Condition Monitoring of Power Plant Equipment

Presented by S Bhattacharya, K R Bairwa, P Kukde The Tata Power Co Ltd, Mumbai

CONTENT Concept of Condition Monitoring Condition Based Maintenance Management System at Trombay Case Studies

Need of Condition Monitoring
Safety of Man and Machine Plant availability Reliability Operation at Best Efficiency Minimization of Maintenance Cost Health assessment & Minimizing the failures Equipment Life Assessment Input for developing Maintenance Strategy

Safety of Man and Machine
Modern Power Plant Equipment are High Cost Capital assets Fire Hazards – Fuel, Lubricating Oils, Electrical, etc

it is however essential to only perform maintenance when it is really required. Machinery in large power plant is desired to have high reliability. Domestic requirements.Reliability High reliability Electricity is life line of the modern civilization – Local Trains. Industrial requirement. sanitation. Hospitals. basic amenities. . etc Maximize reliability by performing planned maintenance based on condition monitoring. As maintenance has a large cost impact on the total operation.

so that right maintenance decisions can be taken . the condition of the machines need to be monitored accurately. avoid major breakdown & to schedule inspection & maintenance.Plant Availability Shift form breakdown to condition based maintenance Machine health input for scheduling inspection & maintenance To guarantee the machine availability.

Maximize operation efficiency.Objectives of Condition Monitoring Protect machines against major breakdowns Machine health assessment. Troubleshooting Minimize maintenance cost This is the basis for formulating maintenance strategy .

Machine Health Assessment Parameter Identification OEM guidelines Operating Experience Improved Diagnostic Analysis Monitoring System On line monitoring Off line monitoring Trends Raw data monitoring Data analysis and monitoring of derived parameters Defined range of operation .Normal/Alarm/Trip value .

Machine Health Assessment Feed back from Machine Operating History Machine operating characteristics History of past problems and its remedy Residual Life Analysis Comprehensive Equipment Health Survey Pre-overhaul survey Input from OEM and other plants Residual life study .

pre-overhaul survey and past experiences RLA .Condition Based Maintenance Management System at Trombay Online monitoring of Critical Parameters Periodic Data Collection and Trending Analysis Inputs from equipment history.

Turbine metal temperature Functional Parameters Steam pressures and temperatures Vacuum Feed Water Parameters .Monitoring Parameters for Main Turbine Mechanical Parameters Vibration of Shaft and pedestal Bearing metal temperature Turbine Expansions Axial shift.

Limit Values of Operating Parameters OEM recommendation Steady state running parameters Revise limit values based on condition monitoring This forms the basis for deciding alarm & trip values .

Pre-overhaul survey of Main Turbine Objective • Ascertain present running behavior • Identify problem areas • Planning for high value insurance spares • Define scope of Quality overhaul • Planned preparation • Focused approach to minimize outage duration • Decision making for future overhauls .

Pre-overhaul survey of Main Turbine Studies to be conducted during Pre-Overhaul Survey • Running hours • Reports of all previous overhauls along with the repairs carried out and spares consumed • Discussions on Past / present problems • RLA reports • Present vibration behavior/scan • Thermo-scan • Study of past and present operating data • Heat balance diagram and reports of periodic enthalpy drop tests .

Pre-overhaul survey of Main Turbine Example: High IP exhaust steam temperature in Unit 5 Possible causes: Steam leak through parting plane. Inlet steam passing into exhaust directly through angle seal rings Steam leakage through angle sealing rings of steam extractions Faulty RTD .

RTD Problem identified with data acquisition and transfer.Pre-overhaul survey of Main Turbine Analysis and Action Taken: Machine EOH > 1. During turbine fact finding inspection no sign of leakage observed. No history of steam leak through angle seal rings. . Also clearances were within design limits. Parting plane fasteners replacement planned.5 Lakh hours.

.Pre-overhaul survey of Main Turbine Strategic decision based on past experience: HP front shaft high vibration problem persisted for 4 years. Problem resolved by carrying out slow speed dynamic balancing at site. This practice is being followed for all rigid rotors at Trombay. All rotors balanced till date have had substantial mass imbalance.

For machine health monitoring.Vibration analysis Vibration is one of the most significant parameter for interpreting machine-health and indication for problems at incipient stage. the simplest method of detecting any abnormality with the machine is to look for the change in vibration pattern and level. .

deposition on rotating components Settling of foundations Deterioration in alignment .Guidelines for Vibration Analysis Gradual rise in vibration are due to: Bearing deterioration/ wear Deterioration of base frame/ grouting Wear. corrosion.

temperature. Operating shocks resulting in machine deterioration / damage Hot misalignment Bearing lubrication problem .Guidelines for Vibration Analysis Abrupt change in vibration could be due to: Change in operating parameters like flow. pressure.g bearing misalignment) if it increases just after maintenance. etc Modification / maintenance deficiency ( e.

g rubbing.Guidelines for Vibration Analysis Very high vibrations can be attributed to: Resonance Imbalance of rotating parts Expansion restrictions/ Piping strains Foundation problem/ Foundation loading Loading of bearings Lubrication problems Improper dimensional tolerances Machine performance does not meet with required performance. aerodynamic forces-design problem. gear mismatch. rotor bent. etc . Equipment damage – e. hydraulic forces.

