This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Chaplain Training Manual
Revised December 2007 North American Mission Board, SBC
Table of Contents
Objectives UNIT 1 UNIQUENESS OF CRISIS MINISTRY IN DISASTERS......................................................... 1 Introduction: History of Crisis Ministry ............................................................................. 1 What Is So Unique About a Chaplain in Disaster?............................................................. 2 Spiritual Rationale for Chaplains in Disasters .................................................................... 5 Demonstrating Compassion is Being Present in Suffering ....................................... 5 Demonstrating Compassion is Being Sensitive to Human Diversity ........................ 7 Demonstrating Compassion is Providing the Ministry of Care in Crisis ................. 8 Ministry Tasks of the Chaplain in Disasters ..................................................................... 10 Differences Between Chaplains in Disasters and Community Clergy.............................. 11 UNIT 2 OVERVIEW OF THE CRISIS RESPONSE............................................................................. 14 Understanding the Terminology and Concepts................................................................. 14 What Constitutes a Disaster? ............................................................................................ 16 Types of Disasters............................................................................................................. 17 What Happens During A Community Disaster?............................................................... 17 Who, What, When, Where, Why, and How of Crisis Response....................................... 19 Victim Classifications.............................................................................................. 20 Emerging Issues for People and Groups Involved in Disasters.............................. 20 UNIT 3 HUMAN NEEDS AND DEVELOPMENT................................................................................ 22 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs—Identifying the Crisis..................................................... 22 Physiological Needs ................................................................................................ 22 Safety and Security Needs ....................................................................................... 22 Belonging and Social Affiliation Needs .................................................................. 23 Self-Esteem Needs ................................................................................................... 23 Self-Actualization Needs ......................................................................................... 23 Identifying the Crisis ............................................................................................... 24 Stages of Human Development—The Age-Specific Human Response to Crisis............. 25 Conclusions and Applications................................................................................. 27 Eight Stages of Life Chart for Crisis Intervention .................................................. 29 UNIT 4 OVERVIEW OF THE TRAUMA RESPONSE ........................................................................ 30 Distress as the Trauma Response...................................................................................... 30 The Nature of Stress ................................................................................................ 30 The Internal Trauma Response ............................................................................... 30 Biological Factors—Physical Response ........................................................................... 32 Psychological Factors—Mental Response........................................................................ 32 Social Factors—Relational Response ............................................................................... 34 Behavioral Factors—Action Response ............................................................................. 34 Spiritual Factors—Faith Response ................................................................................... 34 Crisis Intervention as a Response to Trauma.................................................................... 35 Stress Symptoms Chart ..................................................................................................... 36
UNIT 5 THE ART OF STORY-LISTENING......................................................................................... 37 Differences Between Hearing and Listening .................................................................... 37 Ethics of Listening ............................................................................................................ 37 Ministry of Presence ......................................................................................................... 38 Ministry of Silence............................................................................................................ 38 Improving Listening Skills ............................................................................................... 39 Clarify ..................................................................................................................... 39 Paraphrase.............................................................................................................. 39 Summarize............................................................................................................... 40 Echo ........................................................................................................................ 40 Reflect...................................................................................................................... 40 UNIT 6 CRISIS INTERVENTION MODELS........................................................................................ 41 Crisis Intervention............................................................................................................. 41 National Organization for Victims Assistance (NOVA) .................................................. 42 International Critical Incident Stress Foundation (ICISF) ................................................ 43 Effective Disaster Relief Includes Trained Chaplains as Part of the ................................ 43 Interdisciplinary Team in Disasters and Other Emergencies Summary ........................................................................................................................... 45 UNIT 7 COMPASSION IN CRISIS......................................................................................................... 46 Demonstrating Compassion is Being Present in Suffering ............................................... 46 Demonstrating Compassion is Being Sensitive to Human Diversity................................ 47 Demonstrating Compassion is Providing the Ministry of Care in Crisis.......................... 48 Compassion at the Scene .................................................................................................. 49 What to Be............................................................................................................... 49 What to Have........................................................................................................... 49 What to Say ............................................................................................................. 50 What to Do .............................................................................................................. 51 Compassion Fatigue.......................................................................................................... 51 Reactions to Long-term Stress ................................................................................ 51 Signs and Symptoms of Compassion Fatigue.......................................................... 54 Basic Self-Care ................................................................................................................. 54 UNIT 8 COMFORTING GRIEF IN DISASTERS ................................................................................. 56 Elements of Grief.............................................................................................................. 56 Defining Grief ......................................................................................................... 56 A Picture of Grief .................................................................................................... 56 Losses that Lead to Grief ........................................................................................ 57 Grief Is a Process .............................................................................................................. 58 Comforting Grief .............................................................................................................. 61 Complicated Mourning ..................................................................................................... 61 Lesson Learned ................................................................................................................. 62
............................................ 70 Conclusion .................... 2007 North American Mission Board of the Southern Baptist Convention................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 79 Advanced Training Requirements ...................... 83 Contacts .............................. 83 Endnotes........ 77 Chart: Common Religious and Cultural Customs Concerning Death ................................................................... 72 Intentional Cultural Diversity Creates Multiple Needs ......... 66 Religious Coping Styles....................................................................................................... 72 Demonstrating Respect for Cultural Differences.............. 76 Clarifying Cultural Needs ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 82 Community ............................................ Georgia.................................... All rights reserved................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 71 UNIT 10 MINISTERING IN THE MIDST OF DIVERSITY ......................................................................... 79 Training Requirements....................................................................................... 83 Literature and Music ........................ 74 Principles for Ministering in Diversity .............................................................. 67 Spiritual Interventions for Disasters .... 80 UNIT 12 RESOURCES FOR DISASTER RELIEF CHAPLAINS ........ 69 What Victims Want to Say to Disaster Chaplains .................................................... 73 Maintaining Personal Faith........ 64 Role of Religion and Spirituality ......................... 78 UNIT 11 WHAT TO DO NEXT .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 64 Overview of Spirituality in Trauma .......................................... 65 Spiritual Issues and Questions from Victims and Survivors............UNIT 9 SPIRITUAL DIMENSIONS OF TRAUMA.............................. 79 Train-the-Trainer Requirements ............. 81 Professional Organizations ...................................................... 72 Cultural Perspective Affect Trauma and Recovery............................................................................. 75 Chaplains Must Recognize the “UNKNOWN GOD” in Diversity .......................................................................................................... Alpharetta.................................................. 72 Contextualized Ministry is Cross-Culturally Competent........................................................................ 77 Summary ............................................................................................................. 68 Red Flags for Disaster Chaplain Interventions .................................................................................. 84 2004...................................... 74 “Relief” for the Chaplain in the Context of Cultural and Religious Diversity ................................................................................. 79 Pre-Training Requirements.......... .............................................................................................. 74 “Red Flags” for Chaplains in Diversity ........................ 81 Agencies....................................................................................................................... 69 Ethics of Chaplain Interventions in Disasters ..
Unit 1 Unit 2 Topic Uniqueness of Crisis Ministry in Disasters Overview of the Crisis Response Unit 3 Human Needs and Development Unit 4 Unit 5 Overview of the Trauma Response The Art of Story-Listening Unit objective Know the difference between being a church pastor and a community chaplain in disaster relief Understand the basics of crisis response – what’s crisis. whose lead to follow Understand how to determine what the basic human need is during crisis intervention and how to respond with the correct intervention Understand holistically what happens to a victim during a crisis Know the difference between listening and hearing Understanding confidentiality. silence Understand the art of story-listening Be aware of different crisis intervention models CISM. presence. who are the victims. articles. NOVA Understand the ministry of compassion Understand how to demonstrate compassion at the scene Recognize the symptoms of compassion fatigue and how to do selfcare Understand the basics of grief and loss Understand the expressions of loss Know how to comfort grief Understand the role of religion and spirituality in crisis intervention Understand the basic spiritual issues of victims and survivors Know some basic crisis interventions Understand the basics of cultural and religious diversity Understanding the principles for ministering in diversity Pre-training requirements Training requirements Advanced training requirements Train-the-Trainer Requirements Know how to get basic resources for referrals Know who to contact for resourcing help Have a detailed bibliography for books. when to respond. who are the caregivers. and internet resources Unit 6 Crisis Intervention Models Unit 7 Compassion in Disaster Crisis Unit 8 Comforting Grief in Disasters Unit 9 The Spiritual Dimensions of Trauma Unit 10 Ministering in the Midst of Diversity Unit 11 What to Do Next Unit 12 Resources for Disaster Relief Chaplains .
They prayed through human suffering. the hospital. he shared his cloak. parliaments. Victims may include innocent bystanders. In the past. the sick. Martin of Tours. many have not been trained for the unique needs and issues that surround emergency disaster care. A traditional story relates the compassion of St. law enforcement. Most chaplains respond to the crises within their own organizations (the Army.UNIQUENESS OF CRISIS MINISTRY IN DISASTERS UNIT 1 Introduction: History of Crisis Ministry1 The development of chaplain ministry has its roots in ancient history. the police department). spiritual leaders provided encouragement and compassionate care to people who were constantly in crisis. The guardian of the chapele became known as the chapelain. the chaplain continues to guard the sacred and to share his cape out of compassion. direct victims. he was so moved by compassion for a beggar. and others have often ministered during difficult crises and emergencies. albeit informally. Disaster relief chaplains often serve multiple agencies and usually respond to the general community of victims during the crisis. and officiated over ceremonial events. One growing specialization in chaplain ministry is disaster relief chaplaincy. shelters. hospital chaplains. or the terrorist who plants the bomb). rescue and relief workers. his cape (capella in Latin) was preserved as a holy relic and kept in a shrine that came to be known as chapele from which the English word chapel is derived. chaplains are found in many settings—military. and the disenfranchised. and corporations. From the settlement of Canaan through the period of the judges. but the disaster relief specialization has emerged during the past 15 years. resorts. Military chaplains. encouraged in despair. Chaplains guard what is sacred in people’s lives Chaplains have provided compassionate care throughout history Disaster relief chaplaincy is a specialized form of chaplain ministry 1 . With greater awareness for the value of spiritual care in conjunction with physical care during emergencies. Religious men and women often accompanied armies into battle as priests. but many respond to the general community during community emergencies. Chaplains sailed with Sir Francis Drake in the sixteenth century and fought with Washington during the Revolutionary War. factories. healthcare. They have counseled and consulted for kings. job corps. Today. the disaster relief chaplain specialization has evolved into a major chaplain category. Placement is limited only by the lack of imagination. gambling casinos. business and industry. rescue missions. Today. and even the perpetrator of crimes (the arsonist who starts the forest fire. professional chaplains from many arenas of service have responded to major disasters. professional sports teams. the drunk driver who causes the multi-car fatality. The word “chaplain” originates in fourth-century France. One cold and wet night. law enforcement chaplains. Upon his death. however. racetracks. and governments— for the incarcerated. institutions.
or disaster shelter. They may be pastors. prayer. In a very broad and inclusive way. 2005). sustaining. 2001). or Spiritual care is leading. and restoring Chaplains include pastors and laity 2 . healing. the out-of-state corporate headquarters. chaplains. spiritual care is often pictured as providing a calm presence. counselors. 2007). floods (1997. since the advent of formalized chaplaincy organizations. nonjudgmental listening. Southern Baptists are recognized disaster relief caregivers What Is So Unique About a Chaplain in Disasters? The definition of spiritual care is derived from the biblical image of the shepherd who cares for a flock. reports that chaplains have provided ministry during many Southern Baptist Disaster Relief efforts following tornadoes (1996. 1992. caring interventions. relief agencies have recognized the need to redefine the arena of disasters. including the International Conference of Police Chaplains in 1973 and the Federation of Fire Chaplains in 1978. In parallel development. Disaster relief chaplains come from a variety of professions and ministries.g. Ark. spiritual care incorporates all ministries that are concerned with the care and nurturing of people and their relationships within a community. upon the crash of American Airlines Flight 1420 in Little Rock. and terrorism (1995. guiding. the departure and arrival airports. Today the SRT deploys to many mass casualty incidents with Red Cross trained volunteers. The growing awareness of spiritual needs in crisis has begun to formalize the response of disaster relief chaplains. hurricanes (1989. emergency response agencies have used their departmental chaplains during disasters to minister to their own personnel. the most highly recognized denominational disaster relief assemblage of many autonomous state groups. wildfires (2007). and reflection. and the hope one can have through faith in Jesus Christ. the manufacturer and factory of the faulty electrical switch). institutions. meditation—or some of the more contemporary approaches that have been influenced by training bodies such as the American Association of Pastoral Counselors and the Association of Professional Chaplains—presence. With technological advances and the globalization of America. The need for spiritual and emotional support far exceeds the disaster location. listening.. but now includes remote locations. social workers. nurturing. and people groups who are in some way related or impacted by the disaster (e. Furthermore. 2007). 1997. In disasters. This could include the classic approaches—interpretation. has cooperated with the American Red Cross in developing effective disaster relief services. including chaplains who provide spiritual care. Mickey Caison. the home church of the children in the bus. hospital. former national director for Southern Baptist Disaster Relief. National and international disaster relief agencies are beginning to work together to coordinate spiritual care response in disasters of many kinds.The Southern Baptist Disaster Relief organization. teachers. It is no longer only the site/location directly impacted by the disaster. 1999. the American Red Cross formally began deploying the Spiritual Care Aviation Incident Response Team (now called Spiritual Response Team – SRT) disaster relief chaplain teams to airline disasters on June 1.
psychologists. Disaster relief chaplains may also be laity—men and women who respond to God’s call upon their lives to provide care and compassion to hurting people during the crisis of disasters. Who are some chaplains you have known? Disasters are critical events and critical events often cause crisis for those who are involved. The American Red Cross reports that 59 percent of Americans would be likely to seek counsel from a spiritual care provider in such circumstances.2 Chaplains need to utilize their particular role and skills in an intentional manner to enhance the coping capabilities and spiritual reactions to a disaster. Providing spiritual care in the wake of disasters often involves integrating spiritual responses with other kinds of help provided by emergency care responders, mental health providers, and social care agents. Such help is best managed through the framework of established crisis intervention principles. Spiritual care providers should understand how various representatives of the other caring components typically operate in consideration of these principles. Two organizations that provide significant settings for understanding how to integrate spiritual care with other care efforts during a crisis are: 1) The International Critical Incident Stress Foundation (ICISF) and 2) the National Organization for Victim Assistance (NOVA). Both of these organizations have well-established methodologies for crisis intervention and can assist chaplains in becoming more informed about how to interact with other care providers. Examples of the ICISF and NOVA models are presented in Unit 6. One unique aspect of many chaplains serving in disasters is that these providers are usually pastors or laity; therefore they do not work in a disaster environment on a routine basis and would not be considered professional disaster relief personnel. Instead, these chaplains are often volunteers from a variety of spiritual care settings who participate in training and gain significant disaster relief experience in order to be prepared for a response when spiritual needs emerge. These volunteers are usually trained and organized by organizations like The American Red Cross, The Salvation Army, Billy Graham Evangelistic Association, and other similar entities. Among Southern Baptists, state Baptist conventions recruit, train, and deploy chaplains, cooperating together with the networking leadership of Southern Baptist Disaster Relief when multistate involvement is needed. All of these entities respond to crisis out of a caring concern for those suffering injury, loss, or some other form of crisis. Chaplains in disasters provide caring ministry on the field of disasters, during and after the disaster occurrence, to any victim of the disaster, for a few seconds or for a few hours. As these caregivers receive specialized training in crisis and spiritual interventions, much of the specialized training is built upon the previous education and experience of the chaplain. In addition to the ministry of presence, ministry of compassion, and attentive listening, spiritual caregivers may choose from a number of intervention methods that are uniquely theirs as people of faith and spirituality (see pages 68, 69): Victims seek spiritual care in disaster crises
Scriptural education, insight, reinterpretation Individual and conjoint prayer Belief in intercessory prayer Unifying and explanatory worldviews Ventilative confession Faith-based social support systems Rituals and sacraments Belief in divine intervention/forgiveness Belief in a life after death Unique ethos of the crisis interventionist Uniquely confidential/privileged communications
What do disaster chaplains do? 1. 2. 3. How do disaster chaplains get their training/education? 1. 2. 3. In a few sentences, write a paragraph about why you would like to be a disaster chaplain. _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ Why do you want to be a disaster relief chaplain?
