Maxwell2D

Ansoft
ElectromagneticandElectromechanicalAnalysis
ANSOFT CORPORATION • 225 West Station Square Dr. Suite 200 • Pittsburgh, PA 15219-1119
user’sguide– Maxwell2D
12
electronicdesignautomationsoftware
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide 1
Theinformationcontainedinthisdocumentissubjecttochangewithoutnotice.Ansoft
makesnowarrantyofanykindwithregardtothismaterial,including,butnotlimitedto,
theimpliedwarrantiesofmerchantabilityandfitnessforaparticularpurpose.Ansoft
shallnotbeliableforerrorscontainedhereinorforincidentalorconsequential
damagesinconnectionwiththefurnishing,performance,oruseofthismaterial.
© 2009AnsoftCorporation.Allrightsreserved.
AnsoftCorporation
225WestStationSquareDrive
Suite200
Pittsburgh,PA15219
USA
Phone:412-261-3200
Fax:412-471-9427
Maxwell,ePhysics andOptimetrics areregisteredtrademarksortrademarksofAnsoft
Corporation.Allothertrademarksarethepropertyoftheirrespectiveowners.
Neweditionsofthismanualwillincorporateallmaterialupdatedsincetheprevious
edition.Themanualprintingdate,whichindicatesthemanual’scurrentedition,
changeswhenaneweditionisprinted.Minorcorrectionsandupdateswhichare
incorporatedatreprintdonotcausethedatetochange.Updatepackagesmaybe
issuedbetweeneditionsandcontainadditionaland/orreplacementpagestobe
mergedintothemanualbytheuser.Notethatpageswhicharerearrangeddueto
changesonapreviouspagearenotconsideredtoberevised.
Edition:REV2.0
Date:15January2009
SoftwareVersion:12.1
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide 2
Contents
Contents
Thisdocumentdiscussessomebasicconceptsandterminologyused throughout
theAnsoftMaxwellapplication.Itprovidesthefollowinginformation:
Overview
1.0- Maxwell2D
Examples– EddyCurrent
6.1– JumpingRingsAxisymmetric Model
6.2– InstantaneousForcesonBusbars
Examples– Transient
7.1– GappedInductorModel
7.2- SolenoidProblemwithanExternalCircuit
Examples– BasicExercises
9.1– Electrostatic
9.3– Magnetostatic
9.4– Parametric
9.5– Transient
9.6– TransientwithCircuitEditor
9.8- Optimetrics
9.10– Scripting
9.12– EddyCurrent
9.13– RotationalTransientMotion
9.14– BoundaryConditions
9.15– PermanentMagnetsAssignment
Examples– Motors
11.1- PermanentMagnetSynchronousMachine
11.2- Three-phaseInductionMachine
11.3- PermanentMagnetMotor
Maxwell
®
is a comprehensive electromagnetic feld simulation software package for engineers tasked with designing and analyzing 3D/2D
structures, such as motors, actuators, transformers and other electric and electromechanical devices common to automotive, military/
aerospace and industrial systems. Based on the Finite Element Method (FEM), Maxwell can solve static, frequency-domain and time-varying
electromagnetic and electric felds. In addition, the software can be dynamically linked with Simplorer
®
to create a powerful, system-level
electromagnetic-based design fow. This fow enables users to combine complex circuits with accurate component models to design high-
performance electromechanical and power electronic systems. Additionally, Maxwell’s 3D solvers have dynamic links to ePhysics

. This allows
engineers to perform complex 3D multi-physics studies by linking Maxwell to ePhysics’ thermal and structural solvers.
Key Benefits
Electromagnetic feld simulation
Maxwell includes 3D/2D Transient, AC Electromagnetic, Magneto-
static, Electrostatic and Electrotransient solvers that accurately solve
for force, torque, capacitance, inductance, resistance, and imped-
ance, as well as generate state-space models.
Automatic adaptive meshing
Maxwell uses the Ansoft-pioneered automatic adaptive meshing
techniques. This robust meshing algorithm automatically creates and
refnes the fnite element mesh as the solution converges, streamlin-
ing the solution process and making the software very easy to use.
Dynamic link - ePhysics
The Maxwell 3D solvers can be dynamically linked with ePhysics’
thermal and stress analysis and are the ideal solution for every elec-
tromechanical device requiring cross-disciplinary design analysis.
Dynamic link - Simplorer
Dynamic links with Simplorer multi-domain system simulation allow
accurate high-fdelity component models to be combined with cir-
cuits and system architecture to create a powerful, electromagnetic-
based design fow.
Import
CAD fles can be imported in Maxwell streamlining the design pro-
cess.
Multi-processing and distributed analysis
Maxwell can leverage available computing power with multi-pro-
cessing and distributed analysis options for fast turnaround of your
largest designs.
Optimization
Optimetrics

provides parametric, optimization, sensitivity, and
statistical analysis capabilities to Maxwell. Optimetrics automates the
design-optimization process by quickly identifying optimal values for
design parameters that satisfy user-specifed constraints.
Customized pre-processors
RMxprt (electric machine design) and PExprt

(magnetic component
design) are used to design devices based on a traditional analytical
approach. They also can be directly linked to Maxwell and provide
fully automated design creation and analytical analysis. Users can
perform preliminary studies of design concepts prior to performing
rigorous electromagnetic analysis with Maxwell.
applications
Electromechanical
• Motorsandgenerators
• Linearorrotationalactuators
• Relays
• MEMS
• Magneticrecordingheads
Electromagnetic
• Coils
• Permanentmagnets
• Sensors
Power electronic
• Transformers
• Converters
• Busbars
• IGBTsandsimilardevices
EM behavior
• Insulationstudies
• Electrostaticdischarge
• Electromagneticshielding
• EMI/EMC
• Semiconductor
• Biomedical
The new 2D interface provides strong coupling with
3D and many new usability features.
3D/2D Electromagnetic Field Simulation
Maxwell,Simplorer,ePhysics,Optimetrics,PExprt,AnsoftLinks,andHFSSaretrademarksofAnsoftCorporation.
All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
© 2008 Ansoft Corporation 0308
225 West Station Square Drive • Suite 200 • Pittsburgh, PA 15219-1119 USA
T 412-261-3200 F 412-471-9427 E info@ansoft.com W www.ansoft.com
Key features
Low-frequencyelectromagneticfeldsimulationandanalysisusing
FEM for 3D/2D structures
• Transient-nonlinearanalysiswith:
Motion—rotation, translational, non-cylindrical rotation
External circuit coupling
Permanent magnet demagnetization analysis
Core loss computation
Laminationmodelingfor3D
• ACElectromagnetic—Analysisofdevicesinfuencedbyskin/
proximity effects, eddy/displacement currents
• Magnetostatic—Nonlinearanalysiswithautomatedequivalent
circuit model generation
• ElectricField—Transient,Electrostatic/Currentfowanalysiswith
automated equivalent circuit model generation
Display of data/visualization of results
• Fieldvisualizationandanimations(shaded,contourandvector
plots)
• Meshvisualization(full,partial)
• Current,inducedvoltage,fuxlinkage
• Powerloss,storedenergy
• Coreloss,eddy,excess,hysteresisloss(includingtheminorloop
effects)
• Impedance,inductance,capacitance
• Force,torque
• Customreportsofuser-defnedsolutiondata
Performance and integration
• DistributedAnalysis*forparallelcomputingofparameterized
models
• 64-bitoperatingsystemsupport
• LinkstoSimplorer
®*
, ePhysics
™*
,HFSS
™*
, RMxprt
™*
, PExprt
™*
Integrated3DmodelerfeaturingACISv16andMFCtechnology
• Standardprimitivesandmulti-sweepfunctions
• Booleanoperations:union,subtraction,intersection
• DirectimportofSATandDXFfles
• AnsoftLinks

*forimportofSTEP,IGESandPro/Efles
Automatic, adaptive mesh technology
• Fault-tolerantmeshingalgorithms
• Mesh-generationfeedback
• GUIperformsvalidationandintegritychecks
• Softwareidentifesartifactswithintheimportedgeometry
• Mesh-basedmodelresolution
Versatile material manager and material types
• User,groupandsystemlibraries
• Linear,nonlinearanisotropicmaterials
• Materialassignmentbycoordinatetype:cartesian,cylindricalor
spherical
Integrated Optimetrics

*
• Geometryandmaterialparameterization
• Optimization,sensitivityandstatisticalanalysis
*Optionavailableatadditionalcharge.
AnsoftLinks

RMxprt

Maxwell
®
ePhysics

O
p
t
i
m
e
t
r
i
c
s

CAD Files
IGES, STEP, DXF, SAT, ProE
Simplorer
®
Electric Machine
PExprt

Converters & Transformers
Current density in a busbar system as calculated by Maxwell 3D.
OVERVIEW
FEATURED CAPABILITIES
Optimetrics

is an optional software module that adds parametric
capabilities, optimization algorithms, sensitivity and statistical analyses to
Ansoft’s best-in-class electromagnetic-feld simulation products—HFSS

,
Maxwell
®
3D and Q3D Extractor
®
. Optimetrics automates the design-
optimization process for high-performance electronics, such as microwave/
RF devices, printed circuit boards, on-chip passives, IC packages and
electromechanical components, by quickly identifying optimal values for
design parameters that satisfy user-specifed constraints and goals.
Optimetrics

enables users to study the effects of geometry and materials
on a design by creating parameters for the dimensions and material
constants of the model to be analyzed. Optimetrics then varies these
parameters and adjusts the geometry and materials to achieve the
desired, user specified, performance goal.
Leveraging previously computed parametric simulation results within
its optimizer, Optimetrics enables engineers to understand device
characteristics over a large design space and quickly identify the best
performing design that is least sensitive to manufacturing tolerances.

Optimetrics, when used in conjunction with HFSS

, Maxwell
®
3D and
Q3D Extractor
®
, delivers an innovative and robust design platform from
which users gain a greater understanding of the design space and the
ability to make insightful design choices.
• Parametric Analysis
• User-specifed range and number of steps for parameters
• Automatic analysis of parameter permutations
• Distributed Analysis (cost option)
o Automated parser management across multiple hardware
platforms and reassembly of data for parametric tables and
studies
• Sensitivity Analysis
• Design variations to determine sensitivities
o Manufacturing tolerances
o Material properties
This example is a connector designed with HFSS
and Optimetrics. The control panel displays design
variables (i.e., cost functions, parameters), launches
design perturbations and converges to the optimal
performance criterion.
Ansoft Corporation • 225 West Station Square Drive • Pittsburgh, PA 15219-1119 USA
TEL 1.412.261.3200 FAX 1.412.471.9427 EMAI L info@ansoft.com WEB www.ansoft.com
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• Optimization
• User-selectable cost functions and goal objective
o Quasi-Newton method
o Sequential Nonlinear Programming (SNLP)
o Integer-only Sequential Nonlinear Programming
• Automatic analysis of parameter variants until optimum goal obtained
• Tuning
• User-controllable slide bar for real-time tuning display and results
• Statistical Analysis
• Design performance distribution versus parameter values
Current sensor optimization
results using Maxwell 3D
and Optimetrics
Ansoft Corporation • 225 West Station Square Drive • Pittsburgh, PA 15219-1119 USA
TEL: 412.261.3200 • FAX: 412.471.9427 • EMAIL: info@ansoft.com • WEB: www.ansoft.com
Multi-domain simulation software
Overview
SIMPLORER
®
is the premier software program for the design and
analysis of complex, multi-domain systems commonly found in
automotive, aerospace/defense and industrial systems.
Multi-domain system design is challenging and complex. It
consists of many interdisciplinary and nonlinear components from
multiple domains: electrical, mechanical, thermal and control. The
close interaction across domains renders single-domain system
simulation tools ineffective.

SIMPLORER is the only system engineering tool to offer multiple
standard modeling techniques (VHDL-AMS, circuits, block
diagrams, state machines, C/C++) that can be used concurrently.
It also utilizes the concept of “natures,” allowing components of
different engineering domains to interact.
SIMPLORER is the ideal tool for system designs such as:
• Power Systems
• Electric Motors and Drives
• Powertrains
Modeling Techniques
SIMPLORER v7 offers VHDL-AMS wizard technology,
making it easy to leverage the IEEE multi-domain
modeling standard.
• Hybrid-electric Propulsion
• Other Multi-domain
Systems
SIMPLORER allows components to be described as behavioral or
physical models using one or any combination of SIMPLORER’s
modeling techniques. This eliminates error-prone mathematical
transformations and model analogies often employed by single-
domain simulation tools.
VHDL-AMS
IEEE-endorsed modeling language (standard
1076.1) created to provide a general-
purpose, easily exchangeable and open
language for multi-domain analog
mixed-signal designs.
CIRCUITS
Numerically stable and fast circuit
simulator with support for multi-level
semiconductor modeling that is optimized
to the needs of demanding power-electronic
and high-switching-frequency circuit design.
BLOCK DIAGRAMS
Enables the description of signal-flow-based
linear, nonlinear, continuous, time-discrete
and hybrid systems, making it ideal for
dynamic system simulation and closed-
loop-control applications.
STATE MACHINES
Highly efficient modeling technique for
event-driven systems, such as logical
control found in embedded control systems,
space vector controls or PWM for power-
electronic circuits.
v7.0
Models
SIMPLORER Model Libraries
SIMPLORER offers optional application-specific model libraries to
enhance productivity and reduce design time:
• Alternative Power
• Automotive
• Hydraulic
• Machine

Integration
FEA-Based Models
For models requiring the highest level of fidelity, SIMPLORER
provides a direct link to Ansoft’s industry-leading electromagnetic
field simulation and design programs: Maxwell
®
, RMxprt

, and
PExprt

. Users can easily create equivalent circuit models from the
finite-element analysis (FEA) results and import them directly to
SIMPLORER.
Alternatively, users can employ the Transient Simulation coupling
link to couple transient FEA directly to SIMPLORER. This powerful
feature provides the ultimate in accuracy and flexibility and is ideal
for detailed analysis of electromechanical components operating
within a system.
Manufacturers’ Models
SIMPLORER users can access up-to-date manufacturer-specific
components online at www.model.simplorer.com. MOSFET, IGBT,
ultra capacitors and other components are available to customers
as a free download.
Statistical Analysis and Optimization
SIMPLORER includes many advanced analysis capabilities such as
parametric sweeps and optimization routines to provide insight into
design variations and “trade-offs.”

• Parameter Sweep/Table
• Monte Carlo
• 3D Graphic
• Genetic Algorithm
• Successive Approximation
• Mechanical
• Power
• SMPS
• Sensor
• SIMPLEX
• Frequency Sweep
• Worst Case
• Sensitivity
Please consult your local sales representative for pricing and information on this and other Ansoft products.
SIMPLORER, PExprt and RMxprt are trademarks of Ansoft Corporation. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
PL37-0407 © 2004 Ansoft Corporation
SIMPLORER v7 includes many new statistical design
and optimization routines.
SIMPLORER v7 now includes a transient simulation coupling link.
Users can simultaneously solve a transient FEA project with a
transient system simulation.
Scripting
This powerful feature opens APIs in the SIMPLORER environment,
allowing SIMPLORER to be embedded into existing design flows.
The scripting capability is language independent so users can work
with popular scripting languages, such as Visual Basic
®
, Java
®
or
Tcl/Tk and interact easily with other tools supporting the Microsoft
Com interface, such as MS Office and LabView
®
Co-Simulation
SIMPLORER allows the integration of proprietary C/C++ programs,
MATLAB
®
/Simulink
®
, Mathcad
®
and other specialized programs,
allowing SIMPLORER to utilize customized code and existing
design control. The direct integration of models in their native
environment avoids model translation, saves design time and
allows communication and model exchange across departments
and between suppliers and OEMs.
RMxprt

is a versatile software program that speeds the design and optimization process of rotating electric machines. With RMxprt, users
can calculate machine performance, make initial sizing decisions, and perform hundreds of “what if” analyses in a matter of seconds. As
the entry point for the Ansoft motor and drive design methodology, RMxprt automatically produces both system-level models and geometric
data, allowing the preliminary design to be refned and integrated with power electronic and control circuitry.
Key Benefits
Fast design
RMxprt offers numerous machine-specifc, template-based interfaces
for induction, synchronous, and electronically and brush-commutat-
ed machines that allow users to easily enter design parameters and
to evaluate design tradeoffs early in the design process.
Performance metrics
Critical performance data, such as torque versus speed, power
loss, fux in the air gap, power factor and effciency can be quickly
calculated.
Robust calculation methods
RMxprt uses classical analytical motor theory and equivalent mag-
netic circuit methods to compute performance metrics for a specifc
machine design and accounts for nonlinear magnetic characteristics
and 3D effects, such as skew and end-turn.
Model pre-processor
RMxprt is a key part of Ansoft’s motor design methodology. In addi-
tion to providing classical motor performance calculations, RMxprt
can automatically create 3D and 2D geometry and assign material
properties and other necessary problem defnition data necessary
to perform rigorous fnite element analysis on the design using
Maxwell
®
.
Wire library
RMxprt includes a comprehensive database of ANSI and IEC wires.
High-fdelity system models
RMxprt creates high-fdelity, state-space system models incorporat-
ing machines’ physical dimensions, winding characteristics and non-
linear material properties. Engineers can use the resulting behavioral
model to explore electronic control topologies, loads, and interac-
tions with drive-system components in Simplorer
®
.
Convenient design sheet output
Design sheets list all the relevant input parameters and calculated
parameters and graphically display waveforms including current,
voltage, torque and back EMF as well as a detailed winding layout.
RMxprt also can output Excel-format design sheets based on the
user-defned template.
Design optimization
RMxprt can perform hundreds of “what if” analyses in a matter of
minutes, making it a valuable tool for designers needing to make
initial sizing and material decisions quickly.
Powerful scripting
RMxprt can be integrated with third party development programs
through scripting languages such as VB script, Tcl/TK, JavaScript
®
,
Perl, Excel and MATLAB
®
. This allows users to customize the design
fow and leverage internally developed programs and historical data.
design templates
Machine types
• Inductionmachines
o Single-phase motors
o Three-phase motors
• Synchronousmachines
o Line-start PM motors
o Salient-pole motors and generators
o Non-salient pole motors and generators
• Brushcommutatedmachines
o DC motors and generators
o Permanent magnet DC motors
o Universal motors
• Electronicallycommutatedmachines
o Brushless DC motors
o Adjustable-speed PM motors and generators
o Switched reluctance motors
o Claw-pole generators
RMxprt delivers the reports you need to quickly
analyze and tune your design.
Design Software for Electric Machines
RMxpRt

v12
RMxprt, Simplorer and Maxwell are trademarks of Ansoft Corporation.
All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
© 2008 Ansoft Corporation 0308
225 West Station Square Drive • Suite 200 • Pittsburgh, PA 15219-1119 USA
T 412-261-3200 F 412-471-9427 E info@ansoft.com W www.ansoft.com
Key features
• Machine-specifctemplateeditor
o Rotor
o Stator
o Running strategies
o Drive circuits
• Auto-designfeature
o Slot size
o Coil turns and wire diameter
o Starting capacitance
o Winding arrangement
• Performancecurves
o Torque
o Power
o Effciency
• Outputwaveforms
o Current
o Cogging torque
o Flux in the air gap
• Graphicalwindingeditor
• CrosssectionEditor
• Customizabledesignsheet
• Costevaluation
• Integratedparametricsandoptimization
• State-spacemodelexporttoSimplorer
®
• AutomatedprojectsetupforMaxwell
®
2D
• AutomatedgeometryandmaterialsetupforMaxwell3D
design flOW
RMxprt is the ideal starting point for a comprehensive electric machine design fow. RMxprt with Maxwell and Simplorer provides an effcient
and accurate methodology to design and optimize an electric machine and related electric drive and control system.
º CeomeIry º Skew
º MaIerials º SIackihg
º Wihdihg º Lhd L!!ecI
Ih!o
SIaIe Space Model
CeomeIry, wihdihg characIerisIics
ahd hohlihear maIerial properIies
Physics-based ParameIers
RMXPRT

SIMPLORER
®
MAXWELL
®
RMxprt

creates 3D and 2D geometry, assigns materials and sets up
boundary conditions for Maxwell. Additionally, any parameter changed in
RMxprt is automatically updated in the fnite element project.
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-1
Overview
Presentation
1
Maxwell 2D is a high-performance interactive software
package that uses finite element analysis (FEA) to solve
electric field and magnetic field problems.
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-2
Overview
Presentation
1
Maxwell 2D solves the electromagnetic field problems for a given
model with appropriate materials, boundaries and source conditions
applying Maxwell's equations over a finite region of space.
There are two geometry modes available in Maxwell 2D:
Cartesian (XY) model
Axisymmetric (RZ) model
There are six solvers available in Maxwell 2D:
Electrostatic
AC Conduction Electric Fields
DC Conduction
Magnetostatic
Eddy Current Magnetic Fields
Transient Magnetic
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-3
Overview
Presentation
1
DifferentMethodsofElectromagneticAnalysis
Electromagnetic
Analysis
Analytical
Techniques
Numerical
Techniques
Integral
Equations
Differential
Equations
Boundary
Elements
Finite
Difference
Finite
Elements
Scalar
Potentials
Vector
Potentials
Components of
H-Field
Closed
Form
BEM
FDM
FEM
Iterative
3D Magnetostatic
3D Eddy
3D Transient
2D Magnetostatic
2D Eddy
2D Transient
2D Electrostatic
3D Thermal
3D Electrostatic
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-4
Overview
Presentation
1
DifferentialFormofMaxwell’sEquations
ρ = • ∇


+ = × ∇
= • ∇


− = × ∇
D
t
D
J H
B
t
Β
Ε
y Electricit for Law s Gauss'
Law s Ampere'
Magnetism for Law s Gauss'
Induction of Law s Faraday'
0
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-5
Overview
Presentation
1
FEM and adaptive meshing
In order to obtain the set of algebraic
equations to be solved, the geometry
of the problem is discretized
automatically into small elements
(e.g., triangles in 2D).
All the model solids are meshed
automatically by the mesher.
The assembly of all triangles is
referred to as the finite element
mesh of the model or simply the
mesh.
Approximate aspect ratio limit in 2D:
X = 10,000Y
Start
Field Solution
Generate
Initial Mesh
Compute
Fields
Perform
Error Analysis
Stop
Field Solution
Has
Stopping
Criteria been
met?
Refine
Mesh
Yes
No
Y
X
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-6
Overview
Presentation
1
FEMApproximationFunctions
Thedesiredfieldineachelementisapproximatedwitha2ndorder
quadraticpolynomial
A
z
(x,y)=a
o
+a
1
x+a
2
y+a
3
x
2
+a
4
xy+a
5
y
2
Fieldquantitiesarecalculatedfor6points(3cornersand3
midpoints)in2D
Fieldquantitiesinsideofthetrianglearecalculatedusinga2
nd
orderquadraticinterpolationscheme
1
6 2
3
5
4
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-7
Overview
Presentation
1
FEMVariational Principle
Poisson’sequation:
isreplacedwithenergyfunctional:
ThisfunctionalisminimizedwithrespecttovalueofAateach
nodeineverytriangle
J A u − = ∇
2
( ) dV J A
A A
A F
∫ |
|
.
|

\
|
• +
∇ • ∇
=
u 2
1
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-8
Overview
Presentation
1
FEMMatrixEquation
Now,overallthetriangles,theresultisalarge,sparsematrixequation
Thiscanbesolvedusingstandardmatrixsolutiontechniquessuchas:
SparseGaussianElimination(directsolver)
IncompleteCholeski ConjugateGradientMethod(ICCGiterative
solver)
| || | | | J A S =
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-9
Overview
Presentation
1
FEMErrorEvaluation
PuttheapproximatesolutionbackintoPoisson’sequation
SinceAisaquadraticfunction,Risaconstantineachtriangle.
ThelocalerrorineachtriangleisproportionaltoR.
R J A
approx
= + ∇ u
2
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-10
Overview
Presentation
1
FEMPercentErrorEnergy
Summationoflocalerrorineachtriangledividedbytotalenergy
LocalerrorscanexceedPercentErrorEnergy
( )
% 100
1
× =

=
n
i
i
R
Energy Total
local
Energy Error Percent
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-11
Overview
Presentation
1
TransientSolver
FullyCoupledDynamicPhysicsSolution
A v H V
t
A
J A
c s
× ∇ × + × ∇ + ∇ −


− = × ∇ × ∇ σ σ σ υ
Current Source
Density
Permanent Magnet
Magnetic Vector Potential
Electric Scalar
Potential
Velocity
Time-varyingElectricandMagneticFields
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-12
Overview
Presentation
1
TransientSolver- MagneticFieldDiffusion
Magneticfields“diffuse” intomaterialsatdifferentratesdepending
on:
Materialpropertiesofthecomponent
Physicalsizeofthecomponent
Foracylindricalconductor,diffusiontimeis:
Inducededdycurrentsalwaysoccurinconductingobjectsdueto
time-varyingfields;however,theymaynotalwaysbesignificant
meters in radius a ty conductivi perm u where
a u
= = =
=
, , :
(sec)
4048 . 2
2
2
σ
σ
τ
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-13
Overview
Presentation
1
GUI - Desktop
The complex functionality built into the Maxwell solvers is accessed through
the main user interface (called the desktop).
Problem can be setup in a fairly arbitrary order.
A new “validation check” has been added to insure that all required steps are
completed.
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-14
Overview
Presentation
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ACIS solid modeling kernel
The underlying solid modeling technology used by Ansoft products is
provided by ACIS geometric modeler. ACIS version 16 is presently
used.
Users can create directly models using primitives and operations on
primitives.
In addition, users can import models saved in a variety of formats (sm2
.gds .sm3 .sat .step .iges .dxf .dwg .sld .geo .stl .prt .asm)
When users import models into Ansoft products, translators are
invoked that convert the models to an ACIS native format (sat format).
Exports directly .sat, .dxf, .sm3, .sm2, .step, .iges
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-15
Overview
Presentation
1
Supported platforms
Windows XP Pro
Windows XP Pro x64 Edition
Windows Server 2003
Windows Server 2003 x64 Edition
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3, 4
SuSE Linux Enterprise Server 9.3
Solaris 8 -10
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-16
Overview
Presentation
1
StartingMaxwell
ClicktheMicrosoftStartbutton,selectPrograms,andselecttheAnsoft>
Maxwell12>Maxwell12
OrDoubleclickontheMaxwell12iconontheWindowsDesktop
AddingaDesign
WhenyoufirststartMaxwellanewprojectwillbeautomatically addedtothe
ProjectTree.
ToinsertaMaxwellDesigntotheproject,selectthemenuitemProject>Insert
Maxwell2DDesign
Toolbar:
InsertMaxwell2DDesign
InsertMaxwell3DDesign
InsertRMxprt Design
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-17
Overview
Presentation
1
MaxwellDesktop
Status
bar
History
Tree
Menu
bar
Toolbars
Project
Manager
withproject
tree
2DModeler
Window
Property
Window
Progress
Window Message
Manager
CoordinateEntryFields
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-18
Overview
Presentation
1
MaxwellDesktop– ProjectManager
MultipleDesignsperProject
MultipleProjectsperDesktop
IntegratedOptimetrics Setup(requireslicenseforanalysis)
ProjectManagerWindow
Design
Project
DesignSetup
DesignAutomation
•Parametric
•Optimization
•Sensitivity
•Statistical
DesignResults
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-19
Overview
Presentation
1
MaxwellDesktop– 2DModeler
Graphics
area
Model
2DModeler
designtree
(history)
2DModelerWindow
Edge
Vertex
Contextmenu
(rightmouseclick
on2Dmodeler
window)
Origin
XY
Coordinate
System
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-20
Overview
Presentation
1
GeometryMode
Tosetthegeometrymode:
1. SelectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>SolutionType
2. SolutionTypeWindow:
W ChooseGeometryMode:CartesianXY
Maxwell– GeometryModes
ACartesian(XY) modelrepresentsacross-sectionofa
devicethatextendsinthez-direction.Visualizethe
geometricmodelasextendingperpendiculartotheplane
beingmodeled.
AnAxisymmetric (RZ) modelrepresentsacross-sectionofa
devicethatisrevolved360° aroundanaxisofsymmetry(the
z-axis).Visualizethegeometricmodelasbeingrevolved
aroundthez-axis.
Geometric Model
Cartesian (XY Plane) Axisymmetric (RZ Plane)
X
Y
Z
Z
R
Φ
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-21
Overview
Presentation
1
SetSolutionType
Tosetthesolutiontype:selectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>SolutionType
MagneticSolutionTypes
Magnetostatic
ComputesthestaticmagneticfieldthatexistsinastructuregivenadistributionofDCcurrentsandpermanent
magnets.Themagneticfieldmaybecomputedinstructureswithbothnonlinearandlinearmaterials.Aninductance
matrix,force,torque,andfluxlinkagemayalsobecomputedfromtheenergystoredinthemagneticfield.
EddyCurrent
ComputestheoscillatingmagneticfieldthatexistsinastructuregivenadistributionofACcurrents.Alsocomputes
currentdensities,takingintoaccountalleddycurrenteffects(includingskineffects).Animpedancematrix,force,
torque,coreloss,andcurrentflowmayalsobecomputedfromthecomputedfieldsolution.
Transient
Computestransient(TimeDomain)magneticfieldscausedbypermanentmagnets,conductors,andwindings
suppliedbyvoltageand/orcurrentsourceswitharbitraryvariationasfunctionsoftime,positionandspeed.Itcan
alsobecoupledwithexternalcircuits.Rotationalortranslationalmotioneffectscanbeincludedinthesimulation.
Usesatime-steppingsolver.Considerssourceinducedandmotioninductededdyeffects.
ElectricSolutionTypes
Electrostatic
ComputesthestaticelectricfieldthatexistsinastructuregivenadistributionofDCvoltagesandstaticcharges.A
capacitancematrix,force,torque,andfluxlinkagemayalsobecomputedfromtheelectricfield.
ACConduction
ComputestheACvoltagesandcurrentdensitydistributioninamaterialhavingbothconductiveanddielectric
propertiesgivenadistributionofACvoltages.Anadmittancematrixandcurrentflowmayalsobecomputedfrom
thecalculatedfields.
DCConduction
ComputestheDCcurrentsthatflowinalossy dielectricgivenadistributionofDCvoltages.Aconductancematrix
andcurrentflowmayalsobecomputedfromthecomputedelectric fieldsolution.
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-22
Overview
Presentation
1
SetModelUnits
Tosettheunits:
1. Selectthemenuitem
Modeler>Units
2. SetModelUnits:
1. SelectUnits:mm
2. ClicktheOK button
SetDefaultMaterial
Tosetthedefaultmaterial:
1. UsingtheModeler
Materialstoolbar,choose
Select
2. SelectDefinitionWindow:
1. Typesteel_1008 in
theSearchbyName
field
2. ClicktheOK button
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-23
Overview
Presentation
1
Modeler– DrawaRectangle
Point1
Point2
Point1
Point2
CoordinateEntryFields
TheCoordinateEntryfieldsallowequationstobeenteredforpositionvalues.
Examples:2*5,2+6+8,2*cos(10*(pi/180)).
VariablesarenotallowedintheCoordinateEntryField
Note:Trigfunctionsareinradians
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-24
Overview
Presentation
1
Modeler– Importing.dxf and.dwg CADfiles
Check“Importas2Dsheetbodies” soobjectscomeinassheetsandnotsolids
Tochangethenumberofsegmentsonanimportedcurve:
Changetofaceselectmode:Edit>Select>Facesandclickonface
Modeler>Surface>UncoverFaces
Changetoobjectselectmode:Edit>Select>Objectsandclickonopenpolyline
Modeler>PurgeHistory
Modeler>GenerateHistory
Expandthehistorytreeforthatpolyline andchangenumberofsegmentsasdesired
Selectthepolyline and:Modeler>Surface>CoverLines
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-25
Overview
Presentation
1
Modeler– ObjectProperties
InHistoryTree:
Commands
(dimensions
andhistory)
Attributes
Commands
Attributes
(properties
oftheobject)
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-26
Overview
Presentation
1
SolveInside– ifunchecked
meshesbutnosolutioninside
(liketheoldexcludefeaturein
materialmanager)
Model– ifunchecked,theobjectis
totallyignoredoutsideofmodelerwith
nomeshandnosolution
Modeler– Attributes
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-27
Overview
Presentation
1
Modeler- Views
View>ModifyAttributes>
Orientation– Predefined/CustomViewAngles
Lighting – Controlangle,intensity,andcoloroflight
Projection – Controlcameraandperspective
BackgroundColor – Controlcolorof3DModeler
background
View>VisualizationSettings – displayedresolutionofcurves
View>ActiveViewVisibility - Controlsthedisplayof:3D
ModelerObjects,ColorKeys,Boundaries,Excitations,Field
Plots
View>Options – StereoMode,DragOptimization,ColorKey
Defaults,DefaultRotation
View>Render>WireFrame orSmoothShaded (Default)
View>CoordinateSystem>Hide orSmall(Large)
View>GridSetting – Controlsthegriddisplay
Toolbar: ToggleGridVisibility
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-28
Overview
Presentation
1
ChangingtheView
Toolbar
ContextMenu
Shortcuts
Sincechangingtheviewisafrequentlyusedoperation,someusefulshortcutkeysexist.Pressthe
appropriatekeysanddragthemousewiththeleftbuttonpressed:
ALT+Drag – Rotate
Inaddition,thereare9pre-definedviewanglesthatcanbeselectedbyholdingtheALTkeyand
doubleclickingonthelocationsshownonthenextpage.
Shift+Drag - Pan
ALT+Shift+Drag – DynamicZoom
Pan
RotateAround
ModelCenter
DynamicZoom
ZoomIn/Out
Top
Bottom
Right
PredefinedViewAngles
Left
RotateAround
CurrentAxis
RotateAround
ScreenCenter
FitAll
FitSelected
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-29
Overview
Presentation
1
MaxwellV12KeyboardShortcuts
GeneralShortcuts
F1:Help
Shift+F1:Contexthelp
CTRL+F4:Closeprogram
CTRL+C:Copy
CTRL+N:Newproject
CTRL+O:Open...
CTRL+S:Save
CTRL+P:Print...
CTRL+V:Paste
CTRL+X:Cut
CTRL+Y:Redo
CTRL+Z:Undo
CTRL+0:Cascadewindows
CTRL+1:Tilewindowshorizontally
CTRL+2:Tilewindowsvertically
ModellerShortcuts
B:Selectface/objectbehindcurrentselection
F:Faceselectmode
O:Objectselectmode
CTRL+A:Selectallvisibleobjects
CTRL+SHIFT+A:Deselectallobjects
CTRL+D:Fitview
CTRL+E:Zoomin,screencenter
CTRL+F:Zoomout,screencenter
CTRL+Enter:Shiftsthelocalcoordinatesystem
temporarily
SHIFT+LeftMouseButton:Drag
Alt+LeftMouseButton:Rotatemodel
Alt+SHIFT+LeftMouseButton:Zoomin/out
F3:Switchtopointentrymode(i.e.drawobjects
bymouse)
F4:Switchtodialogueentrymode(i.e.draw
objectsolelybyentryincommandandattributes
box.)
F6:Rendermodelwireframe
F7:Rendermodelsmoothshaded
Alt+DoubleClickLeftMouseButtonatpointsonscreen:Setsmodel
projectiontostandardisometricprojections(seediagrambelow).
ALT+RightMouseButton+DoubleClickLeftMouseButtonatpoints
onscreen:givethenineoppositeprojections.
Top
Bottom
Right
PredefinedViewAngles
Left
Alt + double left Click
here to restore view in
an RZ model
Alt + double left Click
here to restore view in
an XY model
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-30
Overview
Presentation
1
SimpleExample
Magneticcorewithcoil
Use2DRZMagnetostatic Solver
Coil(120Conductors,Copper)
Core(Steel_1008)
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-31
Overview
Presentation
1
Setupthegeometrymodeandsolver
ChooseCylindricalaboutZ underMaxwell2D>SolutionType
Choose Magnetostatic
Clickthe OK button
CreateCore
Tocreatethecore:
1. SelectthemenuitemDraw>Rectangle
2. Usingthecoordinateentryfields,enterthecenterposition
X:0.0,Y:0.0,Z:-3.0, PresstheEnter key
3. Usingthecoordinateentryfields,entertheoppositecorneroftherectangle
dX:2.0,dY:0.0,dZ:10.0,PresstheEnter key
ContinuedonNextPage
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-32
Overview
Presentation
1
CreateCore(Continued)
ToParameterizetheHeight
1. SelecttheCommand tabfromtheProperties window
2. ZSize:H
3. Pressthe Tabkey
4. AddVariableWindow
1. Value:10mm
2. ClicktheOK button
Tosetthename:
1. SelecttheAttribute tabfromtheProperties window.
2. FortheValue ofName type:Core
Tosetthematerial:
1. SelecttheAttribute tabfromtheProperties window
2. ClickonthebuttoninMaterialvalue:settosteel_1008
Tosetthecolor:
1. SelecttheAttribute tabfromtheProperties window.
2. ClicktheEdit button
Tosetthetransparency:
1. SelecttheAttribute tabfromtheProperties window.
2. ClicktheOKbutton
Tofinisheditingtheobjectproperties
1. ClicktheOK button
Tofittheview:
1. SelectthemenuitemView>FitAll>ActiveView
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-33
Overview
Presentation
1
SetDefaultMaterial
Tosetthedefaultmaterial:
1. Usingthe3DModelerMaterialstoolbar,chooseSelect
2. SelectDefinitionWindow:
1. Typecopper intheSearchbyName field
2. ClicktheOK button
CreateCoil
Tocreatethecoilforthecurrenttoflow:
1. SelectthemenuitemDraw>Rectangle
2. Usingthecoordinateentryfields,enterthecenterposition
X:2.0,Y:0.0,Z:0.0, PresstheEnter key
3. Usingthecoordinateentryfields,entertheoppositecorneroftherectangle
dX:2.0,dY:0.0,dZ:4.0,PresstheEnter key
Tosetthename:
1. SelecttheAttribute tabfromtheProperties window.
2. FortheValue ofName type:Coil
3. ClicktheOK button
Tofittheview:
1. SelectthemenuitemView>FitAll>ActiveView
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-34
Overview
Presentation
1
CreateExcitation
AssignExcitation
1. Clickonthecoil.
2. Selectthemenuitem Maxwell2D>Excitations>Assign>Current
3. CurrentExcitation:General
1. Name:Current1
2. Value:120A(Note:thisis120Amp-turns)
3. Ref.Direction:Positive
4. ClicktheOK button
5. NotethatforRZmodels,positivecurrentflowsintothescreen,
howeverforXYmodels,positivecurrentflowsoutofthescreen.
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-35
Overview
Presentation
1
DefineaRegion
Beforesolvingaprojectaregionhastobedefined.Aregionis basicallyanoutermostobjectthatcontainsallother
objects.TheregioncanbedefinedbyaspecialobjectinDraw>Region.Thisspecialregionobjectwillberesized
automaticallyifyourmodelchangessize.
Aratioinpercentshastobeenteredthatspecifieshowmuchdistanceshouldbeleftfromthemodel.
TodefineaRegion:
1. SelectthemenuitemDraw>Region
1. PaddingData: One
2. PaddingPercentage: 200
3. ClicktheOK button
Note:Sincetherewillbeconsiderablefringing
inthisdevice,apaddingpercentageofatleast
2times,or200%isrecommended
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-36
Overview
Presentation
1
SetupBoundary
AssignBoundary
1. Changetoedgeselectionmodebychoosing:Edit>Select>Edges
2. Usingthemouse,clickonthetop,rightandbottomedgeswhileholdingdowntheCTRLkey.
3. Selectthemenuitem Maxwell2D>Boundary>Assign>Balloon
4. ClicktheOK button
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-37
Overview
Presentation
1
AddSolutionSetup
SolutionSetup- CreatinganAnalysisSetup
Tocreateananalysissetup:
1. SelectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>AnalysisSetup>AddSolution
Setup
2. SolutionSetupWindow:
1. ClicktheGeneral tab:
MaximumNumberofPasses:10
PercentError:1
2. ClicktheOK button
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-38
Overview
Presentation
1
SaveProject
Tosavetheproject:
1. InanAnsoftMaxwellwindow,selectthemenuitemFile>SaveAs.
2. FromtheSaveAswindow,typetheFilename:2D_simple_example
3. ClicktheSave button
ModelValidation
Tovalidatethemodel:
1. SelectthemenuitemMaxwell3D>ValidationCheck
2. ClicktheClosebutton
Note: Toviewanyerrorsorwarningmessages,
usetheMessageManager.
Analyze
Tostartthesolutionprocess:
1. SelectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>AnalyzeAll
Validate
AnalyzeAll
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-39
Overview
Presentation
1
Viewdetailedinformationabouttheprogress
IntheProjectTreeclickonAnalysis>Setup1 withtherightmousebuttonundselectProfile
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-40
Overview
Presentation
1
MeshOverlay
Createaplotofthemesh
1. SelectthemenuitemEdit>SelectAll
Tocreateameshplot:
1. SelectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>Fields>Plot
Mesh
2. CreateMeshWindow:
1. ClicktheDonebutton
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-41
Overview
Presentation
1
FieldOverlays
Tocreateafieldplot:
1. Intheobjecttree,selecttheplaneforplotting:
1. UsingtheModelTree,expandPlanes
2. SelectGlobal:XZ
2. SelectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>Fields>Fields >B>Mag_B
3. CreateFieldPlotWindow
1. Solution:Setup1:LastAdaptive
2. Quantity:Mag_B
3. InVolume:Allobjects
4. ClicktheDone button
4. Whendone,turnofftheplotusing:
View>ActiveViewVisibility>FiledReporter
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-42
Overview
Presentation
1
FieldOverlays(cont)
Createanotherfieldplot:
1. Intheobjecttree,selecttheplaneforplotting:
1. UsingtheModelTree,expandPlanes
2. SelectGlobal:XZ
2. SelectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>Fields>Fields >B>B_Vector
3. CreateFieldPlotWindow
1. Solution:Setup1:LastAdaptive
2. Quantity:B_Vector
3. InVolume:Allobjects
4. ClicktheDone button
4. Whendone,turnofftheplotusing:
View>ActiveViewVisibility>FiledReporter
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-43
Overview
Presentation
1
FieldOverlays(cont)
Createanotherfieldplot:
1. Intheobjecttree,selecttheplaneforplotting:
1. UsingtheModelTree,expandPlanes
2. SelectGlobal:XZ
2. SelectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>Fields>Fields >A>Flux_Lines
3. CreateFieldPlotWindow
1. Solution:Setup1:LastAdaptive
2. Quantity:Flux_Lines
3. InVolume:Allobjects
4. ClicktheDone button
4. Whendone,turnofftheplotusing:
View>ActiveViewVisibility>FiledReporter
Thiscompletesthesimpleexample.
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-44
Overview
Presentation
1
ScreenCapturing
TosavethedrawingWindoworaplottotheclipboardselectthe menuitem:Edit>CopyImage
InanyWindowsapplication,select:Edit>Paste topastetheimage
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-45
Overview
Presentation
1
FileStructure
Everythingregardingtheprojectisstoredinanascii file
File:<project_name>.mxwl
DoubleclickfromWindowsExplorerwillopenand
launchMaxwellv12
ResultsandMesharestoredinafoldernamed
<project_name>.mxwlresults
Lockfile:<project_name>.lock.mxwl
Createdwhenaprojectisopened
AutoSaveFile:<project_name>.mxwl.auto
Whenrecovering,softwareonlychecksdate
Ifanerroroccurredwhensavingtheautofile,the
datewillbenewerthentheoriginal
Lookatfilesize(providedinrecoverdialog)
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-46
Overview
Presentation
1
Scripts
DefaultScriptrecordedinv12
VisualBasicScript
RemoteSolve(WindowsOnly)
Tools>Options>GeneralOptions>AnalysisOptions
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-47
Overview
Presentation
1
OverallSetupProcess
Design
SolutionType
2.Boundaries
2.Excitations
3.Mesh
Operations
2.AnalysisSetup
SolutionSetup
FrequencySweep
1.ParametricModel
Geometry/Materials
4.Results
2DReports
Fields
Mesh
Refinement
Solve
Update
Converged
Analyze
Finished
2.SolveLoop
NO
YES
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-48
Overview
Presentation
1
MenuStructure
Draw – Primitives
Modeler – SettingsandBooleanOperations
Edit – Copy/Paste,Arrange,Duplicate
Maxwell2D – Boundaries,Excitations,MeshOperations,AnalysisSetup,Results
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-49
Overview
Presentation
1
Modeler– ModelTree
SelectmenuitemModeler>GroupbyMaterial
GroupedbyMaterial
Material
Object
ObjectCommandHistory
ObjectView
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-50
Overview
Presentation
1
Modeler– Commands
ParametricTechnology
DynamicEdits- ChangeDimensions
AddVariables
ProjectVariables(Global)orDesignVariables(Local)
AnimateGeometry
IncludeUnits– DefaultUnitismeters
SupportsmixedUnits
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-51
Overview
Presentation
1
Modeler– Primitives
2DDrawObjects
Thefollowing2DDrawobjectsareavailable:
Line,Spline,Arc,EquationBasedCurve,
Rectangle,Ellipse,Circle,RegularPolygon,
EquationBasedSurface
3DDrawObjects
Notethat3Dobjectscanbepastedintothe2D
modelwindow,buttheyareignoredbythesolution
Thefollowing3DDrawobjectsareavailable(in
Maxwell3D):
Box,Cylinder,RegularPolyhedron
Cone,Sphere,Torus,Helix,Spiral,BondWire
TrueSurfaces
Circles,Cylinders,Spheres,etcarerepresentedas
truesurfaces.Inversionspriortorelease11these
primitiveswouldberepresentedasfacetedobjects.
Ifyouwishtousethefacetedprimitives,selectthe
RegularPolyhedronorRegularPolygon.
Toolbar: 2DObjects
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-52
Overview
Presentation
1
Modeler– BooleanOperations/Transformations
Modeler>Boolean>
Unite – combinemultipleprimitives
Unitedisjointobjects(SeparateBodies toseparate)
Subtract – removepartofaprimitivefromanother
Intersect– keeponlythepartsofprimitivesthatoverlap
Split – breakprimitivesintomultiplepartsalongaplane(XY,YZ,XZ)
SplitCrossingObjects– splitsobjectsalongaplane(XY,YZ,XZ)onlywheretheyintersect
SeparateBodies– separatesobjectswhichareunitedbutnotphysicallyconnectedintoindividual
objects
Edit>Arrange>
Move– Translatesthestructurealongavector
Rotate– Rotatestheshapearoundacoordinateaxisbyanangle
Mirror– Mirrorstheshapearoundaspecifiedplane
Offset– Performsauniformscaleinx,y,andz.
Edit>Duplicate>
AlongLine– Createmultiplecopiesofanobjectalongavector
AroundAxis– Createmultiplecopiesofanobjectrotatedbyafixedanglearoundthex,y,orzaxis
Mirror- Mirrorstheshapearoundaspecifiedplane andcreatesaduplicate
Edit>Scale– Allowsnon-uniformscalinginthex,y,orzdirection
Toolbar: Boolean
Toolbar: Arrange
Toolbar: Duplicate
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-53
Overview
Presentation
1
Modeler- Selection
SelectionTypes
Object(Default)
Face
Edge
Vertex
SelectionModes
AllObjects
AllVisibleObject
ByName
HighlightSelectionDynamically – Bydefault,movingthemousepointeroveranobjectwilldynamically
highlighttheobjectforselection.Toselecttheobjectsimply clicktheleftmousebutton.
MultipleObjectSelection – HoldtheCTRL keydowntographicallyselectmultipleobjects
NextBehind – Toselectanobjectlocatedbehindanotherobject,selectthefrontobject,presstheb keytoget
thenextbehind.Note:Themousepointermustbelocatedsuchthatthenextbehindobjectisunderthe
mousepointer.
ToDisable:Selectthemenuitem Tools>Options>ModelerOptions
FromtheDisplayTab,uncheckHighlightselectiondynamically
Selected
DynamicallyHighlighted
(Onlyframeofobject)
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-54
Overview
Presentation
1
Modeler– MovingAround
Modeler>SnapModetosetthesnaps
Tools>Customize…
SnapModetoviewSnapModetoolbar
Toolbar: SnapMode
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-55
Overview
Presentation
1
Modeler– CoordinateSystems
CanbeParameterized
WorkingCoordinateSystem
CurrentlyselectedCS.ThiscanbealocalorglobalCS
GlobalCS
Thedefaultfixedcoordinatesystem
Relative CS
Userdefinedlocalcoordinatesystem.
Offset
Rotated
Both
Face CS (settingavailabletoautomaticallyswitchtofacecoordinatesystemintheModelerOptions)
Toolbar: CoordinateSystem
Step1:SelectFace
Step2:SelectOrigin
Step3:SetX-Axis
NewWorkingCS
ChangeBoxSizeandConeis
automaticallypositionedwith
thetopfaceofthebox
ConecreatedwithFaceCS
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-56
Overview
Presentation
1
2DMeasure
Modeler>Measure>
Position – Location,Distance,andArea
Edge – EdgeLength
Face – SurfaceArea
Object – SurfaceArea,ObjectVolume
PositionPoints
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-57
Overview
Presentation
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Options– General
Tools>Options>GeneralOptions>ProjectOptions
TempDirectory – Locationusedduringsolutionprocess
Makesureithasatleast512MBfreedisk.
Options- Maxwell
Tools>Options>MaxwellOptions>Solver
SetNumberofProcessors=2for1dual-coreprocessor
ortwosingle-coreprocessors.Requiresadditional
license
DefaultProcessPriority– setthesimulationpriorityfrom
Critical
(highest)toIdle(lowest)
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-58
Overview
Presentation
1
Options– ModelerOptions
Tools>Options>ModelerOptions>DrawingforPointandDialogEntryModes
CanenterinnewdimensionsusingeitherPoint(mouse)orDialog entrymode
AlternativelyuseF3andF4toswitchbetweenPointandDialogentrymodes
Tools>Options>ModelerOptions>Display tabtoenableplayback
Mustcloseandre-openMaxwellaftermakingchangeforthissetting,toactivate
Visualizationisseenbyclickingonprimatives inthehistorytree(undersubtractcommand,forinstance)
Typical “Dialog”
entry mode
window
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-59
Overview
Presentation
1
ConvertingOlderMaxwellProjects(pre-Maxwellv12)toMaxwellv12
FromMaxwellv11andolder,
1. SelectthemenuitemFile>Open
2. Opendialog
1. FilesofType:AnsoftLegacyEMProjects(.cls)
2. Browsetotheexistingprojectandselectthe.cls file
3. ClicktheOpen button
WhatisConverted?
ConvertsEntireModel:Geometry,Materials,Boundaries,
SourcesandSetup
Solutions,Optimetrics projectsandMacrosarenotconverted
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-60
Overview
Presentation
1
MaterialSetup- Libraries
3-Tierlibrarystructure
System(global)level– predefinedfromAnsoftandshipswithnewupgrades,userscannot
modifythis
UserLibrary– tobesharedamongseveralusersatacompany(canbeencrypted)
Personallibraries- tobeusedonlybysingleuser(canbeencrypted)
Addanewmaterial:Tools>EditConfiguredLibraries>Materials
NewInterfaceforMaterialsSettingsharedwithRMxprt
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-61
Overview
Presentation
1
Click“AddMaterial…”.TheMaterialisonlyavailableinProject
Toaddamaterialintheuserorpersonallibrary:clickon“ExportLibrary” andsaveitinthedesire
library.
Inthemainprojectwindow,clickonTools>ConfiguredLibraries.Locatethelibrarytohavethe
materialavailableforalltheprojects.
ClickonSaveasdefault toautomaticallyloadlibraryforanynewproject.
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-62
Overview
Presentation
1
MaterialsSetup- Editing
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-63
Overview
Presentation
1
MaterialSetup– BHcurve
RobustBHcurveentry– candeletepointsifyoumakeamistake
Canimportdatafromafile
ToexportBHcurveforuseinfuture,right-mouse-clickoncurveandselectExporttoFile…
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-64
Overview
Presentation
1
MaterialSetup- PermanentMagnets
Directionofmagnetizationdeterminedby
material’sobject’sOrientationand Magnetic
Coercivity UnitVectors.
TomodifytheOrientation,opentheAttributefor
theobjectandchangethecoordinatesystem.The
default Orientation forpermanentmagnetsis
GlobalCS.
TomodifytheMagneticCoercivity UnitVectors for
apermanentmagnetmaterial,entertheMaterials
Libraryandeditthematerial.
Thematerialcoordinatesystemtypecanbe
describedinCartesian,Cylindrical,Spherical
Themagneticcoercivity hasunitvectors
correspondingtothechosencoordinatesystem:for
instanceX,Y,Zforcartesian.
Torotateamagnetinaparametricsimulationand
themagnetizationdirection,youmustfirstrotate
theobjectandsecondassigntheFaceCS,as
shownbelowinthehistorytree
1. Rotate
2. Create FaceCS
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-65
Overview
Presentation
1
MaterialSetup- AnisotropicMaterialProperties
ε
1
,u
1
,andσ
1
aretensorsintheXdirection.
ε
2
,u
2
,andσ
2
aretensorsintheYdirection.
ε
3
,u
3
,andσ3aretensorsintheZdirection.
Note:NonlinearanisotropicpermeabilitynotallowedinMaxwell2D.
| | | | | |

