P E R I O D I C

Group
1
IA
1 2S1/2
Hydrogen
1.00794
1s
13.5984

Li

Lithium

Period

2

4

22.989770
[Ne] 3s
5.1391

Potassium
39.0983
[Ar] 4s
4.3407
2

S1/2

Rb

Rubidium
85.4678
[Kr] 5s
4.1771

55
6

S1/2

K

37
5

S1/2

Sodium

2

2

S1/2

Cs
Cesium

132.90545
[Xe] 6s
3.8939

87
7

2

S1/2

Fr

Francium
(223)

[Rn] 7s
4.0727

Atomic
Number
Symbol

58

Based upon

Be

12

1

S0

Mg

Magnesium
24.3050
2
[Ne] 3s
7.6462

20

1

S0

Ca

Calcium
40.078
2
[Ar] 4s
6.1132

38

1

Sr

S0

Strontium
87.62
2
[Kr] 5s
5.6949

56

1

Sc

Scandium

44.955910
2
[Ar]3d 4s
6.5615

39

2

Y

D3/2

Yttrium

88.90585
2
[Kr]4d 5s
6.2173

Ba

Zirconium
91.224
2 2
[Kr]4d 5s
6.6339

72

3

F2

3

F2 ?

(261)
14 2 2
[Rn]5f 6d 7s ?
6.0 ?

Cerium

12

Zr

F2

Rutherfordium

(226)
2
[Rn] 7s
5.2784

Ionization
Energy (eV)

3

Rf

Radium

140.116
2
[Xe]4f5d6s
5.5387

40

104

S0

G°4

physics.nist.gov

Solids
Liquids
Gases
Artificially
Prepared

5

13
IIIA
2

P°1/2

B

Boron

13

6

14
IVA

3

P0

C

12.0107
2 2 2
1s 2s 2p
11.2603

P1/2
°

2

Al

Aluminum

2

www.nist.gov/srd

Carbon

10.811
2 2
1s 2s 2p
8.2980

V

Vanadium
50.9415
3 2
[Ar]3d 4s
6.7462

41

6

D1/2

Nb
Niobium

92.90638
4
[Kr]4d 5s
6.7589

73

4

F3/2

Ta

Tantalum

Cr

Chromium
51.9961
5
[Ar]3d 4s
6.7665

42

7

S3

Mo

Molybdenum
95.94
5
[Kr]4d 5s
7.0924

74

5

W

D0

Tungsten

Mn

Fe

Co

Ni

Cu

Zn

54.938049

55.845
6 2
[Ar]3d 4s
7.9024

58.933200
7 2
[Ar]3d 4s
7.8810

58.6934
8 2
[Ar]3d 4s
7.6398

63.546
10
[Ar]3d 4s
7.7264

65.409
10 2
[Ar]3d 4s
9.3942

Manganese
5

2

6

S5/2

[Ar]3d 4s
7.4340

43

Tc

Technetium
(98)
5 2
[Kr]4d 5s
7.28

75

6

S5/2

Re

Rhenium

Iron

44

5

F5

Ru

Ruthenium

Cobalt

45

4

F9/2

Rh

Rhodium

101.07

102.90550

[Kr]4d 5s
7.3605

[Kr]4d 5s
7.4589

7

76

5

D4

Os
Osmium

8

77

4

F9/2

Ir

Iridium

Nickel

46

1

S0

Pd

Palladium
106.42
10
[Kr]4d
8.3369

78

3

Pt

D3

Platinum

Copper

47

2

S1/2

Ag
Silver

107.8682
10
[Kr]4d 5s
7.5762

79

2

S1/2

Au
Gold

Zinc

48

1

S0

Cd

Cadmium

112.411
10 2
[Kr]4d 5s
8.9938

80

1

S0

Hg
Mercury

178.49
180.9479
183.84
186.207
190.23
192.217
195.078
196.96655
200.59
14 2 2
14 6 2
14 5 2
14 3 2
14 10 2
14 7 2
14 10
14 9
14 4 2
[Xe]4f 5d 6s [Xe]4f 5d 6s [Xe]4f 5d 6s [Xe]4f 5d 6s [Xe]4f 5d 6s [Xe]4f 5d 6s [Xe]4f 5d 6s [Xe]4f 5d 6s [Xe]4f 5d 6s
6.8251
7.5496
7.8640
7.8335
8.4382
8.9670
8.9588
9.2255
10.4375

Ra

1

47.867
2 2
[Ar]3d 4s
6.8281

Hafnium

137.327
2
[Xe] 6s
5.2117
1

Ti

Titanium

Hf

Barium

88

Standard Reference
Data Group

14

3

P0

Si

7

15
VA

°
S3/2

4

N

Nitrogen

14.0067
2 2 3
1s 2s 2p
14.5341

15

°
S3/2

4

P

Silicon

Phosphorus

Ge

As

8

16
VIA

3

P2

O

Oxygen

15.9994
2 2 4
1s 2s 2p
13.6181

16

3

P2

S

Sulfur

9

17
VIIA

P3/2
°

2

F

Fluorine

18.9984032
2 2 5
1s 2s 2p
17.4228

17

°
P3/2

2

Cl

Chlorine

18
VIIIA
1

S0

He
Helium

4.002602
2
1s
24.5874

10

1

S0

Ne
Neon

20.1797
2 2 6
1s 2s 2p
21.5645

18

1

S0

Ar
Argon

26.981538
28.0855
30.973761
32.065
35.453
39.948
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
2 5
2 6
2 4
2 2
2
2 3
[Ne]3s 3p
[Ne]3s 3p
[Ne]3s 3p
[Ne]3s 3p
[Ne]3s 3p
[Ne]3s 3p
IIIB
IVB
VB
VIB
VIIB
VIII
IB
IIB
5.9858
8.1517
10.4867
10.3600
12.9676
15.7596
2
3
1
3
° 32
° 34
° 36
P3/2
P0 33 4S3/2
S0
P2 35
21 2D3/2 22 3F2 23 4F3/2 24 7S3 25 6S5/2 26 5D4 27 4F9/2 28 3F4 29 2S1/2 30 1S0 31 2P1/2

S0

Ce

Ground-state
Configuration

S0

Ground-state
Level

Name
Atomic

Weight

1

9.012182
2 2
1s 2s
9.3227

Na

19

4

Beryllium

6.941
2
1s 2s
5.3917

11
3

S1/2

2
IIA

For the most accurate values of these and other constants, visit physics.nist.gov/constants
1 second = 9 192 631 770 periods of radiation corresponding to the transition
between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of 133Cs
-1
speed of light in vacuum
c
299 792 458 m s
(exact)
-34
Planck constant
h
6.6261 × 10 J s
(
/2 )
-19
elementary charge
e
1.6022 × 10 C
-31
electron mass
me
9.1094 × 10 kg
2
0.5110 MeV
me c
-27
proton mass
mp
1.6726 × 10 kg
fine-structure constant
1/137.036
-1
Rydberg constant
R
10 973 732 m
15
R c
3.289 842 × 10 Hz
R hc
13.6057 eV
-23
-1
Boltzmann constant
k
1.3807 × 10 J K

Lanthanides

2

Physics
Laboratory

Frequently used fundamental physical constants

H

3
2

Atomic Properties of the Elements

Actinides

1

T A B L E

57

2

D3/2

La

Lanthanum
138.9055
2
[Xe]5d 6s
5.5769

89

2

D3/2

Ac

Actinium

(227)
2
[Rn] 6d7s
5.17

105

Db

Dubnium
(262)

58

1

G°4

Ce
Cerium

140.116
2
[Xe]4f5d 6s
5.5387

90

3

Th

F2

Thorium

232.0381
2 2
[Rn]6d 7s
6.3067

106

Sg

Seaborgium
(266)

59

4

°
I9/2

Pr

107

108

Bh

Hs

Bohrium

Hassium

(264)

60

5

(277)

I4

91

4

K11/2

Pa

Protactinium
231.03588
2
2
[Rn]5f 6d7s
5.89

C. () indicates the mass number of the most stable isotope.

6

H°5/2

110

144.24
4 2
[Xe]4f 6s
5.5250

92

U

5

L°6

Uranium

238.02891
3
2
[Rn]5f 6d7s
6.1941

Promethium
(145)
5 2
[Xe]4f 6s
5.582

93

6

L11/2

Np

Neptunium

(237)
4
2
[Rn]5f 6d7s
6.2657

111

112

Gallium

Germanium

(268)

62

7

F0

Samarium
150.36
6 2
[Xe]4f 6s
5.6437

94

7

F0

(281)

49

P1/2
°

2

In

63

8

S°7/2

Eu

Europium
151.964
7 2
[Xe]4f 6s
5.6704

95

8

°
S7/2

64

9

Indium

Gd

Gadolinium

157.25
7
2
[Xe]4f 5d6s
6.1498

96

9

D°2

65

6

H°15/2

Tb

Terbium

158.92534
9 2
[Xe]4f 6s
5.8638

97

6

H°15/2

Pu Am Cm Bk

Plutonium
(244)
6 2
[Rn]5f 7s
6.0260

Americium
(243)
7 2
[Rn]5f 7s
5.9738

Curium

(247)
7
2
[Rn]5f 6d7s
5.9914

Berkelium
(247)
9 2
[Rn]5f 7s
6.1979

50

3

P0

Sn
Tin

81

P1/2
°

2

Tl

Thallium

204.3833
[Hg] 6p
6.1082

51

°
S3/2

4

Sb

Antimony

82

3

P0

Pb
Lead

207.2
2
[Hg]6p
7.4167

114

83

°
S3/2

4

Bi

Bismuth

208.98038
3
[Hg]6p
7.2855

Uuq

Br

Bromine

Kr

Krypton

52

3

Te

P2

Tellurium

53

°
P3/2

2

I

Iodine

54

1

S0

Xe
Xenon

5

Dy

I8

Dysprosium
162.500
10 2
[Xe]4f 6s
5.9389

98

Cf

5

I8

Californium
(251)
10 2
[Rn]5f 7s
6.2817

For a description of the data, visit physics.nist.gov/data

67

4

°
I15/2

Ho

Holmium

164.93032
11 2
[Xe]4f 6s
6.0215

99

4

°
I15/2

Es

Einsteinium
(252)
11 2
[Rn]5f 7s
6.42

3

P2

Po

Polonium
(209)
4
[Hg] 6p
8.414

85

°
P3/2

2

At

Astatine
(210)
5
[Hg] 6p

116

86

1

S0

Rn
Radon

(222)
6
[Hg] 6p
10.7485

Ununhexium

(289)

66

84

Uuh

Ununquadium

(285)

D°2

Se

Selenium

114.818
118.710
121.760
127.60
126.90447
131.293
10 2 6
10 2 4
10 2 5
10 2 3
10 2
10 2 2
[Kr]4d 5s 5p [Kr]4d 5s 5p [Kr]4d 5s 5p [Kr]4d 5s 5p [Kr]4d 5s 5p [Kr]4d 5s 5p
5.7864
7.3439
8.6084
9.0096
10.4513
12.1298

Ununbium

(272)

Arsenic

69.723
72.64
74.92160
78.96
79.904
83.798
10 2
10 2 2
10 2 3
10 2 4
10 2 5
10 2 6
[Ar]3d 4s 4p [Ar]3d 4s 4p [Ar]3d 4s 4p [Ar]3d 4s 4p [Ar]3d 4s 4p [Ar]3d 4s 4p
5.9993
7.8994
9.7886
9.7524
11.8138
13.9996

Mt Uun Uuu Uub
Ununnilium Unununium

Meitnerium

Nd Pm Sm

Praseodymium Neodymium
140.90765
3 2
[Xe]4f 6s
5.473

61

109

Ga

(292)

68

3

Er

H6

Erbium

167.259
12 2
[Xe]4f 6s
6.1077

100

3

H6

69

2

F°7/2

Tm
Thulium

168.93421
13 2
[Xe]4f 6s
6.1843

101

2

F°7/2

Fm Md
Fermium

(257)
12 2
[Rn]5f 7s
6.50

Mendelevium
(258)
13 2
[Rn]5f 7s
6.58

70

1

S0

Yb

Ytterbium

173.04
14 2
[Xe]4f 6s
6.2542

102

1

S0

No

Nobelium

(259)
14 2
[Rn]5f 7s
6.65

71

2

D3/2

Lu

Lutetium

174.967
14
2
[Xe]4f 5d6s
5.4259

103

2

P°1/2?

Lr

Lawrencium

(262)
14 2
[Rn]5f 7s 7p?
4.9 ?

NIST SP 966 (September 2002)

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