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Mechanics of Materials

Dr. Alaa Alsaad


University of Duhok
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Chapter (6):
Stress and Strain
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Dr. Alaa Alsaad
University of Duhok
Chapter Outlines;
Stresses
Stresses on an Inclined Plane
Allowable Stress
Strains
Hookes Law: Modulus of Elasticity
6.1 Stresses
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Dr. Alaa Alsaad
University of Duhok
Stress is defined as force per unit area, or intensity of
the forces distributed over a given section.
Direct Stress ( or Normal Stress );
The stress ( ) in a member of cross-sectional
area ( A) subjected to an axial load ( P ) is ;
[ Units: N/m
2
( Pa ), kN/m
2
( kPa ), MN/m
2
( MPa ) ]
A positive sign is used to indicate a tensile stress
(tension), a negative sign to indicate a
compressive stress (compression)
6.1 Stresses
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Dr. Alaa Alsaad
University of Duhok
Example; The 80 kg lamp is supported by two rods AB and BC as shown. If AB
has a diameter of 10mm and BC has a diameter of 8mm, determine which rod
is subjected to the greater normal tress.
6.1 Stresses
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Dr. Alaa Alsaad
University of Duhok
Solution;
Internal loadings;
6.1 Stresses
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Dr. Alaa Alsaad
University of Duhok
Solution;
Normal stresses;
Rod BA is subjected to the greater normal tress.
6.1 Stresses
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Dr. Alaa Alsaad
University of Duhok
Shear Stress ;
Stress parallel to the plane is usually denoted Shear Stress ( ) " and
can be expressed as;
Units:
N/m
2
( Pa ), kN/m
2
( kPa ), MN/m
2
( MPa )
NOTES:
1) The maximum normal stress occurs when = 0.
2) The maximum shear stress occurs when = 45.
3) On the cross-section where maximum normal
stress occurs ( = 0 ), there is no shear stress.
6.1 Stresses
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Dr. Alaa Alsaad
University of Duhok
Example; The wooden strut shown is suspended
form a 10 mm diameter steel rod , which is
fastened to the wall. If the strut supports a vertical
load of 5 kN, compute the shear stress in the rod
at the wall.
Solution;
6.2 Stresses on an Inclined Plane
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Dr. Alaa Alsaad
University of Duhok
There are situations where stresses on a
plane that is not perpendicular to the
member axis are of interest, for
example, the direct stress and shear
stress along the interface of the
adhesively bonded scarf joint shown in
figure.
NOTE; A = area of inclined section.
6.2 Stresses on an Inclined Plane
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Dr. Alaa Alsaad
University of Duhok
Example; The bar shown a square cross section of 40mm depth and 40mm width. If
an axial force of 800 N is applied along the centroidal axis of the bars cross-
sectional area, determine the normal and shear stresses acting on the material along;
i. Section plane a-a
ii. Section plane b-b.
6.2 Stresses on an Inclined Plane
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Dr. Alaa Alsaad
University of Duhok
Solution;
i) Section a-a
6.2 Stresses on an Inclined Plane
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Dr. Alaa Alsaad
University of Duhok
Solution;
ii) Section b-b
6.3 Allowable Stress
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Dr. Alaa Alsaad
University of Duhok
To ensure safety, it is necessary to choose an allowable stress (
allow
,
allow
)
that restricts the applied load to one that less than the load the member can
fully support.
Factor of Safety ( F.S );
For design purpose;
6.3 Allowable Stress
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Dr. Alaa Alsaad
University of Duhok
Ex.(1); The suspender rod is supported
at its end by a fixed-connected circular
disk as shown. If the rod passes through
a 40 mm diameter hole, determine the
minimum required diameter of the rod
and the minimum thickness of the disk
needed to support the 20 kN load. The
allowable normal stress for the rod is

