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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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You are on page 1of 34

University of Duhok

1

Chapter (6):

Stress and Strain

2

Dr. Alaa Alsaad

University of Duhok

Chapter Outlines;

Stresses

Stresses on an Inclined Plane

Allowable Stress

Strains

Hookes Law: Modulus of Elasticity

6.1 Stresses

3

Dr. Alaa Alsaad

University of Duhok

Stress is defined as force per unit area, or intensity of

the forces distributed over a given section.

Direct Stress ( or Normal Stress );

The stress ( ) in a member of cross-sectional

area ( A) subjected to an axial load ( P ) is ;

[ Units: N/m

2

( Pa ), kN/m

2

( kPa ), MN/m

2

( MPa ) ]

A positive sign is used to indicate a tensile stress

(tension), a negative sign to indicate a

compressive stress (compression)

6.1 Stresses

4

Dr. Alaa Alsaad

University of Duhok

Example; The 80 kg lamp is supported by two rods AB and BC as shown. If AB

has a diameter of 10mm and BC has a diameter of 8mm, determine which rod

is subjected to the greater normal tress.

6.1 Stresses

5

Dr. Alaa Alsaad

University of Duhok

Solution;

Internal loadings;

6.1 Stresses

6

Dr. Alaa Alsaad

University of Duhok

Solution;

Normal stresses;

Rod BA is subjected to the greater normal tress.

6.1 Stresses

7

Dr. Alaa Alsaad

University of Duhok

Shear Stress ;

Stress parallel to the plane is usually denoted Shear Stress ( ) " and

can be expressed as;

Units:

N/m

2

( Pa ), kN/m

2

( kPa ), MN/m

2

( MPa )

NOTES:

1) The maximum normal stress occurs when = 0.

2) The maximum shear stress occurs when = 45.

3) On the cross-section where maximum normal

stress occurs ( = 0 ), there is no shear stress.

6.1 Stresses

8

Dr. Alaa Alsaad

University of Duhok

Example; The wooden strut shown is suspended

form a 10 mm diameter steel rod , which is

fastened to the wall. If the strut supports a vertical

load of 5 kN, compute the shear stress in the rod

at the wall.

Solution;

6.2 Stresses on an Inclined Plane

9

Dr. Alaa Alsaad

University of Duhok

There are situations where stresses on a

plane that is not perpendicular to the

member axis are of interest, for

example, the direct stress and shear

stress along the interface of the

adhesively bonded scarf joint shown in

figure.

NOTE; A = area of inclined section.

6.2 Stresses on an Inclined Plane

10

Dr. Alaa Alsaad

University of Duhok

Example; The bar shown a square cross section of 40mm depth and 40mm width. If

an axial force of 800 N is applied along the centroidal axis of the bars cross-

sectional area, determine the normal and shear stresses acting on the material along;

i. Section plane a-a

ii. Section plane b-b.

6.2 Stresses on an Inclined Plane

11

Dr. Alaa Alsaad

University of Duhok

Solution;

i) Section a-a

6.2 Stresses on an Inclined Plane

12

Dr. Alaa Alsaad

University of Duhok

Solution;

ii) Section b-b

6.3 Allowable Stress

13

Dr. Alaa Alsaad

University of Duhok

To ensure safety, it is necessary to choose an allowable stress (

allow

,

allow

)

that restricts the applied load to one that less than the load the member can

fully support.

Factor of Safety ( F.S );

For design purpose;

6.3 Allowable Stress

14

Dr. Alaa Alsaad

University of Duhok

Ex.(1); The suspender rod is supported

at its end by a fixed-connected circular

disk as shown. If the rod passes through

a 40 mm diameter hole, determine the

minimum required diameter of the rod

and the minimum thickness of the disk

needed to support the 20 kN load. The

allowable normal stress for the rod is

allow

= 60 MPa, and the allowable shear

stress for the disk is

allow

= 35 MPa .

6.3 Allowable Stress

15

Dr. Alaa Alsaad

University of Duhok

Solution;

Diameter of the rod;

6.3 Allowable Stress

16

Dr. Alaa Alsaad

University of Duhok

Solution;

Thickness of the disk;

6.3 Allowable Stress

17

Dr. Alaa Alsaad

University of Duhok

Ex.(2);

6.3 Allowable Stress

18

Dr. Alaa Alsaad

University of Duhok

Solution;

6.3 Allowable Stress

19

Dr. Alaa Alsaad

University of Duhok

Solution;

6.3 Allowable Stress

20

Dr. Alaa Alsaad

University of Duhok

Solution;

6.4 Strains

21

Dr. Alaa Alsaad

University of Duhok

Strain is defined as deformation of a solid due to stress.

Direct Strain ( or Normal Strain );

The direct strain ( ), in the member in non-

dimensional form is defined as the change in length

per unit length of the member. Hence;

Strain is dimensionless.

L

A

= c

6.4 Strains

22

Dr. Alaa Alsaad

University of Duhok

Shear Strain ( );

The shear strain ( ), in the member in non-

dimensional form is defined as ratio of the

shear displacement to length of the member.

Hence;

Strain is dimensionless.

L

x

=

6.4 Strains

23

Dr. Alaa Alsaad

University of Duhok

Thermal Strain (

t

);

When the temperature of a component is increased or decreased the material

respectively expands or contracts.

Thermal Expansion, (or the increase in length) for most materials, results

from an increase in temperature. The extent of the expansion ( L ) depends

on the temperature change ( T ), the length of the part ( L

o

), and the

coefficient of thermal expansion ( ) of the material involved.

o

L T L A = A o

length initial L

e temperatur in change T

t coefficien thermal

heat to due elongation L

o

=

= A

=

= A

o

T

L

L

o

t

A =

A

= o c

6.5 Hookes Law: Modulus of Elasticity ( E )

24

Dr. Alaa Alsaad

University of Duhok

If the strain is "elastic" Hooke's law may be used to define;

Young's modulus is also called the modulus of elasticity or stiffness and is a

measure of how much strain occurs due to a given stress.

Because strain is dimensionless Young's modulus has the units of stress or

pressure.

[ Units: N/m

2

( Pa ), kN/m

2

( kPa ), MN/m

2

( MPa ) ]

c

o

=

Strain

Stress

= E Modulus Youngs ) (

6.5 Hookes Law: Modulus of Elasticity ( E )

25

Dr. Alaa Alsaad

University of Duhok

AE

P

E

E = = =

o

c c o

From Hookes Law:

From the definition of strain:

L

A

= c

Equating and solving for the deformation,

AE

PL

= A

6.5 Hookes Law: Modulus of Elasticity ( E )

26

Dr. Alaa Alsaad

University of Duhok

Example; For the rigid beam shown in figure find the vertical movements at

points A and C.

6.5 Hookes Law: Modulus of Elasticity ( E )

27

Dr. Alaa Alsaad

University of Duhok

mm

AE

PL

kN P

P = M

al

al

al

al C

78 . 1

) 10 70 )( 500 (

) 10 3 )( 10 83 . 20 (

83 . 20

0 ) 5 . 2 )( 50 ( ) 6 ( 0

aluminum For

3

3 3

= A

= A

= A

=

=

28

Dr. Alaa Alsaad

University of Duhok

mm

AE

PL

kN P

P = M

al

al

al

st A

94 . 1

) 10 200 )( 300 (

) 10 4 )( 10 17 . 29 (

17 . 29

0 ) 5 . 3 )( 50 ( ) 6 ( 0

steel For

3

3 3

= A

= A

= A

=

=

H.W

29

Dr. Alaa Alsaad

University of Duhok

For the rigid beam shown in figure find the vertical movements at points B and C.

30

Dr. Alaa Alsaad

University of Duhok

Q.1 ) A short column has a rectangular

cross section with sides in the ratio 1:2 .

Determine the minimum dimensions of the

column section if the column carries an

axial load of 800kN and the allowable

stress of the material of the column is

400N/mm

2

.

31

Dr. Alaa Alsaad

University of Duhok

Q.2 ) A steel column is hollow and circular

in cross section with an external diameter of

350 mm and an internal diameter of

300 mm. It carries a compressive axial load

of 2000 kN. Determine the direct stress in

the column.

32

Dr. Alaa Alsaad

University of Duhok

Q.3 ) A hollow steel tube with an inside

diameter of 100 mm must carry a tensile

load of 400 kN. Determine the outside

diameter of the tube if the stress is limited

to 120 MN/m

2

.

33

Dr. Alaa Alsaad

University of Duhok

Q.4 )

Given:

Shear strength of plate = 280 MPa

Allowable compressive stress of punch = 350 Mpa

Find; Maximum thickness of plate to punch a 65 mm

diameter hole.

34

Dr. Alaa Alsaad

University of Duhok

Q.5) Determine the minimum required

diameter of the rod and the minimum thickness

of the plate needed to support the 150 kN load.

The allowable normal stress for the rod is

allow

= 175 MPa, and the allowable shear

stress for the plate is

allow

= 115 MPa

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