Spiritual Rationale for Chaplains in Disasters3
Demonstrating Compassion Is Being Present in Suffering W. E. Vine defines being moved with compassion as being moved in one’s inwards (bowels).4 The splanchma are the entrails of the body. Modern vernacular might translate this as having deep feelings in one’s “gut.” This is the center of one’s personal feelings and emotions—love and hate—the feelings that emanate from one’s “heart.” When the Gospels speak of Jesus’ compassion, they speak of deep, powerful emotions that far exceed the superficial feelings of regret, distress, or remorse. The English word compassion comes from two Latin words, cum and pati, which form the meaning, “suffer with.” It is “. . . a feeling of deep sympathy and sorrow for another who is stricken by suffering or misfortune, accompanied by a strong desire to alleviate the pain or remove its cause.”5 “Compassion asks us to go where it hurts, to enter into places of pain, to share in brokenness, fear, confusion, and anguish. Compassion challenges us to cry out with those in misery, to mourn with those who are lonely, to weep with those in tears. Compassion requires us to be weak with the weak, vulnerable with the vulnerable, and powerless with the powerless. Compassion means full immersion in the condition of being human.”6 Compassion enters into the suffering and pain of the one who suffers. It is more honorable than pity and more courageous than sympathy. Complete empathy for the desolation and grief of those who are suffering requires compassion. Compassion is felt in one’s “gut”
Compassion enters into the suffering and pain of the one who suffers
Disaster chaplains must The disaster relief chaplain must know his or her own biases, needs, and intentionally choose a disaster limitations and still deeply desire to identify with the disenfranchised and the relief ministry wounded, seeking to demonstrate the compassion of Christ as the priority of chaplain ministry. Merely attempting to prevent suffering or not be the cause of suffering will be inadequate. The disaster relief chaplain must approach ministry from a radically different paradigm—the chaplain must initiate and be an active participant in “being” compassion as a priority and “doing” compassion as a necessity.7 Recognizing one’s own natural instinct to excuse oneself from the crisis, the chaplain must still choose to become engaged in the suffering. The significance of being compassionate may lay in the fact that being compassionate is not an activity one naturally seeks, but an activity that one must intentionally choose, knowing that it “feels” contrary to natural instincts. The theological foundation for disaster relief chaplaincy is supported through the mandate to bear one another’s burdens (see Gal. 6:28); and therefore, “You must be compassionate just as your Father is compassionate” (Luke 6:36, NLT). The cup of cool water and the Good Samaritan also reinforce this imperative. A vital aspect of disaster chaplaincy is “the ministry of presence.” “A major premise of care amid crisis is presence. The care of souls first requires being there. Simple, empathic, listening presence is a primary pastoral act, the presupposition of all other pastoral acts.”9 The power of this ministry is in its altruistic service. If chaplains provide compassion by bearing another’s burdens, then chaplains choose to “suffer with” those who are suffering. Providing “You must be compassionate just as your Father is compassionate” (Luke 6:36, NLT) A vital aspect of disaster chaplaincy is the “ministry of presence”
God is present in the suffering The strength of a caregiving relationship is in the fact that one is never alone. may lead to healing reconciliation. the chaplain offers the comfort of God’s presence through words of comfort and assurance. Times may change. loss. But. What evidence do you have of God’s presence in suffering? What does your theology teach you? 1. The difference is the mighty presence of God. 2.compassion requires stepping out of one’s comfort zone and intentionally entering a place of crisis—danger. or may reconnect a disenfranchised person with God. and may not be able to diminish any of the pain. pursuing me with his love. there was no escaping God’s presence.”25 How could a disaster victim benefit from your “ministry of presence?” 6 . appropriate spiritual support within the context of disaster. and insufficiency.”10 Chaplains who enter into the suffering and chaos of crisis are empowered by the same presence of God to give them victory over despair. What have you witnessed? 1. 3. God is “that tremendous lover. “The heroes of the faith had one thing in common: They were all ordinary people with no power of their own. “I am with you” In 1893. Francis Thompson portrayed God’s presence as the “Hound of Heaven. 2. no matter where he hid. Presence may invite a sense of community within the crisis. or grief—during the spiritual and emotional crises of life. The presence of God within the ministry situation empowers the chaplain to provide effective. What have you experienced? 1. 3. but the effect of God’s presence remains the same. The chaplain in disasters shares God’s presence with victims and offers the same words of assurance—“I am with you. 2. should not minimize the sense of loss it causes. 3. Henri Nouwen calls the incarnation of God the “divine solidarity.” No matter where he fled.” The chaplain cannot deny the reality of the crisis. The chaplain in disasters often represents the presence of God. pain.” It is the compassionate God who chooses to be God-with-us. loss. God is present with the chaplain.
establishing and reestablishing the relationship by physical presence is primary to even general conversation. status. making no distinction of race. Neither political alignment nor religious position must prevent the chaplains in disasters from providing compassionate ministry action.” he or she sits among the wounded to bind and unbind his or her own wounds slowly and carefully so that he will be able to immediately respond to bear the burden of another who is suffering. We live in a multicultural society that is very diverse. but chaplains must not hesitate to demonstrate compassion by ministry action. The chaplain in disasters practices the presence of God through prayer. Often the crisis requires acts of service. Chaplains in disasters may even be called upon to minister to those whose political or religious prominence may be intimidating or abhorrent. the Holy Scriptures. Their actions must speak of kindness and mercy borne out of compassion for all people.15 As globalization increases. showing hospitality to strangers. listening.Practicing God’s presence in suffering The chaplain in disasters demonstrates compassion by being present in suffering. “Presence” is one of the most powerful acts of ministry a chaplain in disasters can provide. many who are suffering desire an advocate who will plead their case before God. worship or remembrance may bring healing and new understanding to the intense suffering and acute pain of loss. but what of the more fortunate—those of higher position. victims need to tell their stories and need to have validation of their feelings and sense of loss.11 The chaplain in disasters practices the presence of God through prayer. the incarcerated. In the moment of crisis. and service. or social class? Human diversity includes the rich and famous. They must actively search out those in crisis. Here the chaplain in disasters practices the presence of God in active listening and the spoken word. Practicing the presence of God is experienced in feeding the hungry. listening. the Cultural diversity has increased Chaplains in disasters must demonstrate compassion for all people Chaplains in disasters may even be called upon to minister to those whose political or religious prominence may be intimidating or abhorrent Sensitivity to human diversity means doing ministry with the disenfranchised of society 7 . Demonstrating compassion by physical and spiritual presence is the beginning of the relationship that brings comfort and healing. cultural diversity increases. gender.12 During the crisis. the addicted. the spoken word.13 When words have no relevance and actions have no meaning. the Holy Scriptures. too. and visiting the sick (see Matt. clothing the naked. Chaplains in disasters. the tension rises for people of deep faith and convictions. the spoken word. giving a drink to the thirsty. they find comfort and assurance that God hears their plea. and in the prayer. religion. Sometimes like a “wounded healer. In many cultures. may be called upon to offer caring ministry to the outcasts of society—the homeless. With the deteriorating influence of the church in culture14 and the globalization of society. In the aftermath of crisis. Most of us sense the ability of people to respond to the needs of those less fortunate. 25:35-40). or economic status. and service Chaplains in disasters provide the “ministry of presence” Demonstrating Compassion is Being Sensitive to Human Diversity There is tension in balancing cultural acceptance and uncompromising convictions. the Emmanuel—God with us—suffering with the victim may be the most potent act of the chaplain in disasters.
crossing the barrier of assumed responsibility. and doing deeds of kindness (see Matt. confusion. more autonomous [more able to cope with the crisis or disaster?]. giving up privileged position.17 Often the “help” is presence and encouragement. and their loss of trust in the natural order of life.” “Anyway” ministry Demonstrating Compassion Is Providing the Ministry of Care in Crisis Doing practical acts of ministry care is perhaps the most obvious demonstration of compassion. “Help” is the active verb which means to give assistance or support. The chaplain must demonstrate compassion in servanthood in the same way Jesus fully identified Himself with humanity in His incarnation. more likely themselves to become servants? And. looking after. A significant demonstration of compassion in the ministry of care in crisis is providing encouragement through words and actions. or a person of prominence. or to serve with food or drink. freer. Most chaplains who enter the disaster relief ministry desire to “help” those in need.” not “servitude” 8 . providing the ministry of care in crisis must arise from the servant’s heart. One of the challenges chaplains in disasters will certainly face is a ministry encounter with people who do not come directly under their usual sphere of responsibility—the victims may not be patients in their hospital or members of their church. wiser [have the circumstances been clarified?]. to give relief. but his or her response must grow out of the attitude of a servant.“leper. at least. and ministering to victims “anyway. what is the effect on the least privileged in society [the direct victims of disaster]. Robert Greenleaf says that the best test of this servant attitude is: “Do those served grow as people? Do they.”16 Sensitivity to human diversity means doing ministry with the disenfranchised of society. become healthier [has their level of stress been mitigated?]. or. while being served. their grief. to change for the better. people often respond in fear. The chaplain may be a person of authority. providing shelter or clothing. not be further deprived?”18 By providing encouragement In crisis and disasters. Here the chaplain in disasters assumes the “anyway” attitude of providing care. heavenly wealth. and divine independence. a person of resources. People in crisis need encouragement Have a servant heart Compassion is demonstrated in doing practical acts of ministry “Servanthood. but equally often it is the action of “helping” by the practical acts of giving something to eat or drink. By assuming the attitude of the servant For the chaplain in disasters. or anxiety over such issues as their vulnerability. will they benefit [was there compassion demonstrated in ministry action?]. 25:34-40). to make more bearable.
”20 Chaplains bring the assurance of hope The chaplain in disasters releases the empowered victims to move forward in spiritual and physical healing Disaster chaplains have a desire to meet immediate needs “There are no atheists in foxholes” 9 . Chaplains often join with disaster relief teams to provide food to the hungry. “Take courage! It is I. medical care to the injured. if we are to be friends of God. 8:26. In the midst of the storms of life—the disasters. Victims may not understand and they may be “astonished. they lack experience in dealing with the situation. the chaplain in disasters provides encouragement by listening. and the devastation— the chaplain must bring the assurance of hope. By offering prayer “There are no atheists in foxholes. Second. When chaplains pray for victims. NASB). and clarifying. He or she clarifies by examining circumstances and options. frustrations. there is peace in prayer. “What can I do?” They want to meet the immediate needs of victims. water to the thirsty. In the crisis and confusion. The victim of disaster often sees the chaplain as God’s representative and desires “a word of prayer. then.The chaplain in disasters must be able to convey encouragement to a soul that is despairing by saying. In other words. he or she releases the victims. He or she engages in dialogue as he or she asks probing questions for self-examination and reflection. Christians believe that when “we do not know how to pray as we should. we are only asking of God what God already longs for far more than we. and victim assessments. A crisis may erupt when a person is faced with a problem that calls on resources or problem-solving abilities that have not previously been needed. if our prayers are to be true acts of friendship. empowered to move forward in spiritual and physical healing. God!” In the crisis of disasters and devastation. we must tell God what we want for others as surely as we must ask God for ourselves. “Oh. whenever we long for and pray for the well-being of other people. By meeting immediate needs When chaplains step onto the disaster site. In crisis. . chaplains also have a deep desire to meet immediate needs. and disappointment. dialoguing. comforting. even the non-religious person often cries out in desperate prayer. the chaplain provides active listening to hear the fears. . we must not only pray for others.” In anxious moments. He or she comforts in the silent spaces. They meet the immediate needs of assistance in searches. Third. While “being” present in the suffering of disaster victims and demonstrating sensitivity to human diversity are essential. rescues.” but they will experience the compassionate encouragement of the chaplain. where it is possible. the crisis. shelter for the homeless.”19 In situations such as this. and chaplains offer the ministry of care through prayer. their reaction is often. without worrying about the appropriateness of our asking or the probability that what we ask for we will receive. .… the Spirit Himself intercedes for us with groanings too deep for words” (Rom. Victims of disasters “tend to feel anxious and upset because of their apparent helplessness to deal with the situation. they must remember three things: “First. we must act in accordance with our own prayer. victims often ask for the ministry of prayer.” reads the bumper sticker. and clothing to the exposed. Don’t be afraid” (Mark 6:51).
spontaneous Ministry Tasks of the Chaplain in Disasters21 The task of the chaplain in disasters is to willingly enter the field of disaster and discomfort to stand with those who have been hurt and suffer losses. loss of home. formal prayers. the ministries are brief and simple—urgent. Chaplain?” Here is the opportunity to share an appropriate testimony of the power of Christ in us. but meeting the immediate need. but personalized prayers are highly effective and comforting. 6:2. Carrying the heavy weight of death. Individual prayers. they often ask. listen to the story. Personalized prayers a. Prayers are often spontaneous and informal. rescue workers. The chaplain in disasters provides caring ministry through prayerful intercession even when fear grips his or her own heart. “The word for ‘burden’ (baros) means literally ‘a heavy weight or stone’ someone is required to carry for a long distance. offering hope. corporate prayers—all are utilized and appreciated by most. in the middle of rubble. or destruction of property is an oppressive ordeal that is difficult to bear alone. This chaplain must walk alongside.”2324 Chaplains offer prayers for victims A chaplain is a “minister” to victims Chaplains share the burden of loss 10 . power. specific c. . healing. and concerned people around the world. Assessing the needs of this “flock” of victims. Figuratively it came to mean any oppressive ordeal or hardship that was difficult to bear.”22 Everyone has burdens. Here is the opportunity to offer hope that will be realized in spite of disaster circumstances. and thereby fulfill the law of Christ” (Gal. Invoking God’s presence. Here is the opportunity to offer the hope of salvation. they also encounter many opportunities to share the “Good News. and allow the overflow of God’s grace in his or her own life to spill into the emptiness of those in need. the chaplain intercedes for victims. NASB). the chaplain in disasters assumes the role of minister for people of every faith and religious tradition. wisdom.By leading others to Christ When disaster relief chaplains are able to demonstrate compassion by providing the ministry of care in crisis. confronting. Frequently. reconciling. . The myth of self-sufficiency is not a mark of bravery but rather a sign of pride. The ministry of disaster relief chaplains is a response to the command: “Bear one another’s burdens. or standing outside the morgue. the chaplain must lead them to resources that will nourish their spirits and calm their trembling hearts. the chaplain in disasters may lead religious services or memorial services. “God does not intend for us to carry them by ourselves in isolation from our brothers and sisters. . Through prayer for the hurt and needy.” When victims perceive losses that overwhelm their coping abilities. but the burdens that result from emergencies and major disasters are often more than one is able to bear alone. “How do you get through crisis. promote a sense of safety and security. and grace. The chaplain will be God’s voice. attending to the victim’s perceived need before his or her own. As a minister. short b. These services may occur in makeshift facilities.
