalize. But I think we’re going to have to go beyond those and integrate some very different perspectives. including ecological and spiritual ones. narrow definition of curriculum studies prohibits people from exploring. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. I think the field is in disarray. The strength of what’s happened during the curriculum field’s last twenty-five years has permitted this variety of breadth and depth of perspective. Sears. I think we’re at a crossroads in our intellectual life in this country. by J. That’s one of the reasons why I rejected totally any language that talks about curriculum reconceptualists. Janet Miller: But we need to acknowledge these traditions in their broadest sense. a very strict. And I think this period will continue for a while. James T. fragmentation. Petra Munro: I see different trends beginning. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. . I don’t know. and William H. The same is true in many different academic disciplines. though I hope it turns in a different kind of direction.242 PART V The Uncertainties of Contemporary Curriculum Work (1984 to Lately) Michael Apple: I’m not comfortable with taking this talk about generational shifts too far. For example. Arthur Foshay: I’m not so sure. complex. Schubert. multi-dimensional and chaotically postmodern that it’s not really going to be a field much longer—if it still is. though I think that our current situation simply has to play itself out. Within the curriculum field. I think that’s a total misreading of history. We are simply standing on the shoulders of very. To define ourselves so that we survive institutionally might undermine the very kinds of things that we really want to do. we’ve gone from a kind of technical to a more political and even personal perspective on understanding things. Unlike Mary-Ellen. Louise Berman: I’m really thoroughly pessimistic about today’s curriculum field. Bill Watkins: I’m hoping to maintain my own focus during this period of haziness and confusion within a curriculum field that’s becoming so complicated. standard. very long and valuable traditions that have their roots in the very beginning of the curriculum field. going through a period of confusion. a Pearson Education Company.

but work that needs to be connected— translated. by J.CHAPTER 9 Imagining the Postmillennial Curriculum Field 243 For me. through art and so on strikes me as a good sign. Sears. in one sense. as Janet Miller (1997. Yet we leave this project feeling hopefully queasy about the future of our field and assuredly addled about future turning points in curriculum.” particularly those boundaries having to do with membership. I suggest that we pay attention to the ways in which we are responding to those various versions that frame our field. and I believe that curriculum theory as a form of discourse is secondary to narrative. Many of us who continue to embrace the label of curriculum person remain uncertain about the construction (and constructors) of our curriculum identity as it relates to institutional and intellectual life. depends almost entirely upon the individual’s life story and the kinds of people and stories you come into contact with during your life. James T. The practitioner side of me has always resonated with this notion of storytelling. performance is becoming significant because I see it as a way of translating theoretical work we might do that’s dissociated from the everyday. p. Momentary Thought As the preceding conversation suggests. but whose knowledge. and William H. and audience. in how we respond to each other and to those around us: Given that myriad and diverse versions of what counts as curriculum studies now circulate at the [AERA] Annual Meeting as well as in our research and practices. we conclude with the belief that our most pressing challenges may lie. the kind of theoretical position that anyone adopts in curriculum work or. Schubert. Like all curriculum workers. in terms of how they view the world. language. ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. which is not what knowledge is most important. but there are many forms of politics. Articulating our base has become as doggedly problematic as representing our traditions and our histories. more broadly. somehow. it remains our responsibility to respond. through story. Dan Marshall. Michael Apple: I want students to be political. The narrative tradition has become very important within the field of curriculum. a Pearson Education Company. Tom Barone: I agree. and that tradition stems from a particular question that I’ve tried to transform. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. That our genealogy is still dominated by the presence and work of white males only enhances these problems. That we can talk about theory through performance. We remain perplexed about our “property rights. As students of curriculum. . Tom Barone: In a sense. I want them to care about a particular tradition. More importantly. 2) points out. imagining the postmillennial curriculum field is uncomfortable work. from schools.

Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. I am still struggling with my own contradictory reactions to the continuing pressure of claims and counterclaims rooted in the inherent diversity of American society. by J. and William H. and never had so many false claims been made about education in the name of ‘evidence’ ” (1995. I think the field needs to move on in some clear. In Berliner and Biddle’s words: “Never before had an American government been so critical of the public schools. .Afterword:The Age of Pluralism Wilma S. University of New Orleans he wealth of textures and diversity that have characterized curriculum discourse are captured with great sensitivity in this work. unprecedentedly involved in massive criticism of the schools. but one that would allow me to pose my loyal opposition with clarity. I am disgusted with my field by what appears to be the constant nit-picking of ideas into oblivion regardless of what their worth may be. We have talked about “turning education around” for so long without achieving anything like the reforms envisioned that cynicism has set in and taken its toll on the enthusiasm I once had so much of. a sense of not getting anywhere despite the best efforts of curriculum leaders. At times. Reagan and Bush. productive direction—a direction I might not agree with. Most of the public (and this includes curriculum specialists) appears convinced that American education is in a deplorable state and needs radical fixing for the sake of the nation and for the future of our children. James T. 4). supportive of both our differences and our socioeconomic well-being. The very diversity of our cultural and political origins and our willingness to talk through our diversity gave us the strength as a people to offer educational opportunity to the masses and to create an environment for being together. The cacophony of points and counterpoints. I find the diversity of views—and even the nit-picking— exciting. while verbalizing fewer criticisms. Longstreet. a part of that greater diversity that contributed to the rise of a new nation with new conceptions of education. I find myself hard-pressed to describe the nature of my field. It is as though those working in curriculum are caught in an inscrutable maze with all of the exits still hidden. has been working to fix what is wrong. to judge from his legislative 244 ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 T Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. a Pearson Education Company. President Clinton. Dan Marshall. According to Berliner and Biddle (1995). the so-called crisis in schooling has been largely manufactured by a government and two American presidents. Sears. Ours is a despair born of impatience in a professional field not yet a century old and not yet clear about what its professional work ought to be. Other times. Schubert. p. of interpretations and redefinitions appears to give sustenance to an increasing sense of despair and frustration. which. The discouragement of many failed curriculum reforms is equally well represented. With more than 25 years in the field.



