10 Major health disease and treatments information in USA

Index
Numbers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Abdominoplasty surgery Awareness About Anal Fissure Anterior perineal resection Breast Biopsy – The Docturs’ Guide Breast Cancer Cysto-Diathermy – Cystoscopy in Urethra Cystoscopy Electrocardiogram ECG Otoscopy and the external ear treatment Sigmoidoscopy Title Page No. 2 3 5 6 8 9 10 12 13 15

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1. Abdominoplasty surgery, online medical videos
Who would like to have a shapeless body which is overweight with excess fat sagging from the sides? Docturs talks about the medical aid in achieving the perfect, shapely body which is everyone’s dream. Abdominoplasty surgery is the medical aid for people who want to remove excess fat off their body. It may not necessarily be a cosmetic surgery for aesthetic purposes but may also be used to restore weakened or separated muscles by creating a smoother and firmer abdominal profile. Abdominoplasty surgery, or ‘tummy tuck’ as it is better known, may also be employed even when protruded abdomen is sagging and loose due to aging, heredity, pregnancy, prior surgery or major weight fluctuations.

Everybody strives for a well-toned, flat abdomen which may not be achieved by exercise, diet and weight control. But tummy tuck is not the solution or a substitute foe exercise or weight loss program. It should also not be

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employed to fit in any ideal image as it is highly individualized procedure. People with no smoking habits or realistic expectations and who maintain a stable weight are good candidates for this surgery. This operation would be of no use if one is planning for pregnancy or substantial weight loss in the near future. Also it should be known that abdominoplasty cannot remove stretch marks; however, it may be improved id the marks are located on the skin that is excised. Pamela Siddons at Docturs has mentioned that abdominoplasty (tummy tuck) can be utilized when sagging skin alone is the issue or after massive weight loss when the combination of large amounts of skin and shrunken fat cause significant skin droop. She has even mentioned that laws in Florida prevent practitioners combining liposuction of the upper abdomen and simultaneous abdominoplasty because of higher risks. Abdominoplasty surgery can either be partial or fully done. A complete abdominoplasty involves making an incision from hip to pubic area and near the navel to free it from the skin. The excess fat is then removed and remaining fat and skin are tightened and old bellybutton in sutured into the new place. Partial abdominoplasty, on the other hand, includes smaller incision and the surgery is carried out in a relatively limited fashion. There can also be other options like extended and circumferential abdominoplasty and combination procedures. A detailed procedure of abdominoplasty surgery can viewed with online medical videos given on Docturs.com/dd posted with various images and albums by Anita Sprott, for better understanding of the subject. Docturs proves to be the one-stop destination for all medical knowledge, news and updates and medical equipments and journals. It intends to be your wellness guide.

2. Awareness about Anal Fissure
The recent top medical news have anal fissure – either as a cause or a result. Gastroenterologists state that insufficient fiber intake causes constipation which may also result in further symptoms like anal fissures. Other news states that sodomy, which is on rise, causes serious health problems like anal fissures and many more as muscle tearing, cancer and rectal prolapse. With new technologies, many companies are developing late-stage drugs intended to treat conditions like anal fissure. Anal fissure is basically a tear in the lining of the anus from where the body waste is discharged. If the fissure is present for more than six weeks, it is said to be chronic. As the internal anal sphincter goes into a spasm, it causes further tearing and causes pain and weakens the healing process. Also due to excretion of feces, the healing process is slowed down.

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The anal fissure patients may encounter symptoms like bleeding and tearing or ripping sensation and burning sensation while bowel movement. With the development of fissure, the symptoms can be felt frequently and the rectal pain can last for a long time. Bleeding may result into discoloration and upon being chronic; bleeding may stop but itching or irritation of the skin around the anus and pain may persist. The causes of anal fissures may be traumatic bowel movements or explosive diarrhea. It may also happen due to anal intercourse or insertion of foreign objects. It can occur in patients suffering from medical conditions like Crohn's disease. Anal fissure diagnosis includes rectal examination or anoscopy but they can be avoided during initial diagnosis. A sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy is usually recommended, especially if there has been rectal bleeding after healing. The treatment for anal fissure aims for relief from pain and spasm and heal the fissure. The first round of treatment is aimed at softening stools, eliminating constipation, and reducing anal sphincter spasm. If these approaches are not successful, a surgery may be required. There are many options like natural high fiber diet obtained from fruits and vegetables, should be taken for soft and bulk stools. Fiber supplements are also available and very safe but these laxatives have side effects which may include gas and bloating, especially when initiated. Laxatives - Variety of drugs and natural products are available for treating constipation and it is a myth that the bowel movement will be stopped when the laxative is stopped. Sitz bath is also another alternative wherein, the rectal area is immersed in warm water for 10 to 15 minutes. Sitz baths help improve the blood flow and relaxing the internal anal sphincter. Medical aid like topical nitroglycerin may also be used which helps reduce pain and smoothens the healing process by decreasing the pressure in the internal anal sphincter. It also works to dilate blood vessels, increasing blood flow to injured tissues. There are also many other treatment alternatives which may be read in detail online. 5