Unlike the local minister who primarily ministers to his own flock. There is little effective ministry that occurs. 3:12-13). they receive great comfort in knowing that chaplains share their burden out of the overflow of Christ’s love in them. There are several issues that become evident: There are several differences between ministering to a congregation and to the victims in a community Spiritual care in disasters is very different from that in the pastorate. Chaplains in disasters minister to any who are victimized Differences Between Chaplains in Disasters and Community Clergy26 There are often inadequate numbers of trained professional disaster relief chaplains available to handle the crisis situations that arise in the event of major disasters and emergencies. When victims perceive they have no resources to bear their own burdens.” not “long-term care. sharing the love of Christ is the most helpful way to carry another’s burdens. often other chaplains. the victims feel unheard. and provides strength at the point of exhaustion to those who are weary. Ministering within religious diversity is different than in the context of a church congregation. for it is a heart of compassion that bears another’s burdens (see Col. or even threatened. the disaster chaplain’s flock is any who are victimized. The trauma response in disasters requires specialized training and care. hears the cries of distress.Sometimes. they fail to provide appropriate ministry to the victims and often leave the scene feeling inadequate. Sharing the “Good News” in appropriate and sensitive ways could demonstrate compassion to victims who carry the weight of great disaster losses. or in personal crisis themselves.” For example. if the training is specific and concise. but another significant problem is the prohibitive nature of extensive professional training for those who desire to be available in the event of disasters in addition to their normal responsibilities. 2001—the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon—made it exceedingly clear that major disasters can happen and that there are not enough trained disaster relief chaplains to meet the needs of disaster victims. emergency medical technicians (EMTs) receive specific and concise training to provide medical first The need for disaster ministry is likely Chaplains in disasters are like “spiritual paramedics”24 11 . Likewise. The question arises: can a person become effective in disaster chaplaincy with 16 hours of crisis ministry intervention training? The response is yes. judged. the chaplain in disasters ministers to all who are wounded and hurting in crises and emergencies. ignored. Special skills are required for disaster ministry When clergy are not skilled in addressing these issues (and many others that are equally important27). The chaplain in disasters demonstrates compassion. he or she offers the arms of God. discounted. As the representative of God. The events of September 11. and clergy of local congregations respond with the intention of providing compassionate care to the victims of these disasters. and if the ministry intervention is intended to be “spiritual first aid. The call to disaster ministry has become evident to more seminarians and people in ministry. pastors. overwhelmed. As the disaster relief chaplain steps onto the field of disaster.
There is no expectation for providing longterm care. They are “spiritual paramedics. How will you prepare yourself to overcome these differences? 1.” Southern Baptist disaster relief chaplains must also complete the seminar. 12 . . . the indirect victims (the victims who live on the fringes of the disaster area—often inconvenienced but not radically affected by the disaster). and the hidden victims (the relief workers and professional caregivers). 2. Involving Southern Baptists in Disaster Relief. providing appropriate spiritual care to the direct victims (the victims who live in the area of destruction). the basic training for all Southern Baptist disaster relief volunteers. Differences between pastors and disaster relief chaplains The most significant difference I will face is .aid at the scene of the crisis incident. These additional seminars are not required for basic Southern Baptist Disaster Relief chaplaincy.28 Involving Southern Baptists in Disaster Relief is the basic training for all Southern Baptist disaster relief volunteers Training for disaster relief chaplaincy is urgently needed Summary: Contrasting the Differences Pastors and other Congregational Pastoral Caregivers minister to one “set” group of people on a long-term basis know the people fairly well or very well minister in “ordinary” times minister to a group of people who have like or similar religious beliefs minister to a group of people who have chosen to be a part of this group minister in the context of common cultural identities are given authority by a congregation or ecclesiastical body Disaster Relief Chaplains minister to people they have never met or do not know very well minister to victims who do not call them or choose them minister to people who are in crisis when they meet minister to a wide variety of cultural and ethnic groups of people minister to many different religious traditions minister to people who do not know “what” a disaster relief chaplain is are given authority by an institution or agency to seek an invitation by victims What are some significant differences that you will face? 1. 3. . 2. Chaplains in disasters are trained to provide urgent care by diffusing distress through their early intervention and cathartic ventilation. There is an urgent need to train volunteers to be disaster relief chaplains. which is more appropriately left to physicians who receive many more years of education and training. Additional seminars may also be available to those who wish to further develop crisis intervention skills. . 3. I will overcome these differences by .
A special issue that surfaces for pastors and other congregational leaders is chain-of-command. pastors and other congregational leaders who are accustomed to being in command will serve under the direction and leadership of others. the chain-of-command is very rigorously observed. To function effectively. Disaster relief organizations often function as paramilitary organizations. “Chain-of-command” means following orders from above 13 . During disaster relief operations. Being able to redefine one’s responsibilities and leadership role will be essential to the effective functioning of the overall response team.
C. 1964) Critical incident: a stressor event (crisis event). 1997. Chaplain: a clergyman in charge of a chapel. Boston: Butterworth.. Caplan. belief systems. and behaviors of the members of another ethnic group (Adams. or those professionals to work effectively in cross-cultural situations (Cross. Health Issues for Women of Color: A Cultural DiversityPerspective. agency. refers to the qualities of openness and flexibility that people develop in relation to others (Adams. dysfunction.. 1997. values. 1995) Cultural competence: a set of congruent behaviors. or among professionals and enables that system. also known as a crisis intervention Crisis: an acute human response to an event wherein psychological homeostasis (balance) has been disrupted. Dennis. or impairment (Caplan. 1989. Jr. .) Compassion: a feeling of deep sympathy and sorrow for another who is stricken by suffering or misfortune. G. attitudes.OVERVIEW OF THE CRISIS RESPONSE29 UNIT 2 Understanding the Terminology and Concepts The following terms are offered to the disaster relief chaplain to provide insight from experts who approach crisis with a psychological perspective rooted primarily in science. one’s usual coping mechanisms have failed. Mitchell. a person chosen to conduct religious exercises (Webster. which appears to cause. 3rd ed. Critical Incident Stress Debriefing: An Operations Manual for CISD. and policies that come together in a system. These insights may be enhanced with the addition of the perspectives of faith and spirituality that are the special focus of disaster relief chaplains. and there are signs and/or symptoms of distress. usually involves internal changes in terms of attitudes and values. or be most associated with. or to a family or court. Dennis and M. 1995. Journey Towards Cultural Competency: Lessons Learned. the most severe forms may be considered traumatic events Crisis intervention: the urgent and acute psychological support sometimes thought of as “emotional first-aid” Cross-cultural: effectively operating outside the boundaries of a particular cultural group Cultural awareness: developing sensitivity and understanding of another ethnic group. ed. officially attached to a branch of the military. Principles of Preventive Psychiatry. 10th ed. Defusing and Other Group Crisis Intervention Service. Cross T. 1989). Ellicott City. I. 1995) Adams. Diane L. New York: Basic Books. history. K. vol. Washington D. 1961. Everly. Towards a Culturally Competent System of Care. Selye. 1964. accompanied by a strong desire to alleviate the pain or remove its cause Crisis response: an informed response to the emotional disruption that occurs after a critical event. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications. Vienna. agency. Jeffrey T. Isaacs. Stress in Health and Disease. VA: Maternal and Children’s Health Bureau Clearinghouse. MD: Chevron Publishing Company. emphasizes the idea of effectively operating in different cultural contexts Cultural knowledge: familiarization with selected cultural characteristics. Texas Department of Health. and George S. to an institution. 1999). 14 .: Georgetown University Child Development Center. & Isaacs. CASSP Technical Assistance Center. National Maternal and Child Health Resource Center on Cultural Competency. Bazron. 1976. Hans. a crisis response. Bazron. an event which overwhelms a person’s usual coping mechanisms (Everly & Mitchell.
without assigning values. requiring immediate action Eustress: a positive stress reaction that motivates one to make positive changes. grow..Cultural sensitivity: knowing that cultural differences as well as similarities exist. i. occurring suddenly and causing great damage or hardship (Webster). readily or excessively affected by external agencies or influences. unalike in many characteristics— Iphysical. God’s initiative in encountering people Psychology: study of mental processes and behavior. they can cause harm Emergency: a sudden. racial. disciplines. intellectual. right or wrong. historical. interpreting and understanding the significance of a person’s account of the crisis event 15 . as with others or in a place. or social groups seeking to maintain autonomous participation in and development of their traditional culture or special interest within the confines of a common society. or agencies Pluralism: a coalition of diverse ethnic. trained in crisis intervention skills Distress: prolonged or excessive negative stress reactions. 1993) Religious diversity: the state of representing several religious traditions Sensitivity: the state or quality of being sensitive. religious. 1997) Disaster: a calamitous event.e. an unexpected event that causes human suffering or creates human needs that the victims cannot alleviate without assistance (ARC) Disaster relief chaplain: a chaplain that responds to victims of disasters. religious pluralism seeks an environment in which all faith expressions can dwell together Presence: state or fact of being present. and achieve goals Human diversity: the state of being diverse as mankind. or agencies Multidisciplinary team: a group of specialists that represent several different professions. spiritual. better or worse. familial Interdisciplinary team: a group of specialists that represent several different professions. usually unforeseen occurrence or occasion. emotions and behavioral characteristics Psychotraumatology: study of psychological trauma in contrast to ‘traumatology” which deals with the study of physical wounds in physical medicine (Schnitt. to those cultural differences (National Maternal and Child Health Center on Cultural Competency. highly responsive Story listening: listening to the narrative that tells the story of the event. urgent. disciplines. moral.
status. If crisis is an acute response caused by a change in psychological homeostasis (balance). the sum total of “wear and tear” that accelerates the aging process. injury. disasters affect several people or entire communities are unexpected or sudden have an element of danger cause injury or loss of human life cause property damage or loss Why is it that people experience the same disaster event and respond differently? Why do some people have such severe distress while others seem to have minimal negative reactions? Understanding. the non-specific response of the body to any demand made upon it (Selye. and origin. age. or anything unpleasant Trauma: an event outside the usual realm of human experience that would be markedly distressing to anyone who experiences it. illness. distress. a perceived change or a perceived loss will produce signs or symptoms of distress. no matter how real or unreal it may be. disadvantage. A trauma. i. 1987]). 1994) defines trauma exclusively in terms of the exposure to human suffering. Disasters vary greatly in extent of damage. is still a loss to the victim. independence. A perceived loss. victimization. reputation. relationships. history— these and many other factors may affect the response. the disaster may be perceived either as a calamitous event or a non-disaster. and origin Perception of the event will influence the reaction The perceived loss may be intrapsychic 16 . or death.e. APA. the most recent version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV. personal or vicarious exposure to severe injury. an exceptionally threatening or catastrophic event (WHO. or integrity. it is essential to remember that perception greatly affects the distress a victim may experience. be subjected to. may be seen as a more narrow form of critical incident (a crisis event that causes a crisis response) Traumatic event: an event outside the range of usual human experience that would be markedly distressing to almost everyone (DSM-III-R [APA.” Disasters by this definition could vary greatly in extent of damage. Therefore. 1974) Suffering: to undergo or feel pain or distress. or loss. 1956.. victimization. the property loss may be secondary to the perceived loss of position. experience. to undergo. 1992) What Constitutes a Disaster? The American Red Cross defines a disaster as a “situation that causes human suffering or creates human needs that the victims cannot alleviate without assistance. loss. For the chaplain. to sustain injury. or endure pain. or impairment. therefore. dysfunction. For some victims.Stress: a response characterized by physical and psychological arousal arising as a direct result of an exposure to any demand or pressure on a living organism. Typically.
avalanches. Many of these man-made disasters have a criminal component. The emotional. and so on What Happens During a Community Disaster? Most communities have experienced some form of disaster. physical. the elderly. and spiritual losses sustained as a result of war are overwhelming. tidal waves.Types of Disasters Natural Disasters Natural disasters—“acts of Natural disasters are often called “acts of God. disasters are health related in the form of epidemics and widely spread diseases—some through biological warfare and terrorism. In addition to loss of life and limb. Man-made disasters—crimes. school violence. the United States experienced disaster as a nation. The numbers of people involved are often great. Drowning also accounts for many disasters. There may be many dead and injured. crime. and hazardous material spills. structural collapses. hurricanes. What would be the “community crisis need?” 17 . man-made disasters have captured the attention of many Americans. and chronic community violence are now overshadowed by terrorism and bombings. riots. For many. battered people. and so on. national identity. abused children. Some have experienced natural disasters and others have experienced the results of war.” Southern Baptist Disaster God” Relief and other disaster relief organizations often include earthquakes. there are some common characteristics. and volcanic eruptions in this category. ships. Rapes. When destruction affects an entire community. extraordinary financial or property losses through fraud or theft. What would be the “community crisis need?” There may be extensive physical destruction of homes. arson. buses. wild fires. shootings and other assaults. psychological. In 2001. Disaster services organizations also include some conditions that result from these events—mud slides. floods. and property loss. They are crimes against people and humanity. The most devastating catastrophe caused by humans is war. tornadoes. health-related. Other man-made disasters include industrial accidents. fires. and transportation vehicles of every kind. property. Man-made disasters include accidents in airplanes. blizzards. there are issues surrounding displacement as refugees. trains. suicides and suicide attempts. accidents. Man-made Disasters30 In recent years. and possessions. and accidents.