behavior, is primarily low test scores. And, of course, many curricular specialists are convinced there is a great deal wrong because so many schools have become ghettos of poverty. When poverty is not the point, the curricular oppression of each child’s creativity and individuality, or the irrelevance of the curriculum to current needs, or the omission of humanities from the course of study, or any number of other concerns convince specialists that school reform needs to happen—indeed, that it is urgent. But whose demands should become the guiding light of reform? The demands the public makes on the school’s curriculum are as disparate as the American public itself. No one institution could succeed in meeting all that has been asked of the schools. If that is true, and most accept it as a truism, then it would appear to follow that a reform bringing some kind of clear focus to the schools is desirable. However, it is not at all clear that the somewhat amorphous quality of the present educational system, characterized by social promotion, standardized testing, and a number of subjects not amenable to standardized testing such as stress management, does not meet and support the cultural and individual diversity of the American public better than a focused program of study, even one focused on higher-level skills such as problem solving and concept building. Calls for school reform are part of a long-standing American tradition. Every few years a major movement of some kind appears, and I have often sympathized with efforts to redirect schooling. I suppose in my deepest of hearts, like many of my friends and colleagues, I long for the most radical of reforms, a revolution. After all, this nation grew from the revolutionary roots of democracy, and a sense of revolution has persisted throughout our history, permeating all of our cultural lives. We have lived through the agrarian revolution, the industrial revolution, the information revolution, the media revolution—including a revolution in journalism known as muckraking—and even a revolution in education that led to greatly increased accessibility by the masses and a curriculum reconfigured to better serve the economic interests of the nation. We have pursued reforms of every kind, recognizing that the upheavals of these many revolutions require profound revisions of society’s infrastructures. In short, the demand for educational reform has persisted throughout our history. Most of us have, in fact, grown up in the midst of demands for reform, and most of us have accepted that ours is a revolutionary period that requires reform. It may be time, now, to shed the traditional cloak of revolution and reform. We have been culturally imbued with the idea that revolutions and reforms are part of a necessary upheaval if significant improvement is to occur. Yet there is a linearity to this kind of thinking (i.e., X must happen if Y is to occur) that assumes a singular environment. We are, instead, a nation of diverse environments and a multiplicity of cultures sharing a public arena that could be likened to the Tower of Babel. The time for cultural as well as violent revolutions may have already come

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Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir, by J. Dan Marshall, James T. Sears, and William H. Schubert. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall, a Pearson Education Company.



to an end in the United States. From the grand perspective of several centuries of history, we have been involved in a growing crescendo of change and an ever-accelerating explosion of knowledge with roots ranging from the Crusades and the Great Plague of 1348 through the Enlightenment and the great periods of discovery and mechanization. (This view is taken by many historians, including Braudel, 1987; 1994.) These revolutions and calls for reform have continued to increase in frequency as the time between their appearances has shortened. As this book makes clear, revolutions and reforms have become a constant of our collective lives. If, however, we ref lect on the idea either of revolution or of reform as a constantly present phenomenon, we must surely understand that both have become their own antitheses. If revolution and reform are constant in society, then they have clearly become a stable part of that society. To take this further, if change is a constant, then the cessation of change is the revolution. I realize there is a certain play on words in my discourse, and I most assuredly do not mean to say that change is over. I am quite convinced that change, and the flexibility it requires, will continue to be a fundamental part of our human experience. Made obvious in Turning Points, that experience is full of contemporaneous complexities and contradictions that are multidimensional rather than linear. Given that major cultural changes also occur at different rates and are integrated in varying and unpredictable ways, I am further convinced that the many diversities of this nation will increase and that support for diversity in general is a necessary component of a democratic society. If we are not willing to allow the majority to tyrannize our many culturally disparate groups, then we need to develop a public arena of institutions supportive of profoundly different values and lifestyles and capable of offering to all similar opportunities and benefits. We are in the midst, as we need to be, of building pluralism into a democratic form of governance. This work is an intimidating undertaking to a curriculum specialist and one likely to grow in complexity. The schools continue to be one of the first public arenas confronting the challenge of pluralism. The long period of exploding knowledge and cultural upheavals has slowly but surely become an age of pluralism, an age in which we have brought into the very fabric of our intellectual and social lives the idea that many kinds and levels of realities and beliefs exist and that they all, taken together, can yield a better quality of existence. In American education we have already entered the age of pluralism, an age not only of multiculturalism but also of numerous other diversities, ranging from Howard Gardener’s conception of multiple intelligences, to the rise of subjects not based on disciplines, to the development of a system of relative valuing intended to respect the diversity of different cultures and their absolute values while rendering the schools beneficial to

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Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir, by J. Dan Marshall, James T. Sears, and William H. Schubert. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall, a Pearson Education Company.



all. American schools have long been responsive to the public’s diversity and to an array of public demands, each of which could be viewed in its own right as revolutionary change. But instead of revolution, each demand has found a niche in the curriculum, praised by some, derided by others. To understand this situation, we must understand the need for relativity in a pluralistic public arena. Public schools must operate in a milieu of relative values in order to protect each group’s and each person’s right to hold absolute values and to pursue education, which often reaches the very heart of our cultural differences, in the manner that appears most fitting for each of our many cultural groupings. It may well be that no one institution can effectively do all the things the schools have been charged with doing. In a strictly organizational sense, as today’s businesses and sciences operate, the likelihood of schools succeeding in the eyes of all the disparate groups holding claims over them is at best quite low. Pluralism, rather than any systematic analysis of our curricular structures, has driven responses to public demands. Schools have tried to meet the vocational demands of business and industry; they have from time to time tried to respond to the individual needs of children, though hardly at the level of the autobiographical curriculum so valiantly pursued by Pinar and his followers (e.g., Pinar, 1994); they have collaborated in overcoming social problems, from slowing the spread of AIDS and increasing parenting skills among teenage mothers to helping youngsters manage stress and control violent impulses; they have been involved in sustaining the cultural heritage of children from many backgrounds; and they have been charged with developing values in youngsters whose parents represent very different value systems. Before the twentieth century, expectations such as these for any public educational undertaking would have been inconceivable. As we enter the twenty-first century, the disparateness of the public’s demands on education—and on the schools—continues to grow. In this context, postmodernism has been pivotal to the rise of the age of pluralism in American education. Martusewicz (1992), in her effort to describe the postmodern subject, describes as well the underlying conditions of pluralism in American schooling: Post-modernism, alternatively called post-modernity, is characterized by a crisis in legitimation, specifically of knowledge, in which an attitude of suspicion or lack of belief with regard to “the master narratives” prevails. That is, our assumptions about what constitutes everyday knowledge as well as academic knowledge, indeed the very possibility of knowing, have been placed deeply into question. (pp. 131–132) This postmodern view of knowledge and knowing linked, however unintentionally, to the multicultural roots of America’s origins, the vastness of land that afforded disparate groups the privacy and potential for each

