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Enchiridion

1
CHAPTER 1

In which we learn the Greek alphabet and read Greek.


GREEK ALPHABET



A o A o A o A o otoo otoo otoo otoo alpha-- pronounce ah o o1 p o o1 p o o1 p o o1 p
B B B B 1o 1o 1o 1o beta-- b iopooi o iopooi o iopooi o iopooi o
! ! ! ! ouuo ouuo ouuo ouuo gamma--g pooixo c pooixo c pooixo c pooixo c
A o A o A o A o oet1o oet1o oet1o oet1o delta-- d oio pouuo oio pouuo oio pouuo oio pouuo
E e E e E e E e e witov e witov e witov e witov epsilon-- eh e ri pouuo e ri pouuo e ri pouuo e ri pouuo
Z C Z C Z C Z C C1o C1o C1o C1o zeta-- z Cu v Cu v Cu v Cu v
H H H H 1o 1o 1o 1o eta-- pronounce ay Ooc Ooc Ooc Ooc
O O O O O O O O O1o O1o O1o O1o theta-- th Oe o1pov Oe o1pov Oe o1pov Oe o1pov
! i ! i ! i ! i iu1o iu1o iu1o iu1o iota--pronounce ee i oioc i oioc i oioc i oioc
K x K x K x K x xorro xorro xorro xorro kappa-- k xpi oic xpi oic xpi oic xpi oic
A t A t A t A t touoo touoo touoo touoo lambda-- l to oc to oc to oc to oc
M u M u M u M u ut ut ut ut mu-- m ue1ooopo ue1ooopo ue1ooopo ue1ooopo
N v N v N v N v vt vt vt vt nu-- n ve x1op ve x1op ve x1op ve x1op
E c E c E c E c ci ci ci ci xsi-- x e coooc e coooc e coooc e coooc
O o O o O o O o o uixpov o uixpov o uixpov o uixpov omicron-- oh o vouo1oroii o o vouo1oroii o o vouo1oroii o o vouo1oroii o
H r H r H r H r ri ri ri ri pi-- p repi ue1pov repi ue1pov repi ue1pov repi ue1pov
P p P p P p P p pu pu pu pu rho-- rh p ivo xepuc p ivo xepuc p ivo xepuc p ivo xepuc
Z o, c Z o, c Z o, c Z o, c oiuo oiuo oiuo oiuo sigma-- s ot uue1poc ot uue1poc ot uue1poc ot uue1poc
T 1 T 1 T 1 T 1 1ot 1ot 1ot 1ot tau-- t 1ox1ixo c 1ox1ixo c 1ox1ixo c 1ox1ixo c
Y t Y t Y t Y t t witov t witov t witov t witov upsilon-- u t rvoc t rvoc t rvoc t rvoc
4 o 4 o 4 o 4 o 4 44 4i ii i phi-- f oitooooi o oitooooi o oitooooi o oitooooi o
X ) X ) X ) X ) X XX Xi ii i chi-- ch--pronounce k )opo c, )opox1 p )opo c, )opox1 p )opo c, )opox1 p )opo c, )opox1 p
S w S w S w S w wi wi wi wi psi-- ps wet ooc wet ooc wet ooc wet ooc
D u D u D u D u o o o o ueo ueo ueo ueo omega-- o--pronounce
like o-cean
u xeovo c, u o u xeovo c, u o u xeovo c, u o u xeovo c, u o

Enchiridion
2
Besides differences in alphabet, there are a few other strange things that
get added to Greek words. Words that begin with vowels, (,,,,,) ,,,,,) ,,,,,) ,,,,,) need a
stroke before them to let you know if the word begins with a rough breathing (h
sound) or a smooth breathing (just the vowel sound alone.) Compare the sounds
in English of the words history--rough-- and honor--smooth. In Greek the
breathings look like o , e , i , o , t , u , p o , e , i , o , t , u , p o , e , i , o , t , u , p o , e , i , o , t , u , p for the rough sound; and o , e , i , o , t , u o , e , i , o , t , u o , e , i , o , t , u o , e , i , o , t , u
for the smooth sound.

Vowels are added (or sometimes lengthened) for past tenses of verbs.
These vowels are mainly smooth (no h is pronounced.)

Accents are added to Greek words for a variety of reasons that will be
explained when necessary. Their use can sometimes be helpful, at other times
puzzling. Use accents to help you pronounce Greek words.

Punctuation is a little different.

. is still a period for the end of a sentence
; in Greek is a question mark.
in Greek (a period above the line) is a semicolon in English.
, in Greek is the same as English

Using the chart on page one, you can read the Greek words that are listed
in the last column on the right of the chart. (Say them out loud and your job will
be easier.)

Sometimes capital letters cause no end of problems. Usually these words
are names.

Using your chart read the names below. (Some are Greek, some are
modern.)


Aro ttuv, Ate covopoc, A)ittet c, H poxtc, Au 1p, HopOevu v, E x1up, Aro ttuv, Ate covopoc, A)ittet c, H poxtc, Au 1p, HopOevu v, E x1up, Aro ttuv, Ate covopoc, A)ittet c, H poxtc, Au 1p, HopOevu v, E x1up, Aro ttuv, Ate covopoc, A)ittet c, H poxtc, Au 1p, HopOevu v, E x1up,
Ee pcc, Ne o1up, Po voto Ee pcc, Ne o1up, Po voto Ee pcc, Ne o1up, Po voto Ee pcc, Ne o1up, Po voto P ov P ov P ov P ov, Oe ooup , Oe ooup , Oe ooup , Oe ooup Poo oeet1, D xeovo c, Hpi ouoc, Poo oeet1, D xeovo c, Hpi ouoc, Poo oeet1, D xeovo c, Hpi ouoc, Poo oeet1, D xeovo c, Hpi ouoc,
!iov1ixo c !iov1ixo c !iov1ixo c !iov1ixo c


Enchiridion
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Some colleges have fraternities that use Greek letters for their names.

, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Can you tell the names in English?

Some of the first calculations were done by Greeks. The Pythagorean
theorem might be hard for you today, but it was invented over 2000 years ago by
Pythagoras. ( (( (HtOoo poc HtOoo poc HtOoo poc HtOoo poc) )) ). Some Greek letters are used as symbols in math and
science. Here are just a few:

, , , , , , , , , , , , omega block (why is this weather term named this way?)

Can you tell the names in English?

Some Greek words come into English without changing their spelling. Try
to do these without looking at the alphabet chart. (The underlined letters drop
out in English.)


opo uo, oo uo, xt ooc, oi rottoi , o 1ou opo uo, oo uo, xt ooc, oi rottoi , o 1ou opo uo, oo uo, xt ooc, oi rottoi , o 1ou opo uo, oo uo, xt ooc, oi rottoi , o 1ouoc oc oc oc, e te oov1 , e te oov1 , e te oov1 , e te oov1oc oc oc oc, ooi uuv, ooivo uevov, , ooi uuv, ooivo uevov, , ooi uuv, ooivo uevov, , ooi uuv, ooivo uevov,
xpi1 pio, u1po rotic, toix xpi1 pio, u1po rotic, toix xpi1 pio, u1po rotic, toix xpi1 pio, u1po rotic, toixo c o c o c o c, o piOu1ix , o piOu1ix , o piOu1ix , o piOu1ixo c o c o c o c, i rroro 1ouoc, p ooo o , i rroro 1ouoc, p ooo o , i rroro 1ouoc, p ooo o , i rroro 1ouoc, p ooo oevopov, evopov, evopov, evopov,
uovi o, roti1ixo c, xo1oo1poo uovi o, roti1ixo c, xo1oo1poo uovi o, roti1ixo c, xo1oo1poo uovi o, roti1ixo c, xo1oo1poo


Can you say and/or write these words in English? If you can, you already
know a lot of Greek words.




All fields: literature, science, medicine, English, arts, social studies have
words that come from Greek. Sometimes spelling is changed, sometimes not.
Once you know some words with their meanings in English you will increase
your English vocabulary tremendously. For example: the Greek word to oc to oc to oc to oc
gives the English suffix -logy which in English means the study of. This
leads to the etymology section of the chapter.

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ETYMOLOGY

In each chapter we will ask you to learn one Greek root that gives a lot of
English words. Try to write as many words as you can in English that come from
the Greek root.

Since weve already mentioned to oc to oc to oc to oc, --logy the study of, use that root
as your first assignment.

TRANSLATION HELP

In each chapter we will ask you to learn two Greek words to use in
translating into English. They will be common words, but most of the time they
will have unusual or irregular forms. Knowing these two words will help you to
translate without looking constantly in the dictionary.

1. e o1i e o1i e o1i e o1i () () () () is (The v vv v is used at the end of a clause or when
the next word starts with a vowel.)

2. ei oi ei oi ei oi ei oi () () () () are (Same reasons.)

MYTHOLOGY

In each chapter we will tell a little about mythology. Then we will show you
a similar selection in Greek.

Homer is the most famous Greek epic poet. He is the author of the Iliad
which tells the story of Troy, Greek and Trojan heroes and the gods. There are
several names for the Greeks in the Iliad. They are called Achaeans, Danaans,
and Argives. Achilles is a Greek hero; Hector is a Trojan hero. Zeus is a god;
Hera is a goddess.


O O O O upoc roi1 c e o1iv. ! tio c e o1iv i o1opi o. e v 1 ! tio oi upoc roi1 c e o1iv. ! tio c e o1iv i o1opi o. e v 1 ! tio oi upoc roi1 c e o1iv. ! tio c e o1iv i o1opi o. e v 1 ! tio oi upoc roi1 c e o1iv. ! tio c e o1iv i o1opi o. e v 1 ! tio oi
e o1i e o1i e o1i e o1i v o ro teuoc 1u v A )oiu v xoi v o ro teuoc 1u v A )oiu v xoi v o ro teuoc 1u v A )oiu v xoi v o ro teuoc 1u v A )oiu v xoi 1u v Tpuixu v. oi A )oioi ei oiv 1u v Tpuixu v. oi A )oioi ei oiv 1u v Tpuixu v. oi A )oioi ei oiv 1u v Tpuixu v. oi A )oioi ei oiv
oi Aovooi oi Aovooi oi Aovooi oi Aovooi xoi xoi xoi xoi oi A oi A oi A oi A pei oi. A )ittet c e o1iv puc A )oio c. pei oi. A )ittet c e o1iv puc A )oio c. pei oi. A )ittet c e o1iv puc A )oio c. pei oi. A )ittet c e o1iv puc A )oio c. E E E E x1up x1up x1up x1up
e o1i e o1i e o1i e o1i Tpuixo c. Zet Tpuixo c. Zet Tpuixo c. Zet Tpuixo c. Zet c Oeo c e o1iv. H po Oeo e o1iv. oi Oeoi c Oeo c e o1iv. H po Oeo e o1iv. oi Oeoi c Oeo c e o1iv. H po Oeo e o1iv. oi Oeoi c Oeo c e o1iv. H po Oeo e o1iv. oi Oeoi xoi xoi xoi xoi oi oi oi oi
o vOpuroi ei oiv e v 1 ! tio oi. o vOpuroi ei oiv e v 1 ! tio oi. o vOpuroi ei oiv e v 1 ! tio oi. o vOpuroi ei oiv e v 1 ! tio oi.
Enchiridion
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CHAPTER 2

In which we learn how to use a Greek dictionary.

Using a chart with the Greek alphabet if necessary, look up the following
Greek words in a dictionary or glossary:

1. wt) wt) wt) wt) 6. o veipoc o veipoc o veipoc o veipoc 11. t ro t ro t ro t ro 16. Cu ov Cu ov Cu ov Cu ov
2. e voc e voc e voc e voc 7. tv tv tv tv 12. e v e v e v e v 17. rvet uo rvet uo rvet uo rvet uo
3. o v p o v p o v p o v p 8. )o pic )o pic )o pic )o pic 13. o ori c o ori c o ori c o ori c 18. Oeo c Oeo c Oeo c Oeo c
4. o vOpuroc o vOpuroc o vOpuroc o vOpuroc 9. ttxt c ttxt c ttxt c ttxt c 14. cepo cepo cepo cepo c cc c 19. oo pt oo pt oo pt oo pt
5. ro1ouo c ro1ouo c ro1ouo c ro1ouo c 10. ue oc ue oc ue oc ue oc 15. oi toc oi toc oi toc oi toc 20. i oc i oc i oc i oc


Write the English meaning for words 1-20. Try to do the work without
looking at the alphabet chart; time yourself to see how long it takes you to do 10
with the chart and 10 without the chart.


Greek words change their spellings for various reasons. If you already
know Latin, you have heard of case, number and gender for nouns and
adjectives. In that case, skip over most of the next section. If, however, you have
escaped this knowledge, or didnt really understand it--no problem! Just keep
reading.



CASE means an ending on a noun or adjective that shows how it is used or
where it goes in a sentence. For example:
NOMINATIVE means the noun or adjective is used as a subject -- say it first
in an English sentence. This is the form that you find when you look up a Greek
noun or adjective in a dictionary.
GENITIVE means possession -- use s or use the word of in front of
the noun or adjective or after a Greek preposition that is used with the gen.(itive).
DATIVE means indirect object -- use to or for or after a Greek
preposition that is used with the dat.(ive).
ACCUSATIVE means direct object--use after the verb or after a Greek
preposition that is used with the acc.(usative).





Enchiridion
6




NUMBER is quite simple. The most common are singular (one) and plural
(more than one). Greek also has something called the dual--its used for two but
dont worry about it right now.






GENDER exists in most languages other than English. In Romance
languages (French, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian) there are masculine
(m., masc.) and feminine (f., fem.) words. In German there is also neuter (n.,
neut.). Latin and Greek also have three genders for nouns and adjectives. There
is a really good reason why certain words are in certain genders, but we have to
save something for the classical philologists to teach, so in the meantime, notice
the gender when you look up a noun in the dictionary.





If you dont happen to remember the gender of a noun when you see it on
the page, very often there is a word to tell you the gender as well as the number
and case of the word youre looking at.


This is where you will find the next chart. It is for the definite article in
Greek. Definite article is a fancy word for the. Youve seen it in French le, la,
les, in Spanish el, la, los, las just to name a few. In Greek you may see it with
a noun and/or an adjective carrying an ending on it that you dont know. But the
article can tell you the gender, number and case of the noun and help to point out
words that go together (modifiers) but might not have the same endings.
Enchiridion
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DEFINITE ARTICLE

MASCULINE FEMININE NEUTER SINGULAR
o o o o 1o 1o 1o 1o NOM.
1ot 1ot 1ot 1ot 1 c 1 c 1 c 1 c 1ot 1ot 1ot 1ot GEN.
1u 1u 1u 1u 1 1 1 1 1u 1u 1u 1u DAT.
1o v 1o v 1o v 1o v 1 v 1 v 1 v 1 v 1o 1o 1o 1o ACC.
PLURAL
oi oi oi oi oi oi oi oi 1o 1o 1o 1o NOM.
1u v 1u v 1u v 1u v 1u v 1u v 1u v 1u v 1u v 1u v 1u v 1u v GEN.
1oi c 1oi c 1oi c 1oi c 1oi c 1oi c 1oi c 1oi c 1oi c 1oi c 1oi c 1oi c DAT.
1ot c 1ot c 1ot c 1ot c 1o c 1o c 1o c 1o c 1o 1o 1o 1o ACC.

Look up the following words in the dictionary or glossary and write the
article that goes with each noun. If the article is already there, write whether the
word is masculine, feminine or neuter. REMEMBER: dictionary forms of nouns
are in the nominative case.



1. _____ro tic 1. _____ro tic 1. _____ro tic 1. _____ro tic 6. _____eupo c 6. _____eupo c 6. _____eupo c 6. _____eupo c 11. _____ro teuoc 11. _____ro teuoc 11. _____ro teuoc 11. _____ro teuoc
2. _____wt) 2. _____wt) 2. _____wt) 2. _____wt) 1. _____1po oc 1. _____1po oc 1. _____1po oc 1. _____1po oc 12. _____ou pov 12. _____ou pov 12. _____ou pov 12. _____ou pov
3. _____)p uo 3. _____)p uo 3. _____)p uo 3. _____)p uo 8. _____iti ov 8. _____iti ov 8. _____iti ov 8. _____iti ov 13. 13. 13. 13. _____Oeo _____Oeo _____Oeo _____Oeo
4. _____ro1 p 4. _____ro1 p 4. _____ro1 p 4. _____ro1 p 9. _____o oetoo c 9. _____o oetoo c 9. _____o oetoo c 9. _____o oetoo c 14. _____ 14. _____ 14. _____ 14. _____
5. _____u 1p 5. _____u 1p 5. _____u 1p 5. _____u 1p 1O. _____o vouo 1O. _____o vouo 1O. _____o vouo 1O. _____o vouo 15. _____i rroc 15. _____i rroc 15. _____i rroc 15. _____i rroc



Now try something a little more difficult. This time you will see nouns with
articles. Translate into English using a word (subject) or an English preposition
(to, for, of) to show that you know the CASE of the word.

1. 1u v ro teuv 1. 1u v ro teuv 1. 1u v ro teuv 1. 1u v ro teuv 1. oi o oetooi 1. oi o oetooi 1. oi o oetooi 1. oi o oetooi
2. 1o 2. 1o 2. 1o 2. 1o )p uo1o )p uo1o )p uo1o )p uo1o 8. 1ot ro1po c 8. 1ot ro1po c 8. 1ot ro1po c 8. 1ot ro1po c
3. 1 3. 1 3. 1 3. 1 9. 1oi c o oetooi c 9. 1oi c o oetooi c 9. 1oi c o oetooi c 9. 1oi c o oetooi c
4. oi Oeoi 4. oi Oeoi 4. oi Oeoi 4. oi Oeoi 1O. 1 c wt) c 1O. 1 c wt) c 1O. 1 c wt) c 1O. 1 c wt) c
5. 1ot rote uot 5. 1ot rote uot 5. 1ot rote uot 5. 1ot rote uot 11. 11. 11. 11. 1o 1o 1o 1o c Oeo c c Oeo c c Oeo c c Oeo c
6. 1o 6. 1o 6. 1o 6. 1o iti o iti o iti o iti o 12. 1ot 12. 1ot 12. 1ot 12. 1ot c o oetoot c c o oetoot c c o oetoot c c o oetoot c



Enchiridion
8
ETYMOLOGY


The Greek verb po oeiv po oeiv po oeiv po oeiv to write gives the root graph in English. Find
as many English words as you can with this root.


TRANSLATION HELP

ot , ot x, ot ) ot , ot x, ot ) ot , ot x, ot ) ot , ot x, ot ) not (before a verb)

e v e v e v e v in



MYTHOLOGY

In the Iliad of Homer there are repeated phrases used to describe people
and things. These are called Homeric epithets. Some are easier to find
because they contain a name of a hero with a phrase or an adjective. See if you
can find the meaning of these Greek epithets.

1. et xv uioec A )oioi 1. et xv uioec A )oioi 1. et xv uioec A )oioi 1. et xv uioec A )oioi
2. tetxu tevoc H po 2. tetxu tevoc H po 2. tetxu tevoc H po 2. tetxu tevoc H po
3. rooo 3. rooo 3. rooo 3. rooo c u xt c u xt c u xt c u xt c A )ittet c c A )ittet c c A )ittet c c A )ittet c
4. ueo Otuoi A )oioi 4. ueo Otuoi A )oioi 4. ueo Otuoi A )oioi 4. ueo Otuoi A )oioi
5. rott u1ic O otooet c 5. rott u1ic O otooet c 5. rott u1ic O otooet c 5. rott u1ic O otooet c
6. p ooooo x1ttoc u c 6. p ooooo x1ttoc u c 6. p ooooo x1ttoc u c 6. p ooooo x1ttoc u c
1. Ai oc e pxoc A )oiu v 1. Ai oc e pxoc A )oiu v 1. Ai oc e pxoc A )oiu v 1. Ai oc e pxoc A )oiu v
8. oi o 8. oi o 8. oi o 8. oi oc O otooet c c O otooet c c O otooet c c O otooet c
9. ou ric H po 9. ou ric H po 9. ou ric H po 9. ou ric H po
1O. Zet c et pt oro 1O. Zet c et pt oro 1O. Zet c et pt oro 1O. Zet c et pt oro
Enchiridion
9
CHAPTER 3

In which we learn a few things about verbs in Greek.

There is some good news and some bad news about verbs in Greek. The
bad news is that there are more than 300 different forms for most verbs; the
good news is that you will not see most of them (right away, that is.)

Here comes another section that you can skip, if youve already learned
this in Latin or in another language or maybe even in English.



If you are still reading, here we go. Verbs have different forms depending
on person (who is talking), tense (when the action takes place), voice (active--
subject is doing something; passive--subject is getting something done to it;
middle--Greeks way of showing reflexives, among other things) and mood
(indicative--normal actions; imperative--commands to others; subjunctive--for
things that may or may not happen; optative--Greek mood for sentences similar
to subjunctive.) The only new mood not in Latin is the optative; you will
probably see it more than the subjunctive, but its easier to recognize.



That is quite a bit to remember, but we will do one thing at a time.

Lets start with who is talking. Since the stories that we will begin to read
will not have quotes in them, verb endings that go with I, you, we will not be
seen immediately. The only time to worry about those endings is if you see
quotation marks that show you that someone is talking, or if you look up a verb in
the dictionary or glossary, (normally verbs will be listed as they are in Latin with
the first form being the I form of the verb in the present.).

Enchiridion
10

Normally you will see verb endings in singular ( that refer to he, she, it
pronouns or nouns--singular subjects); or plural verb endings (that refer to they--
plural pronoun or noun subjects.)


Take a look at the chart below: it has a lot of information on it. For right
now look only at the active endings for s/he, it and they (see arrows).

VERBS

VERB ENDINGS

Active Middle/Passive Subject
() () () () () () () () () () () () I
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) you
() () () ()
he, she, it
we
you (pl.)
() () () () () () () ()
they


You can see that for singular subjects the endings are: ( ( ( () ; ) ; ) ; ) ; for
plural subjects the endings are () (). () (). () (). () (). The reason that the is in
parentheses is that it is used if the verb is the last word in the sentence (this
happens frequently). It is also used if the next word after the verb starts with a
vowel because the makes the pronunciation sound smoother, (like an elephant
in English rather than a elephant.)

Sometimes these endings may have accents on them, sometimes not; but
by just referring to these endings, you can tell whether a Greek verb is singular or
plural. Since every Greek sentence you see will have a verb, you can then tell
what to look for as a subject (a singular or plural noun.)