The chaplain in disasters may not be able to deal with all the issues of the community. What would be the “community crisis need?” Businesses. What would be the “community crisis need?” There may be political confusion. But caring interventions are necessary and effective. What would be the “community crisis need?” Individual people may have huge financial losses. What would be the “community crisis need?” There may be interruption of public utilities. Recovery needs: Repair homes/businesses Remove debris Provide food/water Long-term needs: Rebuilding Financial support Jobs 18 . industry. and so forth may suffer severe losses. the problems and issues will remain. What would be the “community crisis need?” The immediate needs: Shelter Food/water Safety The community in disaster may fragment or draw together.There may be massive numbers of displaced people and animals. employment. The task will appear daunting—and it is. but he or she will certainly be needed in dealing with the disaster issues that individuals face. Either way. What would be the “community crisis need?” There may be interruption of transportation. one person at a time.
In these cases. It is always important for chaplains to be a part of an established and recognized crisis intervention team when they respond to disasters. The chaplain in disasters must quickly do some answer the 5 W +H questions general assessments and have some understanding regarding the crisis response. many had no lodging or provision for personal needs. to verify credentials. While the intention “to help” was appreciated. law enforcement has jurisdiction and there are many prohibitions surrounding who may participate. In some instances. Where. This type of selfdeployment often causes confusion and additional chaos for the command staff who are trying to organize the intervention efforts. Think of a specific disaster and try to answer these questions: Who will respond? Who is the victim of the disaster? First responders Direct victims Indirect victims Who is “in charge” during the disaster? What happens immediately following the crisis event? What is a chaplain allowed to do during a crisis event? When does the chaplain respond to a crisis event? When does the chaplain do “crisis intervention”? Where does crisis intervention happen? When does crisis intervention stop? How does the chaplain know what intervention to use? How is responding to an airplane accident different? How does the response in a natural disaster differ from a man-made incident? How is a terrorist attack different? How is a bank robbery different? How is a school shooting different? How is a death in the workplace different? How does the “command staff” know a chaplain is qualified to do crisis intervention? Chaplains in disasters must be part of a recognized crisis intervention team Every disaster situation has an agency that has been identified and charged with the responsibility. What. and How of Crisis Response Every disaster and critical incident is unique. disasters are a result of criminal activity. Never “self deploy” to a disaster scene Law enforcement has jurisdiction over crime scenes 19 .Who. In the event of criminal activity. who may be approached. Why. the crisis intervention team leader will take primary responsibility for interfacing with security. When chaplains arrived on the scene in New York City after September 11. where they may locate. There are no two that result in Chaplains in disasters must exactly the same responses. No chaplain should ever “show up” uninvited. the additional effort that was required to find housing and parking. When. and what may be said. and to maintain organization was tremendous in the wake of already exhausted personnel.
Victim Classifications Some crisis intervention organizations list as many as seven levels of victim classifications as a result of disasters. from the primary victim to the person who thinks that only by the luck-of-the-draw did he or she escape being a primary or secondary victim. Indirect victims—those who are not directly impacted by the disaster. lists the following classification of victims of disasters: 1. Indirect victims 3. and first responders may view successful rescue much differently than others. but are somewhat affected by the resulting annoyances and inconveniences or have close relationships with direct victims 3. emergency medical services. Hidden victims Emerging Issues for People and Groups Involved in Disasters People and groups of people who are involved in disasters face many issues during and after the critical incident. and disaster services Victims in disasters: 1. Direct victims 2. including law enforcement. Recognition of some of these issues will be helpful for the chaplain who interacts with people in crisis. disaster relief chaplaincy. Hidden victims—those who respond to the disaster as first responders and relief workers. Here are a few emerging issues for people involved in disasters: Direct Victims Immediate danger and life threatening situations Physical injury and/or pain Dislocation and separation anxiety Death of family and/or friends and survivor’s guilt Unknown future Indirect Victims and Survivors Relief and guilt Preoccupation with the disaster circumstances Imaginative reconstruction of victim’s suffering Inconvenience Family and Loved Ones “Next-of-kin” responsibilities Relief and guilt Preoccupation with the disaster circumstances Imaginative reconstruction of victim’s suffering First Responders Rescue and failed rescue Search and unfruitful search “Hero ethos” Emerging issues for people involved in disasters 20 . Direct victims—those in the immediate area of the destruction who have suffered losses 2. Direct victims may verbalize issues that appear to be in conflict with those of survivors. The Southern Baptist Disaster Relief publication. Involving Southern Baptists in Disaster Relief.
network 21 . network Extended exposure to disaster and consequent bonding with community Extended separation from family and personal support “Unsung hero” Chaplains “Messiah” complex Role confusion Inadequate resources—language. language. time.Legal responsibilities and jurisdiction Triage Disaster Relief Workers Unexpected responsibilities and tasks Inadequate resources—supplies. time.
the needs for safety and security can become active. belonging/social affiliation. a relatively constant body temperature (clothing. a person does not feel the higher need until the demands of the lower needs have been satisfied. sleep. When these needs are not satisfied. higher needs emerge and dominate a person’s attention. water. love. food. Safety and Security Needs When all physiological needs are satisfied and no longer dominant." Maslow set up an instinctoid hierarchic theory of needs based on five levels of basic needs. and the upper point representing the more spiritual need for self-actualization. healthy personalities. Each level is characterized by specific needs within the human scope of requirements for life. there are general types of deficiency needs (physiological. When the prepotent needs are met. He believed that humans strive for upper levels of capabilities—fully functioning personhood. self-esteem. Safety needs are mostly psychological in nature. ones that have the greatest influence over our actions. and esteem) that must be satisfied before a person can act unselfishly. "self-actualization. We Physiological needs Abraham Maslow’s theory “Prepotent needs” have the greatest influence over our actions Movement along the hierarchy of human needs is dynamic and changes with environmental factors Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs Safety and security needs 22 . An alcoholic will need to have a drink to “start the day. or as Maslow calls this level. According to Maslow. shelter). Maslow believed that the reason people did not move well in the direction of selfactualization is because of hindrances (disasters?) placed in their way. Each person’s prepotent needs vary. lower levels representing the lower. we feel motivated to alleviate them as soon as possible to establish homeostasis. These needs are prepotent. safety/security. They are represented as a pyramid in Figure 1. Times of emergency or chaos in the social structure (such as widespread rioting) make people aware of their safety and security needs. with the larger. A teenager may have a need to feel that he or she is accepted by his or her peers. and so forth. constantly changing with environmental factors which act as obstacles. The movement is not linear but dynamic. and self-actualization. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs is often represented as a pyramid. Physiological Needs Physiological needs are the most basic needs such as air. safety.HUMAN NEEDS AND DEVELOPMENT31 UNIT 3 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs—Identifying the Crisis Abraham Maslow was a psychologist. The physiological needs are the strongest needs. The five levels of needs identified by Maslow were physiological.” or a homeless person may need food and water. more basic needs. Within the levels of the five basic needs.
and belongingness can emerge. and alienation. food. stability. friends. uniquely expressed for each individual in episodic fashion Esteem Our need for competency. the needs for esteem can be addressed. a person feels helpless and worthless. New York: Harper & Row. mastery. water. and oneness with God and the universe. Self-actualization needs Esteem needs Belonging and social affiliation needs 23 . People who have satisfied their esteem needs feel self-confident and valued. self-fulfillment. sleep Figure 1. religious groups. Safety needs sometime motivate people to be religious. associates. These involve needs for both self-esteem (from competence or mastery of a task) and for the esteem a person gets from others (attention. to become everything that one is capable of becoming. (From Maslow. giving and receiving friendship and associating with people (a social context in which to validate a person's perceived worth). and social needs are met. shelter. appreciation Belongingness and love Our need to relate positively to other people— family. Esteem Needs When the first three classes of needs are satisfied. Motivation and Personality (2nd ed. Self-Actualization Needs When all of the physiological. 1970. psychological. family. When these needs are not met. This involves both giving and receiving love. Self-actualization Our need to actualize or maximize our potential as humans. work groups. Religion comforts us with support and encouragement in the midst of death and the insecurity of this world. Belonging and Social Affiliation Needs When the needs for psychological and physiological well-being are satisfied. status. aloneness. knowledge. appreciation. Humans have a desire to belong to groups: families. Maslow's Hierarchy of Human Needs. Maslow describes self-actualization as a person's “desire to become more and more what one is. law. the next level of needs for love. security. gangs. clubs. and recognition from others). A. a person has the desire to maximize his full potential. We need to feel loved and accepted by others. emotional.). and so on.” These people experience a restlessness that urges them to self-development. Maslow states that people seek to overcome feelings of isolation. affection. to give and receive affection Safety Our need for safety. adequacy.need the security of a home. attention. recognition. affection and the sense of belonging. and order—freedom from danger and threats. and freedom from fear and anxiety Physiological Our basic need for air.
They need the security of confidentiality and privacy. people are seldom ready to move beyond Maslow’s levels of basic needs and social affiliation needs (social affiliation is related to belonging and in this case implies that someone else has gained a strong understanding of what the victim is feeling and has experienced). caregivers are able to address other presenting needs. and 3) rebuild. Isolation and abandonment lead back to insecurity and a sense of danger. Victims need medical assistance and physical resources. victims who feel relatively safe and secure become concerned about having a positive relationship with others. They want to know that their home and belongings are safe. Congruent with Maslow’s theory. 2. vicitms’ basic needs are first met—air. clothing. Victims have a need to be assured of their safety and security. 2) recovery. spiritual care should complement efforts to meet people’s basic and social affiliation needs while helping them draw upon basic spiritual activities like prayer. Such efforts also contribute to feeling connected and secure. chaplains should help individuals engage personal and other available assets in order to facilitate movement toward the recovery and rebuild phases. and shelter. food. They want assurance of safety from impending danger and the security of qualified assistance. Communicating and uniting with family. Once their basic human needs are met. Because disasters are a significant disruption to homeostasis. 3. 3. How could you provide for physiological needs—basic human needs? 1. During the rescue phase. Understanding need? and applying the principles from Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs will assist the chaplain in disasters to determine the crisis need of the victim. During the initial phase of response. When physical survival and basic needs are met. and/or others who have experienced the same disaster becomes important in feeling like one is part of a community with a shared identity. As chaplains heighten the awareness of spiritual Victims need to perceive they are safe 24 .Identifying the Crisis The first task of the chaplain in disasters is to assess the immediate need— What is the victim’s crisis from both the victims’ perspective and from that of the caregiver. medical injuries and issues are addressed first. there is a sense of urgency to assist the victim in reducing acute physical traumatic stressors. The primary response in disasters and other emergencies is physical survival. water. How could you assure a victim of his or her safety and security? 1. friends. Three phases are prevalent in disaster relief responses and are often present in other kinds of crisis interventions: 1) rescue. They want to know that their family and friends are safe. As victims are receptive to stabilization via spiritual resources. They need to perceive that they are safe from imminent danger. When rescue Physical survival is first workers and caregivers arrive on the scene. 2.
victims are dealing with spiritual issues even as they deal with hunger. 2. they facilitate crisis mitigation and contribute to creating an environment that may allow victims to experience the higher levels of Maslow’s paradigm. chaplains in disasters are administering psychological and spiritual first aid. They are able to provide essential crisis interventions and spiritual crisis interventions. Spiritual needs are evident at all levels of Maslow’s pyramid. if and when they are ready to do so. resonating with classic psychoanalysis. Those impacted by the crisis can then employ these new insights as they move toward the later phases of a crisis experience and/or consider how to handle future crises. then. 3. the ministry of compassion. positive reaction patterns. If spirituality is the understanding. This kind of ministry involves a fine balance between a keen awareness of people’s needs and a discerning sensitivity to the work of God in their lives. Remember. reduce symptoms. language. Support for spiritual reflection and transformation should be afforded and readily available to persons at any stage of a disaster so they can encounter such horizons. The faithful presence and devoted service of a chaplain in the early phases of a crisis often contributes to credibility for chaplains and other spiritual care agents. Application for chaplains in disasters Stages of Human Development—The Age-Specific Human Response to Crisis Erik Erickson developed a theory for human psychosocial development that is consistent among humans. and response to the transcendence of God (see Unit 9). How could you help a victim meet belonging and social affiliation needs? 1. or aloneness. socio-economic status. Within each stage. As chaplains remain patient and respectful of a victim’s personal boundaries in the process of identifying and helping meet their needs. The basic goals are to mitigate acute distress. Chaplains in disasters have opportunities to remind victims of God’s providence and presence even as they struggle with meeting basic physiological. the opportunity for positive change often introduced by a crisis situation becomes available. not therapy. regardless of ethnicity. thirst. increase adaptive capabilities. and wholesome ways to think about the experience. safety. Chaplains in disasters are a “value-added” component of crisis intervention and disaster response. or education and experience.possibilities and progress with their presence by offering helpful suggestions. and facilitate continued care— all under the umbrella of spiritual care through the ministry of presence. safety. Erikson identified eight basic stages of life through which the human personality is developed. Erik Erikson’s Eight Stages of Human Development33 25 . and the ministry of care. there are characteristic perspectives that are consistent among all humans within similar age ranges. which allows them to introduce new coping skills. integration. gender. or belonging needs.
but still feel “safe. Industry versus Inferiority (6—12 years old) During the elementary school ages. feeling guilt when he or she fails to reach the limits or is unsuccessful in meeting the expectations of parents or caretakers. With hope and will and purpose and competence. to create. children apply their initiative and imagination in a more disciplined way—they learn through systematic education and example.As an individual grows and matures. to achieve. With muscular maturation. Initiative versus Guilt (3—6 years old) With autonomy comes mobility. to do. They are self-aware and purposeful. The infant learns trustfulness of others and trustworthiness of self. the infant learns to trust others to provide those needs. The child has a desire to be. Erikson states that the amount of trust that is developed has everything to do with the quality of the maternal relationship and little to do with the quantity of needs being met (i. effective ministry to all victims in distress. Consequently. Autonomy versus Doubt (2—3 years old) During this stage of development.e. Human development is dynamic—ever changing and growing. When they do not accomplish things at the level they perceive they should. There is a struggle to be independent. They develop a sense of wanting to complete work. each successive stage contributes to the overall health and wholeness of the individual. Being totally dependent upon others for basic survival needs. they develop feelings of inferiority and inadequacy. Recognizing the images of adulthood. understanding the needs. He or she learns to hold on and to let go—“Mine!” or throw it on the floor. and attitudes of each successive stage will be helpful in providing compassionate. and imagination. attention).” The child is aware of his or her separateness but sudden or prolonged separation may generate anxiety through feelings of abandonment. feelings. There is doubt about the ability to be autonomous. Children at this stage are most able to learn quickly and engage in cooperative activity— play and make things with.. language. the child begins to demonstrate his or her own will.” He or she identifies with peers. food. the teenager must be true to his or her own nature—“be his or her own self. Trust versus Mistrust (Birth—2 years old) The first developmental component of a healthy personality is cultivated in infancy. the child also experiments with retention and elimination. They cooperate in effort and share labor. Identity versus Identity Confusion (12—18 years old) These are the years when a child wants “to be my own self” by conforming to the expectations of his or her peers—his or her significant relationships. the teenager faces the challenge of discovering and becoming who he or she is and who he or she will be. gaining favor by producing things. Teenagers expect fidelity Elementary school age children become competent Preschoolers have a purpose Toddlers test their will Infants develop hope 26 . He or she becomes aware of limits and expectations.