allow
= 60 MPa, and the allowable shear
stress for the disk is
allow
= 35 MPa .
6.3 Allowable Stress
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Dr. Alaa Alsaad
University of Duhok
Solution;
Diameter of the rod;
6.3 Allowable Stress
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Dr. Alaa Alsaad
University of Duhok
Solution;
Thickness of the disk;
6.3 Allowable Stress
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Dr. Alaa Alsaad
University of Duhok
Ex.(2);
6.3 Allowable Stress
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Dr. Alaa Alsaad
University of Duhok
Solution;
6.3 Allowable Stress
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Dr. Alaa Alsaad
University of Duhok
Solution;
6.3 Allowable Stress
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Dr. Alaa Alsaad
University of Duhok
Solution;
6.4 Strains
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Dr. Alaa Alsaad
University of Duhok
Strain is defined as deformation of a solid due to stress.
Direct Strain ( or Normal Strain );
The direct strain ( ), in the member in non-
dimensional form is defined as the change in length
per unit length of the member. Hence;
Strain is dimensionless.
L
A
= c
6.4 Strains
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Dr. Alaa Alsaad
University of Duhok
Shear Strain ( );
The shear strain ( ), in the member in non-
dimensional form is defined as ratio of the
shear displacement to length of the member.
Hence;
Strain is dimensionless.
L
x
=
6.4 Strains
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Dr. Alaa Alsaad
University of Duhok
Thermal Strain (
t
);
When the temperature of a component is increased or decreased the material
respectively expands or contracts.
Thermal Expansion, (or the increase in length) for most materials, results
from an increase in temperature. The extent of the expansion ( L ) depends
on the temperature change ( T ), the length of the part ( L
o
), and the
coefficient of thermal expansion ( ) of the material involved.
o
L T L A = A o
length initial L
e temperatur in change T
t coefficien thermal
heat to due elongation L
o
=
= A
=
= A
o
T
L
L
o
t
A =
A
= o c
6.5 Hookes Law: Modulus of Elasticity ( E )
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Dr. Alaa Alsaad
University of Duhok
If the strain is "elastic" Hooke's law may be used to define;
Young's modulus is also called the modulus of elasticity or stiffness and is a
measure of how much strain occurs due to a given stress.
Because strain is dimensionless Young's modulus has the units of stress or
pressure.
[ Units: N/m
2
( Pa ), kN/m
2
( kPa ), MN/m
2
( MPa ) ]
c
o
=
Strain
Stress
= E Modulus Youngs ) (
6.5 Hookes Law: Modulus of Elasticity ( E )
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Dr. Alaa Alsaad
University of Duhok
AE
P
E
E = = =
o
c c o
From Hookes Law:
From the definition of strain:
L
A
= c
Equating and solving for the deformation,
AE
PL
= A
6.5 Hookes Law: Modulus of Elasticity ( E )
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Dr. Alaa Alsaad
University of Duhok
Example; For the rigid beam shown in figure find the vertical movements at
points A and C.
6.5 Hookes Law: Modulus of Elasticity ( E )
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Dr. Alaa Alsaad
University of Duhok
mm
AE
PL
kN P
P = M
al
al
al
al C
78 . 1
) 10 70 )( 500 (
) 10 3 )( 10 83 . 20 (
83 . 20
0 ) 5 . 2 )( 50 ( ) 6 ( 0
aluminum For
3
3 3
= A


= A
= A
=
=

6.5 Hookes Law: Modulus of Elasticity ( E )


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Dr. Alaa Alsaad
University of Duhok
mm
AE
PL
kN P
P = M
al
al
al
st A
94 . 1
) 10 200 )( 300 (
) 10 4 )( 10 17 . 29 (
17 . 29
0 ) 5 . 3 )( 50 ( ) 6 ( 0
steel For
3
3 3
= A


= A
= A
=
=

H.W
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Dr. Alaa Alsaad
University of Duhok
For the rigid beam shown in figure find the vertical movements at points B and C.
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Dr. Alaa Alsaad
University of Duhok
Q.1 ) A short column has a rectangular
cross section with sides in the ratio 1:2 .
Determine the minimum dimensions of the
column section if the column carries an
axial load of 800kN and the allowable
stress of the material of the column is
400N/mm
2
.
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Dr. Alaa Alsaad
University of Duhok
Q.2 ) A steel column is hollow and circular
in cross section with an external diameter of
350 mm and an internal diameter of
300 mm. It carries a compressive axial load
of 2000 kN. Determine the direct stress in
the column.
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Dr. Alaa Alsaad
University of Duhok
Q.3 ) A hollow steel tube with an inside
diameter of 100 mm must carry a tensile
load of 400 kN. Determine the outside
diameter of the tube if the stress is limited
to 120 MN/m
2
.
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Dr. Alaa Alsaad
University of Duhok
Q.4 )
Given:
Shear strength of plate = 280 MPa
Allowable compressive stress of punch = 350 Mpa
Find; Maximum thickness of plate to punch a 65 mm
diameter hole.
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Dr. Alaa Alsaad
University of Duhok
Q.5) Determine the minimum required
diameter of the rod and the minimum thickness
of the plate needed to support the 150 kN load.
The allowable normal stress for the rod is

allow
= 175 MPa, and the allowable shear
stress for the plate is
allow
= 115 MPa