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Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir, by J. Dan Marshall, James T. Sears, and William H. Schubert. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall, a Pearson Education Company.



group’s unique development, and a government based not only on principles of democracy but also on protection from the tyranny of the majority have created the circumstances supportive of pluralism, especially in the public schools. Pluralism in the schools is one of the greatest cultural experiments in human history, and while patience is in order, it is extremely difficult to be patient as our expectations for measurable results in the short term continue to reflect the cultural encapsulation of a modern era already past. Indeed, the subject-oriented national tests that have been pursued by the federal government as the singular remedy or reform for education seem a throwback to the early years of twentieth-century modernism. While society is becoming increasingly diverse and pluralistic, the education of children is being configured through testing as being a clearly delimited, singular set of intellectual experiences. So I find both within myself and around the nation a strange conflict between a pluralistic reality, both of student circumstances and of public demands, and the thrust toward singular change often thought of in terms of upheaval, revolution, and reform. We appear to ignore the many revolutionary elements that have infiltrated American education without any one of them becoming the dominant character of a new conception of education or curriculum: revolutions without revolution or, in milder terms, reform without a victorious reform movement. In the typically eclectic mode of educators, I want the school’s curriculum to accomplish it all. Indeed, in times such as these, we may need it all. Nevertheless, as a curriculum specialist, it has been my lifelong professional endeavor to move beyond the tradition of eclecticism that typically undertakes to make logical transitions among often contradictory diversities and their accompanying cacophony of voices. It is not intellectual or social order that I want but rather meaningfulness and worthwhileness in the midst of all this diversity for all the many disparate needs of disparate populations. I cannot quite define what I understand to be meaningful, not because I cannot recognize it, but because I cannot do so a priori. We are a nation of complexity and diversity. The metastructures of knowledge that we curricularists have fashioned into school subjects, and the processes by which we do the fashioning, need to become pluralistically sensitive. There needs to be relevance for the individual as well as for society and its subcultures, there needs to be room for doubting knowledge and for suspending doubt, and there needs to be an everincreasing understanding of uncertainty along with the need to act— even when complexity confuses and frightens us. And somehow, if public schooling is to survive, we need to convince ourselves and numerous others that diversity is the essence of what we are. I sense that Turning Points is a passionately unusual and deliberate attempt to do just that. The time has passed for revolutions to hold the answers. Ah, for the simplicity of a stirring revolution with its clarity of direction and reform.

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Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir, by J. Dan Marshall, James T. Sears, and William H. Schubert. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall, a Pearson Education Company.

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154 Aronowitz. Tom background. Henry. 132. 87 curriculum evaluation monographs. 78–79 conferences. 239. Max. 158. 162 and Pinar. 162 Appalachian State University. 162 Asante. 243 Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction (Tyler). 135 Axtell. 216 Army Ballistic Missile Agency. 135–39 and curriculum evaluation. Stanley. 103. 241. 160 American Tennis Association. 224. Becoming. 13 Perceiving. 241. . 4. Wilford. 20 Ayers. Harold. 223 All England Croquet Club. 133–34 Association of Tennis Professionals. 243 and reconceptualism. 139–40 American Freedom and Catholic Power (Blanshard). George. 20 Bateman. “Shifting Ground of Curriculum Thought and Everyday Practice. 76 Barnard. 102–4. 81–83. 150. 197–98 and postmillennial curriculum field. Behaving. Arthur. Hannah. 76 action research.INDEX Abington School District v. 216 Ashe. 157–59 special interest group. Charles. 65. Carr. 110 origins of. Bill. 161 and ideological issues. 83 discontent and divergence. Molefi. 87–88 and generational shifts. 29–30 Action Research to Improve School Practices (Corey). 171–72 and Eisner. 154 Airlie House. a Pearson Education Company. 173 Alaska. 85–86 and curriculum transformation. 139. Howard. Jean. 29 Addams. 218. 3. Schempp. 70 Perspectives on Curriculum Development. 242 and Giroux. 73 upheavals in. 39 American High School Today. 149 Apple. 236 Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD) Commission on Curriculum Theory. Henry. Gordon. 173 and postmillennial curriculum field. 138 279 ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. 33 Beegle. Michael. James T. 65 American Educational Research Association (AERA) and Apple. Mortimer. The. Sears. and William H. 158. 75. 139 Arendt. 45–46 American Space Foundation. 114–15 Allport. by J. William. Dan Marshall. Jane. 83 and humanistic psychology. 110 Unstudied Curriculum. 160 Aiken. Elliot. 225 Ideology and Curriculum. Daniel. 19 Aikin. 9–10 Baker v. 134. Michael and curriculum traditions. Schubert. 9 Aerospace Industries Association.. Don. 9 Adventure with Children. 242. 161 Alberty. 116 Anyon.” 195–96 Bagley. 118 Beberman. The (Conant). 5 Barone. 135. 137. 132 Schools in Search of Meaning. William C. An (Lewis). 6 Adler. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. 10 Air Force Ballistic Missile Program.

