This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Welcome to Scribd! Start your free trial and access books, documents and more.Find out more

**Solution: C2H6 + O2 + (3.76)N2 CO2 + H2O + (3.76)N2 Balancing the equation: C2H6 + 3.5O2 + 3.5(3.76)N2
**

theoretical AF = 3.5(32) (3.5)(3.76)(28) (2x12) (1x16) kg fuel

2CO2 + 3H2O + 3.5(3.76)N2

theoretical AF = 16.016 kg air

mass of air needed = 16.016(20) mass of air needed = 320.32 kg

Problem 322. A fuel oil is burned with 50 percent excess air, and the combustion characteristics of the fuel oil are similar to C12H26. Determine the volumetric (molal) analysis of CO2 in the product of combustion. Solution: C12H26 + O2 + (3.76)N2 Balancing the equation: C12H26 + (18.5)O2 + (18.5)(3.76)N2 Considering the 50% excess air C12H26 +(1.5)(18.5)O2 + (1.5)(18.5)(3.76)N2 mT = total mass of product mT = 12 + 13 + (1.5)(18.5)(3.76) + (0.5)(18.5) mT = 138.55mol %CO2 = 12/138.55 %CO2 = 0.0866 %CO2 = 8.66% 12CO2 + 13H2O + (1.5)(18.5)(3.76)N2 + (0.5)(18.5)O2 12CO2 + 13H2O + (18.5)(3.76)N2 CO2 + H2O + (3.76)N2

0361/32 = 0.2035/44 = 0.03374359 101.02565714 CO2 = 0.61% H2O = 4.35% O2 = 3.00233333 Total mols of product = 0.006 Kpa partial pressure of H 2O = .004625 + 0. it is desired to have the flue gas exit temperature above the dew point.84% CO2 = 20.325 partial pressure of H 2O = 7.00233333 Total mols of product = 0.03374359 0.20% Solution: Converting the given analysis to volumetric: N2 = 0.042/18 = 0.00112812 + 0.7184/28 = 0.00112812 H2O = 0. In the boiler design.02565714 + 0.004625 O2 = 0.Problem 323. Estimate the dew temperature of the flue gas exit produced by combustion by having the gravimetric analysis of: N2 = 71.007006 Mpa and tsat = 39oC Dew point temperature = 39oC .002333333 From steam table: at 0.

5O2 + (21.76) 1 Theoretical A/F = 102.34(1. Solution: Fuel + Air Combustion Product C14H30 + O2 + 3.5 21.5(3. Calculate the molal air fuel ratio.76N2 21.5)3.69 mol air mol fuel .5)3.34 Theoretical A/F = Actual A/F = 102.76N2 CO2 + H2O + 3.76N2 14 CO2 + 15H2O + (21.76N2 C14H30 + 21.Problem 324. A boiler burns fuel oil with 15% excess air. The fuel oil may be represented by C14H30.15) Actual A / F = 117.

3CO + 3.4)] kg fuel Actual A / F = 17.1)(28.1N212.1/c = 3.5CO2 + 0.1% N2 : 84.5 + 0.36 84.5% CO : 0.1N2 +eH2O O balance: N2 balance: O2-N2 ratio: O2 balance: a = 12.97) 1[12(12.1O2 + 84. Solution: CaHb + cO2 + dN212.1% Determine the actual air-fuel ratio in kg air per kg fuel.36 22.1 + e/2 e = 13.3% O2 : 3.Problem 325.1N2 + 13.1 d/c = 3.36 = 12.36O2 + 84.1O2 + 84.8 d = 84.5 + 0.2) b = 26.5CO2 + 0.8H26.3/2 + 3.4 + 22.4 C12. An unknown fuel has the following Orsat analysis: CO2 : 12.76 c = 22.13414556 kg air .8) 1(26.76 84.3CO + 3.3 a = 12.2H2O Actual A/F = (22.2 b = 2e b = 2(13.

c .Problem 326. × ©£ ¤ ¨ .8278406m / © ( .4722 ×10 -5 m 3 r s ! Vp = 6. A 1. c c §¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¨ rc c - ¡ × ©£ ¤ . CI square engine operates at 3500rpm with a brake torque of 200Nm and a compression ratio of 8.068278406m c §¦ ¦ Vc = 3.068278406m S = 0.2. Determine the following: a) Bore b) Stroke c) Clearance volume d) Average piston speed Given: N=3000rpm T=200Nm rc=8. ¨ )© ª © ©© ¨# ¨" ¦ © © © ¡ ¨ .5L V6.2 Solution: ¡ B = 0.