you’re bad). or defaults into a role that is thrust upon him or her (i. When he or she is confused about his or her role. It becomes incumbent upon the disaster relief chaplain to be aware of these issues and their resulting needs in order to provide the appropriate care.gangs. Intimacy versus Isolation (19—35 years old) When the teenager is more confident about his or her identity.” The perception is that life is stagnant and nonproductive. the young adult begins developing intimacy with people in general and with a mate. aspirations. Conclusions and Applications The human developmental stages can be generally divided into three chronological groups—children.” organizations that impact society. An infant will need the comfort of being held more than the assurance of communion with his peers. cognitive inabilities. plans. Discussing feelings. the youth seeks isolation and distance. When intimacy is rejected. withdraws.. he or she is able to enter into intimate personal relationships with others. and the elderly. adults. to the point of defending their personal lifestyle. rebels. The lack of this sense of integrity causes despair—the feeling that there is no time left to start over and gain integrity. Integrity versus Despair (65+ years old) Adults who have reached this stage of development have experienced success and failure—and live with acceptance of it. This is a stage of commitment and love. and other self-revealing topics. and spiritual despair that are typical of people in particular developmental stages. teams. they perceive themselves as impoverished—“life has no meaning. They accept their life experience as their own responsibility and are comfortable in it. you’re a failure. These are the years of careers that “make a difference. there are developmental issues that are generally common to all in that age group. emotional dysfunction. When people fail at accomplishing these goals. social isolation. you’re a delinquent. Assessment of needs will be enhanced as the disaster chaplain identifies issues surrounding physical necessities. Within each of these age groups. External affirmation is less needed and there is greater awareness of participation in the community of humankind while maintaining his or her own integrity. dreams. Generativity versus Stagnation (35—65 years old) The person who enters midlife is concerned about establishing and guiding the next generation—sometimes as a parent and sometimes as a caregiver or philanthropist. he or she faces his or her own crisis and runs away. and causes that ordain the future. They live with wisdom born of experience and maturity born of acceptance. hopes. Conclusions and applications for chaplains in disasters Elderly have wisdom and selfacceptance Mid-lifers care about guiding and establishing the next generation Young adults love someone 27 . and groups.e.
Figure 2 illustrates the crisis need and the corresponding reactions in each developmental stage. It also provides some resources for informed crisis response by the disaster relief chaplain. their corresponding virtues.32 28 .Erikson defined the stages of development. and radius of significant relationships.
order.12 Identity/Identity Confusion 12 . attachments Trust. order. fear. isolation CRISIS NEED CRISIS INTERVENTION Trust/Mistrust Birth . “Crisis Responses for the Eight Stages of Life. establish routines and order.1980). reassurance Provide identity.” School Peer Groups Mate. control. establish normal routines. order. attachments. anger. isolation Slight denial. Erik Erikson (New York: W. privacy Empower with choices.35 Generativity/Stagnation 35 . provide dignity Care Wisdom Fig. order Trust. care. stability. anger. doubt. empower with choices. reassurance Restore attachments.65 Integrity/Despair 65+ Hope Will Purpose Competence Fidelity Love Trust. holding). abandonment Fear. disorientation. peer relationships. holding hands). assure confidentiality. doubt. “My Kind. identity. guilt. confidence.Crisis Responses for the Eight Stages of Life STAGES VIRTUE RADIUS OF SIGNIFICANT RELATIONS Maternal Persons Paternal Person Basic Family “Neighborhood. normalcy. stability. restore caregivers Physical contact (sitting beside). confidentiality Trust. disorientation. confidence Trust. order. care. provide information Listen to stories and concerns. empowerment. abandonment Fear. fear Fear. Divided Labor Humankind. 2. order. fear. normalcy. Partners in Friendship Shared Household.” adapted from Identity and the Life Cycle. routine Physical contact (carrying. restore order and attachments. some anger.W.” Children PSYCHOSOCIAL MODALITIES To get To give in return To hold (on) To let (go) To make (=going after) To “make like” (=playing) To make things (=completing) To make things together To be oneself (or not to be) To share being oneself To lose and find oneself in another To make be To take care of To be. fear Denial. provide information Empower with choices. Colleagues. direction. Norton & Company. physical contact Trust. friends. assurance Trust. assure confidentiality. through having been To face not being VICTIM CRISIS REACTION Abandonment. restore peer attachments. empowerment. doubt. restore primary caregiver Physical contact (sitting beside. control.2 Autonomy/Doubt 2-3 Initiative/Guilt 3-6 Industry/Inferiority 6 . inadequacy Estrangement. direction. direction. privacy Trust. separation anxiety. care. isolation Denial. Naomi Paget. anger. restore order. restore order.18 Intimacy/Isolation 19 . fear. control. restore family. 29 . denial.
nor in imminent danger of war are suffering stress from an unprecedented number of sources. a stress reaction that is prolonged or excessive. Mobility and divorce separate us from supportive relationships that would absorb distress. The Internal Trauma Response Most people live in a reasonably balanced state of equilibrium—physically. Distress can cause harm. not necessarily a negative experience. uncertainty. or community support structure yields better health and increased longevity. the “father” of stress research. hurry. mentally. Eustress is “good stress. and we are experiencing change at faster and faster rates. and war have always led to fear.”35 Stress is a response to circumstances. even those of us who are neither poor. . vigilance. a “pileup effect” occurs when there is a lack of margin in one’s life and multiple stressors are introduced. Life without stress is impossible. When they are exposed to a critical event. Disaster relief is ministry to people experiencing critical incident stress (from major disasters). family. disease. Debt. these people must quickly adapt to new levels of equilibrium or their distress will remain greater than their eustress. But today. stress causes certain physiological changes in one’s body that prepares it for fight or flight. and frustration. The physical response to trauma is a complicated physiological interaction between the body and the mind. it quickly processes the information and interprets its significance based on historical evidence (memories of previous 38 Stress: “the non-specific response of the body to any demand made upon it. however. defined stress as “the nonspecific response of the body to any demand made upon it. and socially. emotionally. Rapidly changing job markets make us feel insecure even when we’re employed.36 Eustress causes one to make positive changes in one’s lifestyle while distress is destructive to one’s health.”37 One or two stressors usually do not cause a major stress response. In danger.” Eustress enables one to perform at peak ability or exceed normal capacities. Yet the very stressors for which we need support often put intolerable pressure on those relationships. Basically. “You will probably die from a stress-related disease if you are not involved in an accident. When a major distressing event occurs and there is no margin available. Jeffrey Mitchell says. the event is called a critical incident—an event that overwhelms a person’s usual coping mechanisms.OVERVIEW OF THE TRAUMA RESPONSE UNIT 4 Distress as the Trauma Response The Nature of Stress34 Hans Selye. Study after study confirms that a healthy marriage. sick. Distress is nothing new—poverty. Stress is a response to change. Distress is the destructive side of stress. and relationships. emotions. . and complexity cause stress.” (Selye) Distress is the destructive side of stress Stress piles up and becomes distress The physical response to trauma is a complicated physiological interaction between the body and the mind 30 . . when the brain receives the trauma information through one of the five senses.
a logical order of emotional reactions is manifested—fear and terror. The initial cognitive response is shock.. the body may relieve itself of excess materials through regurgitation. and blood pressure increase to provide more oxygen to the body. High arousal when facing danger seems to be an unlearned. This “fight or flight” response observed in humans and animals facing danger (Lorenz. trauma causes the cognitive functioning of the brain to become secondary. a person is fearful and seeks to protect himself from danger. uncontrollable. time). shame or humiliation. In other words. However. the victim may experience regression to a childlike state or infancy (emotions become dominant). stress). The initial cognitive response is shock.events). confusion and frustration. chest pain. Breathing. and there is a heightened state of emotional arousal. and the liver produces ten times more blood glucose (the fuel for muscles).g. and predictions. a physiological stress reaction begins. The “red alert” status might involve being hyperalert or hypervigilant to your surroundings and having an increase in physiological arousal to allow for flight or defense. grief or sorrow. After the physical danger has ebbed. change in communications. seeing the birth of a child may cause a happy father to faint). seriously slowed thinking. high levels of cognitive and affective arousal have also been observed. pupils dilate to take in more light and increase visual acuity. excessive humor or silence. nausea. withdrawal. muscles tighten. recent research does indicate that different chemicals and enzymes are released into the bloodstream as a result of anger versus joy. your body and mind automatically go on “red alert” in an attempt to regain control. or urination to facilitate fight or flight. sensory perceptions increase. shakes. normal responses to preserve life. fury. and there is a heightened state of emotional arousal 31 . disbelief.. place. heart rate. When cognitive function temporarily stops. when you experience loss of control over your safety.g. disorientation (to person. guilt or self-blame. and denial. challenge. Victims are overwhelmed with the event and cannot make normal.41 In a crisis event. excessive blood pressure.39 When faced with a sudden. All of these responses are healthy. In humans.” Common distress signals or “symptoms of stress” may include the following: profuse sweating. wishing to hide. generalized mental confusion. The body does not distinguish between “good” stressors or “bad” stressors. The mental response to trauma parallels the physical response. They may seem “lost” or “in shock. extremely negative event. difficulty breathing).40 Typically. This reaction prepares the entire body to deal with the threat (trauma. preparing the body to fight the danger actively or run away from the threat. defecation. logical. Some symptoms require immediate medical attention (e. If the information is processed as a threat. disbelief. logic. adrenaline pumps through the body in a lifesaving response. 1966) is characterized by high levels of physiological and behavioral arousal. signs of severe shock. and denial Trauma causes the cognitive functioning of the brain to become secondary. Selye called the fight or flight response the general adaptation syndrome. or rational decisions. feeling hopeless. anger. An extremely happy event could cause the same response as a life-threatening event (e. difficulties making decisions. and outrage. denial. or significant change. preparatory response of the body and the mind to danger.
Self preservation dictates that sensory perception must increase and the senses become acute. numbness. adrenaline begins to course through the body. Generally. the body wants to “fight or flight” Reactions versus responses Rest and recovery are essential Psychological Factors—Mental Response The psychological response to critical incidents is very similar to that of the body—shock. The heart rate increases the flow of oxygen to the muscles and the body begins to cool itself down for work by sweating or hyperventilating. In order to fight or flight. Critical incidents are constantly occurring. Most people live in world in which they balance their physical. the body’s response is biologically visible. During disasters. 1989). There is disbelief and denial over the event because the mind is overwhelmed with the implications of the traumatic Mentally. experiences short-term memory deficiencies. disorientation. most people interpret the event as a critical incident. the body instinctively prepares to fight against the danger or to flee from the threat. Physically. But hyperarousal cannot be sustained indefinitely. or impairment become evident. disorientation. dysfunction. During a critical incident—a disaster or other traumatic event—a person’s usual coping mechanism fails and signs or symptoms of distress. giving it energy and ability beyond its normal capabilities. The balance is dynamic in nature. dysfunction. emotional. People are known to physically accomplish feats which would not normally be possible—lift a car off a child. run miles without stopping. Influenced by circumstances and daily events. most symptoms are typical and normal reactions to an extraordinary event. each aspect of their nature is called into priority. the mind wants to deny the event 32 . and confused. The alarm causes hyperarousal. social. In the 1930’s Walter Cannon described this response as the “fight or flight” response. or impairment Biological Factors—Physical Response After a shock to the system. When faced with overwhelming danger. cognitive. Symptomatic of this shock to the body and the need to fight or flight is the decrease of mental efficiency. unless they are perceived as threatening. Cognitive functioning decreases as the body prepares to “react emotionally” rather than “respond intellectually. and numbness. however. Critical incidents cause symptoms of distress. the human response is not a trauma response—not a response that is markedly distressing. Prolonged hyperarousal leads to hypersensitivity of the stress arousal centers of the brain and future stress responses become too easily activated (Every and Benson. there is physical shock. Rest and recovery are essential to return to a precritical incident level of functioning. and spiritual lives. This physiological response is an emergency lifesaving response. becomes mentally inflexible. Hyperarousal causes deep exhaustion and exhaustion creates more distress which often manifests itself in other ways.However.” The victim is less able to concentrate. However. The body relieves itself of excess fluids and material to facilitate increased action.
g. and disorganized. and worry. run away from danger). emotions are at a peak. grief. The chaplain in disasters must be very sensitive to the victim’s perceived threat of danger. The victim may be terrified. helplessness. abandonment. Victims may “perceive” danger differently than the chaplain 33 . Disaster scenes are chaos and so is the mind.. During the “normal” circumstances of life. According to Maslow’s theory. confused. 3. anger. Other emotions may also come into play—guilt. the mind and body work in a fairly balanced manner with little movement back and forth. The victim’s perceptions affect the reactions to the actual traumatic event regardless of the chaplain’s perception or the “reality” of the event. can cause the body to positively react out of fear. confused. Therefore. the victim’s mind will not be logically considering the event. or frustrated. shame. during disasters. Consequently. When stimulated. 3 How are you “balanced” right now? Draw it below: Congruent with the fight or flight theory. the mind or body will become dominant somewhat like the teeter-totter effect in Fig.event—it is more than the mind can comprehend. _Cognitive Functioning_________Emotional Reactions _ During “normal” circumstances Cognitive functioning is low and emotional functioning is high in disaster circumstances Cognitive Functioning Emotional Reactions During “disaster” circumstances Fig. This is a lifesaving emergency action. cognitive functioning becomes secondary to emotional functioning. or vulnerability (e. which have taken precedence. but his or her emotions will be racing for self-survival. angry. The threat has caused the brain and cognitive abilities to diminish so the emotions. survival is paramount.
become suspicious.Social Factors—Relational Response People are social and their social environment affects their reactions during and after disasters. and tobacco. Sometimes the behavior is excessive—humor. The chaplain in disasters must consider many social factors as they provide spiritual interventions. There may be increases in activity or a noticeable decrease in activity. The behavioral changes are directly related to the distress experienced in the critical event. But not everyone experiences the same cultural relevance. or sleep habits. alcohol. Spirituality includes the search for meaning and purpose.g. Everyone has some family history or prior experience that informs the crisis event. Crisis often causes extreme or excessive behavior Spiritual Factors—Faith Response Disasters and other critical incidents cause a crisis of faith for many victims. a person’s ethnic heritage may affect his or her reaction more than his or her age). behavioral activity may also experience a dramatic change. Spiritual matters include all matters of belief and values—between people and between people and God. crying. anger. Everyone has a particular personality or disposition that will affect the crisis reaction. communication. everyone has some cultural orientation that adds perspective to the traumatic event. Some cultural aspects may be more dominant than others (e. silence. understanding the meaning of life and the cosmos. And. Behavioral Factors—Action Response Following a critical incident.. Developmental stage (Erikson’s stages) Family history or prior experience Personality type Cultural group Ethnic Gender Age Religion Language Position/authority Profession Socio-economic Education The effects of social and relational factors impact reactions in various ways Everyone relates to a specific developmental stage. or increase use of profanity. and exploring the Disasters are a violation of value systems 34 . It will be important to determine what the “typical” behavior was pre–disaster. Chaplains in disasters provide interventions that help mitigate the excessive distress symptoms. There may be visible changes in eating habits. retreat into silence. The victim may withdraw.