=

=

=
3
2
1
3
2
1
3
2
1
0 0
0 0
0 0
,
0 0
0 0
0 0
,
0 0
0 0
0 0
σ
σ
σ
σ
u
u
u
u
ε
ε
ε
ε
yes
yes
yes
no
no
no
Anisotropic
Permeability
no
no
no
yes
no
yes
Anisotropic
Permitivity
no
no
no
no
no
no
DielectricLoss
Tangent
no no Transient
no no EddyCurrent
no no Magnetostatic
no yes ACConduction
no yes DCConduction
no no Electrostatic
MagneticLoss
Tangent
Anisotropic
Conductivity
Solver
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-66
Overview
Presentation
1
Planesofsymmetryin
periodicstructureswhereE is
obliquetotheboundary.
TheE-fieldontheslaveboundaryisforcedtomatchthemagnitude
anddirection(orthenegativeofthedirection)oftheE-fieldonthe
masterboundary.
Matching
(Master and
Slave)
Usethisboundarycondition
whentheresistivelayer’s
thicknessismuchsmaller
thantheotherdimensionsof
themodel.
Aresistanceboundarymodelsaverythinlayerofresistivematerial
(suchasthatcausedbydeposits,coatingsoroxidationona
metallicsurface)onaconductorataknownpotential.
Resistance
(DCconduction
solveronly)
Groundatinfinity Fieldbehavessothatvoltagecanfringe Balloon
BoundaryType E-FieldBehavior Usedtomodel…
Default
Boundary
Conditions
(Natural and
Neumann)
Fieldbehavesasfollows:
Natural boundaries— ThenormalcomponentofD changesby
theamountofsurfacechargedensity.Nospecialconditionsare
imposed.
Neumann boundaries— E istangentialtotheboundary.Flux
cannotcrossaNeumannboundary.
OrdinaryE-fieldbehavioron
boundaries.Objectinterfaces
areinitiallysettonatural
boundaries;outerboundaries
areinitiallysettoNeumann
boundaries.
Symmetry Fieldbehavesasfollows:
EvenSymmetry (FluxTangential)— E istangentialtothe
boundary;itsnormalcomponentsarezero.
OddSymmetry (FluxNormal)— E isnormaltotheboundary;its
tangentialcomponentsarezero.
Planesofgeometricand
electricalsymmetry.
ElectricFieldBoundaryConditions(Electrostatic,DCConduction,ACConduction)
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-67
Overview
Presentation
1
Nofringingatinfinity Fieldbehavessothatmagneticfluxcanfringe Balloon
BoundaryType H-FieldBehavior Usedtomodel…
DefaultBoundary
Conditions(Natural
andNeumann)
Fieldbehavesasfollows:
Natural boundaries— H iscontinuousacrosstheboundary.
Neumann boundaries— H istangentialtotheboundary
andfluxcannotcrossit.
Ordinaryfieldbehavior.Initially,
objectinterfacesarenatural
boundaries;outerboundariesand
excludedobjectsareNeumann
boundaries.
MagneticVector
Potential
Setsthemagneticvectorpotentialontheboundary.
Note:IntheMagnetostatic solver,AisRMSwhileintheEddy
Currentsolver,Aispeak.
Magneticallyisolatedstructures.
Symmetry Fieldbehavesasfollows:
Odd Symmetry(FluxTangential)— H istangentialtothe
boundary;itsnormalcomponentsarezero.
Even Symmetry(FluxNormal)— H isnormaltothe
boundary;itstangentialcomponentsarezero.
Planesofgeometricandmagnetic
symmetry.
Impedance
(EddyCurrentonly)
Includestheeffectofinducedcurrentsbeyondtheboundary
surface.
Conductorswithverysmallskin
depths.
Matching(Master
andSlave)
TheH-fieldontheslaveboundaryisforcedtomatchthe
magnitudeanddirection(orthenegativeofthedirection)of
theH-fieldonthemasterboundary.
Planesofsymmetryinperiodic
structureswhereH isobliquetothe
boundary.
MagneticFieldBoundaryConditions(Magnetostatic,EddyCurrent,Transient)
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-68
Overview
Presentation
1
Thechargedensityinanobject. ChargeDensity
Notes:
IntheElectrostaticsolver,anyconductorwithoutasourceconditionwillbe
assumedtobefloating.
Source TypeofExcitation
Floating
Conductor
Usedtomodelconductorsatunknownpotentials.
Voltage TheDCvoltageonasurfaceorobject.
Charge Thetotalchargeonasurfaceorobject(eitheraconductoror
dielectric).
ElectricFieldSources(Electrostatic,DCConduction,ACConduction)
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-69
Overview
Presentation
1
Thecurrentdensityinaconductor. CurrentDensity
Source TypeofExcitation
Current Thetotalcurrentinaconductor.
Notes:
IntheMagnetostatic solver,currentisRMSampturns.
PermanentmagnetswillalsoactasasourceintheMagnetostatic solver.
MagneticFieldSources(Magnetostatic)
MagneticFieldSources(EddyCurrent)
Thecurrentdensityinaconductor. CurrentDensity
Source TypeofExcitation
Current Thetotalcurrentinaconductor.
ParallelCurrent Thetotalcurrentinaagroupofparallelconductors.
Notes:
IntheEddyCurrentsolver,currentispeakamp-turns.
Sourcescanbesolid(witheddyeffects)orstranded(withouteddyeffects).
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-70
Overview
Presentation
1
Currentorvoltageonawinding
representing1ormoreturns
Coil
Source TypeofExcitation
Current Thetotalcurrentinaconductor.
CurrentDensity Thecurrentdensityinaconductor.
Permanentmagnetswillalsoactasasourceinthe
Transientsolver.
MagneticFieldSources(Transient)
Currentandvoltagesources(solidorstranded)canbeconstantorfunctionsofintrinsic
variables:speed(rpmordeg/sec),position(degrees),ortime(seconds)
Datasetfunctioncanbeusedforpiecewiselinearfunctions:Pwl_periodic (ds1,Time)
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-71
Overview
Presentation
1
MagneticFieldSources(Transient)
Maxwell2D>Excitation>Current
Value:appliescurrentinamps
Type:
Solid
forwindingshavingasingle
conductor/turn
eddyeffectsareconsidered
Stranded
forwindingshavingmany
conductors/turns
eddyeffectsarenot considered
RefDirection:
PositiveorNegative
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-72
Overview
Presentation
1
MagneticFieldSources(Transient)
Maxwell2D>Excitation>AddWinding
Current– appliescurrentinamps
SolidorStranded
Inputcurrentandnumberofparallelbranchesas
seenfromterminal
Voltage– appliesvoltage(totalvoltagedropoverthe
lengthofasolidconductorortheentirewinding)
SolidorStranded
Inputinitialcurrent,windingresistance,extra
seriesinductancenotconsideredinFEAmodel,
voltage,andnumberofparallelbranchesasseen
fromterminal
External– couplestoMaxwellCircuitEditor
SolidorStranded
Inputinitialcurrentandnumberofparallel
branches
Maxwell2D>Excitation>Assign>Coil
Pickaconductoronthescreenandthenspecify:
Name
NumberofConductors
Polarity:positive,negative,orfunctionalwinding
direction
Note:WindingsintheXYsolverwillusuallyhave2coils:one
positiveandonenegativepolarity.Bothcoilswillbe
addedtotheappropriatewindingbyright-mouseclicking
onCoil intheprojecttreeandchoosingAddtoWinding
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-73
Overview
Presentation
1
ToCreateanExternalCircuit
1. Select:Maxwell2D>Excitations>ExternalCircuit>EditExternalCircuit>ImportCircuit
2. Aftercircuiteditoropens,addelementstoconstructthecircuit.Notethatthenameofthe
Windinginthecircuit(Winding1)mustmatchthenameoftheWindinginMaxwell(Winding1)
3. Savecircuitas*.amcp fileandthenMaxwellCircuit>ExportNetlist >*.sph file.
0
LWinding1
5.3ohm
LabelID=R3
-
+
Model
V
switch2
V
S_sw2
D
6
4
Model
d1
Model
I
switch1
I
W_sw1
L
a
b
e
l
I
D
=
V
I
1
Note:
The dot on the winding
symbol is used as the
positive reference for
the current (positive
current is oriented
from the "dotted"
terminal towards to
"un-dotted" terminal
of the winding as it
passes through the
winding).
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-74
Overview
Presentation
1
Maxwell2D>Excitation>SetEddyEffects
Needtoenablethecalculationofeddyeffectsinobjects
Maxwell2D>Excitation>SetCoreLoss
Forobjectswithzeroconductivity(suchasalaminatedcore),
youcancalculatethecoreloss
Notethatthecorelosscoefficientsmustbedefinedinthe
materialsetup
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-75
Overview
Presentation
1
CoreLossCalculationMethod
Thecorelossforelectricalsteelisbasedon:
where:
Kh isthehysteresis coefficient.
Kc istheclassicaleddycoefficient.
Ke istheexcessoranomalouseddycurrentcoefficientduetomagneticdomains.
Bmax themaximumamplitudeofthefluxdensity.
fisthefrequency.
Thepowerferritecorelossisbasedon:
where:
Cmisconstantvaluedeterminedbyexperiment.
fx isthefrequency.
Bymax isthemaximumamplitudeofthefluxdensity
( ) ( )
5 . 1
max
2
max
2
max
f B K f B K f B K p
e c h
+ + =
y x
m
B f C p
max
=
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-76
Overview
Presentation
1
Maxwell2D>DesignSettings
TheDesignSettingswindowallowsyoutospecifyhowthesimulatorwilldealwithsome
aspectsofthedesign.Tabsvarybysolverused(thepanelbelow isforthetransient
solver)
SettheSymmetryMultiplier(ForTransientXYSolutionsonly).
SettheMaterialThresholdfortreatingmaterialsasconductorsvs.insulators.
SetPreserveTransientSolutionoptions(ForTransientSolutions Only).
SettransientcouplingwithSimplorer ontheAdvancedProductCouplingtab(For
TransientSolutionsOnly)
SettheModelDepth(Maxwell2DXYTransientDesignsOnly).
SetthedefaultBackgroundmaterial(Maxwell2DDesignsOnly).
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-77
Overview
Presentation
1
Maxwell2D>Parameters
Allowstheautomaticcalculationofparametersfollowingthefieldsolution
Includes:Force,Torque,Fluxlinkage,Coreloss,andMatrix
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-78
Overview
Presentation
1
Maxwell2D>Model>MotionSetup>AssignBand
1. Definesthedirectionandtypeofmotion(translationorrotation)
2. Definesthemechanicalparameterssuchasmass,damping,andloadforce
3. Defineslimitsofmotion
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-79
Overview
Presentation
1
Magnetostatic andElectricSolutionSetup
Startthemenuofsolutionsetupby:Maxwell>AnalysisSetup>AddSolutionSetup…
ForMagnetostatic solveronSolvertab,suggestsettingnonlinearresidual=0.001.OndefaulttabchooseSave
Defaultstosetthisvalueforallfutureprojects.
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-80
Overview
Presentation
1
EddyCurrentSolutionSetup
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-81
Overview
Presentation
1
TransientSolutionSetup
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-82
Overview
Presentation
1
MeshOperations
ToassignMeshoperationstoObjects,selecttheMenuitem:Maxwell2D>AssignMeshOperations
1. OnSelectionisappliedonthesurfaceoftheobject
2. InsideSelectionisappliedthroughthevolumeoftheobject
3. Surfaceapproximationisappliedtosetfacetingguidelinesfortruesurfaceobjects
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-83
Overview
Presentation
1
1. MeshOperations“Onselection”
appliedontheperimeteroftheobject
Elementlengthbasedrefinement:LengthBased
SkinDepthbasedrefinement:SkinDepthBased
On selection – length based
On selection – skin
depth based (2 layers)
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-84
Overview
Presentation
1
2. MeshOperations“Insideselection” - appliedthroughoutthevolumeoftheobject
Elementlengthbasedrefinement:LengthBased
Inside selection – length based
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-85
Overview
Presentation
1
3. MeshOperations“SurfaceApproximation”
Fortruesurfaces,performfacetingcontrolona
face-by-facebasis
SelectMeshoperation>Assign>Surface
approximationandspecifyoneormoresettings:
Š Maximumsurfacedeviation(length)
Š MaximumSurfaceNormalDeviation
(degrees)
Š MaximumAspectRatio
ro
ri
ri
ro
o AspectRati
* 2
=
D
Θ
r
D = Maximum Surface
Deviation
Θ = Maximum Surface
Normal Deviation
)) 2 / cos( 1 ( Θ − = r D
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-86
Overview
Presentation
1
Manualmeshcreation
Tocreatetheinitialmesh:ClickMaxwell>AnalysisSetup>ApplyMeshOperations
Torefinethemeshwithoutsolving
1. Definemeshoperationsaspreviouslydiscussed
2. ClickMaxwell>AnalysisSetup>ApplyMeshOperations
3. ClickMaxwell>AnalysisSetup>ReverttoInitialMeshtorestarttotheinitialmesh
Toviewmeshinformation:ClickMaxwell>Results>SolutionDataandclickonthetab MeshStatistics
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-87
Overview
Presentation
1
MeshDisplay
1. Selectanobject
2. SelectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>Fields>PlotMesh
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-88
Overview
Presentation
1
2Dtransientmeshingforrotationalmodels
“MovingSurface” methodused
Band
Air gap
Rotor
Stator
1 2
3
4
5
6
7
1'
2'
3'
4'
5'
6' 7'
master moving surface
slave moving surface
stationary part
moving part(s)
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-89
Overview
Presentation
1
2Dtransientmeshingfortranslationalmodels
“MovingBand” methodused
Adaptivemeshingnotused,sousermustmanuallycreatethemesh orlinktoasolvedMSorEddy
design
Thebandareaisre-meshedateachtimestep
Thestationaryregionandmovingpart(s)arenotre-meshed
IfyoulinkthemeshtoasolvedMSorEddydesign:
Theentiremeshfromthelinkeddesignistransferredtothetransientdesign.
Themeshinobjectsinsideandoutsideofthebandneverchanges asmotionoccurs.
IfthestartingtransientpositionisthesameasthelinkedMSorEddydesign,thenthelinked
meshinthebandobjectisreused.
IfthestartingtransientpositionisthedifferentthanthelinkedMSorEddydesign,thenthe
linkedmeshinthebandobjectiscompletelydeleted.Thebandisthenre-meshedbasedonly
onmeshoperationsinthetransientsolver.Anymeshormeshoperationonthebandinthe
linkedMSorEddyDesignisignored.Thekeypointisthatmeshoperationsarealwaysrequired
onthebandobject(useinsideselection)forMaxwell2Dtransientdesigns.
Forsubsequentpositionsastheobject(s)moveintheband,themeshoperationsonthebandin
thetransientdesignarere-appliedateverytimestep andanewmeshiscreated.
Stationary
region
Moving part(s)
band
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-90
Overview
Presentation
1
PostProcessing
TwoMethodsofPostProcessingSolutions:
ViewingPlots
ManipulatingFieldQuantitiesinCalculator
FiveTypesofPlots:
1. Contourplots(scalars):equipotential lines,...
2. Shadeplots(scalars):Bmag,Hmag,Jmag,…
3. Arrowplots(vectors):Bvector,Hvector,…
4. Lineplots(scalars):magnitudevs.distancealongapredefinedline
5. AnimationPlots
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-91
Overview
Presentation
1
Contourplot
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-92
Overview
Presentation
1
Shadeplot(tone)
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-93
Overview
Presentation
1
Shadeplot(fringewithoutline)
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-94
Overview
Presentation
1
Arrowplot
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-95
Overview
Presentation
1
Lineplot
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-96
Overview
Presentation
1
Multiplewindowsandmultipleplots
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-97
Overview
Presentation
1
Animationplot
Varioustypesofanimatedplotsare
possible:
Animatewithrespecttophaseangle
(eddysolver)
Animatewithrespecttotime
(transientsolver)
Animatewithrespecttoposition(for
parametricanalysis)
Animatewithrespecttoshape
change(forparametricanalysis)
Exportto.gifor.avi format
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-98
Overview
Presentation
1
FieldsCalculator
TobringuptheFieldsCalculatortool
1. SelectthemenuitemMaxwell->Fields->Calculator
Typicalquantitiestoanalyze:
1. Fluxthroughasurface
2. CurrentFlowthroughasurface
3. TangentialComponentofE-fieldalongaline
4. AverageMagnitudeofB-fieldinacore
5. TotalEnergyinanobject
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-99
Overview
Presentation
1
FieldsCalculator– ExportCommand
Exportsthefieldquantityinthetopregistertoafile,mappingittoagridofpoints.Usethiscommandtosavefield
quantitiesinaformatthatcanbereadbyothermodelingorpost-processingsoftwarepackages.Twooptionsare
available:
1. Gridpointsfromfile:Mapsthefieldquantitytoacustomizedgridofpoints.Beforeusingthiscommand,you
mustcreateafilecontainingthepoints.
2. Calculategridpoints:Mapsthefieldquantitytoathree-dimensionalCartesiangrid.Youspecifythe
dimensionsandspacingofthegridinthex,y,andzdirections.
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-100
Overview
Presentation
1
ExporttoGrid
Vectordata<Ex,Ey,Ez>
Min:[000]
Max:[222]
Spacing:[111]
SpacedelimitedASCIIfilesavedin
projectsubdirectory
Vector data "<Ex,Ey,Ez>"
Grid Output Min: [0 0 0] Max: [2 2 2] Grid Size: [1 1 1
0 0 0 -71.7231 -8.07776 128.093
0 0 1 -71.3982 -1.40917 102.578
0 0 2 -65.76 -0.0539669 77.9481
0 1 0 -259.719 27.5038 117.572
0 1 1 -248.088 16.9825 93.4889
0 1 2 -236.457 6.46131 69.4059
0 2 0 -447.716 159.007 -8.6193
0 2 1 -436.085 -262.567 82.9676
0 2 2 -424.454 -236.811 58.8847
1 0 0 -8.91719 -241.276 120.392
1 0 1 -8.08368 -234.063 94.9798
1 0 2 -7.25016 -226.85 69.5673
1 1 0 -271.099 -160.493 129.203
1 1 1 -235.472 -189.125 109.571
1 1 2 -229.834 -187.77 84.9415
1 2 0 -459.095 -8.55376 2.12527
1 2 1 -447.464 -433.556 94.5987
1 2 2 -435.833 -407.8 70.5158
2 0 0 101.079 -433.897 -18.5698
2 0 1 -327.865 -426.684 95.8133
2 0 2 -290.824 -419.471 70.4008
2 1 0 -72.2234 -422.674 -9.77604
2 1 1 -495.898 -415.461 103.026
2 1 2 -458.857 -408.248 77.6138
2 2 0 -470.474 -176.115 12.8698
2 2 1 -613.582 -347.994 83.2228
2 2 2 -590.326 -339.279 63.86
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-101
Overview
Presentation
1
GettingHelp
IfyouhaveanyquestionswhileyouareusingAnsoftMaxwellyou canfindanswersinseveralways:
AnsoftMaxwellOnlineHelp providesassistancewhileyouareworking.
Togethelpaboutaspecific,activedialogbox,clicktheHelp buttoninthedialogboxorpresstheF1
key.
Selectthemenuitem Help>Contents toaccesstheonlinehelpsystem.
Tooltipsareavailabletoprovideinformationabouttoolsonthetoolbarsordialogboxes.Whenyou
holdthepointeroveratoolforabrieftime,atooltipappears todisplaythenameofthetool.
Asyoumovethepointeroveratoolorclickamenuitem,theStatusBar atthebottomoftheAnsoft
Maxwellwindowprovidesabriefdescriptionofthefunctionofthetoolormenuitem.
TheAnsoftMaxwellGettingStartedguideprovidesdetailedinformationaboutusingMaxwelltocreate
andsolve3DEMprojects.
PDFversionofhelpmanualat:../Maxwell/Maxwell12/help/maxwell_onlinehelp.pdf forprinting.
AnsoftTechnicalSupport
TocontactAnsofttechnicalsupportstaffinyourgeographicalarea,pleaselogontotheAnsoft
corporatewebsite,www.ansoft.com andselectContact.
YourAnsoftsalesengineermayalsobecontactedinordertoobtainthisinformation.
VisitingtheAnsoftWebSite
IfyourcomputerisconnectedtotheInternet,youcanvisitthe AnsoftWebsitetolearnmoreabouttheAnsoft
companyandproducts.
FromtheAnsoftDesktop
Selectthemenuitem Help>AnsoftCorporateWebsite toaccesstheOnlineTechnicalSupport(OTS)
system.
FromyourInternetbrowser
Visitwww.ansoft.com
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-102
Overview
Presentation
1
WebUpdate
ThisnewfeatureallowsyoutoupdateanyexistingAnsoftsoftwarefromtheWebUpdate window.Thisfeature
automaticallyscansyoursystemtofindanyAnsoftsoftware,and thenallowsyoutodownloadanyupdatesifthey
areavailable.
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12– TrainingSeminar P1-103
Overview
Presentation
1
ForTechnicalSupport
ThefollowinglinkwilldirectyoutotheAnsoftSupportPage.TheAnsoftSupportPagesprovideadditional
documentation,training,andapplicationnotes.WebSite:http://www.ansoft.com/support.cfm
ApplicationSupportforNorthAmerica
Thenamesandnumbersinthislistmaychangewithoutnotice
TechnicalSupport:
9-4EST:
Pittsburgh,PA
(412)261-3200x0– AskforTechnicalSupport
Burlington,MA
(781)229-8900x0– AskforTechnicalSupport
9-4PST:
SanJose,CA
(408)261-9095x0– AskforTechnicalSupport
Portland,OR
(503)906-7944or(503)906-7947
ElSegundo,CA
(310)426-2287– AskforTechnicalSupport
Optimetrics
What is Optimetrics ?
¾ Optimetrics enables engineers to determine the best design variation
among a model's possible variations.
¾ Create the original model, the nominal design, and then define design
parameters that vary
¾ Optimetrics includes five unique capabilities:
1. Parametrics: Define one or more variable sweep definitions, each specifying a series of variable
values within a range. Easily view and compare the results using plot or table to determine how each
design variation affects the performance of the design.
2. Optimization: Identify the cost function and the optimization goal. Optimetrics automatically changes
the design parameter(s) to meet the goal. The cost function can be based on any solution quantity
that can be computes, such as field values, R,L,C force, torque, volume or weight.
3. Sensitivity: Determine the sensitivity of the design to small changes in variables in the vicinity of a
design point. Outputs include: Regression value at the current variable value, First derivative of the
regression, Second derivative of the regression
4. Tuning: Variable values are changed interactively and the performance of the design is monitored.
Useful after performing an optimization in which Optimetrics has determined an optimal variable
value, and you want to fine tune the value to see how the design results are affected.
5. Statistical: shows the distribution (Histogram) of a design output like force, torque or loss caused by
a statistical variation (Monte Carlo) of input variables.
Five Unique Optimizers
1. Quasi Newton - This optimizer approximates the gradient of a user-defined cost function in its search for
the minimum location of the cost function. This gradient approximation is only accurate enough if there is
little noise involved in the cost function calculation. The cost function calculation involves FEA, which
possesses finite accuracy.
2. Pattern Search - This optimizer performs a grid-based simplex search, which makes use of simplices:
triangles in 2D space or tetrahedra in 3D space. The cost value is calculated at the vertices of the simplex.
The optimizer mirrors the simplex across one of its faces based on mathematical guidelines and determines
if the new simplex provides better results. If it does not produce a better result, the next face is used for
mirroring and the pattern continues. If no improvement occurs, the grid is refined. If improvement occurs,
the step is accepted and the new simplex is generated to replace the original one. Pattern Search
algorithms are less sensitive to noise.
3. Sequential Nonlinear Programming - The main advantage of SNLP over quasi Newton is that it handles
the optimization problem in more depth. This optimizer assumes that the optimization variables span a
continuous space. [Note: this is better for optimizations with only a few variables]
4. Sequential Mixed Integer NonLinear Programming - To be able to optimize on number of turns or
quarter turns, the optimizer must handle discrete optimization variables. The SMINLP optimizer can mix
continuous variables among the integers, or can have only integers, and works if all variables are
continuous. [Note: this is used for optimizations where some variables must be integers such as wire gauge
size and is better for optimizations having only a few variables]
5. Genetic Algorithm - The Genetic Algorithm (GA) search is an iterative process that goes through a number
of generations (see picture below). In each generation some new individuals (Children / Number of
Individuals) are created and the so grown population participates in a selection (natural-selection) process
that in turn reduces the size of the population to a desired level (Next Generation / Number of Individuals).
[Note: this is better for optimizations having many variables]
Optimetrics Module (cont.)
Š Distributed Parametrics and Optimization
Š Seamless setup
Š Integrated with force,
torque, matrix
Š Complete support of
Transient solution
Optimetrics Module (cont.)
Integrated with external circuit
Optimize on ‘voltage’
in Maxwell
Setup variables in
Maxwell Circuit Editor
Optimetrics Example
Š Optimization of a starter-alternator pack
Š The pack contains a motor used also as alternator
Š Three-phase claw pole motor
Š Permanent Magnets are added between teeth
Optimization of the Geometry
Want to see the influence on the output torque
Tooth angle Magnet thickness Magnet length
Results
Š Transient analysis run for the optimized design
Š Initial Peak torque: 63.40 Nm
Š Optimized Peak Torque: 67.42 Nm
Initial Optimized
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
Maxwell 2D v12
6.0- 1
Chapter6.0
Chapter6.0– EddyCurrentExamples
6.1– JumpingRingsAxisymmetric Model
6.2– InstantaneousForcesonBusbars
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
6.1
EddyCurrent– ApplicationNote
6.1- 1
Maxwell 2D v12
Introduction
Thisexampleinvestigatestheclassical“jumpingrings” experimentusinga
2Daxisymmetric eddycurrentmodel.Threeringsarestackedontopof
eachotheraroundacommonaxis.Thebottomringprovidesa10kHz
excitationthatinduceseddycurrentsandlossesintheothertworings.
Theseringsarerepelledfromring1andcanbesuspendedbythemagnetic
fieldasthecurrentinring1isincreased.
Themodelconsistsofthreesolidcopperrings.Thebottomring1hasapeak
currentof1A,whilering2andring3havenoexcitationandareopen-
circuited.Theopen-circuitconditionissimulatedbyconstrainingthetotal
currenttozero.Aphysicallayoutoftheactualdeviceisshown in:
Aftertheproblemissolved,youcandothefollowing:
Viewtheimpedancematrix.
Calculatethepowerlossusingtwoindependentmethods,and
compareittothelossintheconvergencetable.
Calculatetheinducedvoltage(V2’)acrosstheopenendsofring2.
Theanalysisincludesallskinandproximityeffectsinthecalculationofthe
impedancematrix,powerlosses,andvoltage.
SetuptheDesign
ClickonthemenuitemProject>InsertMaxwell2DDesign
ClickonthemenuitemMaxwell2D>SolutionType...
SetGeometryMode:CylindricalaboutZ
SelecttheradiobuttonMagnetic:EddyCurrent
open points
in rings
I
1
ring3
ring2
ring1
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
6.1
EddyCurrent– ApplicationNote
6.1- 2
Maxwell 2D v12
SpecifytheDrawingUnits
ClickonModeler>Units>Selectunits:cm
DrawtheSolutionRegion
ClickonDraw>Rectangle(Enterthefollowingpointsusingthetabkey).
X:0,Y:0,Z:-10
dX:20,dY:0,dZ:20
Changeitsproperties:
Name:Region
Transparency: 0.9
SelectView>Fitall >ActiveView toresizethedrawingwindow.
Selectwireframeviewbyselecting:View>Render>WireFrame.
CreatetheModel
Themodelconsistsofthreedonut-shapedrings.Across-sectionofthemodelis
shownbelow.Thisisa2-dimensionalaxisymmetric drawing;anaxisymmetric
modelisrotated360° aroundthez-axis(displayedasthev-axisinthedrawing).
Tocreatethecross-sectionoftherings:
Drawacirclenamedring1withacenterat(1,0),aradiusof0.1cm,36
segments,coloredred.
Drawacirclenamedring2withacenterat(1,0.5),aradiusof0.1cm,36
segments,coloredgreen.
Drawacirclenamedring3withacenterat(1,0.8),aradiusof0.1cm,36
segments,coloredyellow.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
6.1
EddyCurrent– ApplicationNote
6.1- 3
Maxwell 2D v12
DrawtheRings
ClickonDraw>RegularPolygon
X:1,Y:0,Z:0
dX:0.1,dY:0,dZ:0
Segments: 36
Changeitsproperties:
Name:ring1
Material:Copper
Color:Red
ClickonDraw>RegularPolygon
X:1,Y:0,Z:0.5
dX:0.1,dY:0,dZ:0
Segments: 36
Changeitsproperties:
Name:ring2
Material:Copper
Color:Green
ClickonDraw>RegularPolygon
X:1,Y:0,Z:0.8
dX:0.1,dY:0,dZ:0
Segments: 36
Changeitsproperties:
Name:ring3
Material:Copper
Color:Yellow
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
6.1
EddyCurrent– ApplicationNote
6.1- 4
Maxwell 2D v12
AssigntheSources
Acurrentof1Awillbeassignedtothering1while0Awillbeassignedtobothring2
andring3.Thisforcesthetotalcurrentflowaroundtheserings tobezeroin
ordertomodelthe“open-circuit” condition.
Selectring1fromthehistorytree.
ClickonMaxwell2D>Excitations>Assign>Current
Name:Current1
Value:1A
Type: Solid
Selectring2fromthehistorytree.
ClickonMaxwell2D>Excitations>Assign>Current
Name:Current2
Value:0A
Type: Solid
Selectring3fromthehistorytree.
ClickonMaxwell2D>Excitations>Assign>Current
Name:Current3
Value:0A
Type: Solid
Note:ChoosingSolidspecifiesthattheeddyeffectsinthecoilwillbe
considered.Ontheotherhand,ifStranded hadbeenchosen,onlytheDC
resistancewouldhavebeencalculatedandnoACeffectsinthecoilwouldhave
beenconsidered.
AssigntheOuterBoundary
Theboundarymustbesetonthesolutionregion.
ChooseEdit>Select>Edges tochangetheselectionmodefromobjectto
edge.
WhileholdingdowntheCTRL key,choosethethreeouteredgesoftheregion.
ClickonMaxwell2D>Boundaries>Assign>Balloon
Whendone,chooseEdit>Select>Objecttoobjectselectionmode.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
6.1
EddyCurrent– ApplicationNote
6.1- 5
Maxwell 2D v12
AssigntheParameters
Inthisexample,thecompete[3x3]impedancematrixwillbecalculated.Thisis
donebysettingaparameter.
ClickonMaxwell2D>Parameters>Assign>Matrix
Checkeachofthethreesources:Current1,Current2,Current3
ComputetheSkinDepth
Skindepthisameasureofhowcurrentdensityconcentratesatthesurfaceofa
conductorcarryinganalternatingcurrent.Itisafunctionofthepermeability,
conductivityandfrequency
Skindepthinmetersisdefinedasfollows:
where:
ω istheangularfrequency,whichisequalto2πf.(fisthesource
frequencywhichinthiscaseis10000Hz).
σ istheconductor’sconductivity;forcopperits5.8e7S/m
µ
r
istheconductor’srelativepermeability;forcopperits1
µ
ο
isthepermeabilityoffreespace,whichisequalto4π×10
-7
A/m.
Forthecoppercoils,theskindepthisapproximately0.066cmwhichlessthan
thediameterof0.200cmfortheconductors.
σ µ ωµ
δ
r o
2
=
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
6.1
EddyCurrent– ApplicationNote
6.1- 6
Maxwell 2D v12
AddanAnalysisSetup
ClickRightonAnalysis intheModelTreeandselectAddSolutionSetup
OntheGeneral tab,re-setthePercentErrorto 0.01
OntheSolver tab,re-settheAdaptiveFrequencyto10kHz
AddMeshOperations
Inordertoaccuratelycomputethemutualresistancetermsintheimpedance
matrix,auniformmeshisneededinallconductors.
SelectallthreecoilsinthehistorytreeandthenMaxwell2D>Mesh
Operations>Assign>InsideSelection>LengthBased.
Name:Coils_Inside
RestrictLengthOfElements:Uncheck
RestrictNumberofElements:; Check
MaximumNumberofElements:1000
Notethatbychoosing“InsideSelection” insteadof“OnSelection”,themesh
operationisappliedevenlythroughtheareaoftheconductorsasopposedto
beingappliedonlyontheouterperimeteroftheconductor.
Meshoperation
“OnSelection”
Meshoperation
“InsideSelection”
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
6.1
EddyCurrent– ApplicationNote
6.1- 7
Maxwell 2D v12
SolvetheProblem
SavetheprojectbyclickingonmenuitemFile>SaveAs
SelectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>ValidationCheck toverifyproblemsetup
ClickonMaxwell2D>AnalyzeAll
ViewtheSolutionData
SelectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>Results>SolutionData
ClickontheConvergence tabtoviewtheadaptiverefinement.
Notethetotallossisapproximately0.0002003W.
ClickontheMeshStatistics tabtoviewtherefinedmesh.
ClickontheMatrixtabtodisplaythe3x3impedancematrix.Bydefault,the
resultsaredisplayedas[R,Z]butcanbealsoshownas[R,L]orascoupling
coefficients.










33 33 32 32 31 31
23 23 22 22 21 21
13 13 12 12 11 11
, , ,
, , ,
, , ,
L R L R L R
L R L R L R
L R L R L R
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
6.1
EddyCurrent– ApplicationNote
6.1- 8
Maxwell 2D v12
Thediagonalresistancetermsrepresenttheself-resistanceofeachcoildue
totheDCcomponentandskineffects,aswellastheproximityeffectsinall
otherconductors.Theoff-diagonalresistancetermsresultfromproximity
effectcurrentsinducedinonecoilduetoexcitationintheothercoil.
Thediagonalinductancetermsrepresenttheself-inductanceofeachcoil,
whiletheoff-diagonaltermsrepresentthemutualinductancedueto
coupling.
Thematrixresultsshouldcloselyresembletheresultsshowninthefollowing
matrix.ThenegativeresistanceR13meansthatthecurrentinring1 induces
acurrentinring3,whichactuallyreducestheACresistanceofring3:
ThediagonaltermR11ismadeupofthefollowingresistivecomponentsdue
toring1,ring2,and ring3.(Thering1DCresistanceisobtainedbyrunninga
separatesimulationa0.1Hz.TheR11termaswellasring2andring3
proximitytermsaretakenfromthematrixabove.Finally,Thering1skin
effecttermiscalculatedasthedifferencebetweenofalloftheseterms.)
ring1DCresistance =3.458e-004
ring1skineffect =4.446e-005
ring2proximityeffectfromI1 =1.710e-005
ring3proximityeffectfromI1 =–6.963e-006
R11 =4.004e-004ohms
Inthisexample,witha1Apeakcurrentinring1,andwithbothring2 and
ring3open-circuited,thetotalpowerlosscanbecalculatedbyhand
fromtheimpedancematrixusingthefollowingformula:
P=½*I2peakR11 =½*12*4.006e–4=2.003e–4(Watts)
ThisvaluealsocorrespondstotheTotalPowerLoss intheconvergence
table.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
6.1
EddyCurrent– ApplicationNote
6.1- 9
Maxwell 2D v12
PlottheMesh
SelectallobjectsandclickonMaxwell2D>Fields>PlotMeshandzoomin.
Whendone,hidetheplotbyselectingView>ActiveViewVisibility>Fields
Reporter andunchecking theMesh1 plot.
ViewtheResults
Nowthatyouhavegeneratedasolution,youcananalyzetheresults.
Specifically,whatyouwanttocalculateanddisplayare:
Thetotalpowerloss,totalcurrentflow,androtationalcurrent flowinthe
rings.
Fluxlinesplot.
Currentdensityplotforring2andring3.
Animatedcurrentdensityvectorplot.
Inducedvoltage(V2‘)acrosstheopen-circuitpointinring2.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
6.1
EddyCurrent– ApplicationNote
6.1- 10
Maxwell 2D v12
ComputeTotalPowerLossintheCoils
SelectallthreecoilsinthehistorytreeandthenModeler>List>Create>
ObjectList .‘Objectlist1’ appearsunder‘List’ intheHistoryTree.
ClickonMaxwell2D>Fields>Calculator andthenperformthefollowing:
Quantity>OhmicLoss
Geometry>Volume>Objectlist1>OK
Integral>RZ
Eval ...Evaluate
TheevaluatedlossintheCoils shouldbeabout:2.003e-004(W). Thisvalue
isequaltothepowercalculatedbyhandfromR11intheimpedancematrix.
Click Done.
PlotFluxLines
Selectallobjects
ClickonMaxwell2D>Fields>Fields >A>FluxLines>Done
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
6.1
EddyCurrent– ApplicationNote
6.1- 11
Maxwell 2D v12
Verifythetotalcurrentflowingaroundeachoftherings
ClickonMaxwell2D>Fields>Calculator andthenperformthefollowing:
Quantity>J>ScalarPhi
Complex>Real
Geometry>Surface>ring1>OK
Integral>XY(NotethisisasurfaceintegralofJdotdA)
Eval ...Evaluate
Notethatthecurrentinring1iscloseto1A.Repeatingthese stepsforring2
andring3yieldsanetcurrent~0A,whichrepresentsanopen-circuitedring.
Click Done.
Calculatetherotatingcurrentintheopenrings
Althoughthenetcurrentflowinring2andring3iszero,thereisasmall
rotatingcurrentflowingdownonesideandbackontheoppositeofeach
openring.TakingtheabsolutevalueofJwillreturntwotimesthecurrent
flowingintheopenrings.
ClickonMaxwell2D>Fields>Calculator andthenperformthefollowing:
Quantity>J>ScalarPhi
Complex>Real
Abs
Geometry>Surface>ring1>OK
Integral>XY
Eval ...Evaluate
Themagnitudeofthetotalcurrentinring1isdisplayed.Notethatthecurrent
inring1iscloseto1A.Nowrepeattheaboveprocedureforrings2and3,
yieldingcurrentsof0.087and0.048A.Thecurrentflowingalongeachside
ofring2isa“rotational” eddycurrentequalto½ *0.087=0.044A.Forring3,
thecurrentflowingalongeachsideofis½ *0.048=0.024A.Thiscurrent
flowsinoppositedirectionsoneithersideofring2andring3unlikethe
currentflowinring1,whichisonlyinonedirection.
Click Done.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
6.1
EddyCurrent– ApplicationNote
6.1- 12
Maxwell 2D v12
Plotthecurrentdensity
HidetheRegion byselectingView>ActiveViewVisibility andunchecking
Region.
SelectObjectList1 inthehistorytree.
ClickonMaxwell2D>Fields>Fields >J>JatPhase >Done
Modifythescaleoftheplottoobservethecurrentdensityinring2andring3
byselecting:ClickonMaxwell2D>Fields>ModifyPlotAttributes>J>Ok
OntheScaletab,selectUseLimits andsetMin:-53000 andMax:53000
ClickonApply andClose.
Note:Onring1,theskin
effectcauseshigher
currentdensityonthe
surface.Currentdensity
ishighertowardstheaxis
ofsymmetryduetothe
DCspirality effect.
Note:Onring2and
ring3,therotational
eddycurrentscause
positiveandnegative
currentdensity.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
6.1
EddyCurrent– ApplicationNote
6.1- 13
Maxwell 2D v12
Plotthecurrentdensityvectorandanimate
Hidethepreviousplotsbyselecting:View>ActiveViewVisibility>Fields
Reporter
RotatetheviewbyholdingdownALTandthen leftmousedrag.
SelectObjectlist1
ClickonMaxwell2D>Fields>Fields >J>J_Vector >Done
Aftertheplotisdisplayed,doubleleftclickingonthelegendselectthePlots
tab.
Chooseplot:J_Vector1 andchangetheVectorplotspacingto:Min =0.02
andMax =0.02.
SelecttheMarker/Arrow tabandreducethesizeofthearrowsbyslidingthe
size“slider” totheleft.
SelecttheScale tabandsettoAuto.
IntheProjectWindow,rightclickonJ_Vector1andclickAnimate>OK.
ClickonExporttosavetheanimationasa.gifor.avi moviefile.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
6.1
EddyCurrent– ApplicationNote
6.1- 14
Maxwell 2D v12
Calculatetheopencircuitvoltageonring2andring3
Calculatethevoltage(V2‘)inducedacrosstheopen-circuitpointinring2.
Thisvoltageisthenegativeofthevoltagethatisrequiredtoensurethatthe
totalcurrentflowaroundring2iszero.Itcanbecalculatedby handfromthe
impedancematrixusingthefollowingformula:
Theopencircuitvoltage(V2‘)canalsobecalculatedbyintegratingthe
averageelectricfieldinring2arounditscircumferenceusingthefollowing
formula,whereE=– jωA,ω =2pi(10000),andarea=3.1257e-6:
peak) (V 91.4º 6.851e
j6.849e .722e 1
) 1.090e * 10000 * 2 j (1.722e * 1
) 1.090e j (1.722e *
*
4 -
4 - 5 -
8 - 5 -
8 - 5 -
1
12 1
'
2
∠ =
− − =
+ − =
+ − =
− =
π
ω I
Z I V
) ( 85 . 6
1257 . 3
10000 * * 2
1
1
4
6
'
2
Vpeak e
V d A j
e
V d A j
area
V d E
area
L d E V
RZ
RZ
RZ


=
• − =
• − =
• =
• =




π
ω
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
6.1
EddyCurrent– ApplicationNote
6.1- 15
Maxwell 2D v12
Calculatethecomplexmagnitudeofthevoltage
Tocalculatethecomplexmagnitudeofthevoltageusingtheplanecalculator,
chooseData/Calculator,thenselect:
Quantity>A
Scalar>ScalarPhi
Complex>CmplxMag,sinceA_vector isacomplexnumber,theCmplxMag
includesbothrealandimaginarycomponents.Notethatthecomplex
magnitudeisequalto:
Tomultiplybyw;select:
Number>Scalar>2>Ok
Function>Freq>Ok
Constant>Pi
*
*
*
Todividebyarea;select:
Number>Scalar>1>Ok
Geometry>Surface:ring2>Ok
Integral>XY>Eval
Exchange>Pop
/
Finally,doanRZintegrationtodeterminethevoltageacrosstheendsofring2.
Geometry>Volume:ring2>Ok
Integral>RZ>Eval
Theopencircuitvoltageinducedacrosstheopenpointinring2is6.86e-004V.This
equalsthevoltagecalculatedbyhandfromZ12intheimpedancematrix,aswellas
thatcalculatedbyintegratingtheaverageelectricfield.Thisisthecomplex
magnitudeofthevoltage.Therealandimaginarycomponentscanbeindividually
determinedbysubstitutingComplex/Imag andComplex/Realinthestepsabove.
Thesevoltagesare:V2'(real)=-1.80e-005andV2'(imaginary)=-6.85e-004which
arenearlythesameasthevoltagecalculatedbyhandonthepreviouspage.
Reference:“PredictionandUseofImpedanceMatricesforEddy-CurrentProblems,”
IEEETransactionsonMagnetics,KentR.Davey andDalianZheng,vol.33pp.
2478-2485,1997.
ThiscompletestheJumpingRingsexercise.
2
_
2
_ imag real CmplxMag
A A A
φ φ
+ =
Maxwell v12

6.2

Eddy Current – Application Note

Instantaneous Forces on Busbars in Maxwell 2D and 3D

This example analyzes the forces acting on a busbar model in Maxwell 2D and 3D. Specifically, it provides
a method for determining the instantaneous force on objects having sinusoidal AC excitation in the Eddy
Current Solver. Force vectors in AC problems are a combination of a time-averaged “DC” component and
an alternating “AC” component. The alternating component fluctuates at a frequency twice the excitation
frequency. Both of these components can be calculated using the formulas below so that the instantaneous
force can be determined. Three different force methods are used in this example: Virtual, Lorentz, and the
Maxwell Stress Tensor.
AC DC INST
AC
DC
F F F
degrees t ω phase at evaluated dV B J F
dV B J F
+ =
= × =
× =



) (
2
1
Re
2
1

Description

This example will be solved in two parts using the 2D Eddy Current and 3D Eddy Current solvers. The
model consists of two 4mm parallel copper busbars separated by a center-center spacing of 16mm. The
excitation frequency is 100kHz.


3D Model
2D Model
6.2 - 1 AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
Maxwell v12

6.2

Eddy Current – Application Note

PART 1 - The 2D Eddy Project

A 2D model of the busbars will be simulated first. Access the Maxwell Project Manager and create a new
2D project called 2dbars. Open the project and change to the Eddy Current solver with an XY drawing
plane.

Setup the Design

1. Click on the menu item Project > Insert Maxwell 2D Design
2. Click on the menu item Maxwell 2D > Solution Type ...
• Set Geometry Mode: Cartesian, XY
• Select the radio button Magnetic: Eddy Current
3. Draw the Solution Region
• Click on Draw > Rectangle (Enter the following points using the tab key).
• X: -150, Y: -150, Z: 0
• dX: 300, dY: 300, dZ: 0
• Change its properties:
• Name: Region
• Transparency: 0.9
• Select View > Fitall > Active View to resize the drawing window.
• Select wireframe view by selecting: View > Render > Wire Frame.

Create the Model

Now the model can be created. This model also consists of a left and right busbar that have a 4mm square
cross-section, however a length of 1 meter is assumed so that the results must be scaled to compare to 3D.

Create the Left Busbar

• Click on Draw > Rectangle
• X: -12, Y: -2, Z: 0
• dX: 4, dY: 4, dZ: 0
• Change its properties:
• Name: left
• Material: Copper
• Color: Red

6.2 - 2 AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
Maxwell v12

6.2

Eddy Current – Application Note

Create the Right Busbar

• Click on Draw > Rectangle
• X: 8, Y: -2, Z: 0
• dX: 4, dY: 4, dZ: 0
• Change its properties:
• Name: right
• Material: Copper
• Color: Red

Assign the Boundaries and Sources

The current is assumed to be 1A at 0 degrees in the left busbar and -1A at 60 degrees in the right busbar. A
no-fringing vector potential boundary will be assigned to the outside of the 2D problem region which is
also the default boundary for all 3D projects. This forces all flux to stay in the solution region.

1. The boundary must be set on the solution region.
• Choose Edit > Select > Edges to change the selection mode from object to edge.
• While holding down the CTRL key, choose the four outer edges of the region.
• Click on Maxwell 2D > Boundaries> Assign > Vector Potential
• Value: 0
• Phase: 0
• OK
• When done, choose Edit > Select > Object to object selection mode.

2. Select left from the history tree
• Click on Maxwell 2D > Excitations > Assign > Current
• Name: Current1
• Value: 1A
• Phase: 0
• Type: Solid
• Reference Direction: Positive

3. Select right from the history tree.
• Click on Maxwell 2D > Excitations > Assign > Current
• Name: Current2
• Value: 1A
• Phase: 60
• Type: Solid
• Reference Direction: Negative

6.2 - 3 AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
Maxwell v12

6.2

Eddy Current – Application Note

Turn on the Eddy Effects in the winding

In order to consider the skin effects in the busbars, you must manually turn on the eddy effect.

1. Choose Maxwell 2D > Excitations > Set Eddy Effects ...
2. Verify that the eddy effect is checked for both the left and right conductors.

Assign the Parameters

In order to automatically calculate force on an object, it must be selected in the Parameters panel. In 2D,
only the virtual force can be automatically calculated. Later, the Lorentz force will be calculated manually
in the Post Processor after solving the project.

1. Select the left busbar by clicking on it.
2. Click on Maxwell 2D > Parameters > Assign > Force
3. Click OK to enable the force calculation.

Add an Analysis Setup

1. Click Right on the Analysis folder in the Model Tree and select Add Solution Setup…
2. On the General tab, re-set the Number of passes to 15.
3. Percent Error to 0.01
4. On the Solver tab, re-set the Adaptive Frequency to 100kHz.

Solve the Problem

1. Save the project by clicking on menu item File > Save As
2. Select the menu item Maxwell 2D > Validation Check to verify problem setup
3. Click on Maxwell 2D > Analyze All.


6.2 - 4 AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
Maxwell v12

6.2

Eddy Current – Application Note

View the Results

1. Select Maxwell 2D > Results > Solution Data… and click on the Force tab. The force results are
reported for a 1 meter depth of the model. The DC forces are shown below.















2. Now select Type:AC<Mag,Phase> This shows the magnitude of the force F(x)Mag is
approximately 5e-6 (N) and the phase F(x)Phase is -2.0 radians or -120 degrees.














6.2 - 5 AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
Maxwell v12

6.2

Eddy Current – Application Note

Create a Plot of Force vs. Time

The average, AC, and instantaneous components of the Lorentz force can be plotted vs. phase by creating
named expressions in the calculator using the formulas at the beginning of the application note.

1. Determine the time-averaged component of Lorentz force:
• Click on Maxwell 2D > Fields > Calculator and then perform the following:
• Quantity > J
• Quantity > B > Complex > Conj > Cross
• Scalar X > Complex > Real
• Number > Scalar > 0.5 > OK
• Multiply
• Geometry > Volume > left > OK
• Integrate
• Add… Name: Force_DC
• Click OK

2. Determine the AC component of Lorentz force:
• Quantity > J
• Quantity > B > Cross
• Scalar X
• Function > Phase > OK
• Complex > AtPhase
• Number > Scalar > 0.5 > OK
• Multiply
• Geometry > Volume > left > OK
• Integrate
• Add… Name: Force_AC
• Click OK

3. Determine the instantaneous (DC + AC) component of Lorentz force. In the Named Expressions
panel:
• In the Named Expressions window, select Force_DC and Copy to stack
• Select Force_AC and Copy to stack
• Add
• Add… Name: Force_inst
• Click OK and Done to close the calculator window.
6.2 - 6 AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
Maxwell v12

6.2

Eddy Current – Application Note

4. Create a plot of Force vs. Phase. Now that the force quantities have been created, a plot of these
named expressions can been created.

• Select Maxwell 2D > Results > Create Fields Report > Rectangular Plot
• Change the abscissa X: from the default Freq to Phase.
• Category: Calculator Expressions
• Quantity: Force_DC, Force_AC, Force_inst (hold down shift key to select all three at once)
• New Report > Close
• Right mouse click on the legend and select: Trace Characteristics > Add…
• Category: Math
• Function: max
• Add > Done
• Double left mouse click on the legend and change from the Attribute to the General tab.
• Check Use Scientific Notation and click on OK.

Note: The "max" values match the results from Solution Data > Force. I can also be observed that
the forces fluctuate at 2 times the excitation frequency since there are two complete cycles over 360
degrees as shown below.



0.00 50.00 100.00 150.00 200.00 250.00 300.00 350.00 400.00
Phase [deg]
-0.000008
-0.000006
-0.000004
-0.000002
0.000000
0.000002
0.000004
0.000006
Y
1
Ansoft Corporation Maxwell2DDesign1
XY Plot 1
Curve Inf o max
Force_DC
Setup1 : LastAdaptive
Freq='100kHz'
-2.5666E-006
Force_AC
Setup1 : LastAdaptive
Freq='100kHz'
5.0213E-006
Force_inst
Setup1 : LastAdaptive
Freq='100kHz'
2.4547E-006






















6.2 - 7 AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
Maxwell v12

6.2

Eddy Current – Application Note

6. Finally, the instantaneous force on the left busbar can be calculated using an alternate method, the
Maxwell Stress Tensor method. This method is different than both the Lorentz force and virtual
force methods. The Maxwell Stress Tensor method is extremely sensitive to mesh. The force on an
object can be determined by the following equation:

( ) ) ( ) ( 5 . 0 degrees t ω phase at evaluated dV n H B H n B F
MST
= ⋅ − ⋅ =


Determine the instantaneous component of force at time wt=0 using the Maxwell Stress Tensor
method in the calculator:

Quantity > B Loads the B vector
Function > Phase > OK Loads the function Phase
Complex > At Phase Evaluates the B vector at phase = wt
Geometry > Line > left > OK This enters the edge of the left busbar
Unit Vector > Normal To determine the unit normal vector for left busbar
Dot To take B-dot-Unit Normal
Quantity > H Loads the H vector
Function > Phase > OK Loads the function Phase
Complex > At Phase Evaluates the H vector at phase = wt
Multiply This multiplies B and H

Quantity > B Loads the B vector
Function > Phase > OK Loads the function Phase
Complex > At Phase Evaluates the B vector at phase = wt
Quantity > H Loads the H vector
Function > Phase > OK Loads the function Phase
Complex > At Phase Evaluates the H vector at phase = wt
Dot Computes B-dot-H
Number > Scalar > 0.5 > OK
Multiply Multiplies the quantity by 0.5

Geometry > Line > left > OK Enters the edge of the left busbar
Unit Vector > Normal To determine the unit normal vector for left busbar
Multiply This multiplies the quantity times unit normal vector
Neg This takes the negative
Add
Scal? > ScalarX To extract the x-component of the quantity
Geometry > Line > left > OK Enters the edge of the left busbar
Integrate To integrate the force density and obtain the force in newtons
Add… Name: Force_MST

6.2 - 8 AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
Maxwell v12

6.2

Eddy Current – Application Note

7. Create a plot of the Maxwell Stress Tensor Force vs. Phase.

• Select Maxwell 2D > Results > Create Fields Report > Rectangular Plot
• Change the abscissa X: from the default Freq to Phase.
• Category: Calculator Expressions
• Quantity: Force_inst, Force_MST

Note: The slight difference in these curves is due to mesh error in the stress tensor calculation.


0.00 50.00 100.00 150.00 200.00 250.00 300.00 350.00 400.00
Phase [deg]
-0.000008
-0.000006
-0.000004
-0.000002
0.000000
0.000002
0.000004
Y
1
Ansoft Corporation Maxwell2DDesign1
XY Plot 2
Curve Inf o
Force_inst
Setup1 : LastAdaptive
Freq='100kHz'
Force_MST
Setup1 : LastAdaptive
Freq='100kHz'























This completes PART 1 of the exercise.

6.2 - 9 AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
Maxwell v12

6.2

Eddy Current – Application Note

PART 2 - The 3D Eddy Project

Now the identical model will be simulated in Maxwell 3D.

Setup the Design

1. Click on the menu item Project > Insert Maxwell 3D Design
2. Click on the menu item Maxwell 3D > Solution Type ...
• Select the radio button Magnetic: Eddy Current
3. Draw the Solution Region
• Click on Draw > Box (Enter the following points using the tab key).
• X: 0, Y: -150, Z: -150
• dX: 10, dY: 300, dZ: 300
• Change its properties:
• Name: Region
• Transparency: 0.9
• Select View > Fitall > Active View to resize the drawing window.
• Select wireframe view by selecting: View > Render > Wire Frame.

Create the Model

Now the model can be created. This model also consists of a left and right busbar that have a 4mm square
cross-section and a length of 10mm.

Create the Left Busbar

• Click on Draw > Box
• X: 0 Y: -12, Z: -2
• dX: 10, dY: 4, dZ: 4
• Change its properties:
• Name: left
• Material: Copper
• Color: Red

Create the Right Busbar

• Click on Draw > Box
• X: 0 Y: 8, Z: -2
• dX: 10, dY: 4, dZ: 4
• Change its properties:
• Name: left
• Material: Copper
6.2 - 10 AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
Maxwell v12

6.2

Eddy Current – Application Note

• Color: Red

Assign the Boundaries and Sources

The current is assumed to be 1A at 0 degrees in the left busbar and -1A at 60 degrees in the right busbar.
The default boundary in Maxwell 3D in no-fringing. So a boundary does not need to be explicitly
assigned.

1. To assign the source current, the four (4) end faces of the conductors must be selected. Choose Edit
> Select > Faces to change the selection mode from object to face.
2. Zoom in to the busbars using:View > Zoom In
3. Click on the front face of the left busbar.
• Click on Maxwell > Excitations > Assign > Current
• Name: Current1
• Value: 1A
• Phase: 0
• Type: Solid
4. Select View > Rotate > Model Center to spin the bubars around to see the other face of the left
busbar. Select it and then:
• Click on Maxwell > Excitations > Assign > Current
• Name: Current2
• Value: 1A
• Phase: 0
• Type: Solid
• Click on Swap Direction to be sure that the red directional arrow is pointing out of
the conductor
5. Click on the front face of the right busbar.
• Click on Maxwell > Excitations > Assign > Current
• Name: Current3
• Value: 1A
• Phase: 60
• Type: Solid
6. Select View > Rotate > Model Center to spin the bubars around to see the other face of the left
busbar. Select it and then:
• Click on Maxwell > Excitations > Assign > Current
• Name: Current4
• Value: 1A
• Phase: 60
• Type: Solid
• Click on Swap Direction to be sure that the red directional arrow is pointing out of
the conductor

6.2 - 11 AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
Maxwell v12

6.2

Eddy Current – Application Note

Turn on the Eddy Effects in the winding

In order to consider the skin effects in the busbars, the eddy effect must be turned on.

1. Choose Maxwell 3D > Excitations > Set Eddy Effects ...
2. Verify that the eddy effect for left and right is checked.
3. Un-check the displacement current calculation.

Assign the Parameters

In order to automatically calculate force on an object, it must be selected in the Parameters panel. In
Maxwell 3D, you can calculate both virtual and Lorentz force. Note however that Lorentz force is only
valid on objects with a permeability = 1.

1. Select the left busbar by clicking on it in the history tree or on the screen.
2. Click on Maxwell > Parameters > Assign > Force
3. Name: Force_Virtual
4. Type: Virtual
5. Click OK to enable the virtual force calculation.
6. Click on Maxwell > Parameters > Assign > Force
7. Name: Force_Lorentz
8. Type: Lorentz
9. Click OK to enable the lorentz force calculation.

Add an Analysis Setup

1. Click Right on the Analysis folder in the Model Tree and select Add Solution Setup…
2. On the General tab, re-set the Number of passes to 15.
3. Percent Error to 0.01
4. On the Solver tab, re-set the Adaptive Frequency to 100kHz.
5. Click OK to save the setup.

Solve the Problem

1. Save the project by clicking on menu item File > Save
2. Select the menu item Maxwell 3D > Validation Check to verify problem setup
3. Click on Maxwell 3D > Analyze All.


6.2 - 12 AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
Maxwell v12

6.2

Eddy Current – Application Note

View the Results

3. Select Maxwell 3D > Results > Solution Data… and click on the Force tab. Notice that the 3D
results are reported for a 10mm depth while the 2D results were for 1meter depth. The DC forces
are shown below.














4. Now select Type:AC<Mag,Phase> This shows the magnitude of the force F(x)Mag is
approximately 5e-6 (N) and the phase F(x)Phase is -2.0 radians or -120 degrees.














6.2 - 13 AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
Maxwell v12

6.2

Eddy Current – Application Note

Create a Plot of Force vs. Time

The time-averaged, AC, and instantaneous components Lorentz force can be plotted vs. time by creating
named expressions in the calculator using the formulas at the beginning of the application note.

1. Determine the time-averaged component of Lorentz force:
• Click on Maxwell 3D > Fields > Calculator and then perform the following:
• Quantity > J
• Quantity > B > Complex > Conj > Cross
• Scalar Y > Complex > Real
• Number > Scalar > 0.5 > OK
• Multiply
• Geometry > Volume > left > OK
• Integrate
• Add… Name: Force_DC
• OK

2. Determine the AC component of Lorentz force:
• Quantity > J
• Quantity > B > Cross
• Scalar Y
• Function > Phase > OK
• Complex > AtPhase
• Number > Scalar > 0.5 > OK
• Multiply
• Geometry > Volume > left > OK
• Integrate
• Add… Name: Force_AC
• OK

3. Determine the instantaneous (DC + AC) component of Lorentz force. In the Named Expressions
panel:
• In the Named Expressions window, select Force_DC and Copy to stack
• Select Force_AC and Copy to stack
• Add
• Add… Name: Force_inst
• Click on OK and Done to close the calculator window.

6.2 - 14 AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
Maxwell v12


Eddy Current – Application Note

6.2 - 15
6.2
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
4. Create a plot of Force vs. Phase. Now that the force quantities have been created, a plot of these
named expressions can been created.
• Select Maxwell 3D > Results > Create Fields Report > Rectangular Plot
• Category: Calculator Expressions
• Change the abscissa X: from the default Freq to Phase.
• Quantity: Force_DC, Force_AC, Force_inst (hold down shift key to select all three at once)
• New Report > Close
• Right mouse click on the legend and select: Trace Characteristics > Add…
• Category: Math
• Function: Max
• Add > Done
• Double left mouse click on the legend and change from the Attribute to the General tab.
• Check Use Scientific Notation and click on OK. Note that these values match the results on
the Solution Data > Force. Also, since forces fluctuate at 2 times the excitation frequency,
there are two complete cycles in 360 degrees shown below.




















This completes PART 2 of the exercise.

Reference:

MSC Paper #118 "Post Processing of Vector Quantities, Lorentz Forces, and Moments
in AC Analysis for Electromagnetic Devices" MSC European Users Conference,
September 1993, by Peter Henninger, Research Laboratories of Siemens AG, Erlangen
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
Maxwell 2D v12
7.0- 1
Chapter7.0
Chapter7.0– TransientExamples
7.1– GappedInductorModel
7.2– SolenoidProblemwithanExternalCircuit
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
7.1
GappedInductor– TransientXYApplicationNote
7.1- 1
Maxwell 2D v12
Introduction
TheMaxwell2DFieldSimulator’sXYtransientsolvercanbeusedto
demonstratethedifferencebetweensinusoidalandnon-sinusoidal
excitationinagappedinductor.Inaddition,thefringingfluxeffectonAC
lossescanbeconsideredinthisdevice.
Theinductorconsistsofaferritecorewithagapinthecenter leg.The
windinghas15copperturnswhichareconnectedinseries.Theinductoris
excitedbya120A-60Hzsinusoidalcurrentanda20A-1kHztriangular
currentsuperimposedonit.
Althoughnomotionoccursinthisproblem,thetransienttime-stepping
solverisneededbecauseofthecomplexwaveformofthecurrent.
Aftertheproblemissolved,theusercandothefollowing:
Viewthefluxlinesandpowerlossdensityinthewinding.
Plottheinstantaneouspowerlossinthewindingvs.time.
Calculatetheaveragepowerlossovertime.
Asecondsimulationwillbedoneusingonlyasinusoidalexcitationinorder
tocomparethelosses.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
7.1
GappedInductor– TransientXYApplicationNote
7.1- 2
Maxwell 2D v12
SetuptheDesign
ClickonthemenuitemProject>InsertMaxwell2DDesign
ClickonthemenuitemMaxwell2D>SolutionType...
SetGeometryMode:Cartesian,XY
SelecttheradiobuttonMagnetic:Transient
OK
SpecifytheDrawingUnits
ClickonModeler>Units
Selectunits: in
OK
CreatetheModel
Themodelconsistsofacoreandawinding.Notethateachturnofthe
windingisexactlymodeledandis“solid” inordertoaccuratelydetermine
theAClosses.
Setthemodeldepth
ForalltransientXYmodels,thedepthmustbespecified.Thenalllosses
andforceresultsreportedareforthatparticulardepth.
ClickonMaxwell2D>Model>SetModelDepth...
ModelDepth: 1in
OK
DrawtheCore
ClickonDraw>Rectangle
X:-2.5,Y:-3,Z:0
dX:5,dY:6,dZ:0
Changeitsproperties:
Name:Core
Material:Ferrite
Color:Red
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
7.1
GappedInductor– TransientXYApplicationNote
7.1- 3
Maxwell 2D v12
DrawtheCoreWindows
ClickonDraw>Rectangle
X:-1.5,Y:-2,Z:0
dX:1,dY:4,dZ:0
Duplicatethewindowbyselectingthewindowand
choosing:
Edit>Duplicate>alongline
X:0,Y:0,Z:0
dX:2,dY:0,dZ:0
TotalNumber:2
Donotcheck Attachtooriginal.
OK
SelectCore,Rectangle1,Rectangle1_1
andthenclickon:
Modeler>Boolean>Subtract
BlankParts:Core
ToolParts:Rectangle1,Rectangle1_1
Cloneobjectsbeforesubtracting:unchecked
Ok
SubtracttheCoregap
ClickonDraw>Rectangle
X:-0.5,Y:-0.2,Z:0
dX:1,dY:0.4,dZ:0
SelectCore,Gap andthenclickon:
Modeler>Boolean>Subtract
BlankPart:Core
ToolParts:Rectangle_2
Cloneobjectsbeforesubtracting:unchecked
Ok
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
7.1
GappedInductor– TransientXYApplicationNote
7.1- 4
Maxwell 2D v12
DrawtheWindings
ClickonDraw>Rectangle
X:-1.4,Y:-1.825,Z:0
dX:0.8,dY:0.125,dZ:0
Changeitsproperties:
Name:Coil
Material:Copper
Color:Green
Createthereturnforthefirstwindingturn:
Edit>Duplicate>alongline
X:0,Y:0,Z:0
dX:2,dY:0,dZ:0
TotalNumber:2
Donotcheck Attachtooriginal.
OK
Changeitsproperties:
Name:Coil_return
Material:Copper
Color:Green
CreatethecompletewindingbyselectingCoil andCoil_return andthenchoosing:
Edit>Duplicate>alongline
X:0,Y:0,Z:0
dX:0,dY:0.25,dZ:0
TotalNumber=15
Donotcheck Attachtooriginal.
DrawtheSolutionRegion
ClickonDraw>Region:
PaddingData:AllPaddingDirections
PaddingPercentage:100
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
7.1
GappedInductor– TransientXYApplicationNote
7.1- 5
Maxwell 2D v12
AssigntheOuterBoundary
Theboundarymustbesetonthesolutionregion.
ChooseEdit>Select>Edges tochangetheselectionmodefromobjecttoedge.
WhileholdingdowntheCTRL key,choosethethreeouteredgesoftheregion.
ClickonMaxwell2D>Boundaries>Assign>Balloon
Whendone,chooseEdit>Select>Objecttoobjectselectionmode.
AssigntheSources
A120A60Hzsinusoidalcurrentwillbeassignedtothe15series turnsintheinductor.
Inaddition,a20A1kHztriangularcurrentsourcewillbeaddedontopofthe
sinusoidalcurrent.Thewindingconsistsofagoandareturnfortheleftandright
sidesofthewinding.Asimplesinusoidalfunctionwithbeusedtocreatethe60Hz
componentwhileadataset“ds1” willbeusedtocreatethetriangularcomponent
ofcurrent.
Inthehistorytree,select:Coil,Coil_1,...Coil_14
Choose: Maxwell2D>Excitations>Assign>Current
Name: left
Value: 120*sin(2*pi*60*time)+pwl_periodic(ds1,Time)
TheAddDataset windowwillautomaticallyappeartoenterthetriangular
waveform.
Name:ds1
EnterthefollowingX,YcoordinatesandclickOK andDone.
Type:Solid
Polarity: Positive
Ok
5
4
3
2
Y X
0 0.001
-20 0.00075
0 0.00050
20 0.00025
0 0 1
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
7.1
GappedInductor– TransientXYApplicationNote
7.1- 6
Maxwell 2D v12
Inthehistorytree,select:Coil_return,Coil_return1,...Coil_return14
Choose Maxwell2D>Excitations>Assign>Current
Name: right
Value: 120*sin(2*pi*60*time)+pwl_periodic(ds1,Time)
Name:ds1
EnterthefollowingX,YcoordinatesandclickOKandDone:
Type:Solid
Polarity: Negative
Ok
TurnontheEddyEffectsinthewinding
Choose Maxwell2D>Excitations>SetEddyEffects...
Checktheeddyeffectforall30coils.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
7.1
GappedInductor– TransientXYApplicationNote
7.1- 7
Maxwell 2D v12
AddanAnalysisSetup
Clickon Maxwell2D>AnalysisSetup>AddSolutionSetup...
OntheGeneralTab:
StopTime:0.05sec
TimeStep: 0.00025sec
OntheSaveFieldsTab:
Type: LinearStep
Start: 0sec
Stop: 0.05sec
StepSize: 0.01sec
Clickon: AddtoList>>
OK
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
7.1
GappedInductor– TransientXYApplicationNote
7.1- 8
Maxwell 2D v12
AddMeshOperations
Inthetransientsolvers,themeshisnotautomaticallycreated. Itmusteither
belinkedtoamagnetostatic oreddycurrentdesign,oryoucanmanually
createit.Inthisexample,themeshwillbemanuallycreated.
Inthehistorytree,selectall30conductorsandthenMaxwell2D>Mesh
Operations>Assign>InsideSelection>LengthBased ...
Name:Coils_Inside
RestrictLengthofElements:Uncheck
RestrictNumberofElements:; Check
MaximumNumberofElements:500
Notethatbychoosing“InsideSelection” insteadof“OnSelection”,themesh
operationisappliedevenlythroughtheareaoftheconductorsasopposedto
beingappliedonlyontheouterperimeteroftheconductor.
SelectthecoreandthenMaxwell2D>MeshOperations>Assign>Inside
Selection>LengthBased.
Name:Core_Inside
RestrictLengthOfElements:Uncheck
RestrictNumberofElements:; Check
MaximumNumberofElements:500
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
7.1
GappedInductor– TransientXYApplicationNote
7.1- 9
Maxwell 2D v12
CreatetheMeshbeforesolving
SelectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>AnalysisSetup>ApplyMeshOperations
ViewtheSolutionDatafortheMesh
SelectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>Results>SolutionData
ClickontheMeshStatistics tabtoviewthestartingmesh.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
7.1
GappedInductor– TransientXYApplicationNote
7.1- 10
Maxwell 2D v12
CreateOutputforCurrentusingtheCalculator
Sincetheinputcurrentisnotanautomaticoutput,thismustbe created
manually.
SelectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>Fields>Calculator...
SelectthemenuitemQuantity>J>Scal?>ScalarZ
Geometry>Coil>OK
Integrate
Add...
Name:Current_in
OK
Done
Makethenamedexpressionavailabletobeplotted
Todothis,select:Maxwell2D>Results>OutputVariables...
UnderReportType,select “Fields”.
ChooseCategory: CalculatorExpressions
Quantity: Current_in
Function: <none>.
Name:typeinavariablesuchasI_in
Clickon “InsertQuantityintoExpression” andthen Add.
Thisoutputwillnowbeavailableforplotting.ClickonDone toleavethe
OutputVariableswindow.
Specifywhenexpressionwillbecalculated
Intheprojecttree,rightclickonAnalysis>Setup1 andclickonProperties.
UndertheOutputVariables tabclickonAdd toaddthenewlycreated
parameterforI_in. BesurethattheEvaluationTimeStep =0.00025swhich
isthesameasthesolvetimestepundertheGeneral tab.SelectOK toexit.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
7.1
GappedInductor– TransientXYApplicationNote
7.1- 11
Maxwell 2D v12
SolvetheProblem
SavetheprojectbyclickingonmenuitemFile>SaveAs
SelectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>ValidationCheck toverifyproblemsetup
ClickonMaxwell2D>AnalyzeAll
PlottheMesh
SelectallobjectsandclickonMaxwell2D>Fields>PlotMesh.
Whendone,hidetheplotbyselectingView>ActiveViewVisibility>Fields
Reporter andunchecking theMesh1 plot.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
7.1
GappedInductor– TransientXYApplicationNote
7.1- 12
Maxwell 2D v12
ViewtheResults
Nowthatyouhavegeneratedasolution,youcananalyzetheresults.
Specifically,whatyouwanttocalculateanddisplayare:
Fluxlinesplotatt=0.02sec.
Currentdensityplotforthewindingt=0.02sec.
Thecurrentandinstantaneousaveragepowerlossforthewinding
vs time.
PlotFluxLines
Setthetimestep =0.02secbyselecting:View>SetSolutionContext>
0.02sec>OK
Alternatively,youcansetthesolutioncontextbydouble-clickingonthe
Time boxinthelowerleftcornerofthemodelingwindow.
SelectallobjectsbyselectingCTRL-A
ClickonMaxwell2D>Fields>Fields >A>FluxLines>Done
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
7.1
GappedInductor– TransientXYApplicationNote
7.1- 13
Maxwell 2D v12
PlotCurrentDensityinCoils
Thecurrentdensityinthecoilswillbegreaterneartothegap inthecore
becausefringingfluxcausedinducedproximitylossesinthecopper.
Createanobjectlistincludingonlythecoppercoils:
Inthehistorytree,selectcoil andcoil_return.
ClickonModeler>List>Create>ObjectList
CreatetheplotbyselectingObjectlist1inthehistorytree.
ClickonMaxwell2D>Fields>Fields >Jz >Done
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
7.1
GappedInductor– TransientXYApplicationNote
7.1- 14
Maxwell 2D v12
PlottheInputCurrent
Createtheplotofthenamedexpression.
SelectMaxwell2D>Results>CreateTransientReport >RectangularPlot
Category: OutputVar.Cache
Quantity: OVC(I_in)
NewReport
0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00
Time [ms]
-150.00
-100.00
-50.00
0.00
50.00
100.00
150.00
O
V
C
(
I
_
i
n
)
Ansoft Corporation Maxwell2DDesign1
XY Plot 1
Curve Inf o
OVC(I_in)
Setup1 : Transient
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
7.1
GappedInductor– TransientXYApplicationNote
7.1- 15
Maxwell 2D v12
PlottheLossesintheWinding
Createtheplotofthenamedexpression.Todothis,
SelectMaxwell2D>Results>CreateTransientReport >RectangularPlot
Category: Lossand Quantity: SolidLoss
NewReport
Rightmouseclickonthelegendandselect: TraceCharacteristics>Add...
Category: Mathand Function: avg
Clickon AddandDoneandtheaveragelosses (approx.4.35W)willbe
displayedinthelegend.
2.00
4.00
6.00
8.00
10.00
12.00
S
o
l
i
d
L
o
s
s

[
W
]
Ansoft Corporation Maxwell2DDesign1
XY Plot 2
Curve Inf o avg
SolidLoss
Setup1 : Transient
4.3540
0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00
Time [ms]
0.00
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
7.1
GappedInductor– TransientXYApplicationNote
7.1- 16
Maxwell 2D v12
Solveforthesinusoidalcurrentsourceonly
CopytheMaxwellDesign1andpasteitintheProjecttreeareato create
MaxwellDesign2
Removeallexcitationsforthewindingsandreassignthemwithoutthe
triangulardatasetcomponent.
ResolvetheprojectbyselectingMaxwell2D>Solve.Theaverage power
loss(approx.3.41W)issmallerthantheprevioussimulation(approx.
4.35W)whichincludedthetriangularcurrentcomponent.Also,youcansee
thatthepowerlossissinusoidalattwicetheexcitationfrequency.
0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00
Time [ms]
-150.00
-100.00
-50.00
0.00
50.00
100.00
150.00
O
V
C
(
I
_
i
n
)
Ansoft Corporation Maxwell2DDesign2
XY Plot 1
Curve Info
OVC(I_in)
Setup1 : Transient
0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00
Time [ms]
0.00
1.00
2.00
3.00
4.00
5.00
6.00
S
o
l
i
d
L
o
s
s

[
W
]
Ansoft Corporation Maxwell2DDesign2
XY Plot 2
Curve Inf o avg
SolidLoss
Setup1 : Transient
3.4118
Maxwell v12



2D Transient – Application Note

7.2 - 1
7.2
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide

A Solenoid Problem with an External Circuit

This example models an AC solenoid using Maxwell 2D. A full wave bridge rectifying drive circuit will be
setup to drive the solenoid.

