¨ ¨ ¨ §¦ ¡ ¸ ¹ º .. . × ©£ - ¤ ¨ ¨ ¡ §¦ ¢ ¤ © ¨ ¥ ¦ ¤£ . - ¨¥ .

2471°C»296°C B) ) X X ¨ © ª Xr = 2. An Otto cycle SI engine with a compression ratio of rc = 9.5 º ª T4 = 9 0. Cylinder pressure when the exhaust valve opens is 600kPa.7685% (' ) (' ¨ © ª ¸¨ ¹© ºª ¸ ¹ º ¸¨ ¹© ºª ¸ ¹ º % ¨ 98kPa ¸ Tex = 9 0.39 & & %$ k & 0.Problem 327.3495 ¨ ¸ T4 = 2000 © ¹ 9. and exhaust manifold pressure is 98kPa.5 has a peak cycle temperature and pressure of 2000 and 9000kPa.3495 .3495 .5 T3 = 2000 P3 = 9000 kPa P4 = 600 kPa Pex = 98 kPa Solution: A) ¨ ¸ T4 = T3 © ¹ ª rc º %$ k ¨P ¸ k Tex = T4 © ex ¹ ª P4 º Tex = 296. Calculate: A) Exhaust temperature during exhaust stroke [ÛC] B) Exhaust residual after each cycle [%] Given: rc = 9.43 2 0.43 2 © ¹ ª 600kPa º Tex = 565.

25B.5-liter engine operates on a four-stroke cycle at 3000 RPM. A six-cylinder.5 liter± volume displacement Stroke = 1. .Problem 328.5 33L 9 -1 Vc = 0. 20 cm ± connecting rod length 3000 rpm ± engine speed 9:1 ± compression ratio Solution: a) Clearance volume of one cylinder c c = rc -1 = 0. Calculate: (a) Clearance volume of one cylinder in L (b) Bore and stroke in cm Given: 3. 3. the connecting rod length r= 20 cm.4068cm S = 1.0729L b) Bore and stroke B2 S VD = 4 4VD S= B2 B = 8. The compression ratio is 9:1. S = 10.5085cm C S = 1. and the bore and the stroke are related as S= 1.25 B.

. c 5 .

25B = 4 .1.

5833L x 9 BA @ 9 76 8 76 3 4 = = 0.5 33L 3 3.5L 0 1 0 rc = 1 c 1 1 2 5 1 5 0 1 1m3 100cm 3 x 1000L 1m3 2 B .0.

V6. the volumetric efficiency v =0. The compression ratio rc=9. and the bore and the stroke are related as strokes S=0.96B.Problem 329.5:1.) Stroke length 2 2 = SNc 4 HG = I D S = 3 4 . Calculate: (a) Stroke length (cm) (b) Average piston speed (m/s) (c) Clearance volume of one cylinder (cm3) Solution: (a.86. SI engine operating at 2100 RPM. A pickup truck has a five-liter.

0. 4 .

) Clearance volume of one cylinder 3 .0.9256cm 2100rev 1m Vp = 2SN = x x x rev stroke 60sec 100cm Vp = 6.9479m / s (c. 2 Nc R ( S = 9.) Average piston speed 2stroke 9.9256cm (b.

100cm 1m3 5L x x VD 1000L 1m3 Vc = = 6 .

5 -1 .9.

0392cm 3 H S3 = P S S Q 2 1m3 1000L E ¨ S ¸ © ¹ S ª 0. º 4 HG c HG F D I (100c )3 1m3 .rc -1 Vc = 98.

5 T1 = 29 . k=1. Find the pressure and temperature at the end of adiabatic compression.Problem 330. The compression ratio of an ideal Otto cycle is 9.15 Solution: 1 = 120k a V rc = 1 = 9.5 v 2 k =P V k PV 1 1 2 2 k ¨V ¸ P 2 =© 1¹ ©V ¹ P 1 ª 2º P 2 = .35 Given: rc = 9.5:1. Initial conditions are 120 pa and 25 deg C.

5 1.9.35 120 P = 2506. 332kPa 2 k-1 ¨V ¸ T 2 =© 1¹ ©V ¹ T 1 ª 2º T 2 = .