12 Bode. 39 Charters. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. 45 Carnegie Foundation. 65. Horace Mann. 228 Catholic University of America. 241. 242 and University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee. and William H. 3 Child and the World. 32–33. 223 Bond. Macdonald. The (Dewey). Brief Guide to the Project Method (coauthor). A. 119 Brandt. 216 Bellack. 188 Bloom. Hollis Curriculum Improvement in Public School Systems. Landon. 132 Benjamin. 200 New Priorities in Curriculum. Ralph. Readings in Curriculum Development (coauthor). 94 Toward a Theory of Instruction. Arno. 87 and postmillennial curriculum field. 9 Belenky. See Roman Catholic Church Catholics Speak Out. 162 Bergamo Conference. 57 and Schwab. 66 and Tyler. 224 Caswell. W. 31 and curriculum making. 18.. 177 Catholic Church. Boyd. 86. 60. Wernher von. Mary. 52 Black Curriculum. Ernie. The. 29 Chardin. 83 and Jacobs. Joseph. 11. Franklin. Frank. Jerome Process of Education. W. and Parlett). 228 Catholics United for Faith. 8. 63–65 and experientialism. 53 Brameld. 9 Child and the Curriculum. 58–60 and ASCD’s Commission on Curriculum Development. 21. Benjamin and Eisner. Deborah P. 9. “Structures of Feeling in Curriculum and Teaching. 56. 160 Brief Guide to the Project Method (Chase and Hosic). 9 ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. 31. Handbook 1: Cognitive Domain. Elliot. 8. a Pearson Education Company. 39 Buckley. 132 Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS). Kathleen. Warren. 71–73 Bestor. 43 Casey. James T. 33 Beyer. Martin. Board of Education. 78 curriculum flexibility and expansion. 9–10 Chase. 72. 217–18 curriculum ideals. 177 Braun. 208 Berman. Pierre Teilhard de. 13 Bowers..” 181–83 Brown v. C. 9–10. 11. 93 Black Entertainment Television. 20 and Foshay. 158. 139. 9 Britzman. 224 Beyond the Numbers Game: A Reader in Educational Evaluation (Hamilton. 231 Campbell.. 222 Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Dan Marshall. 42. 46. Louise M. . 223 Boyer. 80 Buber. 173. 207. 177 Carnegie Corporation.280 INDEX Before Books (Pratt and Stanton). Walter. by J. Schubert. 53 Changing the Curriculum: A Social Process (Miel). Ron. 39 Center for Coordinated Education. 62 Bruner. 39 Burger. Arthur. 17–18.. Sears. Wells. The (Naumburg). 22 Readings in Curriculum Development (coauthor). Mary-Ellen. Jenkins. 76 Butler. 109 Biographical Essays on Curriculum and Instruction (Brickman). 52. 222 Chase. The (Walton). Judith. 47–51. Theodore. Doak.. William. 18. 20 Bobbitt. 88. Sara E.

31 Curriculum Inquiry (journal). 75 Coleman. Ben. 65 Curriculum Development Task Force. See also IBM Conant. 177 Corey. 44 Colegrove v. 93 Collings. 5 Committee of Ten. 184 Cronbach. 64 Cremin. 216 Coles. George S. 9 Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). Senate). Dan Marshall. John. A (Hill). Action Research to Improve School Practices. 9 Columbia University. 192 “Creation and Utilization of Curriculum Knowledge” (AERA SIG). 32 at Teachers College. Lee J. See Teachers College–Columbia University Combs. James T. 208 Curriculum Improvement in Public School Systems (Caswell).. 5 Committee on Labor and Public Welfare (U. 216 College Curriculum and Student Protest (Schwab). 132. 39 Cogley. 62 Connors. 78–79 Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education. Larry. 215 Curriculum: An Introduction to the Field (Gress and Purpel). 132 Critical Issues in Curriculum (Tanner). 157 Curriculum and Teaching (journal). Schubert. 134 Contemporary Curriculum Discourses (Pinar). Sears. Jimmy. 18. Lawrence. . Wells. James. 80 curriculum genealogy. and William H. Ellsworth. 216 Counts. Linda. 8 Committee of Fifteen. 131–32 Curriculum Development: Theory and Practice (Taba). 45–46 Conduct Curriculum. Catherine. 63–66.. John. 43 Computing-Tabulating-Recording (CTR) Company. 75 Code for Television and Motion Pictures. 216 Crichlow. Green. 199 Content of the Curriculum (Brandt). Arthur W. 19. 88 and curriculum making. 222–25 Curriculum Improvement: Decision Making and Process (Doll). 12 and Foshay. 65 Commission on Curriculum Theory. Steven Max. 184–85. 73 Creativity in Teaching (Miel). 9–10 “Dare the School Build a New Social Order?. 224 Crisis in the Classroom (Silberman). 31. 20 Cox. 29 Cornbleth. 202 Curriculum Books: The First Eighty Years (Schubert). 113 “Critical Issues in Curriculum” (AERA SIG). 131 “Curriculum and Its Discontents” (Jackson). 191 Cuban. 20 Christian-Smith. 109 curriculum dissidence. 20 Crummay. Warren. by J. 139–40 Creativity in Teaching. 4 CORPUS. Donald. 57 Curriculum Development: Theory into Practice (Tanner and Tanner). James B. 36. 70–71 Curriculum Field: Its Formative Years (Seguel). 228 Costa.” 11. 132 Curriculum Crossroads (Passow). 132. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall.INDEX 281 Children’s Social Values (Foshay and Wann).. 215 ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Art. a Pearson Education Company. 29 Childs. 64. 224 Civil Rights Act. Robert.S. and curriculum history. 199 Curriculum as Social Psychoanalysis (Kincheloe and Pinar).

and William H. W. 149 Denemark. and Possibility (Schubert). 38 Educational Wastelands (Bestor). and Passow). 225 dissidence. See also specific institutions curriculum mentors. Paradigm. 45. The. Linda. 222–23 “ ‘Dreamt into Existence by Others’: Curriculum Theory and School Reform” (Pinar). O. 3 and curriculum elements. 19–20. Elliot curricular views. 20. 2. 157 Davis. by J. 170–71 cyber curriculum. Curriculum Improvement: Decision Making and Process. 83. Ronald C. 37. The. 88 curricular view. 141–46. 223 Eisenhower. 3 and curriculum history. 59 Child and the Curriculum. 147. 138 Curriculum Theory Conference (1983). The (Eisner). 224 and postmillennial curriculum field. 208 Doll. 202. Janet. 157 mentors. 224 Donmoyer. 177–78 Curriculum: Perspectives and Practices (Miller and Seller). 203–5 DuBois. a Pearson Education Company. 11. 200 “Curriculum Theory” (Macdonald). Jr. 19–20. Susan background. 216 Daignault. McKim. 11 impact of. Charles. 132 DeGarmo. John and Berman. 157 Educational Imagination. See also specific individuals Curriculum: Perspective. 10. Dwight D. Robert.. Louise. 242 Educational Imagination. 5 Democratic Socialist Organizing Committee. 201–2. 217 as discontent. 150. L. 202 “Dare the School Build a New Social Order?” (Counts). 13 Dynamics of Educational Change: Toward Responsive Schools (Goodlad). Allison. Ralph.. Alex. 137 and null curriculum. 4. 239. 29 and Tanner. 141 and Tyler. Dan Marshall. 33 Education for ALL American Children (Educational Policies Commission). William. 12 Darling-Hammond. 5–6. 9 Eight Year Study. 12 Edgerton. 36 Education on the Dalton Plan (Parkhurst). 63–66. 138. 109 Daggett. 141–46. E. 222–25. 36 Education for ALL American Youth: A Further Look (Educational Policies Commission).. . 152 Eisner..282 INDEX Curriculum Inquiry: The Study of Curriculum Practice (Goodlad). 3. 36. James T. William. 64 Dewey. Schubert. 157 Educational Policies Commission (EPC). Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. 177 Curriculum Theorizing: The Reconceptualists (Pinar). 150 curriculum meccas. George. The. 36. Laurel. 70–71 Doll. 216 Davis. 119 Curriculum Theory (1977 Milwaukee ASCD conference). 13 Davis. 150. 230–33 Sources of a Science of Education. 7. 222 and Miller. 72 Developing a Curriculum for Modern Living (Stratemeyer. 20 ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Forkner.. 180–81 curriculum work. 139 and Molnar. Jacques.. Sears. E. B.