Description

A model of an AC solenoid using an external circuit will be simulated using the 2D RZ transient solver.
The source is a 170V 60Hz sinusoidal voltage which is rectified using a full-wave bridge. The mechanical
force for a spring and gravity are modeled using an equation. The force, loss, position, speed and winding
current, flux, and voltage will be determined.


2D RZ Model
D
1
D2
D3
D
4
Model
rectify
LWinding2
25ohm
Rcoil
+
170V
LabelID=Vsource
0
Maxwell v12



2D Transient – Application Note

7.2 - 2
7.2
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
Setup the Design

1. Click on the menu item Project > Insert Maxwell 2D Design
2. Click on the menu item Maxwell 2D > Solution Type ...
Set Geometry Mode: Cylindrical about Z
Select the radio button Magnetic: Transient

Specify the Drawing Units
1. Click on Modeler > Units
2. Select units: in > OK

Import the Model

Now the model can be created. Since this is a complicated geometry, the model will be imported from an
old Maxwell 2D model file *.sm2.

1. Click on: Modeler > Import …
2. Navigate to find the file: Ex_7_02_Solenoid.sm2

Draw the Solution Region

1. Click on Draw > Region
Padding Data: Pad Individual Directions
Padding Percentage: X = +/- 300% Z = +/- 100%












3. Select View > Fitall > Active View to resize the drawing window.
4. Select wireframe view by selecting: View > Render > Wire Frame

NOTE:
For 2D RZ designs, the –X limit
will be the Z-axis if the padding
percentage is large enough.
Otherwise, if the -X padding
percentage creates a region with
–X > 0, then the region will
have a “hole” in the model.

Maxwell v12



2D Transient – Application Note

7.2 - 3
7.2
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
Assign the Materials

Since the model was imported, no material properties have been assigned. Select the objects one at a time
and assign the appropriate material properties.

1. Select the coil and the shadering and choose: Modeler > Assign
Material > copper > OK
2. Select the endstop, flange, housing, plunger and top_nut and choose:
Modeler > Assign Material > steel_1008 > OK
3. Select the Band and choose: Modeler > Assign Material > Vacuum
> OK

Assign the Boundaries and Sources

A no-fringing vector potential boundary will be assigned to outside of the 2D problem region. This forces
all flux to stay in the solution region.

1. Choose Edit > Select > Edges to change the selection mode from object to edge.
2. While holding down the CTRL key, choose the top, right, and bottom outer edges of the region.
Note that the left edge does not need a boundary because it is automatically the axis of symmetry in
a RZ model.
3. Click on Maxwell 2D > Boundaries> Assign > Vector Potential
Value: 0
OK
4. When done, choose Edit > Select > Object to object selection mode.

Because the solenoid is a converted “AC” solenoid, it contains a copper “shading ring” which may have
eddy currents induced in it. A zero voltage source must be set on the shade ring in order to properly
represent a shorted single turn winding and to see if the eddy currents are significant or not.

1. Select the shadering and click on the menu item: Maxwell 2D > Excitations > Assign > Coil…
Name: shadering
Number of Conductors: 1
Polarity: Positive (into the screen)
OK
Maxwell v12



2D Transient – Application Note

7.2 - 4
7.2
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide

2. Click on the menu item: Maxwell 2D > Excitations > Add Winding…
Name: Winding1
Type: Voltage and Solid
Initial Current: 0
Resistance: 0 (for solid windings, resistance calculated by the solver)
Inductance: 0 (coil inductance always calculated by the solver)
Voltage: 0 (zero voltage represents a shorted turn, with no source)
Number parallel branches: 1
















3. In the project tree, right mouse click on shadering under Excitations and click on the menu item
Add to Winding and
4. In the Add to Winding window, Winding1 will be selected and then click on OK.















Maxwell v12



2D Transient – Application Note

7.2 - 5
7.2
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
5. Select the Coil and click on the menu item: Maxwell 2D > Excitations > Assign > Coil…
Name: Coil
Number of Conductors: 2250
Polarity: Positive (into the screen)
OK
6. Click on the menu item: Maxwell 2D > Excitations > Add Winding …
Name: Winding2
Type: External and Stranded (Note: stranded is assigned since the coil has 2250 turns).
Initial Current: 0
Number parallel branches: 1
OK
7. In the project tree, right mouse click on coil under Excitations and click on the menu item Add to
Winding
In the Add to Winding window, highlight Winding2 click on OK.
The project tree should look like this:










8. Create an External Circuit
To access Maxwell Circuit Editor, choose Maxwell 2D > Excitations > External Circuit >
Edit External Circuit…
Select Edit Circuit… from the Edit External Circuit dialog

Maxwell v12



2D Transient – Application Note

7.2 - 6
7.2
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide

Click on File > New to create a new schematic
Click on the Components tab in the Project Manager Window
Expand Maxwell Circuit Elements to view the library elements
Expand Passive Elements and click on DIODE and drag this component onto the sheet:
Name: D1
mod: rectify
Copy this diode three times creating D2, D3, and D4 and rotate them using CTRL-R before
connecting together to form the full-wave bridge as shown below.
Select Passive Elements > DIODE_Model and drag this component onto the sheet:
Name: rectify

Maxwell v12



2D Transient – Application Note

7.2 - 7
7.2
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide

Under Maxwell Circuit Elements > Dedicated Elements select Winding and drag this
component onto the sheet
In the properties window change the following:
Name: Winding2
Note that this name has to be exactly the same name as used in the Winding
definition described previously in Maxwell > Excitations > Add Winding
Under Maxwell Circuit Elements > Passive Elements select Res and drag this component
onto the sheet:
Name: coil
R: 25 ohms
Under Maxwell Circuit Elements > Sources select Vsin and drag this component onto the
sheet, hit ESC to end insertion:
Name: source
Va: 170 volts
VFreq: 60 Hz
Connect all of the elements together using Draw > Wire and add a ground using Draw >
Ground.
The circuit should look like this:



















Click on Edit > Save As: ex07_02_solenoid.amcp
Click on Maxwell Circuit > Export Netlist:
File Name: ex07_02_solenoid.sph
D
1
D2
D3
D
4
Model
rectify
LWinding2
25ohm
Rcoil
+
170V
LabelID=Vsource
0
Maxwell v12



2D Transient – Application Note

7.2 - 8
7.2
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9. Link the circuit file to the Maxwell project

Without closing the Maxwell Circuit Editor, return to the Maxwell project click on Cancel.
Then choose Import Circuit… from the Edit External Circuit dialog and select
ex07_02_solenoid.sph















A window should indicate that the model imported successfully.









Clicking on the Circuit Path tab will verify the linked circuit file *.amcp.











Maxwell v12



2D Transient – Application Note

7.2 - 9
7.2
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
Turn on the Eddy Effects in the winding

In order to consider the skin effects in the busbars, you must manually turn on the eddy effect.

1. Choose Maxwell 2D > Excitations > Set Eddy Effects ...
2. Check the eddy effect for the shadering and choose OK.

Apply Mesh Operations

The transient solver does not use the automatic adaptive meshing process, so a manual mesh needs to be
created. Note that after the mesh operations are assigned, clicking on them in the history tree will shade
the appropriate objects in the modeler window (assuming they are in wireframe view first).

1. Select the band and click on the menu item Maxwell 2D > Mesh Operations > Assign > Inside
Selection > Length Based.
Name: Band_Inside
Restrict Length Of Elements: Uncheck
Restrict Number of Elements:  Check
Maximum Number of Elements: 1000
2. Select the shadering and click on the menu item Maxwell 2D > Mesh Operations > Assign >
Inside Selection > Length Based.
Name: Shadering_Inside
Restrict Length Of Elements: Uncheck
Restrict Number of Elements:  Check
Maximum Number of Elements: 50
3. Select the coil, endstop, flange, housing, plunger, and top_nut and click on the menu item Maxwell
2D > Mesh Operations > Assign > Inside Selection > Length Based.
Name: Other_Objects_Inside
Restrict Length Of Elements:  Check
Maximum Length: 0.05 in (Note: be sure to set units = in)
Restrict Number of Elements: Uncheck

Setup the Motion

The plunger is the moving object and is surrounded by the band. (Note: moving objects are never allowed
to touch the band. The minimum air gap is 0.002 inches when the solenoid is "fully" closed.) Positive
motion is defined as upwards or in the positive Z direction. The starting position is -0.100 inch (or open)
so the plunger will move upwards (and close) when the solenoid is energized.. The load force acts
downward against the direction of motion and consists of: gravity (-0.04N), a spring preload force (-50N),
and a variable compression spring force (-5530 * position) which is zero at the starting position and
increases as the plunger closes. The units for the intrinsic variable "position" are meters.

Maxwell v12



2D Transient – Application Note

7.2 - 10
7.2
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
1. Select the band object by clicking on it on the screen or in the history tree.
2. Choose: Maxwell 2D > Model > Motion Setup > Assign Band
On the Type tab, the Motion Type will always be Translation for RZ models.
On the Type tab, the Moving Vector will Global:Z.
Set Positive as the direction of the moving vector.









On the Data tab:
Initial Position: -0.1 in
Translate Limit Negative: -0.1 in
Translate Limit Positive: 0 in










On the Mechanical tab:
Consider Mechanical Transient:  Check
Velocity: 0 m_per_sec
Mass: 0.004 kg
Damping: 1e-005 N-sec/m
Load Force: -5530 * (.00254 + position) -0.04 -50 (units are in Newtons)










Maxwell v12



2D Transient – Application Note

7.2 - 11
7.2
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide


Create Analysis Setup

Click on Maxwell > Analysis Setup > Add Solution Setup
General Tab
Stop Time: 0.05 s
Time Step: 0.0002 s
Save Fields Tab
Type: Linear Step
Start: 0 s
Stop: 0.05 s
Step Size: 0.005 s
Click on: Add to List >>




















Solve the Problem

1. Save the project by clicking on menu item File > Save As
2. Select the menu item Maxwell 2D > Validation Check to verify problem setup
3. Click on Maxwell 2D > Analyze All.


Maxwell v12



2D Transient – Application Note

7.2 - 12
7.2
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide

Create Output Plots vs. Time

The force, loss, position, speed and winding current, flux, and voltage will be plotted vs. time.

1. To create these plots select: Maxwell 2D > Results > Create Quick Report…
2. Select: Force, Loss, Position, Speed, and Winding











3. In the force plot below, Force_z is only the magnetic component of force (upwards) while
LoadForce is gravity, spring preload force, and a variable compression spring force (downwards).























0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00
Time [ms]
-100.00
-50.00
0.00
50.00
100.00
150.00
Y
1

[
n
e
w
t
o
n
]
Ansoft Corporation Maxwell2DDesign1
Force Quick Report
Curve Inf o
Moving1.Force_z
Setup1 : Transient
Moving1.LoadForce
Setup1 : Transient
Note:
When magnetic
force exceeds load
force (at Time =
4.2msec) armature
starts to close
Maxwell v12



2D Transient – Application Note

7.2 - 13
7.2
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide












































0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00
Time [ms]
-3.00
-2.50
-2.00
-1.50
-1.00
-0.50
0.00
M
o
v
i
n
g
1
.
P
o
s
i
t
i
o
n

[
m
m
]
Ansoft Corporation Maxwell2DDesign1
Position Quick Report
Curve Inf o
Moving1.Position
Setup1 : Transient
0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00
Time [ms]
0.00
1.00
2.00
3.00
4.00
5.00
M
o
v
i
n
g
1
.
S
p
e
e
d

[
m
_
p
e
r
_
s
e
c
]
Ansoft Corporation Maxwell2DDesign1
Speed Quick Report
Curve Inf o
Moving1.Speed
Setup1 : Transient
Maxwell v12



2D Transient – Application Note

7.2 - 14
7.2
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide











































This completes the exercise.
0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00
Time [ms]
0.00
0.50
1.00
1.50
2.00
2.50
S
o
l
i
d
L
o
s
s

[
W
]
Ansoft Corporation Maxwell2DDesign1
Loss Quick Report
Curve Inf o
SolidLoss
Setup1 : Transient
Notes:

1) In order to scale the plot and view the solid loss,
delete the stranded and core loss traces.

2) The solid losses in the shading ring are very
small, since the current is a rectified to be nearly
DC. If the full wave bridge rectifier is
eliminated so the solenoid uses AC voltage, the
shading ring will have a more significant effect
on both the losses and force.
0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00
Time [ms]
-100.00
-80.00
-60.00
-40.00
-20.00
-0.00
20.00
40.00
Y
1

[
A
]
0.00
0.10
0.20
0.30
0.40
0.50
0.60
Y
2

[
W
b
]
-100.00
-50.00
0.00
50.00
100.00
150.00
Y
3

[
V
]
Ansoft Corporation Maxwell2DDesign1
Winding Quick Report
Curve Inf o
Current(Winding1)
Setup1 : Transient
Current(Winding2)
Setup1 : Transient
FluxLinkage(Winding1)
Setup1 : Transient
FluxLinkage(Winding2)
Setup1 : Transient
InducedVoltage(Winding1)
Setup1 : Transient
InducedVoltage(Winding2)
Setup1 : Transient
InputVoltage(Winding1)
Setup1 : Transient
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
Maxwell 2D v12
9.0- 1
Chapter9.0
Chapter9.0– BasicExercises
9.1– Electrostatic
9.2– DCConduction
9.3– Magnetostatic
9.4– Parametric
9.5– Transient
9.6– TransientwithCircuitEditor
9.7– PostProcessing
9.8– Optimetrics
9.9– Meshing
9.10– Scripting
9.11– LinearECE
9.12– EddyCurrent
9.13– RotationalTransientMotion
9.14– BoundaryConditions
9.15– PermanentMagnetsAssignment
9.16– MagnetostaticActuatorExample
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.1
BasicExercises– ElectrostaticSolver
9.1-1
Maxwell 2D v12
IntroductionontheElectrostaticSolver
ThisnoteintroducestheElectroStaticsolverbasedonsomesimpleexamples.
Thissolverismeanttosolvethestaticelectricfieldwithoutcurrentflowingin
conductors(conductorsareinelectrostaticequilibrium).Theconductorsare
consideredperfectsuchthatthereisnoelectricfieldinsideconductors.
CapacitanceofaCylindricalCapacitorinRZ
Supposewehavealongcoaxialline.Wewanttoknowwhatisthe electricfield
distributionbasedonthepotential(orthecharges)thatareappliedoneach
conductor.Wealsowanttodeterminethecapacitance.WeuseanR-Z
representation.WewillthensolvethesameproblemusinganXYrepresentation.
DrawtheModel
ClickonthemenuitemProject>InsertMaxwell2DDesign
ClickonthemenuitemMaxwell>SolutionType
SelectGeometryMode:CylindricalaboutZ
SelecttheradiobuttonElectrostatic
ClickonthemenuitemDraw>Rectangle orclickontheicon
Fortherectangleposition,enter0;0;- 4 mm
Fortheoppositecorneroftherectangle,enter0.6;0;21mmorenterfor
dx,dy,dz 0.6;0;25mm;
ChangethenametoInner
Changethematerialtocopper
Changethecolorandtransparencylevelatyourconvenience.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.1
BasicExercises– ElectrostaticSolver
9.1-2
Maxwell 2D v12
CreateasecondRectangle
Forrectangleposition,enter0.6;0;- 4mm
Fordx,enter0.4mm,fordz,enter25mmorenter1.0;0;21mmforthe
positionoftheoppositecorner.
ChangethenametoAir
ChangethematerialtoAir
Changethecolorandtransparencylevelatyourconvenience.
Createathirdrectangle
Forcenterposition,enter1.0;0;- 4mm
Fordx,enter0.2mm,fordz,enter25mmorenter1.2;0;21mmforthe
positionoftheoppositecorner.
ChangethenametoOuter
Assignmaterialtocopper
Changethecolorandtransparencylevelatyourconvenience.
SelectthemenuitemDraw>Region.
Forthepaddingdata,choosePadAllDirections
ForthePaddingPercentage,enter300forpositiveXdirectionand0 forall
otherdirections
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.1
BasicExercises– ElectrostaticSolver
9.1-3
Maxwell 2D v12
AssignExcitation
Basedontheassumptionsthattheconductorsareinelectrostaticequilibrium,we
assignvoltagepotentialontheobjectitself.Inotherwords,wedonotsolve
insideconductors,weassumethatalltheconductorpartsareat thesame
potential.
ApplyvoltageexcitationtoobjectInner
SelecttheobjectInner
SelectthemenuitemMaxwell>Excitations>Assign>Voltage.Asan
alternative,oncetheobjectisselected,youcanrightclickandselect
AssignExcitations>Voltage.
Forthevoltage,enter-1kV
ApplyvoltageexcitationtoobjectOuter
SelecttheobjectOuter
selectthemenuitemMaxwell>Excitations>Assign>Voltage.
Forthevoltage,enter1kV
AssignExecutiveParameter
Inadditiontothefields,weareinterestedbytheCapacitancevalueaswell
astheforceappliedtotheinnerarmature.
CapacitanceMatrix
SelectthemenuitemMaxwell>Parameters>Assign>Matrix
IncludeVoltage1 andVoltage2 inthecapacitancecomputationby
checkingtheradiobuttonsoftheSignalLinecolumn
Forcecomputation
SelecttheobjectInner
SelectthemenuitemMaxwell>Parameters>Assign>Force
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.1
BasicExercises– ElectrostaticSolver
9.1-4
Maxwell 2D v12
CreateAnalysisSetup
SelectthemenuitemMaxwell>AnalysisSetup>AddSolutionSetup
ForthePercentError,enter0.5%
FortheRefinementperPass (Convergencetab),put50%
SolvetheProblem
SelectSetup1 fromunderAnalysis intheprojecttree,rightmouseclickand
selectAnalyze
Plottheelectricfield
Fromthemodelerhistorytree,selecttheplaneGlobal:XZ.
Onthe3Dmodelerwindow,rightclickandselectFields>E_Vector
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.1
BasicExercises– ElectrostaticSolver
9.1-5
Maxwell 2D v12
Getthecapacitancevalue
FromtheProjectwindow,rightclickonSetup1.Fromthecontextmenu,
selecttheentrySolutions
SelectthetabentryMatrix
Inourproblem,weonlyhavetwoconductors,thereforethecapacitance
valuesaresymmetrical.
SelectthetabentryForce.Itgivesyoutheforceappliedtotheinnerobject.
Notethattheforceisessentiallyzerosincethemodelismagnetically
balanced.
Theanalyticalvalueofthecapacitancepermeterforaninfinitelongcoaxial
wireisgivenbythefollowingformula:
C=2πε
0
/ ln(b/a) (aandbbeingtheinsideandoutsidediameters)
Theanalyticalvaluewouldistherefore1.089e-10F/m (a=0.6mm,b=1mm)
Inourproject,thenlengthoftheconductoris25mm,thereforethetotal
capacitanceis. 2.723pF. Weobtainagoodagreementwiththeobtained
result. 2.722pF.
Note:intheConvergencetab,youhaveaccesstothetotalenergyofthe
system.Wefind5.4459e-6 J.Itisexactly2000timesthecapacitance
(2000Vbeingthedifferenceofpotential).
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.1
BasicExercises– ElectrostaticSolver
9.1-6
Maxwell 2D v12
CapacitanceofaCylindricalCapacitorinXY
ThesameproblemisnowsolvedusinganXYrepresentation
DrawtheModel
ClickonthemenuitemProject>InsertMaxwell2DDesign
ClickonthemenuitemMaxwell>SolutionType
SelectGeometryMode:CartesianXY
SelecttheradiobuttonElectrostatic
ClickonthemenuitemDraw>Circle orclickontheicon
Forthecenterposition,enter0;0;0mm
Fortheradius,enter0.6mm;
ChangethenametoInner
Changethematerialtocopper
Changethecolorandtransparencylevelatyourconvenience.
Createanothercircle.
ClickonthemenuitemDraw>Circle orclickontheicon
Forthecenterposition,enter0;0;0mm
Fortheradius,enter1.2mm;
ChangethenametoOuter
Changethematerialtocopper
Changethecolorandtransparencylevelatyourconvenience.
ClickonthemenuitemDraw>Circle orclickontheicon
Forthecenterposition,enter0;0;0mm
Fortheradius,enter1.mm;
ChangethenametoAir
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.1
BasicExercises– ElectrostaticSolver
9.1-7
Maxwell 2D v12
AssignExcitation
Basedontheassumptionsthattheconductorsareinelectrostaticequilibrium,we
assignvoltagepotentialontheobjectitself.Inotherwords,wedonotsolve
insideconductors,weassumethatalltheconductorpartsareat thesame
potential.
ApplyvoltageexcitationtoobjectInner
SelecttheobjectInner
SelectthemenuitemMaxwell>Excitations>Assign>Voltage.Asan
alternative,oncetheobjectisselected,youcanrightclickandselect
AssignExcitations>Voltage.
Forthevoltage,enter-1kV
ApplyvoltageexcitationtoobjectOuter
SelecttheobjectOuter
selectthemenuitemMaxwell>Excitations>Assign>Voltage.
Forthevoltage,enter1kV
AssignExecutiveParameter
Inadditiontothefields,weareinterestedbytheCapacitancevalue.
CapacitanceMatrix
SelectthemenuitemMaxwell>Parameters>Assign>Matrix
IncludeVoltage1 andVoltage2 inthecapacitancecomputationbychecking
theradiobuttons.SetVoltage1 asasignallineandVoltage2 asground.
CreateAnalysisSetup
SelectthemenuitemMaxwell>AnalysisSetup>AddSolutionSetup
ForthePercentError,enter0.5%
FortheRefinementperPass (Convergencetab),put50%
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.1
BasicExercises– ElectrostaticSolver
9.1-8
Maxwell 2D v12
SolvetheProblem
SelectSetup1 fromunderAnalysis intheprojecttree,rightmouseclickand
selectAnalyze
Getthecapacitancevalue
FromtheProjectwindow,rightclickonSetup1.Fromthecontextmenu,
selecttheentrySolutions
SelectthetabentryMatrix
Theanalyticalvalueofthecapacitancepermeterforaninfinitelongcoaxial
wireisgivenbythefollowingformula:
C=2πε
0
/ ln(b/a) (aandbbeingtheinsideandoutsidediameters)
Theanalyticalvaluewouldistherefore1.089e-10F/m (a=0.6mm,b=1mm)
Thismatchestheobtainedvalue.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.1
BasicExercises– ElectrostaticSolver
9.1-9
Maxwell 2D v12
Capacitanceofaplanarcapacitor
Inthisexampleweillustratehowtosimulateasimpleplanarcapacitormadeof
twoparallelplates.Thebottomplateismodeledandthetopplateisconsidered
byusingonlytheedgeofthedielectric(air).
Drawthemodel
ClickonthemenuitemProject>InsertMaxwell2DDesign
Namethedesign Plate
ClickonthemenuitemMaxwell>SolutionType
SelectGeometryMode:CartesianXY
SelecttheradiobuttonElectrostatic
SelectthemenuitemDraw>Rectangle tocreateaplate
Forthefirstpositioncorner,enter0;0mm
FortheXsize,enter25mm
FortheYsize,enter2mm
Forthematerialproperty,enterpec (perfectconductor)
NamethefirstboxDownPlate
SelectthemenuitemDraw>Rectangle tocreateaplate
Forthefirstpositioncorner,enter0;0mm
FortheXsize,enter25mm
FortheYsize,enter3mm
NametheboxRegion
Forthematerialproperty,enterair
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.1
BasicExercises– ElectrostaticSolver
9.1-10
Maxwell 2D v12
AssignExcitation
SelecttheobjectDownPlate,selectthemenuitemMaxwell>Excitations>
Assign>Voltage.Asanalternative,oncetheobjectisselected,youcanright
clickandselectAssignExcitations>Voltage.
Forthevoltage,enter0V
SelecttheupperedgeoftheRegion,selectthemenuitemMaxwell>Excitations
>Assign>Voltage.
Forthevoltage,enter1V
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.1
BasicExercises– ElectrostaticSolver
9.1-11
Maxwell 2D v12
AssignExecutiveParameter
SelectthemenuitemMaxwell>Parameters>Assign>Matrix
IncludeVoltage1 andVoltage2 inthecapacitancecomputation
WegroundVoltage2.Wewillobtainjusta1by1matrix.
CreateAnalysisSetup
SelectthemenuitemMaxwell>AnalysisSetup>AddSolutionSetup
ForthePercentError,enter1%
FortheRefinementperPass (Convergencetab),put50%
SolvetheProblem
SelectSetup1 fromunderAnalysis intheprojecttree,rightmouseclickand
selectAnalyze.Theproblemisreallyeasy,thereforethesolutionis
obtainedalmostimmediately.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.1
BasicExercises– ElectrostaticSolver
9.1-12
Maxwell 2D v12
Getthecapacitancevalue
FromtheProjectwindow,rightclickonSetup1.Fromthepulldownmenu,
selectSolutions,thentheMatrix tab
Theanalyticalvalueofthecapacitancefortwoparallelplatesisgivenby:
C=A/d*ε
0
(Aistheareaoftheplateanddisthethicknessofthedi
electrics)
Ifweconsidertheplatetobe25mmby25mm,usingtheaboveformula,
weobtain5.53pF (thedielectricis1mmthick).
Weobtain221.35pF.Thisvalueshouldbeconsideredasthecapacitance
ofthetwoparallelplateswitha1meterdepth.Ifwerescalethisvalueby
multiplyingby0.25mmwefind5.53pF aswell.
9.3
BasicExercise– Magnetostatic ForceCalculation
9.3-1 AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
Maxwell 2D v12
ForcecalculationinMagnetostatic Solver
Thisexercisewilldiscusshowtosetupaforcecalculationinthe2D
Magnetostatic Solver.
ProblemDescription
Asshowninthefollowingpicture,acoilandslugaredrawninaplaneusingRZ
symmetry.Thecoilscarryacurrentthatexertaverticalforce onthe
ferromagneticslug.
2DSymmetricCoiland
Slugaboutz-axis
Actual3DCoilandSlug
9.3
BasicExercise– Magnetostatic ForceCalculation
9.3-2 AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
Maxwell 2D v12
CreateaNewProject
OpenupMaxwellV12
ClickonthemenuitemProject>InsertMaxwell2DDesign
ClickonthemenuitemMaxwell2D>SolutionType>Magnetostatic
ChangethegeometrymodetoCylindricalaboutZ
DrawtheSlug
ClickonthemenuitemDraw>Rectangle
X,Y,Z:0,0,-10,Enter (defaultunitsareinmm)
DX,DY,DZ:5,0,15,Enter
ChangeitsnamefromRectangle1 toSlug
SelecttheSlug andchangeitsmaterialtoSteel1008
Changeitscolorifdesired
DrawtheCoil
ClickonthemenuitemDraw>Rectangle
X,Y,Z:6,0,0,Enter
DX,DY,DZ:4,0,20,Enter
Changeitsnameto:Coil
Changeitsmaterialto:Copper
Changeitscolorifdesired
9.3
BasicExercise– Magnetostatic ForceCalculation
9.3-3 AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
Maxwell 2D v12
AddaRegion
ClickonthemenuitemDraw>Region:
SelectPadallDirections andtype100inPaddingPercentage
Youshouldseeamessageindicatingthatthe–Xdirectionissettozerodue
toRZ-symmetryabouttheZ-axis.
SelectRegion andclickonthemenuitemView>HideSelection>Allviews.
Saveyourproject
ClickonFile>SaveAs:
Magnetostatic_Force.mxwl forBasicExerciseMagnetostatic Force
calculation
AssignExcitation
SelecttheCoil andclickonthemenuitemMaxwell2D>Excitations>Assign
>Current:
Name:Current1
Value:1000
Ref.Direction:Negative(sopositivecurrentwillbeinthenegativeY
direction)
9.3
BasicExercise– Magnetostatic ForceCalculation
9.3-4 AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
Maxwell 2D v12
AssignBoundarytoRegionEdges
Fromtheobjecttree,selectRegion
ClickonthemenuitemEdit>Select>AllObjectEdges
ClickonthemenuitemMaxwell2D>Boundaries>Balloon
AssignForceCalculation
SelecttheCoil andclickonthemenuitemMaxwell2D>Parameters>Assign>
Force
Name:Force1
9.3
BasicExercise– Magnetostatic ForceCalculation
9.3-5 AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
Maxwell 2D v12
CreateAnalysisSetup
ClickonMaxwell2D>AnalysisSetup>AddSolutionSetup
MaximumNumberofPasses:15
RefinementperPass:30
ClickonOK
SolvetheProblem
SelectSetup1 fromunderAnalysis intheprojecttree,rightmouseclickand
selectAnalyze
ViewtheAutomaticAdaptiveMeshConvergence
RightclickontheprojecttreeitemAnalysis>Setup1 andselect
Convergence.
9.3
BasicExercise– Magnetostatic ForceCalculation
9.3-6 AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
Maxwell 2D v12
ViewCalculatedForceResult
ClickontheForcetabintheopenSolutions window.
Thecalculatedforceisupdatedautomaticallyaftereachpass.
9.3
BasicExercise– Magnetostatic ForceCalculation
9.3-7 AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
Maxwell 2D v12
PlottheMagnitudeofMagneticFluxDensity
SelecttheobjecttreeitemGlobal:XZplaneunderPlanes
SelectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>Fields>Fields >B>Mag_B
ClickOKontheCreateFieldPlot window.
ThisConcludestheMagnetostatic ForceCalculationBasic
Exercise.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.4
BasicExercises– ParametricSolver
9.4- 1
Maxwell 2D v12
2DParametricstudyusingacoilandironslug.
AnRZMagnetostatic problemwillbeusedtodemonstratethesetupofa
parametricsolutionusingOptimetrics inMaxwell2D.Thecoilcurrentand
thedimensionallengthofanironslugwillbevariedandtheforceonthe
slugwillbeobserved.
ClickonthemenuitemProject>InsertMaxwell2DDesign.
ClickonthemenuitemMaxwell2D>SolutionType>
Magnetostatic, andselectCylindricalaboutZ,
fromthepulldownmenu.
SettheUnitsandtheSnapMode.
ClickonthemenuitemModeler>Units..., andselectmm.
ClickonModeler>Snapmode
VerifythatSnapTo:Grid and Vertexareset.
2DGeometry:IronSluginsideacoil.
Drawthecoil:ClickonthemenuitemDraw>Rectangle,andarbitrarily
chooseastartingpointandoppositecornerforwhatwillbethe coil.
DoubleclickonCreateRectangle
underRectangle1intheHistory
Tree,andeditthePosition,Xsize
andZsize asshown,andclickOK.
2DFluxLinesandFluxDensity 3DGeometry:CoilandIronSlug
CoilOR=1.25mm
CoilIR=1mm
CoilHeight=0.8mm
Slugwidth=1mm
Slugdepth=1mm
SlugHeight=1mm
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.4
BasicExercises– ParametricSolver
9.4- 2
Maxwell 2D v12
DrawtheSlug:ClickonthemenuitemDraw>Rectangle,andarbitrarilychoose
astartingpointandoppositecornerforwhatwillbetheslug.
DoubleclickonCreateRectangleunderRectangle2 intheHistoryTree,
andeditthePosition,XsizeandZsizeasshown.
Enterthetext‘SlugHeight’ fortheValueofZsize.AfterselectingOK,theAdd
Variableboxappears.AssigntheValueforSlugHeightas1mm,andclickOK.
Note: Bydefiningavariablename(SlugHeight)itbecomesadesignvariable.
Similarly,ifanobjectismoved,it’smovedistancecanbeassignedavariable.
TheDesignVariablesareaccessibleinthePropertywindowbyclickingonthe
DesignnameintheProjectManager.
Ortheycanbeviewedbyclicking:Maxwell2D>DesignProperties...
Note: TheparameterforXsizeisdefinedusingthepredefinedconstant,pi,andan
equationthatcalculatestheequivalent2Dcross-sectionofa1mm
2
slugwhich
wasusedinthe3DExercise.Otherpredefinedconstantscanbefoundby
selectingfromthemenu,Project>ProjectVariables,andselectingConstants tab.
AssignMaterialsandNames
SelecttheRectangle1objectintheDesignTreeanddoubleclick itto
editit’sproperties.
Name:Coil
Material:Select copperfrom
thematerialdatabase.
Color:Changethecolor
toOrange,andclickOK.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.4
BasicExercises– ParametricSolver
9.4- 3
Maxwell 2D v12
Similarly,selecttheRectangle2objectintheDesignTreeanddoubleclickitto
editit’sproperties.
Name:Slug
Material:Select steel_1008
fromthematerialdatabase.
Color:Changethecolor
toBlue,andclick OK.
CreatetheRegion
Selectfromthemenu,Draw>Region.
SelectthePadIndividualDirections
radiobuttonandassignpaddingpercentages
asshownbelowandClickOK.
SincethismodelissymmetricabouttheZ-axis,
theX=0boundaryisthelineofsymmetry.
AssigntheBoundaryCondition
Viewthefullgeometrybyselectingfromthemenu,View>FitAll>ActiveView,
orsimplytypetheshortcutCtrl+D.
ChoosetheEdgeselectionmodebyselectingfrom
themenu,Edit>Select>Edges ,orrightclickin
thedrawingspaceandclickSelect Edges.
WhileholdingdowntheCtrlkey,selectthetop,
bottom,andrightedgesoftheRegion.
Fromthemenu,selectMaxwell2D>
Boundaries>Assign>Balloon...
ChangebacktotheObjectselectionmodeby
selectingfromthemenu,Edit>Select>Objects.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.4
BasicExercises– ParametricSolver
9.4- 4
Maxwell 2D v12
AssigntheExcitation
SelecttheCoil fromtheHistoryTree.
Fromthemenu,selectMaxwell2D>
Excitations>Assign>Current...
LeaveNameasCurrent1 andsetValue:AmpTurns andclickOK.
Define‘AmpTurns’ as100 intheAddVariablewindow,andclickOK.
AssigntheForceCalculation
IncludeaforcecalculationbyselectingtheSlug fromtheHistoryTree.
SelectfromtheMenu,Maxwell2D>
Parameters>Assign>Force...
ChangethenametoSlugForce,inthe
ForceSetupwindow.
AddanAnalysisSetup
RightClickonAnalysis intheModelTreeandselectAddSolutionSetup.
ClickOK toacceptthedefaultsfornow.
AddtheForceasanOutputVariable.
Selectfromthemenu,Maxwell2D>
Results>OutputVariables...
SelectSlugForce.Force_z inthe
Quantity:windowandclickon
InsertIntoExpression.
InsertaminussignintheExpression
textboxinfrontofSlugforce.Force_z,
thiswillresultinapositiveforce.
Enter‘SlugForce’ astheNameand
selectAdd.
ClickDone.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.4
BasicExercises– ParametricSolver
9.4- 5
Maxwell 2D v12
ModifySetupandsolveanominalproblem
Intheprojecttree,doubleclickonSetup1 undertheAnalysis folder.
ChangethedefaultMaximumNumberofPasses to15.
ChangethedefaultPercentErrorto0.5.
IntheConvergencetab,selectSlugForce tobedisplayedinthe
Convergence,asshownbelow.ClickOK.
FindtheValidateiconinthetoolbar.
(Itlookslikeagreencheckmark).
Thiswillchecktheproblemsetup.
Solvetheproblembyrightclickingon
Setup1 intheProjectmanager.
ClickonAnalyze.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.4
BasicExercises– ParametricSolver
9.4- 6
Maxwell 2D v12
InspectResults
CheckthesolutionbyagainrightclickingonSetup1 andselectConvergence...
Plotfluxresults:
SelecttheCoil,Slug,andRegionobjectsbyusingctrl+A.
Fromthemenu,selectMaxwell2D>Fields>Fields>B>Mag_B,
clickDone intheCreateFieldPlotwindow.
Similarly,selectMaxwell2D>Fields>Fields>A>FluxLines,
clickDone intheCreateFieldPlotwindow.
IntheprojecttreeunderFieldOverlays,rightclickonMag_B1andcheckPlot
Visibility.DothesameforFlux_Lines1sothatbothplotsarevisible.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.4
BasicExercises– ParametricSolver
9.4- 7
Maxwell 2D v12
CreateaParametricsolution
ClickontheMenuitemMaxwell2D>OptimetricsAnalysis>AddParametric...
ClickAdd...intheAdd/EditSweepwindowtodefinetheparameterstobeswept
intheanalysis.
SelectSlugHeightfromtheVariablepull-downmenu,andassign
Start=1mm,Stop=2mm,andStep=0.2,andclicktheAdd>> button.
Similarly,selectAmpTurnsfromtheVariablepull-downmenu,andassign
Start=100,Stop=200,andStep=50,andclicktheAdd>> button.
ClickOK.
ClickontheTable tabtoinspectthecombinationofsolutionsthathavebeen
created.Thereshouldbe18solutionssincewedefined6variationsofSlugHeight
and3variationsofAmpTurns.
Next,selecttheCalculationstabtodefinewhichoutputswillbecalculatedforeach
parametricsolution.
Then,clickontheSetupCalculations...Buttoninthelowerleftcornerofthe
Calculationstab.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.4
BasicExercises– ParametricSolver
9.4- 8
Maxwell 2D v12
TheAdd/EditCalculation windowshouldappear:
Select:Category:OutputVariables.
Quantity:SlugForce (apreviouslydefinedOutputVariable).
ClickAddCalculation.
ClickDone.
IntheOptionsTab,clickbothboxesforSaveFieldsAndMesh,
andCopyGeometricallyEquivalentMeshes.
SolvetheParametricproblem
IntheProjectManagerwindow,underOptimetrics,rightclickon
ParametricSetup1,andselect Analyze.
Note: thesolvingcriteriaistakenfromthe
nominalproblem,Setup1 .Eachparametric
solutionwillre-meshifthegeometryhas
changedortheenergyerrorcriteriaisnot
metasdefinedinSetup1.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.4
BasicExercises– ParametricSolver
9.4- 9
Maxwell 2D v12
Viewthesolutionprogress:
IntheProjectManagerwindow,rightclickonParametricSetup1,
andselect ViewAnalysisResult...
ClicktheTablebuttontoviewalltheresultsintablatureform.
Thefullparametricsolutionshouldtakeabout1minutedependingonthe
speedofthemachine.
GraphtheForcevs.AmpTurnsvs.SlugHeight
RightClickonResultsintheProjectManager,
andselectCreateMagnetostaticReport>RectangularPlot.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.4
BasicExercises– ParametricSolver
9.4- 10
Maxwell 2D v12
IntheNewReport– NewTraceswindow,SelecttheTrace tab:
Select: Category:OutputVariables.
Quantity: SlugForce(apreviouslydefinedOutputVariable).
X:SlugHeight,andY:SlugForce.
SelecttheFamilies tab:
EnsurethatthatAmpTurnsisselectedastheSweepsvariable.
ClickonNewReport,ClickonClose.
Theplotwillappearasshownonnextpage,themarkerscanbeaddedby
doubleclickingonthetraceandcheckingtheShowSymbolcheckbox.
Rightclickintheplotandselect ExportData... toexportthedatatoafile.
Theaxiscanbeeditedbydoubleclickingonthexoryaxis.
Thetitlecanbechangedby
editingthenameintheProjectTree.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.4
BasicExercises– ParametricSolver
9.4- 11
Maxwell 2D v12
A3DsurfacecanbecreatedbyrightclickingonResultsintheProjectTreeand
selectingCreateMagnetostaticReport>3DRectangularPlot.
Editthe3DCartesianPlotwindowasshownbelow.ClickNewReport,Close.
Thisistheendofthe
2DParametrics
BasicExercise.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.4
BasicExercises– ParametricSolver
9.4- 12
Maxwell 2D v12
Animatethefluxplot:
SincetheSlugHeight andAmpTurns wereparametricallyvaried,thefluxplotcan
beanimatedwithrespecttoeitherofthesevariables.
IntheProjectManagerwindow,rightclickontheFlux_lines plotandselect
Animate…
IntheSetupAnimation window,choose:
SweptVariable:SlugHeight
Selectvalues:(selectallvaluesinthelist)
ChooseOKtocreatetheanimatedplot.
Afterviewingtheplot,choose:Export… tosaveasa.gifmoviefile.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.5
BasicExercise– 2DTransient
9.5-1
Inductorusingtransientsource
Thisexercisewilldiscusshowtousetransientsourcesasthe
excitationforaninductorcoil.
DrawtheInductor
ClickonthemenuitemProject>InsertMaxwell2DDesign
ClickonthemenuitemMaxwell2D>SolutionType
GeometryMode:CylindricalAboutZ
Magnetic:Transient
ClickonthemenuitemDraw>Rectangle
StartPosition:0,0,0
XSize:2mm
ZSize:20mm
Changeitsnameto:Core
Changeitsmaterialto:ferrite
Changeitscolortogreen
SelecttheCore andclickonthemenuitemEdit>Copy
ClickonthemenuitemEdit>Paste,thenewobjectsnameis
Core1
IntheobjecttreeclickonCore1 andthenclickonCreateRectangle
IntheProperties windowchangethefollowing:
Position:0,0,1mm
XSize:5mm,ZSize:18mm
ClickonthenameCore1andchangeitsproperties
Name:Coil
Material:Copper
Color:Yellow
SelectCoil andCore andthenclickon2DModeler>Boolean>
Subtract:
BlankPart:Coil
ToolPart:Core
Cloneobjectsbeforesubtracting:; checked
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.5
BasicExercise– 2DTransient
9.5-2
ClickonthemenuitemDraw>Region:
PaddingData:AllPaddingDirections
PaddingPercentage:500
Changethenameofthedesignto:
BE_TransforBasicExerciseTransient
AssignExcitation
SelecttheCoil andclickonthemenuitemMaxwell2D>Excitations>
Assign>Coil:
Name:Coil
NumberofConductors:150
Polarity:Positive (intothescreen)
ClickonthemenuitemMaxwell2D>Excitations>AddWinding
Name:Winding_A
Type:Voltage
Stranded:; Checked
InitialCurrent:0.0amps
Resistance:25ohm
Inductance:0H
Voltage:0V(Note:Thiswillbechangedonthenextpage)
Numberofparallelbranches:1
SelectWinding_A fromtheprojecttreeunderExcitation andrightmouse
clickandselectAddCoils…
IntheAddTerminalswindow,select:Coilandclick Ok.
Theprojecttreeshouldlooklikethis:
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.5
BasicExercise– 2DTransient
9.5-3
CreatetheExcitation
Theexcitationforthisproblemwillbeavoltagesourcewitha1KHztriangular
wavesuperimposedona50Hzsinewavethathasa50voltDCoffset.
ClickonthemenuitemMaxwell2D>DesignDatasetsandthenAdd anew
dataset
Name:DSet_A
Coordinates:
X1=0 Y1=0
X2=250e-6 Y2=1
X3=750e-6 Y3=-1
X4=1e-3 Y4=0
ClickOk andDone.
SelectWinding_A fromtheProjectTreeandrightmouseclickandselect
Propertiesandtypeinthefollowing:
ChangeVoltage:0V thatwasspecifiedonthepreviouspageto:
Voltage:V_DC+Vp*sin(2*PI*50*Time)+5*pwl_periodic (DSet_A,Time)
ClickonOK andinthedialogwindowenter50 forV_DC,clickonOK
Inthenextdialogwindowenter25 forVp,clickonOK
ThefirsttermistheDCoffsetandthe2
nd
ispeakvoltageofthesinewave
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.5
BasicExercise– 2DTransient
9.5-4
AssignBalloonBoundary
ClickonthemenuitemEdit>Select>Edges
Selectoneoftheedgesofthebackgroundregion
ClickonthemenuitemEdit>Select>Select EdgeChain
ClickonthemenuitemMaxwell2D>Boundaries>Assign>Balloon
Name:Balloon1
ApplyMeshOperations
Thetransientsolverdoesnotusetheautomaticadaptivemeshing process,soa
manualmeshneedstobecreated.
SelecttheCore andclickonthemenuitemMaxwell2D>MeshOperations>
Assign>InsideSelection>LengthBased.
Name:Core_Inside
RestrictLengthOfElements:Uncheck
RestrictNumberofElements:; Check
MaximumNumberofElements:250
SelecttheCoil andclickonthemenuitemMaxwell2D>MeshOperations>
Assign>InsideSelection>LengthBased.
Name:Coil_Inside
RestrictLengthOfElements:Uncheck
RestrictNumberofElements:; Check
MaximumNumberofElements:100
CreateAnalysisSetup
ClickonMaxwell2D>AnalysisSetup>AddSolutionSetup
GeneralTab
StopTime:20ms
TimeStep:100us
SaveFieldsTab
Type:LinearCount
Start:0sec
Stop:20msec
Count:11
Clickon:AddtoList
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.5
BasicExercise– 2DTransient
9.5-5
SolvetheProblem
SelectSetup1 fromunderAnalysis intheprojecttree,rightmouseclickand
selectAnalyze
SavetheDesign
ClickonFile>Save tosavethedesignandresults
PlottheVoltageandCurrent
ClickonMaxwell2D>Results>CreateTransientReport >Rectangularplot:
SelectCategory:Winding
SelectQuantity:InputVoltage(Winding_A)
Clickon:New Report
SelectQuantity:Current(Winding_A)
Clickon:Add Trace
Clickon:Close
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.5
BasicExercise– 2DTransient
9.5-6
PlottheFluxLines
Besurethatthe2DModelerwindowisintheactiveviewwindow.
SelectthemenuitemView>SetSolutionContext
Time:0.01sec
SelectalloftheobjectsbyclickingonEdit>SelectAll
ClickonMaxwell2D>Fields>Fields >A>FluxLines
ClickonDone
Doubleclickontheplotlgend:
ColorMapTab >NumberofDivisions:56
PlotsTab>IsoValType:Line
Zoomintoseetheplotbelow.
ThisconcludestheBasicExampleforTransientSources
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.6
BasicExercise– 2DTransientwithCircuits
9.6-1
Inductorusingtransientsource
Thisexercisewilldiscusshowtousetransientsourcesasthe
excitationforaninductorcoil.
DrawtheInductor
ClickonthemenuitemProject>InsertMaxwell2DDesign
ClickonthemenuitemMaxwell2D>SolutionType
GeometryMode:CylindricalAboutZ
Magnetic:Transient
ClickonthemenuitemDraw>Rectangle
StartPosition:0,0,0
XSize:2mm
ZSize:20mm
Changeitsnameto:Core
Changeitsmaterialto:ferrite
Changeitscolorifdesired
SelecttheCore andclickonthemenuitemEdit>Copy
ClickonthemenuitemEdit>Paste,thenewobjectsnameis
Core1
IntheobjecttreeclickonCore1 andthenclickonCreateRectangle
IntheProperties windowchangethefollowing:
StartPosition:0,0,1mm
XSize:5mm,ZSize:18mm
ClickonthenameCore1andchangeitsproperties
Name:Coil
Material:Copper
Color:Yellow
SelectCoil andCore andthenclickon2DModeler>Boolean>
Subtract:
BlankPart:Coil
ToolPart:Core
Cloneobjectsbeforesubtracting:; checked
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.6
BasicExercise– 2DTransientwithCircuits
9.6-2
ClickonthemenuitemDraw>Region:
PaddingData:AllPaddingDirections
PaddingPercentage:500
Changethenameofthedesignto:
BE_Trans_Ckt forBasicExerciseTransient
AssignExcitation
SelecttheCoil andclickonthemenuitemMaxwell2D>Excitations>
Assign>Coil:
Name:Coil
NumberofConductors:150
Polarity:Positive (intothescreen)
ClickonthemenuitemMaxwell2D>Excitations>AddWinding
Name:Winding_A
Type:External
Stranded:; Checked
InitialCurrent:0.0amps
Numberofparallelbranches:1
SelectWinding_A fromtheprojecttreeunderExcitation andrightmouse
clickandselectAddCoils…
IntheAddTerminalswindow,select:Coilandclick Ok.
Theprojecttreeshouldlooklikethis:
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.6
BasicExercise– 2DTransientwithCircuits
9.6-3
CreateanExternalCircuit
ToaccessMaxwellCircuitEditor,rightmouseclickonExcitations andselect
ExternalCircuit>EditExternalCircuit
SelectEditCircuit fromtheEditExternalCircuit dialog
MaximizetheAnsoftMaxwellCircuitEditorwindowonthescreen.
ClickonFile>New tocreateanewschematic
SelecttheComponents tabandchooseMaxwellCircuitElements>Dedicated
Elements>Winding anddragthiscomponentontothesheet
SelecttheWinding ontheschematic.
Inthepropertieswindowchangethefollowing:
Name:Winding_A
Note:Thisnamehastobeexactly thesamenameasusedinthe
WindingdefinitiondescribedpreviouslyinMaxwell>Excitations>
AddWinding
SelectSources >VSin dragthiscomponentontothesheet,hitESC toend
insertion:
Va:100volts
VFreq:50Hz
SelectSource> VSin dragthiscomponentontothesheet:
Va:10volts
VFreq:1000Hz
SelectPassiveElements> Res anddragthiscomponentontothesheet:
R:25ohms
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.6
BasicExercise– 2DTransientwithCircuits
9.6-4
ConnectalloftheelementstogetherusingDraw>Wire andaddaground
usingDraw>Ground.
SelectProbes>Voltmeter andplaceitbetweenthetwovoltagesourcesand
ground.
Thecircuitshouldlooklikethis:
ClickonFile>SaveAs:
BE_Circuit.amcp forBasicExerciseCircuit(Notedirectorywherefileis
saved.)
ClickonMaxwellCircuit>ExportNetlist:
FileName:BE_Circuit.sph (Notedirectorywherefileissaved.)
LinkthecircuitfiletotheMaxwellproject
IntheMaxwellBE_Trans_Ckt.mxwlprojectclickonImportCircuit from
theEditExternalCircuit dialogandselectBE_Circuit.sph
TheEditExternalCircuitPanelshouldappearasbelowwithacheckin
theHasInductorinCircuit box.
Toverifythelocationoftheimported.sph file,clickonCircuitPath tab.
Note:Samenameused:
Winding_A
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.6
BasicExercise– 2DTransientwithCircuits
9.6-5
AssignBalloonBoundary
ClickonthemenuitemEdit>Select>Edges
Selectoneoftheedgesofthebackgroundregion
ClickonthemenuitemEdit>Select>Select EdgeChain
ClickonthemenuitemMaxwell2D>Boundaries>Assign>Balloon
Name:Balloon1
ApplyMeshOperations
Thetransientsolverdoesnotusetheautomaticadaptivemeshing process,soa
manualmeshneedstobecreated.
SelecttheCore andclickonthemenuitemMaxwell2D>MeshOperations>
Assign>InsideSelection>LengthBased.
Name:Core_Inside
RestrictLengthOfElements:Uncheck
RestrictNumberofElements:; Check
MaximumNumberofElements:250
SelecttheCoil andclickonthemenuitemMaxwell2D>MeshOperations>
Assign>InsideSelection>LengthBased.
Name:Coil_Inside
RestrictLengthOfElements:Uncheck
RestrictNumberofElements:; Check
MaximumNumberofElements:100
CreateAnalysisSetup
ClickonMaxwell>AnalysisSetup>AddSolutionSetup
GeneralTab
StopTime:20ms
TimeStep:100us
SaveFieldsTab
Type:LinearCount
Start:0sec
Stop:20msec
Count:11
Clickon:AddtoList
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.6
BasicExercise– 2DTransientwithCircuits
9.6-6
SolvetheProblem
SelectSetup1 fromunderAnalysis intheprojecttree,rightmouseclickand
selectAnalyze
SavetheDesign
ClickonFile>Save tosavethedesignandresults
PlottheVoltageandCurrent
ClickonMaxwell2D>Results>CreateTransientReport >Rectangularplot:
SelectCategory:NodeVoltage
SelectQuantity:NodeVoltage(IVoltmeter)
Clickon:New Report
SelectCategory:Winding
SelectQuantity:Current(Winding_A)
Clickon:Add Trace
Clickon:Close
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.6
BasicExercise– 2DTransientwithCircuits
9.6-7
PlottheFluxLines
Besurethatthe2DModelerwindowisintheactiveviewwindow.
SelectthemenuitemView>SetSolutionContext
Time:0.01sec
SelectalloftheobjectsbyclickingonEdit>SelectAll
ClickonMaxwell2D>Fields>Fields >A>FluxLines
ClickonDone
Doubleclickontheplotlegend:
Color Map Tab> Number of Divisions:56
Plots Tab>IsoValType:Line
Zoomintoseetheplotbelow.
ThisconcludestheBasicExampleforTransientwith
Circuits
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.8
Optimetrics Example– PuckAttractor
9.8-1
Maxwell 2D v12
PuckMagnetAttractor
Thisexampledescribeshowtocreateandoptimizeapuckmagnet
producinganoptimalforceonasteelplateusingthe2DRZMagnetostatic
solverandOptimetrics intheAnsoftMaxwell2DDesignEnvironment.
Theoptimizationobtainsthedesiredforce=0.25Nbyvaryingtheairgap
betweentheplateandthepuckusingalocalvariable.
Magnet
SteelPlate
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.8
Optimetrics Example– PuckAttractor
9.8-2
Maxwell 2D v12
CreateaNewProject
OpenupMaxwellV12
ClickonthemenuitemProject>InsertMaxwell2DDesign
ClickonthemenuitemMaxwell2D>SolutionType
ChangethegeometrymodetoCylindricalaboutZ
Solvershouldbe:Magnetic:Magnetostatic
Verifythatmm areunitsunder Modeler>Units
DrawthePlate
ClickonthemenuitemDraw>Rectangle
X,Y,Z:0,0,0,Enter (defaultunitsareinmm)
dX,dY,dZ:5,0,1,Enter
ChangeitsnamefromRectangle1 toPlate
SelectthePlate andchangeitsmaterialtoSteel1008
Changeitscolorifdesired
DrawtheMagnet
ClickonthemenuitemDraw>Rectangle
X,Y,Z:0,0,2Enter
dX,dY,dZ:2,0,2Enter
Changeitsnameto:Magnet
Changeitsmaterialto:NdFe30
ChangeitscolortoRed
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.8
Optimetrics Example– PuckAttractor
9.8-3
Maxwell 2D v12
Createtherelativecoordinatesystemforthepuckmagnetization:
ThedefaultmagnetizationdirectionforNdFe30isintheX-direction.Since
magnetizationintheZ-directionisdesiredforthisexample,afacecoordinatewill
becreated:
Changetofaceselectmodeusing:Edit>Select>Faces
Clickonthemagnetandthenchoose:themenuitemModeler>
CoordinateSystem>Create>FaceCS
Clickonthelowerleftcornerofthemagnetandtheupperleftcornerofthe
magnettocreatethefacecoordinatesystem.
Changebacktoobjectselectmodeusing:Edit>Select>Objects
AssigntherelativecoordinatesystemtothePuckobject:
Toassigntherelativecoordinatesystem:
IntheHistoryTree,selecttheobjectMagnet.
Ín theattributeswindow,changetheattributeOrientation toFaceCS1.To
changethevalue,clickonthevalueGlobal andselectthenewcoordinate
systemfromthepull-downlist.
Inthehistorytree,changebacktotheGlobalcoordinatesystem byclicking
onGlobalunderCoordinateSystems
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.8
Optimetrics Example– PuckAttractor
9.8-4
Maxwell 2D v12
Setupthemagnetmotion
Tocreatethevariableallowingthemagnettomoveparametrically:
1. SelectthemagnetandthenEdit>Arrange>Move
2. Clicktwiceonthelowerleftcornerofthemagnet
3. ClicktheOKbutton
4. Thepropertieswindowappearsautomatically.Undercommandtabsetthe
MoveVector valueto0,0,move.PressEnter.
5. TheAddVariablewindowappearsautomatically.Setthevalueofthe
variablemoveto0mm.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.8
Optimetrics Example– PuckAttractor
9.8-5
Maxwell 2D v12
AddaRegion
ClickonthemenuitemDraw>Region:
SelectPadallDirections andtype300inPaddingPercentage
Resettheviewbychoosing:View>FitAll>AllViews
Youshouldseeamessageindicatingthatthe–Xdirectionissettozerodue
toRZ-symmetryabouttheZ-axis.
Saveyourproject
ClickonFile>SaveAs:
Ex_09_08.mxwl forBasicExerciseOptimizationcalculation
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.8
Optimetrics Example– PuckAttractor
9.8-6
Maxwell 2D v12
AssignBoundarytoRegionEdges
ClickonthemenuitemEdit>Select>Faces
WiththeCTRL keydepressedclickonthetop,right,andbottomedges.
ClickonthemenuitemMaxwell2D>Boundaries>Assign>Balloon
ClickonthemenuitemEdit>Select>Objects
AssignForceCalculation
SelectthePlate andclickonthemenuitemMaxwell2D>Parameters>Assign>
Force
Name:Force1
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.8
Optimetrics Example– PuckAttractor
9.8-7
Maxwell 2D v12
AddanAnalysisSetup
RightClickonAnalysis intheModelTreeandselectAddSolutionSetup.
SetMaximumNumberofPasses:15
PercentError:0.1%
ClickOK.
AddtheForceasanOutputVariable.
Selectfromthemenu,Maxwell2D>Results>OutputVariables...
SelectForce1.Force_z intheQuantity:windowandclickon
InsertIntoExpression.
Enter‘Fz’ astheNameandselectAdd.
ClickDone.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.8
Optimetrics Example– PuckAttractor
9.8-8
Maxwell 2D v12
ModifySetupandsolveanominalproblem
Intheprojecttree,doubleclickonSetup1 undertheAnalysis folder.
OntheConvergencetab,checkUseOutputVariableConvergenceandthe
OutputVariable:Fz willbedisplayedintheConvergence,asshownbelow.
SetMaxDeltaPerPass:0.1%
ClickOK.
FindtheValidateiconinthetoolbar.
(Itlookslikeagreencheckmark).
Thiswillchecktheproblemsetup.
Solvetheproblembyrightclickingon
Setup1 intheProjectmanager.
ClickonAnalyze.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.8
Optimetrics Example– PuckAttractor
9.8-9
Maxwell 2D v12
ViewtheAutomaticAdaptiveMeshConvergence
RightclickontheprojecttreeitemAnalysis>Setup1 andselect
Convergence.
ViewCalculatedForceResult
ClickontheForcetabintheopenSolutions window.
Thecalculatedforceisupdatedautomaticallyaftereachpass.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.8
Optimetrics Example– PuckAttractor
9.8-10
Maxwell 2D v12
Optimetrics SetupandSolution
Itispossibletooptimizepositioninordertoobtainthespecifiedforce.Forthis
optimization,thepositionwillbevariedtoobtainadesiredforceof0.25N.
SpecifytheOptimizationVariables
Beforestartingtheoptimizationsetup,theappropriatevariablesmustbeincluded
intheoptimization.
SelectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>DesignProperties,clickonthe
Optimizationradialbuttoninordertospecifythatmove beusedinan
optimizationsolution.
ChecktheInclude box.
SettheMin=0mm,andMax=1mm.
SelectOKtoexit.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.8
Optimetrics Example– PuckAttractor
9.8-11
Maxwell 2D v12
SetupanOptimizationAnalysis
SelectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>Optimetrics Analysis>AddOptimization...
IntheSetupOptimizationwindow,changetheoptimizerto:SequentialNonlinear
Programming
ReducetheMaxNoofIterations:10sothesolutionwillnotdotomanyiterations.
ClickSetupCalculations... andthenOutputVariables…
IntheOutputVariableswindow,enterthefollowing:
1. Name: target
2. Expression: 0.25
3. ClickonAddtocreatethisoutputvariableforthetargetinductance.
4. Name: cost1
5. Expression: (target- Force_z)^2
6. ClickonAddtocreatethisoutputvariableforthecostfunction.
7. ClickonDone toleavetheOutputVariablewindow.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.8
Optimetrics Example– PuckAttractor
9.8-12
Maxwell 2D v12
SetupanOptimizationAnalysis
IntheAdd/EditCalculation notethatbothtarget andcost1 arenowlisted.
Highlightcost1 andclickAddCalculation.
ClickDone toleavetheAdd/EditCalculation window
SetupanOptimizationAnalysis
IntheSetupOptimization window,changetheCondition:Minimze
ClickOK toleavetheSetupOptimization window.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.8
Optimetrics Example– PuckAttractor
9.8-13
Maxwell 2D v12
SolvetheOptimizationAnalysis
Intheprojecttreewindow,highlightOptimizationSetup1.
SelectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>AnalyzeAlltosolve.Solutiontimeis
approximately5- 10minutes.
Optimetrics Results
YourOptimetrics Resultswillbesimilartothefollowingresults.
Selectthemenuitem:Maxwell2D>Optimetrics Analysis>Optimetrics Results
CheckLogScale todisplaytheplotbelow.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.8
Optimetrics Example– PuckAttractor
9.8-14
Maxwell 2D v12
Optimetrics Results
ChooseView:Table todisplaytheresultsbelow.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.8
Optimetrics Example– PuckAttractor
9.8-15
Maxwell 2D v12
CreatePlotofCostvs Force
Tocreateareport:
1. SelectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>Results>CreateMagnetostatic Report
>RectangularPlot
2. LeavethedefaultsettingsandclickNewReport
0.00 100.00 200.00 300.00 400.00 500.00 600.00
move [um]
200.00
250.00
300.00
350.00
400.00
450.00
500.00
550.00
F
o
r
c
e
1
.
F
o
r
c
e
_
z

