Lord, thank you for this blessed day.

It is our hope, at this moment; you will give us strength to be determined and persevere and to constantly have you as our companion. We know how weak we are, since we had other good intentions and failed. Instill in us, oh Holy Spirit, your gift of fortitude so we can carry on, to do what we must do, to complete our task for today. Lord, be with us throughout this day and fill us with your unending love, as always .Amen

Ed.D. Balingit Ed.D. .HUMANITIES Art Appreciation Presented By Josephine S.


The close connection between religious rites and architecture is everywhere manifested. but also to be the centre of the cult of the royal dead. hypostyle halls. Egyptian architecture persistently maintained its traditions. virtually unchangeable and mysterious and these traits are reproduced in the architecture . The religious rites of the Egyptians were traditional . and as a consequence. The same desire to build for eternity was evident in the tombs of the nobles called Mastabas . Temples approached by impressive avenues of sphinxes-mythical monster . great courts. secret rooms. and perhaps by the size which also testified to the Pharaoh¶s power . ram or woman-posses in their massive pylons . the traditional form were perpetuated in spite of novel conditions . both tombs and temples. which suggest that the buildings were intended to last eternally. Greece and Rome. Persia. inner sanctuaries and dim .  Types of building.each with the body of a lion and the head of a a man. the dominant element of the vast monumental complex. Egyptian monumental architecture. and the component parts were all essential to the complete design. was expressed by the extremely stable shape. hawk . This is so because the purpose of the pyramids was not only to preserve the mummy of the Pharaoh for the return of the soul in the infinite hereafter. which is essentially a columnar and trabeated style is expressed mainly in pyramids and in temples. and when there is a need for change in methods of construction or in the material used.C. . ) Art in Ancient Egypt continued strangely unchanged through the various phases of foreign influence from Assyria. solid block like masses of rough masonry sketched in cut stone. It is impressive by its solemnity and gloom as well as by its solidity. by the static mass. Egyptian Architecture(4000-2280 B. a special character . Greek temples were each planned as one homogenous whole. The desire for permanence appropriate in a tomb.

C. .south . The vertical walls of each story of the Jiggorat were colored in the temple of Babylon. The effect may have been Garish. the stones were colored white .The distinguishing characteristics is the Jiggorat . but at the bast it was striking.yellow.blue. with rams leading from one platform to the next. the Assyria developed the arch and its multiple canopy.silver and gold from bottom to top . built at successive levels. east and west. built by Nebuchadnezzar ( 6th century B.). Shaped vaultdestined to be among the most important and influential devices in the history of architecture. Because of the use of bricks. The Jiggorat is like the modern building with setbacks . MESOPOTAMIAN ARCHITECTURE Mesopotamian Architecture is evident in its place and temples . black. In Mesopotamia . or tower. the corners of the Jiggorat pointed north .

so that a large building maybe erected. a low building of post-and ± postlintel constructions . the lintel.GREEK ARCHITECTURE( 1100-100 B. at the same time they are long.In this type of construction.C. Greek architecture in its most characteristic form is found in the temple..This is the simplest and earliest type of construction . long enough to reach from one to the other. Post-and-lintel construction is well adapted to wood Post-andbecause wooden beams are strong and are able to uphold the weight of a roof . posts are surrounded by a horizontal piece. two upright pieces. ) 1100As was the Egyptian temple. .

C. This combines use of column . BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE (AD200-1453) Byzantine takes its name from Byzantium later called Constantinople and now called Istanbul . Another characteristic of Roman architecture is the flat round dome that covers an entire building as in the Pantheon. 4000) The Romans adopted the columnar and trabeated style of the Greeks and developed also the arch and vault from the beginnings made by the Extruscans ( the early inhabitants of west-central Italy). thus in the Byzantine style the exterior loosely corresponds with the interior.and one characteristic features of Byzantine churches was that the forms of the vaults and domes were visible externally. ± A.    .   ROMAN ARCHITECTURE (1000 B.D. its architecture is characterized by a great central dome which had always been a traditional feature in the East . beam and arch of the Extruscans . The use of concrete allowed the Romans to build vaults of a magnitude never equaled till the introduction of steel for buildings in the 19¶th century . undisguised by any timbered roof.