62 Emergent Middle School. Felix. .. 33 Flinders. 62 Freire. Developing a Curriculum for Modern Living (coauthor). 41 “Future Directions for National Space Policy” (National Coordinating Committee for Space). Williams. 148–49 and curricular divergence. Hollis. 20 Goodman. 75. James T. David. 59–60 Gardner. 75 Goodlad. 150 dissidence. Paulo and Giroux. 39 Gibbons. 10–11 Fundamentals of Curriculum Development (Smith. 37. John Curriculum Inquiry: The Study of Curriculum Practice. The (Okazu).INDEX 283 Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA). 156 Flesch. 70 Dynamics of Educational Change: Toward Responsive Schools.. Erik. Schubert. and William H. 76 Gilligan. 162 Freedom Riders. Dan Marshall. 216 and null curriculum. Michel. Erich. Andrew. Zina. Abe. Vitale. 224 ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Henry background. Howard. 79 Eliot. 87 Encyclopedia of Curriculum. 216 Goldberg. 162. 222 School. Peter. 5 Ellsworth. The” (Wittman). 218 and Hlebowitsh. and Shores). Henry. 150 Engle v. Jesse. 224 Glickman. The (Anderson. Elliot. Charles W. a Pearson Education Company.” 159 Gitlin. 43 Forkner. 162 influence of. 216 Giroux. Curriculum. 161–62 and curricular freedom. 225 and postmillennial curriculum field 239–40. 76 Foshay. 9 experimental–progressive schools. and Prescott). 44 Gibson. 60–62 Frankfurt School. James Cardinal. 64 Fortas. 109 and Eisner. 65 Experimental Practice in the City and Country School (Pratt). Compton. 29–30 and Caswell. 241. 216 General Electric. Clifford. Rudolph. 132 Foucault. 4 Pedagogy of the Oppressed. 91 Geertz. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. 155–56 and curricular limitations. 216. 27 Georgetown University. Carl. Sears. Arthur Wellesley (Wells) and action research. 31–32 and Society for the Study of Curriculum History. 116 Gideon v. by J. and the Individual. 216 Garrison. Why Johnny Can’t Read. Roma. 8 Fenton. 242 and progressive education. Ralph. 5. H. 160 faculty psychology. Wainwright. Carol. 241 “Toward a New Sociology of Curriculum. Althea. 173–74 Elman. L. Stanley. 65 Gans. 223 Ford Foundation. 29 and postmillennial curriculum field. Arthur. 231 Frankfurter. 235 gay liberation movement. 119. Edwin. 157–58. 163–64 curriculum flexibility and expansion. 76 Erickson. 207. Philip. 80 and Tyler. 231 “Gay Manifesto. Hines. 156 Fromm. 21–22 Children’s Social Values (coauthor). 89–92.

D. Annie. 33 Hastie. 75 Havighurst. 218 curriculum expansion and flexibility. 76 Harmin. and Curriculum Theory (Pinar). 225 and Molnar.. 83 “Politics and Curriculum.” 174 Grumet.. Alex. Madeline. Patty Smith. 216 Harlan. 20. 78 Hunter. 76 “Grounding Contemporary Curriculum Thought. 85–86 curricular view. 88 “Next Steps in the Development of a More Adequate Curriculum Theory” (coauthor). Robert M. 162 and Hlebowitsh. The (ASCD Commission on Curriculum Theory).284 INDEX Goodman. Madeleine. William. 139. David. by J. Thomas. Stanley. 78 and Tyler. 5 Hall. 29 Hosic. 217 and Jacobs. 201 Griswold v. 21.” 65 Humanities and the Curriculum. James T. Virgil and action research. Ross. 29 Hamilton. 5 Harvard University. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. 20 Heightened Consciousness.. 20. 103. Dwayne and Apple. 157 Graham. 65. 30 and curriculum history. 9. 206–7. 27–29 ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. L. Ralph. 83 curriculum expansion and flexibility. Henry. Michael. 137 and 1967 Ohio State conference. 112 Harris. Mary-Ellen. 72 Halberstam. Oliver Wendell. 149 Gottlieb. 35. Robert. 39 Holmes. Jules. 9 Houston. Peter background. 39 Greene. 118. 85 Gorham State University.. James. 215 Hutchins. 216 Haberman. Billy. See gay liberation movement hooks. Merrill. Michael. Connecticut. Cultural Revolution. 61 homosexuality. Sears. 9 Hirsch. 158 Gutman. 71 and Giroux. Dan Marshall. Brief Guide to the Project Method (coauthor). David. 104 Curricular Language and Classroom Meanings. 85 Herbart. 87–88. Paul. 225 and postmillennial curriculum field. 70. 216 Hopkins. . 18–19 leadership in computer development.. Peter. Schubert. 239. William T. 240–41 Hoffman. Maxine and AERA. 19. 138 Henderson. A Conduct Curriculum. 94 IBM and educational computing. 218 and curriculum history. a Pearson Education Company. 5 Herrick. Amy. Stephen J. 70. 223 Henry. 216 Huebner. Martin. 88 Horace Mann-Lincoln Institute of School Experimentation. John Marshall. Jean. The Mismeasures of Man.. 41–42 Hall. E. 188–90 and contemporary curriculum work. 22–23 Hill. Johann F. 86. 140 and Apple. 23–27 and Strategies in Curriculum Development. James. and William H. 36. bell. 22. 151 rise of. 9. 132 dissidence. James F. G. 157 Handbook of Research on Curriculum (Jackson). 74 Gould. 215 Hlebowitsh.