Victims often seek spiritual support. Initial questions such as “Why did God do this?” are usually not spiritual questions as much as they are shock reactions of disbelief. This study is particularly essential in preparing pastors and chaplains to respond to the spiritual factors that result from distress. or purification.. Crisis intervention is most effective when provided immediately following the crisis. disasters challenge people’s beliefs in God’s sovereignty. A more detailed study of the spiritual dimensions of trauma is discussed in Unit 9. systematic procedure for crisis intervention. mental health workers).g. simple or specific phobias. victims have questions about their faith and God. cognitive.44 Crisis responders must be aware of distress signals Mitigating distress is essential in crisis intervention Crisis intervention is most effective immediately following the crisis 35 . or diagnosis of extreme stress not otherwise specified [DESNOS]). moral and ethical absolutes. They are listed according to the general categories in which they are demonstrated. adjustment disorder. famine. 4 lists many stress symptoms that are associated with critical incidents. specifically distress. Some may blame God or view the disaster as divine punishment. Crisis Intervention as a Response to Trauma42 The state of dysfunction that is caused by trauma and its resulting stress symptoms is the primary issue with which crisis responders must deal. Whether one is actively engaged in religion or whether one has little or nothing to do with religious matters. They may ask for prayer. Others may blame the devil or other demons. acute stress disorder. The Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) model for trauma recovery outlines a sequence of steps for stress reduction intervention. long-term stress reactions may occur.. and meaning.g. Crisis interventionists are primarily concerned with the issue of stress. Fig. Spiritual questions usually surface after victims have been assured of physiological needs and safety and security needs—when some cognitive functioning returns. and behavioral. or if the event is extremely catastrophic and extended over a long period of time (e. Other long-term stress reactions may include depression. emotional. war..g. CISM has adopted a standard protocol that is a specific. These may include post-traumatic reactions (e. paramedics). post-traumatic stress disorder. or dissociative disorders. Therefore. when disaster strikes. and concepts of good and evil.43 Both NOVA and CISM recognize the urgency of mitigating stress and distress after critical events. Some responders primarily deal with medical issues (e. national principles and values.. doctors. panic attacks.transcendent. But all responders must be aware of all possible distress signals—physical.g. anxiety syndromes. Victims may react to the critical incident by seeking God’s presence through the disaster chaplain. If stress and distress are not reduced. nuclear fallout). and some primarily deal with cognitive issues (e. Because mitigating distress is critical in crisis intervention. post-traumatic character changes. guidance. reassurance. intercession.
PHYSICAL Chest pain* Chills Diarrhea Difficulty breathing* Disorientation Dizziness Elevated blood pressure* Equilibrium problems Fainting* Fatigue Grinding of teeth Headaches Insomnia Lower back pains Muscle tremors Nausea Neck and shoulder pains Nightmares Profuse sweating Rapid heart rate* Shock symptoms* Stomach problems Thirst Twitches Uncoordinated feeling Visual difficulties Vomiting Weakness COGNITIVE Blaming someone Confusion Difficulty identifying familiar objects or people Disturbed thinking Flashbacks Heightened or lowered alertness Hypervigilance Impaired thinking Increased or decreased awareness of surroundings Intrusive images Loss of time, place, or person orientation Memory problems Nightmares Overly critical of others Overly sensitive Poor abstract thinking Poor attention Poor concentration Poor decisions Poor problem solving EMOTIONAL Abandonment Agitation Anger Anxiety Apprehension Denial Depression Emotional shock Excessive worry Fear Feeling helpless about life Feeling hopeless Feeling overwhelmed Flat affect—numbness Grief Guilt Inappropriate emotional response or lack of it Intense anger Irritability Loss of emotional control Phobias Rage Resentment Sever panic* (rare) Uncertainty BEHAVIORAL Alcohol consumption Antisocial acts* Avoiding thoughts, feelings or situations related to the event Changes in activity Changes in sexual functioning Changes in speech patterns Changes in usual communications Emotional outbursts Erratic movements Hyper-alert to environment Inability to relax Inability to rest Loss or increase in appetite Nonspecific bodily complaints Pacing Silence Startle reflex intensified Suspiciousness Withdrawal SPIRITUAL Acceptance or rejection of providence Alienation Anger directed to God Awareness of the holy Changes in religious observances Confusion regarding God Deepened spiritual awareness Emphasis on religious rites Hyper-repentance Imposed gratefulness Increased emphasis on religion Isolation Renewed search for meaning Sense of abandonment Sense of betrayal Sense of communion Sense of meaninglessness Sense of vocation in creation and providence
Fig.4. Naomi Paget, Stress in the Workplace, Marketplace Samaritans, Inc., 2000.
*Requires immediate medical intervention
THE ART OF STORY-LISTENING45 UNIT 5
Differences Between Hearing and Listening
The differences between hearing and listening may be mere semantics, but for the purposes of this study, let us agree that hearing is the physical act of sound entering the ear and resonating on the ear drum. Let us further agree that listening is the assimilation of those physical sounds and their accompanying body language with one’s own experience and integrating it into the present experience to give those sounds meaning and voice. Conversation, then, is the act of two or more people engaged in mutual listening. During this process of conversation, each person is attempting to communicate information. This interaction of communication is a distinction of humankind and is essential in the effective interactions of chaplains in disasters. Hearing is a physical act Listening is assimilating and integrating sounds and body language Conversation is mutual listening
Ethics of Listening
The chaplain in disasters is in a unique position to provide caring spiritual intervention to people who are extremely vulnerable due to the trauma they have experienced. Consequently, great care must be taken to provide a sense of safety and security. Finding privacy in the midst of chaos may seem impossible, but providing a sense of privacy may be possible through some basic interventions. Asking permission to approach, to converse, or to provide help demonstrates respect for victims’ personal space and privacy. Conversations are by invitation, not entitlement. One or two caregivers will be less threatening than a group who approaches a victim. Chaplains could advocate for victims by protecting them from intrusive questions and media mania which are discomforting and sometimes threatening. Some professionals are legally required to maintain strict confidentiality. Others are not. All chaplains in disasters are ethically bound to maintain confidentiality. Vulnerable people say and do things that are distress reactions to unusual circumstances. Chaplains should assure victims that their conversations are private (if in fact they are) and confidential. If legal or policy issues limit confidentiality, the chaplain must inform the victim. In disasters, victims view caregivers as trustful and it is incumbent upon chaplains to honor that trust. Many disaster relief chaplains have experience in pastoral counseling or therapy. They have experience in asking the clarifying questions that provide the background for the issues with which they are dealing. However, intervention in disasters is emergency spiritual first aid, and some questions are better left unasked. Chaplains must approach listening with an attitude of what do I need to know. Asking for unnecessary details is intrusive and victims may have a sense of distrust in the chaplain. Provide a sense of privacy
Confidentiality is essential
Ask questions on a “need to know” basis
There are some situations in which the chaplain must divulge information gained from a victim. Usually, these are related to whether non-disclosure would cause harm to the victim or someone else. Some caregivers are required to disclose information that threatens national security. Others are required to reveal information that involves illegal activity. Before responding to a disaster, each disaster chaplain must know which policies and statutes govern the reporting process. It would be unethical to tell a victim after the fact that you will be reporting some sensitive information to someone else.
Know the policies and statutes that govern your confidentiality
Ministry of Presence
A major premise of disaster relief chaplaincy is presence. “The ministry of presence” is immediate, humble, and intentional. Chaplains in disasters must immediately step out of their comfort zone and intentionally enter a place of crisis—danger, pain, loss, or grief—during and after the physical, emotional, and spiritual crises of life. Chaplains in disasters provide a listening presence as a spiritual act. Presence is both physical and emotional. With very few exceptions, the chaplain must be physically with the victim. Through empathetic listening, the chaplain must be emotionally present with the victim. The listener must do more than feel with the victim. The ministry of presence demands that the listener will feel into the fear, the pain, the anguish, or the isolation of the victim. Empathetic listening assures the victim that words and feelings are being heard. Many times, chaplains are so anxious to provide encouragement or to say “the right thing,” that they are busy thinking about a response and not really present to the words and feelings being expressed by the victim. Good listening means the chaplain will be present to the victim by integrating the words, the feelings, and the facts to give meaning and understanding to the experience. Who is the speaker and who is the listener? Presence may simply mean being there. Presence is grace—the gift of being there. Presence is being available, even when other commitments and obligations are significant. It is being physically present when the circumstances are uncomfortable and even dangerous. Presence is being aware of emotional upheaval and spiritual doubt and being open to its possibility for healing and growth. Presence is being accepting of the disaster victim in whatever state one finds him or her. The power of the “ministry of presence” is in its immediacy, altruistic service, and intentionality
Chaplains must “feel into” the words and feelings of the victim
Present in body and spirit
Presence is grace, availability, physical presence, awareness, openness, and acceptance
Ministry of Silence
Good listening means sometimes being silent. It is the silence that gives strength and meaning to words. “Silence is an indispensable discipline in the spiritual life. . . . Silence is a very concrete, practical, and useful discipline in all our ministerial tasks.”46 Some ground is so holy that words are inadequate and only silence is worthy of the time and place. Our words must spring forth from the fullness and presence of the Divine—the presence of God within our own Sometimes, silence is golden
This is not the time to have complicated discussions or preach. It is best to clarify the intended meaning by using synonyms and asking open-ended questions within the immediate context of the conversation. Restate the text but keep the meaning Use synonyms and questions to help clarify feelings Chaplains must develop the art of story-listening 39 . they make assumptions about the meaning of words being used. using different words but maintaining the integrity of meaning. The victim needs to know that the chaplain in disasters has heard and understood the meaning of his or her story. express their feelings.souls and spirits. The distress of the situation often makes it difficult for them to find accurate words to communicate their feelings. A calm presence speaks volumes in silence. It is often helpful for the chaplain to help clarify these expressions by offering some synonyms for the words being used. the disaster chaplain could ask: Does it mitigate distress? Will it stabilize or reduce the symptoms of distress? Does it provide safety and security? Does it offer real hope? Will it be perceived as comforting? Will it help restore normalcy? Will it be a step toward God? If in doubt. or other art forms). Their cognitive functioning is diminished and they are very emotional. Intrusive questioning is never appropriate.” they begin to use words to describe their experience. Before speaking. music. These new words are verbalized to the victim. one must become skilled in the art of story-listening. most divine love penetrates the individual’s crisis. do not say it Improving Listening Skills Most chaplains are skilled in the art of listening. Telling the story of what has happened is an important part of diffusing the distress of the situation and chaplains must help victims tell their stories. Paraphrase A paraphrase is a restatement of the conversational text. Some words are better unspoken—they do not edify. and articulate their responses. Most often. do not say it. When chaplains are not aware of their own history and frames of reference. Most victims are in shock—they are confused and disoriented. If in doubt. It is often in this silence that the deepest. telling the story will take the form of conversation (some victims find expression in prayer. During crisis situations and disasters. The chaplain provides new words with or beside (para) the original words that expressed the thought (phrase). Clarify As victims begin “telling their stories.
paraphrase. ”47 The disaster chaplain who develops skills in reflective empathetic listening facilitates ventilation of distress in disaster victims. [disaster relief] counselors help persons begin to organize their confused inner world. and pain. The skilled chaplain will echo some of these key words or phrases to assure the victim that he or she has been accurately heard—the chaplain is paying attention to what is important. Reflect Reflection returns an image to the disaster victim. energy. Echo Some words have so much power and meaning. The chaplain casts back (as a mirror does) an image of the victim’s story and feelings. . and meaning of the victim’s story. . Summarizing the conversation helps both the victim and the chaplain briefly recall the basic elements of the conversation. identifying deeply with the words. there is no synonym. attempts to listen to feelings (as well as words) including feelings that are between the lines. or summary that would do justice to them. The chaplain: . phrases. .Summarize When cognitive functioning is diminished. middle. verbal and nonverbal. too painful to trust to words. Excessive use of echoing will be annoying and may be perceived as mockery. The disaster relief chaplain may be overwhelmed with the amount of information that is being related. meaning. By periodically summarizing significant points and asking occasional questions for clarification. . what they hear. victims of disasters have difficulty with concise expression of their thoughts and feelings. Reflective empathetic listening avoids false assumptions. This kind of listening is “disciplined listening”—focusing on what seems to have the most feeling. [disaster chaplains] listen in depth. in paraphrased form. and entire stories—sometimes without a pause. and future by giving them significance and meaning in a life story 40 . Now and again he or she responds to these feelings. particularly the person’s big (dominant) feelings. . . They repeat words. Reflective empathetic listening gives strength to the listening process Reflection is the most empathetic form of listening An echo gives exact meaning to words and phrases Summarize the conversation to briefly recall the basics Story-Listening—“listening” to the narrative parts of conversations by using appropriate listening skills and putting them together as a beginning. the same key words and phrases are used. and misjudgment. they reflect back to the person. feelings. misinterpretations. . . Reflection is the most empathetic form of listening. Usually. to the multiple levels of communication.