. In the early churches.1500) Western architectures passed through three stages of development during the middle ages . 400. the plan was adopted to the shape of a cross by the addition of cross aisles between the nave and the choir. the building was one simple rectangle with an apse .D. Later. . The arms thus made are known as transepts . WESTERN ARCHITECTURE IN THE MIDDLE AGES( A. These are the Early Christians. Directly opposite the high altar at the west was the main entrance. Romanesque and Gothic .

The interiors of early Christian Churches were often decorated with Mosaics. internal lines of the basilica carried the eye of the visitor from door to the altar as their realistic climax of the structure. A second form of building as known the central type was designed around a central vertical axis instead of a longitudinal the long. in the Christian Church.Early Christian Architecture (A.400-700) The early Christian basilica grown in part from the Roman house where the earliest Christians met for worship. . In the classic temples the emphasis lay on the exterior.D. and in part from pagan basilicas. Apollinaire. the circular or octagonal buildings focused o the center. On the other hand. on the inside. as the case in S.

animals. Exemplified by S. the roof was supported by the huge buttresses and the entire well space was filled with small arches. Apollinaire in Classe. Examples are Notre Dame la Grande at Portiere (exterior) and the Abbaye-aux-Dames (interior). . though the arch. sometimes three.Romanesque Architecture (11th and 12th Centuries) Romanesque architecture is an extension and development of the Early Christian Basilica. especially in Venice. The Gothic style in architecture is known primarily for its cathedrals and churches. with a simple light weight. was pointed. There are also many beautiful palaces. like the Romanesque. Eventually the windows became so large that the walls ceased to have any function as walls. In the Gothic the human figure became the characteristic decoration. or fruit. figures. several small windows were combined in a compound arch. In the Romanesque church the façade sometimes has one doorway. of course. with or without carvings of conventional designs. a recessed doorway being filled with rows of saints or kings. this process was continued until the arches appeared only as stone tracery. Each was made with multiple orders. Where the Early Christian style is structurally light. and the rose window became large and important. The decorations. In this respect it resembles the Roman style-hence the name Romanesque (³Roman-ish´). In the Romanesque cathedral. flat wooden roof. The Gothic façade regularly had three doorways. The doorways changed too. In the Romanesque they were relatively simple moldings. also. the Romanesque has very heavy walls with a small window openings and a heavy stone arched or vaulted roof inside. in the Gothic. were much more elaborate.

the separates one story from the other. but rather a free use of the materials found in classic architecture. but they used these ideas freely. in a way that was original. For example. At the top of this building there is a large cornice. In the upper floors.Renaissance Architecture (Fifteenth and sixteenth centuries) In renaissance architecture the cathedral. There is also molding. the window space is filled with the compound arch of the Romanesque. Although Renaissance architecture is a return to the ideals of the Greeks and Romans. design by Michelozzo. we find the round arches of the Romans. or ³stringcourse´. as in Roman times. secular architecture cones to the fore. is no longer the typical building. or temple. The designers got their ideas from Greece and Rome. On the first floor a single arch occupies the space of two arches on the second and third floors. in the MediciRiccardi Palace at Florence. according to their own tastes. . it is not a slavish imitation. heavy enough to crown the whole mass of building.