In the next exercise your only assignment is to tell whether the Greek verb
is singular or plural. There will be different tenses listed, but dont worry about
them right now. Just decide if the verbs are singular or plural. You can look
back at the chart; but see if you can do the exercise without looking.
Enchiridion
11

1. po oei 1. po oei 1. po oei 1. po oei 6. 1iuo 6. 1iuo 6. 1iuo 6. 1iuo 11. e o 11. e o 11. e o 11. e oooov ooov ooov ooov
2. e rivov 2. e rivov 2. e rivov 2. e rivov 1. 1iOe ooi 1. 1iOe ooi 1. 1iOe ooi 1. 1iOe ooi 12. oov 12. oov 12. oov 12. oov
3. po wotoi 3. po wotoi 3. po wotoi 3. po wotoi 8. e Oxe 8. e Oxe 8. e Oxe 8. e Oxe 13. ei oi 13. ei oi 13. ei oi 13. ei oi
4. e roi oete 4. e roi oete 4. e roi oete 4. e roi oete 9. e o1 9. e o1 9. e o1 9. e o1 14. e oooov 14. e oooov 14. e oooov 14. e oooov
5. oitot oi 5. oitot oi 5. oitot oi 5. oitot oi 1O. oi oe 1O. oi oe 1O. oi oe 1O. oi oe 15. tOov 15. tOov 15. tOov 15. tOov



We will come back to these verbs again to show you more about them, but
now you can pick a verb out in a Greek sentence and tell whether the subject is
one or more than one. Put that together with articles that you know and you can
tell the parts of a sentence, even if you dont know the meaning of the words.
Use what you know about dictionary work to look up the meanings of nouns and
verbs.

In the next section we will see short sentences. Try to see if you can find
the meanings of the words in the glossary; try to translate the sentences into
English.

Write down the Greek words that you need to look up. If you cant do the
entire sentence, do as much as you can and leave a blank space next to the
words you cant find. Be sure to ask about these Greek words in class. (In this
exercise the verbs are all in the present tense.)

1. 1. 1. 1. oi Oeoi oi Oeoi oi Oeoi oi Oeoi 1ot 1ot 1ot 1ot c c c c o vOpu rotc oitot oiv. o vOpu rotc oitot oiv. o vOpu rotc oitot oiv. o vOpu rotc oitot oiv.
2. 2. 2. 2. 1o 1o 1o 1o 1u v Oeu v ou uo1o ot x e o1i po1o . 1u v Oeu v ou uo1o ot x e o1i po1o . 1u v Oeu v ou uo1o ot x e o1i po1o . 1u v Oeu v ou uo1o ot x e o1i po1o .
3. 3. 3. 3. oi o oOoi oi o oOoi oi o oOoi oi o oOoi o vOpuroi 1o o vOpuroi 1o o vOpuroi 1o o vOpuroi 1o c Oeo c Oeo c Oeo c Oeo c 1iuu oiv. c 1iuu oiv. c 1iuu oiv. c 1iuu oiv.
4. 4. 4. 4. oi Oeoi oi Oeoi oi Oeoi oi Oeoi ot x ei oiv e ri ot x ei oiv e ri ot x ei oiv e ri ot x ei oiv e ri 1 c c. 1 c c. 1 c c. 1 c c.
5. 5. 5. 5. oi tvoi xec xoi oi tvoi xec xoi oi tvoi xec xoi oi tvoi xec xoi oi o vopec ei oi oi o vopec ei oi oi o vopec ei oi oi o vopec ei oi v e ri v e ri v e ri v e ri 1 c c. 1 c c. 1 c c. 1 c c.
6. 6. 6. 6. oi 1u v o vOpu ruv wt)oi ot x ei oi po1o oi 1u v o vOpu ruv wt)oi ot x ei oi po1o oi 1u v o vOpu ruv wt)oi ot x ei oi po1o oi 1u v o vOpu ruv wt)oi ot x ei oi po1oi . i . i . i .
1. 1. 1. 1. A )ittet A )ittet A )ittet A )ittet c puc A )oio c e o1iv, E x1up o vOpuro c e o1iv c puc A )oio c e o1iv, E x1up o vOpuro c e o1iv c puc A )oio c e o1iv, E x1up o vOpuro c e o1iv c puc A )oio c e o1iv, E x1up o vOpuro c e o1iv-- -- -- -- o tto o tto o tto o tto Zet Zet Zet Zet c Oeo c c Oeo c c Oeo c c Oeo c
e o1iv. e o1iv. e o1iv. e o1iv.
8. 8. 8. 8. Zet Zet Zet Zet c o 1u v Oeu v ro1 p e o1iv. c o 1u v Oeu v ro1 p e o1iv. c o 1u v Oeu v ro1 p e o1iv. c o 1u v Oeu v ro1 p e o1iv.
9. 9. 9. 9. E te v tv e o1iv, o tt H po Oeo e o1iv. E te v tv e o1iv, o tt H po Oeo e o1iv. E te v tv e o1iv, o tt H po Oeo e o1iv. E te v tv e o1iv, o tt H po Oeo e o1iv.
1O. 1O. 1O. 1O. 1o 1o 1o 1o xte oc O u pot ue o e o1i v. xte oc O u pot ue o e o1i v. xte oc O u pot ue o e o1i v. xte oc O u pot ue o e o1i v.
Enchiridion
12

ETYMOLOGY

rott rott rott rott in Greek is poly in English. It means many. Write a list of English
words with this root.



TRANSLATION HELP

o tto o tto o tto o tto but
ei ei ei ei if



MYTHOLOGY

In the Iliad Homer describes people, gods and things. The gods are
immortal; they can be hurt, but they cannot die. They live on Mount Olympus,
where they can watch men on earth. Gods eat only ambrosia and drink nectar.
Men make sacrifices to the gods, but the men eat the meat. If men do not make
sacrifices to the gods, the gods are not pleased.



e ee e v 1 ! tio oi, Ou poc repi v 1 ! tio oi, Ou poc repi v 1 ! tio oi, Ou poc repi v 1 ! tio oi, Ou poc repi 1u v Oeu v xoi 1u v Oeu v xoi 1u v Oeu v xoi 1u v Oeu v xoi 1u v o vOpu ruv 1u v o vOpu ruv 1u v o vOpu ruv 1u v o vOpu ruv
po oei. ! tio po oei. ! tio po oei. ! tio po oei. ! tio c i o1opi o 1ot rote uot 1u v A )oiu v xoi c i o1opi o 1ot rote uot 1u v A )oiu v xoi c i o1opi o 1ot rote uot 1u v A )oiu v xoi c i o1opi o 1ot rote uot 1u v A )oiu v xoi 1u v Tpuu v 1u v Tpuu v 1u v Tpuu v 1u v Tpuu v
e o1i v. e o1i v. e o1i v. e o1i v.
oi Oeoi oi Oeoi oi Oeoi oi Oeoi ot x ei oiv rotto xic e v 1u rote uu. oi Oeoi ot x ei oiv rotto xic e v 1u rote uu. oi Oeoi ot x ei oiv rotto xic e v 1u rote uu. oi Oeoi ot x ei oiv rotto xic e v 1u rote uu. oi Oeoi e v 1u e v 1u e v 1u e v 1u
ot povu ei oi v. oi o vOpuroi e ot povu ei oi v. oi o vOpuroi e ot povu ei oi v. oi o vOpuroi e ot povu ei oi v. oi o vOpuroi e v 1u rote uu e ri v 1u rote uu e ri v 1u rote uu e ri v 1u rote uu e ri 1 c c ei oi v. 1 c c ei oi v. 1 c c ei oi v. 1 c c ei oi v.
oi Oeoi oi Oeoi oi Oeoi oi Oeoi xpe oc ot x e oOi otoiv, o tt oi o vOpuroi xpe oc xpe oc ot x e oOi otoiv, o tt oi o vOpuroi xpe oc xpe oc ot x e oOi otoiv, o tt oi o vOpuroi xpe oc xpe oc ot x e oOi otoiv, o tt oi o vOpuroi xpe oc
e oOi otoiv. oi o vOpuroi 1oi c Oeoi c Ot otoiv. ei oi o vOpuroi 1oi c e oOi otoiv. oi o vOpuroi 1oi c Oeoi c Ot otoiv. ei oi o vOpuroi 1oi c e oOi otoiv. oi o vOpuroi 1oi c Oeoi c Ot otoiv. ei oi o vOpuroi 1oi c e oOi otoiv. oi o vOpuroi 1oi c Oeoi c Ot otoiv. ei oi o vOpuroi 1oi c
Oeoi c ot Ot otoiv, oi Oeoi Oeoi c ot Ot otoiv, oi Oeoi Oeoi c ot Ot otoiv, oi Oeoi Oeoi c ot Ot otoiv, oi Oeoi 1ot 1ot 1ot 1ot c o vOpu rotc ot oitot o c o vOpu rotc ot oitot o c o vOpu rotc ot oitot o c o vOpu rotc ot oitot oiv. iv. iv. iv.

Enchiridion
13
CHAPTER 4

In which we learn about problems in looking up noun and adjective
meanings in the dictionary.


If every noun and adjective had an article with it in Greek, it would be easy
to tell the case, number and gender of every noun and adjective. If every noun
and adjective had a regular form in the singular and plural, nouns and adjectives
would always be easy to find. Unfortunately, neither of these statements is true
all the time.

Just as Latin has different declensions (different sets of endings for
different nouns and adjectives) so does Greek. We are not going to ask you
which declension words are in, but we are going to ask you to look at another
chart. This chart will tell you the different possibilities for different noun and
adjective endings in Greek. Dont worry about the amount of possibilities; you
will be able to refer to the chart until you get used to the endings that you see a
lot.

We are not putting accents on these endings because accents change from
noun to noun--the endings remain the same.


NOUN, ADJECTIVE, PARTICIPLE ENDINGS

Masc. nouns Fem. nouns Neut. nouns Masc. part. Fem. part. Neut.
part.
Case
(, , , ) (, , , ) (, , , ) (, , , ) , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

, , , , , , , ,

, , , , , , , ,
, , , ,
Nom. Sing.
, (), , (), , (), , (),
(), (), (), (), () () () ()
(,,,) (,,,) (,,,) (,,,) , (), , (), , (), , (),
(), () (), () (), () (), ()
, , , , , , , , , , , ,

Gen. Sing.
o, , u, i o, , u, i o, , u, i o, , u, i o, , u, i, ei o, , u, i, ei o, , u, i, ei o, , u, i, ei u, i u, i u, i u, i , , , , , , , , , , , ,
Dative Sing.


(,,,,), (,,,,), (,,,,), (,,,,),
, , , , , , , ,
(,,,,), (,,,,), (,,,,), (,,,,),
, , , , , , , ,
, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,
, , , ,
Acc. Sing.
, , , , , , , ,
(,,) (,,) (,,) (,,)
, , , , , , , ,
(,,) (,,) (,,) (,,)
, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,
Nom. Pl
, , , , , , , , , , , ,

Gen. Pl.
, , , , , () , () , () , () , , () , , () , , () , , () , () , () , () , () () () () () () () () ()
Dative Pl.
, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,
Acc. Pl.




As you can see, there are a lot of possibilities! Where do you start?
Enchiridion
14


If the noun has an article with it, most of the time you can tell if it is
masculine, feminine or neuter. Then you will know which of the columns of
endings to look in.


If the noun has nothing to tell you about it, try looking it up anyway.


If you see a word with a similar spelling, you will know the nominative
singular because that is the dictionary form. Sometimes the dictionary will give
you two forms (the nominative and the genitive). Look at those endings in the
dictionary. Check with your chart to see which column the noun will fit into.


Sometimes, if youre lucky, the dictionary will tell you whether the noun is
masculine, feminine or neuter. That will also tell you which column of the chart
to look into.




If you cannot find the noun because its spelling has changed too much
from its dictionary form, dont give up! Write it down on a list of words to ask
about in class.




Some nouns do not occur frequently and your time can be spent more
efficiently by passing them over. If the same word keeps appearing, however,
that means you probably should learn it, unless you want to keep writing it down.
Enchiridion
15

Look up the nouns below in your glossary or dictionary. Some have
articles, some do not. Some appear in the same form as in the dictionary, some
have forms that are similar. There may be some words that you cannot find at all.

Write the dictionary form (nominative only) of the noun, the dictionary
meaning, the gender (masculine, feminine, neuter) and the English for the form
you started with.

For example:

wt) c wt) c wt) c wt) c wt) wt) wt) wt) soul feminine of the soul


GREEK WORD NOM. SING. IN ENGLISH GENDER ENG. FORM
1. 1ot 1. 1ot 1. 1ot 1. 1ot c ro ooc c ro ooc c ro ooc c ro ooc
2. 1 c vi xc 2. 1 c vi xc 2. 1 c vi xc 2. 1 c vi xc
3. 1u roioi 3. 1u roioi 3. 1u roioi 3. 1u roioi
4. 1ot ro1ouot 4. 1ot ro1ouot 4. 1ot ro1ouot 4. 1ot ro1ouot
5. 1oi c tvoici 5. 1oi c tvoici 5. 1oi c tvoici 5. 1oi c tvoici
6. 1o 6. 1o 6. 1o 6. 1o v tiov v tiov v tiov v tiov
1. 1u v i rruv 1. 1u v i rruv 1. 1u v i rruv 1. 1u v i rruv
8. 1 c oi xc 8. 1 c oi xc 8. 1 c oi xc 8. 1 c oi xc
9. 1u v 9. 1u v 9. 1u v 9. 1u v oox1t tuv oox1t tuv oox1t tuv oox1t tuv
1O. oo ot 1O. oo ot 1O. oo ot 1O. oo ot
11. xeoot v 11. xeoot v 11. xeoot v 11. xeoot v
12. 1oi c to oic 12. 1oi c to oic 12. 1oi c to oic 12. 1oi c to oic
13. 1o 13. 1o 13. 1o 13. 1o iti o iti o iti o iti o
14. 1o 14. 1o 14. 1o 14. 1o v ti o v v ti o v v ti o v v ti o v
15. 1 u1pi 15. 1 u1pi 15. 1 u1pi 15. 1 u1pi
16. 1o 16. 1o 16. 1o 16. 1o v ro1e po v ro1e po v ro1e po v ro1e po
11. 1u v oe vopuv 11. 1u v oe vopuv 11. 1u v oe vopuv 11. 1u v oe vopuv
18. oi oi toi 18. oi oi toi 18. oi oi toi 18. oi oi toi
19. 1o 19. 1o 19. 1o 19. 1o c Ot poc c Ot poc c Ot poc c Ot poc
2O. ropo 2O. ropo 2O. ropo 2O. ropo 1oi c 1oi c 1oi c 1oi c
Ot poic Ot poic Ot poic Ot poic


Enchiridion
16

ETYMOLOGY

t ro t ro t ro t ro in Greek means under. In English the root becomes hypo. Write a
list of words in English with this root.


TRANSLATION HELP

xoi xoi xoi xoi and
rotto xic rotto xic rotto xic rotto xic often


MYTHOLOGY

The Iliad is a story of war. In this war the Greeks and their allies fight
against the Trojans at Troy. In wars men and animals are wounded. Wounds in
the head can kill men and their horses. Women did not fight in the Trojan war.
They stayed behind the gates of Troy and watched from the walls. Often mothers
saw their sons fight and die. Many husbands, fathers and sons died in the Trojan
war.



! tio ! tio ! tio ! tio c i o1opi o 1ot rote uot e o1i v. e v 1u rote uu oi A )oioi c i o1opi o 1ot rote uot e o1i v. e v 1u rote uu oi A )oioi c i o1opi o 1ot rote uot e o1i v. e v 1u rote uu oi A )oioi c i o1opi o 1ot rote uot e o1i v. e v 1u rote uu oi A )oioi
e ri e ri e ri e ri 1ot 1ot 1ot 1ot c Tpuixot c Tpuixot c Tpuixot c Tpuixot c roteui Cotoiv. e v 1u rote uu oi o vOpuroi c roteui Cotoiv. e v 1u rote uu oi o vOpuroi c roteui Cotoiv. e v 1u rote uu oi o vOpuroi c roteui Cotoiv. e v 1u rote uu oi o vOpuroi
rotto rotto rotto rotto 1pot uo1o e )otoiv 1pot uo1o e )otoiv 1pot uo1o e )otoiv 1pot uo1o e )otoiv. rotto xic 1o . rotto xic 1o . rotto xic 1o . rotto xic 1o 1u v o vOpu ruv 1pot uo1o 1u v o vOpu ruv 1pot uo1o 1u v o vOpu ruv 1pot uo1o 1u v o vOpu ruv 1pot uo1o
e ri e ri e ri e ri 1 xeoot e o1i v. 1o 1 xeoot e o1i v. 1o 1 xeoot e o1i v. 1o 1 xeoot e o1i v. 1o 1u v i rruv 1pot uo1o e ri 1u v i rruv 1pot uo1o e ri 1u v i rruv 1pot uo1o e ri 1u v i rruv 1pot uo1o e ri 1oi c rotoi 1oi c rotoi 1oi c rotoi 1oi c rotoi
e o1iv. oi tvoi xec 1ot e o1iv. oi tvoi xec 1ot e o1iv. oi tvoi xec 1ot e o1iv. oi tvoi xec 1ot c o vopoc e v 1u rote uu o pu oiv. oi c o vopoc e v 1u rote uu o pu oiv. oi c o vopoc e v 1u rote uu o pu oiv. oi c o vopoc e v 1u rote uu o pu oiv. oi
u1e pec xoi u1e pec xoi u1e pec xoi u1e pec xoi oi Oto1e pec ei ou 1u v 1ot ro teuc Otpu v ue oi Oto1e pec ei ou 1u v 1ot ro teuc Otpu v ue oi Oto1e pec ei ou 1u v 1ot ro teuc Otpu v ue oi Oto1e pec ei ou 1u v 1ot ro teuc Otpu v ue votoiv. oi votoiv. oi votoiv. oi votoiv. oi
ro1e pec xoi ro1e pec xoi ro1e pec xoi ro1e pec xoi oi ti ei c rotto xic e v 1u rote uu o roOv oxotoiv. oi ti ei c rotto xic e v 1u rote uu o roOv oxotoiv. oi ti ei c rotto xic e v 1u rote uu o roOv oxotoiv. oi ti ei c rotto xic e v 1u rote uu o roOv oxotoiv.
e ri e ri e ri e ri 1ot 1e totc 1ot rote uot e v Tpoi , oi A )oioi 1ot 1e totc 1ot rote uot e v Tpoi , oi A )oioi 1ot 1e totc 1ot rote uot e v Tpoi , oi A )oioi 1ot 1e totc 1ot rote uot e v Tpoi , oi A )oioi 1 1 1 1 v vi xv e )otoiv. v vi xv e )otoiv. v vi xv e )otoiv. v vi xv e )otoiv.
oi Tpuixoi oi Tpuixoi oi Tpuixoi oi Tpuixoi o roOv oxotoiv oi Tpuixoi ei oi oot toi 1oi c A )oioi c o roOv oxotoiv oi Tpuixoi ei oi oot toi 1oi c A )oioi c o roOv oxotoiv oi Tpuixoi ei oi oot toi 1oi c A )oioi c o roOv oxotoiv oi Tpuixoi ei oi oot toi 1oi c A )oioi c
oi uixpoi oi uixpoi oi uixpoi oi uixpoi ti ei c 1u v Tpuixu v o roOv oxotoiv, e reio ti ei c 1u v Tpuixu v o roOv oxotoiv, e reio ti ei c 1u v Tpuixu v o roOv oxotoiv, e reio ti ei c 1u v Tpuixu v o roOv oxotoiv, e reio vi x 1oi c vi x 1oi c vi x 1oi c vi x 1oi c
A )oioi c e o1i v. A )oioi c e o1i v. A )oioi c e o1i v. A )oioi c e o1i v.
Enchiridion
17
CHAPTER 5

In which we learn about common spelling changes in nouns and verbs,
and how to look up noun and verb forms in the dictionary.

Look at the chart below and you will see what happens to nouns or verbs
that have sigma ( ) added to them.


+ + + +





In the words below, write the Greek for what the noun or verb would look
like if it had a sigma ( ) added to the final consonant. See if you can find the
meaning for the Greek word. Be careful with the verbs--do not change the verb
ending, even if it has a consonant in it. The nouns have the endings underlined.
Drop the ending before you make the spelling change.



1. 1. 1. 1. 1ot o ori o 1ot o ori o 1ot o ori o 1ot o ori ooc oc oc oc
2. 2. 2. 2. po oei po oei po oei po oei
3. 3. 3. 3. 1ot vtx1 1ot vtx1 1ot vtx1 1ot vtx1o c o c o c o c
4. 4. 4. 4. re urei re urei re urei re urei
5. 5. 5. 5. 1 c ote 1 c ote 1 c ote 1 c oteo c o c o c o c
6. 6. 6. 6. 1pe ootoi 1pe ootoi 1pe ootoi 1pe ootoi
1. 1. 1. 1. oei ou oei ou oei ou oei ou
8. 8. 8. 8. 1e prei 1e prei 1e prei 1e prei
9. 9. 9. 9. 1ot ot tox 1ot ot tox 1ot ot tox 1ot ot toxoc oc oc oc
1O. 1O. 1O. 1O. 1ot roio 1ot roio 1ot roio 1ot roioo c o c o c o c
11. 11. 11. 11. to r1u to r1u to r1u to r1u
12. 12. 12. 12. rei Ou rei Ou rei Ou rei Ou
13. 13. 13. 13. xte r1ei xte r1ei xte r1ei xte r1ei
14. 14. 14. 14. 1ot x ptx 1ot x ptx 1ot x ptx 1ot x ptxoc oc oc oc
15. 15. 15. 15. ooxei ooxei ooxei ooxei
16. 16. 16. 16. oet otoi oet otoi oet otoi oet otoi
11. 11. 11. 11. te ru te ru te ru te ru
18. 18. 18. 18. tt oei tt oei tt oei tt oei
19. 19. 19. 19. Oo r1u Oo r1u Oo r1u Oo r1u
2O. o1e potoi 2O. o1e potoi 2O. o1e potoi 2O. o1e potoi

Enchiridion
18


Now lets try it the other way. In the following list of words, you will
see words that have had the sigma ( ) added to them. Write what you think
the form would be without the sigma. There may be more than one
possibility. Check with the dictionary to see which possibility is the
correct one. See if you can find a meaning for the Greek word. Be careful
with the verbs--do not change the verb ending, even if it has a consonant in
it.