[
m
N
e
w
t
o
n
]
Ansoft LLC Maxwell2DDesign1
XY Plot 1
Curve Inf o
Force1.Force_z
Setup1 : LastAdaptive
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.8
Optimetrics Example– PuckAttractor
9.8-16
Maxwell 2D v12
CreatePlotofCostvs move
Tocreateareport:
1. SelectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>Results>CreateMagnetostatic Report
>RectangularPlot
2. ChooseQuantity:cost1 andclickNewReport
0.00 100.00 200.00 300.00 400.00 500.00 600.00
move [um]
1.00E-006
1.00E-005
1.00E-004
1.00E-003
1.00E-002
1.00E-001
c
o
s
t
1
Ansoft LLC Maxwell2DDesign1
XY Plot 2
Curve Inf o
cost1
Setup1 : LastAdaptive
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.10
BasicExercise- Scripting
9.10-1
Maxwell 2D v12
ScriptingtheCreationofaModelObject
Thisexercisewilldiscusshowtorecord,modifyandrunascriptfor
automatinggenerationofacircle.Thefollowingtaskswillbeperformed:
Recordascriptinwhichacircleiscreated.
Modifythescripttochangethecircle’sradiusandheight.
Runthemodifiedscript.
CreatetheProject
ClickonthemenuitemFile>New
ClickonthemenuitemProject>InsertMaxwell2DDesign
SavetheProject
SelectthemenuitemFile>SaveAs…
Savethefileasscripting_example.mxwl
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.10
BasicExercise- Scripting
9.10-2
Maxwell 2D v12
StartRecordingtheScript
ClickonthemenuitemTools>RecordScript. Bydefaultthescriptwillbe
recordedinVisualBasicformat.
Specifythenameofthefileasscript.
DrawtheCircle
Theradiusforourinitialcircleobjectwillbe1mm.
Clickonthemenuitem Draw>Circle
Usingthecoordinateentryfield,enterthecenterposition:
X:0.0,Y:0.0,Z:0.0,PresstheEnter key
Usingthecoordinateentryfield,entertheradius:
dX:1.0,dY:0.0,dZ:0.0,PresstheEnter key
StopRecordingtheScript
ClickonthemenuitemTools>StopScriptRecording.
Thefileisnowsavedonthedisk.
DeletetheCircle
ClickonthemenuitemEdit>Select>ByName.SelectCircle1 andclickOK.
ClickonthemenuitemEdit>Delete.
RuntheScripttoRecreatetheCircle
ClickonthemenuitemTools>RunScript.
LocateandselectthescriptfileandclickOpen.
Ifsuccessful,theoriginalcircle,Circle1,shouldbeback.
Wecannowexplorethecontentsofthescriptfile.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.10
BasicExercise- Scripting
9.10-3
Maxwell 2D v12
OpentheScriptforEditing
Locatethefileontheharddiskandopenwithnotepad.
ScriptFileContents
Definitionofenvironmentvariables.Dim isthegenericvisualbasicvariabletype.
' ----------------------------------------------
' Script Recorded by Maxwell Version 12.0
' 11:38 AM Aug 09, 2007
' ----------------------------------------------
Dim oAnsoftApp
Dim oDesktop
Dim oProject
Dim oDesign
Dim oEditor
Dim oModule
ReferencedefinedenvironmentvariablesusingSet.
Set oAnsoftApp = CreateObject("AnsoftMaxwell.MaxwellScriptInterface")
Set oDesktop = oAnsoftApp.GetAppDesktop()
oDesktop.RestoreWindow
Set oProject = oDesktop.SetActiveProject("scripting_example")
Set oDesign = oProject.SetActiveDesign("Maxwell2DDesign1")
Set oEditor = oDesign.SetActiveEditor("3D Modeler")
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.10
BasicExercise- Scripting
9.10-4
Maxwell 2D v12
Createthecircle.
Alloftheparametersneededtocreatethecirclearedefinedin thislineof
code.HerewewillmodifytheRadius ofthecirclebychangingthe
appropriatetext.
oEditor.CreateCircle Array("NAME:CircleParameters",
"CoordinateSystemID:=", -1, "IsCovered:=", true,
"XCenter:=", "0mm", "YCenter:=", "0mm", "ZCenter:=", "0mm",
"Radius:=", "1mm", "WhichAxis:=", "Z"), Array("NAME:Attributes", "Name:=",
"Circle1", "Flags:=", "", "Color:=", "(132 132 193)", "Transparency:=", 0,
"PartCoordinateSystem:=", "Global", "MaterialName:=", "vacuum",
"SolveInside:=", true)
ModifyScript
LocatethelinecontainingtheRadius andchangethenumericalvaluesto5mm:
>> "Radius:=", "1mm", "WhichAxis:=", "Z"),
>> "Radius:=", “5mm", "WhichAxis:=", "Z"),
SavethefileandreturntoMaxwell.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.10
BasicExercise- Scripting
9.10-5
Maxwell 2D v12
DeletetheCircle
ClickonthemenuitemEdit>Select>ByName.SelectCircle1 andclickOK.
ClickonthemenuitemEdit>Delete.
RuntheScripttoCreatetheModifiedCircle
ClickonthemenuitemTools>RunScript.
LocateandselectthescriptfileandclickOpen.
Ifsuccessful,themodifiedcylinder,Circle1,shouldappear.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.10
BasicExercise- Scripting
9.10-6
Maxwell 2D v12
GeneralizethescripttoruninanyProjectandDesign
Torunthescriptinordertocreateyourcircleinadifferentproject.Changethe
followinglinesinthescript.
Set oProject = oDesktop.SetActiveProject("scripting_example")
Set oDesign = oProject.SetActiveDesign("MaxwellDesign1")
Set oProject = oDesktop.GetActiveProject()
Set oDesign = oProject.GetActiveDesign()
ThisCompletestheScriptingExercise.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.12
BasicExercises– EddyCurrentSolver
9.12- 1
Maxwell 2D v12
IntroductiontotheEddyCurrentSolver
ThisexampleintroducestheEddyCurrentsolverbasedonasimple
examplewithadiskaboveacoil.Thissolvercalculatesthemagneticfields
ataspecifiedsinusoidalfrequency.Bothlinearandnonlinear(forsaturation
effects)magneticmaterialscanbeused.Also,eddy,skinandproximity
effectsareconsidered.
2DGeometry:IronDiskaboveaSpiralCoil
Asinusoidal500Hzcurrentwillbeassignedtoaneightturnspiralcoil
underneathofacastirondisk.Thecoilinduceseddycurrentsandlossesin
plate.The2Dmodelwillbesetupasshownbelowusingthe2DRZ
axisymmetric solver.
SetuptheDesign
ClickonthemenuitemProject>InsertMaxwellDesign
ClickonthemenuitemMaxwell2D>SolutionType...
SetGeometryMode:CylindricalaboutZ
SelecttheradiobuttonMagnetic:EddyCurrent
SpecifytheDrawingUnits
ClickonModeler>Units>Selectunits:cm
ChecktheSnapMode
ClickonModeler>Snapmode
VerifythatSnapTo:Grid and Vertexareset.
Cast iron
disk
Spiral coil
Actual 3D model Simulated 2D model
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.12
BasicExercises– EddyCurrentSolver
9.12- 2
Maxwell 2D v12
DrawtheSolutionRegion
ClickonDraw>Rectangle(Enterthefollowingpointsusingthetabkey).
X:0,Y:0,Z:-100
dX:120,dY:0,dZ:200
Changeitsproperties:
Name:Region
Transparency: 0.9
SelectView>Fitall >ActiveView toresizethedrawingwindow.
Selectwireframeviewbyselecting:View>Render>WireFrame.
DrawtheSpiralCoil
ClickonDraw>Rectangle
X:17,Y:0,Z:-1
dX:2,dY:0,dZ:2
Changeitsproperties:
Name:Coil
Material:Copper
Color:Yellow
ClickonEdit>Duplicate>AlongLine
Inputthefirstpointoftheduplicatevector:X:0,Y:0,Z:0
Inputthesecondpointoftheduplicatevector:dX:3.1,dY:0,dZ:0
SetTotalNumber:8
Donotcheck AttachToOriginalObjectandchoose OK.
DrawthePlate
ClickonDraw>Rectangle
X:0,Y:0,Z:1.5
dX:41,dY:0,dZ:1
Changeitsproperties:
Name:Plate
Material:CastIron
Color:Red
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.12
BasicExercises– EddyCurrentSolver
9.12- 3
Maxwell 2D v12
AssigntheSource
Acurrentof125Awillbeassignedtoeachcoil.Thiswillresultinatotalof1000
A-turnsbeingassignedtothecompletewinding.
SelectCoil,Coil_1,...Coil_7 fromthehistorytree.
ClickonMaxwell2D>Excitations>Assign>Current
Name:Current
Value:125A
Type: Solid
Note:ChoosingSolidspecifiesthattheeddyeffectsinthecoilwillbe
considered.Ontheotherhand,ifStranded hadbeenchosen,onlytheDC
resistancewouldhavebeencalculatedandnoACeffectsinthecoilwouldhave
beenconsidered.Stranded isappropriatewhentheskindepthismuchlarger
thanthestrandedconductorthickness,forexamplewhenusingLitz wire.Note
thattheinducededdyeffectsintheplatewillbecalculatedin eithercase.
AssigntheOuterBoundary
Theboundarymustbesetonthesolutionregion.
ChooseEdit>Select>Edges tochangetheselectionmodefromobjectto
edge.
WhileholdingdowntheCTRL key,choosethethreeouteredgesoftheregion.
ClickonMaxwell2D>Boundaries>Assign>Balloon
Whendone,chooseEdit>Select>Objecttoobjectselectionmode.
AssigntheParameters
Inthisexample,thecompete[8x8]impedancematrixwillbecalculated.Thisis
donebysettingaparameter.
ClickonMaxwell2D>Parameters>Assign>Matrix
Checkeachoftheeightsources:Current_1,Current_2,...Current_8
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.12
BasicExercises– EddyCurrentSolver
9.12- 4
Maxwell 2D v12
ComputetheSkinDepth
Skindepthisameasureofhowcurrentdensityconcentratesatthesurfaceofa
conductorcarryinganalternatingcurrent.Itisafunctionofthepermeability,
conductivityandfrequency
Skindepthinmetersisdefinedasfollows:
where:
ω istheangularfrequency,whichisequalto2πf.(fisthesourcefrequencywhichinthis
caseis500Hz).
σ istheconductor’sconductivity;forcastironits1.5e6S/m
µ
r
istheconductor’srelativepermeability;forcastironits60
µ
ο
isthepermeabilityoffreespace,whichisequalto4π×10
-7
A/m.
Forcastirontheplatetheskindepthisapproximately0.24cm.
Afterthreeskindepths,theinducedcurrentwillbecomealmostnegligible.The
automaticadaptivemeshinginMaxwell2Ddoesanexcellentjobofrefiningthe
meshintheskindepth,sothatmeshoperationsarenotneeded.
AddanAnalysisSetup
ClickRightonAnalysis intheModelTreeandselectAddSolutionSetup
OntheGeneral tab,re-settheMaximumNumberofPassesto 15
OntheSolver tab,re-settheAdaptiveFrequencyto500Hz
SolvetheProblem
SavetheprojectbyclickingonmenuitemFile>SaveAs
SelectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>ValidationCheck toverifyproblemsetup
YouwillgetawarningaboutBoundariesandExcitations.Toclearthiswarning,
simplyreturntotheeddyeffectscreenbychoosing:Maxwell2D>Excitations>
SetEddyEffects>OK.Thistellsthesolverthatyouhavecheckedtheeddy
setupandthatyouhavecorrectlysettheeddyeffectontheappropriateobjects.
ClickonMaxwell2D>AnalyzeAll
σ µ ωµ
δ
r o
2
=
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.12
BasicExercises– EddyCurrentSolver
9.12- 5
Maxwell 2D v12
ViewtheConvergence
SelectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>Results>SolutionData
ClickontheConvergence tabtoviewtheadaptiverefinement.
Notethetotallossisapproximately284W.
ClickontheMatrixtabtodisplaythe8x8impedancematrix.Bydefault,the
resultsaredisplayedas[R,Z]butcanbealsoshownas[R,L]orascoupling
coefficients.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.12
BasicExercises– EddyCurrentSolver
9.12- 6
Maxwell 2D v12
PlottheMesh
SelectallobjectsandclickonMaxwell2D>Fields>PlotMesh
Whendone,hidetheplotbyselectingView>ActiveViewVisibility>Fields
Reporter andunchecking theMesh1 plot.
ComputeTotalPowerLossinthePlate
ClickonMaxwell2D>Fields>Calculator andthenperformthefollowing:
Quantity>OhmicLoss
Geometry>Volume>Plate>OK
Integral>RZ
Eval ...Evaluate
Note:TheevaluatedlossinthePlate shouldbeabout260W.
ClickDone
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.12
BasicExercises– EddyCurrentSolver
9.12- 7
Maxwell 2D v12
ComputeTotalPowerLossintheCoils
SelectalleightcoilsinthehistorytreeandthenModeler>List>Create>
ObjectList .‘Objectlist1’ appearsunder‘List’ intheHistoryTree.
ClickonMaxwell2D>Fields>Calculator andthenperformthefollowing:
Quantity>OhmicLoss
Geometry>Volume>Objectlist1>OK
Integral>RZ (Note:RZisavolumeintegral,XYisasurfaceintegral)
Eval ...Evaluate
TheevaluatedlossintheCoils shouldbeabout24W
Click Done.
Note:Thetotalpowerlossfortheplateandthecoils=260+24=284Wwhich
matchesthelossresultintheconvergencetable.
PlotFluxLines
Selectallobjects
ClickonMaxwell2D>Fields>Fields >A>FluxLines>Done
Notethatthefluxlinesareattractedtotheplatesinceitismagnetic.Also,
skineffectsarepresentintheplatesincethereareeddycurrentsflowingin
it.Thiscanbeseenbestifyouzoomintotheplate
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.12
BasicExercises– EddyCurrentSolver
9.12- 8
Maxwell 2D v12
PlotCurrentDensityScalarinthePlate
HidetheRegion byselectingView>ActiveViewVisibility andunchecking
Region.
ResizetheviewbyselectingView>FitAll>All Views
Veritythattheviewiswireframebyselecting:View>Render>WireFrame
Selecttheplate.
ClickonMaxwell2D>Fields>Fields >J>JAtPhase >Done
PlotCurrentDensityScalarintheCoils
SelectObjectlist1toselectalleightcoilsinthewinding.
ClickonMaxwell2D>Fields>Fields >J>JAtPhase >Done
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.12
BasicExercises– EddyCurrentSolver
9.12- 9
Maxwell 2D v12
PlotOhmic LossDistribution
HidepreviousplotsbyselectingView>ActiveViewVisibility>FieldsReporter and
unchecking theprevious plots.
Selectallobjects
ClickonMaxwell2D>Fields>Fields >Other>Ohmic_Loss
Orrightmouseclickafterobject Plateisselected, then Fields>Other>Ohmic_Loss
Aftertheplotisdisplayed,changetoalogscalebydoubleleftclickingonthelegendand
changetoLog ontheScaletab.
AnimateCurrentDensityVector
RotatetheviewbyholdingdownALTandthen leftmousedrag.
SelectthePlate
ClickonMaxwell2D>Fields>Fields >J>J_Vector
Aftertheplotisdisplayed,doubleleftclickingonthelegendselectthePlots tab.
Chooseplot:J_Vector1 andchangetheVectorplotspacingto:Min =0.5andMax =0.5.
IntheProjectWindow,rightclickonJ_Vector1andclickAnimate>OK.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.12
BasicExercises– EddyCurrentSolver
9.12- 10
Maxwell 2D v12
CopytheDesignandSolveagainatDC
InordertoshowthedifferencebetweentheACcaseandtheDCcase,
copythedesignandre-runitat0.001Hz(whichisessentiallyDC).
Intheprojectwindow,selectMaxwellDesign1 andchooseEdit>Copy
ClickonthegreenprojectfolderandchooseEdit>Paste.
MaxwellDesign2shouldappear.
UnderMaxwellDesign2,chooseAnalysis>Setup>Solver andchange
theadaptivefrequency=0.001 Hz.
ClickonMaxwell2D>AnalyzeAll
PlotCurrentDensityScalar
Intheprojectwindow,justclickon JAtPhase1todisplaythecurrentdensityplot.Note
thatthereisnosignificantcurrentinducedintheplateat0.001Hz.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.12
BasicExercises– EddyCurrentSolver
9.12- 11
Maxwell 2D v12
PlottheFluxLines
Intheprojectwindow,justclickon Flux_Lines1todisplaythefluxlinesplot.Notethat
thefluxlinespenetrateinandthroughtheplate.WhilesaturationisconsideredatDC,
noACskineffectsorshieldingoccurs.
ThisistheendoftheEddyCurrentBasicExercise.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.13
BasicExercise:Transient– LargeMotion– Rotational
9.13-1
Maxwell2Dv12
LargeMotion– itsQuickImplementationUsingtheMaxwell
2DTransientSolver
MaxwellTransientisabletoconsiderinteractions betweentransient
electromagneticfields andmechanicalmotion ofobjects.
MaxwellTransient (with motion)includes dB/dt arising from
mechanically moving magnetic fields inspace,i.e.moving objects.
Thus,effects coming from so-called motion induced currents can be
considered.
InMaxwellrotational motion can occur around one single motion axis.
Thispaper represents aquickstarttousing rotational motion.It will
exercise rotational motion inMaxwell2Dusing arotational actuator
(experimentalmotor)example.
Subsequent papers willdemonstrate rotational motion inmore depth,
non-cylindrical rotational motion using arelays example,aswellas
translational motion which asolenoid application willserve asan
example for.
The goal ofthese papers is solely toshow andpractice working with
largemotion inMaxwell.It is neither the goal tosimulate real-world
applications,nor tomatch accurately measured results,nor willthese
papers show indetailhow tosetup andwork with other Maxwell
functionality.Please refer tothe corresponding topics.
Quickstart – Rotational MotionUsing aRotational Actuator
Example
MaxwellTransient with largemotion is aset ofadvanced topics.Users
should have thorough knowledge onMaxwellfundamentals aswellas
MaxwellTransient (without motion)prior toapproaching largemotion.If
necessary,please consult the propertraining papers,help files,
manuals,andapplication notes.
We willexercise the following inthis document:
Create anew or read inanexisting rotational actuator model – to
serve asanexperimentaltestbench for largemotion
Prepare andadapt this existing actuator model toour needs
Apply largemotion tothe rotational actuator
Create the band object
Setuprotational motion
Mesh
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.13
BasicExercise:Transient– LargeMotion– Rotational
9.13-2
Maxwell2Dv12
Perform basic largemotion tests
„LargeRotational Standstill“ test
„LargeRotational Constant Speed“ test
„LargeRotational Transient Motion“ test
Compute magnetic rigidity andmechanical natural
frequency
Estimate timestep for transient solver
Make afield animation with largemotion
Openthe Rotational Actuator Model
Locate the project
Ex_09_13_BasicTransient_MotionRotational_M2dTrs120.mxwl.Openit,
activate the design 00_Template andstartworking from there.You can
copy/paste 00_Template into your own working project.The other designs
show the fully setup models we willbe working on.
The model should look like this:
Fig.1: Rotational actuator example
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.13
BasicExercise:Transient– LargeMotion– Rotational
9.13-3
Maxwell2Dv12
SetupandVerify the Electromagnetic Part
Priortoemploying largemotion,the electromagnetic part ofthe model
should work correctly.Usersare welladvised nottosetup acomplex
model completely atonce andthen try tosimulate,but rather work in
steps.Especially incases eddy current effects,external circuits,and
largemotion are included,the correctness ofthe setup for each
individual property should be verified.Afterthat,allproperties can be
considered together.
Forthis quickstart,please study the winding setup andbackground.
We use stranded windings with constant current (togenerate afixed
stator flux vector around which Rotor1willoscillate later).Also,eddy
effects willbe excluded.
Verify the symmetry multiplier being set to1.Intheprojecttree: RMB
click onModel>SetSymmetry Multiplier (the full geometry is
simulated).
Verify the model depth being set to25.4mm.Intheprojecttree: RMB
click on:Model> SetModelDepth (taken from the original3Dproject).
Perform atestsimulation onthe electromagnetic part alone.If desired,
playwith various excitations,switch eddy effects inStator1andRotor1
onandoff,vary materialproperties,etc.Foreach testcheckthe
electromagnetic fields for correctness.
Refer tothe corresponding topics onmaterials,boundaries,excitations,
meshing,transient simulations without motion,andpostprocessing.
If the electromagnetic part without motion effects yielded correct results,
make sure tore-apply the same model setup aselaborated atthe
previous page (00_Template).
Rotational LargeMotion– The MaxwellApproach
Maxwellseparatesmoving from non-moving objects.
Allmoving objects must be enclosed
by one so-called band object.
Forrotational motion,the band object
must be cylindrical with segmented
outer surface,i.e.aregular polyhedron.
Maxwellconsiders allmoving objects
(inside the band)toformone single
moving object group.
Fig.2: Bandobject separating rotor from stator
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.13
BasicExercise:Transient– LargeMotion– Rotational
9.13-4
Maxwell2Dv12
Constant Speed mode:
If the model is setup tooperate inconstant speed mode(see below),
Maxwellwillnotcompute mechanical transients.
However,changing magnetic fields owing tospeed ω
m
,i.e.dB/dt
effects are included inthe field solution.
Mechanical Transient mode:
Incase inertia wasspecified,Maxwellwillcompute the motion
equation ineach timestep.
SeeAppendixAfor avariableexplanation.
Apply LargeMotiontothe Rotational Actuator – Create the
Band Object andMesh
First,let‘s examine the moving parts tocomply with Maxwell‘s conventions:
Allmoving objects can be separated from the stationary objects and
can be combined toone single rotating group.Allmoving objects be
considered toperform the same cylindrical motion.
Create the band object:
We want aregular polyhedron that encloses allmoving objects.
Outer surface segmentation should be between 1° and5°,i.e.we will
have between 360and72outer surface segments.
The band object should preferably cut through the middle ofthe airgap,
leaving about the same space toRotor1andStator1.However,this is
notamust.
Hide allobjects except Rotor1andStator1.
Determine the required radius:
Modeler >Measure >Position
Inthe geometry,click first onthe origin,then move sothat the
mouse pointer snaps toone outer corner pointofRotor1.Read
the Distance value from the Measura Data window (51.05mm).
Then move over sothat the pointer snaps toone innercorner
pointofStator1.Read the Distance value (53.75mm).
SeeFig.3 next page.
Thus,band should have aradius of52.4mm.Here,52.5mm
wasused.
J
m
· d
2
ϕ
m
(t)/dt
2
+k
D
(t)· dϕ
m
(t) /dt =T
ψ
(t) +T
m
(t)
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.13
BasicExercise:Transient– LargeMotion– Rotational
9.13-5
Maxwell2Dv12
Fig.3: Rotor1radius measurement
Drawthe band:
Draw>Regular Polygon,have X=0,Y=0,Z=0for the Center
position.When asked for the Radius,enter 52.5into the dX(or
dY)field,leaving dZ anddY (or dX)zero.Setthe number of
segments to72.
Rename the thus created object toBand1,apply atransparency
of0.9,andmaybe use some nicer color.
The created Band1object should look like Fig.4.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.13
BasicExercise:Transient– LargeMotion– Rotational
9.13-6
Maxwell2Dv12
Fig.4: Bandobject Band1
We have now created Band1that encloses allrotating objects
(onlyRotor1inthisexample).
72 outer segments means anew segment every 5°.Formore
accurate simulations we should apply more segments.
Setuprotational motion:
Inthehistorytree,right mouse click onthe Band1object andchoose:
Assign Band...
This automatically separatesmoving from stationary objects.
Under MotionType,checkRotational for the MotionType,leave
Non-Cylindricalunchecked,andselect Global:Z – Positive for
the RotationAxis.
Onthe Datatab, apply zero for the initial position.Thus,motion
willstartatt =0with the rotor position being asdrawn.Applying
ϕ
m0
≠ 0would startwith Rotor1rotated by ϕ
m0
from the drawn
position.Leave Rotate Limitunchecked (allowingtherotorto
spincontinuously) andleave Non-Cylindrical unchecked.
Under Mechanical,uncheck Consider Mechanical Transient and
apply anAngular Velocityofzero.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.13
BasicExercise:Transient– LargeMotion– Rotational
9.13-7
Maxwell2Dv12
Now,we have setup „largerotational standstill“.Positivemagnetic
torque is generated around the positivez-axis (globalcoordinate
system,Fig.5). Inthe project tree >active design >Model,two new
entries have been created – MotionSetup1 andMoving1. Clicking on
Moving1 inspect the motion setup.
Applying the same constant current asbefore,we can expect the
same constant magnetic torque (provided agoodmesh).
Fig.5: Motionsetup
Mesh
Meshing is avery critical issue with respect tosimulation speed and
accuracy.Forhere,we willapply arather coarse mesh only,by which
the solver willjustyield satisfactory results.
Band1:
Fortorque computation,the most critical areas are the airgap
andits immediateproximity.Thus,the band mesh is crucial for
accurate results.
We willapply alength based mesh onthe surface andinside of
Band1.We willrestrict the number ofelements to5000.This
willdofor these tests.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.13
BasicExercise:Transient– LargeMotion– Rotational
9.13-8
Maxwell2Dv12
Right mouse click onBand1>Assign Mesh Operation>Inside
Selection >Length Based.
Rename this mesh entry toBand_Length,
Restrict Length ofElements– unchecked,
Restrict Number ofElements– checked,set to5000,OK.
Forallother objects we willalsojustrestrict the number ofelements –
for simplicity reasons only.The mesh willbe assigned one by one.For
each,
rightclick the object >Assign Mesh Operation>Inside
Selection >Length Based.
Restrict Length ofElements– unchecked,
Restrict Number ofElements– checked.
Following,first the object names are listed,secondthe
maximum number ofelements toapply,andthird the name
given tothe resulting mesh entry:
Rotor1– 1000– Rotor_Length
Stator1– 1000– Stator_Length
CoilA andCoilB – 100– Coils_Length (simultaneously
selecting CoilA,CoilA_Neg,CoilB,andCoilB_Neg willtry
toassign 100triangles tothegroup, i.e.about 25
triangleineachcoilwillresult)
Background1 – 1000– Background_Length.
Once done assigning,you should see project tree entries like Fig.5.
Assign asolution setup:
Inthe project tree,rightmouse click Analysis>Add Solution
Setup...
ClickOK toacceptthedefaultvaluesfornow.
We need this setup justtoallow meshing andcheckthe mesh,
we willcare about its values later.
Inthe project tree rightmouse click Analysis>Setup1>Apply Mesh
Operations.Watch the progress bar(usually bottom right).Watch the
message window (usually bottom left)for amessage that says that the
Simulationhasbeen successfully completed.Now,meshing is done.
SelectView>SetSolutionContext leavingTime=-1(thesimulation
hasnotyetstarted)andthenclickonOK.
Select allobjects except for Background1.Maxwell>Fields>Plot
Mesh.Your mesh plot should look similar toFig.6.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.13
BasicExercise:Transient– LargeMotion– Rotational
9.13-9
Maxwell2Dv12
Fig.7: Resulting mesh Fig.6: Mesh entries
Perform BasicLargeMotionTests
Thesebasic tests serve model verification.They can be executed rather
quickly.Should they fail inwhatever respect,there is nouse going further
andworking with more complex models (like mechanical transients,external
circuits,eddy currents,etc.).
Simulate the „LargeRotational Standstill“ test:
Refer todesign 11_GeoFull_MagI_MchStandstill.
SetupSolution
Inthe project tree,double clickon:Setup1.
Set 20msfor the stoptime.Set5msfor the timestep.
Leave allother properties ofSetup1untouched.Exit by OK.
We have now told MaxwellTransient tosimulate five timesteps only
(icl.zero),because we are expecting aquasimagnetostatic result.
Rightmouse click Analysis>Setup1>Analyze willstartthe simulation
process.Its progress can be monitored inthe progress window.
Postprocess:
We willjustlook atthe forcefunction atthe moment.
Inthe project tree,rightmouse click Results >Create Transient
Report.>Rectangular Plot,select Category =Torque,and
Quantity =Moving.Torque,pressNewReport,andClose.
Your report should show constant forceofabout 400 mNm.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.13
BasicExercise:Transient– LargeMotion– Rotational
9.13-10
Maxwell2Dv12
Perform the “Large Rotational Constant Speed“ test:
Refer todesign 12_GeoFull_MagI_MchSpeedslow.
We willnow operate the rotational actuator atavery slow constant
speed.
Remember,there is only one magnetic excitation present inthe model
– namely constant coil current with stranded windings.Alternatively,
Rotor1could have been assigned permanentmagnet properties.Eddy
effects are switched offfor allobjects.
We can now use Transient with LargeMotiontomonitor cogging
torque effects.
Setupmotion
Intheprojecttree,underModel rightmouseclickon
MotionSetup1andselect Properties.
Under Data,set InitialPositionto-61deg.
Under Mechanical,set Angular Velocityto1deg_per_sec.
Rotor1asdrawn hasa-29° offset.This is taken tobe the zero
position for the transient solver.By giving anextra-61°,positive
rotationof1°/sstarts at:-61-29= -90°.
SetupSolution
Rightmouse click onAnalysis>Setup1>Properties.
SetStopTimeto180s.
SetTimeStepto5s
By rotating ataspeed of1°/s180slong,Rotor1willmove
180°,i.e.from -90° to+90°,at5°/step.
RightmouseclickAnalysis>Setup1>Analyze
During solving,you can already open the report Torque(t).The plot is
going tobuild upwith each timestep completed.SeeFig.7.
0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00 120.00 140.00 160.00 180.00
Time [s]
-500.00
-400.00
-300.00
-200.00
-100.00
0.00
100.00
200.00
300.00
400.00
500.00
T
o
r
q
u
e

[
m
N
e
w
t
o
n
M
e
t
e
r
]
Ansoft Corporation 12_GeoFull_MagI_MchSpeedslow
Torque(t)
Curve Info
Torque
Setup1 : Transient
Fig.8: Magnetic torque T
ψ
(t)
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.13
BasicExercise:Transient– LargeMotion– Rotational
9.13-11
Maxwell2Dv12
Perform the „LargeRotational Transient Motion“ test:
We willnow operate the actuator asaone-body oscillator.
Inertiawillbe specified aswellassome damping.
We can expect Rotor1tooscillate around the stator flux axis (y-axis)at
some natural frequency f
0
,which can be approximated as:
J
c
f
ψ
π 2
1
0
=
J inkgm
2
is the totalmoment ofinertia acting onRotor1.
c
ψ
inNm/radis the magnetic rigidity.Asananalogy it can be
understood asamechanical springspanned between Rotor1and
Stator1,whose forcecoming from the magnetic field.
We can roughly calculate rigidity c from the cogging torque function
(stable limb):
Nm/rad 3 . 2
) rad(10
mNm 400
=
°



=
m
T
c
ϕ
ψ
ψ
Assuming inertia J=0.0024kgm
2
,anapproximated f
0
=5Hzresults.
This is sufficient for estimating the necessary timestep asfaras
mechanical oscillations are regarded.
Refer todesign 13_GeoFull_MagI_MchTransient.
MotionSetup(Model >MotionSetup >Properties):
Under Data,set InitialPosition=0.
Under Mechanical (see Fig.9), set
Consider Mechanical Transient =checked
InitialAngular Velocity=0,
MomentofInertia=0.0024kgm
2
,
Damping =0.015Nm·s/rad,andLoad Torque =0.
This causes 15mNm resistive torque at1rad/sspeed.
We thus expect oscillation between -29° and+29° (w.r.t.stator
flux axis)atf
0
<5Hzwith damped amplitudes.
Fig.9: Motionsetup
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.13
BasicExercise:Transient– LargeMotion– Rotational
9.13-12
Maxwell2Dv12
SolutionSetup:
Under Analysis>Setup1>Proporties, set
StopTime=0.5s,TimeStep=0.01s
From f
0
,we can expect a>200mscycle.At10ms
timestep we willsample one cycle >20times.
Analyze this design.Openthe already generated report Torque(t).
This andthe two additionalreports for speed andposition should look
like Fig.9-11.
-400.00
-300.00
-200.00
-100.00
0.00
100.00
200.00
300.00
400.00
500.00
T
o
r
q
u
e

[
m
N
e
w
t
o
n
M
e
t
e
r
]
Curve Info
Torque
Setup1 : Transien
-80.00
-60.00
-40.00
-20.00
0.00
20.00
40.00
60.00
80.00
100.00
M
o
v
i
n
g
1
.
S
p
e
e
d

[
r
p
m
]
Curve Info
Moving1.Speed
Setup1 : Transient
0.00 100.00 200.00 300.00 400.00 50
Time [ms]
0.00
10.00
20.00
30.00
40.00
50.00
M
o
v
i
n
g
1
.
P
o
s
i
t
i
o
n

[
d
e
g
]
Curve Info
Moving1.Position
Setup1 : Transient
Fig.10: Torque T
ψ
(t)
Fig.11:
Mechanical speed ω
m
(t)
Fig.12:
Mechanical position ϕ
m
(t)
0
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.13
BasicExercise:Transient– LargeMotion– Rotational
9.13-13
Maxwell2Dv12
The transient reports have been created using:
Category: Speed,Quantity: Moving.Speed,and
Category: Position,Quantity: Moving.Position.
Fig.10-12onthe previous page:
T
ψ
looks asexpected from previous simulations.
ω
m
corresponds toT
ψ
‘s first derivative andis correct.
ϕ
m
oscillates around +29°,which is the stator flux axis (y)with
respect tothe initial position.
AppendixA:VariableExplanation:
ϕ
m
(t) Mechanical angular position inrad
(angles can alsobe given indegrees).
ϕ
m0
Initialϕ
m
inrad.Notethat the drawn
rotor position is considered asϕ
m0
=0.

m
(t)/dt,ω
m
(t) Mechanical angular speed inrad/s.
ω
m0
Initialω
m
inrad/s.
d
2
ϕ
m
(t)/dt
2
Mechanical angular acceleration in
rad/s
2
.
J
m
Momentofinertia inkg·m
2
.This is the
totalinertia acting onthe moving object
group.If extrainertia needs tobe
included (i.e.inertia notgeometrically
modeled),justadd this toJ
m
.
k
D
(t) Damping koefficient inNm·s/rad.Fork
D
=1Nm·s/rad,resistive torque of1Nm
would be generated if the moving parts
turnat1rad/s.k
D
can be afunction oft,
ω
m
,or ϕ
m
.
T
ψ
Magnetically generated torque inNm.
T
m
Mechanical extratorque inNm,this can
be aconstant or afunction oft,ω
m
,or
ϕ
m
.Note,that apositiveT
m
value will
accelerate rather than brake.
t The current simulation timeins.
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12User’sGuide
9.14
Topic– 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-1
AssigningBoundaryConditions
BoundaryConditions
Boundaryconditionsenableyoutocontrolthecharacteristicsof planes,
faces,orinterfacesbetweenobjects.Boundaryconditionsareimportantto
understandandarefundamentaltosolutionofMaxwell’sequations.
PurposeoftheExercise
ThisexerciseintroducesvariousboundaryconditionsusedinMaxwell2D
basedonasimpleexamplewithcoilsandsteelcore.Theuserwilllearnhow
touseVectorPotential,Balloon,SymmetryandMatchingBoundary(Master
andSlave).
AnsoftMaxwellDesignEnvironment
ThefollowingfeaturesoftheAnsoftMaxwellDesignEnvironmentareusedto
createthemodelscoveredinthistopic
2DSheetModeling
UserDefinedPrimitives(UDPs):SRMCore
BooleanOperations:SeparateBodies
Boundaries/Excitations
Current: Stranded
Boundaries:VectorPotential,Balloon,Symmetry,Master/Slave,
Analysis
Magnetostatic
FieldOverlays:
HVector
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12User’sGuide
9.14
Topic– 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-2
Summaryofeightdesignstobesimulated
1_VectorPotential 2_Balloon
3_Balloon_ChangeExcitation
4_Symmetry_Oddand6_NoSymmetry
5_Symmetry_Even
7_Matching_Positive
8_Matching_Negative
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12User’sGuide
9.14
Topic– 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-3
GettingStarted
LaunchingMaxwell
ToaccessMaxwell,clicktheMicrosoftStart button,selectPrograms,andselect
AnsoftandthenMaxwell12.Ordoubleclicktheicononthedesktop.
SettingToolOptions
Tosetthetooloptions:
Note:Inordertofollowthestepsoutlinedinthisexample,verifythatthe
followingtooloptionsareset :
1. SelectthemenuitemTools>Options>Maxwell2DOptions
2. MaxwellOptionsWindow:
1. ClicktheGeneral Optionstab
UseWizardsfordataentrywhencreatingnewboundaries:;
Checked
Duplicateboundarieswithgeometry:; Checked
2. ClicktheOK button
3. SelectthemenuitemTools>Options>ModelerOptions.
4. 3DModelerOptionsWindow:
1. ClicktheOperation tab
Automaticallycoverclosedpolylines:; Checked
2. ClicktheDrawing tab
Editpropertyofnewprimitives:; Checked
3. ClicktheOK button
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12User’sGuide
9.14
Topic– 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-4
OpeningaNewProject
Toopenanewproject:
1. InanMaxwellwindow,clickthe ontheStandardtoolbar,orselectthe
menuitemFile>New.
2. SelectthemenuitemProject>InsertMaxwell2DDesign,orclickonthe
icon.
3. Savetheprojectwithname“Ex_9_14_BasicBoundaryCondictions” toyour
ownfolder.Changethenameofthedesignfrom“Maxwell2DDesign1” to
“1_VectorPotential”.
SetSolutionType
Selectthemenuitem:Maxwell2D>SolutionType>Magnetostatic,orright
mouseclickon1_VectorPotential andselectSolution Type.
TheGeometryModeshouldbe:Cartesian,XY
Creating2DModel
Theexamplethatwillbeusedtodemonstratehowtoassignboundaryconditions
doesnotrepresentanyreal-worldproduct.Theintentofthiswrite-upisratherto
demonstratehowboundaryconditionsareimplemented.
SetModelUnits
SelectthemenuitemModeler>Units>SelectUnits:mm(millimeters)
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12User’sGuide
9.14
Topic– 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-5
CreateStatorandCoils:
AUserDefinedPrimitivewillbeusedtocreatetheStatorandCoils
Draw>UserDefinedPrimitive>Syslib >Rmxprt >SRMCore
UsethevaluesgiveninthepanelbelowtocreatetheStatorand Coils
Clickontheobjectjustcreatedinthedrawingwindowandinthepanelon
theleftchangeitsnamefromSRMCore1 toStator.
ChangetheMaterialfromvacuum tonickel.
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12User’sGuide
9.14
Topic– 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-6
Thestatorandcoilswerecreatedasoneentityandtheyneedto be
separated.
1. ClickontheStator-Coilgroupsothattheyareselected
2. Selectthemenuitem Modeler>Boolean>SeparateBodies,the
resultwillbeasinglestatorandeightcoilcross-sections.
AswasdonewiththeStator,changethename,materials,andcolorfor
Coils.ThematerialpropertyfortheStatorwillbenickel,and thematerial
propertyfortheCoilswillbecopper.Thenameandcolorforeachobjectis
givenbelow.
Coil1
Coil4
Coil3
Coil2
Stator
Coil5
Coil6
Coil8
Coil7
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12User’sGuide
9.14
Topic– 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-7
AssignCurrentSourcetoCoils
SelectalleightcoilsbyholdingdowntheCTRLkeyandusingyourmouseor
selectingfromtreeonthelefthandsideoftheGUI
SelectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>Excitations>Assign>Currentorrightclick
>AssignExcitations>Current
1. ChangetheBaseNametoCurrent
2. Changethevalueto100Amps
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12User’sGuide
9.14
Topic– 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-8
TheprojecttreenowshowseightseparateExcitations,eachofthem
ispointingoutoftheplane(alongZaxis):
ChangingdirectionsofExcitations
RightclickonExcitations>List…,holddownCTRLkeyandselectCurrent_2,
Current_4,Current_6andCurrent_8,thenclickon“Properties”,changedirection
fromPositivetoNegative.
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12User’sGuide
9.14
Topic– 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-9
CreatetheProblemRegion
OneofthemaindifferencesbetweenMaxwellV11andV12isthataBackground
Regionisnotautomaticallycreatedwhenaprojectisstarted.Aseparateobject
needstobespecificallycreated.
TocreatearectangularregionsimplyselectDraw>Region,orclicktheicon
fromstandardtoolbar.Thesizeofthisrectangularregionisbasedondimensions
oftheexistingobjects.ChangePaddingPercentageto20.
ClickView>FitAll>All Views,orCTRL+D.
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12User’sGuide
9.14
Topic– 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-10
CreateanAnalysisSetup
SelectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>AnalysisSetup>AddSolutionSetupor right
clickontheAnalysisintheprojectwindow>AddSolutionSetup
SelectGeneral andverifythesettingasfollows
SelectConvergence andverifythesettingasfollows
SetupBoundaryConditions
SelectthemenuitemEdit>Select>Edgesor rightclickintheModeler>Select
Edges
SelectouteredgeoftheStator
ClickonthemenuitemMaxwell2D>
Boundaries>Assign>VectorPotential…
Accpet thedefaultvalueandOK.
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12User’sGuide
9.14
Topic– 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-11
SavetheProject
SelectthemenuitemFile>Save
ChecktheValidityoftheModel
SelectthemenuitemMaxwell>ValidationCheck,orclickontheicon
Theproblemwon’tsolveunlesseachitemhasacheckmark.
Analyze
SelectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>AnalyzeAll,orclickontheicon
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12User’sGuide
9.14
Topic– 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-12
SolutionData
ToviewtheSolutionData,selectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>
Results>SolutionData,orrightclickon Setup1under Analysis>
Convergence
HereyoucanviewtheProfile andtheConvergence.
Note:ThedefaultviewforconvergenceisTable.ClickonthePlot
radiobuttontoviewagraphicalrepresentationsoftheconvergence
data.
Note:Youdon’thavetowaitforthesolutiontobedonetodothis.
Youcandothiswhilethesimulationisrunning,allinformation will
updateautomaticallyaftereachpassisdone.
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12User’sGuide
9.14
Topic– 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-13
PlotMesh,H-FieldVectorandFluxLine
ClickonthemenuitemEdit>SelectAllVisibleorSelectAll,oruseCTRL+A ,
orselecteverythingfromthehistorytreewindow,thenrightmouseclickinthe
modelerandselectPlotMesh.
Dothesame,selectallobjects,thenrightmouseclickinthemodelerandselect
Fields>H>H_Vector,and Fields>A>FluxLines.
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12User’sGuide
9.14
Topic– 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-14
ThefollowingH-fieldvectorplotwillappear,whichistheresultofthecurrent
excitationontheleftside.
Iftheplotisnotasniceasyoumaywanttosee,youcandoubleclickonthe
legendbar,thenchangevarioussettingsunderColormap/Scale/Marker/
Arrowor Plots tabs.
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12User’sGuide
9.14
Topic– 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-15
CreateDesign2:2_Balloon
Clickondesign1_VectorPotential intheProjectManager windowandthenright
mouseclickandselectCopy
ClickontheprojectnameEx_9_14_Basic_BoundaryConditions,rightclickand
selectPaste,anewdesigncalled1_VectorPotential1 hasbeencreated,change
thedesignnameto2_Balloon.
ClickonVectorPotential1under Boundariesinthe ProjectManager,andpress
“Delete” fromkeyboardtoremovetheboundarycondition.
RightclickinthemodelerandselectSelect Edges,tochangefromobject
selectionmodetoedgeselectionmode.
LeftmouseclickononeoftheedgesoftheRegion,thenrightmouseclickand
selectAllObjectEdges toselectalledgesoftheRegion.
Rightmouseclickagain,AssignBoundary>Balloon…
RunthesimulationandcompareHFieldplotwiththepreviousdesignthathas
vectorpotentialboundary.
BalloononalledgesoftheRegion ZeroVectorPotentialontheouteredgeoftheStator
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12User’sGuide
9.14
Topic– 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-16
CreateDesign3:3_Balloon_ChangeExcitation
Clickondesign2_Balloon intheProjectManager windowandthenright
mouseclickandselectCopy
ClickontheprojectnameEx_9_14_Basic_BoundaryConditions,rightclick
andselectPaste,anewdesigncalled2_Balloon1 hasbeencreated,change
thedesignnameto3_Balloon_ChangeExcitation.
ModifyCurrentExcitation
ClickonExcitations>Current_3 inthe
Project window,youwillseeaProperties
windowunderProject window,changefrom
Positive toNegative intheDirection row.Also,
ChangeCurrent_7fromPositive toNegative
ChangeCurrent_4 andCurrent_8from
Negative toPositive.
Thepurposeistochangethecurrent
excitationasshowninthegraphbelow.
Current_2
Current_1
Current_8
Current_7
Current_3
Current_4
Current_5
Current_6
Positive Current_8
Negative Current_7
Negative Current_6
Positive Current_5
Positive Current_4
Negative Current_3
Negative Current_2
Positive Current_1
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12User’sGuide
9.14
Topic– 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-17
RunthesimulationandcompareHFieldplotwithDesign22_Balloon thathas
differentexcitations.
Design2:2_Balloon Design3:3_Balloon_ChangeExcitation
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12User’sGuide
9.14
Topic– 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-18
SymmetryBoundary
CreateDesign4:4_Symmetry_Odd
Clickondesign2_Balloon intheProjectManager windowandthen
rightmouseclickandselectCopy
ClickontheprojectnameEx_9_14_Basic_BoundaryConditions,right
clickandselectPaste,anewdesigncalled2_Balloon1 hasbeen
created,changethedesignnameto4_Symmetry_Odd.
Selectallobjectsandrightmouseclickinthemodeler>Boolean>
Split,chooseXZplanetocreatehalfgeometry.
Inthehistorytree,doubleclickonCreateRegion underVacuum>
Region,change–YPaddingPercentageto0.
RemovetheBalloonboundary,reassigntheBalloonboundaryto
threeedges(notonthesymmetryedge).
ChangetoEdgeselectionmodeandclickontheedgeoftheRegion
alongXaxis,rightmouseclickinthemodeler>AssignBoundary>
Symmetry,chooseOdd(FluxTangential).
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12User’sGuide
9.14
Topic– 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-19
Runsimulationandviewresults.
Symmetry:Odd(FluxTangential)
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12User’sGuide
9.14
Topic– 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-20
CreateDesign5:5_Symmetry_Even
Clickondesign4_Symmetry_Odd intheProjectManager windowandthenright
mouseclickandselectCopy
ClickontheprojectnameEx_9_14_Basic_BoundaryConditions,rightclickand
selectPaste,anewdesigncalled4_Symmetry_Odd1 hasbeencreated,change
thedesignnameto5_Symmetry_Even.
SelecttheSymmetryboundaryandchangeittoEven(FluxNormal).
Runsimulationandviewresults.
Symmetry:Even(FluxNormal)
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12User’sGuide
9.14
Topic– 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-21
CreateDesign6:6_NoSymmetry
Clickondesign4_Symmetry_Odd intheProjectManager windowandthenright
mouseclickandselectCopy
ClickontheprojectnameEx_9_14_Basic_BoundaryConditions,rightclickand
selectPaste,anewdesigncalled4_Symmetry_Odd1 hasbeencreated,change
thedesignnameto6_NoSymmetry.
SelecttheSymmetryboundaryanddeleteit.
Runsimulationandviewresults.
TheresultshouldlookthesameasDesign4:4_Symmetry_Oddbecauseoddsymmetry
orfluxtangentialisthedefaultboundarycondition.
NoSymmetry:bydefaultanOdd(Flux
Tangentialboundaryisassigned)
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12User’sGuide
9.14
Topic– 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-22
MatchingBoundaries(Master/Slave).
Slave=Master
Master
Design2:2_Balloon Design3:3_Balloon_ChangeExcitation
Slave=— Master
Master
Design7:7_Matching_Positive Design8:8_Matching_Negative
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12User’sGuide
9.14
Topic– 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-23
MatchingBoundaries:Master/Slave
CreateDesign7:7_Matching_Positive
Clickondesign6_NoSymmetryintheProjectManager windowandthenright
mouseclickandselectCopy.
ClickontheprojectnameEx_9_14_Basic_BoundaryConditions,rightclickand
selectPaste,anewdesigncalled6_NoSymmetry1 hasbeencreated,changethe
designnameto7_Matching_Positive.
Selectallobjectsandrightmouseclickinthemodeler>Edit>Boolean>Split,
chooseYZ plane.
Change–XPaddingPercentage oftheRegion tobe0.
RemovetheexistingBalloonboundaryandredefineitontwoedgesofthe
RegionthatarenotonXandYaxis.
ChangetoEdgeselectionmodeandselecttheedgeoftheRegion thatisalongX
axis.Rightmouseclickinthemodeler>AssignBoundary>Master.Besurethat
themastervectorarrowispointinginthepositiveXdirection. IfnotuseSwap
Direction.
SelecttheedgeoftheRegionthatisalongYaxis.Rightmouseclickinthe
modeler>AssignBoundary>Slave.Besurethattheslavevectorarrowis
pointinginthepositiveYdirection.IfnotuseSwapDirection.
Choose Master1fromthepulldownmenu, and Relationas Bs=Bm.
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12User’sGuide
9.14
Topic– 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-24
RunSimulationandviewresults.
Slave=Master
Master
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12User’sGuide
9.14
Topic– 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-25
CreateDesign8:8_Matching_Negative
Clickondesign7_Matching_PostitiveintheProjectManager windowandthen
rightmouseclickandselectCopy.
ClickontheprojectnameEx_9_14_Basic_BoundaryConditions,rightclickand
selectPaste,anewdesigncalled7_Matching_Postitive1 hasbeencreated,
changethedesignnameto8_Matching_Negative.
ChangetheSlave boundaryRelation toBs=- Bm.
RunSimulationandviewresults.
Slave=-Master
Master
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12User’sGuide
9.14
Topic– 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-1
AssigningBoundaryConditions
BoundaryConditions
Boundaryconditionsenableyoutocontrolthecharacteristicsof planes,
faces,orinterfacesbetweenobjects.Boundaryconditionsareimportantto
understandandarefundamentaltosolutionofMaxwell’sequations.
PurposeoftheExercise
ThisexerciseintroducesvariousboundaryconditionsusedinMaxwell2D
basedonasimpleexamplewithcoilsandsteelcore.Theuserwilllearnhow
touseVectorPotential,Balloon,SymmetryandMatchingBoundary(Master
andSlave).
AnsoftMaxwellDesignEnvironment
ThefollowingfeaturesoftheAnsoftMaxwellDesignEnvironmentareusedto
createthemodelscoveredinthistopic
2DSheetModeling
UserDefinedPrimitives(UDPs):SRMCore
BooleanOperations:SeparateBodies
Boundaries/Excitations
Current: Stranded
Boundaries:VectorPotential,Balloon,Symmetry,Master/Slave,
Analysis
Magnetostatic
FieldOverlays:
HVector
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12User’sGuide
9.14
Topic– 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-2
Summaryofeightdesignstobesimulated
1_VectorPotential 2_Balloon
3_Balloon_ChangeExcitation
4_Symmetry_Oddand6_NoSymmetry
5_Symmetry_Even
7_Matching_Positive
8_Matching_Negative
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12User’sGuide
9.14
Topic– 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-3
GettingStarted
LaunchingMaxwell
ToaccessMaxwell,clicktheMicrosoftStart button,selectPrograms,andselect
AnsoftandthenMaxwell12.Ordoubleclicktheicononthedesktop.
SettingToolOptions
Tosetthetooloptions:
Note:Inordertofollowthestepsoutlinedinthisexample,verifythatthe
followingtooloptionsareset :
1. SelectthemenuitemTools>Options>Maxwell2DOptions
2. MaxwellOptionsWindow:
1. ClicktheGeneral Optionstab
UseWizardsfordataentrywhencreatingnewboundaries:;
Checked
Duplicateboundarieswithgeometry:; Checked
2. ClicktheOK button
3. SelectthemenuitemTools>Options>ModelerOptions.
4. 3DModelerOptionsWindow:
1. ClicktheOperation tab
Automaticallycoverclosedpolylines:; Checked
2. ClicktheDrawing tab
Editpropertyofnewprimitives:; Checked
3. ClicktheOK button
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12User’sGuide
9.14
Topic– 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-4
OpeningaNewProject
Toopenanewproject:
1. InanMaxwellwindow,clickthe ontheStandardtoolbar,orselectthe
menuitemFile>New.
2. SelectthemenuitemProject>InsertMaxwell2DDesign,orclickonthe
icon.
3. Savetheprojectwithname“Ex_9_14_BasicBoundaryCondictions” toyour
ownfolder.Changethenameofthedesignfrom“Maxwell2DDesign1” to
“1_VectorPotential”.
SetSolutionType
Selectthemenuitem:Maxwell2D>SolutionType>Magnetostatic,orright
mouseclickon1_VectorPotential andselectSolution Type.
TheGeometryModeshouldbe:Cartesian,XY
Creating2DModel
Theexamplethatwillbeusedtodemonstratehowtoassignboundaryconditions
doesnotrepresentanyreal-worldproduct.Theintentofthiswrite-upisratherto
demonstratehowboundaryconditionsareimplemented.
SetModelUnits
SelectthemenuitemModeler>Units>SelectUnits:mm(millimeters)
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12User’sGuide
9.14
Topic– 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-5
CreateStatorandCoils:
AUserDefinedPrimitivewillbeusedtocreatetheStatorandCoils
Draw>UserDefinedPrimitive>Syslib >Rmxprt >SRMCore
UsethevaluesgiveninthepanelbelowtocreatetheStatorand Coils
Clickontheobjectjustcreatedinthedrawingwindowandinthepanelon
theleftchangeitsnamefromSRMCore1 toStator.
ChangetheMaterialfromvacuum tonickel.
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12User’sGuide
9.14
Topic– 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-6
Thestatorandcoilswerecreatedasoneentityandtheyneedto be
separated.
1. ClickontheStator-Coilgroupsothattheyareselected
2. Selectthemenuitem Modeler>Boolean>SeparateBodies,the
resultwillbeasinglestatorandeightcoilcross-sections.
AswasdonewiththeStator,changethename,materials,andcolorfor
Coils.ThematerialpropertyfortheStatorwillbenickel,and thematerial
propertyfortheCoilswillbecopper.Thenameandcolorforeachobjectis
givenbelow.
Coil1
Coil4
Coil3
Coil2
Stator
Coil5
Coil6
Coil8
Coil7
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12User’sGuide
9.14
Topic– 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-7
AssignCurrentSourcetoCoils
SelectalleightcoilsbyholdingdowntheCTRLkeyandusingyourmouseor
selectingfromtreeonthelefthandsideoftheGUI
SelectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>Excitations>Assign>Currentorrightclick
>AssignExcitations>Current
1. ChangetheBaseNametoCurrent
2. Changethevalueto100Amps
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12User’sGuide
9.14
Topic– 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-8
TheprojecttreenowshowseightseparateExcitations,eachofthem
ispointingoutoftheplane(alongZaxis):
ChangingdirectionsofExcitations
RightclickonExcitations>List…,holddownCTRLkeyandselectCurrent_2,
Current_4,Current_6andCurrent_8,thenclickon“Properties”,changedirection
fromPositivetoNegative.
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12User’sGuide
9.14
Topic– 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-9
CreatetheProblemRegion
OneofthemaindifferencesbetweenMaxwellV11andV12isthataBackground
Regionisnotautomaticallycreatedwhenaprojectisstarted.Aseparateobject
needstobespecificallycreated.
TocreatearectangularregionsimplyselectDraw>Region,orclicktheicon
fromstandardtoolbar.Thesizeofthisrectangularregionisbasedondimensions
oftheexistingobjects.ChangePaddingPercentageto20.
ClickView>FitAll>All Views,orCTRL+D.
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12User’sGuide
9.14
Topic– 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-10
CreateanAnalysisSetup
SelectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>AnalysisSetup>AddSolutionSetupor right
clickontheAnalysisintheprojectwindow>AddSolutionSetup
SelectGeneral andverifythesettingasfollows
SelectConvergence andverifythesettingasfollows
SetupBoundaryConditions
SelectthemenuitemEdit>Select>Edgesor rightclickintheModeler>Select
Edges
SelectouteredgeoftheStator
ClickonthemenuitemMaxwell2D>
Boundaries>Assign>VectorPotential…
Accpet thedefaultvalueandOK.
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12User’sGuide
9.14
Topic– 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-11
SavetheProject
SelectthemenuitemFile>Save
ChecktheValidityoftheModel
SelectthemenuitemMaxwell>ValidationCheck,orclickontheicon
Theproblemwon’tsolveunlesseachitemhasacheckmark.
Analyze
SelectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>AnalyzeAll,orclickontheicon
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12User’sGuide
9.14
Topic– 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-12
SolutionData
ToviewtheSolutionData,selectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>
Results>SolutionData,orrightclickon Setup1under Analysis>
Convergence
HereyoucanviewtheProfile andtheConvergence.
Note:ThedefaultviewforconvergenceisTable.ClickonthePlot
radiobuttontoviewagraphicalrepresentationsoftheconvergence
data.
Note:Youdon’thavetowaitforthesolutiontobedonetodothis.
Youcandothiswhilethesimulationisrunning,allinformation will
updateautomaticallyaftereachpassisdone.
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12User’sGuide
9.14
Topic– 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-13
PlotMesh,H-FieldVectorandFluxLine
ClickonthemenuitemEdit>SelectAllVisibleorSelectAll,oruseCTRL+A ,
orselecteverythingfromthehistorytreewindow,thenrightmouseclickinthe
modelerandselectPlotMesh.
Dothesame,selectallobjects,thenrightmouseclickinthemodelerandselect
Fields>H>H_Vector,and Fields>A>FluxLines.
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12User’sGuide
9.14
Topic– 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-14
ThefollowingH-fieldvectorplotwillappear,whichistheresultofthecurrent
excitationontheleftside.
Iftheplotisnotasniceasyoumaywanttosee,youcandoubleclickonthe
legendbar,thenchangevarioussettingsunderColormap/Scale/Marker/
Arrowor Plots tabs.
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12User’sGuide
9.14
Topic– 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-15
CreateDesign2:2_Balloon
Clickondesign1_VectorPotential intheProjectManager windowandthenright
mouseclickandselectCopy
ClickontheprojectnameEx_9_14_Basic_BoundaryConditions,rightclickand
selectPaste,anewdesigncalled1_VectorPotential1 hasbeencreated,change
thedesignnameto2_Balloon.
ClickonVectorPotential1under Boundariesinthe ProjectManager,andpress
“Delete” fromkeyboardtoremovetheboundarycondition.
RightclickinthemodelerandselectSelect Edges,tochangefromobject
selectionmodetoedgeselectionmode.
LeftmouseclickononeoftheedgesoftheRegion,thenrightmouseclickand
selectAllObjectEdges toselectalledgesoftheRegion.
Rightmouseclickagain,AssignBoundary>Balloon…
RunthesimulationandcompareHFieldplotwiththepreviousdesignthathas
vectorpotentialboundary.
BalloononalledgesoftheRegion ZeroVectorPotentialontheouteredgeoftheStator
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12User’sGuide
9.14
Topic– 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-16
CreateDesign3:3_Balloon_ChangeExcitation
Clickondesign2_Balloon intheProjectManager windowandthenright
mouseclickandselectCopy
ClickontheprojectnameEx_9_14_Basic_BoundaryConditions,rightclick
andselectPaste,anewdesigncalled2_Balloon1 hasbeencreated,change
thedesignnameto3_Balloon_ChangeExcitation.
ModifyCurrentExcitation
ClickonExcitations>Current_3 inthe
Project window,youwillseeaProperties
windowunderProject window,changefrom
Positive toNegative intheDirection row.Also,
ChangeCurrent_7fromPositive toNegative
ChangeCurrent_4 andCurrent_8from
Negative toPositive.
Thepurposeistochangethecurrent
excitationasshowninthegraphbelow.
Current_2
Current_1
Current_8
Current_7
Current_3
Current_4
Current_5
Current_6
Positive Current_8
Negative Current_7
Negative Current_6
Positive Current_5
Positive Current_4
Negative Current_3
Negative Current_2
Positive Current_1
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12User’sGuide
9.14
Topic– 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-17
RunthesimulationandcompareHFieldplotwithDesign22_Balloon thathas
differentexcitations.
Design2:2_Balloon Design3:3_Balloon_ChangeExcitation
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12User’sGuide
9.14
Topic– 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-18
SymmetryBoundary
CreateDesign4:4_Symmetry_Odd
Clickondesign2_Balloon intheProjectManager windowandthen
rightmouseclickandselectCopy
ClickontheprojectnameEx_9_14_Basic_BoundaryConditions,right
clickandselectPaste,anewdesigncalled2_Balloon1 hasbeen
created,changethedesignnameto4_Symmetry_Odd.
Selectallobjectsandrightmouseclickinthemodeler>Boolean>
Split,chooseXZplanetocreatehalfgeometry.
Inthehistorytree,doubleclickonCreateRegion underVacuum>
Region,change–YPaddingPercentageto0.
RemovetheBalloonboundary,reassigntheBalloonboundaryto
threeedges(notonthesymmetryedge).
ChangetoEdgeselectionmodeandclickontheedgeoftheRegion
alongXaxis,rightmouseclickinthemodeler>AssignBoundary>
Symmetry,chooseOdd(FluxTangential).
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12User’sGuide
9.14
Topic– 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-19
Runsimulationandviewresults.
Symmetry:Odd(FluxTangential)
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12User’sGuide
9.14
Topic– 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-20
CreateDesign5:5_Symmetry_Even
Clickondesign4_Symmetry_Odd intheProjectManager windowandthenright
mouseclickandselectCopy
ClickontheprojectnameEx_9_14_Basic_BoundaryConditions,rightclickand
selectPaste,anewdesigncalled4_Symmetry_Odd1 hasbeencreated,change
thedesignnameto5_Symmetry_Even.
SelecttheSymmetryboundaryandchangeittoEven(FluxNormal).
Runsimulationandviewresults.
Symmetry:Even(FluxNormal)
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12User’sGuide
9.14
Topic– 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-21
CreateDesign6:6_NoSymmetry
Clickondesign4_Symmetry_Odd intheProjectManager windowandthenright
mouseclickandselectCopy
ClickontheprojectnameEx_9_14_Basic_BoundaryConditions,rightclickand
selectPaste,anewdesigncalled4_Symmetry_Odd1 hasbeencreated,change
thedesignnameto6_NoSymmetry.
SelecttheSymmetryboundaryanddeleteit.
Runsimulationandviewresults.
TheresultshouldlookthesameasDesign4:4_Symmetry_Oddbecauseoddsymmetry
orfluxtangentialisthedefaultboundarycondition.
NoSymmetry:bydefaultanOdd(Flux
Tangentialboundaryisassigned)
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12User’sGuide
9.14
Topic– 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-22
MatchingBoundaries(Master/Slave).
Slave=Master
Master
Design2:2_Balloon Design3:3_Balloon_ChangeExcitation
Slave=— Master
Master
Design7:7_Matching_Positive Design8:8_Matching_Negative
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12User’sGuide
9.14
Topic– 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-23
MatchingBoundaries:Master/Slave
CreateDesign7:7_Matching_Positive
Clickondesign6_NoSymmetryintheProjectManager windowandthenright
mouseclickandselectCopy.
ClickontheprojectnameEx_9_14_Basic_BoundaryConditions,rightclickand
selectPaste,anewdesigncalled6_NoSymmetry1 hasbeencreated,changethe
designnameto7_Matching_Positive.
Selectallobjectsandrightmouseclickinthemodeler>Edit>Boolean>Split,
chooseYZ plane.
Change–XPaddingPercentage oftheRegion tobe0.
RemovetheexistingBalloonboundaryandredefineitontwoedgesofthe
RegionthatarenotonXandYaxis.
ChangetoEdgeselectionmodeandselecttheedgeoftheRegion thatisalongX
axis.Rightmouseclickinthemodeler>AssignBoundary>Master.Besurethat
themastervectorarrowispointinginthepositiveXdirection. IfnotuseSwap
Direction.
SelecttheedgeoftheRegionthatisalongYaxis.Rightmouseclickinthe
modeler>AssignBoundary>Slave.Besurethattheslavevectorarrowis
pointinginthepositiveYdirection.IfnotuseSwapDirection.
Choose Master1fromthepulldownmenu, and Relationas Bs=Bm.
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12User’sGuide
9.14
Topic– 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-24
RunSimulationandviewresults.
Slave=Master
Master
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12User’sGuide
9.14
Topic– 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-25
CreateDesign8:8_Matching_Negative
Clickondesign7_Matching_PostitiveintheProjectManager windowandthen
rightmouseclickandselectCopy.
ClickontheprojectnameEx_9_14_Basic_BoundaryConditions,rightclickand
selectPaste,anewdesigncalled7_Matching_Postitive1 hasbeencreated,
changethedesignnameto8_Matching_Negative.
ChangetheSlave boundaryRelation toBs=- Bm.
RunSimulationandviewresults.
Slave=-Master
Master
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.15
BasicExercise– PMAssignment
9.15-1
Maxwell 2D v12
PermanentMagnetsAssignment
Thisexercisewilldiscusshowtosetupapermanentmagnet(PM) materialtoanobject.This
procedureisapplicableforMagnetostatic andTransientSolvers.
StartworkingwithMaxwell
StartMaxwellV12
Ifanewprojectisnotopenclickon Project>New
Project>InsertMaxwell2DDesign
Maxwell2D>SolutionType>Magnetic:Magnetostatic;GeometryMode:Cartesian,XY
Problemdefinition
WeareinterestedtosolvethemagneticfieldofaCircularPMplacedinvacuum.Thematerialof
PMisNdFeB35andthemagnetismagnetizedinthedirection30degreesrelativetotheGlobalX
direction.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.15
BasicExercise– PMAssignment
9.15-2
Maxwell 2D v12
Orientation ofobjectsasoneoftheattributes
EachobjectinMaxwellisassociatedwithcertaincoordinatesystem.ThisiscalledOrientation
anditisspecifiedunderattributesforeachobject.Letuscreateanobject(circlewiththecenterin
[0,0,0]andradiusof1mm)andobserveitsOrientation.
ClickonthemenuitemDraw>Circle
X,Y,Z:0,0,0Enter
DX,DY,DZ:1,0,0Enter
Edit>Properties;SelectAttributeTab
ChangethenamefromCircle1 tomagnet
BeforeclickingOKseethatoneoftheattributesdisplayedisOrientation.TheOrientation ofthis
objectisGlobal.Thismeansthatourobjectmagnet iscurrentlyassociatedwiththeGlobal
coordinatesystem.GlobalCoordinatesystemexistsbydefaultin anewlyinsertedMaxwell
Design.Left-clickingonGlobalallowschangingtheOrientation toothercoordinatesystem,
provided,ofcourse,thatsomeothercoordinatesystemexists.ClickOK toclosethewindow.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.15
BasicExercise– PMAssignment
9.15-3
Maxwell 2D v12
Orientationcanalsobeviewedgraphically.First,makesurethatthisfeatureisenabled:
Tools>Options>ModelerOptionsselect DisplayTabandcheck Showorientationof
selectedobjects
Selecttheobjectmagnet (left-clickonmagnet fromthehistorytree).TheOrientation isshownas
smallarrowsstartingfromtheorigin.TheseshouldnotbeconfusedwiththeCoordinateSystem
axesarrowswhicharebiggeranddisplayxorynexttoarrows.Thevisibilityandsizeof
CoordinateSystemaxesarrowscanbecontrolledfrom:View>CoordinateSystem>Small
CreateanewCoordinateSystem(CS)withx-axisrotated30degreesrelativetox-axisofthe
GlobalCS:
Modeler>CoordinateSystem>Create>RelativeCS>Rotated
OntheStatusBar(bottomright) changetheCStypefromCartesian toCylindrical and
specify
R,Phi,Z: 1,30,0Enter
ThenewlycreatedCSautomaticallybecomesaworkingCS(smallw signisdisplayed
nexttotheiconofaWorkingCS).ExpandCoordinateSystemsformHistoryTreeandleft-
clickonGlobal tomakeitaWorkingCSagain:
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.15
BasicExercise– PMAssignment
9.15-4
Maxwell 2D v12
TheOrientationofmagnetcannowbechanged.Objectmagnetcannowbeassociatedwith
RelativeCS1coordinatesystem:
Select magnet
Edit>Properties
Change OrientationfromGlobalto RelativeCS1;OK
Selecttheobjectmagnet againandobservetheorientation:
Orientation:Global Orientation:RealtiveCS1
SpecifyingpropertiesofPermanentMagnets
Changethematerialofmagnet fromVacuum toNdFeB35:
Select magnet
Edit>Properties
ClickonVacuum toenterthematerialdatabase,findNdFeB35 andclickonView/Edit
Materials
APermanentMagnet(PM)withlinearcharacteristicisuniquelydefinedbyspecifyingtwo
ofthefollowing:CoerciveField,Remanent FluxDensity,RelativePermeability.Coercive
FieldandRelativePermeabilityarechosenbydefaulttobespecified.Ifanyother
combinationofquantitiesisknowinstead,selectCalculatePropertiesforPM (seenext
page)andspecifythetwoknownquantities.Theremainingquantitywillbedetermined
automatically.
Thedirectionofmagnetizationisspecifiedbyaunitvector (seenextpage)relativetothe
CoordinateSystemassociatedwiththegivenobject,thatisrelativetotheOrientationof
theobject.IftheOrientationoftheobjectisGlobal,theunitvectorwillbespecifiedrelative
totheGlobalCS.Maxwellalsoallowstospecifythetypeofthe CoordinateSystem(upper
rightcorner– seenextpage).ThusCartesian,CylindricalandSphericalCStypecanbe
defined.ThismeansthatiftheOrientationoftheobjectisGlobal andCStypeCartesian,
theunitvectorwillbespecifiedasX,Y,andZ relativetotheCartesianGlobalCS.And,
e.g.,iftheOrientationoftheobjectisRelativeCS1 andCStypeisCylindrical,theunit
vectorwillbespecifiedasR,Phi andZ relativetotheCylindricalRelativeCS1CS.
Hence,therightdirectionofmagnetizationisspecifiedbytheappropriatecombinationof
object’sOrientation,CStypeandUnitVector.
ClickOK toapprovethematerialdefinitionandtoperformtheassignment.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.15
BasicExercise– PMAssignment
9.15-5
Maxwell 2D v12
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.15
BasicExercise– PMAssignment
9.15-6
Maxwell 2D v12
ExamplesofPMdirectionofmagnetizationassignment
DirectionofMagnetizationintheGlobalXdirection
Orientation:Global;CSType:Cartesian;UnitVectorX,Y,Z:1,0,0
DirectionofMagnetizationinthedirection30degreesrelativetoGlobalXdirection
Orientation:Global;CSType:Cartesian;UnitVectorX,Y,Z:1,0.5,0
OR
Orientation:RelativeCS1;CSType:Cartesian;UnitVectorX,Y,Z:1,0,0
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.15
BasicExercise– PMAssignment
9.15-7
Maxwell 2D v12
DirectionofMagnetizationintheoutwardradialdirection
Orientation:Global;CSType:Cylindrical;UnitVectorR,Phi,Z:1,0,0
DirectionofMagnetizationintheinwardradialdirection
Orientation:Global;CSType:Cylindrical;UnitVectorR,Phi,Z:-1,0,0
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.15
BasicExercise– PMAssignment
9.15-8
Maxwell 2D v12
DefinitionoftheSolutionSpace- Region
Beforeproceedingtodefinethesolutionspacemakesurethatthedirectionofmagnetizationis
30degreesrelativetoGlobalXdirection,asrequiredbytheproblemdefinition(seepage9.15-1).
FEMrequiresthatafinitesolutionspaceisdefinedpriorsolvingtheproblem.Thissolutionspace
inMaxwelliscalledRegion.TheRegioncanbeveryconveniently definedusingthefollowing
command:
Draw>Region andspecifyPaddingPercentage500.PaddingPercentageof500%
createsarectanglewhichextends5timesthediameterofthecircleineachdirection.As
thediameterofthecircleis2mmand5times2mmis10mm,thecornersofthe
rectanglewillbe[-11,-11]and[11,11].
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.15
BasicExercise– PMAssignment
9.15-9
Maxwell 2D v12
DefinitionoftheBoundaryConditions
WeexpectthatRegionissolargethatthemagneticfieldwillnotextendbeyondRegion’s
boundary.Thissituationcorrespondstotheboundaryconditionspecifyingthemagneticvector
potential(A)zeroontheedgesofRegion:
SelectRegion andEdit>Select>AllObjectEdges
Maxwell2D>Boundaries>Assign>VectorPotentialandleavethevaluezero;OK
DefineAnalysisandsolvetheproblem
Maxwell2D>AnalysisSetup>AddSolutionSetup
Acceptalldefaultvalues; OK
Maxwell2D>AnalyzeAll
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12User’sGuide
9.15
BasicExercise– PMAssignment
9.15-10
Maxwell 2D v12
Viewingtheresults
Wewillplotthemagneticfluxlinesthroughoutthesolutionspace
Magneticfluxlines:
SelectAllobjects(CTRLAorEdit>SelectAll)
Maxwell2D>Fields>Fields >A>FluxLines;Done
Double-clickontheLegend
SelectColorMapTabandspecify40 intheNumberofDivisionsfield;Apply;Close
Zoomin
Wecanseethatthefluxlinesarereallyoriented30degreesrelativetotheGlobalCoordinate
System.Thismeansthatthemagnetizationofthemagnetiscorrectlyassigned
Thiscompletestheexercise