15 T = 655.5 1.35-1 298.5987K 2 .9.

In an air standard diesel cycle. Determine the thermal efficiency. The maximum cycle temperature is 2025. compression starts at 95kPa and 320 .4 .4-1 T2 9 0.05 6 k-1 Process 2-3.Problem 331. The compression ratio is 16 to 1.3193 T % -1 (1 -1) %) U . Solution: Process 1-2. isentropic process ¨ T2 ¸ ¨ 1 ¸ © ¹ © ¹ ª T1 º ª 2 º T2 320 16 1. isobaric process 2 2 3 3 3 2 3 2 rc 2 2 2 Cycle hermal Efficiency T {11- 1 rc -1 -1 } 1 ( -1) 14 V W t V 1 2 161 4 -1 1 4(2 t = 61.

cmx 3 3 © © . Calculate the average piston speed in m/s. the engine is square and has a displacement of 6. Given: N=5500 rpm Solution: a. A small single cylinder two stroke cycle SI engine operates at 5500 rpm with a volumetric efficiency of 80%.) Average Piston Speed V p = 2SN S=3 4V d X Nv=80 Vd=6.Problem 332.5 cm3.5cm 3 ¨ 1m3 4 © 6.

0202m 00rev x x rev stroke 60sec Vp = 3.100cm ª S= S = 0.0202m Y ¸ ¹ ¹ ¹ º 2stroke 0.7033m / s Vp = 2SN = YY .

257339592 .257339592 1. Given: P1 = 132kPa T1 = 356 rc = 18 T3 = 2210 Solution: Process 1 ± 2: rc ! 1 2 ! 18 1 2 T2 = . The compression ratio is 18:1.35(2.2 7339592 Cycle Thermal Efficiency: t t = 57.1.35 1 ` ¨ T2 ¸ ¨ © ¹=© ª T1 º ª ¸ ¹ º k 1 . Determine the thermal efficiency if k = 1.12046669 % f t = « 1 ¨ 2. In an air standard diesel cycle.0285 0 Process 2 ± 3: 2 T2 F= = 3 T3 V3 T3 2210K = = V2 T2 979.35 .1 ¸ » ¬1. compression starts at 132kPa and 356 .35-1 © ¹ ¼ 100%) ª 1. 2 907K F ! 2.1) º ½ 18 dc rc ba = ¬1¬ e a « 1 ¨ © 1© ª » -1 ¸ ¼ ¹ -1) ¹ ¼ º½ 100% ` T2 = 356 18 1.Problem 333.35. The maximum cycle temperature is 2210 .

25 V2 P1V1k = P2 V2k P2 ¨ V1 ¸ =© ¹ P1 ª V2 º k P2 1.25:1. Given: rc = 8.15 k = 1. Initial conditions are 150kPa and 338. The compression ratio of an ideal Otto cycle is 8.35.35 = .35 Solution: .15 the pressure and temperature at the end of adiabatic compression if k=1.25 P1 = 150kPa T1 = 338.Problem 334. Find Pressure at the end of adiabatic compression: rc = V1 = 8.

025796kPa Temperature at the end of adiabatic compression: T2 ¨ V1 ¸ =© ¹ T1 ª V2 º k 1 T2 1.8.35 1 = .25 150kPa P2 = 2590.

25 338.8.15 T2 = 3 8 3K .

H2O. In this problem we wish to develop the combustion equation and determine the air-fuel ratio for the complete combustion of n-Butane (C4H10) with theoretical air.5)N2 theoretical A / F = theoretical A / F = 15. O2 + 3.76N2 Combustion chamber CO2.5(O2 + 3. Solution: Butane.76N2) a=4 b=5 z = 4+ z = 6.5(4.5 5 2 aCO2 + bH2O + 3. C4H10 Air. N2 C4H10 + z(O2 + 3.76zN2 C4H10 + 6.76)(29) theoretical A / F = 1[(4)(12) +10] 4CO2 + 5H2O + 3. O2.Problem 335.76N2) m air m fuel 6.5 kg air kg fuel .76(6.

5)N2 + (0. O2.2 kg air kg fuel .5)(O2 + 3.76zN2 150% Theoretical air C4H10 + (1. Solution: Butane. In this problem we wish to develop the combustion equation and determine the air-fuel ratio for the complete combustion of n-Butane (C4H10) with 50% excess air.5)(3.5)(6.76)(29) A /F= 1[(4)(12) +10] 4CO2 + 5H2O + (1.76)(6.5)O2 A /F = A / F = 23.Problem 336.76N2) m air m fuel 9. C4H10 Air.76N2) a=4 b=5 z = 4+ z = 6.76N2 Combustion chamber CO2.75(4.5)(6. H2O. O2 + 3.5 5 2 aCO2 + bH2O + 3. N2 C4H10 + z(O2 + 3.

hr q p p .hr © ¹ ª 0.75kW . Given: Density = 950grams/liter QHV = 44 500kJ/kg t= 30% Solution: 0 ¸ ¨ mf = 600 © ¹ ª 1000 º mf = 570k I 570(44500) I = 7.44504hp .609.Problem 337.30 = p p i hg h h r ¸ ¨ I = 7.609. 00kJ © 3600s ¹ ª º ¨ 1hp ¸ I = 2113. A diesel engine consumed 600 liters of fuel having a density of 950 grams/liter and a heating value of 44 500 kJ/kg. how many hp-hrs will be generated. 00kJ 0. If the thermal efficiency is 30%.746kW º IP = 2833.