1. 1. 1. 1. o o voc o o voc o o voc o o voc
2. 2. 2. 2. xte wotoi xte wotoi xte wotoi xte wotoi
3. 3. 3. 3. te wu te wu te wu te wu
4. 4. 4. 4. 1e pwotoi 1e pwotoi 1e pwotoi 1e pwotoi
5. 5. 5. 5. re uwei re uwei re uwei re uwei
6. 6. 6. 6. po wu po wu po wu po wu
1. 1. 1. 1. to wotoi to wotoi to wotoi to wotoi
8. 8. 8. 8. oo cei oo cei oo cei oo cei
9. 9. 9. 9. xte wu xte wu xte wu xte wu
1O. 1O. 1O. 1O. oei oei oei oei oei oei oei oei
11. 11. 11. 11. Oo wotoi Oo wotoi Oo wotoi Oo wotoi
12. 12. 12. 12. tt we tt we tt we tt wei ii i
13. 13. 13. 13. 1e pwei 1e pwei 1e pwei 1e pwei
14. 14. 14. 14. p i wei p i wei p i wei p i wei
15. 15. 15. 15. xpt wotoi xpt wotoi xpt wotoi xpt wotoi
16. 16. 16. 16. oiu cei oiu cei oiu cei oiu cei
11. 11. 11. 11. to wei to wei to wei to wei
18. 18. 18. 18. te cei te cei te cei te cei
19. 19. 19. 19. to uwei to uwei to uwei to uwei
2O. p i wotoi 2O. p i wotoi 2O. p i wotoi 2O. p i wotoi


This exercise may have seemed a little strange but it will prepare you for
finding words that may seem complicated. When verbs get different endings,
different spellings, they are sometimes hard to recognize.

That will be the basic material for Chapter 6.




ETYMOLOGY

In Greek the word ot 1o c ot 1o c ot 1o c ot 1o c means self, or same. Write as many English
words as you can that have auto in them.

Enchiridion
19
TRANSLATION HELP

- -- -1epoc, 1epoc, 1epoc, 1epoc, - -- -1e p, 1e p, 1e p, 1e p, - -- -1epov 1epov 1epov 1epov when added on the end of an
adjective means -er or more

- -- -1o1oc, 1o1oc, 1o1oc, 1o1oc,- -- -1o 1, 1o 1, 1o 1, 1o 1, - -- -1o1ov 1o1ov 1o1ov 1o1ov when added on the end of an
adjective means -est or most



MYTHOLOGY

The Olympian gods are also in the Iliad. They watch the war from Mount
Olympus. Zeus is the most powerful of the gods, but Zeus controls only the
heavens and the earth. Poseidon is Zeus brother. He controls the seas. Hera is
the most powerful goddess. She is the sister and the wife of Zeus. She does not
control the earth, but sometimes she controls her husband Zeus. Zeus is often
just, but sometimes he is unjust because of Hera.
In the Iliad Hera is hostile to the Trojans. She loves the Greeks, especially
Achilles. Apollo is the son of Zeus. He loves the Trojans, especially Hector.
Sometimes during the war between the Greeks and the Trojans, the gods also
quarrel with each other.




oi Oeoi oi Oeoi oi Oeoi oi Oeoi e v 1 ! tio oi xoi ei oiv. oi Oeoi e v 1 ! tio oi xoi ei oiv. oi Oeoi e v 1 ! tio oi xoi ei oiv. oi Oeoi e v 1 ! tio oi xoi ei oiv. oi Oeoi 1o 1o 1o 1o c uo )oc 1ot c uo )oc 1ot c uo )oc 1ot c uo )oc 1ot
rote uot e x O tt urot o pu oiv. Zet rote uot e x O tt urot o pu oiv. Zet rote uot e x O tt urot o pu oiv. Zet rote uot e x O tt urot o pu oiv. Zet c xpo 1io1oc 1u v Oeu v c xpo 1io1oc 1u v Oeu v c xpo 1io1oc 1u v Oeu v c xpo 1io1oc 1u v Oeu v e o1i v. e o1i v. e o1i v. e o1i v.
Zet Zet Zet Zet c ue c ue c ue c ue v 1ot v 1ot v 1ot v 1ot c ot povot c ot povot c ot povot c ot povot c xoi c xoi c xoi c xoi 1 1 1 1 v v xpo1ei , o tto v v xpo1ei , o tto v v xpo1ei , o tto v v xpo1ei , o tto oe oe oe oe 1o 1o 1o 1o c c c c
Ooto oooc ot xpo1ei . Hooeiou v, o o oetoo Ooto oooc ot xpo1ei . Hooeiou v, o o oetoo Ooto oooc ot xpo1ei . Hooeiou v, o o oetoo Ooto oooc ot xpo1ei . Hooeiou v, o o oetoo c Aio c, 1o c Aio c, 1o c Aio c, 1o c Aio c, 1o c Ooto oooc c Ooto oooc c Ooto oooc c Ooto oooc
xpo1ei . H po e o1i xpo1ei . H po e o1i xpo1ei . H po e o1i xpo1ei . H po e o1i xpo1i o1 Oeo . o oeto xpo1i o1 Oeo . o oeto xpo1i o1 Oeo . o oeto xpo1i o1 Oeo . o oeto xoi xoi xoi xoi tv tv tv tv Aio c e o1iv. 1 Aio c e o1iv. 1 Aio c e o1iv. 1 Aio c e o1iv. 1 v v v v
v ot xpo1ei , o tto v ot xpo1ei , o tto v ot xpo1ei , o tto v ot xpo1ei , o tto 1o 1o 1o 1o v ro oiv rotto xic xpo1ei . Zet v ro oiv rotto xic xpo1ei . Zet v ro oiv rotto xic xpo1ei . Zet v ro oiv rotto xic xpo1ei . Zet c rotto xic c rotto xic c rotto xic c rotto xic
oi xoio c e o1iv, o tto oi xoio c e o1iv, o tto oi xoio c e o1iv, o tto oi xoio c e o1iv, o tto rotto xic H poc e vexo oi xoio rotto xic H poc e vexo oi xoio rotto xic H poc e vexo oi xoio rotto xic H poc e vexo oi xoio c ot x e o1i v. e v c ot x e o1i v. e v c ot x e o1i v. e v c ot x e o1i v. e v
1 ! tio oi, H po e )Op 1 ! tio oi, H po e )Op 1 ! tio oi, H po e )Op 1 ! tio oi, H po e )Op 1oi c Tpuixoi c e o1i v. 1ot 1oi c Tpuixoi c e o1i v. 1ot 1oi c Tpuixoi c e o1i v. 1ot 1oi c Tpuixoi c e o1i v. 1ot c A )oiot c A )oiot c A )oiot c A )oiot c oitei , c oitei , c oitei , c oitei ,
uo tio1o A )itte o. A ro ttuv o ti o uo tio1o A )itte o. A ro ttuv o ti o uo tio1o A )itte o. A ro ttuv o ti o uo tio1o A )itte o. A ro ttuv o ti o c Aio c c Aio c c Aio c c Aio c e o1iv. 1ot e o1iv. 1ot e o1iv. 1ot e o1iv. 1ot c Tpuixot c Tpuixot c Tpuixot c Tpuixot c c c c
oitei , uo tio1o E x1opo. rotto xic e v 1u rote uu ue1oCt oitei , uo tio1o E x1opo. rotto xic e v 1u rote uu ue1oCt oitei , uo tio1o E x1opo. rotto xic e v 1u rote uu ue1oCt oitei , uo tio1o E x1opo. rotto xic e v 1u rote uu ue1oCt 1u v 1u v 1u v 1u v
A )oiu v xoi A )oiu v xoi A )oiu v xoi A )oiu v xoi 1u v Tpuixu v, oi Oeoi 1u v Tpuixu v, oi Oeoi 1u v Tpuixu v, oi Oeoi 1u v Tpuixu v, oi Oeoi e pi Cotoi rpo e pi Cotoi rpo e pi Cotoi rpo e pi Cotoi rpo c o tt totc. c o tt totc. c o tt totc. c o tt totc.
Enchiridion
20
CHAPTER 6

In which we learn how to translate a lot of different verb tenses (mostly of
regular verbs).



For some tenses, a sigma ( ) is added in the middle of the verb, before the
endings.

For some tenses, a vowel is added before the verb. This is called an
augment, and happens in some past tenses. If the verb starts with a consonant
in the present, the vowel added is epsilon ( ).

If a verb already starts with a vowel in the present tense, the augment is
added to the vowel. This will usually change the vowel into either eta ( ) or
omega ( ).

If the verb begins with a prefix like e ri, o e ri, o e ri, o e ri, o vo, e x, vo, e x, vo, e x, vo, e x, the augment is added
after the prefix.

If a verb is in the perfect tense, there is reduplication of the first consonant
of the verb form and a kappa ( ) is added before the verb ending. In the next
chart, you see the kinds of letters or syllables that get added to roots of Greek
verbs.



The most common tense in Greek is the aorist. It is a simple past tense
that usually talks about actions that happened once. It is a bit tricky because not
all of the forms are regular. Its something like common verbs in English. They
dont always add -ed to make the past tense. Think of some examples in
English for irregular past tenses--like go, went, gone. You will not be surprised
to find irregular verbs in the aorist in Greek, because English also has many
irregular past tense forms. In fact, these are not called irregular aorist forms,
they are called SECOND AORIST forms, because they are so frequent.

Enchiridion
21

In the chart below second aorist is not mentioned because it will have its own
chart.




VERB TENSE INDICATORS

-- -- = future (will)
-- -- = future passive (will be)
augment + present stem of verb = imperfect (was, were)
augment + verb +-- -- = aorist **(no -- -- in 2nd aorist) (past tense)
augment + verb + -- -- = aorist passive (past tense)
reduplication + verb + -- -- = perfect (have, has)
augment + reduplication + verb + -- -- = pluperfect (had)




TRANSLATE THE FOLLOWING VERBS INTO ENGLISH.


1. po oei 1. po oei 1. po oei 1. po oei 6. te ttxov 6. te ttxov 6. te ttxov 6. te ttxov 11. re uwotoi 11. re uwotoi 11. re uwotoi 11. re uwotoi 16. e )otoi 16. e )otoi 16. e )otoi 16. e )otoi
2. po wei 2. po wei 2. po wei 2. po wei 1. te otoi 1. te otoi 1. te otoi 1. te otoi 12. roioet ei 12. roioet ei 12. roioet ei 12. roioet ei 11. e 11. e 11. e 11. e reure reure reure reure
3. e powov 3. e powov 3. e powov 3. e powov 8. e tte 8. e tte 8. e tte 8. e tte 13. e roi oete 13. e roi oete 13. e roi oete 13. e roi oete 18. re urotoi 18. re urotoi 18. re urotoi 18. re urotoi
4. e pooe 4. e pooe 4. e pooe 4. e pooe 9. te cotoi 9. te cotoi 9. te cotoi 9. te cotoi 14. e roi oetoov 14. e roi oetoov 14. e roi oetoov 14. e roi oetoov 19. e reuwov 19. e reuwov 19. e reuwov 19. e reuwov
5. roioet ootoi 5. roioet ootoi 5. roioet ootoi 5. roioet ootoi 1O. e ttoov 1O. e ttoov 1O. e ttoov 1O. e ttoov 15. reroi otxe 15. reroi otxe 15. reroi otxe 15. reroi otxe 2O. re uwei 2O. re uwei 2O. re uwei 2O. re uwei


Now that you have tried your hand at identifying various tenses we will
show you a chart of the most common second aorist forms. You do not need to
memorize them; some, however, are so frequent that you will find yourself
knowing them. For now, whenever you cant find the meaning of a past tense
verb, take a look at this chart so that you will know the dictionary (present tense)
form of the verb you are looking for.
Enchiridion
22

Here is the chart that Dr. Desmond always used with his classes; we pass
it along to you because it will help you tremendously with verbs that are difficult
to find. The first form is the aorist (it is the same form for the subjects I and
they); the second form is the present for I (dictionary form of the verb).


DR. DESMONDS TOP 40 SECOND AORISTS



1. e otov 1. e otov 1. e otov 1. e otov o ttu o ttu o ttu o ttu 21. oov 21. oov 21. oov 21. oov o u o u o u o u
2. 2. 2. 2. e otov e otov e otov e otov oet u oet u oet u oet u 22. ei tov 22. ei tov 22. ei tov 22. ei tov oi pe u oi pe u oi pe u oi pe u
3. e tirov 3. e tirov 3. e tirov 3. e tirov tei ru tei ru tei ru tei ru 23. tOov 23. tOov 23. tOov 23. tOov e p)ouoi e p)ouoi e p)ouoi e p)ouoi
4. e riov 4. e riov 4. e riov 4. e riov ri vu ri vu ri vu ri vu 24. e ooov 24. e ooov 24. e ooov 24. e ooov e oOi u e oOi u e oOi u e oOi u
5. e 1euov 5. e 1euov 5. e 1euov 5. e 1euov 1e uvu 1e uvu 1e uvu 1e uvu 25. e opouov 25. e opouov 25. e opouov 25. e opouov 1pe )u 1pe )u 1pe )u 1pe )u
6. e ooxov 6. e ooxov 6. e ooxov 6. e ooxov oo xvu oo xvu oo xvu oo xvu 26. vexov 26. vexov 26. vexov 26. vexov oe pu oe pu oe pu oe pu
1. e 1exov 1. e 1exov 1. e 1exov 1. e 1exov 1i x1u 1i x1u 1i x1u 1i x1u 21. ei oov 21. ei oov 21. ei oov 21. ei oov o po u o po u o po u o po u
8. e r 8. e r 8. e r 8. e roOov oOov oOov oOov ro o)u ro o)u ro o)u ro o)u 28. e uotov 28. e uotov 28. e uotov 28. e uotov tu oxu tu oxu tu oxu tu oxu
9. e )ovov 9. e )ovov 9. e )ovov 9. e )ovov )o oxu )o oxu )o oxu )o oxu 29. ei rov 29. ei rov 29. ei rov 29. ei rov (te u te u te u te u)
1O. e reoov 1O. e reoov 1O. e reoov 1O. e reoov ri r1u ri r1u ri r1u ri r1u 3O. e vuv 3O. e vuv 3O. e vuv 3O. e vuv ivu oxu ivu oxu ivu oxu ivu oxu
11. e Oovov 11. e Oovov 11. e Oovov 11. e Oovov Ov oxu Ov oxu Ov oxu Ov oxu 31. e i uv 31. e i uv 31. e i uv 31. e i uv io u io u io u io u
12. t pov 12. t pov 12. t pov 12. t pov et pi oxu et pi oxu et pi oxu et pi oxu 32. e v 32. e v 32. e v 32. e v oi vu oi vu oi vu oi vu
13. e 1porov 13. e 1porov 13. e 1porov 13. e 1porov 1pe ru 1pe ru 1pe ru 1pe ru 33. e o1v 33. e o1v 33. e o1v 33. e o1v i o1ouoi i o1ouoi i o1ouoi i o1ouoi
14. e o) 14. e o) 14. e o) 14. e o)ov ov ov ov e )u e )u e )u e )u 34. e o tuv 34. e o tuv 34. e o tuv 34. e o tuv o ti oxouoi o ti oxouoi o ti oxouoi o ti oxouoi
15. e uoOov 15. e uoOov 15. e uoOov 15. e uoOov uovOo vu uovOo vu uovOo vu uovOo vu 35. o oixo uv 35. o oixo uv 35. o oixo uv 35. o oixo uv o oixve ouoi o oixve ouoi o oixve ouoi o oixve ouoi
16. e toov 16. e toov 16. e toov 16. e toov touo vu touo vu touo vu touo vu 36. e evo uv 36. e evo uv 36. e evo uv 36. e evo uv i vouoi i vouoi i vouoi i vouoi
11. e toOov 11. e toOov 11. e toOov 11. e toOov tovOo vu tovOo vu tovOo vu tovOo vu 31. e rtOo uv 31. e rtOo uv 31. e rtOo uv 31. e rtOo uv rtvOo vouoi rtvOo vouoi rtvOo vouoi rtvOo vouoi
18. e 1t)ov 18. e 1t)ov 18. e 1t)ov 18. e 1t)ov 1t)o vu 1t)o vu 1t)o vu 1t)o vu 38. e oro uv 38. e oro uv 38. e oro uv 38. e oro uv e rouoi e rouoi e rouoi e rouoi
19. uop1ov 19. uop1ov 19. uop1ov 19. uop1ov o uop1o o uop1o o uop1o o uop1o vu vu vu vu 39. oOo uv 39. oOo uv 39. oOo uv 39. oOo uv oi oOo vouoi oi oOo vouoi oi oOo vouoi oi oOo vouoi
2O. e to)ov 2O. e to)ov 2O. e to)ov 2O. e to)ov to)o vu to)o vu to)o vu to)o vu 4O. t reo)o uv 4O. t reo)o uv 4O. t reo)o uv 4O. t reo)o uv t rio)ve ouoi t rio)ve ouoi t rio)ve ouoi t rio)ve ouoi


REMEMBER:

If verbs have prefixes on them the augment is added AFTER the prefix. For
example in the word o voo ttu o voo ttu o voo ttu o voo ttu, the second aorist is o ve otov; o ve otov; o ve otov; o ve otov; the last verb on
the chart above, t rio)ve ouoi, t rio)ve ouoi, t rio)ve ouoi, t rio)ve ouoi, gets the augment added AFTER t ro t ro t ro t ro, not before it.

Enchiridion
23
Look up the meanings and translate the following verbs. BE CAREFUL:
some are imperfect (augment + present stem), some are present and some are
aorist. Translate was or were for imperfects and simple past tense for
aorists.



1. e oete 1. e oete 1. e oete 1. e oete 6. ei te 6. ei te 6. ei te 6. ei te 11. ri votoiv 11. ri votoiv 11. ri votoiv 11. ri votoiv 16. e ote 16. e ote 16. e ote 16. e ote
2. e ooov 2. e ooov 2. e ooov 2. e ooov 1. ei oov 1. ei oov 1. ei oov 1. ei oov 12. e )ei 12. e )ei 12. e )ei 12. e )ei 11. e opouov 11. e opouov 11. e opouov 11. e opouov
3. e tire 3. e tire 3. e tire 3. e tire 8. ei re 8. ei re 8. ei re 8. ei re 13. e o)ov 13. e o)ov 13. e o)ov 13. e o)ov 18. e 1pe)e 18. e 1pe)e 18. e 1pe)e 18. e 1pe)e
4. t pov 4. t pov 4. t pov 4. t pov 9. e 9. e 9. e 9. e 14. e to uove 14. e to uove 14. e to uove 14. e to uove 19. et pi oxotoi 19. et pi oxotoi 19. et pi oxotoi 19. et pi oxotoi
5. oov 5. oov 5. oov 5. oov 1O. o pu oi 1O. o pu oi 1O. o pu oi 1O. o pu oi 15. o ttotoi 15. o ttotoi 15. o ttotoi 15. o ttotoi 2O. e uoOe 2O. e uoOe 2O. e uoOe 2O. e uoOe


At the end of this lesson there will be a paragraph that will contain a variety
of tenses. Refer to these charts if you have any problems. As in the past, write
down the English only for the words in the paragraph that you do not know. Do
not write a translation of the entire paragraph.

ETYMOLOGY

In Greek the word o uo c o uo c o uo c o uo c means the same. In English this gives the prefix
homo. Write as many English words as you can for this root.

TRANSLATION HELP

v v v v was
oov oov oov oov were

MYTHOLOGY

The Iliad tells the story of the Trojan War, but it does not tell many things
about the cause of the war.
Priam, the king of Troy, had 50 sons. When Paris (Alexandros) was born, a
prophecy told Priam that Paris was unlucky and that he would destroy the city of
Troy. King Priam sent Paris to the mountains. In Olympus at this time there was
a quarrel among three goddesses, Hera, Athena and Aphrodite. They decided to
ask the shepherd Paris who the most beautiful goddess was. If Paris gave the
honor to Hera, he would be a king. If Paris gave the prize to Athena, he would be
a very wise man. If Paris gave the honor to Aphrodite, he would have a very
beautiful woman. Paris gave the prize to Aphrodite. Unfortunately, the most
beautiful woman on earth was Helen, the wife of Menelaus.

Enchiridion
24

Paris (Alexandros) came to the home of Helen and Menelaus. Menelaus
welcomed Paris and he lived in Menelaus house for a short time. Menelaus was
a general and he left his wife at home with Paris. Aphrodite held the power over
Helen and Helen left with Paris and went to Troy. Menelaus returned home and
because of his anger against Paris he and his brother Agamemnon led a large
army to Troy. The Greeks were outside the walls of Troy for nine years. The Iliad
begins in the tenth year of the war.