With greater awareness for the value of spiritual care in conjunction with physical care during emergencies. or social alliance with the crisis responder. many have not been trained for the unique needs and issues that surround emergency disaster care. no ongoing care will occur—the care is instantaneous. or even threatened. urgent. discounted.g. but now includes remote locations. the victims feel unheard. With technological advances and the globalization of America. The events of September 11.. institutions. relationship. chaplains and community clergy must be aware of the dynamics of the relationships between disaster relief agencies and must meet the qualifications and requirements of some of these agencies. relief agencies have recognized the need to redefine the arena of disasters. ethnic. There is little effective ministry that occurs. the manufacturer and factory of the faulty electrical switch). Any chaplain who will intentionally enter the arena of spiritual crisis intervention in disasters should complete the basic training provided by one of Disaster crisis intervention is a specialized form of ministry The response of chaplains in disasters is becoming formalized Major disaster can happen and there are not enough trained chaplains 41 . There are two organizations that have become the benchmark for crisis intervention training—the National Organization for Victim Assistance (NOVA) and the International Critical Incident Stress Foundation (ICISF). they fail to provide appropriate ministry to the victims and often leave the scene feeling inadequate. 2001—the terrorist bombing of the World Trade Center buildings and the Pentagon—made it exceedingly clear that major disasters can happen and that there are not enough trained chaplains to meet the needs of disaster victims. In most instances.CRISIS INTERVENTION MODELS48 UNIT 6 Crisis Intervention In the past. The need for spiritual and emotional support far exceeds a disaster site/location or hospital. Victims are often people of other faith traditions and have no vocational. the out-of-state corporate headquarters. and finite. ignored. or in personal crisis themselves. and people groups who are in some way related or impacted by the disaster (e. The growing awareness of spiritual needs in crisis has begun to formalize the response of chaplains in disasters. the victims have no basis of trust. The call to disaster ministry has become evident to more chaplains and to agencies that respond to crisis. Spiritual assessments are completed with little personal information and history. judged. thus. caregivers from many arenas of service have responded to major disasters. the departure and arrival airports. Likewise. however. When chaplains are not skilled in addressing these issues (and many others that are equally important49). the chaplain in disaster specialization has evolved into a major category. or identity from which they willingly accept care. To minister effectively in disaster relief. National and international disaster relief agencies are beginning to work together to coordinate spiritual care response in disasters of many kinds. It is no longer only the site/location directly impacted by the disaster. the home church of the kids in the bus. overwhelmed. Spiritual care is provided with a sense of urgency and for the most immediate need.
former victims and survivors. The following sections provide a brief introduction to the two models of crisis intervention which have been mentioned. criminal justice agencies and professionals. and promoting better communication among its members. mental health professionals. National Organization for Victim Assistance (NOVA) “The National Organization for Victim Assistance is a private.”50 NOVA lists four purposes: national advocacy. providing direct crisis services to victims. nonprofit. but to lay a foundation for care during and after a disaster. 501(c)(3) organization of victim and witness assistance programs and practitioners.) states that the key purposes for providing crisis intervention for individuals are to: Help educate people about common crisis reactions Provide professional and peer validation Help defuse the emotional overload caused by crisis reactions Provide focus on how people can begin to cope positively with the chaos Help assess whether people need referrals Provide a method whereby people can begin to organize their thoughts Help individuals begin to address what they are experiencing now and might experience in the future Help victims and survivors begin to think about what provides meaning in their lives Provide affirmation that many confusing reactions are not uncommon or abnormal Reassure survivors that most people can cope well and encourage them to build on strengths and adaptive capacities for coping NOVA lists three basic crisis intervention strategies: Group Crisis Intervention (GCI) One-on-one intervention Education NOVA’s basic model for group crisis intervention: Safety and security (past) Validation and ventilation (present) Prediction and preparation (future) NOVA – committed to the recognition and implementation of victim rights and services Key purposes for providing crisis intervention Crisis intervention strategies Basic model for group crisis intervention 42 . Today’s training is not designed to supplant basic crisis intervention training. researchers. serving as an educational resource to victim assistance and allied professionals. and others committed to the recognition and implementation of victim rights and services. NOVA’s Community Crisis Response Team Training Manual (3d ed.these organizations.
Inc. and consultation in the establishment of crisis and disaster response programs for varied organizations and communities worldwide. and people are recognizing the value of 43 . it is not incongruous that organizations. (ICISF) is a nonprofit. training and support services for all emergency services professions.”51 ICISF’s operational manual (3d ed. psychiatrists.) states that some aspects of the ICISF processes include the following: Provides early intervention Provides opportunity for catharsis Provides opportunity to verbalize trauma Provides a finite behavioral structure Follows well-structured psychological progression Employs a group format to address distressing issues Provides peer support Provides interactive learning experience to reduce stress Allows for follow-up Provides action-oriented intervention ICISF lists several basic crisis intervention strategies: Crisis Management Briefing (CMB) Demobilization Defusing Debriefing (Critical Incident Stress Debriefing—CISD) One on One (1:1) Pastoral Crisis Intervention Family Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) Organizational Consultation The ICISF basic model for small group crisis intervention is CISD: Introduction (safety) Facts (cognitive) Thoughts (cognitive to emotion) Reactions (emotion) Symptoms (emotion to cognitive) Teaching (cognitive) Re-entry (direction) ICISF is dedicated to the prevention and mitigation of disabling stress Aspects of ICISF processes Crisis intervention strategies Basic model for small group crisis intervention is CISD Effective Disaster Relief Includes Trained Chaplains as Part of the Interdisciplinary Team in Disasters and Other Emergencies52 In an age of highly specialized learning and information seeking.International Critical Incident Stress Foundation (ICISF) “The International Critical Incident Stress Foundation. agencies. continuing education and training in emergency mental health services for psychologists. open membership foundation dedicated to the prevention and mitigation of disabling stress through the provision of: education. social workers and licensed professional counselors.
including mental health. Patients want a holistic approach to their care. psychosocial. The myriad of possible needs and complications demands that a team of “experts” in many fields accomplishes crisis intervention. In addition to including several professional affiliations on the team. Holistic care requires the ministrations of an interdisciplinary team of experts. disaster sites. explained. and chaplaincy. and sensitivity to a variety of issues. critical incident stress recovery. cheats.” One’s area of focus has become so narrow that one becomes an “expert” in a particular field without undue concern that one is not an expert in many other fields. emergency medical. acceptance. Nationally appointed team leaders have the responsibility of appointing crisis intervention teams that will be informed and sensitive to a wide variety of issues and concerns. education. prevention programs. There is strength in diversity when the goals are alike.”54 These teams provide stress mitigation. Healthcare institutions have long recognized the value of interdisciplinary teams in affecting the well-being of their patients. In a similar manner. Mental health personnel may not be able to address the spiritual needs of victims. His team was comprised of men from many cultural settings and professions.collaboration—“teamwork.”53 “The Critical Incident Stress Debriefing team is made up of a partnership of mental health professionals (master’s degree or higher in mental health) and peer support personnel who are drawn from the police. social work. The Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) announced that patients have a right to considerate care that considers cultural. “NOVA attempts to match the team’s attributes to the demographics of the community requesting intervention. yet He chose diversity—liars. disaster relief efforts become more effective when trained chaplains are a part of the interdisciplinary team. and the faithless. There is value in collaboration—“teamwork” Disaster relief efforts become more effective with trained chaplains on the team Patients (victims) want a holistic approach to their care NOVA and ICISF include chaplains on their crisis intervention teams Jesus had a diversified “team” 44 . the output is increased and resources are mobilized to achieve more results. most CISD teams also invite selected members of the clergy [trained disaster relief and crisis intervention chaplains] to participate on the teams. and a referral network. fire. and community resources. Jesus must have realized that He and His team would be facing many disasters. and other emergency-oriented organizations. The most practical solution is to join forces with other experts to implement strategic plans when broader awareness is required. effectiveness. Jesus could have selected any team. and spiritual values in addition to appropriate medical care. a senior training coordinator for NOVA. disaster management. nursing. professionals. the faithful. and social workers may not be able to respond to all the cultural needs of the sufferers. dispatch. “NOVA favors a multidisciplinary team—for credibility. By effectively delegating responsibility to the most “expert” in the situation. In addition. The two industry standards for crisis intervention methodology—NOVA and ICISF—prioritize the use of interdisciplinary teams in their highly effective approach and protocols. the ideal healthcare team includes professionals from a wide variety of disciplines. Barbara Kendall.” She indicated that multidisciplinary teams [“multidisciplinary” and “interdisciplinary” are used interchangeably] offer more accessibility to victims. blue-collar workers. Consequently.
Both protocols have also been very effective in providing meaningful interventions for victims. Both NOVA and ICISF have been very successful in crisis intervention 45 . law enforcement officers. witnesses. Both organizations advocate for the multidisciplinary team approach and employ strict criteria for team membership and participation. survivors. and others who have been affected by critical incidents and traumatic events.Summary The NOVA protocols and the ICISF protocols have both been very successful in dealing with the distress experienced by rescue workers. Southern Baptist Disaster Relief strongly recommends that any volunteer who intentionally participates in the disaster chaplaincy ministry also completes the basic crisis intervention training provided by either NOVA or ICISF. and others who are frequently exposed to critical incidents and traumatic events. firefighters.
the response of “being present in suffering” is an intentional choice to be uncomfortable. Compassion is being completely present in the suffering of another One must intentionally choose to be compassionate Caregiving during and after disasters will not be for everyone “Being present in suffering” is an intentional choice to be uncomfortable Demonstrating compassion may be risky 46 . The chaplain in disasters must approach ministry from a radically different paradigm—the chaplain must initiate and be an active participant in “being” compassion as a priority and “doing” compassion as a necessity. but an activity that one must intentionally choose. Only a few will choose to enter this place of suffering with victims of disasters—often these victims will be strangers. For chaplains serving in disasters. It is intentionally entering a place of crisis and full immersion in the human condition. and nourishment as self-preservation before seeking to meet the needs of others. Recognizing his own natural instinct to excuse himself from the crisis. the Colorado wildfire arsonist became trapped and became a psychologically traumatized victim). yet one who maintains the distance necessary for sustaining suffering persons in their search for an authentic understanding of the meaning of their afflictions. The compassionate pastor is therefore one who exemplifies a deeply felt sense of solidarity with suffering persons transcending class and culture. Demonstrating compassion may be risky. The significance of being compassionate may lay in the fact that being compassionate is not an activity one naturally seeks. knowing that it “feels” contrary to natural instincts. and limitations and still deeply desire to identify with the disenfranchised and the wounded. The choice to accept the uncomfortable conditions related to this kind of caring also grows out of the center of the chaplain’s personal feelings and emotions— from one’s “guts. healing. Such intentionality is spawned by a sense of call to this kind of demanding ministry. even when it may feel very awkward to do so. and sometimes they will be the perpetrators of the disaster itself (e. the chaplain must still choose to become engaged in the suffering.”56 The chaplain in disasters must know his or her own biases. seeking to demonstrate compassion as the priority of disaster ministry.g. There is a natural resistance humans have toward pain—one avoids it whenever possible. the indispensable quality that motivates and deepens all charitable. Demonstrating compassion is an act of intention and an intention to act. The emotionally healthy individual does not intentionally cause oneself unnecessary pain.. shelter.57 Therefore. needs.COMPASSION IN CRISIS55 UNIT 7 Demonstrating Compassion Is Being Present in the Suffering “Compassion is the cardinal virtue of the pastoral tradition. one must be aware that choosing to serve as a chaplain in disasters will not be for everyone. Merely attempting to prevent suffering or not be the cause of suffering will be inadequate. and caring acts into events of moral and spiritual significance.”58 A sense of duty or dedication to service often enhances these inner drives and forms a powerful motivation for the chaplain “to weep with those who are weeping” (Romans 12:14-21). One naturally seeks safety.
to people whose moral standards are personally questionable. death. skin color. Chaplains in disasters will be called upon to demonstrate compassion by being sensitive to human diversity. integrity. When direct evangelistic conversations don’t materialize. and culture. to people who are the outcasts of society. to people who are criminals. Chaplains in disasters must integrate ethnic variations in dying. faith.What kinds of disasters will be uncomfortable for you? Why? What kinds of disasters might be uncomfortable for you? Why? What needs to happen for you to be able to give yourself permission to decline participation in the crisis intervention? “The need” does not constitute “the call” Demonstrating Compassion Is Being Sensitive to Human Diversity Chaplains in disasters will be called upon to demonstrate compassion by being sensitive to human diversity. and loss. While they are not called to compromise their own faith. or language 47 . and witness. Without coercion or force. They will be called upon to expand their worldview to include the view from eyes of different colors. the chaplain must be informed about a multiplicity of faith groups and seek ways to allow all people to express their faith or lack of faith in meaningful ways. compassion. and religions. and heritages. Christian chaplains do preevangelism—laying the foundation for future opportunities to share the gospel. they engage in spiritual conversations that often lead to opportunities to share their personal faith and religious beliefs. and be aware of the history and environment that have informed them. act. they will be called upon to minister to victims from diverse people groups. and practices.59 They must be aware of their own assumptions. woundedness. or language. understanding that cultural settings affect the way people think. As cultural diversity awareness increases. or hostile. Chaplains in disasters will face the challenges of providing caring interventions to people who are different—not just different in religion. disgusting. to people who are arrogant. but to people whose political alignments are contrary to one’s own. the Christian chaplain evangelizes the world through his or her own character. and feel. As chaplains minister to the spiritual needs of people. and grief into their own personal traditions. caregivers will face the challenge of becoming more open to differences. unappreciative. adopting new paradigms for “normal” grief. understanding without compromising his or her own faith. shapes. interests. traditions. skin color. They will be invited to contextualize the faith expressions of those they encounter. Chaplains in disasters must expand their worldview Cultural diversity is more than differences in religion. As a minister in an environment of differing cultures.
Victims feel helpless and the chaplain empowers victims through the encouragement of listening and comforting. This is called servitude—an attitude of the slave. allow himself or herself to be manipulated. many victims feel comforted and encouraged. The ministry of care means meeting immediate needs. In the words of St. Chaplains in disasters are called to a ministry of servanthood. The chaplain in disasters who operates out of an attitude of servanthood does so out of commitment and love. When chaplains offer prayerful intercession. and agape love for all people. meeting needs. compassionate care is providing food or water. Sometimes.” not “servitude” Love motivates servant ministry compassion The ministry of care provides encouragement The ministry of care meets immediate needs Personalized. Kenneth Haugk differentiates the attitude of servitude with the attitude of servanthood.61 The attitude of servanthood demonstrates itself by providing encouragement to those who are fearful or sad. The chaplain in disasters will be a part of a multidisciplinary team. The person with the attitude of servitude will over-identify with the problems of the victims. “Servanthood. and intentionality in entering caring relationships. not wants. Articulating the love and concern of God may be the most powerful component of providing the ministry of care in crisis. which includes empathy while maintaining personal identity. genuineness by acting congruently. spontaneous prayers are comforting 48 .They demonstrate true compassion.”60 How might your cultural background influence the way you provide care in disasters? How does your culture strengthen your chaplaincy ministry? What are some weaknesses you have noticed in the way you provide care based on your cultural influences? Demonstrating Compassion Is Providing the Ministry of Care in Crisis The chaplain in disasters who acts exclusively out of duty and fear is subject to an unhealthy attitude that results in resentment when people do not appreciate the “help” or burn-out when people expect more than is offered. chaplains must “Preach the Gospel at all times and when necessary use words. forced into involuntary labor. Francis of Assisi. Victims are empowered to move forward from crisis to healing. meeting immediate needs and providing assistance in the chaos. medical care or shelter. and provide care begrudgingly while complaining. compensate for frustration and anger with superficial sweetness. genuine interest in the lives of their clients.