31 Inman. Dan Marshall. 64 Liston. ASCD conference at. 52 and curriculum projects. 129. 39 Kliebard. 79 Journal of Curriculum Theorizing (JCT). Elliot. 223 Lawler. Daniel.. 87 Lindsey. Joe. 90–91 intellectual traditionalism. Russell. 87 Jacobs. Jan. Earl. 80 lesbian movement. Leland. Paul. 219 and government-supported curriculum projects. 170. R. 75 Kent State. Margaret. 7 Jackson. 63 Leeper.. Heidi Hayes. 137. Sears. 199–201 and postmillennial curriculum field. 223 Kohl. Philip and contemporary curriculum work. 85. The. 216 Life in Classrooms. 85 Kozol. 224 ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Herb and curriculum history. See gay liberation movement Levin. Arthur. Patti. 75–76. Ivan. 138. 153 and U. 216 Jacobs. Curriculum as Social Psychoanalysis (coauthor). Mary-Ellen background. 38 “Life-Adjustment Education: A Critique. Henry. 53 and NASA. 65 Landsat. 226. Supreme Court. 202 Kirk. William H. 6 Laing. Herb. 21–22 Jipson. 8 Jersild. 228–29 John XXIII (pope).INDEX 285 identity politics. An Adventure with Children. 83. 6 Struggle for the American Curriculum. 237. The Shortchanged Children of Suburbia (coauthor). Richard. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall.. 152. 131 and curriculum questions.” 33 Life in Classrooms (Jackson). 63 Kilpatrick. 229 “Curriculum and Its Discontents. 8. 38 and National Defense Education Act. John F. 208 John Paul II (pope). 27 Kirk. 9 Life (magazine). James T. a Pearson Education Company. 164 Language and Meaning (Macdonald and Leeper). Jr. 176 Lather.. Mary H. 215 Kennedy. 80 language games. 45 Johnson. 178–80 curriculum work. Schubert. and Catholic Church. 138–39 Laboratory School of the University of Chicago. 215 Kiester. 85 Jacobs. D. 118. 162 Illich. and William H. 9–10.” 157 and Eisner. 72 Johnson. by J. Marcella. 157 Lewis. 183 Klohr. Jonathan. 222 Handbook of Research on Curriculum. 41 life adjustment curriculum. 58. 207. 29.. 9 intelligence testing. 150. 39. 20 Kincheloe. 44. Bob. 181 James. Edward. 231 Ideology and Curriculum (Apple). “Crisis in Education” series. 53 and life adjustment education. . 30–31. William. 216 Improving the Quality of Public School Programs (McNally and Passow).S. 43 and social meliorism. 139. Lyndon B. Charles. 5. 240 and self versus society paradox.

Computers. 129–30.. 58. 30. Maurice. Gordon. Dan. 162 Marshall. 157. 94 McKenzie. The (coauthor). 135. Janet on ASCD conferences. 75 Marti. 20. The (Gould). Ann. Charles. 135–36. by J. Michael. . 80 as mentor. Abraham. 83 and reconceptualization. 133 and ASCD’s Schools in Search of Meaning. a Pearson Education Company. 5 McMurry. 231 Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge. 86 and Berman. 223–24 and postmillennial curriculum field. J. Frank. Alex. 137–38 background and curricular niche. James T. 72 “Curriculum Theory.” 120. 133. 13 McCarthy. 93 Lundgren. Alex and ASCD. 243 Mindstorms: Children. 162 and Hlebowitsh. Louise. James and Apple. 138 and 1967 Ohio State conference. 64 Shortchanged Children of Suburbia. 111. Quackery in the Public Schools. 87–88 and ASCD. 121–29 Mackenzie. 71 Changing the Curriculum: A Social Process. 111–13 ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. 176. 137. 115 McMurry. and William H. 162 Lynd. Preparing Instructional Objectives. 157 Models of Teaching (Joyce and Weil). 202–3 Miel. 222–25. John. 242. Sears. 139 and curriculum transformation. 33 Lyotard. 224 Marcuse. Deborah. Janet. 138. 202–3 and scientific metanarrative. Schubert. 65–70 Man: A Course of Study (MACOS). Improving the Quality of Public School Programs (coauthor). 119–20. 137. 37. Robert. Jane Roland. 9 Molnar. 117–19 curriculum work. Herbert. Steve. 140 Meier. 63 McKim. 5 Mann. 139 and Molnar. Thurgood. 13 Martin. 58 Miller. 63–64. 218 “Transcendental Developmental Ideology of Education. See also specific individuals metanarratives. 225 Language and Meaning (coauthor). 168. 31 McNeil. 136. 29 Creativity in Teaching. Henry. 150 Modern Educational Theories (Bode). Peter. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. Horace. Cameron. 133. 240. 222 McLoughlin. 226–29 Marshall. 33 Mays. 186. Jean-Francois and identity politics. Jose. and Powerful Ideas. 3. 132 Mager.286 INDEX Lopez-Schubert. 106–7 and contemporary curriculum study. 175–76 Macdonald. 19–20. The. A. Dan Marshall. Benjamin. 113. Louise. 5 McNally. 65 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Gail. Harold J. 151 Mismeasures of Man. 216 Maslow. 20. Gordon. 224 McKean. 202. Richard. Michael. Ulf. 64 McKutcheon. 224 and Miller.” 119 and Giroux. Margaret. 136–37 background. Albert. 52 Mann. 63 at Teachers College. 135. 110 and Berman. 215 mentors. 136. Alice and Apple.