! tio ! tio ! tio ! tio c 1 c 1 c 1 c 1 v i o1opi ov 1ot Tpuixot rote uot e )ei, o tt ot rotto v i o1opi ov 1ot Tpuixot rote uot e )ei, o tt ot rotto v i o1opi ov 1ot Tpuixot rote uot e )ei, o tt ot rotto v i o1opi ov 1ot Tpuixot rote uot e )ei, o tt ot rotto 1 c 1 c 1 c 1 c
o p) c 1 c 1ot rote uot e )ei. o p) c 1 c 1ot rote uot e )ei. o p) c 1 c 1ot rote uot e )ei. o p) c 1 c 1ot rote uot e )ei.
Hpi ouoc, o 1t povvoc Tpoi c, ei )e rottot Hpi ouoc, o 1t povvoc Tpoi c, ei )e rottot Hpi ouoc, o 1t povvoc Tpoi c, ei )e rottot Hpi ouoc, o 1t povvoc Tpoi c, ei )e rottot c ti oc. e rei c ti oc. e rei c ti oc. e rei c ti oc. e rei E xo E xo E xo E xo
A te covopov e 1exev, o uo v1ic Hpio uu ei rev o 1i A te covopoc ot x e oi oot 1 A te covopov e 1exev, o uo v1ic Hpio uu ei rev o 1i A te covopoc ot x e oi oot 1 A te covopov e 1exev, o uo v1ic Hpio uu ei rev o 1i A te covopoc ot x e oi oot 1 A te covopov e 1exev, o uo v1ic Hpio uu ei rev o 1i A te covopoc ot x e oi oot 1 v v v v
1t )v xoi 1t )v xoi 1t )v xoi 1t )v xoi ot x v o oOo ot x v o oOo ot x v o oOo ot x v o oOo c 1 ro tei. Hpi ouoc A te covopov ei c 1o c 1 ro tei. Hpi ouoc A te covopov ei c 1o c 1 ro tei. Hpi ouoc A te covopov ei c 1o c 1 ro tei. Hpi ouoc A te covopov ei c 1o o p e reuwev. o p e reuwev. o p e reuwev. o p e reuwev.
A te covopoc v roiu v. A te covopoc v roiu v. A te covopoc v roiu v. A te covopoc v roiu v.
e v O tt uru 1o 1e 1pei e v O tt uru 1o 1e 1pei e v O tt uru 1o 1e 1pei e v O tt uru 1o 1e 1pei c Oeoi c Oeoi c Oeoi c Oeoi H po, A Ovo xoi H po, A Ovo xoi H po, A Ovo xoi H po, A Ovo xoi A opooi 1 rpo A opooi 1 rpo A opooi 1 rpo A opooi 1 rpo c o tt toc c o tt toc c o tt toc c o tt toc
e rote uiCov. ro ooi oi Oeoi e rote uiCov. ro ooi oi Oeoi e rote uiCov. ro ooi oi Oeoi e rote uiCov. ro ooi oi Oeoi tOov ropo tOov ropo tOov ropo tOov ropo 1u roiue vi A teco vopu. A te covopoc 1u roiue vi A teco vopu. A te covopoc 1u roiue vi A teco vopu. A te covopoc 1u roiue vi A teco vopu. A te covopoc
v xpi1 c. ei A te covopoc 1 v xpi1 c. ei A te covopoc 1 v xpi1 c. ei A te covopoc 1 v xpi1 c. ei A te covopoc 1 v 1iu v 1iu v 1iu v 1iu v H po ooi , xpo 1io1oc 1t povvoc ei o v. ei v H po ooi , xpo 1io1oc 1t povvoc ei o v. ei v H po ooi , xpo 1io1oc 1t povvoc ei o v. ei v H po ooi , xpo 1io1oc 1t povvoc ei o v. ei
A te covopoc 1 A te covopoc 1 A te covopoc 1 A te covopoc 1 v 1iu v 1iu v 1iu v 1iu v A Ovo ooi , ooou 1o1oc o v v A Ovo ooi , ooou 1o1oc o v v A Ovo ooi , ooou 1o1oc o v v A Ovo ooi , ooou 1o1oc o v p ei o v. ei A te covopoc p ei o v. ei A te covopoc p ei o v. ei A te covopoc p ei o v. ei A te covopoc
1 1 1 1 v 1iu v 1iu v 1iu v 1iu v A opooi 1 ooi , et poi o v A opooi 1 ooi , et poi o v A opooi 1 ooi , et poi o v A opooi 1 ooi , et poi o v 1 v 1 v 1 v 1 v xotti o1v tvoi xo e ri v xotti o1v tvoi xo e ri v xotti o1v tvoi xo e ri v xotti o1v tvoi xo e ri 1 c c. 1 c c. 1 c c. 1 c c.
A te covopoc 1 A te covopoc 1 A te covopoc 1 A te covopoc 1 v 1iu v 1iu v 1iu v 1iu v A opooi 1 e ouxev. o tt tv v A opooi 1 e ouxev. o tt tv v A opooi 1 e ouxev. o tt tv v A opooi 1 e ouxev. o tt tv xotti o1 e ri xotti o1 e ri xotti o1 e ri xotti o1 e ri 1 c c 1 c c 1 c c 1 c c
v E t v E t v E t v E te v, tv e v, tv e v, tv e v, tv Meveto ot. Meveto ot. Meveto ot. Meveto ot.
A te covopoc ei c 1 A te covopoc ei c 1 A te covopoc ei c 1 A te covopoc ei c 1 v oi xi ov E te vc xoi v oi xi ov E te vc xoi v oi xi ov E te vc xoi v oi xi ov E te vc xoi Meveto ot tOev. A te covopoc v Meveto ot tOev. A te covopoc v Meveto ot tOev. A te covopoc v Meveto ot tOev. A te covopoc v
ce voc Meveto ot. Meve tooc o1po1o ce voc Meveto ot. Meve tooc o1po1o ce voc Meveto ot. Meve tooc o1po1o ce voc Meveto ot. Meve tooc o1po1o c ue oc v. e tire 1 c ue oc v. e tire 1 c ue oc v. e tire 1 c ue oc v. e tire 1 v tvoi xo E te vv v tvoi xo E te vv v tvoi xo E te vv v tvoi xo E te vv
e v 1 oi xi o ue1 A teco vopot. e v 1 oi xi o ue1 A teco vopot. e v 1 oi xi o ue1 A teco vopot. e v 1 oi xi o ue1 A teco vopot.
A opooi 1 e xpo 1ei E te v A opooi 1 e xpo 1ei E te v A opooi 1 e xpo 1ei E te v A opooi 1 e xpo 1ei E te vv. ot xot v E te v 1 v. ot xot v E te v 1 v. ot xot v E te v 1 v. ot xot v E te v 1 v oi xi ov ue1 A teco vopot v oi xi ov ue1 A teco vopot v oi xi ov ue1 A teco vopot v oi xi ov ue1 A teco vopot
e tirev. e oov Tpoi voe. e rei e tirev. e oov Tpoi voe. e rei e tirev. e oov Tpoi voe. e rei e tirev. e oov Tpoi voe. e rei Meve tooc tOev e ic 1 Meve tooc tOev e ic 1 Meve tooc tOev e ic 1 Meve tooc tOev e ic 1 v ro tiv, ot ) t pev v ro tiv, ot ) t pev v ro tiv, ot ) t pev v ro tiv, ot ) t pev
E te vv. u viooc e vexo, Meve tooc o o1po1o E te vv. u viooc e vexo, Meve tooc o o1po1o E te vv. u viooc e vexo, Meve tooc o o1po1o E te vv. u viooc e vexo, Meve tooc o o1po1o c xoi c xoi c xoi c xoi A oue uvuv, o o oetoo A oue uvuv, o o oetoo A oue uvuv, o o oetoo A oue uvuv, o o oetoo c c c c
Meveto ot, oov 1o Meveto ot, oov 1o Meveto ot, oov 1o Meveto ot, oov 1o v ueo v ueo v ueo v ueo v o v o v o v o1po1o 1po1o 1po1o 1po1o v Tpoi voe rpo v Tpoi voe rpo v Tpoi voe rpo v Tpoi voe rpo c 1ot c 1ot c 1ot c 1ot c Tpuixot c Tpuixot c Tpuixot c Tpuixot c xoi c xoi c xoi c xoi rpo rpo rpo rpo c c c c
Ate covopov. oi A )oioi Ate covopov. oi A )oioi Ate covopov. oi A )oioi Ate covopov. oi A )oioi ei ou 1u v 1ei)u v 1u v Tpoi c oov. o p) ei ou 1u v 1ei)u v 1u v Tpoi c oov. o p) ei ou 1u v 1ei)u v 1u v Tpoi c oov. o p) ei ou 1u v 1ei)u v 1u v Tpoi c oov. o p) 1 c 1 c 1 c 1 c
! tio ooc e v 1u oexo 1u e 1ei 1ot rote uot e o1i v. ! tio ooc e v 1u oexo 1u e 1ei 1ot rote uot e o1i v. ! tio ooc e v 1u oexo 1u e 1ei 1ot rote uot e o1i v. ! tio ooc e v 1u oexo 1u e 1ei 1ot rote uot e o1i v.


Enchiridion
25
CHAPTER 7

In which we learn about deponent verbs.

If you already studied Latin, you know that deponent verbs are verbs that
have a passive (or middle) form but have an active meaning. How do you know
this type of verb? When you look up the verb in the dictionary, the first form will
not end with as it normally does; it will end with which is the same person,
but a middle/passive form.

Look back at the chart in Chapter 3 that tells the verb endings. For now,
look only at the third person singular and plural endings. You already know the
actives, look at the second column which has middle/passive endings.

For singular (he, she, it) the ending is or . For plural (they) the ending
is or . In most cases the tenses are formed in the same way; in most
cases the translation of the verb is the same as for the active form.

Translate these verbs into English. They are in different tenses, but all are
deponent. (Passive/ middle form, active meaning.)




1. e e ve1o 1. e e ve1o 1. e e ve1o 1. e e ve1o 11. e to Oe1o 11. e to Oe1o 11. e to Oe1o 11. e to Oe1o
2. e i ve1o 2. e i ve1o 2. e i ve1o 2. e i ve1o 12. ue uoe1oi 12. ue uoe1oi 12. ue uoe1oi 12. ue uoe1oi
3. e p)e1oi 3. e p)e1oi 3. e p)e1oi 3. e p)e1oi 13. e ue 13. e ue 13. e ue 13. e ue uoov1o uoov1o uoov1o uoov1o
4. o uei ov1oi 4. o uei ov1oi 4. o uei ov1oi 4. o uei ov1oi 14. e uo )ov1o 14. e uo )ov1o 14. e uo )ov1o 14. e uo )ov1o
5. oiote cov1oi 5. oiote cov1oi 5. oiote cov1oi 5. oiote cov1oi 15. e uo)e oov1o 15. e uo)e oov1o 15. e uo)e oov1o 15. e uo)e oov1o
6. ot vo1oi 6. ot vo1oi 6. ot vo1oi 6. ot vo1oi 16. e oei co1o 16. e oei co1o 16. e oei co1o 16. e oei co1o
1. e ot vo1o 1. e ot vo1o 1. e ot vo1o 1. e ot vo1o 11. reipu v1oi 11. reipu v1oi 11. reipu v1oi 11. reipu v1oi
8. e ri o1o1oi 8. e ri o1o1oi 8. e ri o1o1oi 8. e ri o1o1oi 18. e rtvOo ve1o 18. e rtvOo ve1o 18. e rtvOo ve1o 18. e rtvOo ve1o
9. xoOi Cov1oi 9. xoOi Cov1oi 9. xoOi Cov1oi 9. xoOi Cov1oi 19. e rt Oe1o 19. e rt Oe1o 19. e rt Oe1o 19. e rt Oe1o
1O. e tovOo vov1o 1O. e tovOo vov1o 1O. e tovOo vov1o 1O. e tovOo vov1o 2O. ue uwe1oi 2O. ue uwe1oi 2O. ue uwe1oi 2O. ue uwe1oi


Enchiridion
26

In this section is another series of verbs. Remember: if the dictionary
form of the verb ends in , , , , the verb is deponent. (Translate the middle/passive
form as an active verb.) If the dictionary form ends in , translate as a
middle/passive form.

1. e 1. e 1. e 1. e o tov1o o tov1o o tov1o o tov1o 11. xiv oe1oi 11. xiv oe1oi 11. xiv oe1oi 11. xiv oe1oi
2. e o ttov1o 2. e o ttov1o 2. e o ttov1o 2. e o ttov1o 12. tt oov1oi 12. tt oov1oi 12. tt oov1oi 12. tt oov1oi
3. e oo e1o 3. e oo e1o 3. e oo e1o 3. e oo e1o 13. oitei 1oi 13. oitei 1oi 13. oitei 1oi 13. oitei 1oi
4. ei oe1o 4. ei oe1o 4. ei oe1o 4. ei oe1o 14. e 1i uuv1o 14. e 1i uuv1o 14. e 1i uuv1o 14. e 1i uuv1o
5. o rox1ei ve1oi 5. o rox1ei ve1oi 5. o rox1ei ve1oi 5. o rox1ei ve1oi 15. e oei xvt1o 15. e oei xvt1o 15. e oei xvt1o 15. e oei xvt1o
6. e oiu )O 6. e oiu )O 6. e oiu )O 6. e oiu )O 16. e oitei 1o 16. e oitei 1o 16. e oitei 1o 16. e oitei 1o
1. oiu ce1oi 1. oiu ce1oi 1. oiu ce1oi 1. oiu ce1oi 11. 1iu oov1oi 11. 1iu oov1oi 11. 1iu oov1oi 11. 1iu oov1oi
8. e oiu xov1o 8. e oiu xov1o 8. e oiu xov1o 8. e oiu xov1o 18. e xi vei 1o 18. e xi vei 1o 18. e xi vei 1o 18. e xi vei 1o
9. 9. 9. 9. et ooiuovi Ce1oi et ooiuovi Ce1oi et ooiuovi Ce1oi et ooiuovi Ce1oi 19. te tt1oi 19. te tt1oi 19. te tt1oi 19. te tt1oi
1O. e xoOoi pe1o 1O. e xoOoi pe1o 1O. e xoOoi pe1o 1O. e xoOoi pe1o 2O. e tt e1o 2O. e tt e1o 2O. e tt e1o 2O. e tt e1o







ETYMOLOGY

In Greek the verb oite u oite u oite u oite u means like or love. In English words the root
--phile appears at the end of words and philo-- is usually at the beginning.
Write as many English words as you can with this root.




TRANSLATION HELP

e o e o e o e o s/he said
e oooov e oooov e oooov e oooov they said
Enchiridion
27

MYTHOLOGY

Paris is the brother of Hector. They are both sons of Priam. Hector is the
best warrior and leader for the Trojan side. Hectors wife is Andromache and
they have one son whom the Trojans call Astyanax which means the leader of the
city. In Troy Helen lives in Paris quarters in the palace. The problem is that she
is still married to Menelaus, the brother of Agamemnon. Andromache lives in
Hectors quarters with her servants and with her son. The men leave the city to
fight on the plains in front of Troy.


o A te covopoc o oetoo o A te covopoc o oetoo o A te covopoc o oetoo o A te covopoc o oetoo c E x1opo c e o1iv. oi ot o ti oi c E x1opo c e o1iv. oi ot o ti oi c E x1opo c e o1iv. oi ot o ti oi c E x1opo c e o1iv. oi ot o ti oi Hpio uot Hpio uot Hpio uot Hpio uot
ei oi v. E x1up o o pio1oc o1po1o ei oi v. E x1up o o pio1oc o1po1o ei oi v. E x1up o o pio1oc o1po1o ei oi v. E x1up o o pio1oc o1po1o c Tpuixo c Tpuixo c Tpuixo c Tpuixo c xoi c xoi c xoi c xoi o o o o o o o o pio1oc o voc pio1oc o voc pio1oc o voc pio1oc o voc
o vopu v Tpuixu v e o1i v. tv o vopu v Tpuixu v e o1i v. tv o vopu v Tpuixu v e o1i v. tv o vopu v Tpuixu v e o1i v. tv E x1opoc A vopouo ) e o1i v. xoi E x1opoc A vopouo ) e o1i v. xoi E x1opoc A vopouo ) e o1i v. xoi E x1opoc A vopouo ) e o1i v. xoi
ti o ti o ti o ti o v A o1to vox1o e )otoiv. 1o v A o1to vox1o e )otoiv. 1o v A o1to vox1o e )otoiv. 1o v A o1to vox1o e )otoiv. 1o o vouo 1ot oi tot roioo o vouo 1ot oi tot roioo o vouo 1ot oi tot roioo o vouo 1ot oi tot roioo c o voc c o voc c o voc c o voc
rote uc e o1i v. e v Tpoi E te v ue1 A teco vopot e v 1oi c rote uc e o1i v. e v Tpoi E te v ue1 A teco vopot e v 1oi c rote uc e o1i v. e v Tpoi E te v ue1 A teco vopot e v 1oi c rote uc e o1i v. e v Tpoi E te v ue1 A teco vopot e v 1oi c
ooitei oic oi xei . 1o ooitei oic oi xei . 1o ooitei oic oi xei . 1o ooitei oic oi xei . 1o )otero v e o1iv o 1i E te v e 1i tv )otero v e o1iv o 1i E te v e 1i tv )otero v e o1iv o 1i E te v e 1i tv )otero v e o1iv o 1i E te v e 1i tv
Meveto ot, 1ot o oetoot A oue uvovo c e o1iv. A vopouo ) e v 1oi c Meveto ot, 1ot o oetoot A oue uvovo c e o1iv. A vopouo ) e v 1oi c Meveto ot, 1ot o oetoot A oue uvovo c e o1iv. A vopouo ) e v 1oi c Meveto ot, 1ot o oetoot A oue uvovo c e o1iv. A vopouo ) e v 1oi c
ooitei oic ueO E x1opoc xoi ooitei oic ueO E x1opoc xoi ooitei oic ueO E x1opoc xoi ooitei oic ueO E x1opoc xoi ue1 A o1to vox1oc xoi ue1 A o1to vox1oc xoi ue1 A o1to vox1oc xoi ue1 A o1to vox1oc xoi 1u v oot tuv 1u v oot tuv 1u v oot tuv 1u v oot tuv
oi xei . oi o vopec oi votoiv e x 1 c ro teuc e v 1u reoi u oi xei . oi o vopec oi votoiv e x 1 c ro teuc e v 1u reoi u oi xei . oi o vopec oi votoiv e x 1 c ro teuc e v 1u reoi u oi xei . oi o vopec oi votoiv e x 1 c ro teuc e v 1u reoi u rpo rpo rpo rpo 1u v 1u v 1u v 1u v
1ei)u v 1u v Tpoi c. oi rottoi 1ei)u v 1u v Tpoi c. oi rottoi 1ei)u v 1u v Tpoi c. oi rottoi 1ei)u v 1u v Tpoi c. oi rottoi ueo toi uo )oi i vov1oi e v 1u ueo toi uo )oi i vov1oi e v 1u ueo toi uo )oi i vov1oi e v 1u ueo toi uo )oi i vov1oi e v 1u
rote uu. rote uu. rote uu. rote uu.







Enchiridion
28
CHAPTER 8

In which we learn about infinitives.

Infinitives exist in most languages. In English, infinitives are two words--
the word to and the verb, for example, to go or to see. In Latin, infinitives
are one word--ending most of the time in --re.

Sometimes English teachers talk about split infinitives--that means putting
a word between to and the verb. You cant do that in Latin, even if you want to--
you cant do it in Greek either because a Greek infinitive is also only one word.

Infinitives in Greek can be active (to) or middle/passive (to be) and they
have the same tense indicators as before. ( for future and for aorist.)
Second aorist infinitives add a present infinitive ending to an aorist root.
Infinitives in Greek NEVER HAVE AUGMENTS.

The ending for infinitives are listed below

ACTIVE MIDDLE/PASSIVE TENSE
ov, eiv ov, eiv ov, eiv ov, eiv eoOoi eoOoi eoOoi eoOoi present, future, 2nd aorist
(o oo o)oi oi oi oi (o oo o)ooOoi, ooOoi, ooOoi, ooOoi, ( )voi voi voi voi all other tenses


In most cases infinitives are translated with to or to be. Sometimes in
indirect statements (dialogue without quotation marks), they are translated as a
verb of whatever tense the infinitive is in.

Tell whether the infinitives below are active (to) or passive (to be). Tell the
tense too--present, future or aorist.

1. 1iuo v 1. 1iuo v 1. 1iuo v 1. 1iuo v 11. o po v 11. o po v 11. o po v 11. o po v
2. 1iu oooOoi 2. 1iu oooOoi 2. 1iu oooOoi 2. 1iu oooOoi 12. roioet oeiv 12. roioet oeiv 12. roioet oeiv 12. roioet oeiv
3. 1iu oeoOoi 3. 1iu oeoOoi 3. 1iu oeoOoi 3. 1iu oeoOoi 13. roioet oooOoi 13. roioet oooOoi 13. roioet oooOoi 13. roioet oooOoi
4. po weiv 4. po weiv 4. po weiv 4. po weiv 14. eve oOoi 14. eve oOoi 14. eve oOoi 14. eve oOoi
5. po oeiv 5. po oeiv 5. po oeiv 5. po oeiv 15. reroioetxe voi 15. reroioetxe voi 15. reroioetxe voi 15. reroioetxe voi
6. po woi 6. po woi 6. po woi 6. po woi 16. te eiv 16. te eiv 16. te eiv 16. te eiv
1. e tOei v 1. e tOei v 1. e tOei v 1. e tOei v 11. oitei v 11. oitei v 11. oitei v 11. oitei v
8. e p)eoOoi 8. e p)eoOoi 8. e p)eoOoi 8. e p)eoOoi 18. oet eiv 18. oet eiv 18. oet eiv 18. oet eiv
9. oot voi 9. oot voi 9. oot voi 9. oot voi 19. uoOei v 19. uoOei v 19. uoOei v 19. uoOei v
1O. i oei v 1O. i oei v 1O. i oei v 1O. i oei v 2O. o oixvei oOoi 2O. o oixvei oOoi 2O. o oixvei oOoi 2O. o oixvei oOoi

Enchiridion
29
Now try to translate these indirect statements. (The subject of the
infinitive, if different from the first verbs subject is put into the accusative. If the
subject is the same for both parts of the sentence, it is not usually repeated with
the infinitive.) If the infinitive is negative, you will see u u u u instead of ot ot ot ot before the
infinitive. (It still means not.)

Try these: (You will see ei voi ei voi ei voi ei voi, which means to be.)

