You are on page 1of 3

bmK-Kt- h-jWw F {]l-k\w

Hcp Imev Zpcm-Nm-ca


- mbn `mc-Xs th-bm-Sn-bn-cp bmK- ]p\-cp-cn-m Cv tIc-f
- nse Nne hn`m-K InWp ]cn-{i-an-p-p-sh-Xv
Bi-m-P\
- I
- a
- m-Wv. aqhm-bncw hjw ap]v sshZn-IP
- \
- X tZh-Isf {]oXn-s-Spp-hm \S-n-bn-cp NS-p-I hn]p-eo-Ic
- nv ]ptcm-ln-Xh
- w [\-em-`
- n\pw
kaq-l
- n D-ayw m]n-m\pw cq]-s-Sp-n-bX
- mWp bmK- Fp
Ncn{Xw ]d-bp-p. Cl-nepw ]c-n-ep-ap khn-ti-jk
- n-n-I t\Sm-sap
hymtam-lnv cmPm-am-cn \npw bmK-n\p `oa-amb ZnW ]nSpn ]ptcmln-Xh
- w [q-Po-hnXw \bn-p. arK-_e
- nbpw amwk-t`m-P\
- hpw el-cn-tkhbpw bmK-f
- psS Ahn-`m-Py-LS- I
-
- f
- m-bn-cp-p. lnpaX-n\p Xs `mc-ambn-o bmK-t- fm-Sp {]Xn-tj-[
- n \nmWp _p-s
- sP\ aX-
Dcp-n-cn-bp-X
- v. NmXphWy-sa kmaq-lnI Ak-aXzw Dun-bp-d
- n-m bmK ]p-hl
- n-n-p-v. ssl-hN
- n-I
- s
- cmw ]nm-ep bmKs \ncm-Icn-n-p-v.
{]mNo-\- Zpcm-Nm-csf, Ncn-{X-kX
- y- aqSn-shv al-m-sbmcp Bob
I-ambn Cs kaq-l
- n\p apn Ah-Xc
- n-n-p-X
- n\p ]nn-ep KqVe-y-sf Xncn-d- n-tb-X
- p-v. Ign 35 hj-f
- mbn tIc-f
- n bmK-]p\-cp-m\w DuPn-Xa
- mbn \S-p-t]m-cpp FXp Cu \mSn\p em-Ic
- a
- m-Wv.
tZi-hn-tZ-i
- f
- n \np tImSn-W
-
- n\p cq]-bpsS ^p tiJ-cnp [qSn-m-\p thZn-I-fm-bn-cn-pp tIc-f-nse B[p-\n-I-bm-K-im-e-I. Cu
Ipkn-X- {]-h-\
- f
- n Chn-Ss imkv{X-cpw ]WvUn-Xcpw ]m-fn-Ifm-Ipp FXv Atem-kc
- s
- -Sp-p kXy-am-Wv. \nn]vX Xm]-cy-tm-SpIq-Snb Cu Ahn-ip _mhw Ghpw {]I-Sa
- m-Wv.
cp amkw ap]v ]mm-fn hp \S AXn-cm-{X-ns thf-bn-emWv
. {]i-kvXc
- mb Hcp kwLw ko\n-b imkv{X-cpw s{]m^-kamcpw bmK-thf-bnse {]Xn-`m-k
- s
- f-p-dnp imkv{Xo-bK
- t- h-jWw \S-m aptmp hp.
Cu Kth-jW
- k
- w-cw`w kmam-\y-_p-nsb ]cn-lk
- n-p s]mdm-p-\m-SI
- a
- msWv
CubnsS ]pd-n-dnb {]mYanI ]co-W
- ^
- e
-
- hyamp-p. imkv{Xns coXn-hy-h (sa-Xt- Um-fP
- n) ]men-msX, F tIh-eb
- pn t]mepw
{]tbm-Kn-msX \S-s
- hnI-ea
- mb ]T-\
- f
- mWv Cu bmK-Kt- h-jWw Fv
H-t\m-
- n a\-n-em-Ipw.
Fs-nepw Hcp ]pXnb {]Xn-`mkw ImW-s-Sp-tm-gm-Wtm AsX-n ]Tnt Bhiyw hcn-I. Ncn-{X-n-en-tmfw \S Hscm bmK-nepw Fsnepw Hcp khn-ti-j{- ]-Xn-`mkw Zin-n-n-. Ansb Bcm-[n-n-cp sshZn-IP-\X bmK-S-
- p-Isf {]Io-n-p a{ Fgp-Xn-bn-cn-mw. AsXms GtXm
Znhy-{]-Xn-`m-k
- ns kqN-\b
- mbn IcpXn Kth-jW
-
- n\p ]pd-s-Sm kmam\y-_p-n-bp imkv{X-c
- mcpw apXn-cp-Ib
- n-. bmK-hp-ambn _s Imcy-fn (bm-K-im-e-bpsS LS-\, NnXn-bpsS \nm-Ww, AcWn IS-Xv
Anbpm-, lh-\{- In-b, at{m-m-cWw XpSn bmK-imem Zl\w hsc)

-2-

Cs imkv{X-m-\
- n\p hni-Zo-Ic
- n-m-\m-hm \nKqU-cl
- k
- y-s
- fmpw
Hfnncnn-. AXp-sImp Xs bmK-S-
- p-If
- psS imkv{Xo-b ]
- c
- y-th-jWw
ip-t`m-j
- c
- a
- m-Wv.
Cu bmK-Kt- h-jWw A]qhpw \qX-\h
- p-am-sbmcp kwcw-`a
- m-sW anemWv ]mm AXn-cm-{X-ns kwLm-SI
- cpw Kth-jW
- k
- w-L
- e
- h
- \pw Imcy AhXcnn-X
- v. hmkvXh
-
- n 1990 Ipq-cn \S AXn-cm-{X-n
Cy-bn-sebpw hntZ-is
- bpw imkv{X- Htsd ]co-W
-
- \S-n-bncp-p. a\p-jy-scbpw arK-s
- fbpw kky-s
- fbpw D]-tbm-Kn-pw, `ua-Im-n-IX- A-S--ap hnh-c- Afpw sNbvX ]co--W--fn bmK-ns
kzm[o\w Dsp kwi-bn-m-hp bmsXmcp KpW-^e
- hpw tcJ-s-Sp-n-bnn Fm-Wdnhv. hn]p-ea
- mb B ]co-W
- ]
- c
-
- c
- I
- s
- f-n ]noSv dntmpItfm {]_tfm Hpw {]kn-o-Ic
- n-s
- -n-n-. ]mm AXn-cm-{X-kwLm-SI
- cpw imkv{X-cpw Cmcyw AXn-hn-ZK
- va
- mbn aqSn-hp P\-h
- \ \Sp-Ib
- m-bn-cp-p.
{]K`-cmbn Db ]Z-hn-bn-en-cp ko\n-b imkv{X-c
- mWv bmK-Kt- hj-W]
-
- Xn Xm-dm-n-bs
- X-nepw Kth-jW
-
- n ]men-t ASn-m-\I
- m-cy-sfmpw ]T-\
- n Ds-Sp-n-bn-n-. an ]co-W
- fpw ap\nb
(open -ended) kz`m-ht- mSp IqSn-bh
- b
- m-Wv. AXp-sImp Xs Aim-kv{Xobhpw bmK-im-ep Nppw IS-eh
- n-p-I apf-n-Xv DZm-lc
- Ww. FXp Znibn
hnp-ap-f
- n-mepw bmK-^e
- a
- m-sWp hymJym-\n-mw. Xmc-Xa
- y- (controls)
Ds-Sp-m-sX-bmWv ]co-W
- ^
- e
-
- tiJ-cnsX-XmWv asmcp \yq\-X.
_mIvSo-cnb t]mep kqvaP
- o-hn-If
- psS IW-s-Spv DZmlcWw. bmK-ns
Znhy-]c
- n-th-ja
- n-m km[m-cW An-IpWvUsamcpn AXns ]cn-kc
- h
- p-ambn
Xmc-Xa
- y-s-Sp-n-bmte AXns ]T-\
- n\v Fs-nepw {]kn I]n-m-\mIq. AXn-cm-{X-th-Zn-bn \S-nb ]T-\
- s
- fmw Xs {]Xn-tem-a^
- e
-
- (negative
Results) Hgn-hm-s
- -Spw-hn-[a
- mWv {Iao-Ic
- n-n-p-s
- Xv ImWmw. Cu Iuiew
hgn bmK-{In-bI
- KpW-Ic
- a
- m-sWv Fm-bvt]mgpw Ah-Im-is
- -Sm-\m-Ipw.
shdpw k-km-[m-cW \nco--W- bmK-ns KpW-^-e-am-sWp
hymJym-\n-p-m-m AXns hm- apXnn-p-v. bmK-im-em-]c
- n-kc
- v
kqvamWp Ipd-hm-sW {]kvXm-h\ CXn-\p-Zm-lc
- W
- a
- m-Wv. NpSp Xn-bm
AWp- \inpw F kqvam-Wp- ho-m-\o-b
- ns (ssa-t{Im-_t- bm-fPn) _me-]mTw hen-sbmcp Is-e
- mbn Ah-Xc
- n-n-s
- -Sp-Ib
- m-Wn-hnsS. 1956
AXn-cm{Xw \S-n-cp- Ipf-n kqvaP
- o-hn-If
- psS A`m-ha
- p-spw apw
]d-Xv hniz-k\
- o-bX
- bpsS ]cn-[n-
- p-da
- m-Wv. ipn F-Xns \nh-N\w
hi-Za
- m-msX Pehpw hmbphpw apw ip-ambn Fp \nK-a\w sN-s-Sp-Xns {]kn tNmZyw sN-s-tS-X
- p-v.
bmK--es ]T-\--fn kmt-Xn-IXsImv {i-bm-Ijn-p-Xv
s{]m^. kIvtk-\ (C-y Cn-yqv Hm^v Akvt{S-m^n-kn-Ivkv) \S-nb
{]hKy-s-p-dn-p ]cn-tim-[\
- b
- m-Wv. Ie-n AXn-X]
- vXa
- mb s\n
]msem-gn-p-tm An-tKm-fa
- mbn tat]mp s]mp {]hKy-{Inb bmKime ipn-Ic
- n-m-\m-sW-mWp shbv]v. s\v Aan-Xa
- mbn NqSm-n-bm Xo]n-Sn-

-3-

p-sa Imcyw a\-kn-em-m henb ss[j-Wn-I]


- m-Sh
- s
- ampw th. X]vX_m-jv]
-
- f
- psS Pze-\
- ns ck-X{- hpw {]Im-in-Ik
- z-`m-hhpw Cp kp]-cnNn-Xa
- m-Wv Fn-cns Hcp ko\n-b imkv{X- {]hKym-n-bpsS hnIn-cW
- cm-Pnbpw km-c-th-Khpw ]Tn-m apXnXv hrYm-hym-bm-a-am-Wv. Cu
]T\ns ^e-s-p-dnp ]{X-p-dn-p-If
- n C{]-Imcw ImWp-p: ({]hKynse) Xo\m-f
- f
- psS Xo{hX tek civan-If
- p-tSXp t]mse A]q-amb Xm]\ne tcJ-s-Sp-n, bmK-im-eb
- psS ipnp sXfn-hmbn ssl{U-P Isn-sbpw ]cm-ai-ap-m-bn. Akz-`m-hn-Ia
- mbn tXmnb Cu ]cm-ai-s
- fn s{]m. kIvtk-\t- bmSv t\cnv FgpXn tNmZn-t- m adp-]Sn C{]-Im-ca
- m-bn-cpp: A-c
- n-ep \nco-W
- s
- ampw Rm \S-n-bn-n-. ssl{U-Ps
hnIn-cW
-
- Zin-n-p-an-. Hcp]t AXp am-sc-nepw Iqn-t-Xm-Im\mWv hgn. bmK-h
- m- P\-sf hgn sXn-m \S-nb Ipkn-X{- i-aam-bn-cpp AsXp hyw. hnI-ea
- mb ]co-W
-
- \Sn AXns ^e DuXn-s-cp-npw Ak-Xy- Dcp-g- npw bmK-n\p KpW-^e
- a
- p-sp
hcpn-om-\p lo\-amb {ia-amWv ]mm AXn-cm-{X-tm-S\
- p-_
- np
\S-X
- v. imkv{X-c
- psS hip \np-mb Cu A\m-imky kl-Ic
- Ww
\ncp-c
- h
- m-Z]
- c
- hpw {]Xn-tj-[ml-hp-am-Wv.
Xrq / 18..06..2011
1. s{]m^. sI. ]mpn (tIcf imkv{X-km-lnXy ]cn-j
- v)
2. tUm. sI.-]n. Ac-hn- (Be-pg saUn- tImtfPv)
4. tUm. Fkv. i (imkv{X-, sI.-F^
- v.B
- .-sF., ]on)
5. bp.-Ie
- m-\m-Y ({]-kn-U v, tIcf bpn-hmZn kwLw)
6. tUm. kn.-]n. cmtP-{ (`ua imkv{X-)
7. F. ic\mcmbW, (ap imkv{X-, _m_ BanIv dnkv sk, apwss_)
8. tUm. at\mPv tImav (imkv{X-, {ioNnnc Cn-yqv, Xncp..]pcw )
9. tUm. sI.-B hmkp-tZ-h (sNbam, tIm-hq {Sv)
10. tUm. kn. cma-N{- (ap imkv{X-, sF.-Fk
- v.B.-H)
11. tUm. ]n.-sI. \mcm-bW
- (a\:imkv{X)
12. tUm. ]n.-n. cma-N{- (tIm-gn-tmSv k-Ie
- m-im-e)
13. s{]m^. kn chnN{ (bqWnthgvknn tImtfPv, Xncp..]pcw)
14. tUm.n.hn kPohv (imkv{X-, sI.-F^
- v.B
- .-sF., ]on)
15. AUz. sI. F. A\nIp-am (P-\.-sk-{I-d- n, tIcf bpn-hmZn kwLw)
16. Ccn- IrjvW (sk-{I-d- n, tIcf bpn-hmZn kwLw)
17. sI.-]n. i_cn Kocojv (]-h\
- Cn-yqv t^m skp-e -Uo-kv)
18. n.-sI. in-[c
- (sk-{I-d- n, tIcf bpn-hmZn kwLw)