3. Anterior perineal resection
Abdominal or anterior perineal resection? How would you choose? Docturs.com provides the basis for making this important decision. The what, why and how of perineal resection is elaborated for better medical understanding. Whenever the medical ailment in question is carcinoma of the rectum, better put as rectal cancer, simpler still – bowel cancer, one can choose between the option of anterior perineal resection or abdomino-perineal resection. While the former is used for tumors located in the upper part of rectum, the latter is used for tumors at the lower end of the rectum. The former operation gives a wound similar to colectomy, and abdomino-perineal resection results in permanent colostomy as the rectum and anus are completely removed and it gives an abdominal wound and another wound at the place from where anus has been removed.

The abdomino-perineal resection surgery is such a complicated name because it involves creating a new bowel opening from the wall of the abdomen. This part of the process is known as colostomy. The procedure includes administering anesthesia continuously and making an incision through the skin to the center of the lower abdominal wall. A new opening is created from there to relieve the wastes. Alvin Shapira at Docturs says that rectal cancer neoadjuvant is given before surgery in patients with tumors that extend outside the rectum or have spread to regional lymph nodes to decrease the risk of recurrence following surgery or to allow for less invasive surgical approaches (such as a low anterior resection instead of an abdominoperineal resection). This surgery does not have much scope of alternatives as the patients have very diseased bowels with the presence of pain, bleeding and discharge. Some may have life threatening complications due to blockage in the lower bowel. If only the bowel is removed, one would lose control of their bowels.

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There may be possible complications like nerve damage during surgery to the extent of sexual nerves causing erection problems. There may also be problems due to anesthesia or infection. Smokers with weak immune system are more prone to infections. The period of bed rest following the surgery can also cause blood clots. Other complications may be tissue death surrounding the bowel, skin rash or abscess near colostomy site. The recovery may not be easier physically and also emotionally. Docturs.com is the best website to know more about each medical ailment. Michael Barry at Docturs writes on abdominoplasty and explains the minute details in simple language for a better understanding and better health care. It is made livelier with images and videos and makes an interesting read.

4. Breast Biopsy – The Docturs’ Guide
Do you know that breast cancer is the third most common disease in women worldwide? Are you one of the victims? Do not panic! Docturs tells you how, what, when and why of breast biopsy which is necessary to know about any abnormalities. Elton Taylor at Docturs talks bout the basic definition of biopsy. A biopsy is a medical examination wherein the cells or tissues are sampled and checked microscopically to determine the presence of any disease or abnormality and its growth and spread in the body. A breast biopsy is done for screening of breast cancer and to check for lumps or a suspicious area found while examining the breast or on ultrasound, MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) or mammogram. The sample of the breast tissue will be tested microscopically to see if a breast lump is cancerous (malignant) or non-cancerous (benign). Eckhard Slater at Docturs talks about male breast cancer and its signs like swollen lymph nodes. There are 3 tests for diagnosing male breast cancer and they are biopsy, mammogram and ultrasound.

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The many ways of doing a breast biopsy procedure is through breast needle biopsy, vacuum-assisted core biopsy, stereotactic or open biopsy, fine-needle aspiration biopsy or core needle biopsy. Elton Taylor at Docturs talks about the fine needle aspiration explaining the procedure. It includes inserting a needle into the lump in the skin to collect the sample of the cells. Needle aspiration is done to check whether the lump is filled by fluid like a cyst or a lump. If it is a cyst, it would go away after fluid removal, and if not, further biopsy is done. The core needle biopsy is done to collect the tissue which is the size of almost a pencil lead. This requires a special large needle fitted with a special tip. The stereotactic biopsy is combined with a core needle biopsy to make an incision in the skin. A special type of x-ray is taken to guide the incision. This technique can check a lump which can only be seen by a mammogram and not by breast examination. However, this technique is not apt for all kinds of lumps. Vacuum-assisted core biopsies include vacuum to remove the sample of a breast tissue with a hollow probe. This technique can remove more tissues than the standard method and the incision does not need stitches. An open biopsy includes removing a part or the whole lump by making a cut in the skin. There are also other facts about breast biopsy which online doctors give out in detail in simple terms. Kenneth Haines posts albums and videos about breast biopsy on Docturs.com/dd and also writes about breast biopsy in detail to make it an interesting read. Login to Docturs and make yourself aware and knowledgeable about healthcare.