1. 1. 1. 1. o vopooo voc E x1up voui Cei 1ot o vopooo voc E x1up voui Cei 1ot o vopooo voc E x1up voui Cei 1ot o vopooo voc E x1up voui Cei 1ot c Tpuixot c Tpuixot c Tpuixot c Tpuixot c vixo v. c vixo v. c vixo v. c vixo v.
2. 2. 2. 2. rooo rooo rooo rooo c u xt c u xt c u xt c u xt c A )ittet c A )ittet c A )ittet c A )ittet c voui Cei 1ot c voui Cei 1ot c voui Cei 1ot c voui Cei 1ot c Tpuixot c Tpuixot c Tpuixot c Tpuixot c vix oeoOoi. c vix oeoOoi. c vix oeoOoi. c vix oeoOoi.
3. 3. 3. 3. Hpi ouoc 1t povvoc voui Cei i oei v Hpi ouoc 1t povvoc voui Cei i oei v Hpi ouoc 1t povvoc voui Cei i oei v Hpi ouoc 1t povvoc voui Cei i oei v rooo rooo rooo rooo c u xt c u xt c u xt c u xt v A )itte o. v A )itte o. v A )itte o. v A )itte o.
4. 4. 4. 4. rooo rooo rooo rooo c u xt c u xt c u xt c u xt c A )ittet c A )ittet c A )ittet c A )ittet c e o E x1opo u c e o E x1opo u c e o E x1opo u c e o E x1opo u vix oeiv. vix oeiv. vix oeiv. vix oeiv.
5. 5. 5. 5. A )ittet A )ittet A )ittet A )ittet c e o ei voi o pio1oc 1u v A )oiu v. c e o ei voi o pio1oc 1u v A )oiu v. c e o ei voi o pio1oc 1u v A )oiu v. c e o ei voi o pio1oc 1u v A )oiu v.
6. rott u1ic O otooet rott u1ic O otooet rott u1ic O otooet rott u1ic O otooet c e vo uiCe 1o c e vo uiCe 1o c e vo uiCe 1o c e vo uiCe 1o ueo to 1ei ) 1o ueo to 1ei ) 1o ueo to 1ei ) 1o ueo to 1ei ) 1o Tpoi c ei voi xpo 1io1o. Tpoi c ei voi xpo 1io1o. Tpoi c ei voi xpo 1io1o. Tpoi c ei voi xpo 1io1o.
7. oi ueo Otuoi A )oioi oi ueo Otuoi A )oioi oi ueo Otuoi A )oioi oi ueo Otuoi A )oioi e oooov Tpoi v o e oooov Tpoi v o e oooov Tpoi v o e oooov Tpoi v o rootei v 1o rootei v 1o rootei v 1o rootei v 1o v ro teuov. v ro teuov. v ro teuov. v ro teuov.
8. tetxu tevoc E te v e vo uiCe tei weiv 1o tetxu tevoc E te v e vo uiCe tei weiv 1o tetxu tevoc E te v e vo uiCe tei weiv 1o tetxu tevoc E te v e vo uiCe tei weiv 1o v o vopo Meve toov. v o vopo Meve toov. v o vopo Meve toov. v o vopo Meve toov.
9. ou ric H po e o e Oe teiv oot voi 1 ou ric H po e o e Oe teiv oot voi 1 ou ric H po e o e Oe teiv oot voi 1 ou ric H po e o e Oe teiv oot voi 1 v vi xv 1oi c A )oioi c. v vi xv 1oi c A )oioi c. v vi xv 1oi c A )oioi c. v vi xv 1oi c A )oioi c.
10. H po e o 1o H po e o 1o H po e o 1o H po e o 1o v ro1e po Aio v ro1e po Aio v ro1e po Aio v ro1e po Aio c ooei v 1ot c ooei v 1ot c ooei v 1ot c ooei v 1ot c roioo c. c roioo c. c roioo c. c roioo c.

As you can see, these indirect statements can be tricky--but when there are
direct quotes in a story you must be careful; look for all types of verb endings
and subjects, not just s/he, it, they.


ETYMOLOGY

In Greek the word oo oc oo oc oo oc oo oc means fear. Write as many English words as
you can that have -phobia or -phobe in them.
Enchiridion
30

TRANSLATION HELP

ue v1oi ue v1oi ue v1oi ue v1oi however
ot xot v ot xot v ot xot v ot xot v therefore


MYTHOLOGY

All the Trojan women, Hecuba, the mother of Hector, Andromache, his wife,
and even Helen come to the wall to watch the battle during the day. Sometimes
Hector comes back to the city and naturally the women are happy that he is still
alive. There is a famous scene in the Iliad when Helen and Astyanax meet Hector
on the wall and talk with him. The baby is frightened of Hectors helmet, so he
takes it off. Andromache tells Hector about her worries and he responds to her.

e ri e ri e ri e ri 1oi c 1ei )eoi 1oi c Tpoi c ro ooi oi tvoi xec, E xo , 1oi c 1ei )eoi 1oi c Tpoi c ro ooi oi tvoi xec, E xo , 1oi c 1ei )eoi 1oi c Tpoi c ro ooi oi tvoi xec, E xo , 1oi c 1ei )eoi 1oi c Tpoi c ro ooi oi tvoi xec, E xo ,
u 1p E x1opoc, A vopouo ), tv u 1p E x1opoc, A vopouo ), tv u 1p E x1opoc, A vopouo ), tv u 1p E x1opoc, A vopouo ), tv E x1opoc xoi E x1opoc xoi E x1opoc xoi E x1opoc xoi E te v 1o E te v 1o E te v 1o E te v 1o c uo )oc c uo )oc c uo )oc c uo )oc
1u v pu uv rpo 1u v pu uv rpo 1u v pu uv rpo 1u v pu uv rpo c o tt totc e v 1u reoi c o tt totc e v 1u reoi c o tt totc e v 1u reoi c o tt totc e v 1u reoi u o pu oiv. E x1up e Oe tuv u o pu oiv. E x1up e Oe tuv u o pu oiv. E x1up e Oe tuv u o pu oiv. E x1up e Oe tuv
o po v 1 o po v 1 o po v 1 o po v 1 v tvoi xo, e x 1 c uo )c e c 1 v tvoi xo, e x 1 c uo )c e c 1 v tvoi xo, e x 1 c uo )c e c 1 v tvoi xo, e x 1 c uo )c e c 1 v ro tiv o oixvei 1oi. v ro tiv o oixvei 1oi. v ro tiv o oixvei 1oi. v ro tiv o oixvei 1oi.
A vopouo ) o po 1o A vopouo ) o po 1o A vopouo ) o po 1o A vopouo ) o po 1o v o vopo xoi v o vopo xoi v o vopo xoi v o vopo xoi et ooi uuv e o1i v. E xo o po 1o et ooi uuv e o1i v. E xo o po 1o et ooi uuv e o1i v. E xo o po 1o et ooi uuv e o1i v. E xo o po 1o v v v v
oi tov ti o oi tov ti o oi tov ti o oi tov ti o v xoi v xoi v xoi v xoi et ooi uuv e o1i v. e v 1 !tio oi, A vopouo ) xoi et ooi uuv e o1i v. e v 1 !tio oi, A vopouo ) xoi et ooi uuv e o1i v. e v 1 !tio oi, A vopouo ) xoi et ooi uuv e o1i v. e v 1 !tio oi, A vopouo ) xoi
A o1to A o1to A o1to A o1to voc 1o voc 1o voc 1o voc 1o c uo )oc E x1opoc o pu oiv. E x1up e p)e1oi ei c 1o c uo )oc E x1opoc o pu oiv. E x1up e p)e1oi ei c 1o c uo )oc E x1opoc o pu oiv. E x1up e p)e1oi ei c 1o c uo )oc E x1opoc o pu oiv. E x1up e p)e1oi ei c 1o
1ei )oc xoi 1ei )oc xoi 1ei )oc xoi 1ei )oc xoi E x1up ue1 A vopouo )c oiote e1oi. A o1to voc, o E x1up ue1 A vopouo )c oiote e1oi. A o1to voc, o E x1up ue1 A vopouo )c oiote e1oi. A o1to voc, o E x1up ue1 A vopouo )c oiote e1oi. A o1to voc, o
uixpo uixpo uixpo uixpo c ti o c ti o c ti o c ti o c 1o c 1o c 1o c 1o xpo voc E x1opoc ooei 1oi. E x1up eto xoi xpo voc E x1opoc ooei 1oi. E x1up eto xoi xpo voc E x1opoc ooei 1oi. E x1up eto xoi xpo voc E x1opoc ooei 1oi. E x1up eto xoi 1o 1o 1o 1o
xpo voc e xo ttei. xpo voc e xo ttei. xpo voc e xo ttei. xpo voc e xo ttei.


Enchiridion
31
CHAPTER 9

In which we learn about participles.

Participles exist in Greek as well as in Latin and English. In most
instances there is something to tell you that a verb form is a participle. The
participle, however, refers to a person or a thing rather than to a verb.

In English, active participles end in -- ing. In Latin, they are adjectives
that have --nt--plus an adjective ending. In Greek they are generally easy to
identify. Most active participle forms have the ending of the present participle of
the verb ei ui ei ui ei ui ei ui . .. . (Sometimes the vowel at the beginning may change).

When the tenses of the participle change, there are tense indicators that
tell you whether a participle is present, past or future. They can be middle or
passive, in which case they have different endings and different meanings. (Well
get to those soon.) But there is one thing--they NEVER HAVE AUGMENTS.
Thats what makes most of them easy to find in the dictionary.

Here is a chart of the present participle of ei ui ei ui ei ui ei ui . .. . All the forms mean
being, but as you can see the forms change depending on whether they go with
masculine, feminine, neuter words, singular or plural, and how they are used in a
sentence. These forms are used as ENDINGS for the participles of other verbs.




Masculine Feminine Neuter Case
u v u v u v u v ot oo ot oo ot oo ot oo o v o v o v o v Nom. Sing.
o v1oc o v1oc o v1oc o v1oc ot oc ot oc ot oc ot oc o v1oc o v1oc o v1oc o v1oc Gen. Sing.
o v1i o v1i o v1i o v1i ot o ot o ot o ot o o v1i o v1i o v1i o v1i Dat. Sing.
o v1o o v1o o v1o o v1o ot oov ot oov ot oov ot oov o v o v o v o v Acc. Sing.
o v1ec o v1ec o v1ec o v1ec ot ooi ot ooi ot ooi ot ooi o v1o o v1o o v1o o v1o Nom. Pl.
o v1uv o v1uv o v1uv o v1uv ot ou v ot ou v ot ou v ot ou v o v1uv o v1uv o v1uv o v1uv Gen. Pl.
ot oi ot oi ot oi ot oi (v vv v) ot ot ot ot ooic ooic ooic ooic ot oi ot oi ot oi ot oi (v vv v) Dat. Pl.
o v1oc o v1oc o v1oc o v1oc ot ooc ot ooc ot ooc ot ooc o v1o o v1o o v1o o v1o Acc. Pl.

Enchiridion
32

Translate these phrases with active participles into English.



1. tv 1. tv 1. tv 1. tv o pu oo 1o o pu oo 1o o pu oo 1o o pu oo 1o v ro teuov v ro teuov v ro teuov v ro teuov 6. o o v 6. o o v 6. o o v 6. o o v p e )uv 1o p e )uv 1o p e )uv 1o p e )uv 1o iti ov e v 1 )eipi iti ov e v 1 )eipi iti ov e v 1 )eipi iti ov e v 1 )eipi

2. o ro1 2. o ro1 2. o ro1 2. o ro1 p 1ot roioo p 1ot roioo p 1ot roioo p 1ot roioo c xotot v1oc c xotot v1oc c xotot v1oc c xotot v1oc 1. roioet uv 1. roioet uv 1. roioet uv 1. roioet uv

3. oi ti ei c 1u v u1e puv oeto v1uv 3. oi ti ei c 1u v u1e puv oeto v1uv 3. oi ti ei c 1u v u1e puv oeto v1uv 3. oi ti ei c 1u v u1e puv oeto v1uv 8. oi o roOv oxov1ec 8. oi o roOv oxov1ec 8. oi o roOv oxov1ec 8. oi o roOv oxov1ec

4. oi o vope 4. oi o vope 4. oi o vope 4. oi o vope c o pu v1ec 1 c o pu v1ec 1 c o pu v1ec 1 c o pu v1ec 1 v ro tiv v ro tiv v ro tiv v ro tiv 9. oi votoo 9. oi votoo 9. oi votoo 9. oi votoo

5. o o voc 1u v o vopu v roteuiCo v1uv 5. o o voc 1u v o vopu v roteuiCo v1uv 5. o o voc 1u v o vopu v roteuiCo v1uv 5. o o voc 1u v o vopu v roteuiCo v1uv
rpo rpo rpo rpo c 1 c 1 c 1 c 1 v ro tiv v ro tiv v ro tiv v ro tiv
1O. re uruv 1O. re uruv 1O. re uruv 1O. re uruv



Participles can also come in middle and passive forms. They are easy to
recognize because they end in -uevoc, uevoc, uevoc, uevoc, - -- -ue v, ue v, ue v, ue v, - -- -uevov uevov uevov uevov. .. . That chart is in Chapter 4;
but we will repeat it here. (Remember that deponent verbs also have
middle/passive forms, but are translated as active.)




Masculine Feminine Neuter
uevoc uevoc uevoc uevoc ue v ue v ue v ue v uevov uevov uevov uevov
NOMINATIVE SINGULAR
ue vot ue vot ue vot ue vot ue vc ue vc ue vc ue vc ue vot ue vot ue vot ue vot
GENITIVE SINGULAR
ue vu ue vu ue vu ue vu ue v ue v ue v ue v ue vu ue vu ue vu ue vu
DATIVE SINGULAR
uevov uevov uevov uevov ue vv ue vv ue vv ue vv uevov uevov uevov uevov
ACCUSATIVE SINGULAR
uevoi uevoi uevoi uevoi uevoi uevoi uevoi uevoi uevo uevo uevo uevo
NOMINATIVE PLURAL
ue vuv ue vuv ue vuv ue vuv ue vuv ue vuv ue vuv ue vuv ue vuv ue vuv ue vuv ue vuv
GENITIVE PLURAL
ue voic ue voic ue voic ue voic ue voic ue voic ue voic ue voic ue voic ue voic ue voic ue voic
DATIVE PLURAL
ue votc ue votc ue votc ue votc uevoc uevoc uevoc uevoc uevo uevo uevo uevo
ACCUSATIVE PLURAL
Enchiridion
33

Translate the present participle phrases below. Be careful--some are
deponent (translate with -ing); some are truly middle/passive (translate with
being...). How to tell the difference? When you look up deponent verbs, they
do NOT end with an ; ; ; ; they end with . . . . Therefore---if you look up a verb and it
ends in , but the participle ends in , , , , , , , , , that is a middle/passive form.
Translate : being.....

1. o o v 1. o o v 1. o o v 1. o o v p e p)o uevoc p e p)o uevoc p e p)o uevoc p e p)o uevoc

2. oi tvoi xec o pu uevoi 2. oi tvoi xec o pu uevoi 2. oi tvoi xec o pu uevoi 2. oi tvoi xec o pu uevoi

3. oi roioe 3. oi roioe 3. oi roioe 3. oi roioe c xo c xo c xo c xotot uevoi tot uevoi tot uevoi tot uevoi

4. 1o 4. 1o 4. 1o 4. 1o ou po o oixvot uevo ou po o oixvot uevo ou po o oixvot uevo ou po o oixvot uevo

5. 1ot ovopo 5. 1ot ovopo 5. 1ot ovopo 5. 1ot ovopo c e roue vot c e roue vot c e roue vot c e roue vot

6. o o1po1o 6. o o1po1o 6. o o1po1o 6. o o1po1o c 1iuu uevoc e v 1 ro tei c 1iuu uevoc e v 1 ro tei c 1iuu uevoc e v 1 ro tei c 1iuu uevoc e v 1 ro tei

1. oi roioe 1. oi roioe 1. oi roioe 1. oi roioe c ooot uevoi c ooot uevoi c ooot uevoi c ooot uevoi

8. 1oi c tvoici 8. 1oi c tvoici 8. 1oi c tvoici 8. 1oi c tvoici teiroue voic teiroue voic teiroue voic teiroue voic

9. oi et pioxo uevoi 9. oi et pioxo uevoi 9. oi et pioxo uevoi 9. oi et pioxo uevoi

1O. oi e ro uevoi 1O. oi e ro uevoi 1O. oi e ro uevoi 1O. oi e ro uevoi

From the last exercise you can see that participles can be used with an
article to make a noun, e.g. the _____ men.

As we already said participles can have tenses in Greek. The tense
indicators are the same as for the verbs in Chapter 6. There is one difference,
however: PARTICIPLES DO NOT HAVE AUGMENTS.

TENSE INDICATORS

= = = = future (intending to, will be ------ing, would)
= aorist (having .........)
second aorist participles have present participle endings on the second
aorist root (having.....)
Enchiridion
34

Translate the following participles:

1. 1iu ouv 1. 1iu ouv 1. 1iu ouv 1. 1iu ouv 12. oi vix oov1ec 12. oi vix oov1ec 12. oi vix oov1ec 12. oi vix oov1ec
2. xote ooc 2. xote ooc 2. xote ooc 2. xote ooc 13. oi roioet ooooi 13. oi roioet ooooi 13. oi roioet ooooi 13. oi roioet ooooi
3. i oo v1ec 3. i oo v1ec 3. i oo v1ec 3. i oo v1ec 14. 1o 14. 1o 14. 1o 14. 1o c reuwo ooc c reuwo ooc c reuwo ooc c reuwo ooc
4. et pu v 4. et pu v 4. et pu v 4. et pu v 15. 1ot 15. 1ot 15. 1ot 15. 1ot c re uwov1oc c re uwov1oc c re uwov1oc c re uwov1oc
5. oit oov1ec 5. oit oov1ec 5. oit oov1ec 5. oit oov1ec 16. ottot oo 16. ottot oo 16. ottot oo 16. ottot oo
6. oit oov1ec 6. oit oov1ec 6. oit oov1ec 6. oit oov1ec 11. oi o tov1ec 11. oi o tov1ec 11. oi o tov1ec 11. oi o tov1ec
1. e tO 1. e tO 1. e tO 1. e tOo v1ec o v1ec o v1ec o v1ec 18. o ri vuv 18. o ri vuv 18. o ri vuv 18. o ri vuv
8. tirot oo 8. tirot oo 8. tirot oo 8. tirot oo 19. o riu v 19. o riu v 19. o riu v 19. o riu v
9. 1ot 9. 1ot 9. 1ot 9. 1ot c 1iu oov1oc c 1iu oov1oc c 1iu oov1oc c 1iu oov1oc 2O. 1o 2O. 1o 2O. 1o 2O. 1o v roOo v1o v roOo v1o v roOo v1o v roOo v1o
1O. oi te cov1ec 1O. oi te cov1ec 1O. oi te cov1ec 1O. oi te cov1ec 21. ro o)otoo 21. ro o)otoo 21. ro o)otoo 21. ro o)otoo
11. oi te otooi 11. oi te otooi 11. oi te otooi 11. oi te otooi 22. oi ooxo v1ec 22. oi ooxo v1ec 22. oi ooxo v1ec 22. oi ooxo v1ec


Tenses can also combine with middle/passive participle forms ending in
, , . , , . , , . , , . Translate future as intending to be, would be; aorist as having
been or just with an English past participle. Translate these participles--watch
out for deponents!

1. i oo uevoi 1. i oo uevoi 1. i oo uevoi 1. i oo uevoi
2. 1o 2. 1o 2. 1o 2. 1o teco uevov teco uevov teco uevov teco uevov
3. 1o 3. 1o 3. 1o 3. 1o ooivo uevo ooivo uevo ooivo uevo ooivo uevo
4. oi o oetoo 4. oi o oetoo 4. oi o oetoo 4. oi o oetooi ii i oitot uevoi oitot uevoi oitot uevoi oitot uevoi
5. 1o 5. 1o 5. 1o 5. 1o o vo uo1o teo uevo o vo uo1o teo uevo o vo uo1o teo uevo o vo uo1o teo uevo
6. oi rote uioi uo)o uevoi 6. oi rote uioi uo)o uevoi 6. oi rote uioi uo)o uevoi 6. oi rote uioi uo)o uevoi
1. oi o oixo uevoi 1. oi o oixo uevoi 1. oi o oixo uevoi 1. oi o oixo uevoi
8. tiroue v 8. tiroue v 8. tiroue v 8. tiroue v
9. 1o 9. 1o 9. 1o 9. 1o c o puue voc c o puue voc c o puue voc c o puue voc
1O. 1o 1O. 1o 1O. 1o 1O. 1o too uevo too uevo too uevo too uevo


ETYMOLOGY

The word e ri e ri e ri e ri in Greek is a preposition meaning in or on. Write as
many English words as you can that use this Greek word as a prefix.
Enchiridion
35
TRANSLATION HELP

e rei e rei e rei e rei since, when

o 1i o 1i o 1i o 1i that


MYTHOLOGY

In the Trojan War the young men fight on the plains in front of the city. The
old men, even Priam the king, stay inside the city with the women and the
children. Helen also lives in the city of Troy. On one day the goddess Iris
summons Helen to the wall to see the fight between Paris and her husband
Menelaus.

The following passage in Greek is from Book 3 of the Iliad. If you see
quotation marks, you will have to look at the verb charts to see if the subject is
possibly I or you. Make use of all the charts that are available to you. You
will not know some of the words yet; try at least to write the Greek words for the
difficult parts of the passage. This is not easy; Homers spelling isnt exactly
dictionary perfect. Try for the meaning of the passage, not every detail. There
are often a lot of extra vowels on the endings of nouns; sometimes words have a
double consonant (oo oo oo oo) where you would expect only one consonant. Try to find
words that are similar to what you see in the passage.

! !! ! pic ei rev pic ei rev pic ei rev pic ei rev
ot 1o ot 1o ot 1o ot 1o p A te covopoc xoi p A te covopoc xoi p A te covopoc xoi p A te covopoc xoi o pi oitoc Meve tooc o pi oitoc Meve tooc o pi oitoc Meve tooc o pi oitoc Meve tooc
uoxp o e )ei oi uo)e ooov1oi repi uoxp o e )ei oi uo)e ooov1oi repi uoxp o e )ei oi uo)e ooov1oi repi uoxp o e )ei oi uo)e ooov1oi repi oei o oei o oei o oei o
1u oe xe vix oov1i oi t xe 1u oe xe vix oov1i oi t xe 1u oe xe vix oov1i oi t xe 1u oe xe vix oov1i oi t xext o o xoi1ic. xt o o xoi1ic. xt o o xoi1ic. xt o o xoi1ic.
u u u u c ei rot oo Oeo c ei rot oo Oeo c ei rot oo Oeo c ei rot oo Oeo ttxt ttxt ttxt ttxt v i uepov e uote Otuu v i uepov e uote Otuu v i uepov e uote Otuu v i uepov e uote Otuu
o vopo c 1e rpo1e poio xoi o vopo c 1e rpo1e poio xoi o vopo c 1e rpo1e poio xoi o vopo c 1e rpo1e poio xoi o o1eoc oe o o1eoc oe o o1eoc oe o o1eoc oe 1ox uv. 1ox uv. 1ox uv. 1ox uv. 140
........................ ........................ ........................ ........................
oi wo o e reiO i xovov, o Oi Zxoioi oi wo o e reiO i xovov, o Oi Zxoioi oi wo o e reiO i xovov, o Oi Zxoioi oi wo o e reiO i xovov, o Oi Zxoioi rt toi oov. rt toi oov. rt toi oov. rt toi oov. 145
oi o o uoi oi o o uoi oi o o uoi oi o o uoi Hpi ouov xoi Hpi ouov xoi Hpi ouov xoi Hpi ouov xoi Ho vOoov oe Ho vOoov oe Ho vOoov oe Ho vOoov oe Otuoi 1v Otuoi 1v Otuoi 1v Otuoi 1v
Ao urov 1e Ktt1i ov O ! xe1o ovo 1 o Cov A poc Ao urov 1e Ktt1i ov O ! xe1o ovo 1 o Cov A poc Ao urov 1e Ktt1i ov O ! xe1o ovo 1 o Cov A poc Ao urov 1e Ktt1i ov O ! xe1o ovo 1 o Cov A poc
Ot xote uv 1e xoi Ot xote uv 1e xoi Ot xote uv 1e xoi Ot xote uv 1e xoi A v1 vup, rervtue vu o uou. A v1 vup, rervtue vu o uou. A v1 vup, rervtue vu o uou. A v1 vup, rervtue vu o uou.