The architectural framework remained close to that of the Renaissance. It is characterized primarily as a period of elaborate sculptural ornamentation. 1968). The churches of this period no longer use the Gothic nave and aisles. Peter¶s reveals interesting differences in style. although often it was far more spacious. The church of S. thus making a pattern in light and dark. It covers the drum and is not entirely in stylistic harmony with it. and excitement of the style. is crowded. the decorative pediments.Baroque Architecture (1600-1750) Baroque architecture flourished in the seventeenth century and in the opening years of the eighteenth century. and they may or may not have spires. the movement. which was designed by Michelangelo. Comparison of the apse and the façade of S. They often have domes or cupolas. shells and waves. . Often alcoves were built into the wall to receive statues. Carlo alle Quattro Fontane is an excellent example of the love for ornament. The apse. (Dudley & Paricy. and the heavy stringcourse. Columns and entablatures were decorated with garlands of flowers and fruit. In the façade itself we see the spirit of the Baroque in the massed columns which are doubled for the sake of ornament. but is had a profusion of carved decoration. the area is filled with chapels which take the place of the aisles. restlessness. Surfaces were frequently curved. the pilasters.

plans whose outlines were broken by protruding bay windows. By the middle of the 19th century. restless silhouettes. greater speed of travel that made it easier to visit Europe. Not all the Victorian buildings were bad. These styles were superficial and interchangeable. both the Greek and Gothic revivals were spent. at least the best of them were bold. but the crass vulgarity of the styles as a whole typified its age. or porches. . Italian villas and Swiss chalets jostled Victorian Gothic churches and Victorian classic post offices. and the spread of photography familiarized architects and public alike with historic architecture as never before. the Renaissance was eclectic in its attempted revival of Roman forms.The Nineteenth Century Architecture The nineteenth century is known as a period in eclecticism. In a sense. to be replaced by a bewildering variety of styles. and ill advised experiments in colored materials. Increasing wealth. eclecticism changed its flavor. They had in common. Eclecticism in architecture implies freedom on the part of the architect or client to choose among the styles of the past which seems to him most appropriate. towers. Beginning about 1890. in this age of materialism and ostentation.

The result. . French chateaux. At best. and sympathy for the forms of the past and remarkable ingenuity in adapting central beatin .Modern eclecticism was not only purer in style. and Renaissance palaces. therefore. plumbing and electric lighting to those forms. Spanish patios. Each of these styles was produced by its own social. it understood something of the flavor of the past as well as it forms. none of them could express the new conditions of life in the 20th century. economic. however. colonial cottages. modern eclecticism was marked by scholarship. where a single street might show examples of Gothic half-timbered houses. spiritual. was the chaos of any American suburb. taste. and geographic conditions.

steel. Van de Vlught. Neth. cage like skeleton of steel and reinforced concrete. architects. glass block. . by J. all varieties of synthetic and compressed materials. scientifically calculated to avoid waste.. high-pressure concrete. which is faster and easier to build. Strength is no longer synonymous with massiveness for more efficient new structural materials are used in varying forms. gypsum lumber. The supporting function is created by a light. wood. plastics. metal. and the versatile plywood. 1927.C. This principle was utilized in the Van Nelle tobacco factory in rotten dam. Reinforced concrete is made by pouring concrete over steel rods laid in temporary wooden moulds. chromium. copper. real and artificial stone. New materials came to be utilized-prestressed steel intension. cork. thus mushrooms-headed columns and slab like floors are poured together to become a single monolithic unit of great strength.A Brinkman and L.Modern Architecture Modern architecture is an attempt to interpret man¶s purpose through his building in a style free in relation to change and independent of fix symmetries.

thin shells. the University of Santo Tomas. In this country. Augustine Church. wood and coconut products. Landscapes in tourist spots attract foreigners. San Sebastian Church and some parts of the Intramuros . 1986).Philippine Architecture The Philippine has shown knowledge and expertise all the arts. One can note the predominance of native products used as material for edifices of apparently western architectural forms. the Ayala and Escolta . one can see that architecture in the Philippines has come up with the times. They are impressed with the local use of the latest in our architectural technology. The Cultural Center of the Philippines which was designed by Architect Leandro Locsin is the womb and bosom of the development of the Arts in the Philippines (Calsado. The use of concrete. along Roxas Boulevard. . reflect not only the living proofs of the antiquity of architecture in this country but trace back to the influence of Europe on this world regard the Far East as pagan and primitive. a wide choice of marble and other locally available products is becoming extensive. The old St.

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