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5. Breast Cancer
Wondering what could sound more dangerous than breast cancer? Well, breast-wide excision and axillary sample surgery is not as big and dangerous as it sounds. It is also called lumpectomy, which is a breast conserving surgery, or quandrantectomy, wherein quarter of the breast is removed. In cases where the whole breast has to be removed, breast implants is the available option. This is a procedure wherein a cancerous tumor or lump is surgically removed alongwith some surrounding tissues. Only the diseased part is to be removed while the healthy tissues remain. Simultaneously, the glands from the armpit (axilla) are also taken. When all the glands are removed from the axilla, it is called an axillary clearance. The tissues are examined microscopically to check if the lesions in the breast are cancerous and whether cancer has spread to other parts. Based on this information, the future treatment is determined.

The procedure of wide local excision includes the removal of the breast lump with some of the healthy surrounding tissues. These are analyzed and a dearth of tissues may lead to further operation if the disease has extended beyond the tissues already removed. The doctors may also advice the removal of some or all of the lymph glands from the armpit. This whole procedure will be done with one incision in the breast and the other one under the arm. One can watch the detailed video of the services on the internet alongwith its explanation given by the online healthcare services.

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6. Cysto-Diathermy – Cystoscopy in Urethra
Cysto-diathermy is a medical jargon which can be simply put as taking samples from the urethra. The cystodiathermy is arrived upon when the need to check the inner working of the urinary system arises. The kidneys produce urine which is drained through the ureter in the bladder.

It then drains through a fine tube which has an opening into the penis or the vagina. When the initial tests point towards a problem in the urinary system, a special telescope called cystoscope is used to observe, take images or remove samples and the process is known as cystoscopy. The narrow parts 10

can be widened, stones taken out, pieces of the lining taken out, and diseased parts burnt out as needed. This process includes the examination of the patient’s urinary system using different methods like x-rays, biopsies and cystoscopes. Local or general anesthesia may be used but anesthetic jelly applied to the urethra minimizes the discomfort. The patient is in the stirrups and a flexible or rigid cystoscope is passed through the urethra to the bladder to observe the lining, take x-rays and remove some samples. In the end, a catheter is passed in the bladder to drain it. The patient is hospitalized with a catheter in place if there is major blood loss or the problem of uncontrollable urination arises. Generally, extra water intake is done to flush out the bladder after the procedure. Not only the videos of this procedure can be seen, but also the medicines and the surgical equipments and other online healthcare products are available on the internet.

7. Cystoscopy – The Procedure Information
Cystoscopy is done to checks for cysts inside the bladder and urethra using an instrument called cystoscope. It is a thin, lighted instrument which assists in the cystoscopy procedure. Cystoscopy is the endoscopy of the bladder and the urethra. The cystoscopy procedure includes insertion of the instrument in the urethra slowly advancing into the bladder. The cystoscope helps to view such parts of bladder and urethra which cannot be easily visualized by x-rays. The cystoscope also has facilities to handle other surgical instruments which may help in removing samples of tissue or urine. These tiny surgical instruments help in the biopsy of the bladder and urethra. Sometimes, the cystoscopy procedure avoids the need of extensive surgery by removing small growths and small bladder stones during this procedure itself. With the advent of internet revolution, top medical videos are just a click away and one can learn more about this procedure by watching the detailed cystoscopy video online.

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The reason behind carrying out a cystoscopy may be the presence of symptoms like painful urination, painful or inability to pass urine, blood in urine, frequent urination, sudden urgency or hesitancy top urinate or urinary incontinence. Cystoscopy procedure may also be done to find the reasons behind the problems of the urinary tract like infections and their non-response to treatment, blockage in the urethra due to kidney stones, tumors or enlarged prostates. There are some abnormalities which cannot be seen in an x-ray but can be picked up by an ultrasound or intravenous pyelography. It can also be done remove foreign objects or tissue or cell samples for biopsy. One can also place stents or ureteral catheters to help the urine flow from the kidney to the bladder with the help of this procedure.