Iliad 3.136-140; 145-148
Enchiridion
36
CHAPTER 10


In which we study lots of pronouns.

There are different types of pronouns: personal, (I, you, me, her,
them); demonstrative, (this, that); reflexive, (myself, herself, himself);
relative, (who, which); interrogative, (who?, what?); indefinite, (anyone,
anything, whatever).

Luckily, since reading/translating is our goal, you dont have to
memorize the forms, just identify what you see in Greek.

Lets start with personal pronouns. Heres a chart!


I you he she it CASE
e u e u e u e u ot ot ot ot
NOM.
e uot e uot e uot e uot oot oot oot oot ot 1ot ot 1ot ot 1ot ot 1ot ot 1 c ot 1 c ot 1 c ot 1 c ot 1ot ot 1ot ot 1ot ot 1ot
GEN.
e uoi e uoi e uoi e uoi ooi ooi ooi ooi ot 1u ot 1u ot 1u ot 1u ot 1 ot 1 ot 1 ot 1 ot 1u ot 1u ot 1u ot 1u
DAT.
e ue e ue e ue e ue oe oe oe oe ot 1o v ot 1o v ot 1o v ot 1o v ot 1 v ot 1 v ot 1 v ot 1 v ot 1o ot 1o ot 1o ot 1o
ACC.

PLURAL
uei c uei c uei c uei c t uei c t uei c t uei c t uei c
NOM.
uu v uu v uu v uu v t uu v t uu v t uu v t uu v ot 1u v ot 1u v ot 1u v ot 1u v ot 1u v ot 1u v ot 1u v ot 1u v ot 1u v ot 1u v ot 1u v ot 1u v
GEN.
ui v ui v ui v ui v t ui v t ui v t ui v t ui v ot 1oi c ot 1oi c ot 1oi c ot 1oi c ot 1oi c ot 1oi c ot 1oi c ot 1oi c ot ot ot ot 1oi c 1oi c 1oi c 1oi c
DAT.
uo c uo c uo c uo c t uo c t uo c t uo c t uo c ot 1ot c ot 1ot c ot 1ot c ot 1ot c ot 1o c ot 1o c ot 1o c ot 1o c ot 1o ot 1o ot 1o ot 1o
ACC.



You can see several things from this chart. First with I, if you drop
the first e ee e from e ue , e ue , e ue , e ue , it is spelled me, the same as in English. In fact,
Greek often drops the e e e e in all the forms except e u e u e u e u .

You can also see that the plurals for we and you are the same
except for the first letter. The first letter of you starts with t t t t .


Enchiridion
37


The third thing that you notice is that the words for he, she, it,
they, have the same endings as the definite article (from Chapter 2.) You
also see that there is no subject pronoun for these, because if absolutely
necessary, another word is used.

You can also combine these pronouns to make reflexives: for
example: e uot1o v e uot1o v e uot1o v e uot1o v--myself; oeot1o v oeot1o v oeot1o v oeot1o v--yourself.



Try these short sentences with personal pronouns in them.

1. e ue 1. e ue 1. e ue 1. e ue oitei . oitei . oitei . oitei .
2. oe 2. oe 2. oe 2. oe oitot oiv. oitot oiv. oitot oiv. oitot oiv.
3. e u 3. e u 3. e u 3. e u t uo c oitu . t uo c oitu . t uo c oitu . t uo c oitu .
4. xoi 4. xoi 4. xoi 4. xoi ot , 1e xvov; ot , 1e xvov; ot , 1e xvov; ot , 1e xvov;
5. vu Oi oeot1o v. 5. vu Oi oeot1o v. 5. vu Oi oeot1o v. 5. vu Oi oeot1o v.
6. ot 1 6. ot 1 6. ot 1 6. ot 1 v ei oov e v 1 o ou . v ei oov e v 1 o ou . v ei oov e v 1 o ou . v ei oov e v 1 o ou .
1. E x1up ot 1 1o 1. E x1up ot 1 1o 1. E x1up ot 1 1o 1. E x1up ot 1 1o ou pov e ouxev. ou pov e ouxev. ou pov e ouxev. ou pov e ouxev.
8. A t 8. A t 8. A t 8. A te covopoc ot 1oi c ot x ei rev. e covopoc ot 1oi c ot x ei rev. e covopoc ot 1oi c ot x ei rev. e covopoc ot 1oi c ot x ei rev.
9. t re 9. t re 9. t re 9. t re p ot 1u v ot uoi p ot 1u v ot uoi p ot 1u v ot uoi p ot 1u v ot uoi ei rov. ei rov. ei rov. ei rov.
1O. tOov ue1o 1O. tOov ue1o 1O. tOov ue1o 1O. tOov ue1o oot ei c 1 oot ei c 1 oot ei c 1 oot ei c 1 v ro tiv. v ro tiv. v ro tiv. v ro tiv.

Next are some demonstrative pronouns. Here are three that can be
used as adjectives as well.

ot 1oc, ot 1, 1ot 1o ot 1oc, ot 1, 1ot 1o ot 1oc, ot 1, 1ot 1o ot 1oc, ot 1, 1ot 1o means this, these. It will be in a chart in a
minute, but you can see that it has the endings of the definite article.

o oe, oe, 1o oe o oe, oe, 1o oe o oe, oe, 1o oe o oe, oe, 1o oe also means this, these. In this case, its the
beginning of the word that is the same as the definite article, and oe oe oe oe is
tacked onto the end of the word.

e xei voc, e xei v, e xei vo e xei voc, e xei v, e xei vo e xei voc, e xei v, e xei vo e xei voc, e xei v, e xei vo means that, those. There is no reason to
even look at that because you can recognize it easily.
Enchiridion
38
Heres the chart!

MASCULINE FEMININE NEUTER CASE
ot 1oc ot 1oc ot 1oc ot 1oc ot 1 ot 1 ot 1 ot 1 1ot 1o 1ot 1o 1ot 1o 1ot 1o
NOMINATIVE
1ot 1ot 1ot 1ot 1ot 1ot 1ot 1ot 1ot 1c 1ot 1c 1ot 1c 1ot 1c 1o 1o 1o 1ot 1ot t 1ot t 1ot t 1ot
GENITIVE
1ot 1u 1ot 1u 1ot 1u 1ot 1u 1ot 1 1ot 1 1ot 1 1ot 1 1ot 1u 1ot 1u 1ot 1u 1ot 1u
DATIVE
1ot 1ov 1ot 1ov 1ot 1ov 1ot 1ov 1ot 1v 1ot 1v 1ot 1v 1ot 1v 1ot 1o 1ot 1o 1ot 1o 1ot 1o
ACCUSATIVE

PLURAL
ot 1oi ot 1oi ot 1oi ot 1oi ot 1oi ot 1oi ot 1oi ot 1oi 1ot 1o 1ot 1o 1ot 1o 1ot 1o
NOMINATIVE
1ot 1uv 1ot 1uv 1ot 1uv 1ot 1uv 1ot 1uv 1ot 1uv 1ot 1uv 1ot 1uv 1ot 1uv 1ot 1uv 1ot 1uv 1ot 1uv
GENITIVE
1ot 1oic 1ot 1oic 1ot 1oic 1ot 1oic 1ot 1oic 1ot 1oic 1ot 1oic 1ot 1oic 1ot 1oic 1ot 1oic 1ot 1oic 1ot 1oic
DATIVE
1ot 1otc 1ot 1otc 1ot 1otc 1ot 1otc 1ot 1oc 1ot 1oc 1ot 1oc 1ot 1oc 1ot 1o 1ot 1o 1ot 1o 1ot 1o
ACCUSATIVE

Translate these sentences with demonstratives in them.

1. ot 1oc ot x e o1i oi toc e uot . 1. ot 1oc ot x e o1i oi toc e uot . 1. ot 1oc ot x e o1i oi toc e uot . 1. ot 1oc ot x e o1i oi toc e uot .
2. 1ot 1o ot x e ri o1o1oi. 2. 1ot 1o ot x e ri o1o1oi. 2. 1ot 1o ot x e ri o1o1oi. 2. 1ot 1o ot x e ri o1o1oi.
3. 1ot 1otc o re x1eivev e v 1 uo ). 3. 1ot 1otc o re x1eivev e v 1 uo ). 3. 1ot 1otc o re x1eivev e v 1 uo ). 3. 1ot 1otc o re x1eivev e v 1 uo ).
4. ot 1 ot x e o1iv A vopouo ). 4. ot 1 ot x e o1iv A vopouo ). 4. ot 1 ot x e o1iv A vopouo ). 4. ot 1 ot x e o1iv A vopouo ).
5. oi oi toi 1ot 1ot o re Oovov e v 1u rote uu. 5. oi oi toi 1ot 1ot o re Oovov e v 1u rote uu. 5. oi oi toi 1ot 1ot o re Oovov e v 1u rote uu. 5. oi oi toi 1ot 1ot o re Oovov e v 1u rote uu.
6. oe e o1i 6. oe e o1i 6. oe e o1i 6. oe e o1i ro tic vi ro tic vi ro tic vi ro tic vixoOei oo e v 1 uo ). xoOei oo e v 1 uo ). xoOei oo e v 1 uo ). xoOei oo e v 1 uo ).
1. 1 voe t pov e ri 1. 1 voe t pov e ri 1. 1 voe t pov e ri 1. 1 voe t pov e ri 1u 1ei )ei. 1u 1ei )ei. 1u 1ei )ei. 1u 1ei )ei.
8. 1o o ot x e uoi 8. 1o o ot x e uoi 8. 1o o ot x e uoi 8. 1o o ot x e uoi ei rov. ei rov. ei rov. ei rov.
9. 1o o e v )eipi e )ei o 1i e Oe tei uo )eoOoi 1oi c roteui oic. 9. 1o o e v )eipi e )ei o 1i e Oe tei uo )eoOoi 1oi c roteui oic. 9. 1o o e v )eipi e )ei o 1i e Oe tei uo )eoOoi 1oi c roteui oic. 9. 1o o e v )eipi e )ei o 1i e Oe tei uo )eoOoi 1oi c roteui oic.
1O. 1u oe e orov1o rpo 1O. 1u oe e orov1o rpo 1O. 1u oe e orov1o rpo 1O. 1u oe e orov1o rpo c 1o c 1o c 1o c 1o v ro1ouo v. v ro1ouo v. v ro1ouo v. v ro1ouo v.

Next are relative pronouns. These are pronouns that are used in
complex sentences and mean who, which, whose, that. You really dont
need a chart for these because they look just like the article EXCEPT they
always have an accent, they never have a 1 11 1 and they always start with a
vowel and a rough breathing.

Try these sentences that have relative pronouns in them.

1. A vopouo ), 1. A vopouo ), 1. A vopouo ), 1. A vopouo ), v tv v tv v tv v tv E x1opoc, e ueivev e v Tpoi . E x1opoc, e ueivev e v Tpoi . E x1opoc, e ueivev e v Tpoi . E x1opoc, e ueivev e v Tpoi .
2. A )ittet 2. A )ittet 2. A )ittet 2. A )ittet c ot x e oi tei 1o c ot x e oi tei 1o c ot x e oi tei 1o c ot x e oi tei 1o ou po o ou po o ou po o ou po o A oue uvuv ot 1u e ouxev. A oue uvuv ot 1u e ouxev. A oue uvuv ot 1u e ouxev. A oue uvuv ot 1u e ouxev.
3. oi o vopec ot 3. oi o vopec ot 3. oi o vopec ot 3. oi o vopec ot c E te v ei oev oov A c E te v ei oev oov A c E te v ei oev oov A c E te v ei oev oov A )oioi . )oioi . )oioi . )oioi .
4. o o v 4. o o v 4. o o v 4. o o v p ueO ot E te v e tire 1 p ueO ot E te v e tire 1 p ueO ot E te v e tire 1 p ueO ot E te v e tire 1 v oi xi ov Meveto ot v A te covopoc. v oi xi ov Meveto ot v A te covopoc. v oi xi ov Meveto ot v A te covopoc. v oi xi ov Meveto ot v A te covopoc.
5. oi tvoi xec, oi 5. oi tvoi xec, oi 5. oi tvoi xec, oi 5. oi tvoi xec, oi c ei rev E x1up, oov Tpuixoi . c ei rev E x1up, oov Tpuixoi . c ei rev E x1up, oov Tpuixoi . c ei rev E x1up, oov Tpuixoi .
Enchiridion
39
The next pronoun means two different things. With an accent it
means who?, what?, which?, why?. Those sentences will also end with
a Greek question mark ; . Without an accent it means, anyone,
anything, any, and its not a question. The masculine and feminine forms
are the same, the neuter is different.

When this pronoun is combined with the relative pronoun it means
whoever, whatever. In Greek that is o o1ic, 1ic, o 1i. o o1ic, 1ic, o 1i. o o1ic, 1ic, o 1i. o o1ic, 1ic, o 1i. The accent is on
the first part, not on the second part.

Heres a chart with accents.

who?, whose?, whom? what? which? why? CASE
1i c 1i c 1i c 1i c 1i 1i 1i 1i
NOMINATIVE
1i voc, 1ot 1i voc, 1ot 1i voc, 1ot 1i voc, 1ot 1i 1i 1i 1i voc, 1ot voc, 1ot voc, 1ot voc, 1ot
GENITIVE
1i vi, 1u 1i vi, 1u 1i vi, 1u 1i vi, 1u 1i vi, 1u 1i vi, 1u 1i vi, 1u 1i vi, 1u
DATIVE
1i vo 1i vo 1i vo 1i vo 1i 1i 1i 1i
ACCUSATIVE

PLURAL
1i vec 1i vec 1i vec 1i vec 1i vo 1i vo 1i vo 1i vo
NOMINATIVE
1i vuv 1i vuv 1i vuv 1i vuv 1i vuv 1i vuv 1i vuv 1i vuv
GENITIVE
1i oiv 1i oiv 1i oiv 1i oiv 1i oiv 1i oiv 1i oiv 1i oiv
DATIVE
1i voc 1i voc 1i voc 1i voc 1i vo 1i vo 1i vo 1i vo
ACCUSATIVE


The next sentences will be mixed together; be sure to look for the accent
(or lack of accent) and the question mark to know how to translate.

1. 1i c e o1i 1. 1i c e o1i 1. 1i c e o1i 1. 1i c e o1i v e x1o v e x1o v e x1o v e x1o c 1ot 1ei )otc; c 1ot 1ei )otc; c 1ot 1ei )otc; c 1ot 1ei )otc;
2. 1i e Oe tei A )ittet 2. 1i e Oe tei A )ittet 2. 1i e Oe tei A )ittet 2. 1i e Oe tei A )ittet c o ro c o ro c o ro c o ro Tpoi c; Tpoi c; Tpoi c; Tpoi c;
3. A )ittet 3. A )ittet 3. A )ittet 3. A )ittet c u viooc e vexo 1ivoc o re x1eivev ot c u viooc e vexo 1ivoc o re x1eivev ot c u viooc e vexo 1ivoc o re x1eivev ot c u viooc e vexo 1ivoc o re x1eivev ot c ei oev. c ei oev. c ei oev. c ei oev.
4. o 1i Zet 4. o 1i Zet 4. o 1i Zet 4. o 1i Zet c te ei, oi o v c te ei, oi o v c te ei, oi o v c te ei, oi o vOpuroi roiot oiv. Opuroi roiot oiv. Opuroi roiot oiv. Opuroi roiot oiv.
5. 1i vec oov oi toi 1u v A )oiu v; 5. 1i vec oov oi toi 1u v A )oiu v; 5. 1i vec oov oi toi 1u v A )oiu v; 5. 1i vec oov oi toi 1u v A )oiu v;
6. e v rote uu 1ic ro oxei. 6. e v rote uu 1ic ro oxei. 6. e v rote uu 1ic ro oxei. 6. e v rote uu 1ic ro oxei.
1. 1i vo o re x1eivev E x1up; 1. 1i vo o re x1eivev E x1up; 1. 1i vo o re x1eivev E x1up; 1. 1i vo o re x1eivev E x1up;
8. u 1p 1ivo 8. u 1p 1ivo 8. u 1p 1ivo 8. u 1p 1ivo c et ooi uuv e o1i c et ooi uuv e o1i c et ooi uuv e o1i c et ooi uuv e o1i v e rei v e rei v e rei v e rei 1o 1o 1o 1o v ti o v ti o v ti o v ti o v o po . v o po . v o po . v o po .
9. 1i vi 1o 9. 1i vi 1o 9. 1i vi 1o 9. 1i vi 1o v o Otov e ouxev A te covopoc; v o Otov e ouxev A te covopoc; v o Otov e ouxev A te covopoc; v o Otov e ouxev A te covopoc;
1O. oi 1ivec 1ot 1O. oi 1ivec 1ot 1O. oi 1ivec 1ot 1O. oi 1ivec 1ot c Tpuix c Tpuix c Tpuix c Tpuixot ot ot ot c oitot oi v ei oiv e )Opoi c oitot oi v ei oiv e )Opoi c oitot oi v ei oiv e )Opoi c oitot oi v ei oiv e )Opoi 1oi c A )oioi c. 1oi c A )oioi c. 1oi c A )oioi c. 1oi c A )oioi c.


Enchiridion
40
This has been a long chapter BUT theres one more thing to do.
Those are the Greek words for one, no one, nothing. In Greek they
are based on the word one which in Greek is in the last chart for this
chapter.


MASCULINE FEMININE NEUTER CASE
ei c ei c ei c ei c ui o ui o ui o ui o e v e v e v e v
NOMINATIVE
E EE E vo c vo c vo c vo c uio c uio c uio c uio c e vo c e vo c e vo c e vo c
GENITIVE
E EE E vi vi vi vi uio uio uio uio e vi e vi e vi e vi
DATIVE
E EE E vo vo vo vo ui ov ui ov ui ov ui ov e v e v e v e v
ACCUSATIVE



The Greek word for no one or nothing has the same forms as you see
in the chart. The masculine and neuter forms just add ot o ot o ot o ot o or uo uo uo uo in front
of ei c ei c ei c ei c --- --- --- ---ot oei c, uoei c. ot oei c, uoei c. ot oei c, uoei c. ot oei c, uoei c. Only the ending is changed. For the feminine
forms add ot oe, uoe ot oe, uoe ot oe, uoe ot oe, uoe--- --- --- ---ot oeui o, uoeui o. ot oeui o, uoeui o. ot oeui o, uoeui o. ot oeui o, uoeui o.



Try reading these Greek sentences.

1. e v uio ue po, rottoi 1. e v uio ue po, rottoi 1. e v uio ue po, rottoi 1. e v uio ue po, rottoi A ) A ) A ) A )oioi oioi oioi oioi o re Oovov. o re Oovov. o re Oovov. o re Oovov.
2. A )ittet 2. A )ittet 2. A )ittet 2. A )ittet c ot oe vo e v 1u ro1ouu ei oev. c ot oe vo e v 1u ro1ouu ei oev. c ot oe vo e v 1u ro1ouu ei oev. c ot oe vo e v 1u ro1ouu ei oev.
3. o o1po1o 3. o o1po1o 3. o o1po1o 3. o o1po1o c ot oe c ot oe c ot oe c ot oe v e ooe ue1o v e ooe ue1o v e ooe ue1o v e ooe ue1o 1 1 1 1 v uo )v, o tto v uo )v, o tto v uo )v, o tto v uo )v, o tto ro v1o e ooe rpo ro v1o e ooe rpo ro v1o e ooe rpo ro v1o e ooe rpo
1 c uo )c. 1 c uo )c. 1 c uo )c. 1 c uo )c.
4. e rei 4. e rei 4. e rei 4. e rei o Kt xtuw pu 1oev, 1i c e o1i v; oi oc O otooet o Kt xtuw pu 1oev, 1i c e o1i v; oi oc O otooet o Kt xtuw pu 1oev, 1i c e o1i v; oi oc O otooet o Kt xtuw pu 1oev, 1i c e o1i v; oi oc O otooet c ei re uoei c. c ei re uoei c. c ei re uoei c. c ei re uoei c.
5. Hp 5. Hp 5. Hp 5. Hpi ouoc ue i ouoc ue i ouoc ue i ouoc ue v rev1 xov1o ti ot v rev1 xov1o ti ot v rev1 xov1o ti ot v rev1 xov1o ti ot c e )ei , E x1up o e vo ti o c e )ei , E x1up o e vo ti o c e )ei , E x1up o e vo ti o c e )ei , E x1up o e vo ti o v e )ei. v e )ei. v e )ei. v e )ei.



ETYMOLOGY

ue 1pov ue 1pov ue 1pov ue 1pov in Greek means measure. The English form of this root is
meter. Find as many words as you can with this root. (You will see it
combine with other Greek roots that make words almost identical to
English ones.)
Enchiridion
41
TRANSLATION HELP

u c u c u c u c thus, so
oe , o oe , o oe , o oe , o but, for, although, while




MYTHOLOGY

This passage is also from Book 3 of the Iliad. Some of the words are
difficult, but try to find as many of them as you can. Write out the Greek
words that you do not know, and be sure to ask about the Greek words that
you could not find. This passage is not simplified. Some of the spellings
and/or endings may be different from what you have seen. Try to see if you
can get a general meaning; dont spend a lot of time on any one word. Just
write it down and try to find the meaning. You can get the details in class.