The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice. Ansoft makes no warranty of any kind with regard to this material, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. Ansoft shall not be liable for errors contained herein or for incidental or consequential damages in connection with the furnishing, performance, or use of this material. © 2009 Ansoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Ansoft Corporation 225 West Station Square Drive Suite 200 Pittsburgh, PA 15219 USA Phone: 412-261-3200 Fax: 412-471-9427 Maxwell, ePhysics and Optimetrics are registered trademarks or trademarks of Ansoft Corporation. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. New editions of this manual will incorporate all material updated since the previous edition. The manual printing date, which indicates the manual’s current edition, changes when a new edition is printed. Minor corrections and updates which are incorporated at reprint do not cause the date to change. Update packages may be issued between editions and contain additional and/or replacement pages to be merged into the manual by the user. Note that pages which are rearranged due to changes on a previous page are not considered to be revised. Edition: REV2.0 Date: 15 January 2009 Software Version: 12.1

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide

1

Contents
Contents
This document discusses some basic concepts and terminology used throughout the Ansoft Maxwell application. It provides the following information: Overview 1.0 - Maxwell 2D Examples – Eddy Current 6.1 – Jumping Rings Axisymmetric Model 6.2 – Instantaneous Forces on Busbars Examples – Transient 7.1 – Gapped Inductor Model 7.2 - Solenoid Problem with an External Circuit Examples – Basic Exercises 9.1 – Electrostatic 9.3 – Magnetostatic 9.4 – Parametric 9.5 – Transient 9.6 – Transient with Circuit Editor 9.8 - Optimetrics 9.10 – Scripting 9.12 – Eddy Current 9.13 – Rotational Transient Motion 9.14 – Boundary Conditions 9.15 – Permanent Magnets Assignment Examples – Motors 11.1 - Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine 11.2 - Three-phase Induction Machine 11.3 - Permanent Magnet Motor

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide

2

3D/2D Electromagnetic Field Simulation

Maxwell® is a comprehensive electromagnetic field simulation software package for engineers tasked with designing and analyzing 3D/2D structures, such as motors, actuators, transformers and other electric and electromechanical devices common to automotive, military/ aerospace and industrial systems. Based on the Finite Element Method (FEM), Maxwell can solve static, frequency-domain and time-varying electromagnetic and electric fields. In addition, the software can be dynamically linked with Simplorer® to create a powerful, system-level electromagnetic-based design flow. This flow enables users to combine complex circuits with accurate component models to design highperformance electromechanical and power electronic systems. Additionally, Maxwell’s 3D solvers have dynamic links to ePhysics™. This allows engineers to perform complex 3D multi-physics studies by linking Maxwell to ePhysics’ thermal and structural solvers.

Key Benefits
Electromagnetic field simulation Maxwell includes 3D/2D Transient, AC Electromagnetic, Magnetostatic, Electrostatic and Electrotransient solvers that accurately solve for force, torque, capacitance, inductance, resistance, and impedance, as well as generate state-space models. Automatic adaptive meshing Maxwell uses the Ansoft-pioneered automatic adaptive meshing techniques. This robust meshing algorithm automatically creates and refines the finite element mesh as the solution converges, streamlining the solution process and making the software very easy to use. Dynamic link - ePhysics The Maxwell 3D solvers can be dynamically linked with ePhysics’ thermal and stress analysis and are the ideal solution for every electromechanical device requiring cross-disciplinary design analysis. Dynamic link - Simplorer Dynamic links with Simplorer multi-domain system simulation allow accurate high-fidelity component models to be combined with circuits and system architecture to create a powerful, electromagneticbased design flow. Import CAD files can be imported in Maxwell streamlining the design process. Multi-processing and distributed analysis Maxwell can leverage available computing power with multi-processing and distributed analysis options for fast turnaround of your largest designs. Optimization Optimetrics™ provides parametric, optimization, sensitivity, and statistical analysis capabilities to Maxwell. Optimetrics automates the design-optimization process by quickly identifying optimal values for design parameters that satisfy user-specified constraints. Customized pre-processors RMxprt (electric machine design) and PExprt™ (magnetic component design) are used to design devices based on a traditional analytical approach. They also can be directly linked to Maxwell and provide fully automated design creation and analytical analysis. Users can perform preliminary studies of design concepts prior to performing rigorous electromagnetic analysis with Maxwell.

applications
Electromechanical • Motors and generators • Linear or rotational actuators • Relays • MEMS • Magnetic recording heads Electromagnetic • Coils • Permanent magnets • Sensors Power electronic • Transformers • Converters • Bus bars • IGBTs and similar devices EM behavior • Insulation studies • Electrostatic discharge • Electromagnetic shielding • EMI/EMC • Semiconductor • Biomedical

The new 2D interface provides strong coupling with 3D and many new usability features.

Key features
Low-frequency electromagnetic field simulation and analysis using FEM for 3D/2D structures • Transient - nonlinear analysis with: Motion—rotation, translational, non-cylindrical rotation External circuit coupling Permanent magnet demagnetization analysis Core loss computation Lamination modeling for 3D • AC Electromagnetic—Analysis of devices influenced by skin/ proximity effects, eddy/displacement currents • Magnetostatic—Nonlinear analysis with automated equivalent circuit model generation • Electric Field—Transient, Electrostatic/Current flow analysis with automated equivalent circuit model generation Display of data/visualization of results • Field visualization and animations (shaded, contour and vector plots) • Mesh visualization (full, partial) • Current, induced voltage, flux linkage • Power loss, stored energy • Core loss, eddy, excess, hysteresis loss (including the minor loop effects) • Impedance, inductance, capacitance • Force, torque • Custom reports of user-defined solution data Performance and integration • Distributed Analysis* for parallel computing of parameterized models • 64-bit operating system support • Links to Simplorer®*, ePhysics™*, HFSS™*, RMxprt™*, PExprt™* Integrated 3D modeler featuring ACIS v16 and MFC technology • Standard primitives and multi-sweep functions • Boolean operations: union, subtraction, intersection • Direct import of SAT and DXF files • AnsoftLinks™* for import of STEP, IGES and Pro/E files Automatic, adaptive mesh technology • Fault-tolerant meshing algorithms • Mesh-generation feedback • GUI performs validation and integrity checks • Software identifies artifacts within the imported geometry • Mesh-based model resolution Versatile material manager and material types • User, group and system libraries • Linear, nonlinear anisotropic materials • Material assignment by coordinate type: cartesian, cylindrical or spherical Integrated Optimetrics™* • Geometry and material parameterization • Optimization, sensitivity and statistical analysis
*Option available at additional charge.

CAD Files IGES, STEP, DXF, SAT, ProE

AnsoftLinks RMxprt PExprt

Simplorer Maxwell
®

®

Electric Machine

Converters & Transformers

ePhysics

Optimetrics

Current density in a busbar system as calculated by Maxwell 3D.

Maxwell, Simplorer, ePhysics, Optimetrics, PExprt, AnsoftLinks, and HFSS are trademarks of Ansoft Corporation. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. © 2008 Ansoft Corporation 0308

225 West Station Square Drive • Suite 200 • Pittsburgh, PA 15219-1119 USA T 412-261-3200 F 412-471-9427 E info@ansoft.com W www.ansoft.com

Optimetrics™ is an optional software module that adds parametric capabilities, optimization algorithms, sensitivity and statistical analyses to Ansoft’s best-in-class electromagnetic-field simulation products—HFSS™, Maxwell® 3D and Q3D Extractor®. Optimetrics automates the designoptimization process for high-performance electronics, such as microwave/ RF devices, printed circuit boards, on-chip passives, IC packages and electromechanical components, by quickly identifying optimal values for design parameters that satisfy user-specified constraints and goals.

OVERVIEW
Optimetrics™ enables users to study the effects of geometry and materials on a design by creating parameters for the dimensions and material constants of the model to be analyzed. Optimetrics then varies these parameters and adjusts the geometry and materials to achieve the desired, user specified, performance goal. Leveraging previously computed parametric simulation results within its optimizer, Optimetrics enables engineers to understand device

This example is a connector designed with HFSS and Optimetrics. The control panel displays design variables (i.e., cost functions, parameters), launches design perturbations and converges to the optimal performance criterion.
characteristics over a large design space and quickly identify the best performing design that is least sensitive to manufacturing tolerances. Optimetrics, when used in conjunction with HFSS™, Maxwell® 3D and Q3D Extractor®, delivers an innovative and robust design platform from which users gain a greater understanding of the design space and the ability to make insightful design choices.

FEATURED CAPABILITIES
• Parametric Analysis • User-specified range and number of steps for parameters • Automatic analysis of parameter permutations • Distributed Analysis (cost option) o Automated parser management across multiple hardware platforms and reassembly of data for parametric tables and studies Sensitivity Analysis • Design variations to determine sensitivities o Manufacturing tolerances o Material properties • Optimization • User-selectable cost functions and goal objective o Quasi-Newton method o Sequential Nonlinear Programming (SNLP) o Integer-only Sequential Nonlinear Programming • Automatic analysis of parameter variants until optimum goal obtained Tuning • User-controllable slide bar for real-time tuning display and results Statistical Analysis • Design performance distribution versus parameter values

• •

Current sensor optimization results using Maxwell 3D and Optimetrics

Ansoft Corporation • 225 West Station Square Drive • Pittsburgh, PA 15219-1119 USA TEL 1.412.261.3200 FA X 1.412.471.9427 EMAIL info @ansoft.com WEB www.ansoft.com

Please consult your local sales representative for pricing and information on this and on other Ansoft products. HFSS, Maxwell, Optimetrics and Q3D Extractor are trademarks of Ansoft Corporation. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. © 2005 Ansoft Corporation PH15-1105

3200 • FAX: 412. PA 15219-1119 USA TEL: 412. easily exchangeable and open language for multi-domain analog mixed-signal designs. It consists of many interdisciplinary and nonlinear components from multiple domains: electrical.com . circuits.v7.0 Multi-domain simulation software Overview SIMPLORER® is the premier software program for the design and analysis of complex. block diagrams. time-discrete and hybrid systems. space vector controls or PWM for powerelectronic circuits. Modeling Techniques SIMPLORER allows components to be described as behavioral or physical models using one or any combination of SIMPLORER’s modeling techniques. state machines. SIMPLORER is the only system engineering tool to offer multiple standard modeling techniques (VHDL-AMS. Ansoft Corporation • 225 West Station Square Drive • Pittsburgh.1) created to provide a generalpurpose. continuous. This eliminates error-prone mathematical VHDL-AMS IEEE-endorsed modeling language (standard 1076.471. It also utilizes the concept of “natures.com • WEB: www. nonlinear. multi-domain systems commonly found in automotive. such as logical control found in embedded control systems. aerospace/defense and industrial systems. making it easy to leverage the IEEE multi-domain modeling standard. The close interaction across domains renders single-domain system simulation tools ineffective. CIRCUITS Numerically stable and fast circuit simulator with support for multi-level semiconductor modeling that is optimized to the needs of demanding power-electronic and high-switching-frequency circuit design. transformations and model analogies often employed by singledomain simulation tools. mechanical. C/C++) that can be used concurrently. BLOCK DIAGRAMS Enables the description of signal-flow-based linear. STATE MACHINES Highly efficient modeling technique for event-driven systems.9427 • EMAIL: info@ansoft.261.ansoft.” allowing components of different engineering domains to interact. Multi-domain system design is challenging and complex. making it ideal for dynamic system simulation and closedloop-control applications. SIMPLORER is the ideal tool for system designs such as: • Power Systems • Electric Motors and Drives • Powertrains • Hybrid-electric Propulsion • Other Multi-domain Systems SIMPLORER v7 offers VHDL-AMS wizard technology. thermal and control.

Mathcad® and other specialized programs. SIMPLORER. Please consult your local sales representative for pricing and information on this and other Ansoft products.simplorer. such as Visual Basic ®. Users can easily create equivalent circuit models from the finite-element analysis (FEA) results and import them directly to SIMPLORER. This powerful feature provides the ultimate in accuracy and flexibility and is ideal for detailed analysis of electromechanical components operating within a system. PL37-0407 © 2004 Ansoft Corporation .Models SIMPLORER Model Libraries SIMPLORER offers optional application-specific model libraries to enhance productivity and reduce design time: • • • • Alternative Power Automotive Hydraulic Machine • • • • Mechanical Power SMPS Sensor FEA-Based Models For models requiring the highest level of fidelity. Statistical Analysis and Optimization SIMPLORER includes many advanced analysis capabilities such as parametric sweeps and optimization routines to provide insight into design variations and “trade-offs. Java® or Tcl/Tk and interact easily with other tools supporting the Microsoft Com interface. saves design time and allows communication and model exchange across departments and between suppliers and OEMs. Users can simultaneously solve a transient FEA project with a transient system simulation. allowing SIMPLORER to be embedded into existing design flows.model. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. allowing SIMPLORER to utilize customized code and existing design control. Manufacturers’ Models SIMPLORER users can access up-to-date manufacturer-specific components online at www. The scripting capability is language independent so users can work with popular scripting languages. SIMPLORER v7 now includes a transient simulation coupling link. Alternatively. such as MS Office and LabView ® Co-Simulation SIMPLORER allows the integration of proprietary C/C++ programs. SIMPLORER provides a direct link to Ansoft’s industry-leading electromagnetic field simulation and design programs: Maxwell®. MATLAB® /Simulink®. PExprt and RMxprt are trademarks of Ansoft Corporation. ultra capacitors and other components are available to customers as a free download. and PExprt™.com. Integration Scripting This powerful feature opens APIs in the SIMPLORER environment. The direct integration of models in their native environment avoids model translation. users can employ the Transient Simulation coupling link to couple transient FEA directly to SIMPLORER. MOSFET. IGBT.” • • • • • Parameter Sweep/Table Monte Carlo 3D Graphic Genetic Algorithm Successive Approximation • • • • SIMPLEX Frequency Sweep Worst Case Sensitivity SIMPLORER v7 includes many new statistical design and optimization routines. RMxprt™.

In addition to providing classical motor performance calculations. Performance metrics Critical performance data. . make initial sizing decisions. RMxprt automatically produces both system-level models and geometric data. flux in the air gap. design templates Machine types • Induction machines o Single-phase motors o Three-phase motors • Synchronous machines o Line-start PM motors o Salient-pole motors and generators o Non-salient pole motors and generators • Brush commutated machines o DC motors and generators o Permanent magnet DC motors o Universal motors • Electronically commutated machines o Brushless DC motors o Adjustable-speed PM motors and generators o Switched reluctance motors o Claw-pole generators RMxprt delivers the reports you need to quickly analyze and tune your design. allowing the preliminary design to be refined and integrated with power electronic and control circuitry. Powerful scripting RMxprt can be integrated with third party development programs through scripting languages such as VB script. RMxprt also can output Excel-format design sheets based on the user-defined template. loads. High-fidelity system models RMxprt creates high-fidelity. With RMxprt. Tcl/TK. Robust calculation methods RMxprt uses classical analytical motor theory and equivalent magnetic circuit methods to compute performance metrics for a specific machine design and accounts for nonlinear magnetic characteristics and 3D effects. JavaScript®. Design optimization RMxprt can perform hundreds of “what if” analyses in a matter of minutes. voltage. Wire library RMxprt includes a comprehensive database of ANSI and IEC wires. torque and back EMF as well as a detailed winding layout. and interactions with drive-system components in Simplorer®. and perform hundreds of “what if” analyses in a matter of seconds. Key Benefits Fast design RMxprt offers numerous machine-specific. Perl. As the entry point for the Ansoft motor and drive design methodology. template-based interfaces for induction. such as skew and end-turn. Convenient design sheet output Design sheets list all the relevant input parameters and calculated parameters and graphically display waveforms including current. RMxprt can automatically create 3D and 2D geometry and assign material properties and other necessary problem definition data necessary to perform rigorous finite element analysis on the design using Maxwell®. Excel and MATLAB®. power loss. winding characteristics and nonlinear material properties. state-space system models incorporating machines’ physical dimensions. Engineers can use the resulting behavioral model to explore electronic control topologies.RMxpRt ™ v12 Design Software for Electric Machines RMxprt™ is a versatile software program that speeds the design and optimization process of rotating electric machines. such as torque versus speed. users can calculate machine performance. making it a valuable tool for designers needing to make initial sizing and material decisions quickly. synchronous. and electronically and brush-commutated machines that allow users to easily enter design parameters and to evaluate design tradeoffs early in the design process. Model pre-processor RMxprt is a key part of Ansoft’s motor design methodology. This allows users to customize the design flow and leverage internally developed programs and historical data. power factor and efficiency can be quickly calculated.

Key features • Machine-specific template editor o Rotor o Stator o Running strategies o Drive circuits • Auto-design feature o Slot size o Coil turns and wire diameter o Starting capacitance o Winding arrangement • Performance curves o Torque o Power o Efficiency • Output waveforms o Current o Cogging torque o Flux in the air gap • Graphical winding editor • Cross section Editor • Customizable design sheet • Cost evaluation • Integrated parametrics and optimization • State-space model export to Simplorer® • Automated project setup for Maxwell® 2D • Automated geometry and material setup for Maxwell 3D RMxprt™ creates 3D and 2D geometry. design flOW RMxprt is the ideal starting point for a comprehensive electric machine design flow. RMxprt with Maxwell and Simplorer provides an efficient and accurate methodology to design and optimize an electric machine and related electric drive and control system. Additionally. Simplorer and Maxwell are trademarks of Ansoft Corporation. RMXPRT™ SIMPLORER® MAXWELL® RMxprt. assigns materials and sets up boundary conditions for Maxwell.com . All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. © 2008 Ansoft Corporation 0308 225 West Station Square Drive • Suite 200 • Pittsburgh. PA 15219-1119 USA T 412-261-3200 F 412-471-9427 E info@ansoft.com W www. any parameter changed in RMxprt is automatically updated in the finite element project.ansoft.

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-1 .Presentation Overview 1 Maxwell 2D is a high-performance interactive software package that uses finite element analysis (FEA) to solve electric field and magnetic field problems.

Presentation Overview 1 Maxwell 2D solves the electromagnetic field problems for a given model with appropriate materials. There are two geometry modes available in Maxwell 2D: Cartesian (XY) model Axisymmetric (RZ) model There are six solvers available in Maxwell 2D: Electrostatic AC Conduction Electric Fields DC Conduction Magnetostatic Eddy Current Magnetic Fields Transient Magnetic Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-2 . boundaries and source conditions applying Maxwell's equations over a finite region of space.

Presentation Overview 1 Different Methods of Electromagnetic Analysis Electromagnetic Analysis Closed Form Analytical Techniques Numerical Techniques Iterative Integral Equations Boundary Elements Differential Equations Finite Difference FDM BEM Finite Elements FEM Scalar Potentials 2D Electrostatic 3D Thermal 3D Electrostatic Vector Potentials 2D Magnetostatic 2D Eddy 2D Transient Components of H-Field 3D Magnetostatic 3D Eddy 3D Transient Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-3 .

Presentation Overview 1 Differential Form of Maxwell’s Equations Faraday' s Law of Induction Gauss' s Law for Magnetism Ampere' s Law Gauss' s Law for Electricity ∇×Ε =− ∇•B=0 ∇×H = J + ∇•D=ρ ∂D ∂t ∂Β ∂t Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-4 .

The assembly of all triangles is referred to as the finite element mesh of the model or simply the mesh. All the model solids are meshed automatically by the mesher. triangles in 2D). Approximate aspect ratio limit in 2D: X = 10. the geometry of the problem is discretized automatically into small elements (e.Presentation Overview 1 FEM and adaptive meshing In order to obtain the set of algebraic equations to be solved..000Y Y X Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar Start Field Solution Generate Initial Mesh Compute Fields Perform Error Analysis Refine Mesh Has Stopping Criteria been met? Yes No Stop Field Solution P1-5 .g.

Presentation Overview 1 FEM Approximation Functions The desired field in each element is approximated with a 2nd order quadratic polynomial Az(x.y) = ao + a1x + a2y + a3x2 + a4xy + a5 y2 Field quantities are calculated for 6 points (3 corners and 3 midpoints) in 2D Field quantities inside of the triangle are calculated using a 2nd order quadratic interpolation scheme 1 6 2 5 4 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar 3 P1-6 .

Presentation Overview 1 FEM Variational Principle Poisson’s equation: ∇ 2 A = − µJ is replaced with energy functional: F ( A) =  1  ∇ A • ∇A  + A • J dV  2 ∫ µ   This functional is minimized with respect to value of A at each node in every triangle Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-7 .

the result is a large. sparse matrix equation [S ][A] = [J ] This can be solved using standard matrix solution techniques such as: Sparse Gaussian Elimination (direct solver) Incomplete Choleski Conjugate Gradient Method (ICCG iterative solver) Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-8 . over all the triangles.Presentation Overview 1 FEM Matrix Equation Now.

The local error in each triangle is proportional to R.Presentation Overview 1 FEM Error Evaluation Put the approximate solution back into Poisson’s equation ∇ 2 Aapprox + µJ = R Since A is a quadratic function. R is a constant in each triangle. Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-9 .

Presentation Overview 1 FEM Percent Error Energy Summation of local error in each triangle divided by total energy Percent Error Energy = ∑ i =1 n R(local)i Total Energy × 100% Local errors can exceed Percent Error Energy Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-10 .

Presentation Overview 1 Transient Solver Fully Coupled Dynamic Physics Solution Current Source Density Electric Scalar Potential Velocity ∂A ∇ × υ∇ × A = J s − σ − σ∇V + ∇ × H c + σv × ∇ × A ∂t Magnetic Vector Potential Permanent Magnet Time-varying Electric and Magnetic Fields Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-11 .

a = radius in meters Induced eddy currents always occur in conducting objects due to time-varying fields.4048 where : u = perm . they may not always be significant Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-12 .Magnetic Field Diffusion Magnetic fields “diffuse” into materials at different rates depending on: Material properties of the component Physical size of the component For a cylindrical conductor. diffusion time is: uσ a 2 τ= (sec) 2 2. however.Presentation Overview 1 Transient Solver . σ = conductivi ty .

Desktop The complex functionality built into the Maxwell solvers is accessed through the main user interface (called the desktop).Presentation Overview 1 GUI . Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-13 . Problem can be setup in a fairly arbitrary order. A new “validation check” has been added to insure that all required steps are completed.

Exports directly .gds . translators are invoked that convert the models to an ACIS native format (sat format). users can import models saved in a variety of formats (sm2 . . Users can create directly models using primitives and operations on primitives.sm3. ACIS version 16 is presently used.stl . .Presentation Overview 1 ACIS solid modeling kernel The underlying solid modeling technology used by Ansoft products is provided by ACIS geometric modeler. . .sat.sm2. In addition. .step.iges .sld .prt .dxf.sat .geo .sm3 .dwg .asm) When users import models into Ansoft products.dxf .iges Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-14 .step .

Presentation Overview 1 Supported platforms Windows XP Pro Windows XP Pro x64 Edition Windows Server 2003 Windows Server 2003 x64 Edition Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3. 4 SuSE Linux Enterprise Server 9.3 Solaris 8 -10 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-15 .

select the menu item Project > Insert Maxwell 2D Design Toolbar: Insert Maxwell 2D Design Insert Maxwell 3D Design Insert RMxprt Design Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-16 . To insert a Maxwell Design to the project.Presentation Overview Starting Maxwell Click the Microsoft Start button. and select the Ansoft > 1 Maxwell 12 > Maxwell 12 Or Double click on the Maxwell 12 icon on the Windows Desktop Adding a Design When you first start Maxwell a new project will be automatically added to the Project Tree. select Programs.

Presentation Overview Maxwell Desktop Menu bar 1 Toolbars Project Manager with project tree 2D Modeler Window Property Window History Tree Progress Window Message Manager Status bar Coordinate Entry Fields Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-17 .

Presentation Overview Maxwell Desktop – Project Manager Multiple Designs per Project Multiple Projects per Desktop Integrated Optimetrics Setup (requires license for analysis) Project Manager Window 1 Project Design Design Setup Design Automation •Parametric •Optimization •Sensitivity •Statistical Design Results Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-18 .

Presentation Overview Maxwell Desktop – 2D Modeler Graphics area 2D Modeler Window Model 1 Edge 2D Modeler design tree (history) Vertex Context menu (right mouse click on 2D modeler window) Origin XY Coordinate System Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-19 .

Select the menu item Maxwell 2D > Solution Type 2. Visualize the geometric model as being revolved around the z-axis. Geometric Model Cartesian (XY Plane) Axisymmetric (RZ Plane) Z Y Z X R Φ Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-20 . An Axisymmetric (RZ) model represents a cross-section of a device that is revolved 360° around an axis of symmetry (the z-axis). Solution Type Window: Choose Geometry Mode: Cartesian XY 1 Maxwell – Geometry Modes A Cartesian (XY) model represents a cross-section of a device that extends in the z-direction. Visualize the geometric model as extending perpendicular to the plane being modeled.Presentation Overview Geometry Mode To set the geometry mode: 1.

An inductance matrix. Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-21 . force. An impedance matrix. force. The magnetic field may be computed in structures with both nonlinear and linear materials. and flux linkage may also be computed from the energy stored in the magnetic field. Uses a time-stepping solver. An admittance matrix and current flow may also be computed from the calculated fields. and flux linkage may also be computed from the electric field. and current flow may also be computed from the computed field solution. torque. Electric Solution Types Electrostatic Computes the static electric field that exists in a structure given a distribution of DC voltages and static charges.Presentation Overview Set Solution Type To set the solution type: select the menu item Maxwell 2D > Solution Type 1 Magnetic Solution Types Magnetostatic Computes the static magnetic field that exists in a structure given a distribution of DC currents and permanent magnets. and windings supplied by voltage and/or current sources with arbitrary variation as functions of time. Also computes current densities. torque. position and speed. taking into account all eddy current effects (including skin effects). AC Conduction Computes the AC voltages and current density distribution in a material having both conductive and dielectric properties given a distribution of AC voltages. force. Transient Computes transient (Time Domain) magnetic fields caused by permanent magnets. Rotational or translational motion effects can be included in the simulation. Eddy Current Computes the oscillating magnetic field that exists in a structure given a distribution of AC currents. torque. It can also be coupled with external circuits. DC Conduction Computes the DC currents that flow in a lossy dielectric given a distribution of DC voltages. A conductance matrix and current flow may also be computed from the computed electric field solution. conductors. Considers source induced and motion inducted eddy effects. core loss. A capacitance matrix.

Set Model Units: 1. Click the OK button Set Default Material To set the default material: 1. Select the menu item 1 Modeler > Units 2. Select Definition Window: 1.Presentation Overview Set Model Units To set the units: 1. Select Units: mm 2. Using the Modeler Materials toolbar. choose Select 2. Click the OK button Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-22 . Type steel_1008 in the Search by Name field 2.

Presentation Overview Modeler – Draw a Rectangle Point 2 1 Point 1 Point 1 Point 2 Coordinate Entry Fields The Coordinate Entry fields allow equations to be entered for position values. Variables are not allowed in the Coordinate Entry Field Note: Trig functions are in radians Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-23 . 2*cos(10*(pi/180)). Examples: 2*5. 2+6+8.

Presentation Overview Modeler – Importing .dxf and .dwg CAD files Check “Import as 2D sheet bodies” so objects come in as sheets and not solids To change the number of segments on an imported curve: Change to face select mode: Edit > Select > Faces and click on face Modeler > Surface > Uncover Faces Change to object select mode: Edit > Select > Objects and click on open polyline Modeler > Purge History Modeler > Generate History Expand the history tree for that polyline and change number of segments as desired Select the polyline and: Modeler > Surface > Cover Lines 1 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-24 .

Presentation Overview Modeler – Object Properties Commands (dimensions and history) 1 In History Tree: Attributes Commands Attributes (properties of the object) Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-25 .

the object is totally ignored outside of modeler with no mesh and no solution Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-26 .Presentation Overview Modeler – Attributes 1 Solve Inside – if unchecked meshes but no solution inside (like the old exclude feature in material manager) Model – if unchecked.

and color of light Projection – Control camera and perspective Background Color – Control color of 3D Modeler background 1 View > Visualization Settings – displayed resolution of curves View > Active View Visibility . intensity. Color Keys. Boundaries.Controls the display of: 3D Modeler Objects. Excitations. Color Key Defaults. Drag Optimization. Field Plots View > Options – Stereo Mode.Views View > Modify Attributes > Orientation – Predefined/Custom View Angles Lighting – Control angle. Default Rotation View > Render > Wire Frame or Smooth Shaded (Default) View > Coordinate System > Hide or Small (Large) View > Grid Setting – Controls the grid display Toolbar: Toggle Grid Visibility Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-27 .Presentation Overview Modeler .

Press the appropriate keys and drag the mouse with the left button pressed: ALT + Drag – Rotate In addition. there are 9 pre-defined view angles that can be selected by holding the ALT key and double clicking on the locations shown on the next page.Pan ALT + Shift + Drag – Dynamic Zoom Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-28 . some useful shortcut keys exist.Presentation Overview Changing the View Rotate Around Current Axis Pan Rotate Around Rotate Around Screen Center Model Center Fit All Dynamic Zoom 1 Toolbar Zoom In/Out Fit Selected Predefined View Angles Top Context Menu Left Right Bottom Shortcuts Since changing the view is a frequently used operation. Shift + Drag .

. draw object solely by entry in command and attributes box. CTRL + V: Paste CTRL + X: Cut CTRL + Y: Redo CTRL + Z: Undo CTRL + 0: Cascade windows CTRL + 1: Tile windows horizontally CTRL + 2: Tile windows vertically Modeller Shortcuts B: Select face/object behind current selection F: Face select mode O: Object select mode CTRL + A: Select all visible objects CTRL + SHIFT + A: Deselect all objects CTRL + D: Fit view CTRL + E: Zoom in.e. draw objects by mouse) F4: Switch to dialogue entry mode (i..e.) F6: Render model wire frame F7: Render model smooth shaded 1 Alt + Double Click Left Mouse Button at points on screen: Sets model projection to standard isometric projections (see diagram below). screen center CTRL + F: Zoom out... ALT + Right Mouse Button + Double Click Left Mouse Button at points on screen: give the nine opposite projections. screen center CTRL + Enter: Shifts the local coordinate system temporarily SHIFT + Left Mouse Button: Drag Alt + Left Mouse Button: Rotate model Alt + SHIFT + Left Mouse Button: Zoom in / out F3: Switch to point entry mode (i.Presentation Overview Maxwell V12 Keyboard Shortcuts General Shortcuts F1: Help Shift + F1: Context help CTRL + F4: Close program CTRL + C: Copy CTRL + N: New project CTRL + O: Open. CTRL + S: Save CTRL + P: Print. Predefined View Angles Top Alt + double left Click here to restore view in an RZ model Left Right Bottom Alt + double left Click here to restore view in an XY model Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-29 .

Presentation Overview 1 Simple Example Magnetic core with coil Use 2D RZ Magnetostatic Solver Core (Steel_1008) Coil (120 Conductors. Copper) Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-30 .

enter the opposite corner of the rectangle dX: 2. enter the center position X: 0.0.0. Z: -3.Presentation Overview 1 Setup the geometry mode and solver Choose Cylindrical about Z under Maxwell 2D > Solution Type Choose Magnetostatic Click the OK button Create Core To create the core: 1. dZ: 10.0. dY: 0. Press the Enter key 3.0.0. Y: 0. Using the coordinate entry fields. Select the menu item Draw > Rectangle 2. Press the Enter key Continued on Next Page Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-31 . Using the coordinate entry fields.0.

Click the OK button To fit the view: 1. Select the Command tab from the Properties window 2. Value: 10mm 2. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active View 1 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-32 . Select the Attribute tab from the Properties window 2. Select the Attribute tab from the Properties window. 2. Select the Attribute tab from the Properties window.Presentation Overview Create Core (Continued) To Parameterize the Height 1. Add Variable Window 1. 2. ZSize: H 3. Click the OK button To finish editing the object properties 1. For the Value of Name type: Core To set the material: 1. Press the Tab key 4. Select the Attribute tab from the Properties window. Click on the button in Material value: set to steel_1008 To set the color: 1. Click the Edit button To set the transparency: 1. 2. Click the OK button To set the name: 1.

dY: 0.0. For the Value of Name type: Coil 3. Press the Enter key 3.Presentation Overview Set Default Material To set the default material: 1. Using the coordinate entry fields. dZ: 4.0. Z: 0. Type copper in the Search by Name field 2. enter the opposite corner of the rectangle dX: 2. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active View Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-33 . Select the menu item Draw > Rectangle 2. Using the 3D Modeler Materials toolbar. Click the OK button To fit the view: 1.0. Select Definition Window: 1.0. Using the coordinate entry fields. 2. Click the OK button 1 Create Coil To create the coil for the current to flow: 1. Y: 0. Select the Attribute tab from the Properties window. enter the center position X: 2. Press the Enter key To set the name: 1.0. choose Select 2.0.

Ref. Name: Current1 2. Select the menu item Maxwell 2D > Excitations > Assign > Current 3. Click on the coil. Current Excitation : General 1. Direction: Positive 4. 1 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-34 . Value: 120 A (Note: this is 120 Amp-turns) 3. positive current flows into the screen. Click the OK button 5. Note that for RZ models. positive current flows out of the screen. 2. however for XY models.Presentation Overview Create Excitation Assign Excitation 1.

To define a Region: 1. Padding Data: One 2. Padding Percentage: 200 3. or 200% is recommended P1-35 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar .Presentation Overview Define a Region Before solving a project a region has to be defined. This special region object will be resized automatically if your model changes size. The region can be defined by a special object in Draw > Region. a padding percentage of at least 2 times. A region is basically an outermost object that contains all other objects. A ratio in percents has to be entered that specifies how much distance should be left from the model. Click the OK button 1 Note: Since there will be considerable fringing in this device. Select the menu item Draw > Region 1.

Click the OK button 1 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-36 . click on the top. right and bottom edges while holding down the CTRL key. Change to edge selection mode by choosing: Edit > Select > Edges 2. Select the menu item Maxwell 2D > Boundary > Assign > Balloon 4.Presentation Overview Setup Boundary Assign Boundary 1. Using the mouse. 3.

Presentation Overview Solution Setup . Solution Setup Window: 1. Click the General tab: Maximum Number of Passes: 10 Percent Error: 1 2. Click the OK button Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-37 . Select the menu item Maxwell 2D> Analysis Setup > Add Solution Add Solution Setup 1 Setup 2.Creating an Analysis Setup To create an analysis setup: 1.

Select the menu item Maxwell 2D> Analyze All Validate Analyze All Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-38 . use the Message Manager. From the Save As window. Click the Close button Note: To view any errors or warning messages. In an Ansoft Maxwell window. 2. type the Filename: 2D_simple_example 3. Analyze To start the solution process: 1. select the menu item File > Save As. Select the menu item Maxwell 3D> Validation Check 2.Presentation Overview Save Project To save the project: 1. Click the Save button 1 Model Validation To validate the model: 1.

Presentation Overview View detailed information about the progress In the Project Tree click on Analysis > Setup1 with the right mouse button und select Profile 1 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-39 .

Select the menu item Edit > SelectAll To create a mesh plot: 1. Create Mesh Window: 1. Select the menu item Maxwell 2D > Fields > Plot Mesh 2.Presentation Overview 1 Mesh Overlay Create a plot of the mesh 1. Click the Done button Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-40 .

In the object tree. Click the Done button 4. Solution: Setup1 : LastAdaptive 2. turn off the plot using: 1 View > Active View Visibility > Filed Reporter Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-41 . select the plane for plotting: 1. Quantity: Mag_B 3. Using the Model Tree. In Volume: Allobjects 4. Select Global:XZ 2. Create Field Plot Window 1. expand Planes 2. When done. Select the menu item Maxwell 2D> Fields > Fields > B > Mag_B 3.Presentation Overview Field Overlays To create a field plot: 1.

Select Global:XZ 2. Click the Done button 4. turn off the plot using: 1 View > Active View Visibility > Filed Reporter Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-42 . Quantity: B_Vector 3. expand Planes 2. When done. In Volume: Allobjects 4. select the plane for plotting: 1. In the object tree. Solution: Setup1 : LastAdaptive 2. Select the menu item Maxwell 2D> Fields > Fields > B > B_Vector 3. Using the Model Tree. Create Field Plot Window 1.Presentation Overview Field Overlays (cont) Create another field plot: 1.

Create Field Plot Window 1. When done.Presentation Overview Field Overlays (cont) Create another field plot: 1. expand Planes 2. Quantity: Flux_Lines 3. Using the Model Tree. In the object tree. Solution: Setup1 : LastAdaptive 2. Click the Done button 4. Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-43 . Select Global:XZ 2. In Volume: Allobjects 4. select the plane for plotting: 1. Select the menu item Maxwell 2D> Fields > Fields > A > Flux_Lines 3. turn off the plot using: 1 View > Active View Visibility > Filed Reporter This completes the simple example.

Presentation Overview Screen Capturing To save the drawing Window or a plot to the clipboard select the menu item: Edit > Copy Image In any Windows application. select: Edit > Paste to paste the image 1 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-44 .

software only checks date If an error occurred when saving the auto file.lock.mxwl Double click from Windows Explorer will open and launch Maxwell v12 Results and Mesh are stored in a folder named <project_name>.mxwl Created when a project is opened Auto Save File: <project_name>.mxwl.auto When recovering. the date will be newer then the original Look at file size (provided in recover dialog) 1 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-45 .Presentation Overview File Structure Everything regarding the project is stored in an ascii file File: <project_name>.mxwlresults Lock file: <project_name>.

Presentation Overview Scripts Default Script recorded in v12 Visual Basic Script 1 Remote Solve (Windows Only) Tools > Options > General Options > Analysis Options Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-46 .

Parametric Model Geometry/Materials 2. Boundaries 1. Solve Loop YES Update Finished P1-47 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar .Presentation Overview 1 Overall Setup Process Design Solution Type 2. Excitations 2. Results 2D Reports Fields NO Converged 2. Mesh Operations Mesh Refinement Solve 4. Analysis Setup Solution Setup Frequency Sweep Analyze 3.

Results 1 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-48 . Mesh Operations. Excitations.Presentation Overview Menu Structure Draw – Primitives Modeler – Settings and Boolean Operations Edit – Copy/Paste. Duplicate Maxwell 2D – Boundaries. Arrange. Analysis Setup.

Presentation Overview Modeler – Model Tree Select menu item Modeler > Group by Material 1 Material Object Object Command History Grouped by Material Object View Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-49 .

Change Dimensions Add Variables Project Variables (Global) or Design Variables (Local) Animate Geometry Include Units – Default Unit is meters Supports mixed Units 1 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-50 .Presentation Overview Modeler – Commands Parametric Technology Dynamic Edits .

In versions prior to release 11 these primitives would be represented as faceted objects. Regular Polyhedron Cone. but they are ignored by the solution The following 3D Draw objects are available (in Maxwell 3D): Box. Sphere. select the Regular Polyhedron or Regular Polygon. Cylinder. Rectangle. Equation Based Surface 3D Draw Objects Note that 3D objects can be pasted into the 2D model window. Helix. Spheres. Arc. Torus. Toolbar: 2D Objects 1 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-51 . Circle. etc are represented as true surfaces. Bond Wire True Surfaces Circles. Ellipse.Presentation Overview Modeler – Primitives 2D Draw Objects The following 2D Draw objects are available: Line. Equation Based Curve. Spline. If you wish to use the faceted primitives. Spiral. Regular Polygon. Cylinders.

YZ. XZ) only where they intersect Separate Bodies – separates objects which are united but not physically connected into individual objects Toolbar: Boolean 1 Edit > Arrange > Move – Translates the structure along a vector Rotate – Rotates the shape around a coordinate axis by an angle Mirror – Mirrors the shape around a specified plane Offset – Performs a uniform scale in x. or z direction Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-52 . YZ. or z axis Mirror .Mirrors the shape around a specified plane and creates a duplicate Toolbar: Duplicate Edit > Scale – Allows non-uniform scaling in the x. y. Toolbar: Arrange Edit > Duplicate > Along Line – Create multiple copies of an object along a vector Around Axis – Create multiple copies of an object rotated by a fixed angle around the x. y. y. XZ) Split Crossing Objects – splits objects along a plane (XY. and z.Presentation Overview Modeler – Boolean Operations/Transformations Modeler > Boolean > Unite – combine multiple primitives Unite disjoint objects (Separate Bodies to separate) Subtract – remove part of a primitive from another Intersect– keep only the parts of primitives that overlap Split – break primitives into multiple parts along a plane (XY.

To select the object simply click the left mouse button. To Disable: Select the menu item Tools > Options > Modeler Options From the Display Tab.Presentation Overview Modeler .Selection Selection Types Object (Default) Face Edge Vertex 1 Selection Modes All Objects All Visible Object By Name Highlight Selection Dynamically – By default. Multiple Object Selection – Hold the CTRL key down to graphically select multiple objects Next Behind – To select an object located behind another object. uncheck Highlight selection dynamically Selected Dynamically Highlighted (Only frame of object) Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-53 . Note: The mouse pointer must be located such that the next behind object is under the mouse pointer. press the b key to get the next behind. moving the mouse pointer over an object will dynamically highlight the object for selection. select the front object.

Presentation Overview Modeler – Moving Around Modeler > Snap Mode to set the snaps Tools > Customize… Snap Mode to view Snap Mode toolbar 1 Toolbar: Snap Mode Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-54 .

Presentation Overview Modeler – Coordinate Systems Can be Parameterized Working Coordinate System Currently selected CS. Offset Rotated Toolbar: Coordinate System Both Face CS (setting available to automatically switch to face coordinate system in the Modeler Options) 1 Step 1: Select Face Step 2: Select Origin Cone created with Face CS Change Box Size and Cone is automatically positioned with the top face of the box P1-55 Step 3: Set X-Axis New Working CS Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar . This can be a local or global CS Global CS The default fixed coordinate system Relative CS User defined local coordinate system.

Object Volume 1 Position Points Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-56 .Presentation Overview 2D Measure Modeler > Measure > Position – Location. Distance. and Area Edge – Edge Length Face – Surface Area Object – Surface Area.

1 Options . Requires additional license Default Process Priority – set the simulation priority from Critical (highest) to Idle (lowest) Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-57 .Presentation Overview Options – General Tools > Options > General Options > Project Options Temp Directory – Location used during solution process Make sure it has at least 512MB free disk.Maxwell Tools > Options > Maxwell Options > Solver Set Number of Processors = 2 for 1 dual-core processor or two single-core processors.

Presentation Overview Options – Modeler Options Tools > Options > Modeler Options > Drawing for Point and Dialog Entry Modes Can enter in new dimensions using either Point (mouse) or Dialog entry mode Alternatively use F3 and F4 to switch between Point and Dialog entry modes 1 Typical “Dialog” entry mode window Tools > Options > Modeler Options > Display tab to enable playback Must close and re-open Maxwell after making change for this setting. for instance) Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-58 . to activate Visualization is seen by clicking on primatives in the history tree (under subtract command.

cls) 2. Browse to the existing project and select the . Click the Open button What is Converted? Converts Entire Model: Geometry. Boundaries. Optimetrics projects and Macros are not converted Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-59 .cls file 3. Open dialog 1. Files of Type: Ansoft Legacy EM Projects (. Materials. Sources and Setup 1 Solutions. Select the menu item File > Open 2. 1.Presentation Overview Converting Older Maxwell Projects (pre-Maxwell v12) to Maxwell v12 From Maxwell v 11 and older.

Presentation Overview Material Setup . users cannot modify this User Library – to be shared among several users at a company (can be encrypted) Personal libraries .Libraries 3-Tier library structure System (global) level – predefined from Ansoft and ships with new upgrades.to be used only by single user (can be encrypted) Add a new material: Tools > Edit Configured Libraries > Materials New Interface for Materials Setting shared with RMxprt 1 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-60 .