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A urologist performs the cystoscopy procedure by firstly administering anesthesia to the patient. An IV needle may be inserted in the skin to supply other fluids and medicines directly into the vein. In case of a local anesthetic, the solution or the jelly will be inserted in the urethra. The general anesthetic may be given medically or intravenously or by inhaling gases through a mask. A spinal anesthetic may be injected in the spinal canal. Then a well-lubricated cystoscope is inserted in the bladder through urethra. Other tiny surgical instruments may be used to enlarge the opening in case it is very narrow. Sterile water or saline is injected to create a clear view and medicines may be given to reduce chances of infection. The samples are then collected and sent for lab testing. The risks and complications in a cystoscopy procedure are generally negligible and mostly normal cystoscopy results indicate a healthy bladder.

8. Electrocardiogram ECG - the Heart and its electrical signals
The human heart is like a machine which functions because of electrical signals. It beats and pumps blood into the various parts of the body due to rhythmic contractions and expansions. This pumping activity is stimulated by electrical signals generated by the natural pacemaker, SA node, of the heart. But sometimes, there may be problems in the functioning. The Electrocardiogram (ECG) is the cardiac diagnostic test that helps understand such irregularities in the heart. The procedure is simple and inexpensive. The patient is made to lie down on the examination table and about 10 to 12 electrodes are connected to his limbs – the arms and legs, and the skin on the chest area. The process takes only around 10 minutes and does not cause any pain or harm.

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Now, in a normal condition, the Sinoatrial Node will send out electrical impulses for the contraction of the upper part of the heart which is divided into two auricles. This signal is then passed on to the lower end with two ventricles, which will contract following the auricles. When Electrocardiogram (ECG) machine is connected to the different parts of the body through metal rods, it will record these electrical signals that are generated. The information is recorded in the form of ECG readings called the electrocardiograph. The doctor will examine the “PQRST” curves which is nothing but the wave-like representation of the results. Abnormalities in the crests and troughs of the wave-graph will confirm ailments. The study of the cardiac rhythm is useful to study the anatomy as well as the physiology of the heart. It hence becomes easy to carry out further investigations incase of complications. The ECG readings are useful to understand various aspects such as: - Check rate and rhythm of heart-beats - Understand risk of heart attack and probability - Investigate breathing problems and frequent fatigue - Chest ache - Blood supply to various parts of the body We have only discussed few of the many aspects which can be examined. Palpitations, stress, syncope and other cardiac diseases can also be studied. However, irregular abnormalities can go unnoticed by this technique. In such cases the negatively confirmed test, which indicates no abnormality, can be

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wrong and the patient can be a sufferer of coronary artery disease and other chronic cardiac sickness. Nevertheless, in case of any discomfort or concerns about health one must not hesitate to get diagnostic tests done. There is ample amount of information, medical news, forums, aids etc available to the common man. Living a healthier and more aware life is much easier today and one must make the most of such facilities.

9. Otoscopy and the external ear treatment
The Human ear can be divided into three sections: the outer ear, the middle ear and the inner ear. The auditory canal connects the external pinna to the eardrum in the interior part. This is the region where the listening and bodybalance mechanisms are located. Now, at times people may face discomfort, giddiness or ear pain for unknown reasons. Such ailments are examined by the method of Outoscopy. The test can be performed in case of infection, blockage due to ear-wax, tympanic membrane rupture, or any other form of temporary or permanent hearing imparity. The first check is done for redness or swelling. Outoscopy is the procedure in which the examiner will look into the external ear with the help of an aurioscope, also know as otoscope, and identify the reasons for the pain or discomfort faced by the patient. During the examination, the patient will be asked to position himself in such a way that the ear to be examined is titled upwards. The speculum, which is a slender instrument attached to the anterior end of the aurioscope, is inserted into the ear canal to enable viewing of the affected area. The otoscope has a small air vent which allows the doctor to blow air into the channel and check for balance and pressure. One after the other both the ears are checked.