After Helen goes to the wall and sees the Trojan elders there, King
Priam asks her about the identity of the Greek warriors that are fighting on
the plains in front of Troy.


u u u u c o p e oov Hpi ouoc o E te vv e xote ooo1o ouv c o p e oov Hpi ouoc o E te vv e xote ooo1o ouv c o p e oov Hpi ouoc o E te vv e xote ooo1o ouv c o p e oov Hpi ouoc o E te vv e xote ooo1o ouv
oet po ro poiO e tOot oo, oi tov 1e xoc, i Cet e uei o, oet po ro poiO e tOot oo, oi tov 1e xoc, i Cet e uei o, oet po ro poiO e tOot oo, oi tov 1e xoc, i Cet e uei o, oet po ro poiO e tOot oo, oi tov 1e xoc, i Cet e uei o,
o opo i o rpo 1epo v 1e ro oiv rot c 1e oi tot o opo i o rpo 1epo v 1e ro oiv rot c 1e oi tot o opo i o rpo 1epo v 1e ro oiv rot c 1e oi tot o opo i o rpo 1epo v 1e ro oiv rot c 1e oi totc 1e, c 1e, c 1e, c 1e, -- -- -- --
ot 1i uoi oi 1i e ooi Oeoi vt uoi oi 1ioi ei oiv, ot 1i uoi oi 1i e ooi Oeoi vt uoi oi 1ioi ei oiv, ot 1i uoi oi 1i e ooi Oeoi vt uoi oi 1ioi ei oiv, ot 1i uoi oi 1i e ooi Oeoi vt uoi oi 1ioi ei oiv,
oi uoi e ou puoov ro teuov rott ooxptv A )oiu v, oi uoi e ou puoov ro teuov rott ooxptv A )oiu v, oi uoi e ou puoov ro teuov rott ooxptv A )oiu v, oi uoi e ou puoov ro teuov rott ooxptv A )oiu v,-- -- -- -- 165
u c uoi xoi u c uoi xoi u c uoi xoi u c uoi xoi 1o vo o vopo retu piov e covou vc, 1o vo o vopo retu piov e covou vc, 1o vo o vopo retu piov e covou vc, 1o vo o vopo retu piov e covou vc,
o c 1ic o o e o1i o c 1ic o o e o1i o c 1ic o o e o1i o c 1ic o o e o1i v A )oio v A )oio v A )oio v A )oio c o v c o v c o v c o v p t c 1e ue oc 1e. p t c 1e ue oc 1e. p t c 1e ue oc 1e. p t c 1e ue oc 1e.
1oi ue 1oi ue 1oi ue 1oi ue v xe v xe v xe v xeoot xoi oot xoi oot xoi oot xoi uei Covec o ttoi eo oiv uei Covec o ttoi eo oiv uei Covec o ttoi eo oiv uei Covec o ttoi eo oiv
xoto xoto xoto xoto v o ot 1u e u v o ot 1u e u v o ot 1u e u v o ot 1u e u v ot ru i oov o oOotuoi oiv v ot ru i oov o oOotuoi oiv v ot ru i oov o oOotuoi oiv v ot ru i oov o oOotuoi oiv
ot o ot 1u epopo v ooit i o ot o ot 1u epopo v ooit i o ot o ot 1u epopo v ooit i o ot o ot 1u epopo v ooit i o p o vopi p o vopi p o vopi p o vopi e oixev. e oixev. e oixev. e oixev. 170

Iliad 3.161-170
Enchiridion
42
CHAPTER 11

In which we talk about subjunctive as we see it in quotes.

Youve studied Latin? You didnt understand the reasons why
subjunctive was used? You hated spending so much time with so little to
show for it? Good!

There are all sorts of rules for subjunctive in Greek, if you are writing
ancient Greek. So WE might have to come up with some atrocious sample
to prove that WE know it.

But--

Reading Greek is the goal. So, if you can live with some ambiguity in
verb forms, this lesson will be short and to the point.

1. Subjunctive is used for a variety of reasons, usually dealing with
emotions, wishes or other things that may or may not come true.

2. There is no future subjunctive because, in a way, future itself may
or may not come true. For subjunctive the tenses are present, aorist and
perfect.

3. The endings for the verbs in subjunctive are basically like other
endings except they become longer vowels. For example:
u uu u becomes u u u u

e e e e becomes

ei ei ei ei becomes

(These endings are actually the present subjunctive form of the verb
to be: u , c, , u uev, 1 u , c, , u uev, 1 u , c, , u uev, 1 u , c, , u uev, 1e, u oi e, u oi e, u oi e, u oi)

4. Subjunctives are generally used with present or future in the main
part of the sentence, which pretty much limits their appearance to
dialogue.
Enchiridion
43
5. There are NO AUGMENTS in subjunctives (just like infinitives and
participles.)

And most important:

6. They translate into English in the same way that the tenses you
have already seen are translated.

If you want the fuss, the accents, the reasons for use, more power to
you. But you DONT need them in order to be able to translate subjunctive.


Try the sentences below. They are all direct quotes.

1. 1. 1. 1. A oue uvuv ei re, e o A oue uvuv ei re, e o A oue uvuv ei re, e o A oue uvuv ei re, e o v A )ittet v A )ittet v A )ittet v A )ittet c e tO, oi A )oioi c e tO, oi A )oioi c e tO, oi A )oioi c e tO, oi A )oioi vix ootoiv. vix ootoiv. vix ootoiv. vix ootoiv.
2. 2. 2. 2. A )ittet A )ittet A )ittet A )ittet c e o, e o c e o, e o c e o, e o c e o, e o v A oue uvuv o1po1o v A oue uvuv o1po1o v A oue uvuv o1po1o v A oue uvuv o1po1o c , ot uo)ot uoi ue1o c , ot uo)ot uoi ue1o c , ot uo)ot uoi ue1o c , ot uo)ot uoi ue1o
1u v A )oiu v. 1u v A )oiu v. 1u v A )oiu v. 1u v A )oiu v.
3. 3. 3. 3. Hpi ouoc 1t povvoc Hpi ouoc 1t povvoc Hpi ouoc 1t povvoc Hpi ouoc 1t povvoc ei re, o o1ic o ei re, o o1ic o ei re, o o1ic o ei re, o o1ic o v u v u v u v u e Oe t uo )eoOoi rpo e Oe t uo )eoOoi rpo e Oe t uo )eoOoi rpo e Oe t uo )eoOoi rpo c 1ot c 1ot c 1ot c 1ot c c c c
A )oiot c, ot uevei e v Tpoi . A )oiot c, ot uevei e v Tpoi . A )oiot c, ot uevei e v Tpoi . A )oiot c, ot uevei e v Tpoi .
4. 4. 4. 4. Meve tooc e o, e o Meve tooc e o, e o Meve tooc e o, e o Meve tooc e o, e o v A te covopoc e uoi v A te covopoc e uoi v A te covopoc e uoi v A te covopoc e uoi uo )1oi, ot 1o uo )1oi, ot 1o uo )1oi, ot 1o uo )1oi, ot 1o v o rox1evu . v o rox1evu . v o rox1evu . v o rox1evu .
5. 5. 5. 5. A te covopoc ei re, e o A te covopoc ei re, e o A te covopoc ei re, e o A te covopoc ei re, e o v A )ittet v A )ittet v A )ittet v A )ittet c u c u c u c u uo )1oi, E te v ue1 e uot uo )1oi, E te v ue1 e uot uo )1oi, E te v ue1 e uot uo )1oi, E te v ue1 e uot
uevei . uevei . uevei . uevei .
6. 6. 6. 6. E EE E te v e o, e o te v e o, e o te v e o, e o te v e o, e o v Meve tooc u v Meve tooc u v Meve tooc u v Meve tooc u ti r Tpoi v, o A )oio ti r Tpoi v, o A )oio ti r Tpoi v, o A )oio ti r Tpoi v, o A )oio c o1po1o c o1po1o c o1po1o c o1po1o c c c c
vix oei. vix oei. vix oei. vix oei.
1. 1. 1. 1. A vopouo ) ei re, e reioo A vopouo ) ei re, e reioo A vopouo ) ei re, e reioo A vopouo ) ei re, e reioo v oi Oeoi v oi Oeoi v oi Oeoi v oi Oeoi e Oe tuoi, oi Tpuixoi e Oe tuoi, oi Tpuixoi e Oe tuoi, oi Tpuixoi e Oe tuoi, oi Tpuixoi
o roOovot v1oi. o roOovot v1oi. o roOovot v1oi. o roOovot v1oi.
8. 8. 8. 8. O otooet O otooet O otooet O otooet c e o, oi 1ivec o c e o, oi 1ivec o c e o, oi 1ivec o c e o, oi 1ivec o v u oi xpo 1io1oi 1ot v u oi xpo 1io1oi 1ot v u oi xpo 1io1oi 1ot v u oi xpo 1io1oi 1ot c rtot 1otc Tpoi c c rtot 1otc Tpoi c c rtot 1otc Tpoi c c rtot 1otc Tpoi c
e cotoiv e cotoiv e cotoiv e cotoiv. . . .
9. 9. 9. 9. E x1up ei re, e reioo E x1up ei re, e reioo E x1up ei re, e reioo E x1up ei re, e reioo v u v u v u v u u o voc, rottoi u o voc, rottoi u o voc, rottoi u o voc, rottoi Tpuixoi Tpuixoi Tpuixoi Tpuixoi o roOv oxotoiv. o roOv oxotoiv. o roOv oxotoiv. o roOv oxotoiv.
10. Zet Zet Zet Zet c e o, e o c e o, e o c e o, e o c e o, e o v e Oetu oot voi e tri oo 1oi c Tpuixoi c, H po o pi Ce1oi. v e Oetu oot voi e tri oo 1oi c Tpuixoi c, H po o pi Ce1oi. v e Oetu oot voi e tri oo 1oi c Tpuixoi c, H po o pi Ce1oi. v e Oetu oot voi e tri oo 1oi c Tpuixoi c, H po o pi Ce1oi.

Enchiridion
44

ETYMOLOGY

In Greek the word oe pu oe pu oe pu oe pu means carry. Find as many English words
as you can that have fer in them.


TRANSLATION HELP

1e 1e 1e 1e and (like --que in Latin)
oi wo oi wo oi wo oi wo quickly, forthwith


MYTHOLOGY


Try to do the passage below. When you see quotation marks, you
will have to look at the verb chart endings to see if the subject is I or
you. This passage is taken from Book 3 of the Iliad.

Helen continues to talk about the Greek warriors on the plain in her
conversation with Priam.

1o 1o 1o 1o v o E te v ut Ooioiv o uei e1o oi o tvoixu v v o E te v ut Ooioiv o uei e1o oi o tvoixu v v o E te v ut Ooioiv o uei e1o oi o tvoixu v v o E te v ut Ooioiv o uei e1o oi o tvoixu v
oi ooi o c 1e uoi e ooi, oi te e xtpe oi ooi o c 1e uoi e ooi, oi te e xtpe oi ooi o c 1e uoi e ooi, oi te e xtpe oi ooi o c 1e uoi e ooi, oi te e xtpe , oeivo c 1e , oeivo c 1e , oeivo c 1e , oeivo c 1e
u c o oetev Oo vo1o c uoi o oei v xoxo c, o rro 1e oet po u c o oetev Oo vo1o c uoi o oei v xoxo c, o rro 1e oet po u c o oetev Oo vo1o c uoi o oei v xoxo c, o rro 1e oet po u c o oetev Oo vo1o c uoi o oei v xoxo c, o rro 1e oet po
ti e i ou e ro uv, Oo touov vu1ot c 1e tirot oo ti e i ou e ro uv, Oo touov vu1ot c 1e tirot oo ti e i ou e ro uv, Oo touov vu1ot c 1e tirot oo ti e i ou e ro uv, Oo touov vu1ot c 1e tirot oo
roi oo 1e 1tte 1v xoi roi oo 1e 1tte 1v xoi roi oo 1e 1tte 1v xoi roi oo 1e 1tte 1v xoi o utixi v e po1eiv v. o utixi v e po1eiv v. o utixi v e po1eiv v. o utixi v e po1eiv v. 175
o tto o tto o tto o tto 1o ot x e e vov1o 1o 1o ot x e e vov1o 1o 1o ot x e e vov1o 1o 1o ot x e e vov1o 1o xoi xoi xoi xoi xtoi otoo 1e 1xo. xtoi otoo 1e 1xo. xtoi otoo 1e 1xo. xtoi otoo 1e 1xo.
1ot 1o oe 1oi 1ot 1o oe 1oi 1ot 1o oe 1oi 1ot 1o oe 1oi e pe u, o u o vei peoi oe e pe u, o u o vei peoi oe e pe u, o u o vei peoi oe e pe u, o u o vei peoi oe ue1otto c ue1otto c ue1otto c ue1otto c
ot 1oc A 1pei oc et pt ot 1oc A 1pei oc et pt ot 1oc A 1pei oc et pt ot 1oc A 1pei oc et pt xpei uv A oue uvuv, xpei uv A oue uvuv, xpei uv A oue uvuv, xpei uv A oue uvuv,
o uoo 1epov, ooitet c 1 o oOo o uoo 1epov, ooitet c 1 o oOo o uoo 1epov, ooitet c 1 o oOo o uoo 1epov, ooitet c 1 o oOo c xpo1epo c 1 oi )u1 c c xpo1epo c 1 oi )u1 c c xpo1epo c 1 oi )u1 c c xpo1epo c 1 oi )u1 c
oo oo oo oo p ot 1 e uo p ot 1 e uo p ot 1 e uo p ot 1 e uo c e oxe xtvu riooc, ei ro1 e v e. c e oxe xtvu riooc, ei ro1 e v e. c e oxe xtvu riooc, ei ro1 e v e. c e oxe xtvu riooc, ei ro1 e v e. 180

Iliad 3.171-180
Enchiridion
45
CHAPTER 12

In which we learn the optative mood.

This will be another short lesson.

Reasons for optative are mainly the same as reasons for subjunctive. Do
you need to know forms? Only if youre writing, not just reading Greek.
Frequency of use? More frequent than subjunctive, because optative is used
mainly with past tenses, which we see more frequently because not many brand
new ancient Greek works are coming off the presses.

What do you need to know?

1. Optative is used mainly in reference to the past, but it does have a future
(which usually gets translated as would.). It is also used to express wishes: if
only... (ei 1e, ei o ei 1e, ei o ei 1e, ei o ei 1e, ei o p pp p)

2. The signs for recognizing optative are simple most of the time. Before
the verb ending in an optative you will see --oi oi oi oi-- -- -- -- added for the present; --ooi ooi ooi ooi--
added for the the future; and --ooi ooi ooi ooi--added for the aorist (--oi oi oi oi--for second aorist).
The s/he, they endings may give you some trouble in the aorist but....

3. There are NO AUGMENTS for optatives (just like participles, infinitives
and subjunctives.)

4. The optative forms of ei ui ei ui ei ui ei ui -- -- -- --ei v, ei c, ei , ei uev, ei 1e, ei oov ei v, ei c, ei , ei uev, ei 1e, ei oov ei v, ei c, ei , ei uev, ei 1e, ei oov ei v, ei c, ei , ei uev, ei 1e, ei oov
are, as usual, different from the rest of the usual optative forms.



And most important:


5. Except for future optative (which gets translated as would,) they
translate into English the same way other verb moods (indicative, subjunctive)
have been translated.





Enchiridion
46

Try these sentences with optatives in them.


1. 1. 1. 1. A te covopoc e ooei 1o u A te covopoc e ooei 1o u A te covopoc e ooei 1o u A te covopoc e ooei 1o u Meve tooc ot 1o Meve tooc ot 1o Meve tooc ot 1o Meve tooc ot 1o v o rox1ei veiev. v o rox1ei veiev. v o rox1ei veiev. v o rox1ei veiev.
2. 2. 2. 2. e ee ei o i o i o i o p ro v1ec oi A )oioi p ro v1ec oi A )oioi p ro v1ec oi A )oioi p ro v1ec oi A )oioi o roOo voiev. o roOo voiev. o roOo voiev. o roOo voiev.
3. 3. 3. 3. oi Tpuixoi oi Tpuixoi oi Tpuixoi oi Tpuixoi e oo oov1o u e oo oov1o u e oo oov1o u e oo oov1o u A )ittet A )ittet A )ittet A )ittet c vi xeioc ei . c vi xeioc ei . c vi xeioc ei . c vi xeioc ei .
4. 4. 4. 4. ei Zet ei Zet ei Zet ei Zet c 1 c 1 c 1 c 1 v vi xv 1oi c Tpuixoi c ooi , H po ot 1o v vi xv 1oi c Tpuixoi c ooi , H po ot 1o v vi xv 1oi c Tpuixoi c ooi , H po ot 1o v vi xv 1oi c Tpuixoi c ooi , H po ot 1o v e re tOoi o v. v e re tOoi o v. v e re tOoi o v. v e re tOoi o v.
5. 5. 5. 5. ei A te covopoc e )oi E te vv, et ooi uuv ei v o v. ei A te covopoc e )oi E te vv, et ooi uuv ei v o v. ei A te covopoc e )oi E te vv, et ooi uuv ei v o v. ei A te covopoc e )oi E te vv, et ooi uuv ei v o v.
6. 6. 6. 6. ei o Kt xt ei o Kt xt ei o Kt xt ei o Kt xtuw u uw u uw u uw u ri oi 1o ri oi 1o ri oi 1o ri oi 1o v oi vov, 1ot v oi vov, 1ot v oi vov, 1ot v oi vov, 1ot c o vopoc O otooe uc oo oi o v. c o vopoc O otooe uc oo oi o v. c o vopoc O otooe uc oo oi o v. c o vopoc O otooe uc oo oi o v.
1. 1. 1. 1. O otooet O otooet O otooet O otooet c e ooei 1o u c e ooei 1o u c e ooei 1o u c e ooei 1o u o Kt xtuw ot ri oi 1o o Kt xtuw ot ri oi 1o o Kt xtuw ot ri oi 1o o Kt xtuw ot ri oi 1o v oi vov. v oi vov. v oi vov. v oi vov.
8. 8. 8. 8. ei A te covopoc A )itte o i ooi, opo uoi o v. ei A te covopoc A )itte o i ooi, opo uoi o v. ei A te covopoc A )itte o i ooi, opo uoi o v. ei A te covopoc A )itte o i ooi, opo uoi o v.
9. 9. 9. 9. o uo v1ic ei re o 1 ei E xo u o uo v1ic ei re o 1 ei E xo u o uo v1ic ei re o 1 ei E xo u o uo v1ic ei re o 1 ei E xo u 1e xoi A te covopov, ot x ei o 1e xoi A te covopov, ot x ei o 1e xoi A te covopov, ot x ei o 1e xoi A te covopov, ot x ei o v ro v ro v ro v ro teuoc teuoc teuoc teuoc
A )oio A )oio A )oio A )oio c rpo c rpo c rpo c rpo c Tpoi v. c Tpoi v. c Tpoi v. c Tpoi v.
10. E te v e ooei 1o u E te v e ooei 1o u E te v e ooei 1o u E te v e ooei 1o u Meve tooc ot 1 e oroi1o ei c Tpoi v. Meve tooc ot 1 e oroi1o ei c Tpoi v. Meve tooc ot 1 e oroi1o ei c Tpoi v. Meve tooc ot 1 e oroi1o ei c Tpoi v.



ETYMOLOGY

The suffix -i1ic i1ic i1ic i1ic gives the suffix -itis, which means inflammation of.
Write as many English words as you can which use this suffix.





TRANSLATION HELP

u c u c u c u c how, as, when, in order to


- -- -u c u c u c u c as an ending on an adjective to make it an adverb
(for example: bad, badly---xoxo c, xoxu c xoxo c, xoxu c xoxo c, xoxu c xoxo c, xoxu c)

Enchiridion
47
MYTHOLOGY

Below is another part of Helens conversation with Priam. They talk about
someone else that they see in front of the walls of Troy.

oet 1epov ot 1 O oto o i ou oet 1epov ot 1 O oto o i ou oet 1epov ot 1 O oto o i ou oet 1epov ot 1 O oto o i ou v e pe eiv o epoio c v e pe eiv o epoio c v e pe eiv o epoio c v e pe eiv o epoio c
ei r o e uoi xoi ei r o e uoi xoi ei r o e uoi xoi ei r o e uoi xoi 1o voe, oi tov 1e xoc, o o 1ic o o e o1i v 1o voe, oi tov 1e xoc, o o 1ic o o e o1i v 1o voe, oi tov 1e xoc, o o 1ic o o e o1i v 1o voe, oi tov 1e xoc, o o 1ic o o e o1i v
uei uv ue uei uv ue uei uv ue uei uv ue v xeoot A oue uvovoc A 1pei ooo, v xeoot A oue uvovoc A 1pei ooo, v xeoot A oue uvovoc A 1pei ooo, v xeoot A oue uvovoc A 1pei ooo,
et pt 1epoc o u uoioiv i oe et pt 1epoc o u uoioiv i oe et pt 1epoc o u uoioiv i oe et pt 1epoc o u uoioiv i oe o1e p o1e p o1e p o1e pvoioiv i oe oOoi. voioiv i oe oOoi. voioiv i oe oOoi. voioiv i oe oOoi.
1et )eo ue v oi xei 1oi e ri 1et )eo ue v oi xei 1oi e ri 1et )eo ue v oi xei 1oi e ri 1et )eo ue v oi xei 1oi e ri )Oovi )Oovi )Oovi )Oovi rottto1ei p, rottto1ei p, rottto1ei p, rottto1ei p, 195
ot 1o ot 1o ot 1o ot 1o c oe c oe c oe c oe x1i toc u c e rirutei 1oi o1i )oc o vopu v x1i toc u c e rirutei 1oi o1i )oc o vopu v x1i toc u c e rirutei 1oi o1i )oc o vopu v x1i toc u c e rirutei 1oi o1i )oc o vopu v
o pveiu uiv e u e e i oxu reoiuo ttu, o pveiu uiv e u e e i oxu reoiuo ttu, o pveiu uiv e u e e i oxu reoiuo ttu, o pveiu uiv e u e e i oxu reoiuo ttu,
o c 1 o i uv ue o ru t oie p)e1oi o pevvo uv. o c 1 o i uv ue o ru t oie p)e1oi o pevvo uv. o c 1 o i uv ue o ru t oie p)e1oi o pevvo uv. o c 1 o i uv ue o ru t oie p)e1oi o pevvo uv.
1o 1o 1o 1o v o uei e1 e reiO E v o uei e1 e reiO E v o uei e1 e reiO E v o uei e1 e reiO E te v Aio te v Aio te v Aio te v Aio c e xeoti o c e xeoti o c e xeoti o c e xeoti o
ot 1oc o ot Aoep1io oc rott u1ic O otooet c, ot 1oc o ot Aoep1io oc rott u1ic O otooet c, ot 1oc o ot Aoep1io oc rott u1ic O otooet c, ot 1oc o ot Aoep1io oc rott u1ic O otooet c, 200
o c 1po o e v o uu ! Oo xc xpovo c rep e ot oc o c 1po o e v o uu ! Oo xc xpovo c rep e ot oc o c 1po o e v o uu ! Oo xc xpovo c rep e ot oc o c 1po o e v o uu ! Oo xc xpovo c rep e ot oc
ei ou ei ou ei ou ei ou c rov1oi otc 1e oo totc xoi c rov1oi otc 1e oo totc xoi c rov1oi otc 1e oo totc xoi c rov1oi otc 1e oo totc xoi u oeo rtxvo . u oeo rtxvo . u oeo rtxvo . u oeo rtxvo .