Click on Save as default to automatically load library for any new project.Presentation Overview Click “Add Material …”. Locate the library to have the material available for all the projects. In the main project window. 1 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-61 . The Material is only available in Project To add a material in the user or personal library: click on “Export Library” and save it in the desire library. click on Tools > Configured Libraries.

Presentation Overview Materials Setup .Editing 1 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-62 .

Presentation Overview Material Setup – BH curve Robust BH curve entry – can delete points if you make a mistake Can import data from a file To export BH curve for use in future. right-mouse-click on curve and select Export to File… 1 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-63 .

To modify the Magnetic Coercivity Unit Vectors for a permanent magnet material. To rotate a magnet in a parametric simulation and the magnetization direction. open the Attribute for the object and change the coordinate system. The default Orientation for permanent magnets is Global CS.Z for cartesian. Rotate 2. The material coordinate system type can be described in Cartesian.Y. you must first rotate the object and second assign the FaceCS.Presentation Overview Material Setup . Cylindrical.Permanent Magnets Direction of magnetization determined by material’s object’s Orientation and Magnetic Coercivity Unit Vectors. Spherical The magnetic coercivity has unit vectors corresponding to the chosen coordinate system: for instance X. To modify the Orientation. as shown below in the history tree 1 1. Create FaceCS Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-64 . enter the Materials Library and edit the material.

and σ3 are tensors in the Z direction.  µ3   σ 1 0 0  [σ ] =  0 σ 2 0     0 0 σ3   Dielectric Loss Tangent no no no no no no Magnetic Loss Tangent no no no no no no Solver Electrostatic DC Conduction AC Conduction Magnetostatic Eddy Current Transient Anisotropic Permitivity yes no yes no no no Anisotropic Conductivity no yes yes no no no Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-65 . Note: Nonlinear anisotropic permeability not allowed in Maxwell 2D. µ1. 1 ε 1 0 [ε ] =  0 ε 2  0 0  0 0 . µ3. ε3.Presentation Overview Material Setup . and σ1 are tensors in the X direction. µ2.Anisotropic Material Properties ε1. ε2. and σ2 are tensors in the Y direction.  ε3   µ1 [µ ] =  0  0  Anisotropic Permeability no no no yes yes yes 0 µ2 0 0 0 .

Use this boundary condition when the resistive layer’s thickness is much smaller than the other dimensions of the model. Planes of symmetry in periodic structures where E is oblique to the boundary. No special conditions are imposed. Planes of geometric and electrical symmetry. its tangential components are zero. Field behaves so that voltage can fringe Used to model… Ordinary E-field behavior on boundaries. Neumann boundaries — E is tangential to the boundary. coatings or oxidation on a metallic surface) on a conductor at a known potential. 1 Balloon Ground at infinity Matching (Master and Slave) Resistance (DC conduction solver only) The E-field on the slave boundary is forced to match the magnitude and direction (or the negative of the direction) of the E-field on the master boundary. Object interfaces are initially set to natural boundaries. A resistance boundary models a very thin layer of resistive material (such as that caused by deposits. DC Conduction. Field behaves as follows: Even Symmetry (Flux Tangential) — E is tangential to the boundary.Presentation Overview Electric Field Boundary Conditions (Electrostatic. its normal components are zero. AC Conduction) Boundary Type Default Boundary Conditions (Natural and Neumann) Symmetry E-Field Behavior Field behaves as follows: Natural boundaries — The normal component of D changes by the amount of surface charge density. outer boundaries are initially set to Neumann boundaries. Odd Symmetry (Flux Normal) — E is normal to the boundary. Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-66 . Flux cannot cross a Neumann boundary.

Neumann boundaries — H is tangential to the boundary and flux cannot cross it. Includes the effect of induced currents beyond the boundary surface. its tangential components are zero. outer boundaries and excluded objects are Neumann boundaries. object interfaces are natural boundaries. Initially. Note: In the Magnetostatic solver. Planes of symmetry in periodic structures where H is oblique to the boundary. Magnetically isolated structures. Sets the magnetic vector potential on the boundary. Field behaves so that magnetic flux can fringe Used to model… Ordinary field behavior.Presentation Overview Magnetic Field Boundary Conditions (Magnetostatic. Field behaves as follows: Odd Symmetry (Flux Tangential) — H is tangential to the boundary. A is RMS while in the Eddy Current solver. 1 Magnetic Vector Potential Symmetry Planes of geometric and magnetic symmetry. Impedance (Eddy Current only) Balloon Conductors with very small skin depths. Transient) Boundary Type Default Boundary Conditions (Natural and Neumann) H-Field Behavior Field behaves as follows: Natural boundaries — H is continuous across the boundary. A is peak. Even Symmetry (Flux Normal) — H is normal to the boundary. Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-67 . No fringing at infinity Matching (Master and Slave) The H-field on the slave boundary is forced to match the magnitude and direction (or the negative of the direction) of the H-field on the master boundary. its normal components are zero. Eddy Current.

1 Notes: In the Electrostatic solver. Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-68 . The total charge on a surface or object (either a conductor or dielectric). DC Conduction. any conductor without a source condition will be assumed to be floating. AC Conduction) Source Floating Conductor Voltage Charge Charge Density Type of Excitation Used to model conductors at unknown potentials.Presentation Overview Electric Field Sources (Electrostatic. The charge density in an object. The DC voltage on a surface or object.

Presentation

Overview
Magnetic Field Sources (Magnetostatic)
Source Current Current Density Type of Excitation The total current in a conductor. The current density in a conductor.

1

Notes: In the Magnetostatic solver, current is RMS ampturns. Permanent magnets will also act as a source in the Magnetostatic solver.

Magnetic Field Sources (Eddy Current)

Source Current Parallel Current Current Density

Type of Excitation The total current in a conductor. The total current in a a group of parallel conductors. The current density in a conductor.

Notes: In the Eddy Current solver, current is peak amp-turns. Sources can be solid (with eddy effects) or stranded (without eddy effects).

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Presentation

Overview
Magnetic Field Sources (Transient)
Source Current Current Density Coil Type of Excitation The total current in a conductor. The current density in a conductor. Current or voltage on a winding representing 1 or more turns

1

Permanent magnets will also act as a source in the Transient solver.

Current and voltage sources (solid or stranded) can be constant or functions of intrinsic variables: speed (rpm or deg/sec), position (degrees), or time (seconds) Dataset function can be used for piecewise linear functions: Pwl_periodic (ds1, Time)

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Magnetic Field Sources (Transient) Maxwell 2D > Excitation > Current
Value: applies current in amps Type: Solid for windings having a single conductor/turn eddy effects are considered Stranded for windings having many conductors/turns eddy effects are not considered Ref Direction: Positive or Negative

1

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Magnetic Field Sources (Transient) Maxwell 2D > Excitation > Add Winding
Current – applies current in amps Solid or Stranded Input current and number of parallel branches as seen from terminal Voltage – applies voltage (total voltage drop over the length of a solid conductor or the entire winding) Solid or Stranded Input initial current, winding resistance, extra series inductance not considered in FEA model, voltage, and number of parallel branches as seen from terminal External – couples to Maxwell Circuit Editor Solid or Stranded Input initial current and number of parallel branches

1

Maxwell 2D > Excitation > Assign > Coil
Pick a conductor on the screen and then specify: Name Number of Conductors Polarity: positive, negative, or functional winding direction Note: Windings in the XY solver will usually have 2 coils: one positive and one negative polarity. Both coils will be added to the appropriate winding by right-mouse clicking on Coil in the project tree and choosing Add to Winding
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To Create an External Circuit
1. 2.

1

3.

Select: Maxwell2D > Excitations > External Circuit > Edit External Circuit > Import Circuit After circuit editor opens, add elements to construct the circuit. Note that the name of the Winding in the circuit (Winding1) must match the name of the Winding in Maxwell (Winding1) Save circuit as *.amcp file and then Maxwell Circuit > Export Netlist > *.sph file.

I

Model sw itch1 I W 1 _sw

V

Model sw itch2 V

Model
d1

S_sw 2

+ D64 -

0

LabelID=VI1

5.3ohm LabelID=R3

LW inding1

Note: The dot on the winding symbol is used as the positive reference for the current (positive current is oriented from the "dotted" terminal towards to "un-dotted" terminal of the winding as it passes through the winding).

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Overview
Maxwell 2D > Excitation > Set Eddy Effects
Need to enable the calculation of eddy effects in objects

1

Maxwell 2D > Excitation > Set Core Loss
For objects with zero conductivity (such as a laminated core), you can calculate the core loss Note that the core loss coefficients must be defined in the material setup

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Ke is the excess or anomalous eddy current coefficient due to magnetic domains.Presentation Overview 1 Core Loss Calculation Method The core loss for electrical steel is based on: p = Kh B where: 2 max f + K c (Bmax f ) + K e (Bmax f ) 2 1. fx is the frequency. f is the frequency. Bymax is the maximum amplitude of the flux density Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-75 . Bmax the maximum amplitude of the flux density. Kc is the classical eddy coefficient. 5 Kh is the hysteresis coefficient. The power ferrite core loss is based on: y p = Cm f x Bmax where: Cm is constant value determined by experiment.

Set transient coupling with Simplorer on the Advanced Product Coupling tab (For Transient Solutions Only) Set the Model Depth (Maxwell2D XY Transient Designs Only).Presentation Overview Maxwell 2D > Design Settings The Design Settings window allows you to specify how the simulator will deal with some aspects of the design. Tabs vary by solver used (the panel below is for the transient solver) Set the Symmetry Multiplier (For Transient XY Solutions only). Set the default Background material (Maxwell2D Designs Only). Set Preserve Transient Solution options (For Transient Solutions Only). insulators. Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-76 . 1 Set the Material Threshold for treating materials as conductors vs.

and Matrix 1 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-77 . Core loss. Torque. Flux linkage.Presentation Overview Maxwell 2D > Parameters Allows the automatic calculation of parameters following the field solution Includes: Force.

Defines the direction and type of motion (translation or rotation) Defines the mechanical parameters such as mass. damping. 2. and load force Defines limits of motion Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-78 . 3.Presentation Overview Maxwell 2D > Model > Motion Setup > Assign Band 1 1.

1 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-79 .001.Presentation Overview Magnetostatic and Electric Solution Setup Start the menu of solution setup by: Maxwell > Analysis Setup > Add Solution Setup … For Magnetostatic solver on Solver tab. suggest setting nonlinear residual = 0. On default tab choose Save Defaults to set this value for all future projects.

Presentation Overview Eddy Current Solution Setup 1 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-80 .

Presentation Overview Transient Solution Setup 1 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-81 .

On Selection is applied on the surface of the object 2.Presentation Overview Mesh Operations To assign Mesh operations to Objects. Surface approximation is applied to set faceting guidelines for true surface objects 1 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-82 . select the Menu item: Maxwell 2D > Assign Mesh Operations 1. Inside Selection is applied through the volume of the object 3.

Mesh Operations “On selection” applied on the perimeter of the object Element length based refinement: Length Based Skin Depth based refinement: Skin Depth Based 1 On selection – skin depth based (2 layers) On selection – length based Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-83 .Presentation Overview 1.

applied throughout the volume of the object Element length based refinement: Length Based 1 Inside selection – length based Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-84 .Presentation Overview 2. Mesh Operations “Inside selection” .

Presentation Overview 3. perform faceting control on a face-by-face basis Select Mesh operation > Assign > Surface approximation and specify one or more settings: Maximum surface deviation (length) 1 D D = Maximum Surface Deviation Maximum Surface Normal Deviation (degrees) Θ = Maximum Surface r Normal Deviation Θ D = r (1 − cos(Θ / 2)) Maximum Aspect Ratio AspectRatio = ri ro ro 2 * ri Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-85 . Mesh Operations “Surface Approximation” For true surfaces.

Click Maxwell > Analysis Setup > Revert to Initial Mesh to restart to the initial mesh 1 To view mesh information: Click Maxwell > Results > Solution Data and click on the tab Mesh Statistics Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-86 . Define mesh operations as previously discussed 2.Presentation Overview Manual mesh creation To create the initial mesh: Click Maxwell > Analysis Setup > Apply Mesh Operations To refine the mesh without solving 1. Click Maxwell > Analysis Setup > Apply Mesh Operations 3.

1 Select an object Select the menu item Maxwell 2D > Fields > Plot Mesh Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-87 .Presentation Overview Mesh Display 1. 2.

Presentation Overview 2D transient meshing for rotational models “Moving Surface” method used 1 Stator stationary part master moving surface Air gap 7 7' 6 6' 5 5' 4' 4 3' 3 2' 2 Band Rotor 1 1' slave moving surface moving part(s) Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-88 .

so user must manually create the mesh or link to a solved MS or Eddy design The band area is re-meshed at each time step The stationary region and moving part(s) are not re-meshed If you link the mesh to a solved MS or Eddy design: The entire mesh from the linked design is transferred to the transient design. the mesh operations on the band in the transient design are re-applied at every timestep and a new mesh is created. If the starting transient position is the same as the linked MS or Eddy design. then the linked mesh in the band object is completely deleted. Any mesh or mesh operation on the band in the linked MS or Eddy Design is ignored. If the starting transient position is the different than the linked MS or Eddy design. For subsequent positions as the object(s) move in the band. then the linked mesh in the band object is reused. The mesh in objects inside and outside of the band never changes as motion occurs. 1 Stationary region band Moving part(s) Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-89 . The key point is that mesh operations are always required on the band object (use inside selection) for Maxwell 2D transient designs. The band is then re-meshed based only on mesh operations in the transient solver.Presentation Overview 2D transient meshing for translational models “Moving Band” method used Adaptive meshing not used.

… 3. Shade plots (scalars): Bmag. 2. Animation Plots Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-90 . Jmag.. … 4. Arrow plots (vectors): B vector. .Presentation Overview Post Processing Two Methods of Post Processing Solutions: Viewing Plots Manipulating Field Quantities in Calculator 1 Five Types of Plots: 1. H vector.. Hmag. distance along a predefined line 5. Line plots (scalars): magnitude vs. Contour plots (scalars): equipotential lines.

Presentation Overview Contour plot 1 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-91 .

Presentation Overview Shade plot (tone) 1 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-92 .

Presentation Overview Shade plot (fringe with outline) 1 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-93 .

Presentation Overview Arrow plot 1 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-94 .

Presentation Overview Line plot 1 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-95 .

Presentation Overview Multiple windows and multiple plots 1 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-96 .

Presentation Overview Animation plot Various types of animated plots are possible: Animate with respect to phase angle (eddy solver) Animate with respect to time (transient solver) Animate with respect to position (for parametric analysis) Animate with respect to shape change (for parametric analysis) Export to .gif or .avi format 1 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-97 .

Total Energy in an object 1 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-98 .Presentation Overview Fields Calculator To bring up the Fields Calculator tool 1. Tangential Component of E-field along a line 4. Select the menu item Maxwell->Fields->Calculator Typical quantities to analyze: 1. Flux through a surface 2. Current Flow through a surface 3. Average Magnitude of B-field in a core 5.

Before using this command. Grid points from file: Maps the field quantity to a customized grid of points. y. you must create a file containing the points. You specify the dimensions and spacing of the grid in the x. Two options are available: 1. Use this command to save field quantities in a format that can be read by other modeling or post-processing software packages. Calculate grid points: Maps the field quantity to a three-dimensional Cartesian grid. 2.Presentation Overview Fields Calculator – Export Command 1 Exports the field quantity in the top register to a file. mapping it to a grid of points. and z directions. Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-99 .

4008 2 1 0 -72.063 94.07776 128.279 63.897 -18.474 -176.556 94.582 -347.326 -339.Ey.824 -419.Ez> Min: [0 0 0] Max: [2 2 2] Spacing: [1 1 1] Space delimited ASCII file saved in project subdirectory Vector data "<Ex.9481 0 1 0 -259.8 70.684 95.578 0 0 2 -65.85 69.248 77.3982 -1.08368 -234.085 -262.5158 2 0 0 101.5698 2 0 1 -327.719 27.203 1 1 1 -235.093 0 0 1 -71.099 -160.457 6.276 120.567 82.088 16.026 2 1 2 -458.115 12.0539669 77.471 70.9798 1 0 2 -7.8133 2 0 2 -290.77604 2 1 1 -495.493 129.8847 1 0 0 -8.392 1 0 1 -8.2228 2 2 2 -590.865 -426.2234 -422.46131 69.994 83.6138 2 2 0 -470.4889 0 1 2 -236.8698 2 2 1 -613.811 58.9825 93.674 -9.898 -415.25016 -226.9415 1 2 0 -459.40917 102.Ey.833 -407.716 159.834 -187.6193 0 2 1 -436.12527 1 2 1 -447.Presentation Overview Export to Grid Vector data <Ex.472 -189.464 -433.55376 2.76 -0.77 84.4059 0 2 0 -447.5038 117.079 -433.571 1 1 2 -229.9676 0 2 2 -424.857 -408.095 -8.Ez>" Grid Output Min: [0 0 0] Max: [2 2 2] Grid Size: [1 1 1 0 0 0 -71.572 0 1 1 -248.7231 -8.454 -236.91719 -241.461 103.86 1 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-100 .125 109.5987 1 2 2 -435.007 -8.5673 1 1 0 -271.

Visiting the Ansoft Web Site If your computer is connected to the Internet. click the Help button in the dialog box or press the F1 key. Tooltips are available to provide information about tools on the toolbars or dialog boxes. To get help about a specific. The Ansoft Maxwell Getting Started guide provides detailed information about using Maxwell to create and solve 3D EM projects. active dialog box. www. you can visit the Ansoft Web site to learn more about the Ansoft company and products. Your Ansoft sales engineer may also be contacted in order to obtain this information. From the Ansoft Desktop Select the menu item Help > Ansoft Corporate Website to access the Online Technical Support (OTS) system.com and select Contact. Select the menu item Help > Contents to access the online help system.pdf for printing. please log on to the Ansoft corporate website.com Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-101 ./Maxwell/Maxwell12/help/maxwell_onlinehelp. PDF version of help manual at: . When you hold the pointer over a tool for a brief time.ansoft. Ansoft Technical Support To contact Ansoft technical support staff in your geographical area.Presentation Overview Getting Help 1 If you have any questions while you are using Ansoft Maxwell you can find answers in several ways: Ansoft Maxwell Online Help provides assistance while you are working.ansoft. the Status Bar at the bottom of the Ansoft Maxwell window provides a brief description of the function of the tool or menu item.. From your Internet browser Visit www. a tooltip appears to display the name of the tool. As you move the pointer over a tool or click a menu item.

and then allows you to download any updates if they are available. 1 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-102 . This feature automatically scans your system to find any Ansoft software.Presentation Overview WebUpdate This new feature allows you to update any existing Ansoft software from the WebUpdate window.

MA (781) 229-8900 x0 – Ask for Technical Support 9-4 PST: San Jose. PA (412) 261-3200 x0 – Ask for Technical Support Burlington. training.ansoft.cfm 1 Application Support for North America The names and numbers in this list may change without notice Technical Support: 9-4 EST: Pittsburgh.com/support. and application notes. OR (503) 906-7944 or (503) 906-7947 El Segundo. Web Site: http://www.Presentation Overview For Technical Support The following link will direct you to the Ansoft Support Page. CA (408) 261-9095 x0 – Ask for Technical Support Portland. CA (310) 426-2287 – Ask for Technical Support Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 – Training Seminar P1-103 . The Ansoft Support Pages provide additional documentation.

Optimetrics .

and you want to fine tune the value to see how the design results are affected. 4. the nominal design. 3. volume or weight. Optimetrics automatically changes the design parameter(s) to meet the goal. . Second derivative of the regression Tuning: Variable values are changed interactively and the performance of the design is monitored. First derivative of the regression. 5. Sensitivity: Determine the sensitivity of the design to small changes in variables in the vicinity of a design point. Create the original model. such as field values. each specifying a series of variable values within a range. R. torque or loss caused by a statistical variation (Monte Carlo) of input variables.L. and then define design parameters that vary Optimetrics includes five unique capabilities: 1. torque. Optimization: Identify the cost function and the optimization goal. The cost function can be based on any solution quantity that can be computes. 2. Statistical: shows the distribution (Histogram) of a design output like force.C force. Parametrics: Define one or more variable sweep definitions.What is Optimetrics ? Optimetrics enables engineers to determine the best design variation among a model's possible variations. Useful after performing an optimization in which Optimetrics has determined an optimal variable value. Outputs include: Regression value at the current variable value. Easily view and compare the results using plot or table to determine how each design variation affects the performance of the design.

and works if all variables are continuous. the grid is refined. Pattern Search algorithms are less sensitive to noise. Pattern Search . the optimizer must handle discrete optimization variables. the step is accepted and the new simplex is generated to replace the original one. or can have only integers. Quasi Newton .Five Unique Optimizers 1. which makes use of simplices: triangles in 2D space or tetrahedra in 3D space.To be able to optimize on number of turns or quarter turns. [Note: this is used for optimizations where some variables must be integers such as wire gauge size and is better for optimizations having only a few variables] Genetic Algorithm . The cost value is calculated at the vertices of the simplex. This optimizer assumes that the optimization variables span a continuous space. 4. This gradient approximation is only accurate enough if there is little noise involved in the cost function calculation. 3. .This optimizer approximates the gradient of a user-defined cost function in its search for the minimum location of the cost function. which possesses finite accuracy. 5. In each generation some new individuals (Children / Number of Individuals) are created and the so grown population participates in a selection (natural-selection) process that in turn reduces the size of the population to a desired level (Next Generation / Number of Individuals). [Note: this is better for optimizations having many variables] 2. If no improvement occurs. The SMINLP optimizer can mix continuous variables among the integers. [Note: this is better for optimizations with only a few variables] Sequential Mixed Integer NonLinear Programming . the next face is used for mirroring and the pattern continues. If it does not produce a better result. The cost function calculation involves FEA. If improvement occurs. Sequential Nonlinear Programming .This optimizer performs a grid-based simplex search. The optimizer mirrors the simplex across one of its faces based on mathematical guidelines and determines if the new simplex provides better results.The Genetic Algorithm (GA) search is an iterative process that goes through a number of generations (see picture below).The main advantage of SNLP over quasi Newton is that it handles the optimization problem in more depth.

matrix Complete support of Transient solution .Optimetrics Module (cont.) Distributed Parametrics and Optimization Seamless setup Integrated with force. torque.

) Integrated with external circuit Setup variables in Maxwell Circuit Editor Optimize on ‘voltage’ in Maxwell .Optimetrics Module (cont.

Optimetrics Example Optimization of a starter-alternator pack The pack contains a motor used also as alternator Three-phase claw pole motor Permanent Magnets are added between teeth .

Optimization of the Geometry Want to see the influence on the output torque Tooth angle Magnet thickness Magnet length .

Results Transient analysis run for the optimized design Initial Peak torque: 63.42 Nm Initial Optimized .40 Nm Optimized Peak Torque: 67.

0 .Maxwell 2D v12 Chapter 6.0 Chapter 6.1 – Jumping Rings Axisymmetric Model 6.0 – Eddy Current Examples 6.2 – Instantaneous Forces on Busbars Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 6.1 .

Set Geometry Mode: Cylindrical about Z Select the radio button Magnetic: Eddy Current Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 6. Three rings are stacked on top of each other around a common axis. and voltage. Calculate the power loss using two independent methods.. The bottom ring provides a 10 kHz excitation that induces eddy currents and losses in the other two rings. Calculate the induced voltage (V2’) across the open ends of ring2.1 . and compare it to the loss in the convergence table.1 This example investigates the classical “jumping rings” experiment using a 2D axisymmetric eddy current model. The bottom ring1has a peak current of 1A. A physical layout of the actual device is shown in: open points in rings ring3 ring2 ring1 I1 After the problem is solved. The model consists of three solid copper rings.1 . Setup the Design Click on the menu item Project > Insert Maxwell 2D Design Click on the menu item Maxwell 2D > Solution Type . These rings are repelled from ring1 and can be suspended by the magnetic field as the current in ring1 is increased. while ring2 and ring3 have no excitation and are opencircuited. you can do the following: View the impedance matrix.Maxwell 2D v12 Eddy Current – Application Note Introduction 6. The open-circuit condition is simulated by constraining the total current to zero. power losses. The analysis includes all skin and proximity effects in the calculation of the impedance matrix..

36 segments. a radius of 0. Create the Model The model consists of three donut-shaped rings.8). an axisymmetric model is rotated 360° around the z-axis (displayed as the v-axis in the drawing).0.0). 36 segments. Draw a circle named ring3 with a center at (1. To create the cross-section of the rings: Draw a circle named ring1 with a center at (1. Z: -10 dX: 20. 36 segments.1 cm. a radius of 0.5). X: 0.0. Y: 0. Select wireframe view by selecting: View > Render > Wire Frame. dZ: 20 Change its properties: Name: Region Transparency: 0.1 cm. Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 6. a radius of 0. colored red. This is a 2-dimensional axisymmetric drawing. colored yellow.Maxwell 2D v12 Eddy Current – Application Note Specify the Drawing Units Click on Modeler > Units > Select units: cm 6.9 Select View > Fitall > Active View to resize the drawing window.1 Draw the Solution Region Click on Draw > Rectangle (Enter the following points using the tab key).2 . dY: 0.1 cm.1 . A cross-section of the model is shown below. colored green. Draw a circle named ring2 with a center at (1.

Z: 0.8 dX: 0. dY: 0.1. dZ: 0 Segments: 36 Change its properties: Name: ring1 Material: Copper Color: Red Click on Draw > Regular Polygon X: 1.1 Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 6.1. dZ: 0 Segments: 36 Change its properties: Name: ring3 Material: Copper Color: Yellow 6. dZ: 0 Segments: 36 Change its properties: Name: ring2 Material: Copper Color: Green Click on Draw > Regular Polygon X: 1. dY: 0. Z: 0.5 dX: 0. Y: 0. Z: 0 dX: 0.1 . dY: 0.Maxwell 2D v12 Eddy Current – Application Note Draw the Rings Click on Draw > Regular Polygon X: 1.3 . Y: 0.1. Y: 0.

only the DC resistance would have been calculated and no AC effects in the coil would have been considered.1 . if Stranded had been chosen. choose the three outer edges of the region. On the other hand.Maxwell 2D v12 Eddy Current – Application Note Assign the Sources 6. Assign the Outer Boundary The boundary must be set on the solution region. Click on Maxwell 2D > Excitations > Assign > Current Name: Current3 Value: 0A Type: Solid Note: Choosing Solid specifies that the eddy effects in the coil will be considered. Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 6. Select ring1from the history tree. Click on Maxwell 2D > Boundaries> Assign > Balloon When done. This forces the total current flow around these rings to be zero in order to model the “open-circuit” condition.4 .1 A current of 1A will be assigned to the ring1 while 0A will be assigned to both ring2 and ring3. choose Edit > Select > Object to object selection mode. Click on Maxwell 2D > Excitations > Assign > Current Name: Current1 Value: 1A Type: Solid Select ring2 from the history tree. While holding down the CTRL key. Click on Maxwell 2D > Excitations > Assign > Current Name: Current2 Value: 0A Type: Solid Select ring3 from the history tree. Choose Edit > Select > Edges to change the selection mode from object to edge.

which is equal to 4π×10-7 A/m.066 cm which less than the diameter of 0. This is done by setting a parameter. for copper its 1 µο is the permeability of free space. It is a function of the permeability.200cm for the conductors.8e7 S/m µr is the conductor’s relative permeability. conductivity and frequency Skin depth in meters is defined as follows: δ = 2 ωµ o µ rσ where: ω is the angular frequency. for copper its 5. Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 6. For the copper coils.1 In this example. Current2. σ is the conductor’s conductivity. (f is the source frequency which in this case is 10000Hz). the compete [3x3] impedance matrix will be calculated. which is equal to 2πf. the skin depth is approximately 0.Maxwell 2D v12 Eddy Current – Application Note Assign the Parameters 6.1 . Click on Maxwell 2D > Parameters > Assign > Matrix Check each of the three sources: Current1.5 . Current3 Compute the Skin Depth Skin depth is a measure of how current density concentrates at the surface of a conductor carrying an alternating current.

1 . re-set the Percent Error to 0. Mesh operation “On Selection” Mesh operation “Inside Selection” Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 6.6 . re-set the Adaptive Frequency to 10kHz 6. the mesh operation is applied evenly through the area of the conductors as opposed to being applied only on the outer perimeter of the conductor. Name: Coils_Inside Restrict Length Of Elements: Uncheck Restrict Number of Elements: Check Maximum Number of Elements: 1000 Note that by choosing “Inside Selection” instead of “On Selection”.Maxwell 2D v12 Eddy Current – Application Note Add an Analysis Setup Click Right on Analysis in the Model Tree and select Add Solution Setup On the General tab.01 On the Solver tab.1 Add Mesh Operations In order to accurately compute the mutual resistance terms in the impedance matrix. a uniform mesh is needed in all conductors. Select all three coils in the history tree and then Maxwell 2D > Mesh Operations > Assign > Inside Selection > Length Based.

Note the total loss is approximately 0. L12 R22 . L31  Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide R12 . L13  R23 . L33   6.0002003 W. By default.1 Save the project by clicking on menu item File > Save As Select the menu item Maxwell 2D > Validation Check to verify problem setup Click on Maxwell 2D > Analyze All View the Solution Data Select the menu item Maxwell 2D > Results > Solution Data Click on the Convergence tab to view the adaptive refinement. L] or as coupling coefficients.Maxwell 2D v12 Eddy Current – Application Note Solve the Problem 6.7 . L11 R . Click on the Matrix tab to display the 3x3 impedance matrix. L  21 21  R31 . Click on the Mesh Statistics tab to view the refined mesh. Z] but can be also shown as [R.1 .  R11 . L32 R13 . the results are displayed as [R. L23   R33 . L22 R32 .

1 . while the off-diagonal terms represent the mutual inductance due to coupling. (The ring1 DC resistance is obtained by running a separate simulation a 0. The matrix results should closely resemble the results shown in the following matrix.004e-004 ohms In this example.458e-004 = 4. Finally. ring2.Maxwell 2D v12 Eddy Current – Application Note 6. The negative resistance R13 means that the current in ring1 induces a current in ring3. The off-diagonal resistance terms result from proximity effect currents induced in one coil due to excitation in the other coil.710e-005 = –6.1 The diagonal resistance terms represent the self-resistance of each coil due to the DC component and skin effects.963e-006 = 4. the total power loss can be calculated by hand from the impedance matrix using the following formula: P = ½*I2peakR11 = ½*12*4.8 . Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 6. which actually reduces the AC resistance of ring3: The diagonal term R11 is made up of the following resistive components due to ring1. The ring1 skin effect term is calculated as the difference between of all of these terms. as well as the proximity effects in all other conductors.1Hz. and ring3.446e-005 = 1. with a 1 A peak current in ring1.003e–4 (Watts) This value also corresponds to the Total Power Loss in the convergence table.006e–4 = 2. The R11 term as well as ring2 and ring3 proximity terms are taken from the matrix above.) ring1 DC resistance ring1 skin effect ring2 proximity effect from I1 ring3 proximity effect from I1 R11 = 3. The diagonal inductance terms represent the self-inductance of each coil. and with both ring2 and ring3 open-circuited.

you can analyze the results. total current flow.9 . View the Results Now that you have generated a solution.Maxwell 2D v12 Eddy Current – Application Note Plot the Mesh 6. what you want to calculate and display are: The total power loss. Animated current density vector plot.1 Select all objects and click on Maxwell 2D > Fields > Plot Mesh and zoom in. Induced voltage (V2‘) across the open-circuit point in ring2.1 . Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 6. When done. hide the plot by selecting View > Active View Visibility > Fields Reporter and unchecking the Mesh1 plot. and rotational current flow in the rings. Specifically. Flux lines plot. Current density plot for ring2 and ring3.

. ‘Objectlist1’ appears under ‘List’ in the History Tree. Plot Flux Lines Select all objects Click on Maxwell 2D > Fields > Fields > A > Flux Lines > Done Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 6.1 . This value is equal to the power calculated by hand from R11 in the impedance matrix.10 .003e-004 (W).Maxwell 2D v12 Eddy Current – Application Note Compute Total Power Loss in the Coils 6.1 Select all three coils in the history tree and then Modeler > List > Create > Object List . Evaluate The evaluated loss in the Coils should be about: 2. Click on Maxwell 2D > Fields > Calculator and then perform the following: Quantity > OhmicLoss Geometry > Volume > Objectlist1> OK Integral > RZ Eval .. Click Done.

Click Done. Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 6. Evaluate Note that the current in ring1 is close to 1 A.048A. The current flowing along each side of ring2 is a “rotational” eddy current equal to ½ * 0. yielding currents of 0.1 .087 = 0. Click Done.. Taking the absolute value of J will return two times the current flowing in the open rings. Now repeat the above procedure for rings 2 and 3. Repeating these steps for ring2 and ring3 yields a net current ~0 A.024A.Maxwell 2D v12 Eddy Current – Application Note Verify the total current flowing around each of the rings 6.048 = 0.. Evaluate The magnitude of the total current in ring1 is displayed. For ring3. there is a small rotating current flowing down one side and back on the opposite of each open ring.087 and 0.. This current flows in opposite directions on either side of ring2 and ring3 unlike the current flow in ring1. the current flowing along each side of is ½ * 0. Calculate the rotating current in the open rings Although the net current flow in ring2 and ring3 is zero.044A. Note that the current in ring1 is close to 1 A. which represents an open-circuited ring. which is only in one direction.. Click on Maxwell 2D > Fields > Calculator and then perform the following: Quantity > J > ScalarPhi Complex > Real Abs Geometry > Surface > ring1> OK Integral > XY Eval .1 Click on Maxwell 2D > Fields > Calculator and then perform the following: Quantity > J > ScalarPhi Complex > Real Geometry > Surface > ring1> OK Integral > XY (Note this is a surface integral of J dot dA) Eval .11 .

1 Hide the Region by selecting View > Active View Visibility and un checking Region.1 .12 . select Use Limits and set Min: -53000 and Max: 53000 Click on Apply and Close. Current density is higher towards the axis of symmetry due to the DC spirality effect. the skin effect causes higher current density on the surface. Select ObjectList1 in the history tree.Maxwell 2D v12 Eddy Current – Application Note Plot the current density 6. Note: On ring2 and ring3. Modify the scale of the plot to observe the current density in ring2 and ring3 by selecting: Click on Maxwell 2D > Fields > Modify Plot Attributes > J > Ok On the Scale tab. Click on Maxwell 2D > Fields > Fields > J > JatPhase > Done Note: On ring1. Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 6. the rotational eddy currents cause positive and negative current density.

02.gif or .Maxwell 2D v12 Eddy Current – Application Note Plot the current density vector and animate 6.avi movie file. Select the Marker/Arrow tab and reduce the size of the arrows by sliding the size “slider” to the left. In the Project Window. Select the Scale tab and set to Auto. right click on J_Vector1 and click Animate > OK.02 and Max = 0.1 . Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 6.1 Hide the previous plots by selecting: View > Active View Visibility > Fields Reporter Rotate the view by holding down ALT and then left mouse drag. Click on Export to save the animation as a .13 . Choose plot: J_Vector1 and change the Vector plot spacing to: Min = 0. Select Objectlist1 Click on Maxwell 2D > Fields > Fields > J > J_Vector > Done After the plot is displayed. double left clicking on the legend select the Plots tab.

1257e-6: V2' = ∫ E • d L = = = 1 ∫ E • dV area RZ 1 ∫ − jω A • d V area RZ 2 * π *10000 ∫ − j A • dV 3. and area = 3.090e -8 ) = − 1.722e -5 + jω 1.851e -4 ∠91.722e -5 − j6. ω = 2 pi (10000).14 .1 Calculate the voltage (V2‘) induced across the open-circuit point in ring2.Maxwell 2D v12 Eddy Current – Application Note Calculate the open circuit voltage on ring2 and ring3 6.090e -8 ) = − 1* (1.1257e −6 RZ = 6.4º (V peak) The open circuit voltage (V2‘) can also be calculated by integrating the average electric field in ring2 around its circumference using the following formula.849e -4 = 6. where E = – jωA.722e -5 + j2π *10000 *1.85e − 4 (Vpeak ) Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 6. This voltage is the negative of the voltage that is required to ensure that the total current flow around ring2 is zero.1 . It can be calculated by hand from the impedance matrix using the following formula: V2' = − I1 * Z12 = − I1 * (1.

Maxwell 2D v12
Eddy Current – Application Note
Calculate the complex magnitude of the voltage

6.1

To calculate the complex magnitude of the voltage using the plane calculator, choose Data/Calculator, then select: Quantity > A Scalar > ScalarPhi Complex > CmplxMag, since A_vector is a complex number, the CmplxMag includes both real and imaginary components. Note that the complex magnitude is equal to:

ACmplxMag = Aφ2_ real + Aφ2_ imag
To multiply by w; select: Number > Scalar > 2 > Ok Function > Freq > Ok Constant > Pi * * * To divide by area; select: Number > Scalar > 1 > Ok Geometry > Surface: ring2 > Ok Integral > XY > Eval Exchange > Pop / Finally, do an RZ integration to determine the voltage across the ends of ring2. Geometry > Volume: ring2 > Ok Integral > RZ > Eval The open circuit voltage induced across the open point in ring2 is 6.86e-004 V. This equals the voltage calculated by hand from Z12 in the impedance matrix, as well as that calculated by integrating the average electric field. This is the complex magnitude of the voltage. The real and imaginary components can be individually determined by substituting Complex/Imag and Complex/Real in the steps above. These voltages are: V2'(real) = -1.80e-005 and V2'(imaginary) = -6.85e-004 which are nearly the same as the voltage calculated by hand on the previous page. Reference: “Prediction and Use of Impedance Matrices for Eddy-Current Problems,” IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Kent R. Davey and Dalian Zheng, vol. 33 pp. 2478-2485, 1997.

This completes the Jumping Rings exercise.
Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide

6.1 - 15

Maxwell v12
Instantaneous Forces on Busbars in Maxwell 2D and 3D

6.2
Eddy Current – Application Note

This example analyzes the forces acting on a busbar model in Maxwell 2D and 3D. Specifically, it provides a method for determining the instantaneous force on objects having sinusoidal AC excitation in the Eddy Current Solver. Force vectors in AC problems are a combination of a time-averaged “DC” component and an alternating “AC” component. The alternating component fluctuates at a frequency twice the excitation frequency. Both of these components can be calculated using the formulas below so that the instantaneous force can be determined. Three different force methods are used in this example: Virtual, Lorentz, and the Maxwell Stress Tensor.

FDC =

1 ∗ ∫ Re J × B dV 2 1 FAC = ∫ J × B dV evaluated at phase (ω t = degrees) 2 FINST = FDC + FAC

Description This example will be solved in two parts using the 2D Eddy Current and 3D Eddy Current solvers. The model consists of two 4mm parallel copper busbars separated by a center-center spacing of 16mm. The excitation frequency is 100kHz. 3D Model

2D Model

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide

6.2 - 1

Maxwell v12
PART 1 - The 2D Eddy Project

6.2
Eddy Current – Application Note

A 2D model of the busbars will be simulated first. Access the Maxwell Project Manager and create a new 2D project called 2dbars. Open the project and change to the Eddy Current solver with an XY drawing plane. Setup the Design 1. Click on the menu item Project > Insert Maxwell 2D Design 2. Click on the menu item Maxwell 2D > Solution Type ... • Set Geometry Mode: Cartesian, XY • Select the radio button Magnetic: Eddy Current 3. Draw the Solution Region • Click on Draw > Rectangle (Enter the following points using the tab key). • X: -150, Y: -150, Z: 0 • dX: 300, dY: 300, dZ: 0 • Change its properties: • Name: Region • Transparency: 0.9 • Select View > Fitall > Active View to resize the drawing window. • Select wireframe view by selecting: View > Render > Wire Frame. Create the Model Now the model can be created. This model also consists of a left and right busbar that have a 4mm square cross-section, however a length of 1 meter is assumed so that the results must be scaled to compare to 3D. Create the Left Busbar • • Click on Draw > Rectangle • X: -12, Y: -2, Z: 0 • dX: 4, dY: 4, dZ: 0 Change its properties: • Name: left • Material: Copper • Color: Red

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide

6.2 - 2

Maxwell v12
Create the Right Busbar • • Click on Draw > Rectangle • X: 8, Y: -2, Z: 0 • dX: 4, dY: 4, dZ: 0 Change its properties: • Name: right • Material: Copper • Color: Red

6.2
Eddy Current – Application Note

Assign the Boundaries and Sources The current is assumed to be 1A at 0 degrees in the left busbar and -1A at 60 degrees in the right busbar. A no-fringing vector potential boundary will be assigned to the outside of the 2D problem region which is also the default boundary for all 3D projects. This forces all flux to stay in the solution region. 1. The boundary must be set on the solution region. • Choose Edit > Select > Edges to change the selection mode from object to edge. • While holding down the CTRL key, choose the four outer edges of the region. • Click on Maxwell 2D > Boundaries> Assign > Vector Potential • Value: 0 • Phase: 0 • OK • When done, choose Edit > Select > Object to object selection mode. 2. Select left from the history tree • Click on Maxwell 2D > Excitations > Assign > Current • Name: Current1 • Value: 1A • Phase: 0 • Type: Solid • Reference Direction: Positive 3. Select right from the history tree. • Click on Maxwell 2D > Excitations > Assign > Current • Name: Current2 • Value: 1A • Phase: 60 • Type: Solid • Reference Direction: Negative

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide

6.2 - 3

Maxwell v12
Turn on the Eddy Effects in the winding In order to consider the skin effects in the busbars, you must manually turn on the eddy effect. 1. Choose Maxwell 2D > Excitations > Set Eddy Effects ... 2. Verify that the eddy effect is checked for both the left and right conductors. Assign the Parameters

6.2
Eddy Current – Application Note

In order to automatically calculate force on an object, it must be selected in the Parameters panel. In 2D, only the virtual force can be automatically calculated. Later, the Lorentz force will be calculated manually in the Post Processor after solving the project. 1. Select the left busbar by clicking on it. 2. Click on Maxwell 2D > Parameters > Assign > Force 3. Click OK to enable the force calculation. Add an Analysis Setup 1. 2. 3. 4. Click Right on the Analysis folder in the Model Tree and select Add Solution Setup… On the General tab, re-set the Number of passes to 15. Percent Error to 0.01 On the Solver tab, re-set the Adaptive Frequency to 100kHz.

Solve the Problem 1. Save the project by clicking on menu item File > Save As 2. Select the menu item Maxwell 2D > Validation Check to verify problem setup 3. Click on Maxwell 2D > Analyze All.

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide

6.2 - 4

Maxwell v12
View the Results

6.2
Eddy Current – Application Note

1. Select Maxwell 2D > Results > Solution Data… and click on the Force tab. The force results are reported for a 1 meter depth of the model. The DC forces are shown below.

2. Now select Type:AC<Mag,Phase> This shows the magnitude of the force F(x)Mag is approximately 5e-6 (N) and the phase F(x)Phase is -2.0 radians or -120 degrees.

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide

6.2 - 5

Time 6. In the Named Expressions panel: • In the Named Expressions window. Determine the time-averaged component of Lorentz force: • Click on Maxwell 2D > Fields > Calculator and then perform the following: • Quantity > J • Quantity > B > Complex > Conj > Cross • Scalar X > Complex > Real • Number > Scalar > 0. phase by creating named expressions in the calculator using the formulas at the beginning of the application note.Maxwell v12 Create a Plot of Force vs. Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 6.5 > OK • Multiply • Geometry > Volume > left > OK • Integrate • Add… Name: Force_DC • Click OK 2. AC. and instantaneous components of the Lorentz force can be plotted vs.5 > OK • Multiply • Geometry > Volume > left > OK • Integrate • Add… Name: Force_AC • Click OK 3.6 . Determine the instantaneous (DC + AC) component of Lorentz force.2 . 1. select Force_DC and Copy to stack • Select Force_AC and Copy to stack • Add • Add… Name: Force_inst • Click OK and Done to close the calculator window.2 Eddy Current – Application Note The average. Determine the AC component of Lorentz force: • Quantity > J • Quantity > B > Cross • Scalar X • Function > Phase > OK • Complex > AtPhase • Number > Scalar > 0.

Check Use Scientific Notation and click on OK.00 100.00 300.00 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 6. Ansoft Corporation 0.4547E-006 0.000002 -0.00 400. Create a plot of Force vs.000008 0. I can also be observed that the forces fluctuate at 2 times the excitation frequency since there are two complete cycles over 360 degrees as shown below.000004 -0. a plot of these named expressions can been created.000000 1 Y -0. Now that the force quantities have been created.7 .000006 -0. Force_AC. Note: The "max" values match the results from Solution Data > Force.2 .00 50.2 Eddy Current – Application Note 4.00 150. Phase.000002 0.00 200. • • • • • • • • • • • Select Maxwell 2D > Results > Create Fields Report > Rectangular Plot Change the abscissa X: from the default Freq to Phase.000006 XY Plot 1 Curve Info Maxwell2DDesign1 max -2. Force_inst (hold down shift key to select all three at once) New Report > Close Right mouse click on the legend and select: Trace Characteristics > Add… Category: Math Function: max Add > Done Double left mouse click on the legend and change from the Attribute to the General tab.Maxwell v12 6.000004 Force_AC Setup1 : LastAdaptive Freq='100kHz' Force_inst Setup1 : LastAdaptive Freq='100kHz' 5.0213E-006 2. Category: Calculator Expressions Quantity: Force_DC.00 350.00 Phase [deg] 250.5666E-006 Force_DC Setup1 : LastAdaptive Freq='100kHz' 0.

6. This method is different than both the Lorentz force and virtual force methods. the Maxwell Stress Tensor method.2 Eddy Current – Application Note Finally. The Maxwell Stress Tensor method is extremely sensitive to mesh.5 Enters the edge of the left busbar To determine the unit normal vector for left busbar This multiplies the quantity times unit normal vector This takes the negative To extract the x-component of the quantity Enters the edge of the left busbar To integrate the force density and obtain the force in newtons Name: Force_MST Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 6.Maxwell v12 6.5 ( B ⋅ H )n dV evaluated at phase (ω t = degrees) Determine the instantaneous component of force at time wt=0 using the Maxwell Stress Tensor method in the calculator: Quantity > B Function > Phase > OK Complex > At Phase Geometry > Line > left > OK Unit Vector > Normal Dot Quantity > H Function > Phase > OK Complex > At Phase Multiply Quantity > B Function > Phase > OK Complex > At Phase Quantity > H Function > Phase > OK Complex > At Phase Dot Number > Scalar > 0. the instantaneous force on the left busbar can be calculated using an alternate method. The force on an object can be determined by the following equation: FMST = ∫ (B ⋅ n ) H − 0.5 > OK Multiply Geometry > Line > left > OK Unit Vector > Normal Multiply Neg Add Scal? > ScalarX Geometry > Line > left > OK Integrate Add… Loads the B vector Loads the function Phase Evaluates the B vector at phase = wt This enters the edge of the left busbar To determine the unit normal vector for left busbar To take B-dot-Unit Normal Loads the H vector Loads the function Phase Evaluates the H vector at phase = wt This multiplies B and H Loads the B vector Loads the function Phase Evaluates the B vector at phase = wt Loads the H vector Loads the function Phase Evaluates the H vector at phase = wt Computes B-dot-H Multiplies the quantity by 0.8 .2 .

00 This completes PART 1 of the exercise. Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 6.000000 1 Y -0.00 150. Category: Calculator Expressions Quantity: Force_inst.2 Eddy Current – Application Note Note: The slight difference in these curves is due to mesh error in the stress tensor calculation.00 100.000004 -0. Create a plot of the Maxwell Stress Tensor Force vs.000004 XY Plot 2 Maxwell2DDesign1 Curve Info Force_inst Setup1 : LastAdaptive Freq='100kHz' 0.9 . Ansoft Corporation 0.Maxwell v12 7.00 300.00 200.00 350. • • • • Select Maxwell 2D > Results > Create Fields Report > Rectangular Plot Change the abscissa X: from the default Freq to Phase.00 50.00 400.00 Phase [deg] 250.000006 -0.000002 -0.000002 Force_MST Setup1 : LastAdaptive Freq='100kHz' 0. Phase. Force_MST 6.2 .000008 0.

Click on the menu item Project > Insert Maxwell 3D Design 2. Create the Model 6. Click on the menu item Maxwell 3D > Solution Type . Z: -2 • dX: 10. dZ: 4 Change its properties: • Name: left • Material: Copper 6. • X: 0. dZ: 300 • Change its properties: • Name: Region • Transparency: 0. • Select wireframe view by selecting: View > Render > Wire Frame.. Z: -2 • dX: 10.2 . Setup the Design 1. dZ: 4 Change its properties: • Name: left • Material: Copper • Color: Red Create the Right Busbar • • Click on Draw > Box • X: 0 Y: 8.2 Eddy Current – Application Note Now the model can be created.10 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide . dY: 4. Create the Left Busbar • • Click on Draw > Box • X: 0 Y: -12. • Select the radio button Magnetic: Eddy Current 3. Y: -150. Draw the Solution Region • Click on Draw > Box (Enter the following points using the tab key).The 3D Eddy Project Now the identical model will be simulated in Maxwell 3D. dY: 300. Z: -150 • dX: 10.Maxwell v12 PART 2 ..9 • Select View > Fitall > Active View to resize the drawing window. This model also consists of a left and right busbar that have a 4mm square cross-section and a length of 10mm. dY: 4.

Maxwell v12 • Color: Red Assign the Boundaries and Sources 6. Select View > Rotate > Model Center to spin the bubars around to see the other face of the left busbar.11 . Zoom in to the busbars using:View > Zoom In 3. • Click on Maxwell > Excitations > Assign > Current • Name: Current1 • Value: 1A • Phase: 0 • Type: Solid 4. Select it and then: • Click on Maxwell > Excitations > Assign > Current • Name: Current2 • Value: 1A • Phase: 0 • Type: Solid • Click on Swap Direction to be sure that the red directional arrow is pointing out of the conductor 5. The default boundary in Maxwell 3D in no-fringing. 1. Select it and then: • Click on Maxwell > Excitations > Assign > Current • Name: Current4 • Value: 1A • Phase: 60 • Type: Solid • Click on Swap Direction to be sure that the red directional arrow is pointing out of the conductor Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 6. Click on the front face of the right busbar. 2. Choose Edit > Select > Faces to change the selection mode from object to face.2 Eddy Current – Application Note The current is assumed to be 1A at 0 degrees in the left busbar and -1A at 60 degrees in the right busbar.2 . To assign the source current. So a boundary does not need to be explicitly assigned. Click on the front face of the left busbar. the four (4) end faces of the conductors must be selected. Select View > Rotate > Model Center to spin the bubars around to see the other face of the left busbar. • Click on Maxwell > Excitations > Assign > Current • Name: Current3 • Value: 1A • Phase: 60 • Type: Solid 6.

6. Save the project by clicking on menu item File > Save 2. Click Right on the Analysis folder in the Model Tree and select Add Solution Setup… On the General tab. Click on Maxwell > Parameters > Assign > Force Name: Force_Virtual Type: Virtual Click OK to enable the virtual force calculation. 5. Note however that Lorentz force is only valid on objects with a permeability = 1.12 . 2. 1. 3. it must be selected in the Parameters panel. Click OK to save the setup. Add an Analysis Setup 1. 3. 7. 3. re-set the Number of passes to 15. Solve the Problem 1.Maxwell v12 Turn on the Eddy Effects in the winding In order to consider the skin effects in the busbars.. 4. the eddy effect must be turned on. 2. Select the left busbar by clicking on it in the history tree or on the screen. you can calculate both virtual and Lorentz force. re-set the Adaptive Frequency to 100kHz. Assign the Parameters 6.. In Maxwell 3D. 8. Select the menu item Maxwell 3D > Validation Check to verify problem setup 3. Verify that the eddy effect for left and right is checked. Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 6. Choose Maxwell 3D > Excitations > Set Eddy Effects .2 .2 Eddy Current – Application Note In order to automatically calculate force on an object. 1. 5. Click on Maxwell 3D > Analyze All. 2. Un-check the displacement current calculation.01 On the Solver tab. Click on Maxwell > Parameters > Assign > Force Name: Force_Lorentz Type: Lorentz Click OK to enable the lorentz force calculation. Percent Error to 0. 9. 4.

13 . Notice that the 3D results are reported for a 10mm depth while the 2D results were for 1meter depth. Select Maxwell 3D > Results > Solution Data… and click on the Force tab.2 .Phase> This shows the magnitude of the force F(x)Mag is approximately 5e-6 (N) and the phase F(x)Phase is -2.2 Eddy Current – Application Note 3. The DC forces are shown below. Now select Type:AC<Mag. Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 6.0 radians or -120 degrees. 4.Maxwell v12 View the Results 6.

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 6. time by creating named expressions in the calculator using the formulas at the beginning of the application note. 1. In the Named Expressions panel: • In the Named Expressions window.Maxwell v12 Create a Plot of Force vs. Determine the instantaneous (DC + AC) component of Lorentz force. AC.5 > OK • Multiply • Geometry > Volume > left > OK • Integrate • Add… Name: Force_AC • OK 3. and instantaneous components Lorentz force can be plotted vs.2 .5 > OK • Multiply • Geometry > Volume > left > OK • Integrate • Add… Name: Force_DC • OK 2. Time 6. Determine the time-averaged component of Lorentz force: • Click on Maxwell 3D > Fields > Calculator and then perform the following: • Quantity > J • Quantity > B > Complex > Conj > Cross • Scalar Y > Complex > Real • Number > Scalar > 0.2 Eddy Current – Application Note The time-averaged.14 . Determine the AC component of Lorentz force: • Quantity > J • Quantity > B > Cross • Scalar Y • Function > Phase > OK • Complex > AtPhase • Number > Scalar > 0. select Force_DC and Copy to stack • Select Force_AC and Copy to stack • Add • Add… Name: Force_inst • Click on OK and Done to close the calculator window.

Phase.Maxwell v12 6.2 . a plot of these named expressions can been created. Note that these values match the results on the Solution Data > Force. and Moments in AC Analysis for Electromagnetic Devices" MSC European Users Conference. • Check Use Scientific Notation and click on OK. This completes PART 2 of the exercise. Research Laboratories of Siemens AG.2 Eddy Current – Application Note 4. Erlangen Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 6. Also. Now that the force quantities have been created. Force_AC. Force_inst (hold down shift key to select all three at once) • New Report > Close • Right mouse click on the legend and select: Trace Characteristics > Add… • Category: Math • Function: Max • Add > Done • Double left mouse click on the legend and change from the Attribute to the General tab.15 . September 1993. there are two complete cycles in 360 degrees shown below. since forces fluctuate at 2 times the excitation frequency. Lorentz Forces. • Select Maxwell 3D > Results > Create Fields Report > Rectangular Plot • Category: Calculator Expressions • Change the abscissa X: from the default Freq to Phase. Reference: MSC Paper #118 "Post Processing of Vector Quantities. • Quantity: Force_DC. by Peter Henninger. Create a plot of Force vs.

2 – Solenoid Problem with an External Circuit Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 7.0 – Transient Examples 7.Maxwell 2D v12 Chapter 7.0 .1 – Gapped Inductor Model 7.0 Chapter 7.1 .

After the problem is solved. A second simulation will be done using only a sinusoidal excitation in order to compare the losses.1 . the fringing flux effect on AC losses can be considered in this device. The inductor is excited by a 120A-60Hz sinusoidal current and a 20A-1kHz triangular current superimposed on it. Plot the instantaneous power loss in the winding vs. time. In addition. the transient time-stepping solver is needed because of the complex waveform of the current. The inductor consists of a ferrite core with a gap in the center leg.1 The Maxwell 2D Field Simulator’s XY transient solver can be used to demonstrate the difference between sinusoidal and non-sinusoidal excitation in a gapped inductor.1 . the user can do the following: View the flux lines and power loss density in the winding. The winding has 15 copper turns which are connected in series.Maxwell 2D v12 Gapped Inductor – Transient XY Application Note Introduction 7. Although no motion occurs in this problem. Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 7. Calculate the average power loss over time.

XY Select the radio button Magnetic: Transient OK 7. Note that each turn of the winding is exactly modeled and is “solid” in order to accurately determine the AC losses.Maxwell 2D v12 Gapped Inductor – Transient XY Application Note Setup the Design Click on the menu item Project > Insert Maxwell 2D Design Click on the menu item Maxwell 2D > Solution Type . Then all losses and force results reported are for that particular depth.. the depth must be specified. dZ: 0 Change its properties: Name: Core Material: Ferrite Color: Red Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 7. Z: 0 dX: 5.2 .1 Specify the Drawing Units Click on Modeler > Units Select units: in OK Create the Model The model consists of a core and a winding.. Click on Maxwell 2D > Model > Set Model Depth .. Set Geometry Mode: Cartesian. Y: -3.. Set the model depth For all transient XY models. Model Depth: 1 in OK Draw the Core Click on Draw > Rectangle X: -2.1 .5. dY: 6.

dZ: 0 Select Core.1 Subtract the Core gap Click on Draw > Rectangle X: -0. OK Select Core. Gap and then click on: Modeler > Boolean > Subtract Blank Part: Core Tool Parts: Rectangle_2 Clone objects before subtracting: unchecked Ok Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 7. dY: 0. Z: 0 dX: 1. Rectangle1.5. dZ: 0 Total Number: 2 Do not check Attach to original. dY: 0.Maxwell 2D v12 Gapped Inductor – Transient XY Application Note Draw the Core Windows Click on Draw > Rectangle X: -1. dZ: 0 Duplicate the window by selecting the window and choosing: Edit > Duplicate > along line X: 0.3 .4. Y: -2.2. Z: 0 dX: 2.5. dY: 4. Y: -0. Rectangle1_1 Clone objects before subtracting: unchecked Ok 7.1 . Z: 0 dX: 1. Rectangle1_1 and then click on: Modeler > Boolean > Subtract Blank Parts: Core Tool Parts: Rectangle1. Y: 0.

dZ: 0 Total Number = 15 Do not check Attach to original. Y: -1. dZ: 0 Change its properties: Name: Coil Material: Copper Color: Green Create the return for the first winding turn: Edit > Duplicate > along line X: 0. Z: 0 dX: 0.8. Y: 0.1 Click on Draw > Rectangle X: -1.4. Draw the Solution Region Click on Draw > Region: Padding Data: All Padding Directions Padding Percentage: 100 Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 7. OK Change its properties: Name: Coil_return Material: Copper Color: Green Create the complete winding by selecting Coil and Coil_return and then choosing: Edit > Duplicate > along line X: 0. dZ: 0 Total Number: 2 Do not check Attach to original. Y: 0. dY: 0.4 .25. dY: 0. dY: 0. Z: 0 dX: 2.125.825. Z: 0 dX: 0.Maxwell 2D v12 Gapped Inductor – Transient XY Application Note Draw the Windings 7.1 .

Click on Maxwell 2D > Boundaries> Assign > Balloon When done.Maxwell 2D v12 Gapped Inductor – Transient XY Application Note Assign the Outer Boundary 7. .5 . In addition..00075 0. The winding consists of a go and a return for the left and right sides of the winding. In the history tree. choose Edit > Select > Object to object selection mode. X 1 2 3 4 5 0 0. Assign the Sources A 120A 60Hz sinusoidal current will be assigned to the 15 series turns in the inductor.1 .00050 0. Coil_1.Y coordinates and click OK and Done.1 The boundary must be set on the solution region. a 20A 1kHz triangular current source will be added on top of the sinusoidal current.00025 0. Name: ds1 Enter the following X. select: Coil. Choose Edit > Select > Edges to change the selection mode from object to edge. While holding down the CTRL key. A simple sinusoidal function with be used to create the 60Hz component while a dataset “ds1” will be used to create the triangular component of current. choose the three outer edges of the region.. Time) The Add Dataset window will automatically appear to enter the triangular waveform.001 Y 0 20 0 -20 0 Type: Solid Polarity: Positive Ok Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 7. Coil_14 Choose: Maxwell 2D > Excitations> Assign > Current Name: left Value: 120*sin(2*pi*60*time) + pwl_periodic(ds1.

...Maxwell 2D v12 Gapped Inductor – Transient XY Application Note In the history tree. select: Coil_return.1 .6 . Coil_return1. Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 7.Y coordinates and click OK and Done: Type: Solid Polarity: Negative Ok 7. Coil_return14 Choose Maxwell 2D > Excitations > Assign > Current Name: right Value: 120*sin(2*pi*60*time) + pwl_periodic(ds1. Time) Name: ds1 Enter the following X. . Check the eddy effect for all 30 coils.1 Turn on the Eddy Effects in the winding Choose Maxwell 2D > Excitations > Set Eddy Effects ..

05 sec Time Step: 0..7 .Maxwell 2D v12 Gapped Inductor – Transient XY Application Note Add an Analysis Setup Click on Maxwell 2D > Analysis Setup > Add Solution Setup .1 Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 7..1 .00025 sec On the Save Fields Tab: Type: Linear Step Start: 0 sec Stop: 0.05 sec Step Size: 0. On the General Tab: Stop Time: 0.01 sec Click on: Add to List >> OK 7.

the mesh is not automatically created..1 . Name: Core_Inside Restrict Length Of Elements: Uncheck Restrict Number of Elements: Check Maximum Number of Elements: 500 Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 7. It must either be linked to a magnetostatic or eddy current design.8 . Select the core and then Maxwell 2D > Mesh Operations > Assign > Inside Selection > Length Based. In the history tree. the mesh will be manually created. Name: Coils_Inside Restrict Length of Elements: Uncheck Restrict Number of Elements: Check Maximum Number of Elements: 500 Note that by choosing “Inside Selection” instead of “On Selection”. or you can manually create it.Maxwell 2D v12 Gapped Inductor – Transient XY Application Note Add Mesh Operations 7. select all 30 conductors and then Maxwell 2D > Mesh Operations > Assign > Inside Selection > Length Based .1 In the transient solvers. In this example.. the mesh operation is applied evenly through the area of the conductors as opposed to being applied only on the outer perimeter of the conductor.