03125 x 10 -3 k 8.75 k 3600s k -hr mf = 1.450897737x 10 = 0.75k .55 kg/k -hr and a volumetric efficiency of 75% at a speed of 3500 rpm.5 cm Pb = 6.75 kN .41650056 N .m s ¨ 1000 N ¸ T= 2 ¨ 3500rev ¸ © 1 kN ¹ ª º rev © 60s ¹ ª º T = 18.75 k Solution: (a) Fuel flow rate m f = BSFC (Pb ) 0.m v x 0.55 kg 1 hr mf = x (6. The bore is 7cm and the stroke is 8.450897737 x 10 -3 mf ma 1. Calculate: (a) Fuel flow rate (b) Fuel air ratio (c) Brake torque Given: v = 75% N = 3500 rpm BSFC = 0.Problem 338 A single cylinder four-stroke cycle spark-ignition engine has a BSFC of 0.5cm and the brake power output s 6.181 k ¸« .03125 x 10 -3 / (b) Fuel air ratio: = m an V N t u s air 2 ma = 8.75 = c cle ¨ 1.1220284557 -3 f a x x y F = F = y s k s (c) Brake torque: PB = 2 TN 6.55 kg/k -hr B = 7 cm S = 8.

0.07 m © ¹ ª m3 º ¬ 4 ¨ .

085 m » © ¼ w m a 2 re v .0.

r ) r 3500 re ¸ ¹ ½ ª 60 sec º .

A S. Calorific value of fuel is 44000 kJ/kg. engine uses a fuel-air mixture consisting of 1 part fuel and 12.236363636 kg P 5.) hr sfc = f = b P 5.) kg 12.3 part air by mass.) P = b tb mf Qhv Pb 0.Problem 339.5 k b m 1 kg = 0.45 = kg ¨ 1hr ¸¨ kJ ¸ ¹ 1 © ¹© 44000 © kg ¹ hr ª 3600 s ºª º P = 5.5k kW hr b .I. Find: (a) brake output for a fuel consumption of 1 kg/Hr (b) brake specific fuel consumption (c) air consumption/k Hr Solution: a.3 m air = hr = 2.1818181818 kg kW hr c. The brake thermal efficiency of the engine is 45%.5kW b b.

7 amps.5liter ± total volume displacement 1250rpm ± engine speed 220 volt and 48. hen the engine is running at 1250 rpm.7%. two stroke cycle SI engine is mounted on an electrical generator dynamometer. Calculate: (a) Power output of the engine in k and hp (b) Engine torque (N-m) (c) hat is engine bmep? (kPa) Given: 3.generator efficiency Solution: a. four cylinder.Problem 340.7 amps ± generator dynamometer output 89. The generator has an efficiency of 89. output from the 220 volt DC generator is 48.7% .) Power output of the engine Pg = VI Pg = . A 3.5-liter.

220V .

48.5L x © ¹ 1000L º ª bmep = 163.7A Pg = 10.897 Pengine = = Pengine = 11.2474146Nm c.) Engine torque P = 2 TN 11944.8069756kPa .94425864kW»16.0912474146kNm) ¨ 1m3 ¸ 3.714kW Pg ng 10.714kW .01751192hp b.25864 ¨ 1250rev ¸ =2 T© ¹ ª 60sec º T = 91.) Bmep 2 T mep = Vd mep = 2 (0.

- On Writing
- The Shell Collector
- I Am Having So Much Fun Here Without You
- The Rosie Project
- The Blazing World
- Hyperbole and a Half
- Quiet Dell
- After Visiting Friends
- Missing
- Birds in Fall
- The Great Bridge
- Who Owns the Future?
- The Wife
- On Looking
- Catch-22
- A Farewell to Arms
- Goat Song
- Birth of the Cool
- Girl Reading
- Galveston
- Telex from Cuba
- Rin Tin Tin
- The White Tiger
- The Serialist
- No One Belongs Here More Than You
- Love Today
- Sail of Stone
- All My Puny Sorrows
- Fourth of July Creek
- The Walls Around Us

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd