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Psychology

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Psychology

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Psychology

History · Subfields

Basic science

Abnormal · Biological Cognitive · Comparative Cultural · Developmental Evolutionary · Experimental Mathematical · Personality Positive · Social

Applied science

Clinical · Consumer Educational · Health Industrial and organizational Law · Military Occupational health · Pastoral Political · School · Sport

Lists

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Portal

v·d·e

Further information: Outline of psychology and Index of psychology articles

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de eloped client centered therapy. ater, positi e psychology opened p h m anistic themes to scientific modes of e ploration. [edit] Gestalt

Main article: Gestalt psychology
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Wolfgang Kohler, a Wertheimer and K rt Koffka co fo nded the school of Gestalt psychology. his approach is ased pon holes. his approach to psychology egan in Germany and A stria

different than the s m of its parts.

psychology. [edit] Existentialism

Main article: Existential therapy
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Bins anger and American psychologist George Kelly may e said to elong to the e istential school. [edit] Cognitivism

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This section needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.(June 2010)

Main articles: Cognitivism (psychology) and Cognitive psychology

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ogniti e psychology is the ranch of psychology that st dies mentalprocesses incl ding ho

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the rain. With the rise ofcomp t er science and artificial intelligence analogies ,

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dominant paradigm of mainstream psychology, andcogniti e psychology emerged as a pop l ar ranch. Ass m ing oth that the co ert mind sho l d e st died and that the scientific method sho ld e sed to st dy it, cognite i

mind or the eha ioristic contingency shaped eha iors. Elements of eha iorism and cogniti e psychology c synthesi ed to form the asis of ogniti e eha ioral therapy, a form of psychotherapy modified from techni American psychologist Al ert Ellis and American psychiatrist Aaron . Beck. ogniti e psychology

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[edit] Biopsychosocial

model

Main article: Biopsychosocial model
The i opsychosocial model is an integrated perspecti e to ard nderstanding conscio sness, eha ior, and social interaction. It ass m es that any gi en eha ior or mental process affects and is affected y dynamically interrelated i ological, psychological, and social factors. The psychological aspect refers to the role that cognition and emotions play in any gi en psychological phenomenon for e ample, the effect of mood or eliefs and e pectations on an indi id al's reactions to an n e ent. The biological aspect refers to the role of i ological factors in psychological phenome a for e ample, the effect of the prenatal en ironment on rain de elopment and cogniti e a i lities, or the infl ence of genes on indi id al dispositions. The socio-cultural aspect refers to the role that social and c lt ral en ironments play in a gi en pschological phenomenon for y e ample, the role of parental or peer infl ence in the eha iors or characteristics of an indi id al. [edit] S

fields

Main article: Subfields of psychology Further information: List of psychology topics and List of psychology disciplines
Psychology encompasses a ast domain, and incl des many different approaches to the st dy of mental processes and eha ior.

[edit] Biological

Main articles: Biological psychology, Neuropsychology, Physiological psychology, and Cognitive neuroscience

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aspects and e tent of cogniti e deficit ca sed y rain damage or disease. [edit] Clinical

Main articles: Clinical psychology and Counseling psychology

linical psychology incl des the st dy and application of psychology for the p rpose of nderstanding, pre enting, and relie ing j ecti e ell eingand personal de elopment.

practice are psychological assessment andpsychotherapy, altho gh clinical psychologists may also engage in research, teaching, cons ltation, forensic testimony, and program de elopment and administration. Some clinical psychologists may
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[edit] Cognitive

Main article: Cognitive psychology
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[edit] Comparative

Main article: Comparative psychology

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Comparati e psychology refers to the st dy of the eha ior and mental life ofanimals other than h m an eings. It is related to disciplines o t side of psychology that st dy animal eha ior s c h asethology. Altho gh the field of psychology is primarily

comparison or ia animal models of emotional and eha ior systems as seen in ne roscience of psychology e.g.,affecti e ne roscience and social ne roscience . [edit] Developmental

Main article: Developmental psychology

ainly foc sing on the de elopment of the h m an mind thro gh the life span,de elopmental psychology seeks to nderstand people come to percei e, nderstand, and act ithin the orld and ho these processes change as they age. This may ho st dy children se a n m er of ni

research methods to make o ser ations in nat ral settings or to engage them in e perimental tasks. S ch tasks often resem l e e specially designed games and acti ities that ar oth enjoya l e for the child and scientifically sef l, and researchers ha e e en de ised cle er methods to st dy the mental processes of small infants. In addition to st dying children, de elopmental psychologists also st dy aging and processes thro gho t the life span, especially at other times of rapid change s ch as

research. [edit] Educational

and school

Main articles: Educational psychology and School psychology

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[edit] Industrial±organizational

Main article: Industrial and organizational psychology
Ind strial and organi ational psychology I±O applies psychological concepts and methods to optimi e h m an potential in the

[edit] Personality

Main article: Personality psychology

to aspersonality. Theories of personality ary across different psychological schools and orientations. They carry different ass m ptions a o t s ch iss es as the role of the nconscio s and the importance of childhood e perience. According to Fre d, personality is ased on the dynamic interactions of theid, ego, and s per ego.
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personality in terms of a discrete n m er of key traits ythe statistical method of factor analysis. The n m er of proposed traits

personality: e tra ersion±intro ersion, ne roticism, and psychoticism.Raymond Cattell proposed a theory of

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[edit] Social

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Research in most areas of psychology is cond cted in accord

researchers seek the emergence of theoretically interesting categories and hypotheses from data,

Q alitati e psychological research methods incl de inter ie s, first hand o ser ation, and participant o ser ation. Q alitati e

Q antitati e psychological research lends itself to the statistical testing of hypotheses. Q antitati ely oriented research designs

and operationali ation of important constr cts is an essential part of these research designs. Statistical methods incl de the Pearson prod ct±moment correlation coefficient, the analysis of ariance, m ltiple linear regression, logistic regression, str ct ral e [edit] Controlled ation modeling, and hierarchical linear modeling.

experiments

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on E perimental psychological research is cond cted in a la oratory nder controlled conditions. This method of research relies the application of the scientific method to nderstand eha ior. E perimenters se se eral types of meas rements, incl ding rate of response, reaction time, and ario s psychometric meas rements. E periments are designed to test specific hypotheses ded cti e approach or e al ate f nctional relationships i nd cti e approach . Atr e

aspects of eha ior and the en ironment. In an e periment, one or more aria l es of interest are controlled y the e perimenter independent aria l e and another aria l e is meas red in response to different conditions dependent aria l e . E periments

are one of the primary research methods in many areas of psychology, partic l arly cogniti e/psychonomics, mathematical psychology,psychophysiology and i ological psychology/cogniti e ne roscience.

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Main article: Neuropsychology

Phineas P. Gage s r i ed an accident in hich a large iron rod as dri encompletely thro gh his head, destroying m ch of his r ain's left frontal lo e, and is remem ered for that inj r y's reported effects on his personality and eha ior.

ne ropsychology and cogniti e ne ropsychiatry st dy ne rological or mental impairment in an attempt to infer theories of normal mind and rain f nction. This typically in ol es looking for differences in patterns of remaining a ility kno n as

a single cogniti e mechanism.

eha ioral e periments, rain scanning or f nctional ne roimaging, sed to e amine the acti ity of the rain d ring task

to re eal their importance in mental operations. [edit] Computational

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Artificial ne r al net ork ith t o layers, an interconnected gro p of nodes, akin to the ast net ork of ne r ons in the h man r ain.

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modeling incl de dynamic systems and stochastic modeling. [edit] Animal

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memory.

physiologist I an Pa lo famo sly sed dogs to demonstrate classical conditioning. Non h m an primates, cats, dogs, pigeons, rats and other rodents are often sed in psychological e periments. Ideally, controlled e periments introd c e only

generali ing findings from animal st dies to h m ans altho gh animal models can e helpf l in de eloping an nderstanding of h m an eha ior e.g., addiction research . [edit] Criticism [edit]Theory Criticisms of psychology often come from perceptions that it is a soft science. Philosopher of science Thomas K hn's
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