9 .1 Select the menu item Maxwell 2D > Analysis Setup > Apply Mesh Operations View the Solution Data for the Mesh Select the menu item Maxwell 2D > Results > Solution Data Click on the Mesh Statistics tab to view the starting mesh.Maxwell 2D v12 Gapped Inductor – Transient XY Application Note Create the Mesh before solving 7. Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 7.1 .

select: Maxwell 2D > Results > Output Variables. Name: Current_in OK Done 7. Name: type in a variable such as I_in Click on “Insert Quantity into Expression” and then Add. this must be created manually.. Click on Done to leave the Output Variables window. Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 7. Specify when expression will be calculated In the project tree. right click on Analysis > Setup1 and click on Properties. Select the menu item Quantity > J > Scal? > ScalarZ Geometry > Coil > OK Integrate Add. Be sure that the Evaluation Time Step = 0. Under the Output Variables tab click on Add to add the newly created parameter for I_in. select “Fields”... Select the menu item Maxwell 2D > Fields > Calculator .1 Make the named expression available to be plotted To do this.10 . This output will now be available for plotting.. Select OK to exit.Maxwell 2D v12 Gapped Inductor – Transient XY Application Note Create Output for Current using the Calculator Since the input current is not an automatic output. Choose Category: Calculator Expressions Quantity: Current_in Function: <none>. Under Report Type...00025s which is the same as the solve time step under the General tab.1 .

Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 7. When done.1 .Maxwell 2D v12 Gapped Inductor – Transient XY Application Note Solve the Problem 7.11 .1 Save the project by clicking on menu item File > Save As Select the menu item Maxwell 2D > Validation Check to verify problem setup Click on Maxwell 2D > Analyze All Plot the Mesh Select all objects and click on Maxwell 2D > Fields > Plot Mesh. hide the plot by selecting View > Active View Visibility > Fields Reporter and unchecking the Mesh1 plot.

Select all objects by selecting CTRL-A Click on Maxwell 2D > Fields > Fields > A > Flux Lines > Done Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 7. you can set the solution context by double-clicking on the Time box in the lower left corner of the modeling window.1 .Maxwell 2D v12 Gapped Inductor – Transient XY Application Note View the Results Now that you have generated a solution. 7.12 .1 Plot Flux Lines Set the timestep = 0.02sec > OK Alternatively.02sec. Current density plot for the winding t=0. what you want to calculate and display are: Flux lines plot at t=0. The current and instantaneous average power loss for the winding vs time.02sec by selecting: View > Set Solution Context > 0.02sec. Specifically. you can analyze the results.

1 .1 Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 7. Click on Maxwell 2D > Fields > Fields > Jz > Done 7.Maxwell 2D v12 Gapped Inductor – Transient XY Application Note Plot Current Density in Coils The current density in the coils will be greater near to the gap in the core because fringing flux caused induced proximity losses in the copper. Create an object list including only the copper coils: In the history tree. Click on Modeler > List > Create > Object List Create the plot by selecting Objectlist1in the history tree.13 . select coil and coil_return.

00 50.00 -50.00 Time [ms] 30.00 -100.00 -150.1 .00 40.00 50. Cache Quantity: OVC(I_in) New Report Ansoft Corporation 150.00 0.14 .00 20.00 Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 7.00 OVC(I_in) 0. Select Maxwell 2D > Results > Create Transient Report > Rectangular Plot Category: Output Var.00 XY Plot 1 Maxwell2DDesign1 Curve Info OVC(I_in) Setup1 : Transient 100.Maxwell 2D v12 Gapped Inductor – Transient XY Application Note Plot the Input Current 7.1 Create the plot of the named expression.00 10.

00 SolidLoss [W] 6.35W) will be displayed in the legend.00 4.00 20. Category: Math and Function: avg Click on Add and Done and the average losses (approx.00 XY Plot 2 Maxwell2DDesign1 Curve Info SolidLoss Setup1 : Transient avg 4.00 8.1 .1 Create the plot of the named expression.00 2.00 10. Ansoft Corporation 12.00 Time [ms] 30..00 0.Maxwell 2D v12 Gapped Inductor – Transient XY Application Note Plot the Losses in the Winding 7. 4.15 ..00 40.3540 10.00 Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 7. Select Maxwell 2D > Results > Create Transient Report > Rectangular Plot Category: Loss and Quantity: SolidLoss New Report Right mouse click on the legend and select: Trace Characteristics > Add.00 0.00 50. To do this.

Maxwell 2D v12
Gapped Inductor – Transient XY Application Note
Solve for the sinusoidal current source only
Copy the MaxwellDesign1 and paste it in the Project tree area to create MaxwellDesign2 Remove all excitations for the windings and reassign them without the triangular dataset component.

7.1

Resolve the project by selecting Maxwell 2D > Solve. The average power loss (approx. 3.41W) is smaller than the previous simulation (approx. 4.35W) which included the triangular current component. Also, you can see that the power loss is sinusoidal at twice the excitation frequency.
Ansoft Corporation
150.00

XY Plot 1

Maxwell2DDesign2
Curve Info OVC(I_in) Setup1 : Transient

100.00

50.00

OVC(I_in)

0.00

-50.00

-100.00

-150.00 0.00 10.00 20.00 Time [ms] 30.00 40.00 50.00

Ansoft Corporation
6.00

XY Plot 2

Maxwell2DDesign2
Curve Info SolidLoss Setup1 : Transient avg 3.4118

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Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide

7.1 - 16

Maxwell v12
A Solenoid Problem with an External Circuit

7.2
2D Transient – Application Note

This example models an AC solenoid using Maxwell 2D. A full wave bridge rectifying drive circuit will be setup to drive the solenoid.

Model
rectify

LWinding2

25ohm Rcoil

D2

D1

D3 0

2D RZ Model

Description A model of an AC solenoid using an external circuit will be simulated using the 2D RZ transient solver. The source is a 170V 60Hz sinusoidal voltage which is rectified using a full-wave bridge. The mechanical force for a spring and gravity are modeled using an equation. The force, loss, position, speed and winding current, flux, and voltage will be determined.

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide

D4

+

170V LabelID=Vsource

7.2 - 1

Maxwell v12
Setup the Design 1. Click on the menu item Project > Insert Maxwell 2D Design 2. Click on the menu item Maxwell 2D > Solution Type ... Set Geometry Mode: Cylindrical about Z Select the radio button Magnetic: Transient Specify the Drawing Units 1. Click on Modeler > Units 2. Select units: in > OK Import the Model

7.2
2D Transient – Application Note

Now the model can be created. Since this is a complicated geometry, the model will be imported from an old Maxwell 2D model file *.sm2. 1. Click on: Modeler > Import … 2. Navigate to find the file: Ex_7_02_Solenoid.sm2 Draw the Solution Region 1. Click on Draw > Region Padding Data: Pad Individual Directions Padding Percentage: X = +/- 300% Z = +/- 100%

NOTE: For 2D RZ designs, the –X limit will be the Z-axis if the padding percentage is large enough. Otherwise, if the -X padding percentage creates a region with –X > 0, then the region will have a “hole” in the model. 3. Select View > Fitall > Active View to resize the drawing window. 4. Select wireframe view by selecting: View > Render > Wire Frame

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide

7.2 - 2

Maxwell v12
Assign the Materials

7.2
2D Transient – Application Note

Since the model was imported, no material properties have been assigned. Select the objects one at a time and assign the appropriate material properties. 1. Select the coil and the shadering and choose: Modeler > Assign Material > copper > OK 2. Select the endstop, flange, housing, plunger and top_nut and choose: Modeler > Assign Material > steel_1008 > OK 3. Select the Band and choose: Modeler > Assign Material > Vacuum > OK Assign the Boundaries and Sources A no-fringing vector potential boundary will be assigned to outside of the 2D problem region. This forces all flux to stay in the solution region. 1. Choose Edit > Select > Edges to change the selection mode from object to edge. 2. While holding down the CTRL key, choose the top, right, and bottom outer edges of the region. Note that the left edge does not need a boundary because it is automatically the axis of symmetry in a RZ model. 3. Click on Maxwell 2D > Boundaries> Assign > Vector Potential Value: 0 OK 4. When done, choose Edit > Select > Object to object selection mode. Because the solenoid is a converted “AC” solenoid, it contains a copper “shading ring” which may have eddy currents induced in it. A zero voltage source must be set on the shade ring in order to properly represent a shorted single turn winding and to see if the eddy currents are significant or not. 1. Select the shadering and click on the menu item: Maxwell 2D > Excitations > Assign > Coil… Name: shadering Number of Conductors: 1 Polarity: Positive (into the screen) OK

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide

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Maxwell v12
2. Click on the menu item: Maxwell 2D > Excitations > Add Winding… Name: Winding1 Type: Voltage and Solid Initial Current: 0 Resistance: 0 (for solid windings, resistance calculated by the solver) Inductance: 0 (coil inductance always calculated by the solver) Voltage: 0 (zero voltage represents a shorted turn, with no source) Number parallel branches: 1

7.2
2D Transient – Application Note

3. In the project tree, right mouse click on shadering under Excitations and click on the menu item Add to Winding and 4. In the Add to Winding window, Winding1 will be selected and then click on OK.

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide

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Maxwell v12

7.2
2D Transient – Application Note

5. Select the Coil and click on the menu item: Maxwell 2D > Excitations > Assign > Coil… Name: Coil Number of Conductors: 2250 Polarity: Positive (into the screen) OK 6. Click on the menu item: Maxwell 2D > Excitations > Add Winding … Name: Winding2 Type: External and Stranded (Note: stranded is assigned since the coil has 2250 turns). Initial Current: 0 Number parallel branches: 1 OK 7. In the project tree, right mouse click on coil under Excitations and click on the menu item Add to Winding In the Add to Winding window, highlight Winding2 click on OK. The project tree should look like this:

8. Create an External Circuit To access Maxwell Circuit Editor, choose Maxwell 2D > Excitations > External Circuit > Edit External Circuit… Select Edit Circuit… from the Edit External Circuit dialog

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide

7.2 - 5

6 . D3.2 2D Transient – Application Note Click on File > New to create a new schematic Click on the Components tab in the Project Manager Window Expand Maxwell Circuit Elements to view the library elements Expand Passive Elements and click on DIODE and drag this component onto the sheet: Name: D1 mod: rectify Copy this diode three times creating D2.Maxwell v12 7. and D4 and rotate them using CTRL-R before connecting together to form the full-wave bridge as shown below. Select Passive Elements > DIODE_Model and drag this component onto the sheet: Name: rectify Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 7.2 .

amcp Click on Maxwell Circuit > Export Netlist: File Name: ex07_02_solenoid.7 .sph Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide D4 + 170V LabelID=Vsource 7. hit ESC to end insertion: Name: source Va: 170 volts VFreq: 60 Hz Connect all of the elements together using Draw > Wire and add a ground using Draw > Ground.Maxwell v12 7. The circuit should look like this: Model rectify 25ohm Rcoil LWinding2 D2 D1 D3 0 Click on Edit > Save As: ex07_02_solenoid.2 .2 2D Transient – Application Note Under Maxwell Circuit Elements > Dedicated Elements select Winding and drag this component onto the sheet In the properties window change the following: Name: Winding2 Note that this name has to be exactly the same name as used in the Winding definition described previously in Maxwell > Excitations > Add Winding Under Maxwell Circuit Elements > Passive Elements select Res and drag this component onto the sheet: Name: coil R: 25 ohms Under Maxwell Circuit Elements > Sources select Vsin and drag this component onto the sheet.

Then choose Import Circuit… from the Edit External Circuit dialog and select ex07_02_solenoid. Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 7. return to the Maxwell project click on Cancel. Link the circuit file to the Maxwell project 7.Maxwell v12 9.2 .sph A window should indicate that the model imported successfully. Clicking on the Circuit Path tab will verify the linked circuit file *.8 .amcp.2 2D Transient – Application Note Without closing the Maxwell Circuit Editor.

a spring preload force (-50N).002 inches when the solenoid is "fully" closed. clicking on them in the history tree will shade the appropriate objects in the modeler window (assuming they are in wireframe view first). Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 7.100 inch (or open) so the plunger will move upwards (and close) when the solenoid is energized.) Positive motion is defined as upwards or in the positive Z direction. 1. Name: Band_Inside Restrict Length Of Elements: Uncheck Restrict Number of Elements:  Check Maximum Number of Elements: 1000 2. you must manually turn on the eddy effect.2 2D Transient – Application Note The transient solver does not use the automatic adaptive meshing process. Apply Mesh Operations 7. Select the coil. 2. so a manual mesh needs to be created.2 .04N).05 in (Note: be sure to set units = in) Restrict Number of Elements: Uncheck Setup the Motion The plunger is the moving object and is surrounded by the band. flange. The minimum air gap is 0. Note that after the mesh operations are assigned. 1. The units for the intrinsic variable "position" are meters. housing... Check the eddy effect for the shadering and choose OK.Maxwell v12 Turn on the Eddy Effects in the winding In order to consider the skin effects in the busbars. Name: Other_Objects_Inside Restrict Length Of Elements:  Check Maximum Length: 0. Select the shadering and click on the menu item Maxwell 2D > Mesh Operations > Assign > Inside Selection > Length Based.. Choose Maxwell 2D > Excitations > Set Eddy Effects . Select the band and click on the menu item Maxwell 2D > Mesh Operations > Assign > Inside Selection > Length Based.9 . and top_nut and click on the menu item Maxwell 2D > Mesh Operations > Assign > Inside Selection > Length Based. plunger. and a variable compression spring force (-5530 * position) which is zero at the starting position and increases as the plunger closes. The load force acts downward against the direction of motion and consists of: gravity (-0. endstop. Name: Shadering_Inside Restrict Length Of Elements: Uncheck Restrict Number of Elements:  Check Maximum Number of Elements: 50 3. (Note: moving objects are never allowed to touch the band. The starting position is -0.

004 kg Damping: 1e-005 N-sec/m Load Force: -5530 * (. On the Type tab. the Moving Vector will Global:Z.Maxwell v12 1.2 2D Transient – Application Note On the Data tab: Initial Position: -0. Choose: Maxwell 2D > Model > Motion Setup > Assign Band On the Type tab. the Motion Type will always be Translation for RZ models. 2. Set Positive as the direction of the moving vector.1 in Translate Limit Positive: 0 in On the Mechanical tab: Consider Mechanical Transient:  Check Velocity: 0 m_per_sec Mass: 0.10 . Select the band object by clicking on it on the screen or in the history tree.2 . 7.04 -50 (units are in Newtons) Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 7.1 in Translate Limit Negative: -0.00254 + position) -0.

005 s Click on: Add to List >> 7. Click on Maxwell 2D > Analyze All. Save the project by clicking on menu item File > Save As 2.0002 s Save Fields Tab Type: Linear Step Start: 0 s Stop: 0.05 s Time Step: 0.11 . Select the menu item Maxwell 2D > Validation Check to verify problem setup 3. Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 7.Maxwell v12 Create Analysis Setup Click on Maxwell > Analysis Setup > Add Solution Setup General Tab Stop Time: 0.2 .2 2D Transient – Application Note Solve the Problem 1.05 s Step Size: 0.

00 Force Quick Report Maxwell2DDesign1 Curve Info Moving1. speed and winding current.00 5.00 20.00 0. 1. and voltage will be plotted vs.00 Note: When magnetic force exceeds load force (at Time = 4.LoadForce Setup1 : Transient 100.Maxwell v12 Create Output Plots vs. Speed. time. Position. spring preload force. and Winding 7.00 25. flux.00 Time [ms] 15.2 . Time The force.00 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 7. loss.00 10.2msec) armature starts to close -50. Loss. In the force plot below. position. Force_z is only the magnetic component of force (upwards) while LoadForce is gravity. Select: Force.00 -100.12 . Ansoft Corporation 150.00 50. and a variable compression spring force (downwards).Force_z Setup1 : Transient Moving1.00 Y1 [newton] 0.2 2D Transient – Application Note 3. To create these plots select: Maxwell 2D > Results > Create Quick Report… 2.

00 Moving1.00 0.00 20.Position [mm] -1.Position Setup1 : Transient -0.00 7.00 60.00 Ansoft Corporation 5.00 40.00 10.00 -2.00 Moving1.2 2D Transient – Application Note Position Quick Report Maxwell2DDesign1 Curve Info Moving1.00 50.00 60.00 2.Speed Setup1 : Transient 4.13 .00 30.50 -3.50 -2.00 20.Speed [m_per_sec] 3.00 50.2 .50 -1.00 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 7.00 1.00 Time [ms] 40.00 10.00 Time Report Speed Quick [ms] Maxwell2DDesign1 Curve Info Moving1.00 30.Maxwell v12 Ansoft Corporation 0.00 0.00 0.

00 0.00 100.30 -40.50 0.50 Loss Quick Report Maxwell2DDesign1 Curve Info SolidLoss Setup1 : Transient 2.00 Notes: 1) In order to scale the plot and view the solid loss.00 This completes the exercise.00 0.00 InducedVoltage(Winding1) Setup1 : Transient InputVoltage(Winding1) Setup1 : Transient 0.00 -50.Maxwell v12 Ansoft Corporation 150.50 SolidLoss [W] 1.2 2D Transient – Application Note Winding Quick Report Maxwell2DDesign1 Curve Info Current(Winding1) Setup1 : Transient 0.00 20.00 30.2 .00 -20.00 20. the shading ring will have a more significant effect on both the losses and force.00 0.00 40.00 7.00 0. delete the stranded and core loss traces. 2) The solid losses in the shading ring are very small.00 60.00 Ansoft Corporation 2.00 -0. 1.60 20. Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 7.20 -60.00 60.50 0.00 30.40 50. If the full wave bridge rectifier is eliminated so the solenoid uses AC voltage.14 Y2 [Wb] Y3 [V] Y1 [A] InducedVoltage(Winding2) Setup1 : Transient . since the current is a rectified to be nearly DC.00 50.00 50.00 Current(Winding2) Setup1 : Transient FluxLinkage(Winding1) Setup1 : Transient FluxLinkage(Winding2) Setup1 : Transient 0.00 -100.00 Time [ms] 40.10 -100.00 10.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Time [ms] 40.00 10.00 -80.

0 .2 – DC Conduction 9.7 – Post Processing 9.11 – Linear ECE 9.5 – Transient 9.13 – Rotational Transient Motion 9.8 – Optimetrics 9.4 – Parametric 9.0 Chapter 9.12 – Eddy Current 9.0 – Basic Exercises 9.1 – Electrostatic 9.1 .6 – Transient with Circuit Editor 9.Maxwell 2D v12 Chapter 9.16 – Magnetostatic Actuator Example Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9.14 – Boundary Conditions 9.15 – Permanent Magnets Assignment 9.3 – Magnetostatic 9.10 – Scripting 9.9 – Meshing 9.

25mm. Change the name to Inner Change the material to copper Change the color and transparency level at your convenience. We also want to determine the capacitance.4 mm For the opposite corner of the rectangle. Draw the Model Click on the menu item Project > Insert Maxwell 2D Design Click on the menu item Maxwell > Solution Type Select Geometry Mode: Cylindrical about Z Select the radio button Electrostatic Click on the menu item Draw > Rectangle or click on the icon For the rectangle position. 0. 0. enter 0.6. dy. enter 0. We will then solve the same problem using an XY representation. The conductors are considered perfect such that there is no electric field inside conductors. This solver is meant to solve the static electric field without current flowing in conductors (conductors are in electrostatic equilibrium).Maxwell 2D v12 Basic Exercises – Electrostatic Solver 9.6. 0. Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9. We want to know what is the electric field distribution based on the potential (or the charges) that are applied on each conductor.1 Introduction on the Electrostatic Solver This note introduces the Electro Static solver based on some simple examples. . dz 0. We use an R-Z representation. Capacitance of a Cylindrical Capacitor in RZ Suppose we have a long coaxial line.1-1 . 21 mm or enter for dx.

for dz. Create a third rectangle For center position. enter 25 mm or enter 1. choose Pad All Directions For the Padding Percentage.4 mm.0. enter 0. 0 . enter 0.1 Create a second Rectangle For rectangle position. enter 0. Change the name to Air Change the material to Air Change the color and transparency level at your convenience.6. enter 1. .4 mm For dx. 0 . 0 ..1-2 . For the padding data.2.Maxwell 2D v12 Basic Exercises – Electrostatic Solver 9. 21 mm for the position of the opposite corner. 0. enter 300 for positive X direction and 0 for all other directions Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9. enter 25 mm or enter 1. Select the menu item Draw > Region.2 mm. for dz. 21 mm for the position of the opposite corner.0.4mm For dx. Change the name to Outer Assign material to copper Change the color and transparency level at your convenience.

Capacitance Matrix Select the menu item Maxwell > Parameters > Assign > Matrix Include Voltage1 and Voltage2 in the capacitance computation by checking the radio buttons of the Signal Line column Force computation Select the object Inner Select the menu item Maxwell > Parameters > Assign > Force Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9. As an alternative.1 Based on the assumptions that the conductors are in electrostatic equilibrium. Apply voltage excitation to object Inner Select the object Inner Select the menu item Maxwell > Excitations > Assign > Voltage. For the voltage. enter -1kV Apply voltage excitation to object Outer Select the object Outer select the menu item Maxwell > Excitations > Assign > Voltage. we assign voltage potential on the object itself. For the voltage.Maxwell 2D v12 Basic Exercises – Electrostatic Solver Assign Excitation 9. we assume that all the conductor parts are at the same potential. In other words. we do not solve inside conductors. you can right click and select Assign Excitations > Voltage.1-3 . once the object is selected. we are interested by the Capacitance value as well as the force applied to the inner armature. enter 1kV Assign Executive Parameter In addition to the fields.

put 50% Solve the Problem Select Setup1 from under Analysis in the project tree. enter 0. On the 3D modeler window. select the plane Global:XZ. right mouse click and select Analyze Plot the electric field From the modeler history tree.1 Create Analysis Setup Select the menu item Maxwell > Analysis Setup > Add Solution Setup For the Percent Error. right click and select Fields > E_Vector Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9.1-4 .Maxwell 2D v12 Basic Exercises – Electrostatic Solver 9.5% For the Refinement per Pass (Convergence tab).

2. The analytical value of the capacitance per meter for an infinite long coaxial wire is given by the following formula: C = 2πε0 / ln(b/a) (a and b being the inside and outside diameters) The analytical value would is therefore 1. b=1mm) In our project. right click on Setup1.4459e-6 J. Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9. It gives you the force applied to the inner object. We obtain a good agreement with the obtained result. therefore the total capacitance is. From the context menu.089e-10 F/m (a =0. It is exactly 2000 times the capacitance (2000V being the difference of potential). therefore the capacitance values are symmetrical. We find 5.6mm.Maxwell 2D v12 Basic Exercises – Electrostatic Solver Get the capacitance value 9. Note that the force is essentially zero since the model is magnetically balanced. Note: in the Convergence tab. you have access to the total energy of the system.1 From the Project window. we only have two conductors. select the entry Solutions Select the tab entry Matrix In our problem.723pF. then length of the conductor is 25 mm. Select the tab entry Force.1-5 . 2.722 pF.

Create another circle. Click on the menu item Draw > Circle or click on the icon For the center position. enter 0. 0mm For the radius.6 mm. 0. enter 0.1 Capacitance of a Cylindrical Capacitor in XY The same problem is now solved using an XY representation Draw the Model Click on the menu item Project > Insert Maxwell 2D Design Click on the menu item Maxwell > Solution Type Select Geometry Mode: Cartesian XY Select the radio button Electrostatic Click on the menu item Draw > Circle or click on the icon For the center position. 0mm For the radius. mm. enter 0. 0. 0.1-6 . Change the name to Inner Change the material to copper Change the color and transparency level at your convenience. 0mm For the radius. enter 1. Click on the menu item Draw > Circle or click on the icon For the center position.Maxwell 2D v12 Basic Exercises – Electrostatic Solver 9. enter 1. enter 0. Change the name to Air Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9. Change the name to Outer Change the material to copper Change the color and transparency level at your convenience.2 mm.

As an alternative.5% For the Refinement per Pass (Convergence tab). For the voltage. enter 1kV Assign Executive Parameter In addition to the fields. we assume that all the conductor parts are at the same potential. Set Voltage1 as a signal line and Voltage2 as ground. Apply voltage excitation to object Inner Select the object Inner Select the menu item Maxwell > Excitations > Assign > Voltage.1 Based on the assumptions that the conductors are in electrostatic equilibrium. In other words. enter 0. enter -1kV Apply voltage excitation to object Outer Select the object Outer select the menu item Maxwell > Excitations > Assign > Voltage.1-7 . Capacitance Matrix Select the menu item Maxwell > Parameters > Assign > Matrix Include Voltage1 and Voltage2 in the capacitance computation by checking the radio buttons. put 50% Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9. For the voltage. we do not solve inside conductors. Create Analysis Setup Select the menu item Maxwell > Analysis Setup > Add Solution Setup For the Percent Error. you can right click and select Assign Excitations > Voltage. once the object is selected. we assign voltage potential on the object itself. we are interested by the Capacitance value.Maxwell 2D v12 Basic Exercises – Electrostatic Solver Assign Excitation 9.

6mm. b=1mm) This matches the obtained value. right mouse click and select Analyze Get the capacitance value From the Project window.1-8 .089e-10 F/m (a =0. Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9.Maxwell 2D v12 Basic Exercises – Electrostatic Solver Solve the Problem 9. From the context menu. select the entry Solutions Select the tab entry Matrix The analytical value of the capacitance per meter for an infinite long coaxial wire is given by the following formula: C = 2πε0 / ln(b/a) (a and b being the inside and outside diameters) The analytical value would is therefore 1. right click on Setup1.1 Select Setup1 from under Analysis in the project tree.

enter air Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9.1-9 .1 In this example we illustrate how to simulate a simple planar capacitor made of two parallel plates. enter 25 mm For the Ysize.0mm For the Xsize. enter 25 mm For the Ysize. The bottom plate is modeled and the top plate is considered by using only the edge of the dielectric (air). enter 3mm Name the box Region For the material property. enter 0. Draw the model Click on the menu item Project > Insert Maxwell 2D Design Name the design Plate Click on the menu item Maxwell > Solution Type Select Geometry Mode: Cartesian XY Select the radio button Electrostatic Select the menu item Draw > Rectangle to create a plate For the first position corner. enter 2mm For the material property. enter pec (perfect conductor) Name the first box DownPlate Select the menu item Draw > Rectangle to create a plate For the first position corner. enter 0.0 mm For the Xsize.Maxwell 2D v12 Basic Exercises – Electrostatic Solver Capacitance of a planar capacitor 9.

select the menu item Maxwell > Excitations > Assign > Voltage.Maxwell 2D v12 Basic Exercises – Electrostatic Solver Assign Excitation 9. enter 1V Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9. once the object is selected.1-10 . For the voltage. For the voltage. As an alternative. enter 0V Select the upper edge of the Region.1 Select the object DownPlate. select the menu item Maxwell > Excitations > Assign > Voltage. you can right click and select Assign Excitations > Voltage.

The problem is really easy. enter 1% For the Refinement per Pass (Convergence tab).1-11 . Create Analysis Setup Select the menu item Maxwell > Analysis Setup > Add Solution Setup For the Percent Error. Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9. We will obtain just a 1 by 1 matrix. put 50% Solve the Problem Select Setup1 from under Analysis in the project tree. therefore the solution is obtained almost immediately.Maxwell 2D v12 Basic Exercises – Electrostatic Solver Assign Executive Parameter 9.1 Select the menu item Maxwell > Parameters > Assign > Matrix Include Voltage1 and Voltage2 in the capacitance computation We ground Voltage2. right mouse click and select Analyze.

This value should be considered as the capacitance of the two parallel plates with a 1 meter depth. we obtain 5. We obtain 221.Maxwell 2D v12 Basic Exercises – Electrostatic Solver Get the capacitance value 9.53pF as well.1 From the Project window. From the pull down menu.1-12 . then the Matrix tab The analytical value of the capacitance for two parallel plates is given by: C = A/ d *ε0 (A is the area of the plate and d is the thickness of the di electrics) If we consider the plate to be 25mm by 25 mm. If we rescale this value by multiplying by 0. Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9.53 pF (the dielectric is 1mm thick).35pF. select Solutions. using the above formula. right click on Setup1.25mm we find 5.

9.3 Problem Description As shown in the following picture. The coils carry a current that exert a vertical force on the ferromagnetic slug.Maxwell 2D v12 Basic Exercise – Magnetostatic Force Calculation Force calculation in Magnetostatic Solver This exercise will discuss how to set up a force calculation in the 2D Magnetostatic Solver.3-1 . a coil and slug are drawn in a plane using RZ symmetry. Actual 3D Coil and Slug 2D Symmetric Coil and Slug about z-axis Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9.

0.15. Z: 6. DY.3-2 . DY. Y. Enter Change its name from Rectangle1 to Slug Select the Slug and change its material to Steel 1008 Change its color if desired Draw the Coil Click on the menu item Draw > Rectangle X.0. Enter DX.-10. DZ: 4. Enter (default units are in mm) DX.Maxwell 2D v12 Basic Exercise – Magnetostatic Force Calculation Create a New Project Open up Maxwell V12 Click on the menu item Project > Insert Maxwell 2D Design Click on the menu item Maxwell 2D> Solution Type > Magnetostatic Change the geometry mode to Cylindrical about Z 9. Z: 0.Y.20.0.0. Enter Change its name to: Coil Change its material to: Copper Change its color if desired Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9.0. DZ: 5.3 Draw the Slug Click on the menu item Draw > Rectangle X.

Maxwell 2D v12 Basic Exercise – Magnetostatic Force Calculation Add a Region Click on the menu item Draw > Region: Select Pad all Directions and type 100 in Padding Percentage 9.mxwl for Basic Exercise Magnetostatic Force calculation Assign Excitation Select the Coil and click on the menu item Maxwell2D > Excitations > Assign > Current: Name: Current1 Value: 1000 Ref. Select Region and click on the menu item View > Hide Selection > All views. Save your project Click on File > Save As: Magnetostatic_Force.3-3 .3 You should see a message indicating that the –X direction is set to zero due to RZ-symmetry about the Z-axis. Direction: Negative (so positive current will be in the negative Y direction) Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9.

Maxwell 2D v12 Basic Exercise – Magnetostatic Force Calculation 9. select Region Click on the menu item Edit > Select > All Object Edges Click on the menu item Maxwell2D > Boundaries > Balloon Assign Force Calculation Select the Coil and click on the menu item Maxwell2D > Parameters > Assign > Force Name: Force1 Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9.3 Assign Boundary to Region Edges From the object tree.3-4 .

right mouse click and select Analyze View the Automatic Adaptive Mesh Convergence Right click on the project tree item Analysis > Setup1 and select Convergence.3 Solve the Problem Select Setup1 from under Analysis in the project tree.3-5 . Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9.Maxwell 2D v12 Basic Exercise – Magnetostatic Force Calculation Create Analysis Setup Click on Maxwell 2D > Analysis Setup > Add Solution Setup Maximum Number of Passes: 15 Refinement per Pass: 30 Click on OK 9.

3-6 . Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9.3 View Calculated Force Result Click on the Force tab in the open Solutions window.Maxwell 2D v12 Basic Exercise – Magnetostatic Force Calculation 9. The calculated force is updated automatically after each pass.

3-7 . Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9.3 This Concludes the Magnetostatic Force Calculation Basic Exercise. 9.Maxwell 2D v12 Basic Exercise – Magnetostatic Force Calculation Plot the Magnitude of Magnetic Flux Density Select the object tree item Global: XZ plane under Planes Select the menu item Maxwell2D > Fields > Fields > B > Mag_B Click OK on the Create Field Plot window.

Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9. and edit the Position. . Double click on CreateRectangle under Rectangle1 in the History Tree. . Click on the menu item Modeler > Units . Draw the coil: Click on the menu item Draw > Rectangle. and arbitrarily choose a starting point and opposite corner for what will be the coil. from the pull down menu. and select Cylindrical about Z.1 .8mm 9. Coil OR = 1. Click on Modeler > Snap mode Verify that Snap To: Grid and Vertex are set. Xsize and Zsize as shown. Click on the menu item Maxwell 2D > Solution Type > Magnetostatic. . An RZ Magnetostatic problem will be used to demonstrate the setup of a parametric solution using Optimetrics in Maxwell 2D.4 Slug width = 1mm Slug depth = 1mm Slug Height = 1mm 3D Geometry: Coil and Iron Slug 2D Flux Lines and Flux Density Click on the menu item Project > Insert Maxwell 2D Design. Set the Units and the Snap Mode. 2D Geometry: Iron Slug inside a coil. and click OK.25mm Coil IR = 1mm Coil Height = 0.4 .Maxwell 2D v12 Basic Exercises – Parametric Solver 2D Parametric study using a coil and iron slug. The coil current and the dimensional length of an iron slug will be varied and the force on the slug will be observed. and select mm.

Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9. After selecting OK. the Add Variable box appears. and click OK. Note: By defining a variable name (SlugHeight) it becomes a design variable. and arbitrarily choose a starting point and opposite corner for what will be the slug. Note: The parameter for Xsize is defined using the predefined constant. and click OK.4 Draw the Slug: Click on the menu item Draw > Rectangle. Similarly. Xsize and Zsize as shown. and edit the Position. . . Or they can be viewed by clicking: Maxwell 2D > Design Properties . it’s move distance can be assigned a variable. Color: Change the color to Orange.Maxwell 2D v12 Basic Exercises – Parametric Solver 9.4 . Enter the text ‘SlugHeight’ for the Value of Zsize. if an object is moved. The Design Variables are accessible in the Property window by clicking on the Design name in the Project Manager. Assign Materials and Names Select the Rectangle1 object in the Design Tree and double click it to edit it’s properties. and an equation that calculates the equivalent 2D cross-section of a 1mm2 slug which was used in the 3D Exercise.2 . and selecting Constants tab. pi. Assign the Value for SlugHeight as 1mm. Other predefined constants can be found by selecting from the menu. Double click on CreateRectangle under Rectangle2 in the History Tree. Project > Project Variables. Name: Coil Material: Select copper from the material database.

Maxwell 2D v12 Basic Exercises – Parametric Solver 9. . Edit > Select > Objects. Choose the Edge selection mode by selecting from the menu. Draw > Region. select Maxwell 2D > Boundaries > Assign > Balloon . and right edges of the Region. Assign the Boundary Condition View the full geometry by selecting from the menu. Create the Region Select from the menu. select the top. bottom. and click OK. View > Fit All > Active View. While holding down the Ctrl key. select the Rectangle2 object in the Design Tree and double click it to edit it’s properties. Edit > Select > Edges . Select the Pad Individual Directions radio button and assign padding percentages as shown below and Click OK. From the menu. the X=0 boundary is the line of symmetry.4 Similarly. . Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9. or simply type the shortcut Ctrl+D. Color: Change the color to Blue. Change back to the Object selection mode by selecting from the menu.3 . or right click in the drawing space and click Select Edges. Name: Slug Material: Select steel_1008 from the material database.4 . Since this model is symmetric about the Z-axis.

this will result in a positive force. select Maxwell 2D > Excitations > Assign > Current . Add an Analysis Setup Right Click on Analysis in the Model Tree and select Add Solution Setup.Force_z in the Quantity: window and click on Insert Into Expression. Enter ‘SlugForce’ as the Name and select Add. Select from the menu. Select from the Menu. and click OK. Assign the Force Calculation Include a force calculation by selecting the Slug from the History Tree. Click OK to accept the defaults for now. Add the Force as an Output Variable. . Click Done.4 Leave Name as Current1 and set Value: AmpTurns and click OK. . 9. Maxwell 2D > Results > Output Variables . Select SlugForce. Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9. Change the name to SlugForce. .Maxwell 2D v12 Basic Exercises – Parametric Solver Assign the Excitation Select the Coil from the History Tree.4 . in the Force Setup window. Insert a minus sign in the Expression text box in front of Slugforce. From the menu. . .4 . . Maxwell 2D > Parameters > Assign > Force . Define ‘AmpTurns’ as 100 in the Add Variable window.Force_z.

4 .5 . Click on Analyze. Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9.5. as shown below. Change the default Percent Error to 0. Solve the problem by right clicking on Setup1 in the Project manager. In the Convergence tab. 9. double click on Setup1 under the Analysis folder. select SlugForce to be displayed in the Convergence. Click OK. Change the default Maximum Number of Passes to 15.4 Find the Validate icon in the tool bar. This will check the problem setup. (It looks like a green check mark).Maxwell 2D v12 Basic Exercises – Parametric Solver Modify Setup and solve a nominal problem In the project tree.

4 Check the solution by again right clicking on Setup1 and select Convergence . and Region objects by using ctrl+A. Slug. right click on Mag_B1 and check Plot Visibility. Do the same for Flux_Lines1 so that both plots are visible.Maxwell 2D v12 Basic Exercises – Parametric Solver Inspect Results 9.4 .6 . . select Maxwell 2D > Fields > Fields > B > Mag_B. Similarly. click Done in the Create Field Plot window. From the menu. Plot flux results: Select the Coil. Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9. In the project tree under Field Overlays. click Done in the Create Field Plot window. . select Maxwell 2D > Fields > Fields > A > Flux Lines.

and assign Start =100. Next. in the Add/Edit Sweep window to define the parameters to be swept in the analysis. Click Add.2. Stop =200. .4 . . . Similarly.7 . and Step = 0. click on the Setup Calculations . . There should be 18 solutions since we defined 6 variations of SlugHeight and 3 variations of AmpTurns.Maxwell 2D v12 Basic Exercises – Parametric Solver Create a Parametric solution 9. Stop =2 mm. Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9. and assign Start =1 mm. Click on the Table tab to inspect the combination of solutions that have been created. . and click the Add >> button. Then. select AmpTurns from the Variable pull-down menu. and click the Add >> button. Button in the lower left corner of the Calculations tab. and Step = 50.4 Click on the Menu item Maxwell 2D > Optimetrics Analysis > Add Parametric . Select SlugHeight from the Variable pull-down menu. Click OK. . select the Calculations tab to define which outputs will be calculated for each parametric solution.

and Copy Geometrically Equivalent Meshes.4 Click Add Calculation. Setup1 .4 . under Optimetrics. Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9. right click on ParametricSetup1. Solve the Parametric problem In the Project Manager window. 9. and select Analyze. Each parametric solution will re-mesh if the geometry has changed or the energy error criteria is not met as defined in Setup1. In the Options Tab. Note: the solving criteria is taken from the nominal problem.Maxwell 2D v12 Basic Exercises – Parametric Solver The Add/Edit Calculation window should appear : Select: Category: Output Variables.8 . Click Done. Quantity: SlugForce (a previously defined Output Variable). click both boxes for Save Fields And Mesh.

Graph the Force vs.Maxwell 2D v12 Basic Exercises – Parametric Solver 9. . and select View Analysis Result . . and select Create Magnetostatic Report > Rectangular Plot. Click the Table button to view all the results in tablature form.9 . SlugHeight Right Click on Results in the Project Manager. The full parametric solution should take about 1 minute depending on the speed of the machine. Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9. right click on ParametricSetup1.4 View the solution progress: In the Project Manager window. AmpTurns vs.4 .

The title can be changed by editing the name in the Project Tree. The plot will appear as shown on next page.4 In the New Report – New Traces window. to export the data to a file. The axis can be edited by double clicking on the x or y axis. the markers can be added by double clicking on the trace and checking the Show Symbol check box.10 . Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9. . . Select the Families tab: Ensure that that AmpTurns is selected as the Sweeps variable. X: SlugHeight. and Y: SlugForce.Maxwell 2D v12 Basic Exercises – Parametric Solver 9. Right click in the plot and select Export Data .4 . Quantity: SlugForce (a previously defined Output Variable). Select the Trace tab: Select: Category: Output Variables. Click on Close. Click on New Report.

Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9.4 A 3D surface can be created by right clicking on Results in the Project Tree and selecting Create Magnetostatic Report > 3D Rectangular Plot.4 . Edit the 3D Cartesian Plot window as shown below. This is the end of the 2D Parametrics Basic Exercise. Click New Report.11 . Close.Maxwell 2D v12 Basic Exercises – Parametric Solver 9.

the flux plot can be animated with respect to either of these variables. In the Project Manager window.12 .4 Since the SlugHeight and AmpTurns were parametrically varied. Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9.4 . choose: Export… to save as a .gif movie file. choose: Swept Variable: SlugHeight Select values: (select all values in the list) Choose OK to create the animated plot. right click on the Flux_lines plot and select Animate… In the Setup Animation window. After viewing the plot.Maxwell 2D v12 Basic Exercises – Parametric Solver Animate the flux plot: 9.

0.9. Draw the Inductor Click on the menu item Project > Insert Maxwell 2D Design Click on the menu item Maxwell 2D > Solution Type Geometry Mode: Cylindrical About Z Magnetic: Transient Click on the menu item Draw > Rectangle Start Position: 0.5-1 .0. Z Size: 18mm Click on the name Core1 and change its properties Name: Coil Material: Copper Color: Yellow Select Coil and Core and then click on 2D Modeler > Boolean > Subtract: Blank Part: Coil Tool Part: Core Clone objects before subtracting: checked Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9.1mm X Size: 5mm.5 Basic Exercise – 2D Transient Inductor using transient source This exercise will discuss how to use transient sources as the excitation for an inductor coil. the new objects name is Core1 In the object tree click on Core1 and then click on CreateRectangle In the Properties window change the following: Position: 0.0 X Size: 2mm Z Size: 20 mm Change its name to: Core Change its material to: ferrite Change its color to green Select the Core and click on the menu item Edit > Copy Click on the menu item Edit > Paste.

9.5-2 .5 Basic Exercise – 2D Transient Click on the menu item Draw > Region: Padding Data: All Padding Directions Padding Percentage: 500 Change the name of the design to: BE_Trans for Basic Exercise Transient Assign Excitation Select the Coil and click on the menu item Maxwell 2D > Excitations > Assign > Coil: Name: Coil Number of Conductors: 150 Polarity: Positive (into the screen) Click on the menu item Maxwell 2D > Excitations > Add Winding Name: Winding_A Type: Voltage Stranded: Checked Initial Current: 0. The project tree should look like this: Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9. select: Coil and click Ok.0 amps Resistance: 25 ohm Inductance: 0 H Voltage: 0 V (Note: This will be changed on the next page) Number of parallel branches: 1 Select Winding_A from the project tree under Excitation and right mouse click and select Add Coils … In the Add Terminals window.

click on OK The first term is the DC offset and the 2nd is peak voltage of the sine wave Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9. click on OK In the next dialog window enter 25 for Vp. Time) Click on OK and in the dialog window enter 50 for V_DC.5 Basic Exercise – 2D Transient Create the Excitation The excitation for this problem will be a voltage source with a 1KHz triangular wave superimposed on a 50 Hz sine wave that has a 50 volt DC offset.5-3 .9. Click on the menu item Maxwell 2D > Design Datasets and then Add a new dataset Name: DSet_A Coordinates: X1 = 0 Y1 = 0 X2 = 250e-6 Y2 = 1 X3 = 750e-6 Y3 = -1 X4 = 1e-3 Y4 = 0 Click Ok and Done. Select Winding_A from the Project Tree and right mouse click and select Properties and type in the following: Change Voltage: 0 V that was specified on the previous page to: Voltage: V_DC + Vp*sin(2*PI*50*Time) + 5*pwl_periodic (DSet_A.

Select the Core and click on the menu item Maxwell 2D > Mesh Operations > Assign > Inside Selection > Length Based. so a manual mesh needs to be created.5 Basic Exercise – 2D Transient Assign Balloon Boundary Click on the menu item Edit > Select > Edges Select one of the edges of the background region Click on the menu item Edit > Select > Select Edge Chain Click on the menu item Maxwell 2D > Boundaries > Assign > Balloon Name: Balloon1 Apply Mesh Operations The transient solver does not use the automatic adaptive meshing process.9. Name: Coil_Inside Restrict Length Of Elements: Uncheck Restrict Number of Elements: Check Maximum Number of Elements: 100 Create Analysis Setup Click on Maxwell2D > Analysis Setup > Add Solution Setup General Tab Stop Time: 20 ms Time Step: 100 us Save Fields Tab Type: Linear Count Start: 0 sec Stop: 20 msec Count: 11 Click on: Add to List Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9.5-4 . Name: Core_Inside Restrict Length Of Elements: Uncheck Restrict Number of Elements: Check Maximum Number of Elements: 250 Select the Coil and click on the menu item Maxwell 2D > Mesh Operations > Assign > Inside Selection > Length Based.

9.5 Basic Exercise – 2D Transient Solve the Problem Select Setup1 from under Analysis in the project tree. right mouse click and select Analyze Save the Design Click on File > Save to save the design and results Plot the Voltage and Current Click on Maxwell 2D > Results > Create Transient Report > Rectangular plot: Select Category: Winding Select Quantity: InputVoltage(Winding_A) Click on: New Report Select Quantity: Current(Winding_A) Click on: Add Trace Click on: Close Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9.5-5 .

This concludes the Basic Example for Transient Sources Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9.01 sec Select all of the objects by clicking on Edit > Select All Click on Maxwell 2D > Fields > Fields > A > Flux Lines Click on Done Double click on the plot lgend: Color MapTab > Number of Divisions: 56 Plots Tab > IsoValType: Line Zoom in to see the plot below.5-6 .5 Basic Exercise – 2D Transient Plot the Flux Lines Be sure that the 2D Modeler window is in the active view window. Select the menu item View > Set Solution Context Time: 0.9.

Z Size: 18 mm Click on the name Core1 and change its properties Name: Coil Material: Copper Color: Yellow Select Coil and Core and then click on 2D Modeler > Boolean > Subtract: Blank Part: Coil Tool Part: Core Clone objects before subtracting: checked Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9.0.6-1 .0.9. Draw the Inductor Click on the menu item Project > Insert Maxwell 2D Design Click on the menu item Maxwell 2D > Solution Type Geometry Mode: Cylindrical About Z Magnetic: Transient Click on the menu item Draw > Rectangle Start Position: 0.6 Basic Exercise – 2D Transient with Circuits Inductor using transient source This exercise will discuss how to use transient sources as the excitation for an inductor coil. the new objects name is Core1 In the object tree click on Core1 and then click on CreateRectangle In the Properties window change the following: Start Position: 0.0 X Size: 2mm Z Size: 20 mm Change its name to: Core Change its material to: ferrite Change its color if desired Select the Core and click on the menu item Edit > Copy Click on the menu item Edit > Paste.1mm X Size: 5mm.

select: Coil and click Ok. The project tree should look like this: Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9.6-2 .6 Basic Exercise – 2D Transient with Circuits Click on the menu item Draw > Region: Padding Data: All Padding Directions Padding Percentage: 500 Change the name of the design to: BE_Trans_Ckt for Basic Exercise Transient Assign Excitation Select the Coil and click on the menu item Maxwell 2D > Excitations > Assign > Coil: Name: Coil Number of Conductors: 150 Polarity: Positive (into the screen) Click on the menu item Maxwell 2D > Excitations > Add Winding Name: Winding_A Type: External Stranded: Checked Initial Current: 0.0 amps Number of parallel branches: 1 Select Winding_A from the project tree under Excitation and right mouse click and select Add Coils … In the Add Terminals window.9.

right mouse click on Excitations and select External Circuit > Edit External Circuit Select Edit Circuit from the Edit External Circuit dialog Maximize the Ansoft Maxwell Circuit Editor window on the screen.6 Basic Exercise – 2D Transient with Circuits Create an External Circuit To access Maxwell Circuit Editor. In the properties window change the following: Name: Winding_A Note: This name has to be exactly the same name as used in the Winding definition described previously in Maxwell > Excitations > Add Winding Select Sources > VSin drag this component onto the sheet.9. hit ESC to end insertion: Va: 100 volts VFreq: 50 Hz Select Source > VSin drag this component onto the sheet: Va: 10 volts VFreq: 1000 Hz Select Passive Elements > Res and drag this component onto the sheet: R: 25 ohms Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9. Click on File > New to create a new schematic Select the Components tab and choose Maxwell Circuit Elements > Dedicated Elements > Winding and drag this component onto the sheet Select the Winding on the schematic.6-3 .

click on Circuit Path tab.amcp for Basic Exercise Circuit (Note directory where file is saved.6-4 . The circuit should look like this: Note: Same name used: Winding_A Click on File > Save As: BE_Circuit.6 Basic Exercise – 2D Transient with Circuits Connect all of the elements together using Draw > Wire and add a ground using Draw > Ground.sph The Edit External Circuit Panel should appear as below with a check in the Has Inductor in Circuit box.mxwl project click on Import Circuit from the Edit External Circuit dialog and select BE_Circuit. Select Probes > Voltmeter and place it between the two voltage sources and ground.) Link the circuit file to the Maxwell project In the Maxwell BE_Trans_Ckt.sph (Note directory where file is saved. Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9.) Click on Maxwell Circuit > Export Netlist: File Name: BE_Circuit.sph file.9. To verify the location of the imported .

6-5 .9.6 Basic Exercise – 2D Transient with Circuits Assign Balloon Boundary Click on the menu item Edit > Select > Edges Select one of the edges of the background region Click on the menu item Edit > Select > Select Edge Chain Click on the menu item Maxwell 2D > Boundaries > Assign > Balloon Name: Balloon1 Apply Mesh Operations The transient solver does not use the automatic adaptive meshing process. Select the Core and click on the menu item Maxwell 2D > Mesh Operations > Assign > Inside Selection > Length Based. Name: Coil_Inside Restrict Length Of Elements: Uncheck Restrict Number of Elements: Check Maximum Number of Elements: 100 Create Analysis Setup Click on Maxwell > Analysis Setup > Add Solution Setup General Tab Stop Time: 20 ms Time Step: 100 us Save Fields Tab Type: Linear Count Start: 0 sec Stop: 20 msec Count: 11 Click on: Add to List Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9. so a manual mesh needs to be created. Name: Core_Inside Restrict Length Of Elements: Uncheck Restrict Number of Elements: Check Maximum Number of Elements: 250 Select the Coil and click on the menu item Maxwell 2D > Mesh Operations > Assign > Inside Selection > Length Based.

6-6 .6 Basic Exercise – 2D Transient with Circuits Solve the Problem Select Setup1 from under Analysis in the project tree. right mouse click and select Analyze Save the Design Click on File > Save to save the design and results Plot the Voltage and Current Click on Maxwell 2D > Results > Create Transient Report > Rectangular plot: Select Category: NodeVoltage Select Quantity: NodeVoltage(IVoltmeter) Click on: New Report Select Category: Winding Select Quantity: Current(Winding_A) Click on: Add Trace Click on: Close Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9.9.

6-7 . This concludes the Basic Example for Transient with Circuits Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9.01 sec Select all of the objects by clicking on Edit > Select All Click on Maxwell 2D > Fields > Fields > A > Flux Lines Click on Done Double click on the plot legend: Color Map Tab > Number of Divisions: 56 Plots Tab > IsoValType: Line Zoom in to see the plot below.9. Select the menu item View > Set Solution Context Time: 0.6 Basic Exercise – 2D Transient with Circuits Plot the Flux Lines Be sure that the 2D Modeler window is in the active view window.

8 Magnet Steel Plate Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9. The optimization obtains the desired force = 0.Maxwell 2D v12 Optimetrics Example – Puck Attractor Puck Magnet Attractor This example describes how to create and optimize a puck magnet producing an optimal force on a steel plate using the 2D RZ Magnetostatic solver and Optimetrics in the Ansoft Maxwell 2D Design Environment. 9.8-1 .25N by varying the air gap between the plate and the puck using a local variable.

Z: 0.Maxwell 2D v12 Optimetrics Example – Puck Attractor Create a New Project Open up Maxwell V12 Click on the menu item Project > Insert Maxwell 2D Design Click on the menu item Maxwell 2D> Solution Type Change the geometry mode to Cylindrical about Z Solver should be: Magnetic: Magnetostatic Verify that mm are units under Modeler > Units 9. Enter Change its name from Rectangle1 to Plate Select the Plate and change its material to Steel 1008 Change its color if desired Draw the Magnet Click on the menu item Draw > Rectangle X.0.0.8-2 . dZ: 2.8 Draw the Plate Click on the menu item Draw > Rectangle X. Z: 0.0.Y. dY.0. dY.2 Enter dX.0. dZ: 5. Y.2 Enter Change its name to: Magnet Change its material to: NdFe30 Change its color to Red Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9. Enter (default units are in mm) dX.1.

8-3 . click on the value Global and select the new coordinate system from the pull-down list. Change back to object select mode using: Edit > Select > Objects Assign the relative coordinate system to the Puck object: To assign the relative coordinate system: In the History Tree. a face coordinate will be created: Change to face select mode using: Edit > Select > Faces Click on the magnet and then choose: the menu item Modeler > Coordinate System > Create > Face CS Click on the lower left corner of the magnet and the upper left corner of the magnet to create the face coordinate system. Ín the attributes window. Since magnetization in the Z-direction is desired for this example. change back to the Global coordinate system by clicking on Global under Coordinate Systems Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9.Maxwell 2D v12 Optimetrics Example – Puck Attractor 9. change the attribute Orientation to FaceCS1. In the history tree.8 Create the relative coordinate system for the puck magnetization: The default magnetization direction for NdFe30 is in the X-direction. To change the value. select the object Magnet.

Set the value of the variable move to 0mm. The Add Variable window appears automatically. Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9. Under command tab set the Move Vector value to 0. Press Enter. Click the OK button 4. Click twice on the lower left corner of the magnet 3.Maxwell 2D v12 Optimetrics Example – Puck Attractor Setup the magnet motion 9.8-4 . 5. Select the magnet and then Edit > Arrange > Move 2. move. The properties window appears automatically. 0.8 To create the variable allowing the magnet to move parametrically: 1.

Maxwell 2D v12 Optimetrics Example – Puck Attractor Add a Region Click on the menu item Draw > Region: Select Pad all Directions and type 300 in Padding Percentage 9.mxwl for Basic Exercise Optimization calculation Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9. Save your project Click on File > Save As: Ex_09_08.8-5 .8 Reset the view by choosing: View > Fit All > All Views You should see a message indicating that the –X direction is set to zero due to RZ-symmetry about the Z-axis.

8 Assign Force Calculation Select the Plate and click on the menu item Maxwell2D > Parameters > Assign > Force Name: Force1 Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9. right. Click on the menu item Maxwell 2D > Boundaries > Assign > Balloon Click on the menu item Edit > Select > Objects 9.8-6 .Maxwell 2D v12 Optimetrics Example – Puck Attractor Assign Boundary to Region Edges Click on the menu item Edit > Select > Faces With the CTRL key depressed click on the top. and bottom edges.

Set Maximum Number of Passes: 15 Percent Error: 0. Click Done. Select Force1. Maxwell 2D > Results > Output Variables .1% Click OK. .Maxwell 2D v12 Optimetrics Example – Puck Attractor Add an Analysis Setup Right Click on Analysis in the Model Tree and select Add Solution Setup.Force_z in the Quantity: window and click on Insert Into Expression. . Select from the menu.8 Add the Force as an Output Variable. Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9. Enter ‘Fz’ as the Name and select Add. 9.8-7 .

double click on Setup1 under the Analysis folder. Set Max Delta Per Pass: 0. as shown below.Maxwell 2D v12 Optimetrics Example – Puck Attractor Modify Setup and solve a nominal problem 9. This will check the problem setup. On the Convergence tab.8-8 . (It looks like a green check mark). Find the Validate icon in the tool bar. Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9. Solve the problem by right clicking on Setup1 in the Project manager. check Use Output Variable Convergence and the Output Variable: Fz will be displayed in the Convergence.8 In the project tree.1% Click OK. Click on Analyze.

9. Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9. The calculated force is updated automatically after each pass.8-9 .8 View Calculated Force Result Click on the Force tab in the open Solutions window.Maxwell 2D v12 Optimetrics Example – Puck Attractor View the Automatic Adaptive Mesh Convergence Right click on the project tree item Analysis > Setup1 and select Convergence.

and Max = 1mm. Set the Min = 0mm.Maxwell 2D v12 Optimetrics Example – Puck Attractor Optimetrics Setup and Solution 9. Select the menu item Maxwell 2D > Design Properties. click on the Optimization radial button in order to specify that move be used in an optimization solution. the position will be varied to obtain a desired force of 0. Select OK to exit. the appropriate variables must be included in the optimization.25N. Specify the Optimization Variables Before starting the optimization setup.8-10 . Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9.8 It is possible to optimize position in order to obtain the specified force. For this optimization. Check the Include box.

In the Setup Optimization window. Name: target Expression: 0. 5.25 Click on Add to create this output variable for the target inductance.Maxwell 2D v12 Optimetrics Example – Puck Attractor Setup an Optimization Analysis 9. and then Output Variables… In the Output Variables window. enter the following: 1. Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9. change the optimizer to: Sequential Nonlinear Programming Reduce the Max No of Iterations: 10 so the solution will not do to many iterations. 4....Force_z) ^2 Click on Add to create this output variable for the cost function. Click on Done to leave the Output Variable window. Click Setup Calculations.. 2. 6.8 Select the menu item Maxwell 2D > Optimetrics Analysis > Add Optimization . Name: cost1 Expression: (target . 7. 3.8-11 .

Maxwell 2D v12 Optimetrics Example – Puck Attractor Setup an Optimization Analysis In the Add/Edit Calculation note that both target and cost1 are now listed. change the Condition: Minimze Click OK to leave the Setup Optimization window. Click Done to leave the Add/Edit Calculation window 9.8 Setup an Optimization Analysis In the Setup Optimization window. Highlight cost1 and click Add Calculation. Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9.8-12 .

Select the menu item Maxwell 2D > Analyze All to solve. Select the menu item: Maxwell 2D> Optimetrics Analysis > Optimetrics Results Check Log Scale to display the plot below.Maxwell 2D v12 Optimetrics Example – Puck Attractor Solve the Optimization Analysis In the project tree window. Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9.10 minutes.8 Optimetrics Results Your Optimetrics Results will be similar to the following results. 9. highlight OptimizationSetup1. Solution time is approximately 5 .8-13 .

8 Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9. 9.Maxwell 2D v12 Optimetrics Example – Puck Attractor Optimetrics Results Choose View: Table to display the results below.8-14 .

Select the menu item Maxwell 2D > Results > Create Magnetostatic Report > Rectangular Plot 2.00 200.00 350.00 m ove [um ] 400.00 600.00 Force1.00 500.00 XY Plot 1 Maxwell2DDesign1 Curve Inf o 500.00 300.Maxwell 2D v12 Optimetrics Example – Puck Attractor Create Plot of Cost vs Force 9.00 0.00 100.00 300.Force_z [mNewton] 450.Force_z Setup1 : LastAdaptive Force1.00 Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9. Leave the default settings and click New Report Ansoft LLC 550.00 400.8-15 .00 200.8 To create a report: 1.00 250.

00E-006 0. Select the menu item Maxwell 2D > Results > Create Magnetostatic Report > Rectangular Plot 2.00E-002 1.00 600.00 300. Choose Quantity: cost1 and click New Report Ansoft LLC 1.00E-003 cost1 1.00E-001 XY Plot 2 Maxwell2DDesign1 Curve Info cost1 Setup1 : LastAdaptive 1.00 100.00 200.8-16 .00E-005 1.8 To create a report: 1.00 500.00 Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9.00 move [um] 400.Maxwell 2D v12 Optimetrics Example – Puck Attractor Create Plot of Cost vs move 9.00E-004 1.

10 Create the Project Click on the menu item File > New Click on the menu item Project > Insert Maxwell 2D Design Save the Project Select the menu item File > Save As… Save the file as scripting_example. Modify the script to change the circle’s radius and height. modify and run a script for automating generation of a circle. The following tasks will be performed: Record a script in which a circle is created. 9.10-1 .mxwl Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9. Run the modified script.Scripting Scripting the Creation of a Model Object This exercise will discuss how to record.Maxwell 2D v12 Basic Exercise .

0. Click on the menu item Edit > Delete. Draw the Circle The radius for our initial circle object will be 1mm. If successful. Z: 0. Click on the menu item Draw > Circle Using the coordinate entry field. Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9. Y: 0.0. enter the radius: dX: 1. Specify the name of the file as script.0. dZ: 0. dY: 0.0.10-2 . Select Circle1 and click OK. Run the Script to Recreate the Circle Click on the menu item Tools > Run Script. should be back. We can now explore the contents of the script file.0. Press the Enter key Stop Recording the Script Click on the menu item Tools > Stop Script Recording. the original circle. By default the script will be recorded in Visual Basic format.0.Scripting Start Recording the Script 9. Delete the Circle Click on the menu item Edit > Select > By Name. enter the center position: X: 0.10 Click on the menu item Tools > Record Script. Locate and select the script file and click Open.Maxwell 2D v12 Basic Exercise . The file is now saved on the disk. Press the Enter key Using the coordinate entry field. Circle1.

10 Script File Contents Definition of environment variables.RestoreWindow Set oProject = oDesktop.Maxwell 2D v12 Basic Exercise .MaxwellScriptInterface") Set oDesktop = oAnsoftApp. Set oAnsoftApp = CreateObject("AnsoftMaxwell.Scripting Open the Script for Editing Locate the file on the hard disk and open with notepad.10-3 .0 ' 11:38 AM Aug 09. 2007 ' ---------------------------------------------Dim oAnsoftApp Dim oDesktop Dim oProject Dim oDesign Dim oEditor Dim oModule Reference defined environment variables using Set.GetAppDesktop() oDesktop.SetActiveEditor("3D Modeler") Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9.SetActiveProject("scripting_example") Set oDesign = oProject. 9. Dim is the generic visual basic variable type.SetActiveDesign("Maxwell2DDesign1") Set oEditor = oDesign. ' ---------------------------------------------' Script Recorded by Maxwell Version 12.

>> "Radius:=". oEditor. Array("NAME:Attributes". “5mm". "XCenter:=". "Radius:=". "Z"). "MaterialName:=". "SolveInside:=". "0mm".10-4 .10 Create the circle. Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9. "ZCenter:=". true. 0. "Global". "0mm". "1mm". "WhichAxis:=". "Flags:=". "Name:=". "WhichAxis:=". "(132 132 193)". "IsCovered:=". "1mm". -1. "Color:=". Here we will modify the Radius of the circle by changing the appropriate text. "Z"). Save the file and return to Maxwell. "CoordinateSystemID:=".Maxwell 2D v12 Basic Exercise . "WhichAxis:=". "Z"). "0mm". "PartCoordinateSystem:=". "vacuum". "YCenter:=". All of the parameters needed to create the circle are defined in this line of code.CreateCircle Array("NAME:CircleParameters". true) Modify Script Locate the line containing the Radius and change the numerical values to 5mm: >> "Radius:=". "Circle1". "". "Transparency:=".Scripting 9.

10-5 . Click on the menu item Edit > Delete.Maxwell 2D v12 Basic Exercise . Select Circle1 and click OK. should appear. Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9. Run the Script to Create the Modified Circle Click on the menu item Tools > Run Script.Scripting Delete the Circle 9. the modified cylinder.10 Click on the menu item Edit > Select > By Name. If successful. Circle1. Locate and select the script file and click Open.

Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9.GetActiveProject() Set oDesign = oProject. Change the following lines in the script.SetActiveDesign("MaxwellDesign1") Set oProject = oDesktop.Maxwell 2D v12 Basic Exercise .GetActiveDesign() This Completes the Scripting Exercise.10-6 .Scripting Generalize the script to run in any Project and Design 9.SetActiveProject("scripting_example") Set oDesign = oProject. Set oProject = oDesktop.10 To run the script in order to create your circle in a different project.

This solver calculates the magnetic fields at a specified sinusoidal frequency. eddy. The 2D model will be setup as shown below using the 2D RZ axisymmetric solver..1 . Also.12 .Maxwell 2D v12 Introduction to the Eddy Current Solver 9. Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9.12 Basic Exercises – Eddy Current Solver This example introduces the Eddy Current solver based on a simple example with a disk above a coil. Cast iron disk Spiral coil Simulated 2D model Actual 3D model Setup the Design Click on the menu item Project > Insert MaxwellDesign Click on the menu item Maxwell 2D > Solution Type . skin and proximity effects are considered. Set Geometry Mode: Cylindrical about Z Select the radio button Magnetic: Eddy Current Specify the Drawing Units Click on Modeler > Units > Select units: cm Check the Snap Mode Click on Modeler > Snap mode Verify that Snap To: Grid and Vertex are set. The coil induces eddy currents and losses in plate.. 2D Geometry: Iron Disk above a Spiral Coil A sinusoidal 500 Hz current will be assigned to an eight turn spiral coil underneath of a cast iron disk. Both linear and nonlinear (for saturation effects) magnetic materials can be used.

X: 0. dY: 0. Y: 0.5 dX: 41. Z: -100 dX: 120.Maxwell 2D v12 Draw the Solution Region 9.1. Draw the Spiral Coil Click on Draw > Rectangle X: 17. dY: 0.9 Select View > Fitall > Active View to resize the drawing window. dY: 0. dZ: 2 Change its properties: Name: Coil Material: Copper Color: Yellow Click on Edit > Duplicate > Along Line Input the first point of the duplicate vector: X: 0. Y: 0. dY: 0.2 . dZ: 1 Change its properties: Name: Plate Material: Cast Iron Color: Red Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9. Y: 0. dZ: 200 Change its properties: Name: Region Transparency: 0. dZ: 0 Set Total Number: 8 Do not check Attach To Original Object and choose OK.12 . Draw the Plate Click on Draw > Rectangle X: 0. Select wireframe view by selecting: View > Render > Wire Frame. Z: 0 Input the second point of the duplicate vector: dX: 3. Z: 1. Y: 0. Z: -1 dX: 2.12 Basic Exercises – Eddy Current Solver Click on Draw > Rectangle (Enter the following points using the tab key).

.12 .. . Current_8 Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9..3 . choose Edit > Select > Object to object selection mode. . This will result in a total of 1000 A-turns being assigned to the complete winding. Coil _7 from the history tree. Select Coil. Stranded is appropriate when the skin depth is much larger than the stranded conductor thickness. only the DC resistance would have been calculated and no AC effects in the coil would have been considered. Click on Maxwell 2D > Boundaries> Assign > Balloon When done. Assign the Outer Boundary The boundary must be set on the solution region. Current_2.Maxwell 2D v12 Assign the Source 9. Choose Edit > Select > Edges to change the selection mode from object to edge. Note that the induced eddy effects in the plate will be calculated in either case. This is done by setting a parameter.. if Stranded had been chosen. for example when using Litz wire. While holding down the CTRL key. Click on Maxwell 2D > Excitations > Assign > Current Name: Current Value: 125 A Type: Solid Note: Choosing Solid specifies that the eddy effects in the coil will be considered.12 Basic Exercises – Eddy Current Solver A current of 125A will be assigned to each coil. the compete [8x8] impedance matrix will be calculated. Click on Maxwell 2D > Parameters > Assign > Matrix Check each of the eight sources: Current_1. choose the three outer edges of the region. Coil_1. On the other hand. Assign the Parameters In this example.

5e6 S/m µr is the conductor’s relative permeability. (f is the source frequency which in this case is 500Hz). ωµ o µ rσ For cast iron the plate the skin depth is approximately 0. It is a function of the permeability. conductivity and frequency Skin depth in meters is defined as follows: δ = 2 where: ω is the angular frequency. simply return to the eddy effect screen by choosing: Maxwell 2D > Excitations > Set Eddy Effects > OK. so that mesh operations are not needed. the induced current will become almost negligible. σ is the conductor’s conductivity. re-set the Maximum Number of Passes to 15 On the Solver tab.4 . Add an Analysis Setup Click Right on Analysis in the Model Tree and select Add Solution Setup On the General tab. The automatic adaptive meshing in Maxwell 2D does an excellent job of refining the mesh in the skin depth.12 . which is equal to 4π×10-7 A/m. for cast iron its 1. Click on Maxwell 2D > Analyze All Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9. To clear this warning.Maxwell 2D v12 Compute the Skin Depth 9. for cast iron its 60 µο is the permeability of free space. which is equal to 2πf. This tells the solver that you have checked the eddy setup and that you have correctly set the eddy effect on the appropriate objects. After three skin depths. re-set the Adaptive Frequency to 500Hz Solve the Problem Save the project by clicking on menu item File > Save As Select the menu item Maxwell 2D > Validation Check to verify problem setup You will get a warning about Boundaries and Excitations.12 Basic Exercises – Eddy Current Solver Skin depth is a measure of how current density concentrates at the surface of a conductor carrying an alternating current.24 cm.

Maxwell 2D v12 View the Convergence Select the menu item Maxwell 2D > Results > Solution Data Click on the Convergence tab to view the adaptive refinement. Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9.12 . the results are displayed as [R. 9. Note the total loss is approximately 284 W. By default. L] or as coupling coefficients.12 Basic Exercises – Eddy Current Solver Click on the Matrix tab to display the 8x8 impedance matrix. Z] but can be also shown as [R.5 .

6 .Maxwell 2D v12 Plot the Mesh 9.12 Basic Exercises – Eddy Current Solver Select all objects and click on Maxwell 2D > Fields > Plot Mesh When done.. Evaluate Note: The evaluated loss in the Plate should be about 260 W. Click Done Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9.. hide the plot by selecting View > Active View Visibility > Fields Reporter and unchecking the Mesh1 plot.12 . Compute Total Power Loss in the Plate Click on Maxwell 2D > Fields > Calculator and then perform the following: Quantity > OhmicLoss Geometry > Volume > Plate > OK Integral > RZ Eval .

12 Basic Exercises – Eddy Current Solver Select all eight coils in the history tree and then Modeler > List > Create > Object List . Note: The total power loss for the plate and the coils = 260+24 = 284W which matches the loss result in the convergence table. Click on Maxwell 2D > Fields > Calculator and then perform the following: Quantity > OhmicLoss Geometry > Volume > Objectlist1> OK Integral > RZ (Note: RZ is a volume integral. skin effects are present in the plate since there are eddy currents flowing in it.Maxwell 2D v12 Compute Total Power Loss in the Coils 9.7 . Evaluate The evaluated loss in the Coils should be about 24 W Click Done. Also. This can be seen best if you zoom into the plate Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9. Plot Flux Lines Select all objects Click on Maxwell 2D > Fields > Fields > A > Flux Lines > Done Note that the flux lines are attracted to the plate since it is magnetic..12 . ‘Objectlist1’ appears under ‘List’ in the History Tree. XY is a surface integral) Eval ..

Click on Maxwell 2D > Fields > Fields > J > JAtPhase > Done Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9. Resize the view by selecting View > Fit All > All Views Verity that the view is wireframe by selecting: View > Render > Wire Frame Select the plate. Click on Maxwell 2D > Fields > Fields > J > JAtPhase > Done Plot Current Density Scalar in the Coils Select Objectlist1 to select all eight coils in the winding.12 .12 Basic Exercises – Eddy Current Solver Hide the Region by selecting View > Active View Visibility and un checking Region.Maxwell 2D v12 Plot Current Density Scalar in the Plate 9.8 .

Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9.5 and Max = 0. Select the Plate Click on Maxwell 2D > Fields > Fields > J > J_Vector After the plot is displayed.Maxwell 2D v12 Plot Ohmic Loss Distribution 9. then Fields > Other > Ohmic_Loss After the plot is displayed.12 Basic Exercises – Eddy Current Solver Hide previous plots by selecting View > Active View Visibility > Fields Reporter and unchecking the previous plots. Select all objects Click on Maxwell 2D > Fields > Fields > Other > Ohmic_Loss Or right mouse click after object Plate is selected. double left clicking on the legend select the Plots tab. Animate Current Density Vector Rotate the view by holding down ALT and then left mouse drag.9 . change to a log scale by double left clicking on the legend and change to Log on the Scale tab. right click on J_Vector1 and click Animate > OK.12 . In the Project Window.5. Choose plot: J_Vector1 and change the Vector plot spacing to: Min = 0.

001 Hz. choose Analysis > Setup > Solver and change the adaptive frequency = 0. just click on JAtPhase1 to display the current density plot. Click on Maxwell 2D > Analyze All 9.12 Basic Exercises – Eddy Current Solver Plot Current Density Scalar In the project window.12 . copy the design and re-run it at 0. In the project window.001Hz (which is essentially DC).001 Hz. Under MaxwellDesign2.Maxwell 2D v12 Copy the Design and Solve again at DC In order to show the difference between the AC case and the DC case. MaxwellDesign2 should appear.10 . Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9. select MaxwellDesign1 and choose Edit > Copy Click on the green project folder and choose Edit > Paste. Note that there is no significant current induced in the plate at 0.

11 .Maxwell 2D v12 Plot the Flux Lines In the project window. no AC skin effects or shielding occurs. 9. Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9. Note that the flux lines penetrate in and through the plate.12 Basic Exercises – Eddy Current Solver This is the end of the Eddy Current Basic Exercise.12 . just click on Flux_Lines1 to display the flux lines plot. While saturation is considered at DC.

13 Basic Exercise: Transient – Large Motion – Rotational Quickstart – Rotational Motion Using a Rotational Actuator Example Maxwell Transient with large motion is a set of advanced topics. effects coming from so-called motion induced currents can be considered. manuals. Please refer to the corresponding topics. If necessary. Subsequent papers will demonstrate rotational motion in more depth.Maxwell 2D v12 Large Motion – its Quick Implementation Using the Maxwell 2D Transient Solver Maxwell Transient is able to consider interactions between transient electromagnetic fields and mechanical motion of objects. 9. Maxwell Transient (with motion) includes dB/dt arising from mechanically moving magnetic fields in space. moving objects. as well as translational motion which a solenoid application will serve as an example for. This paper represents a quick start to using rotational motion. nor to match accurately measured results. The goal of these papers is solely to show and practice working with large motion in Maxwell.e. i. Users should have thorough knowledge on Maxwell fundamentals as well as Maxwell Transient (without motion) prior to approaching large motion. We will exercise the following in this document: Create a new or read in an existing rotational actuator model – to serve as an experimental testbench for large motion Prepare and adapt this existing actuator model to our needs Apply large motion to the rotational actuator Create the band object Setup rotational motion Mesh Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9.13-1 . Thus. It is neither the goal to simulate real-world applications. In Maxwell rotational motion can occur around one single motion axis. non-cylindrical rotational motion using a relays example. It will exercise rotational motion in Maxwell 2D using a rotational actuator (experimental motor) example. please consult the proper training papers. and application notes. nor will these papers show in detail how to setup and work with other Maxwell functionality. help files.

Maxwell 2D v12 Perform basic large motion tests „Large Rotational Standstill“ test „Large Rotational Constant Speed“ test „Large Rotational Transient Motion“ test Compute magnetic rigidity and mechanical natural frequency Estimate timestep for transient solver Make a field animation with large motion 9.mxwl. activate the design 00_Template and start working from there. Open it.13 Basic Exercise: Transient – Large Motion – Rotational Open the Rotational Actuator Model Locate the project Ex_09_13_BasicTransient_MotionRotational_M2dTrs120. You can copy/paste 00_Template into your own working project. 1: Rotational actuator example Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9. The model should look like this: Fig.13-2 . The other designs show the fully setup models we will be working on.

and post processing. all properties can be considered together. In the project tree: RMB click on: Model > Set Model Depth (taken from the original 3D project). eddy effects will be excluded. but rather work in steps. switch eddy effects in Stator1 and Rotor1 on and off. Maxwell considers all moving objects (inside the band) to form one single moving object group.4 mm. a regular polyhedron. make sure to re-apply the same model setup as elaborated at the previous page (00_Template).Maxwell 2D v12 Setup and Verify the Electromagnetic Part Prior to employing large motion. In the project tree: RMB click on Model > Set Symmetry Multiplier (the full geometry is simulated). the electromagnetic part of the model should work correctly. Fig. For this quickstart. After that. meshing. etc. All moving objects must be enclosed by one so-called band object. vary material properties. Perform a test simulation on the electromagnetic part alone. Refer to the corresponding topics on materials. i. Especially in cases eddy current effects. If desired. Verify the symmetry multiplier being set to 1. Also. For rotational motion. If the electromagnetic part without motion effects yielded correct results. please study the winding setup and background. play with various excitations. and large motion are included. 9. 2: Band object separating rotor from stator Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9.e. Verify the model depth being set to 25.13 Basic Exercise: Transient – Large Motion – Rotational Rotational Large Motion – The Maxwell Approach Maxwell separates moving from non-moving objects. boundaries. the band object must be cylindrical with segmented outer surface. transient simulations without motion. Users are well advised not to setup a complex model completely at once and then try to simulate. the correctness of the setup for each individual property should be verified. excitations. external circuits. For each test check the electromagnetic fields for correctness.13-3 . We use stranded windings with constant current (to generate a fixed stator flux vector around which Rotor1 will oscillate later).

Here. click first on the origin.75 mm). let‘s examine the moving parts to comply with Maxwell‘s conventions: All moving objects can be separated from the stationary objects and can be combined to one single rotating group. dB/dt effects are included in the field solution. The band object should preferably cut through the middle of the airgap.13 Basic Exercise: Transient – Large Motion – Rotational If the model is setup to operate in constant speed mode (see below). i.5 mm was used. leaving about the same space to Rotor1 and Stator1. 3 next page. Hide all objects except Rotor1 and Stator1. See Fig. Apply Large Motion to the Rotational Actuator – Create the Band Object and Mesh First. e. Outer surface segmentation should be between 1° and 5°.4 mm. this is not a must. Read the Distance value (53. Jm · d2ϕm(t) / dt2 + kD(t) · dϕm(t) / dt = Tψ(t) + Tm(t) See Appendix A for a variable explanation. Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9. i. changing magnetic fields owing to speed ωm. 52. Then move over so that the pointer snaps to one inner corner point of Stator1. band should have a radius of 52. Create the band object: We want a regular polyhedron that encloses all moving objects.05 mm).13-4 . All moving objects be considered to perform the same cylindrical motion. we will have between 360 and 72 outer surface segments. e. However. Maxwell will not compute mechanical transients. Thus. Maxwell will compute the motion equation in each time step. then move so that the mouse pointer snaps to one outer corner point of Rotor1. However. Read the Distance value from the Measura Data window (51. Determine the required radius: Modeler > Measure > Position In the geometry. Mechanical Transient mode: In case inertia was specified.Maxwell 2D v12 Constant Speed mode: 9.

4.13-5 . enter 52. have X = 0. Rename the thus created object to Band1.5 into the dX (or dY) field. 3: Rotor1 radius measurement Draw the band: Draw > Regular Polygon. When asked for the Radius.13 Basic Exercise: Transient – Large Motion – Rotational Fig. The created Band1 object should look like Fig.9. Z = 0 for the Center position. leaving dZ and dY (or dX) zero. Y = 0. Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9. and maybe use some nicer color.Maxwell 2D v12 9. apply a transparency of 0. Set the number of segments to 72.

Setup rotational motion: In the history tree. and select Global:Z – Positive for the Rotation Axis. uncheck Consider Mechanical Transient and apply an Angular Velocity of zero.. Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9. Under Motion Type. Applying ϕm0 ≠ 0 would start with Rotor1 rotated by ϕm0 from the drawn position.13 Basic Exercise: Transient – Large Motion – Rotational Fig. Leave Rotate Limit unchecked (allowing the rotor to spin continuously) and leave Non-Cylindrical unchecked.. apply zero for the initial position. On the Data tab. 72 outer segments means a new segment every 5°. leave Non-Cylindrical unchecked.Maxwell 2D v12 9. right mouse click on the Band1 object and choose: Assign Band. 4: Band object Band1 We have now created Band1 that encloses all rotating objects (only Rotor1 in this example).13-6 . Under Mechanical. For more accurate simulations we should apply more segments. Thus. check Rotational for the Motion Type. motion will start at t = 0 with the rotor position being as drawn. This automatically separates moving from stationary objects.

For here. We will restrict the number of elements to 5000. the band mesh is crucial for accurate results. Band1: For torque computation. Applying the same constant current as before. Positive magnetic torque is generated around the positive z-axis (global coordinate system. two new entries have been created – MotionSetup1 and Moving1. we can expect the same constant magnetic torque (provided a good mesh). Fig.13-7 .Maxwell 2D v12 Now. we will apply a rather coarse mesh only.13 Basic Exercise: Transient – Large Motion – Rotational Fig. This will do for these tests. In the project tree > active design > Model. Clicking on Moving1 inspect the motion setup. Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9. the most critical areas are the airgap and its immediate proximity. we have setup „large rotational standstill“. 9. 5: Motion setup Mesh Meshing is a very critical issue with respect to simulation speed and accuracy. We will apply a length based mesh on the surface and inside of Band1. Thus. 5). by which the solver will just yield satisfactory results.

OK. right mouse click Analysis > Add Solution Setup. meshing is done. We need this setup just to allow meshing and check the mesh. set to 5000. Rename this mesh entry to Band_Length.13-8 . Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9.. Restrict Number of Elements – checked.13 Basic Exercise: Transient – Large Motion – Rotational Right mouse click on Band1 > Assign Mesh Operation > Inside Selection > Length Based. we will care about its values later. Watch the progress bar (usually bottom right). Assign a solution setup: In the project tree. i. second the maximum number of elements to apply. e. ClickOK to accept the default values for now. Maxwell > Fields > Plot Mesh. and CoilB_Neg will try to assign 100 triangles to the group. Following. 6. Your mesh plot should look similar to Fig. The mesh will be assigned one by one. you should see project tree entries like Fig. Once done assigning.. CoilB.Maxwell 2D v12 9. Restrict Length of Elements – unchecked. Restrict Number of Elements – checked. Watch the message window (usually bottom left) for a message that says that the Simulation has been successfully completed. right click the object > Assign Mesh Operation > Inside Selection > Length Based. CoilA_Neg. Now. about 25 triangle in each coil will result) Background1 – 1000 – Background_Length. first the object names are listed. For each. In the project tree right mouse click Analysis > Setup1 > Apply Mesh Operations. and third the name given to the resulting mesh entry: Rotor1 – 1000 – Rotor_Length Stator1 – 1000 – Stator_Length CoilA and CoilB – 100 – Coils_Length (simultaneously selecting CoilA. Select View > Set Solution Context leaving Time = -1 (the simulation has not yet started) and then click on OK. For all other objects we will also just restrict the number of elements – for simplicity reasons only. 5. Select all objects except for Background1. Restrict Length of Elements – unchecked.

13-9 . etc. right mouse click Results > Create Transient Report. Its progress can be monitored in the progress window. zero). Set 20 ms for the stop time. Should they fail in whatever respect. Simulate the „Large Rotational Standstill“ test: Refer to design 11_GeoFull_MagI_MchStandstill. and Quantity = Moving. We have now told Maxwell Transient to simulate five timesteps only (icl. 6: Mesh entries Fig.). In the project tree. select Category = Torque.13 Basic Exercise: Transient – Large Motion – Rotational Fig.Torque. > Rectangular Plot. external circuits. and Close. Post process: We will just look at the force function at the moment. They can be executed rather quickly. Exit by OK. Your report should show constant force of about 400 mNm. press New Report. because we are expecting a quasi magnetostatic result. Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9. Leave all other properties of Setup1 untouched. Set 5 ms for the time step. there is no use going further and working with more complex models (like mechanical transients. double click on: Setup1. 7: Resulting mesh Perform Basic Large Motion Tests These basic tests serve model verification. eddy currents.Maxwell 2D v12 9. Setup Solution In the project tree. Right mouse click Analysis > Setup1 > Analyze will start the simulation process.

Set Time Step to 5 s By rotating at a speed of 1 °/s 180 s long.00 100.00 40.13-10 .00 60. Alternatively.13 Basic Exercise: Transient – Large Motion – Rotational Perform the “Large Rotational Constant Speed“ test: Refer to design 12_GeoFull_MagI_MchSpeedslow. We will now operate the rotational actuator at a very slow constant speed. Setup Solution Right mouse click on Analysis > Setup1 > Properties. Set Stop Time to 180 s. Remember. Eddy effects are switched off for all objects. By giving an extra -61°. The plot is going to build up with each timestep completed. Rotor1 as drawn has a -29° offset.00 -200.Maxwell 2D v12 9. See Fig. Under Data. Setup motion In the project tree.00 Time [s] 120.00 0.00 300. set Angular Velocity to 1 deg_per_sec.00 Torque(t) 12_GeoFull_MagI_MchSpeedslow Curve Info Torque Setup1 : Transient Fig. you can already open the report Torque(t). 7. there is only one magnetic excitation present in the model – namely constant coil current with stranded windings.00 20.00 400. Ansoft Corporation 500.00 200.00 -100. set Initial Position to -61 deg.00 -500. This is taken to be the zero position for the transient solver. from -90° to +90°.00 180.00 -400. i.00 140.00 160. positive rotation of 1 °/s starts at: -61 -29 = -90°.00 80. Under Mechanical. at 5°/step.00 Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9.00 Torque [mNewtonMeter] 100. Rotor1 could have been assigned permanent magnet properties. We can now use Transient with Large Motion to monitor cogging torque effects. 8: Magnetic torque Tψ(t) 0. underModel right mouse click on MotionSetup1 and select Properties. Rotor1 will move 180°. e.00 -300. Right mouse click Analysis > Setup1 > Analyze During solving.

whose force coming from the magnetic field. Refer to design 13_GeoFull_MagI_MchTransient. Damping = 0. t. an approximated f0 = 5 Hz results.13-11 .0024 kgm2. We thus expect oscillation between -29° and +29° (w. This causes 15 mNm resistive torque at 1 rad/s speed. 9). and Load Torque = 0.015 Nm·s/rad. set Initial Position = 0. Under Mechanical (see Fig. This is sufficient for estimating the necessary timestep as far as mechanical oscillations are regarded.3 Nm/rad rad(10°) Assuming inertia J = 0. Fig. stator flux axis) at f0 < 5 Hz with damped amplitudes. Moment of Inertia = 0. We can expect Rotor1 to oscillate around the stator flux axis (y-axis) at some natural frequency f0. Inertia will be specified as well as some damping. cψ in Nm/rad is the magnetic rigidity. set Consider Mechanical Transient = checked Initial Angular Velocity = 0. which can be approximated as: f0 = 1 2π cψ J understood as a mechanical spring spanned between Rotor1 and Stator1.Maxwell 2D v12 9.0024 kgm2. r. 9: Motion setup Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9. As an analogy it can be cψ = ∆Tψ ∆ϕ m ≈ 400 mNm = 2.13 Basic Exercise: Transient – Large Motion – Rotational Perform the „Large Rotational Transient Motion“ test: We will now operate the actuator as a one-body oscillator. Motion Setup (Model > MotionSetup > Properties): Under Data. We can roughly calculate rigidity c from the cogging torque function (stable limb): J in kgm2 is the total moment of inertia acting on Rotor1.

00 10.00 200.00 -40.00 Moving1.00 80. set Stop Time = 0.00 20.13 Basic Exercise: Transient – Large Motion – Rotational Solution Setup: Under Analysis > Setup1 > Proporties. Open the already generated report Torque(t).00 300. This and the two additional reports for speed and position should look like Fig.00 100.00 60.00 Time [ms] 300. 9-11.00 0.00 -60.Maxwell 2D v12 9.00 100.00 0.00 Fig.00 -20. 10: Torque Tψ(t) Curve Info Moving1.Position [deg] 30. 12: Mechanical position ϕm(t) 0.00 -400.Speed Setup1 : Transient Moving1.Speed [rpm] Fig.00 Curve Info Torque Setup1 : Transien Torque [mNewtonMeter] Fig.00 20.00 40.00 50.00 500 Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9.00 -200.01 s From f0.00 0. Analyze this design.00 400. At 10 ms timestep we will sample one cycle >20 times.00 400. we can expect a >200 ms cycle.00 -100. 500.Position Setup1 : Transient 40.5 s.00 -80.00 -300. 11: Mechanical speed ωm(t) Curve Info Moving1.00 100. Time Step = 0.00 200.13-12 .

which is the stator flux axis (y) with respect to the initial position. Quantity: Moving. For kD = 1 Nm·s/rad. and Category: Position. Quantity: Moving. The current simulation time in s. Note that the drawn rotor position is considered as ϕm0 = 0. just add this to Jm. ϕm oscillates around +29°. kD can be a function of t. that a positive Tm value will accelerate rather than brake. inertia not geometrically modeled). Initial ωm in rad/s. Note. Mechanical angular acceleration in rad/s2. Damping koefficient in Nm·s/rad. or ϕm. e. 9. Mechanical extra torque in Nm. resistive torque of 1 Nm would be generated if the moving parts turn at 1 rad/s. this can be a constant or a function of t. Moment of inertia in kg·m2.Position.Maxwell 2D v12 9. Mechanical angular speed in rad/s. ωm. or ϕm. Magnetically generated torque in Nm. ωm corresponds to Tψ‘s first derivative and is correct.Speed.13 Basic Exercise: Transient – Large Motion – Rotational The transient reports have been created using: Category: Speed. Fig.13-13 ωm0 d2ϕm(t) / dt2 Jm kD(t) Tψ Tm t Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide . ωm. Appendix A: Variable Explanation: ϕm(t) ϕm0 dϕm(t) / dt. ωm(t) Mechanical angular position in rad (angles can also be given in degrees). This is the total inertia acting on the moving object group. Initial ϕm in rad. 10-12 on the previous page: Tψ looks as expected from previous simulations. If extra inertia needs to be included (i.

Boundary conditions are important to understand and are fundamental to solution of Maxwell’s equations. Ansoft Maxwell Design Environment The following features of the Ansoft Maxwell Design Environment are used to create the models covered in this topic 2D Sheet Modeling User Defined Primitives (UDPs): SRMCore Boolean Operations: Separate Bodies Boundaries/Excitations Current: Stranded Boundaries: Vector Potential.14 Topic – 2D Boundary Conditions Assigning Boundary Conditions Boundary Conditions Boundary conditions enable you to control the characteristics of planes. Symmetry. Symmetry and Matching Boundary (Master and Slave). Balloon. Purpose of the Exercise This exercise introduces various boundary conditions used in Maxwell 2D based on a simple example with coils and steel core.9. Master/Slave. Analysis Magnetostatic Field Overlays: H Vector Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 User’s Guide 9. The user will learn how to use Vector Potential.14-1 . Balloon. or interfaces between objects. faces.

14 Topic – 2D Boundary Conditions Summary of eight designs to be simulated 1_VectorPotential 2_Balloon 4_Symmetry_Odd and 6_NoSymmetry 3_Balloon_ChangeExcitation 5_Symmetry_Even 7_Matching_Positive Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 User’s Guide 8_Matching_Negative 9.9.14-2 .

Maxwell Options Window: 1. Click the OK button 3. verify that the following tool options are set : 1. Setting Tool Options To set the tool options: Note: In order to follow the steps outlined in this example. 3D Modeler Options Window: 1. and select Ansoft and then Maxwell 12.9. 4. select Programs. Click the Drawing tab Edit property of new primitives: Checked 3.14-3 . Click the Operation tab Automatically cover closed polylines: Checked 2. Or double click the icon on the desktop. Click the General Options tab Use Wizards for data entry when creating new boundaries: Checked Duplicate boundaries with geometry: Checked 2. click the Microsoft Start button. Click the OK button Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 User’s Guide 9. Select the menu item Tools > Options > Maxwell 2D Options 2. Select the menu item Tools > Options > Modeler Options.14 Topic – 2D Boundary Conditions Getting Started Launching Maxwell To access Maxwell.

14-4 .14 Topic – 2D Boundary Conditions Opening a New Project To open a new project: 1. In an Maxwell window. or click on the icon. or right mouse click on 1_VectorPotential and select Solution Type. 2. Set Model Units Select the menu item Modeler > Units > Select Units: mm (millimeters) Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 User’s Guide 9. Change the name of the design from “Maxwell2DDesign1” to “1_VectorPotential”. or select the menu item File > New. Save the project with name “Ex_9_14_BasicBoundaryCondictions” to your own folder. click the on the Standard toolbar. XY Creating 2D Model The example that will be used to demonstrate how to assign boundary conditions does not represent any real-world product. The Geometry Mode should be: Cartesian. 3.9. The intent of this write-up is rather to demonstrate how boundary conditions are implemented. Select the menu item Project > Insert Maxwell 2D Design. Set Solution Type Select the menu item: Maxwell 2D > Solution Type > Magnetostatic.

9.14 Topic – 2D Boundary Conditions Create Stator and Coils: A User Defined Primitive will be used to create the Stator and Coils Draw > User Defined Primitive > Syslib > Rmxprt > SRMCore Use the values given in the panel below to create the Stator and Coils Click on the object just created in the drawing window and in the panel on the left change its name from SRMCore1 to Stator. Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 User’s Guide 9. Change the Material from vacuum to nickel.14-5 .

14-6 . and the material property for the Coils will be copper. The name and color for each object is given below. change the name.9. 1. materials. Click on the Stator-Coil group so that they are selected 2. The material property for the Stator will be nickel. and color for Coils. the result will be a single stator and eight coil cross-sections.14 Topic – 2D Boundary Conditions The stator and coils were created as one entity and they need to be separated. Select the menu item Modeler > Boolean > Separate Bodies. As was done with the Stator. Coil3 Coil2 Coil4 Coil1 Coil8 Coil5 Stator Coil7 Coil6 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 User’s Guide 9.

9.14
Topic – 2D Boundary Conditions
Assign Current Source to Coils
Select all eight coils by holding down the CTRL key and using your mouse or selecting from tree on the left hand side of the GUI Select the menu item Maxwell 2D > Excitations > Assign > Current or right click

> Assign Excitations > Current
1. 2.

Change the Base Name to Current Change the value to 100 Amps

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9.14
Topic – 2D Boundary Conditions
The project tree now shows eight separate Excitations, each of them is pointing out of the plane (along Z axis):

Changing directions of Excitations
Right click on Excitations > List …, hold down CTRL key and select Current_2, Current_4, Current_6 and Current_8, then click on “Properties”, change direction from Positive to Negative.

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9.14
Topic – 2D Boundary Conditions
Create the Problem Region
One of the main differences between Maxwell V11 and V12 is that a Background Region is not automatically created when a project is started. A separate object needs to be specifically created. To create a rectangular region simply select Draw > Region, or click the icon from standard toolbar. The size of this rectangular region is based on dimensions of the existing objects. Change Padding Percentage to 20.

Click View > Fit All > All Views, or CTRL + D.

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9.14
Topic – 2D Boundary Conditions
Create an Analysis Setup
Select the menu item Maxwell 2D > Analysis Setup > Add Solution Setup or right

click on the Analysis in the project window > Add Solution Setup
Select General and verify the setting as follows Select Convergence and verify the setting as follows

Set up Boundary Conditions
Select the menu item Edit > Select > Edges or right click in the Modeler > Select

Edges
Select outer edge of the Stator Click on the menu item Maxwell 2D > Boundaries > Assign > Vector Potential … Accpet the default value and OK.

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Topic – 2D Boundary Conditions
Save the Project
Select the menu item File > Save

Check the Validity of the Model
Select the menu item Maxwell > Validation Check, or click on the icon

The problem won’t solve unless each item has a check mark.

Analyze
Select the menu item Maxwell 2D > Analyze All, or click on the icon

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Topic – 2D Boundary Conditions
Solution Data
To view the Solution Data, select the menu item Maxwell 2D > Results > Solution Data, or right click on Setup1 under Analysis >

Convergence
Here you can view the Profile and the Convergence. Note: The default view for convergence is Table. Click on the Plot radio button to view a graphical representations of the convergence data. Note: You don’t have to wait for the solution to be done to do this. You can do this while the simulation is running, all information will update automatically after each pass is done.

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or select everything from the history tree window.9. then right mouse click in the modeler and select Plot Mesh .14 Topic – 2D Boundary Conditions Plot Mesh. Do the same. H-Field Vector and Flux Line Click on the menu item Edit > Select All Visible or Select All.14-13 . then right mouse click in the modeler and select Fields > H > H_Vector. Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 User’s Guide 9. and Fields > A > Flux Lines . or use CTRL + A . select all objects.

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 User’s Guide 9.14-14 .14 Topic – 2D Boundary Conditions The following H-field vector plot will appear. which is the result of the current excitation on the left side. If the plot is not as nice as you may want to see. then change various settings under Color map / Scale / Marker / Arrow or Plots tabs.9. you can double click on the legend bar.

14 Topic – 2D Boundary Conditions Create Design2: 2_Balloon Click on design 1_VectorPotential in the Project Manager window and then right mouse click and select Copy Click on the project name Ex_9_14_Basic_BoundaryConditions. change the design name to 2_Balloon.14-15 . Click on VectorPotential1 under Boundaries in the Project Manager. a new design called 1_VectorPotential1 has been created. Assign Boundary > Balloon… Run the simulation and compare H Field plot with the previous design that has vector potential boundary. right click and select Paste. Right mouse click again. and press “Delete” from keyboard to remove the boundary condition. then right mouse click and select All Object Edges to select all edges of the Region. Balloon on all edges of the Region Zero Vector Potential on the outer edge of the Stator Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 User’s Guide 9. Left mouse click on one of the edges of the Region. Right click in the modeler and select Select Edges. to change from object selection mode to edge selection mode.9.

Change Current_7 from Positive to Negative Change Current_4 and Current_8 from Negative to Positive. change the design name to 3_Balloon_ChangeExcitation. a new design called 2_Balloon1 has been created. change from Positive to Negative in the Direction row. Also. Modify Current Excitation Click on Excitations > Current_3 in the Project window. The purpose is to change the current excitation as shown in the graph below.9.14 Topic – 2D Boundary Conditions Create Design3: 3_Balloon_ChangeExcitation Click on design 2_Balloon in the Project Manager window and then right mouse click and select Copy Click on the project name Ex_9_14_Basic_BoundaryConditions. right click and select Paste. Current_3 Current_2 Current_4 Current_5 Current_1 Current_8 Current_1 Current_2 Current_3 Current_4 Current_5 Positive Negative Negative Positive Positive Negative Negative Positive Current_6 Current_6 Current_7 Current_7 Current_8 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 User’s Guide 9. you will see a Properties window under Project window.14-16 .

14-17 .14 Topic – 2D Boundary Conditions Run the simulation and compare H Field plot with Design2 2_Balloon that has different excitations.9. Design2: 2_Balloon Design3: 3_Balloon_ChangeExcitation Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 User’s Guide 9.

reassign the Balloon boundary to three edges (not on the symmetry edge).14-18 .14 Topic – 2D Boundary Conditions Symmetry Boundary Create Design4: 4_Symmetry_Odd Click on design 2_Balloon in the Project Manager window and then right mouse click and select Copy Click on the project name Ex_9_14_Basic_BoundaryConditions. Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 User’s Guide 9. a new design called 2_Balloon1 has been created. right mouse click in the modeler > Assign Boundary > Symmetry.9. Change to Edge selection mode and click on the edge of the Region along X axis. right click and select Paste. choose Odd (Flux Tangential). In the history tree. double click on CreateRegion under Vacuum > Region. change the design name to 4_Symmetry_Odd. change –Y Padding Percentage to 0. Select all objects and right mouse click in the modeler > Boolean > Split. Remove the Balloon boundary. choose XZ plane to create half geometry.

Symmetry: Odd (Flux Tangential) Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 User’s Guide 9.9.14 Topic – 2D Boundary Conditions Run simulation and view results.14-19 .

Select the Symmetry boundary and change it to Even (Flux Normal). right click and select Paste. Symmetry: Even (Flux Normal) Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 User’s Guide 9.14-20 .9.14 Topic – 2D Boundary Conditions Create Design5: 5_Symmetry_Even Click on design 4_Symmetry_Odd in the Project Manager window and then right mouse click and select Copy Click on the project name Ex_9_14_Basic_BoundaryConditions. change the design name to 5_Symmetry_Even. Run simulation and view results. a new design called 4_Symmetry_Odd1 has been created.

14 Topic – 2D Boundary Conditions Create Design6: 6_NoSymmetry Click on design 4_Symmetry_Odd in the Project Manager window and then right mouse click and select Copy Click on the project name Ex_9_14_Basic_BoundaryConditions. change the design name to 6_NoSymmetry.14-21 . No Symmetry: by default an Odd (Flux Tangential boundary is assigned) Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 User’s Guide 9. Run simulation and view results. The result should look the same as Design4: 4_Symmetry_Odd because odd symmetry or flux tangential is the default boundary condition. right click and select Paste. Select the Symmetry boundary and delete it. a new design called 4_Symmetry_Odd1 has been created.9.

9.14-22 .14 Topic – 2D Boundary Conditions Matching Boundaries (Master/Slave). Design2: 2_Balloon Design7: 7_Matching_Positive Design3: 3_Balloon_ChangeExcitation Design8: 8_Matching_Negative Slave=Master Slave= — Master Master Master Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 User’s Guide 9.

Select the edge of the Region that is along Y axis. and Relation as Bs = Bm. Select all objects and right mouse click in the modeler > Edit > Boolean > Split. Remove the existing Balloon boundary and redefine it on two edges of the Region that are not on X and Y axis. change the design name to 7_Matching_Positive. Choose Master1 from the pull down menu. Right mouse click in the modeler > Assign Boundary > Slave. Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 User’s Guide 9. right click and select Paste.9. If not use Swap Direction. Change –X Padding Percentage of the Region to be 0. Be sure that the master vector arrow is pointing in the positive X direction.14-23 . Click on the project name Ex_9_14_Basic_BoundaryConditions. Be sure that the slave vector arrow is pointing in the positive Y direction. Change to Edge selection mode and select the edge of the Region that is along X axis.14 Topic – 2D Boundary Conditions Matching Boundaries: Master/Slave Create Design7: 7_Matching_Positive Click on design 6_NoSymmetry in the Project Manager window and then right mouse click and select Copy. a new design called 6_NoSymmetry1 has been created. choose YZ plane. Right mouse click in the modeler > Assign Boundary > Master. If not use Swap Direction.

14 Topic – 2D Boundary Conditions Run Simulation and view results. Slave=Master Master Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 User’s Guide 9.14-24 .9.

Run Simulation and view results. a new design called 7_Matching_Postitive1 has been created. Slave=-Master Master Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 User’s Guide 9.Bm. right click and select Paste. change the design name to 8_Matching_Negative.9.14-25 .14 Topic – 2D Boundary Conditions Create Design8: 8_Matching_Negative Click on design 7_Matching_Postitive in the Project Manager window and then right mouse click and select Copy. Change the Slave boundary Relation to Bs = . Click on the project name Ex_9_14_Basic_BoundaryConditions.

or interfaces between objects. Boundary conditions are important to understand and are fundamental to solution of Maxwell’s equations. Analysis Magnetostatic Field Overlays: H Vector Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 User’s Guide 9. Balloon.14-1 . Symmetry. faces. Ansoft Maxwell Design Environment The following features of the Ansoft Maxwell Design Environment are used to create the models covered in this topic 2D Sheet Modeling User Defined Primitives (UDPs): SRMCore Boolean Operations: Separate Bodies Boundaries/Excitations Current: Stranded Boundaries: Vector Potential. The user will learn how to use Vector Potential. Balloon.9. Master/Slave. Symmetry and Matching Boundary (Master and Slave).14 Topic – 2D Boundary Conditions Assigning Boundary Conditions Boundary Conditions Boundary conditions enable you to control the characteristics of planes. Purpose of the Exercise This exercise introduces various boundary conditions used in Maxwell 2D based on a simple example with coils and steel core.

9.14 Topic – 2D Boundary Conditions Summary of eight designs to be simulated 1_VectorPotential 2_Balloon 4_Symmetry_Odd and 6_NoSymmetry 3_Balloon_ChangeExcitation 5_Symmetry_Even 7_Matching_Positive Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 User’s Guide 8_Matching_Negative 9.14-2 .

click the Microsoft Start button. Select the menu item Tools > Options > Modeler Options. select Programs.14 Topic – 2D Boundary Conditions Getting Started Launching Maxwell To access Maxwell. Click the Drawing tab Edit property of new primitives: Checked 3. Click the OK button Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 User’s Guide 9. Click the OK button 3. and select Ansoft and then Maxwell 12. Click the General Options tab Use Wizards for data entry when creating new boundaries: Checked Duplicate boundaries with geometry: Checked 2. Or double click the icon on the desktop. 3D Modeler Options Window: 1. Select the menu item Tools > Options > Maxwell 2D Options 2. 4.9. verify that the following tool options are set : 1.14-3 . Click the Operation tab Automatically cover closed polylines: Checked 2. Setting Tool Options To set the tool options: Note: In order to follow the steps outlined in this example. Maxwell Options Window: 1.

3. Change the name of the design from “Maxwell2DDesign1” to “1_VectorPotential”. or select the menu item File > New. The intent of this write-up is rather to demonstrate how boundary conditions are implemented. 2. Save the project with name “Ex_9_14_BasicBoundaryCondictions” to your own folder.14-4 .14 Topic – 2D Boundary Conditions Opening a New Project To open a new project: 1. click the on the Standard toolbar. Select the menu item Project > Insert Maxwell 2D Design. or click on the icon. The Geometry Mode should be: Cartesian. Set Model Units Select the menu item Modeler > Units > Select Units: mm (millimeters) Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 User’s Guide 9. or right mouse click on 1_VectorPotential and select Solution Type. XY Creating 2D Model The example that will be used to demonstrate how to assign boundary conditions does not represent any real-world product. Set Solution Type Select the menu item: Maxwell 2D > Solution Type > Magnetostatic. In an Maxwell window.9.

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 User’s Guide 9. Change the Material from vacuum to nickel.9.14 Topic – 2D Boundary Conditions Create Stator and Coils: A User Defined Primitive will be used to create the Stator and Coils Draw > User Defined Primitive > Syslib > Rmxprt > SRMCore Use the values given in the panel below to create the Stator and Coils Click on the object just created in the drawing window and in the panel on the left change its name from SRMCore1 to Stator.14-5 .

The material property for the Stator will be nickel. As was done with the Stator. the result will be a single stator and eight coil cross-sections. materials. Select the menu item Modeler > Boolean > Separate Bodies.14 Topic – 2D Boundary Conditions The stator and coils were created as one entity and they need to be separated. and the material property for the Coils will be copper.14-6 . Coil3 Coil2 Coil4 Coil1 Coil8 Coil5 Stator Coil7 Coil6 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 User’s Guide 9. and color for Coils. Click on the Stator-Coil group so that they are selected 2. 1. The name and color for each object is given below. change the name.9.

14 Topic – 2D Boundary Conditions Assign Current Source to Coils Select all eight coils by holding down the CTRL key and using your mouse or selecting from tree on the left hand side of the GUI Select the menu item Maxwell 2D > Excitations > Assign > Current or right click > Assign Excitations > Current 1. Change the Base Name to Current Change the value to 100 Amps Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 User’s Guide 9. 2.9.14-7 .

14 Topic – 2D Boundary Conditions The project tree now shows eight separate Excitations. each of them is pointing out of the plane (along Z axis): Changing directions of Excitations Right click on Excitations > List …. Current_6 and Current_8. then click on “Properties”. Current_4.14-8 . Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 User’s Guide 9. change direction from Positive to Negative.9. hold down CTRL key and select Current_2.

A separate object needs to be specifically created. Click View > Fit All > All Views. or click the icon from standard toolbar. or CTRL + D. The size of this rectangular region is based on dimensions of the existing objects. To create a rectangular region simply select Draw > Region. Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 User’s Guide 9.14-9 . Change Padding Percentage to 20.9.14 Topic – 2D Boundary Conditions Create the Problem Region One of the main differences between Maxwell V11 and V12 is that a Background Region is not automatically created when a project is started.

14 Topic – 2D Boundary Conditions Create an Analysis Setup Select the menu item Maxwell 2D > Analysis Setup > Add Solution Setup or right click on the Analysis in the project window > Add Solution Setup Select General and verify the setting as follows Select Convergence and verify the setting as follows Set up Boundary Conditions Select the menu item Edit > Select > Edges or right click in the Modeler > Select Edges Select outer edge of the Stator Click on the menu item Maxwell 2D > Boundaries > Assign > Vector Potential … Accpet the default value and OK. Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 User’s Guide 9.9.14-10 .

9. or click on the icon Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 User’s Guide 9.14-11 . or click on the icon The problem won’t solve unless each item has a check mark.14 Topic – 2D Boundary Conditions Save the Project Select the menu item File > Save Check the Validity of the Model Select the menu item Maxwell > Validation Check. Analyze Select the menu item Maxwell 2D > Analyze All.

You can do this while the simulation is running. all information will update automatically after each pass is done.14 Topic – 2D Boundary Conditions Solution Data To view the Solution Data.9.14-12 . Click on the Plot radio button to view a graphical representations of the convergence data. or right click on Setup1 under Analysis > Convergence Here you can view the Profile and the Convergence. select the menu item Maxwell 2D > Results > Solution Data. Note: You don’t have to wait for the solution to be done to do this. Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 User’s Guide 9. Note: The default view for convergence is Table.

14-13 . then right mouse click in the modeler and select Fields > H > H_Vector. Do the same.14 Topic – 2D Boundary Conditions Plot Mesh. or use CTRL + A . or select everything from the history tree window. Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 User’s Guide 9.9. select all objects. and Fields > A > Flux Lines . then right mouse click in the modeler and select Plot Mesh . H-Field Vector and Flux Line Click on the menu item Edit > Select All Visible or Select All.

9.14-14 . then change various settings under Color map / Scale / Marker / Arrow or Plots tabs. which is the result of the current excitation on the left side.14 Topic – 2D Boundary Conditions The following H-field vector plot will appear. you can double click on the legend bar. If the plot is not as nice as you may want to see. Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 User’s Guide 9.

Balloon on all edges of the Region Zero Vector Potential on the outer edge of the Stator Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 User’s Guide 9. Right click in the modeler and select Select Edges. Left mouse click on one of the edges of the Region.9. Right mouse click again. Assign Boundary > Balloon… Run the simulation and compare H Field plot with the previous design that has vector potential boundary. and press “Delete” from keyboard to remove the boundary condition.14 Topic – 2D Boundary Conditions Create Design2: 2_Balloon Click on design 1_VectorPotential in the Project Manager window and then right mouse click and select Copy Click on the project name Ex_9_14_Basic_BoundaryConditions. right click and select Paste.14-15 . then right mouse click and select All Object Edges to select all edges of the Region. a new design called 1_VectorPotential1 has been created. change the design name to 2_Balloon. Click on VectorPotential1 under Boundaries in the Project Manager. to change from object selection mode to edge selection mode.

14-16 . change from Positive to Negative in the Direction row.14 Topic – 2D Boundary Conditions Create Design3: 3_Balloon_ChangeExcitation Click on design 2_Balloon in the Project Manager window and then right mouse click and select Copy Click on the project name Ex_9_14_Basic_BoundaryConditions. a new design called 2_Balloon1 has been created. The purpose is to change the current excitation as shown in the graph below. you will see a Properties window under Project window. right click and select Paste. change the design name to 3_Balloon_ChangeExcitation. Change Current_7 from Positive to Negative Change Current_4 and Current_8 from Negative to Positive. Modify Current Excitation Click on Excitations > Current_3 in the Project window.9. Current_3 Current_2 Current_4 Current_5 Current_1 Current_8 Current_1 Current_2 Current_3 Current_4 Current_5 Positive Negative Negative Positive Positive Negative Negative Positive Current_6 Current_6 Current_7 Current_7 Current_8 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 User’s Guide 9. Also.

14 Topic – 2D Boundary Conditions Run the simulation and compare H Field plot with Design2 2_Balloon that has different excitations.14-17 . Design2: 2_Balloon Design3: 3_Balloon_ChangeExcitation Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 User’s Guide 9.9.

9.14-18 . change –Y Padding Percentage to 0. right click and select Paste. change the design name to 4_Symmetry_Odd. a new design called 2_Balloon1 has been created.14 Topic – 2D Boundary Conditions Symmetry Boundary Create Design4: 4_Symmetry_Odd Click on design 2_Balloon in the Project Manager window and then right mouse click and select Copy Click on the project name Ex_9_14_Basic_BoundaryConditions. Change to Edge selection mode and click on the edge of the Region along X axis. double click on CreateRegion under Vacuum > Region. In the history tree. reassign the Balloon boundary to three edges (not on the symmetry edge). choose XZ plane to create half geometry. Remove the Balloon boundary. right mouse click in the modeler > Assign Boundary > Symmetry. Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 User’s Guide 9. choose Odd (Flux Tangential). Select all objects and right mouse click in the modeler > Boolean > Split.

14-19 .14 Topic – 2D Boundary Conditions Run simulation and view results. Symmetry: Odd (Flux Tangential) Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 User’s Guide 9.9.

Select the Symmetry boundary and change it to Even (Flux Normal). right click and select Paste. a new design called 4_Symmetry_Odd1 has been created. change the design name to 5_Symmetry_Even. Symmetry: Even (Flux Normal) Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 User’s Guide 9. Run simulation and view results.14-20 .9.14 Topic – 2D Boundary Conditions Create Design5: 5_Symmetry_Even Click on design 4_Symmetry_Odd in the Project Manager window and then right mouse click and select Copy Click on the project name Ex_9_14_Basic_BoundaryConditions.

a new design called 4_Symmetry_Odd1 has been created. No Symmetry: by default an Odd (Flux Tangential boundary is assigned) Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 User’s Guide 9.14-21 . change the design name to 6_NoSymmetry. The result should look the same as Design4: 4_Symmetry_Odd because odd symmetry or flux tangential is the default boundary condition.14 Topic – 2D Boundary Conditions Create Design6: 6_NoSymmetry Click on design 4_Symmetry_Odd in the Project Manager window and then right mouse click and select Copy Click on the project name Ex_9_14_Basic_BoundaryConditions. Run simulation and view results. Select the Symmetry boundary and delete it.9. right click and select Paste.

Design2: 2_Balloon Design7: 7_Matching_Positive Design3: 3_Balloon_ChangeExcitation Design8: 8_Matching_Negative Slave=Master Slave= — Master Master Master Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 User’s Guide 9.9.14 Topic – 2D Boundary Conditions Matching Boundaries (Master/Slave).14-22 .

and Relation as Bs = Bm. Change –X Padding Percentage of the Region to be 0. Be sure that the master vector arrow is pointing in the positive X direction. Choose Master1 from the pull down menu. If not use Swap Direction. Click on the project name Ex_9_14_Basic_BoundaryConditions. If not use Swap Direction.14-23 . a new design called 6_NoSymmetry1 has been created. Right mouse click in the modeler > Assign Boundary > Master.14 Topic – 2D Boundary Conditions Matching Boundaries: Master/Slave Create Design7: 7_Matching_Positive Click on design 6_NoSymmetry in the Project Manager window and then right mouse click and select Copy. Be sure that the slave vector arrow is pointing in the positive Y direction. choose YZ plane. Change to Edge selection mode and select the edge of the Region that is along X axis. Select all objects and right mouse click in the modeler > Edit > Boolean > Split. Select the edge of the Region that is along Y axis. Remove the existing Balloon boundary and redefine it on two edges of the Region that are not on X and Y axis.9. Right mouse click in the modeler > Assign Boundary > Slave. right click and select Paste. change the design name to 7_Matching_Positive. Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 User’s Guide 9.

Slave=Master Master Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 User’s Guide 9.9.14 Topic – 2D Boundary Conditions Run Simulation and view results.14-24 .

9.14-25 .14 Topic – 2D Boundary Conditions Create Design8: 8_Matching_Negative Click on design 7_Matching_Postitive in the Project Manager window and then right mouse click and select Copy. Click on the project name Ex_9_14_Basic_BoundaryConditions. right click and select Paste. Slave=-Master Master Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 User’s Guide 9.Bm. Run Simulation and view results. Change the Slave boundary Relation to Bs = . change the design name to 8_Matching_Negative. a new design called 7_Matching_Postitive1 has been created.

The material of PM is NdFeB35 and the magnet is magnetized in the direction 30 degrees relative to the Global X direction.15 Basic Exercise – PM Assignment This exercise will discuss how to set up a permanent magnet (PM) material to an object. XY Problem definition We are interested to solve the magnetic field of a Circular PM placed in vacuum. Start working with Maxwell Start Maxwell V12 If a new project is not open click on Project > New Project > Insert Maxwell 2D Design Maxwell 2D > Solution Type > Magnetic: Magnetostatic. Geometry Mode: Cartesian.15-1 . Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9.Maxwell 2D v12 Permanent Magnets Assignment 9. This procedure is applicable for Magnetostatic and Transient Solvers.

0 Enter DX. Z: 0. Click OK to close the window. of course. 0. Click on the menu item Draw > Circle X.0] and radius of 1 mm) and observe its Orientation.Y.15-2 . DY. 0 Enter Edit > Properties.Maxwell 2D v12 Orientation of objects as one of the attributes 9. Left-clicking on Global allows changing the Orientation to other coordinate system.15 Basic Exercise – PM Assignment Each object in Maxwell is associated with certain coordinate system. Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9. This is called Orientation and it is specified under attributes for each object. The Orientation of this object is Global. provided. Select Attribute Tab Change the name from Circle1 to magnet Before clicking OK see that one of the attributes displayed is Orientation.0. that some other coordinate system exists. DZ: 1. Global Coordinate system exists by default in a newly inserted Maxwell Design. This means that our object magnet is currently associated with the Global coordinate system. 0. Let us create an object (circle with the center in [0.

The visibility and size of Coordinate System axes arrows can be controlled from: View > Coordinate System > Small Create a new Coordinate System (CS) with x-axis rotated 30 degrees relative to x-axis of the Global CS: Modeler > Coordinate System > Create > Relative CS > Rotated On the Status Bar (bottom right) change the CS type from Cartesian to Cylindrical and specify R. make sure that this feature is enabled: Tools > Options > Modeler Options select Display Tab and check Show orientation of selected objects Select the object magnet (left-click on magnet from the history tree).Maxwell 2D v12 9. The Orientation is shown as small arrows starting from the origin. First.15 Basic Exercise – PM Assignment Orientation can also be viewed graphically.15-3 . 30. Expand Coordinate Systems form History Tree and leftclick on Global to make it a Working CS again: Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9. These should not be confused with the Coordinate System axes arrows which are bigger and display x or y next to arrows. Phi. Z: 1. 0 Enter The newly created CS automatically becomes a working CS (small w sign is displayed next to the icon of a Working CS).

Maxwell also allows to specify the type of the Coordinate System (upper right corner – see next page). the unit vector will be specified as X.g. Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9. Object magnet can now be associated with RelativeCS1 coordinate system: Select magnet Edit > Properties Change Orientation from Global to RelativeCS1. the unit vector will be specified as R. Y. Click OK to approve the material definition and to perform the assignment. Thus Cartesian. And. Relative Permeability. This means that if the Orientation of the object is Global and CS type Cartesian.15 Basic Exercise – PM Assignment The Orientation of magnet can now be changed. Cylindrical and Spherical CS type can be defined. If the Orientation of the object is Global.Maxwell 2D v12 9. and Z relative to the Cartesian Global CS. The direction of magnetization is specified by a unit vector (see next page) relative to the Coordinate System associated with the given object. e. Remanent Flux Density.. find NdFeB35 and click on View/Edit Materials A Permanent Magnet (PM) with linear characteristic is uniquely defined by specifying two of the following: Coercive Field. if the Orientation of the object is RelativeCS1 and CS type is Cylindrical. Coercive Field and Relative Permeability are chosen by default to be specified. select Calculate Properties for PM (see next page) and specify the two known quantities. the right direction of magnetization is specified by the appropriate combination of object’s Orientation. OK Select the object magnet again and observe the orientation: Orientation: Global Orientation: RealtiveCS1 Specifying properties of Permanent Magnets Change the material of magnet from Vacuum to NdFeB35: Select magnet Edit > Properties Click on Vacuum to enter the material database. the unit vector will be specified relative to the Global CS. that is relative to the Orientation of the object. The remaining quantity will be determined automatically.15-4 . CS type and Unit Vector. Phi and Z relative to the Cylindrical RelativeCS1 CS. Hence. If any other combination of quantities is know instead.

Maxwell 2D v12 9.15 Basic Exercise – PM Assignment Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9.15-5 .

0 Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9. Z: 1. CS Type: Cartesian. 0. 0. Y. CS Type: Cartesian. Y. CS Type: Cartesian. Unit Vector X. Z: 1.5. Z: 1.Maxwell 2D v12 Examples of PM direction of magnetization assignment Direction of Magnetization in the Global X direction Orientation: Global. Unit Vector X. 0. 0 OR Orientation: RelativeCS1. Y. Unit Vector X. 0 9.15-6 .15 Basic Exercise – PM Assignment Direction of Magnetization in the direction 30 degrees relative to Global X direction Orientation: Global.

Phi.15-7 . CS Type: Cylindrical. CS Type: Cylindrical. Z: 1. Unit Vector R.15 Basic Exercise – PM Assignment Direction of Magnetization in the inward radial direction Orientation: Global. 0. 0 Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9. Z: -1. Phi. Unit Vector R.Maxwell 2D v12 Direction of Magnetization in the outward radial direction Orientation: Global. 0 9. 0.

15-1). as required by the problem definition (see page 9. Padding Percentage of 500% creates a rectangle which extends 5 times the diameter of the circle in each direction.15 Basic Exercise – PM Assignment Before proceeding to define the solution space make sure that the direction of magnetization is 30 degrees relative to Global X direction. -11] and [11.Region 9. As the diameter of the circle is 2 mm and 5 times 2 mm is 10 mm.Maxwell 2D v12 Definition of the Solution Space . The Region can be very conveniently defined using the following command: Draw > Region and specify Padding Percentage 500. the corners of the rectangle will be [-11. FEM requires that a finite solution space is defined prior solving the problem.15-8 . 11]. This solution space in Maxwell is called Region. Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9.

15-9 . OK Maxwell 2D > Analyze All Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9. This situation corresponds to the boundary condition specifying the magnetic vector potential (A) zero on the edges of Region: Select Region and Edit > Select > All Object Edges Maxwell 2D > Boundaries > Assign > Vector Potential and leave the value zero.Maxwell 2D v12 Definition of the Boundary Conditions 9. OK Define Analysis and solve the problem Maxwell 2D > Analysis Setup > Add Solution Setup Accept all default values.15 Basic Exercise – PM Assignment We expect that Region is so large that the magnetic field will not extend beyond Region’s boundary.

Done Double-click on the Legend Select Color Map Tab and specify 40 in the Number of Divisions field. This means that the magnetization of the magnet is correctly assigned This completes the exercise Ansoft Maxwell 2D Field Simulator v12 User’s Guide 9.Maxwell 2D v12 Viewing the results 9. Close Zoom in We can see that the flux lines are really oriented 30 degrees relative to the Global Coordinate System.15-10 .15 Basic Exercise – PM Assignment We will plot the magnetic flux lines throughout the solution space Magnetic flux lines: Select All objects (CTRL A or Edit > Select All) Maxwell 2D > Fields > Fields > A > Flux Lines. Apply.

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