Iliad 3.191-202
Enchiridion
48
CHAPTER 13

In which we see some dreaded irregular verbs.

Dont panic! Youve already seen some irregulars (e o1i v, v, e o, e oooov e o1i v, v, e o, e oooov e o1i v, v, e o, e oooov e o1i v, v, e o, e oooov).
If youd like to know all 300 forms for each of these irregular verbs, they should
be available in most traditional grammar books. Please feel free to investigate
them all.

However, to read Greek you need to recognize them when they appear.
(sound familiar yet?) Following the method weve used so far, examine the verb,
look for clues (singular/plural, active/middle/passive, tense) and try to find the
meaning of these hard to recognize words. If they appear so rarely, the best use
of time is not to memorize them.


How to recognize irregular verbs when you see them? First you have to
figure out how to look them up in the dictionary to find out their meaning, and
you also have to figure out how to translate them into English. Most, but not all,
have two distinct roots--one for present, future and imperfect; the other root for
aorist.

Heres a chart!

VERB PRES. STEM AOR. STEM MEANING
i o1ui i o1ui i o1ui i o1ui i o1 i o1 i o1 i o1-- -- -- -- -- -- -- --o1o o1o o1o o1o-- -- -- --
make a stand
1i Oui 1i Oui 1i Oui 1i Oui 1iO 1iO 1iO 1iO-- -- -- -- -- -- -- --Oe Oe Oe Oe-- -- -- --
place
oi ouui oi ouui oi ouui oi ouui oio oio oio oio-- -- -- -- -- -- -- --oo oo oo oo-- -- -- --
give
oei xvtui oei xvtui oei xvtui oei xvtui oeix oeix oeix oeix-- -- -- -- -- -- -- --oeic oeic oeic oeic-- -- -- --
show
i ui i ui i ui i ui i i i i -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --ei ei ei ei -- -- -- --
hurl, send
oui oui oui oui o o o o-- -- -- -- -- -- -- --ooi ooi ooi ooi-- -- -- --
speak
ei ui ei ui ei ui ei ui ei ei ei ei -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --i i i i -- -- -- --
go


If you see any of these you can pick out the tense by the spelling of the
root. Present stem gives present, future, imperfect (with augment), present
subjunctive, present and future optative. With the aorist stem, only the indicative
will have an augment--nothing else does.


Enchiridion
49

Try these sentences.

1. ot 1. ot 1. ot 1. ot uoi 1o uoi 1o uoi 1o uoi 1o iti ov e oooov. iti ov e oooov. iti ov e oooov. iti ov e oooov.
2. e o v uoi 1o 2. e o v uoi 1o 2. e o v uoi 1o 2. e o v uoi 1o iti ov oiou , ooi iti ov oiou , ooi iti ov oiou , ooi iti ov oiou , ooi te cu. te cu. te cu. te cu.
3. oi o1o v1ec e v 1u reoi u vix ootoiv. 3. oi o1o v1ec e v 1u reoi u vix ootoiv. 3. oi o1o v1ec e v 1u reoi u vix ootoiv. 3. oi o1o v1ec e v 1u reoi u vix ootoiv.
4. e u 4. e u 4. e u 4. e u ooi ooi ooi ooi oei coi 1o oei coi 1o oei coi 1o oei coi 1o iti ov e Oe tu. iti ov e Oe tu. iti ov e Oe tu. iti ov e Oe tu.
5. 1o 5. 1o 5. 1o 5. 1o iti ov e ri iti ov e ri iti ov e ri iti ov e ri 1u 1ei )ei e Oeoov. 1u 1ei )ei e Oeoov. 1u 1ei )ei e Oeoov. 1u 1ei )ei e Oeoov.


Unfortunately, these verbs are rather frequent and prefixes are often added
to them. Below is a list of these verbs with prefixes added.


o vooei xvtui o vooei xvtui o vooei xvtui o vooei xvtui
o vi ui o vi ui o vi ui o vi ui
o vi o1ui o vi o1ui o vi o1ui o vi o1ui
o rooi ouui o rooi ouui o rooi ouui o rooi ouui
o oi o1ui o oi o1ui o oi o1ui o oi o1ui
e xoei xvtui e xoei xvtui e xoei xvtui e xoei xvtui
e xoi ouui e xoi ouui e xoi ouui e xoi ouui
e vi ui e vi ui e vi ui e vi ui
e vi o1ui e vi o1ui e vi o1ui e vi o1ui
e v1i Oui e v1i Oui e v1i Oui e v1i Oui
e ceiui e ceiui e ceiui e ceiui
e ci ui e ci ui e ci ui e ci ui
e ci o1ui e ci o1ui e ci o1ui e ci o1ui
e rioi ouui e rioi ouui e rioi ouui e rioi ouui
e ri e ri e ri e ri1i Oui 1i Oui 1i Oui 1i Oui
e oi ui e oi ui e oi ui e oi ui
e oi o1ui e oi o1ui e oi o1ui e oi o1ui
xoOi ui xoOi ui xoOi ui xoOi ui
xoOi o1ui xoOi o1ui xoOi o1ui xoOi o1ui
xo1ooei xvtui xo1ooei xvtui xo1ooei xvtui xo1ooei xvtui
xo1ooi ouui xo1ooi ouui xo1ooi ouui xo1ooi ouui
xo1o1i Oui xo1o1i Oui xo1o1i Oui xo1o1i Oui
ueOi ui ueOi ui ueOi ui ueOi ui
ueOi o1ui ueOi o1ui ueOi o1ui ueOi o1ui
ue1o1i Oui ue1o1i Oui ue1o1i Oui ue1o1i Oui
ro peiui ro peiui ro peiui ro peiui
ropooei xvtui ropooei xvtui ropooei xvtui ropooei xvtui
ropooi ouui ropooi ouui ropooi ouui ropooi ouui
ropi ui ropi ui ropi ui ropi ui
ropi o1ui ropi o1ui ropi o1ui ropi o1ui
ropo1i Oui ropo1i Oui ropo1i Oui ropo1i Oui
repioi ouui repioi ouui repioi ouui repioi ouui
repii o1ui repii o1ui repii o1ui repii o1ui
repi1i Oui repi1i Oui repi1i Oui repi1i Oui
rpooi ouui rpooi ouui rpooi ouui rpooi ouui
rpooi ui rpooi ui rpooi ui rpooi ui
rpooi o1ui rpooi o1ui rpooi o1ui rpooi o1ui
rp rp rp rpoo1i Oui oo1i Oui oo1i Oui oo1i Oui
ot veiui ot veiui ot veiui ot veiui
otvi ui otvi ui otvi ui otvi ui
otvi o1ui otvi o1ui otvi o1ui otvi o1ui
otv1i Oui otv1i Oui otv1i Oui otv1i Oui
t rooei xvtui t rooei xvtui t rooei xvtui t rooei xvtui
t oi ui t oi ui t oi ui t oi ui
t oi o1ui t oi o1ui t oi o1ui t oi o1ui


The trick is to look for two things.

If there is an augment it comes after the prefix. With an augment
and the present root (the one you see in the dictionary form of the verb) it
can only be ?----imperfect. If you see an augment with a past root (given in
the chart) it must be? --a past tense of indicative only.

If there is no augment it might be present or future tense, but they
arent used very much, so look at the end of the word.
Enchiridion
50
Infinitive and participle endings are added at the end for present or
future (if added onto the present root); verb endings that look strange on a
present root mean present subjunctive or present/future optative.

Infinitive and participle endings added at the end of a past root
(given in the chart) make past participles and infinitives. Past tense verb
endings without an augment at the beginning of the verb mean past
subjunctive or optative.

Thoroughly confused? We wanted to prove to you that we know
what were doing, but this hurts us more than it hurts you because we
actually had to come up with the next exercise.

The real job is just to translate the words below; but all of these are
new vocabulary so rather than that, JUST tell as much as you can about the
words. For example: a translation like to ______ aorist--leave the
meaning blank; they were_______--leave the meaning blank; for the
technically inclined you can write 3rd person sing. aorist optative but
that is really cruel and unusual punishment, so if you decide to do that, you
might as well look up all the meanings for these irregular verbs.


1. o vooeixvt oo 1. o vooeixvt oo 1. o vooeixvt oo 1. o vooeixvt oo 16. e oei oov 16. e oei oov 16. e oei oov 16. e oei oov 31. repio1u oi 31. repio1u oi 31. repio1u oi 31. repio1u oi
2. o vi e1e 2. o vi e1e 2. o vi e1e 2. o vi e1e 11. xo1oO oeiv 11. xo1oO oeiv 11. xo1oO oeiv 11. xo1oO oeiv 32. repi Oev1ec 32. repi Oev1ec 32. repi Oev1ec 32. repi Oev1ec
3. o ve o1oov 3. o ve o1oov 3. o ve o1oov 3. o ve o1oov 1 11 18. xoOio1oi 8. xoOio1oi 8. xoOio1oi 8. xoOio1oi 33. rpooioo voi 33. rpooioo voi 33. rpooioo voi 33. rpooioo voi
4. o ro oooOoi 4. o ro oooOoi 4. o ro oooOoi 4. o ro oooOoi 19. xo1ooei coi 19. xo1ooei coi 19. xo1ooei coi 19. xo1ooei coi 34. rpooei oo 34. rpooei oo 34. rpooei oo 34. rpooei oo
5. o oi o1ovoi 5. o oi o1ovoi 5. o oi o1ovoi 5. o oi o1ovoi 2O. xo1ooot voi 2O. xo1ooot voi 2O. xo1ooot voi 2O. xo1ooot voi 35. rpooio1o oi 35. rpooio1o oi 35. rpooio1o oi 35. rpooio1o oi
6. e ce oeicov 6. e ce oeicov 6. e ce oeicov 6. e ce oeicov 21. ueO oeoOoi 21. ueO oeoOoi 21. ueO oeoOoi 21. ueO oeoOoi 36. rpoo1iO oeiv 36. rpoo1iO oeiv 36. rpoo1iO oeiv 36. rpoo1iO oeiv
1. e xoiooi 1. e xoiooi 1. e xoiooi 1. e xoiooi 22. ue1e Oeoov 22. ue1e Oeoov 22. ue1e Oeoov 22. ue1e Oeoov 31. otvie voi 31. otvie voi 31. otvie voi 31. otvie voi
8. e vei 8. e vei 8. e vei 8. e vei 23. u 23. u 23. u 23. ueOoo1 voi eOoo1 voi eOoo1 voi eOoo1 voi 38. otvi ev1ec 38. otvi ev1ec 38. otvi ev1ec 38. otvi ev1ec
9. e vo1 voi 9. e vo1 voi 9. e vo1 voi 9. e vo1 voi 24. ropoo uevoc 24. ropoo uevoc 24. ropoo uevoc 24. ropoo uevoc 39. otve o1oov 39. otve o1oov 39. otve o1oov 39. otve o1oov
1O. e ve Oxe 1O. e ve Oxe 1O. e ve Oxe 1O. e ve Oxe 25. ropooei coiev 25. ropooei coiev 25. ropooei coiev 25. ropooei coiev 4O. otvOei ev 4O. otvOei ev 4O. otvOei ev 4O. otvOei ev
11. e cie voi 11. e cie voi 11. e cie voi 11. e cie voi 26. ropooo v1ec 26. ropooo v1ec 26. ropooo v1ec 26. ropooo v1ec 41. t re oeico 41. t re oeico 41. t re oeico 41. t re oeico
12. e cio1oi ev 12. e cio1oi ev 12. e cio1oi ev 12. e cio1oi ev 21. ropoo1o v1ec 21. ropoo1o v1ec 21. ropoo1o v1ec 21. ropoo1o v1ec 42. t oei oov 42. t oei oov 42. t oei oov 42. t oei oov
13. e re oooov 13. e re oooov 13. e re oooov 13. e re oooov 28. ropoO 28. ropoO 28. ropoO 28. ropoOei voi ei voi ei voi ei voi 43. t oio1 oeiv 43. t oio1 oeiv 43. t oio1 oeiv 43. t oio1 oeiv
14. e re1i Oeoov 14. e re1i Oeoov 14. e re1i Oeoov 14. e re1i Oeoov 29. ropeioo uevoc 29. ropeioo uevoc 29. ropeioo uevoc 29. ropeioo uevoc
15. e oei c 15. e oei c 15. e oei c 15. e oei c 3O. repiooi ev 3O. repiooi ev 3O. repiooi ev 3O. repiooi ev



That was an extremely difficult exercise; normally you see the words
in the context of a story and that will be an easier task. Sorry.....
Enchiridion
51
ETYMOLOGY

In Greek the word e x e x e x e xmeans out and 1ouoc 1ouoc 1ouoc 1ouoc means cut. Find
English words with the suffix ectomy which means cut out.

TRANSLATION HELP

ot 1o p, o 1 ot 1o p, o 1 ot 1o p, o 1 ot 1o p, o 1 but, yet, however

1oi 1oi 1oi 1oi in Homer = ooi ooi ooi ooi


MYTHOLOGY

This is part of the famous scene in Book 6 of the Iliad when Andromache
talks to Hector on the walls of Troy and tells him how she feels.



o o o o o o re oot1o ou uo1oc E x1up o o re oot1o ou uo1oc E x1up o o re oot1o ou uo1oc E x1up o o re oot1o ou uo1oc E x1up 390
1 1 1 1 v ot 1 v ot 1 v ot 1 v ot 1 v o oo v o oo v o oo v o oo v ot 1ic e tx1iue voc xo1 o tio c. v ot 1ic e tx1iue voc xo1 o tio c. v ot 1ic e tx1iue voc xo1 o tio c. v ot 1ic e tx1iue voc xo1 o tio c.
et 1e rt toc i xove oiep)o uevoc ue o o o1t et 1e rt toc i xove oiep)o uevoc ue o o o1t et 1e rt toc i xove oiep)o uevoc ue o o o1t et 1e rt toc i xove oiep)o uevoc ue o o o1t
Zxoio c, 1 o p Zxoio c, 1 o p Zxoio c, 1 o p Zxoio c, 1 o p e uette oieci uevoi reoi ovoe, e uette oieci uevoi reoi ovoe, e uette oieci uevoi reoi ovoe, e uette oieci uevoi reoi ovoe,
e vO o to)oc rott oupoc e vov1i tOe Oe otoo e vO o to)oc rott oupoc e vov1i tOe Oe otoo e vO o to)oc rott oupoc e vov1i tOe Oe otoo e vO o to)oc rott oupoc e vov1i tOe Oe otoo
A vopouo ), Oto 1p ueot 1opoc H e1i uvoc, A vopouo ), Oto 1p ueot 1opoc H e1i uvoc, A vopouo ), Oto 1p ueot 1opoc H e1i uvoc, A vopouo ), Oto 1p ueot 1opoc H e1i uvoc, 395
H e1i uv, o c e voiev t ro H e1i uv, o c e voiev t ro H e1i uv, o c e voiev t ro H e1i uv, o c e voiev t ro Hto xu t te oo. Hto xu t te oo. Hto xu t te oo. Hto xu t te oo.
O t rortoxi , Kiti xeoo o vopeooiv o vo oouv O t rortoxi , Kiti xeoo o vopeooiv o vo oouv O t rortoxi , Kiti xeoo o vopeooiv o vo oouv O t rortoxi , Kiti xeoo o vopeooiv o vo oouv
1ot rep o 1ot rep o 1ot rep o 1ot rep o Oto 1p e Oto 1p e Oto 1p e Oto 1p e )eO E x1opi )otxoxopto1 . )eO E x1opi )otxoxopto1 . )eO E x1opi )otxoxopto1 . )eO E x1opi )otxoxopto1 .
oi e rei1 v1o, o uo o o uoi rotoc xi ev ot 1 . oi e rei1 v1o, o uo o o uoi rotoc xi ev ot 1 . oi e rei1 v1o, o uo o o uoi rotoc xi ev ot 1 . oi e rei1 v1o, o uo o o uoi rotoc xi ev ot 1 .
roi o e ri roi o e ri roi o e ri roi o e ri xo tru e )oto o 1oto opovo, v riov ot 1uc, xo tru e )oto o 1oto opovo, v riov ot 1uc, xo tru e )oto o 1oto opovo, v riov ot 1uc, xo tru e )oto o 1oto opovo, v riov ot 1uc, 400
E x1opi ov o or1o E x1opi ov o or1o E x1opi ov o or1o E x1opi ov o or1o v o ti xiov o o1e pi xotu , v o ti xiov o o1e pi xotu , v o ti xiov o o1e pi xotu , v o ti xiov o o1e pi xotu ,
1o v p E x1up xote eoxe Zxouo vopiov, ot 1o 1o v p E x1up xote eoxe Zxouo vopiov, ot 1o 1o v p E x1up xote eoxe Zxouo vopiov, ot 1o 1o v p E x1up xote eoxe Zxouo vopiov, ot 1o p oi p oi p oi p oi o ttoi o ttoi o ttoi o ttoi
A o1to vox1 oi oc o A o1to vox1 oi oc o A o1to vox1 oi oc o A o1to vox1 oi oc o p e pt e1o ! tiov E x1up. p e pt e1o ! tiov E x1up. p e pt e1o ! tiov E x1up. p e pt e1o ! tiov E x1up.
1oi o ue 1oi o ue 1oi o ue 1oi o ue v uei ooev i ou v uei ooev i ou v uei ooev i ou v uei ooev i ou v e c roi oo oiur v e c roi oo oiur v e c roi oo oiur v e c roi oo oiur
A vopouo ) oe oi o )i ropi o1o1o oo xpt )e otoo A vopouo ) oe oi o )i ropi o1o1o oo xpt )e otoo A vopouo ) oe oi o )i ropi o1o1o oo xpt )e otoo A vopouo ) oe oi o )i ropi o1o1o oo xpt )e otoo 405
e v 1 o po oi ot )eipi e v 1 o po oi ot )eipi e v 1 o po oi ot )eipi e v 1 o po oi ot )eipi e roc 1 e oo1 e x 1 o vo uoCev e roc 1 e oo1 e x 1 o vo uoCev e roc 1 e oo1 e x 1 o vo uoCev e roc 1 e oo1 e x 1 o vo uoCev
Enchiridion
52
ooiuo vie, oOi oei ooiuo vie, oOi oei ooiuo vie, oOi oei ooiuo vie, oOi oei oe 1o oe 1o oe 1o oe 1o oo oo oo oo v ue voc, ot o e teoi peic v ue voc, ot o e teoi peic v ue voc, ot o e teoi peic v ue voc, ot o e teoi peic
roi oo 1e vri o)ov xoi roi oo 1e vri o)ov xoi roi oo 1e vri o)ov xoi roi oo 1e vri o)ov xoi e u o uuopov, e u o uuopov, e u o uuopov, e u o uuopov, 1o )o ) p 1o )o ) p 1o )o ) p 1o )o ) p
oet e oouoi 1o )o o p oe xo1ox1eve otoiv A )oioi oet e oouoi 1o )o o p oe xo1ox1eve otoiv A )oioi oet e oouoi 1o )o o p oe xo1ox1eve otoiv A )oioi oet e oouoi 1o )o o p oe xo1ox1eve otoiv A )oioi
ro v1ec e oopuOe v1ec. e uoi ro v1ec e oopuOe v1ec. e uoi ro v1ec e oopuOe v1ec. e uoi ro v1ec e oopuOe v1ec. e uoi oe xe xe poiov ei oe xe xe poiov ei oe xe xe poiov ei oe xe xe poiov ei 410
oet o oouop1ot o )Oo vo ot uevoi ot o oet o oouop1ot o )Oo vo ot uevoi ot o oet o oouop1ot o )Oo vo ot uevoi ot o oet o oouop1ot o )Oo vo ot uevoi ot o p e 1 p e 1 p e 1 p e 1 o tt o tt o tt o tt
e o1oi Ootrup , e rei e o1oi Ootrup , e rei e o1oi Ootrup , e rei e o1oi Ootrup , e rei o o o o v ot e ro 1uov e ri orc, v ot e ro 1uov e ri orc, v ot e ro 1uov e ri orc, v ot e ro 1uov e ri orc,
o tt o )e ot oe uoi e o1i ro1 o tt o )e ot oe uoi e o1i ro1 o tt o )e ot oe uoi e o1i ro1 o tt o )e ot oe uoi e o1i ro1 p xoi p xoi p xoi p xoi ro 1vio u 1p. ro 1vio u 1p. ro 1vio u 1p. ro 1vio u 1p.
.............. .............. .............. ..............


E x1op, o 1o E x1op, o 1o E x1op, o 1o E x1op, o 1o p ot uoi e ooi ro1 p ot uoi e ooi ro1 p ot uoi e ooi ro1 p ot uoi e ooi ro1 p xoi p xoi p xoi p xoi ro 1vio u 1p ro 1vio u 1p ro 1vio u 1p ro 1vio u 1p
oe oe oe oe xooi v1oc, ot xooi v1oc, ot xooi v1oc, ot xooi v1oc, ot oe uoi Ootepo oe uoi Ootepo oe uoi Ootepo oe uoi Ootepo c ropoxoi 1c. c ropoxoi 1c. c ropoxoi 1c. c ropoxoi 1c. 430
o tt o e vt v e te oipe xoi o tt o e vt v e te oipe xoi o tt o e vt v e te oipe xoi o tt o e vt v e te oipe xoi ot 1ot ui uv e ri ot 1ot ui uv e ri ot 1ot ui uv e ri ot 1ot ui uv e ri rt pu, rt pu, rt pu, rt pu,
u u u u roi o o poovixo roi o o poovixo roi o o poovixo roi o o poovixo v O c ) pv 1e tvoi xo. v O c ) pv 1e tvoi xo. v O c ) pv 1e tvoi xo. v O c ) pv 1e tvoi xo.


Iliad 6.390-413; 6.429-32