8 Committee of Fifteen. 163 National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics (NACA). Norm. 207–8 and postmillennial curriculum field. A.. 5 Parkhurst.. 9 Naumburg. Education on the Dalton Plan. Maria. 237. Ronald. 39 null curriculum. 44 National Society for the Study of Education (NSSE). 223 Padgham. 160 Niebuhr. 80 National Review (journal). Margaret. 36.INDEX 287 curriculum expansion and flexibility. 216 New Priorities in the Curriculum (Berman). 238. 173 Neill. Richard. Nichelle. a Pearson Education Company. . 159–61 fall of. 118–19 and Tyler. 91 Notre Dame. 202 Munro. Thomas. 120–21 and postmillennial curriculum field. Gerard. The Child and the World. 170. Francis. 237. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. 83. 9 ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. 240 Molnar. 4. 192–94 performativity and unrepresentability. Mary Ewing. 23–27 Nichols. 161 Miller at. 139 Parker. 218 and Macdonald. and William H. 202–3 NASA and commercialization. Richard M. by J. 87 “Next Steps in the Development of a More Adequate Curriculum Theory” (Herrick and Tyler). 5 Committee of Ten. 39 Nixon. A. 12–13 Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education. Petra background. Helen. Schubert. 5 Educational Policies Commission. 160 National Defense Education Act (NDEA). 152–54 Nation at Risk. Cecil. 115 Overly. 9 Neicht. Ralph. 150 nanonarratives. 192–94. 43 National Education Association (NEA). 212–14 metamorphosis of. 183 and diverging curricular theories. 242–43 music industry consolidated diversity. Sears. 138 declining influence of. Curriculum Development Task Force. 76. 216 Mooney. 83. James. 39 Montessori. 72. 20 O’Neill. 73. Ross. 154 North American Conference of Homophile Organizations (NACHO). 153 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). 88 Moreland. 131–32 National Organization for Women (NOW). Crystal. 141 Ohio State University and curriculum conferences. 164 metamorphosis. 37 Parker. S. 238–39. 185–88. 209–10 My Way of Looking at It: An Autobiography (van Til). James T. Dan Marshall. Richard. 185–88 and postmodernism. 38 See also Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development National Institute of Education. 190–92 curriculum work. 41 National Coordinating Committee for Space. 160 Outerbridge.

140. and Apple. Tony. Peter. 161. Charles. science “Practical: A Language for Curriculum” (Schwab). 162 Heightened Consciousness. 72 ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Henry. 156 Penna. 65 Developing a Curriculum for Modern Living (coauthor). Jim. Harry. 174–75 Pratt. C. 12 Progressive Education Association (PEA). JeanFrancois. 31 Patterson. 9 “Project Method. 32–33 Purpel. Caroline. 73–74 Pinar. 37. 158. 9–11 in 1950s. 199 on contemporary curriculum field. James T. A (Wells). 93. 223 and Miller. Sears. and William H. 184–85. 9 Preparing Instructional Objectives (Mager). 52. 168. 8.” 203–5 and Giroux. and Curriculum Theory. John. Dan Marshall. 57 progressive education birth of. 218 Curriculum Theorizing: The Reconceptualists. 136–37 “Politics and Curriculum” (Huebner). The (Bruner). . by J. in 1950s. 131 Quackery in the Public Schools (Lynd). Janet. The” (Kilpatrick). Mary-Ellen. 47–51. 139 and Klohr. 157. 162 Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge (Lyotard). a Pearson Education Company. 134. 6–7 expansion of. 65 Popkewitz. Lyotard. 30 public perception. Paul. 186. John Progressive Education (journal). Michael. 31–32. 10. William F. 141 curriculum expansion and flexibility. David.288 INDEX Passow. 117. 138. 28 Raths. 225 and Jacobs. 158 “ ‘Dreamt into Existence by Others’: Curriculum Theory and School Reform. 162 Perceiving.. Behaving. 231. 29 Process of Education. 158. 33 queer theory. 173 Contemporary Curriculum Discourses. 202–3 postmodernism. Philip. See also gay liberation movement Rand. 38 struggles within. Realms of Meaning. 64 Improving the Quality of Public School Programs (coauthor). 46. Schubert. 165–66 Curriculum as Social Psychoanalysis (coauthor). 27. 18 Pedagogy of the Oppressed (Freire). 136–37. A. 65. music industry. 138 and Hlebowitsh. 95–101 “Practitioners Influence Curriculum Theory” (Schubert). 8 Prosser. 201–2 and Journal of Curriculum Theorizing. 224 Pyle. 70 Perspectives on Curriculum Development (ASCD). 8–9 See also Dewey. See curriculum theory and development. 73 Pichaske. David. Daniel. Becoming (ASCD). 202 and curriculum conferences. 185 as discontent. C. 200 and curriculum transformation. 56. 1984–1989. Cultural Revolution. 70 Curriculum Crossroads. 118. 12 Project Curriculum. 94. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. 65–70 Prescott. Tom. 119. 132 Phenix.

207 Remington Rand. 139 Rogers. 88 and curriculum making. Curriculum Books: The First Eighty Years. 45. Mary Louise. Dan Marshall. curriculum view. and postmodernism. 195–96 Shores. 157 and Eisner. Ann. 197 Schwab.” 174–75 and schools of curriculum thought. 93 and Watkins. 11. 110 on life’s curricula beyond school. Richard. Elliot. 222 “Practical: A Language for Curriculum. Paradigm. Fundamentals of Curriculum Development (coauthor). 177 Reagan. 109–10 as discontent. . 231 Seguel. 9–10. 158 Slattery. 216 Rubin. William. 65 Roman Catholic Church and modernism. ASCD conference at. 227–29 Roman. Curriculum. 28 Reynolds. Patrick. 73 Reid. 21. 19 “Shifting Ground of Curriculum Thought and Everyday Practice” (Ayers). 173 and Overly. 222 Curriculum: Perspective. 194–95 Realms of Meaning (Phenix). 93 curriculum view. in 1950s. 223 Sedgwick. 175–78 Sears. James T. Ralph. William H. 9 Silberman. 224 ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. 32 at Teachers College. 94. 150 on Schwab and Walton.INDEX 289 Ravitch. Joseph College Curriculum and Student Protest. 38–40 and Vatican II. 21 Twenty-Sixth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education. The Curriculum Field: Its Formative Years. Louis J. 12 and Foshay. Crisis in the Classroom. 132 Shapley. 12 School. 36–38 and large-scale curriculum work. 20. 43–44 postwar. Ronald. 41–42 and postmillennial curriculum field. 29–32 Schools in Search of Meaning (ASCD). 20. Norm. Ralph. a Pearson Education Company. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. Sears. Bill. and Bruner. 102. 80 school personnel. 202 Rorty. Schubert. Harold and curriculum history. The (Miel and Kiester). Wells. 238 and Tyler. 46 curriculum consultant. Carl. and William H. by J. 223 Rice. 132 and curriculum genealogy. 3. A (Tyler). Harlowe. 230–33 and language games.” 93. William. 160. Diane. 6–7 Rochester Institute of Technology. 232–36 “Practitioners Influence Curriculum Theory. 80 Selected Guide to Curriculum Literature. 41 Shortchanged Children of Suburbia. 27. 170–71 on cyber curriculum. Joseph Mayer. Roger. Leslie. Jerome. Eve. 95–101 and Tyler. 63 Shumaker. 216 Readings in Curriculum Development (Caswell and Campbell). 20 science. and the Individual (Goodlad). 113 Simon. 177–78 on curriculum publications in 1970s. and Possibility. 53 Rugg. James T. 18. 94. 164–65. 110 Schubert. 4.