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The examination is usually painless and takes only about 4 to 6 minutes to perform. The ear may be pulled upward or backwards to straighten the canal but besides that there no other change performed here. However, it is also important to push the device in slowly to avoid disrupting the inner lining of the auditory canal. It becomes extremely important to take precaution in case of infections so as to avoid further damage and pain. Forcing the instrument inside can also cause tearing of the tympanum; however it doesn’t happen often with specialized doctors. Moreover, most wounds are curable. Outoscopy is mainly a diagnostic test but can be used for treatment such as clearance of ear wax, applying medication and other primary treatments. Further more, the latest development in this industry is Video Outoscopy (VO). The instrumentation includes a fiber-optic rod, illumination technique as well as a high definition color camera which can help in the documentation of the observations. New medical products and technology have simplified diagnosis and treatment for patients and this is certainly a medical boon.

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10. Sigmoidoscopy
The latest medical news in the field of Sigmoidoscopy is that of flexible sig being risky, as it is more likely to miss the colorectal tumors than colonoscopy in the elderly people. The risk was substantially higher as was researched at the Digestive Disease Week 2011 in Chicago. Docturs.com researches about sigmoidoscopy and provides information in simpler terms.

Sigmoid colon is a part of the large intestine nearer to the anus and rectum and it is also called the pelvic colon. Hence, sigmoidoscopy is the surgical procedure to visualize the inside of the sigmoid colon and the rectum. The term sigmoidoscopy has its root from the Greek words sigma + eidos + skopein meaning to look inside the s-like object. It is also known as proctosigmoidoscopy or proctoscopy. Sigmoidoscopy is of two types, rigid and flexible and the latter uses a flexible endoscope for examination. Though sigmoidoscopy is similar to colonoscopy, it differs in its area of examination, as it examines only the most distal part of the colon. Flexible sigmoidoscopy may be usually preferred, but according to the latest research, colonoscopy is more beneficial for older adults.

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Sigmoidoscopy is generally performed to diagnose changes in bowel habits, in case of constipation, diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss or mucus, blood or pus in the stool. Stephen Valverde at Docturs has also written that polyps can be removed during a sigmoidoscopy, which may be cancerous colorectal polyps. It may also be used for confirming the results of other tests or for screening for colorectal cancer or a taking a biopsy of abnormal growth. Elton Taylor at Docturs also suggests that sigmoidoscopy is sufficient to support the diagnosis of ulcerative colitis. The sigmoidoscopy procedure involves an instrument called sigmoidoscope which has a small camera attached to it. It is a flexible tube which is inserted through the anus and carbon dioxide is filled in the area for a better view. The air pressure may cause an urge for bowel movements and suction may be used to remove the fluid or stool. Sigmoidoscopy risk is minimal with bleeding at the biopsy site or bowel perforation. The result of this examination shows the normalcy of sigmoid colon, rectum and anus while abnormal results may imply colorectal polyps, anorectal abscess, bowel obstruction or inflammation, anal fissure, cancer, hemorrhoids or diverticulosis. Docturs poses as a platform to share experiences and information on various medical topics. Gunter Bernstein posts albums and images which may help in better understanding of the subject. Docturs intends to empower people to take responsibility of their own health by awareness and knowledge.

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Reference:
For More information visit www.docturs.com 1. Abdominoplasty surgery, online medical videos Ref: http://docturs.com/dd/pg/groups/11183/abdominoplasty/ 2. Awareness about Anal Fissure Ref: http://docturs.com/dd/pg/groups/11174/anal-fissure/ 3. Anterior perineal resection Ref: http://docturs.com/dd/pg/groups/11173/abdominoperineal-resection-of-rectum/ 4.Breast Biopsy – The Docturs’ Guide Ref: http://docturs.com/dd/pg/groups/11280/breast-biopsy/ 5. Breast Cancer Ref: http://docturs.com/dd/pg/groups/11280/breast-biopsy/ 6. Cysto-Diathermy – Cystoscopy in Urethra Ref: http://docturs.com/dd/pg/groups/2452/cystoscopy/ 7. Cystoscopy – The Procedure Information Ref: http://docturs.com/dd/pg/groups/2452/cystoscopy/ 8. Electrocardiogram ECG - the Heart and its electrical signals Ref: http://docturs.com/dd/pg/groups/2469/ecg-electrocardiogram/ 9. Otoscopy and the external ear treatment Ref: http://docturs.com/dd/pg/groups/2512/otoscopy/ 10. Sigmoidoscopy Ref: http://docturs.com/dd/pg/groups/2376/sigmoidoscopy/

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