Guidelines for Vibration Analysis Vibration spectrums analysis indicative of the following problems: Unbalance Bent shaft Misalignment of couplings. bearings and gears Looseness Rubbing Eccentricity of rotating components Resonance Journal bearing problems – oil whip. oil whirl .

etc Energy of shaft shows through bearing.g foundation. casing . rubbing. resonance. Look for change in lubrication. expansion problem. oil quality. variation of design settings. pipe. restrictions. Shaft could get its energy from: process medium. foundation. etc. etc . foundation. etc. imbalance. Recognize the focal point of vibrations Look for temperature effect on vibrations Look for effect on vibration behavior due to loading of machine Study the recent maintenance carried out if any. e. etc Latent design defects/deficiencies surfacing at a later date can be source of vibrations. electrical problem.Guidelines for Vibration Analysis Salient Points for vibration analysis: Shaft is the source of energy in rotating machinery. inconsistency of oil film. etc Acceptable energy/ vibration of shaft may show unacceptable vibration in bearing due to problem in bearing. Look for change in operating parameters if any Look into the history of vibrations of the machine Look for abrupt change/ trend of vibration Look for change in running parameters of the machine like bearing temperatures. pipe pulls. pipe pull. casing.

.Case Study 1 Main Turbine Unit # 5 – LP free standing blade failure.

which lead to catastrophic failure of the machine. Being the first incident of this nature and our unit being the oldest 500MW unit in India.Main Turbine Unit # 5 – LP free standing blade failure. . Background LP turbine free standing blade failure occured on running machine. Mumbai. the study of blade failure detection was undertaken in collaboration with BARC.

During vacuum drop many peaks of vibration corresponding to natural frequency of LP – II & LP – III observed.Observations and analysis: Blade vibrations were recorded twice. . before & after shutdown. These were not seen during normal steady state operation. 1.

. the amplitude are steady unless the blades are disturbed and set into vibration.Observations and analysis: 2. Drastic variation in amplitude is seen in BPF component of LP – II & LP – III during excitation. Normally.

The harmonics are 20 Hz on either side of the BPF. .Observations and analysis: 3. These harmonics vanished after replacement of the cracked blades. Side band harmonics are seen on both sides of the BPF. The presence of the side bands indicates problem with the blades.

This technique of detecting cracks in freestanding blades may be very useful for monitoring the health of the machine and thereby detecting blade cracks at the incipient stage.Observations and analysis: 4. The Amplitude of the BPF have drastically reduced after replacement of the cracked blades. .

Case Study 2 Control Fluid Pump – Current Hunting .

40 Bar .6 Bar HP .13. Germany : WKVM – 100/2+3 : From 2nd Stage : From 5th stage : LP .Pump Specification Make Type LP Discharge HP Discharge Rated Pressure : KSB.

Pump Layout LP Circuit NRV HP Circuit Pump 2 Pump 1 .

No pressure hunting in LP Circuit.Problem Motor Current of CF Pump 2 hunting from 152 – 192 Amps. HP circuit pressure hunting around 1 bar (CF system is provided with accumulators to take care of pressure fluctuations) .

Cause Effect Diagram Operational Pump flow variation System fluctuations Load / Freq variation Accumulators Bladder failure Isolation from circuit Control system Governor hunting Hydraulic Loss of suction Obstruction at suction Blockage Detached suction pipe Fluid foaming change in air release property contamination air ingress Fluid properties Viscosity / Temperature Contamination Internal clearances Increase in clearances beyond limits Wear Rubbing Axial float setting Setting during assembly Interstage leakages Gasket failure Looseness Damage to internals Impeller / Diffuser Pump charecteristics Pump operating in unstable zone Design Change due to internal damage Rotor fault Measurement error Mechanical Electrical .

Possible Causes Electrical fault Rotor fault Motor of pump #2 swapped with motor of pump #1 Measurement error RPM measurements carried out Power measurements carried out .

Possible Causes Hydraulic problems Obstruction in pump suction During unit outage the Control Fluid was transferred to another tank for tank inspection and no abnormality found Fluid foaming No foaming observed and CF sample tested OK Change in fluid viscosity Operating temperature normal and no contamination of fluid .

accumulators found healthy.Pump flow variation No System fluctuation . and no hunting in governing system.Possible Causes Operational Problem . .

gasket failure or looseness in the pump .Damage to internals Pump overhauled and performance tested at OEM facility (partial test with LP stage blocked).Possible Causes Mechanical Problems .Increase in internal clearances .Problem with Axial float setting . No damage observed on internals.

Flow hunting observed in HP circuit. Pump 1 2 LP Flow (m3/hr) 41 39-41 HP Flow (m3/hr) 24.5 – 25 10 – 15 Current (Amp) 167 -172 152-192 .Pump characteristics In-situ pump flow measurements carried out.Possible Causes Mechanical Problems .

Pump Characteristics 400 350 300 250 Head(m) 200 150 100 50 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Flow Unit 6 CF Pump 2 Char Modified hyd char .

Corrective action HP Impeller modification It was observed that the pump operating point is in unstable zone Diameter increased by 10 mm to change the pump hydraulics .

5 174 .6 170 2 13.6 39.Pump behavior after modification Pump LP Pressure (Bar) HP Pressure (Bar) Current (Amps) 1 13.5 40.

Operational Pump flow variation System fluctuations Load / Freq variation Accumulators Bladder failure Isolation from circuit Control system Governor hunting Hydraulic Loss of suction Obstruction at suction Blockage Detached suction pipe Fluid foaming change in air release property contamination air ingress Fluid properties Viscosity / Temperature Contamination Internal clearances Increase in clearances beyond limits Wear Rubbing Axial float setting Setting during assembly Interstage leakages Gasket failure Looseness Damage to internals Impeller / Diffuser Pump charecteristics Pump operating in unstable zone Design Change due to internal damage Rotor fault Measurement error Mechanical Electrical .

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