Dan Marshall. a Pearson Education Company. 2–3 Spodek. Donald. 86 Sources of a Science of Education. See also curriculum dissidence social behaviorism. 60–62. by J. Sears. 183. 114–16 professionalization of. 41 Stanton. 5. Before Books (coauthor). David. Frederick. 42. 132 and Dewey. 20. 37. 64 social activism. 21. 181–83 Struggle for the American Curriculum. Peter. Supreme Court. 58. 215 Foshay at. 109 and Dewey. 134–35. James T. 75–76. 224 tennis democratization versus commercialization. . 42 Stanford University. 225 on psychology. 150 Teitelbaum. Kenneth. O. 21–22 and IBM. 113 “Structures of Feeling in Curriculum and Teaching” (Britzman). 6 Social Frontier (journal). John. and May). 63–65 and curriculum conferences. Jessie. 12 Snedden. 235–36 origins of. The (Kliebard). 8. 40–41. 83 “ ‘Dreamt into Existence by Others’: Curriculum Theory and School Reform.” 174–75 ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. 130–31 women in. 183 Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). B. 58 Structure of Scientific Revolutions. 62 Sweatt v. 206. 9 Snygg. Painter. 64 Developing a Curriculum for Modern Living (coauthor). 7 Teachers College–Columbia University Apple at. 235–36 testing. 20. 161. 18. and U. 7 Theory Into Practice (journal). 132 Soltis. Fundamentals of Curriculum Development (coauthor). 56 Tanner. 183 Stanley. Schubert. 109 and curriculum history.290 INDEX Smith. Daniel Curriculum Development: Theory into Practice (coauthor). Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. 56 Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. 85–86 Berman at. 32–33. John. 59–60. 225 on psychology. Florence and Berman Louise. 30. The (Kuhn). 72 Sputnik. 161 declining influence of. 12 social meliorism. Bernard. 9 Stewart. 19 Teacher Thinking: A Study of Practical Knowledge (Elbaz). 64 at Teachers College. 138 as curriculum mecca. 78 Stratemeyer. Jonas. 6 Society for Curriculum Study. 225 and Hlebowitsh. 29 Spencer. Hilda. 8 social Darwinism. and William H. 184 Curriculum Development: Theory into Practice (coauthor). intelligence. Macdonald. 57 Tanner. 66 Taylor.” 203–5 “Practitioners Influence Curriculum Theory. 62 Taba.S. Herbert. Charles. 41 Smith-Hughes Act for Vocational Education. Handbook 1: Cognitive Domain (Bloom). 13. Fundamentals of Curriculum Development (coauthor).. 191 Strategies in Curriculum Development (Anderson. Laurel Critical Issues in Curriculum. See also Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development Society for the Study of Curriculum History (SSCH). The (Dewey).

Tony. Supreme Court. My Way of Looking at It: An Autobiography. 66 and Molnar. 136–37. 53 and Taba. . 137 ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. 33. 110 Toward Improved Curriculum Theory (coauthor). by J. Bob. 3. 75–76 University of Chicago. 136. Geoff. 215 Walker. 120. Lester Frank. 242 Watson. 6. A” (Macdonald). and William H. Robert.. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall.” 181–83 Thorndike. 138. 112–13 Unstudied Curriculum. S. Decker. 207 University of Rochester. The (ASCD). 161 University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee ASCD conference at. Valerie. 150 Ubbelohde. 60–62. 222 Walkerdine. 28 Weir. 7.S. 136 University of Illinois. 12 Watkins. 159 Toward a Theory of Instruction (Bruner). 132 Tyler. 10 and Hlebowitsh. 116 Wells. 111. D. 121–29 Twenty-Sixth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education (Rugg). 8 Thornton. 132 curriculum theorizing. Dan Marshall. 3. F. 22–23 experimental–progressive schools. Harry. James T. Children’s Social Values (coauthor). 162 Why Johnny Can’t Read (Flesch). 20. Stephen. 73 van Til. 202. 93 Wann. Ralph Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction.. 20 University of Cincinnati. Bill background. 71–73 Molnar at. 80 Toward Humanistic Education: A Curriculum of Affect (Weinstein and Fantini). 223 “Toward a New Sociology of Curriculum” (Giroux). The Black Curriculum. 138 University of Virginia. Thomas. 23. 162 Walton. 196–97 and postmillennial curriculum field. 114 Wolcott. Jr. 20 and curriculum history. K. 241. 216 Wheaton College. and social activism. 59 Whitson. Reginald. 172–73 and curriculum practice. 238. 137 “Next Steps in the Development of a More Adequate Curriculum Theory” (Herrick and Tyler). Lou. Louise.. 120 U.INDEX 291 “Shifting Ground of Curriculum Thought and Everyday Practice. 27. Cornel. 12 Tyler. 223 Whitty. Walter. 23–27 and Rubin. Schubert. 29 Ward. 23–27 “Transcendental Developmental Ideology of Education. 9 West. Sr. 138 University of Wisconsin–Madison. 39 Wingfield. A Selected Guide to Curriculum Literature.. A Project Curriculum. Margaret. 57 at University of Chicago. a Pearson Education Company. Alex. Thomas. 197 University of Oregon. 20. 18–19.. Sears. William. 224 Wilson. Francis Graham. Peter. Edward L. 138 Berman at. 207 Wolfson. George. 28 Watson. 6. 207 and Mager. 20. Bernice. 33 Willis. 27. Hilda. 137.” 195–96 “Structures of Feeling in Curriculum and Teaching.

James T. Schubert. 134–35. 94 Wundt. Sewell.292 INDEX women and curriculum work (see specific individuals) in tennis. by J. 235–36 Woods Hole conference. Copyright © 2000 by Merrill/Prentice-Hall. D.. Carter G. Michael F. 162 Zaret. 13 Wraga. 157. 110 ISBN: 0-536-20077-7 Turning Points in Curriculum: A Contemporary American Memoir. Wilhelm. Esther. 138 Young. 136. 225 Wright. Sears. a Pearson Education Company. 46–47 Woodson.. . 5 Xavier University. William. and William H. ASCD conference at. Dan Marshall.

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