Bible. provide “Go Boxes” which contain many helpful (and sometimes necessary) implements for care..e. To be compassionate towards the victims of disasters. 1991). where appropriate.the pastoral crisis interventionist [disaster relief chaplain] benefits from the ability to use. scriptural education. walkie talkies.Personalized. disaster agency ID. 2002). individual and conjoint prayer. such as Christianity. credentials Telecommunication apparatus—cell phones. the utility of ventilative confession. All chaplains in disasters must have proper equipment. PDAs Large fanny pack or small backpack Emergency equipment—flashlight. spontaneous prayers are a demonstration of compassion. prayer cards) Be prepared Chaplains must have proper equipment Chaplains must “be” Chaplains in disasters are strongly cautioned by their own response teams regarding proper and improper equipment. and reinterpretation (Brende. Some agencies.. a unifying and explanatory spiritual worldview that may serve to bring order to otherwise incomprehensible events. …and in some religions. Cameras are almost universally 49 . such as the Red Cross. a belief in the power of intercessory prayer. the disaster chaplain must: Be there Be near Be attentive Be willing Be compassionate What to Have Each disaster relief organization or agency has equipment requirements for caregivers. pagers.. batteries Snacks Personal medications for the first 24 hours Small note pad and pen Religious articles consistent with our faith as Southern Baptists (i. a faith-based support system. the notion of divine forgiveness and even a life after death. Some basics would include: Proper clothing—clerical garb if appropriate. All of these factors may make unique contributions to the reduction of manifest levels of distress (Everly & Latin. layers for warmth. driver’s license or passport.62 Compassion at the Scene What to Be Demonstrating compassion at the scene of a disaster has some very practical implications. . walking shoes or boots Identification—official disaster response team ID. insight. long pants or skirts (no shorts or minis).
Inform the victim that you will try to locate the answer as soon as possible and permissible. but what they choose to say needs to be relevant. they will often become more interested in your insights and guidance. The chaplain should not ignore or avoid these kinds of questions because the person may need validation that it is permissible to ask such questions. the chaplain is often called upon to console and provide support as individuals try to process deep concerns or questions about life and death that sometimes are raised by critical events.?”. clear answers are better. admit that you are not sure. Remember. and saying with the eyes and heart what cannot be said in words. . . In addition to answering basic factual questions. 66. dirty. not necessarily seeking philosophical truths. dangerous. It is best to be prepared. wet. 66). This can be quite Do not blurt out bad news Listen more than you talk Keep your answers simple Tell the truth Provide clarification Communicate with your eyes and heart 50 . One important suggestion would be to indicate that the thoughts you share are helpful to you and are offered with hope that they will also be helpful to the one who has experienced the disaster.” This is true in many situations and is not unusual. In attempting to give brief answers. Listen more than talk and try to empathize with what is said. Chaplains will be on the disaster scene and the site may be cold. Be careful not to impose your answers on the victims but seek to help them explore questions and discover answers that will satisfy the yearning in their soul. 67). Oversimplified answers may be perceived as hollow or shallow to a person impacted by crisis. “Am I safe?”. chaplains must answer questions from victims concerning their family members or friends involved in the disaster. Occasionally. trying to answer “Why” questions can be counter-productive since the victim is usually manifesting a symptom of shock with such inquiries. or dark. Spouses and other family members should not be brought to the disaster scene. As you build trust with people in the process of listening and offering meaningful feedback. Victims may ask various kinds of questions in response to a disaster (see pages 62. cognitive functioning is diminished and long explanations will probably not be understood or retained. “Have you seen . Short. Chaplains often need to say very little. “Where is . one can seemingly generate responses that are oversimplified. 63. Be prepared to embrace their reactions and expand on certain ideas as there is a need and opportunity to do so. finding interpreters. . Anything that is bulky will be difficult to manage and should be avoided. What to Say Faced with disaster and the reactions of victims. . some chaplains admit they “don’t know what to say.?”. Be sure to let your words reflect the compassion that compelled you to be present. crowded. Answer questions directly and truthfully. In particular.considered inappropriate. The chaplain is the key responder in a group of care providers who is expected to have thought significantly about such matters by the very nature of their role as a spiritual care agent (see pages 65. When in doubt. People are usually confused and disoriented in the aftermath of disaster and may ask questions such as “What happened?”. “Where am I?” These are the opportunities for the chaplain to provide comfort and encouragement by clarifying the situation.
overwhelming. chaplains can be very helpful in providing assistance by meeting basic physical needs. mental health professionals and counselors. When requested. and allowing victims to spend time with their loved ones. and human services personnel. Charles Figley identified compassion fatigue as a secondary form of posttraumatic stress in Compassion Fatigue. Such preparation for bad news helps the victim hear and accept what would otherwise be too shocking to receive. helping with practical decisions. and physical exhaustion 51 . preparing the victim for the next bit of information. Chaplains can help facilitate communications by assisting with phone calls or providing directions and clarification. Burnout could happen to the healthiest of chaplains. Chaplains may experience compassion fatigue through empathetic contact with victims Reactions to Long-term Stress “Burnout” Burnout is the most obvious reaction to long-term stress. mental. Other requests may require specific religious observances. Have as much available support in proximity as possible. victim advocates and assistants. Burnout is emotional. mental. medical professionals. While the task of the chaplain is not necessarily one of doing rescue. clergy. Compassion fatigue is trauma-specific and the symptoms are similar to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Give news in small doses. chaplains can provide the unique elements of spiritual care—prayer and religious rites and rituals. Chaplains may be able to provide these specific religious interventions or they may find others who will. Chaplains may help victims by providing practical help Victims may ask for specific religious interventions Compassion Fatigue Compassion fatigue results when caregivers experience a trauma event through listening to the story of the event or experience the reactions to the trauma through empathetic contact with victims or survivors and are unable to distance themselves from the event. It is the costly result of providing care to those suffering from the consequences of traumatic events. Some requests will be for general spiritual care. This kind of information should never be shared without proper authorization from appropriate levels of leadership. Provide this kind of information in a protected setting where victims are shielded from public view. What to Do One of the greatest frustrations that disaster relief workers face is the seeming impossibility of doing something. and physical exhaustion that occurs when several events in succession or combination impose a high degree of stress on an individual. Professionals especially vulnerable to compassion fatigue include chaplains and other helping professionals—emergency services personnel. Burnout is emotional. even for the chaplain.
and survivors. When countertransference occurs. Emotional involvement comes from the very nature of being present to victims. Suffering on behalf of another person causes the chaplain to return to a place of hurt and disappointment—perhaps even severe trauma—in his or her own life. but that same personal identification may be a minus for the chaplain who becomes There are many contributing factors in burnout Symptoms of burnout vary The empathetic chaplain becomes a victim vicariously Countertransference may result from past experience. the chaplain becomes a victim.Contributing factors in disaster chaplaincy burnout include: Professional isolation Emotional and physical drain of providing continuing empathy Ambiguous successes Erosion of idealism Lack of expected rewards63 Feeling obligated instead of called Maintaining an unrealistic pace Poor physical condition Continuous rejection Human finitude Symptoms of burnout include: Isolation Depression Apathy Pessimism Indifference Hopelessness Helplessness Physical exhaustion Irritability Cynicism Short temper Negative attitudes Countertransference Chaplains in disasters are emotionally involved with many hurting people. Those who have experienced similar critical events or trauma will be more likely to relive his or her previous experience through the current critical event. Some similarities that result in countertransference include: Past experience—The traumatic event causes the new crisis. Chaplains must be aware of their own history and experience. needing the same post critical incident interventions as the primary victims. Personal identification—The similarities between the victim and the chaplain cause the new crisis. or physical fatigue 52 . Experiencing the same sights and sounds of a previous critical incident may cause countertransference. personal identification. relief workers. Empathetic listening and compassion create the environment that causes chaplains to vicariously share the trauma of disaster victims. Personal identification may be a plus for the victim as he or she seeks safety and security (trust).
resulting in countertransference. This may also be referred to as a form of “tunnel vision. One’s determinations about reality and how to best perceive it may have been altered or become distorted. This can lead the chaplain to appreciate and cherish (not take for granted) the simple aspects of daily living such as having a home. true. overly identified with the victim’s crisis. have a low resistance to excessive emotional involvement. countertransference. and burnout. long-term stress. considering matters of faith. This refined understanding precipitated by the “reality check” often accompanying a disaster can help the chaplain (and those he or she is able to help) avoid the temptation of being seduced by the perspective and ongoing pressures of a life untouched by tragedy. and/or God. language. and what determines appropriate and inappropriate responses). or taking time to play with a child. they are unable to cognitively function at their highest levels. Consequently. and have difficulty separating the victim’s experience from their own past and present experiences. Physical fatigue—When chaplains are physically exhausted or out of shape. they may also experience changes in their values and beliefs. Conversely. When chaplains are subjected to disaster response conditions such as mental and/or physical exhaustion. institutions. profession. one becomes myopic and can only view reality through one set of lenses—disaster lenses. or participating in religious activities. gender. empathy grows and personal identification becomes more intensified. Changes in Values and Beliefs One of the chief characteristics of a critical incident—disaster—is the inevitable change it causes. Critical incidents may cause chaplains to experience changes in their values and beliefs Signs and symptoms of compassion fatigue are similar to those of PTSD 53 . They tire easily. The changes may be positive or negative. Some changes are very temporary and victims return to pre-incident levels of functioning within a relatively typical time frame. Chaplains may be overwhelmed by the conditions of the crisis with its resulting stressors and begin to interpret all of life based on the reactions or implications of a single event and its related experiences. victims may also become more interested in spending time with family. good. In order to remain effective in the disaster setting(s) and upon returning to one’s own personal surroundings.” Ordinary activities pre-critical incident may lose their sense of meaning and purpose when compared to the circumstances surrounding the disaster victims. In this sense. such change may be positive or negative. Personal identification may result from a perceived relationship due to ethnic heritage. Victims may experience doubt and uncertainty regarding physical survival—this was an expectation pre-critical incident. That which was held as sacred may have been desecrated. the chaplain must choose to reframe his or her understanding of the crisis event(s) by effectively incorporating such experiences into a broader perspective of life and a corresponding Christian worldview (consistent with meaningful ways to comprehend what is real. or nationality. As with victims. They may become fearful about their safety and security—this was probably a non-issue prior to the trauma. sharing a meal with family or friends. They may become less trustful of people.
This includes a well-balanced diet. Self-care during disasters may include: Taking regular breaks Working in established shifts or rotations Self-care must be maintained during the disaster Basic self-care begins with preventive maintenance 54 . The cost is more than physical. fats. during.g. and persistent arousal. estrangement Disconnection from loved ones. and after the disaster intervention. health deteriorates. significant relationships. it is emotional. social. deep breathing. or disturbing memories of the critical incident Emotional numbing Feelings of despair and hopelessness Feelings of isolation. emotionally re-experiencing the traumatic event. caffeine. detachment. cognitive. Chaplains must initiate good lifelong habits of self-care. morale drops. and awareness of spirituality. Education and practice (training) will help facilitate self-care during the crisis..Signs and Symptoms of Compassion Fatigue Compassion fatigue is preoccupation with the victim or cumulative trauma of victims. Basic Self-Care Effective spiritual care intervention during disasters begins with preventive maintenance. Disaster relief chaplains must take the initiative to mitigate their own stress during the trauma. prayer) Maintain healthy relationships with loved ones and associates Critical events (disasters) cause distress and crisis intervention is distressful. Those suffering the effects of compassion fatigue absorb the trauma through the eyes and ears of the victims to whom they provide ministry. and spiritual. social withdrawal Increased sensitivity to violence Avoidance of thoughts and activities associated with the incident Increased and persistent cognitive dysfunction—difficulty concentrating Compassion fatigue has a high cost In the final analysis. regular physical exercise. chewing tobacco. Effective self-care means taking care of yourself before. and unprescribed drugs Use relaxation techniques (e. alcohol. and personal relationships are at risk. there is a cost associated with compassion fatigue— performance declines. cholesterol Increase cardiovascular exercise Eliminate smoking. dreams. Preventive maintenance includes: Reduce refined sugars. salt. meditation. mistakes increase. Some indicators of compassion fatigue include: Nightmares.
laughter. reading Scripture. personal reflection. and other spiritual interventions help provide healing and respite for the weary chaplain. Reconnecting with loved ones. and days off will help restore the typical ebb and flow of pre-disaster life. inspiring new volunteers. This might take the form of a formal CISM or NOVA group intervention or might take the form of an informal “lessons learned” discussion. participating in corporate worship. Working in teams (for support) Catharsis with other disaster relief chaplains Self-care after the critical incident (disaster) might include a thorough debriefing with the response team. sharing your experiences during formal or informal speaking opportunities. engaging in hobbies and interests. Self-care must be an ongoing process What are some ways you are doing preventive self-care? What self-care interventions seem most helpful to you when you are in a stressful situation? 55 . Prayer. learning new skills.
fatigue. lack of energy. absent-mindedness. relief. avoiding places and people. physical sensations. The loss may be physical. emancipation. confusion. loss of memory. gastrointestinal disturbances. breathlessness. physical sensations. social withdrawal. and behaviors. hallucinations. confusion. cognitions. searching and calling out. hopelessness. shock. including me” A Snapshot of Behaviors Sleep disturbances. dreams of the deceased. or intrapsychic. self-reproach. space and time confusion. Grief is very different than mourning. helplessness. heart palpitations. feeling out of control A Snapshot of Physical Sensations Tightness in the chest or throat. oversensitivity to noise or light. dry mouth A Snapshot of Cognitions Disbelief. anxiety. restlessness. numbness. sense of depersonalization. fear. sense of presence. treasuring objects that belonged to the deceased person. anger. sighing. spiritual. A Snapshot of Feelings Sadness. slow thinking. cognitions. visiting places or carrying objects that remind the survivor of the deceased Grief manifests itself in feelings. appetite disturbances. there are characteristics that seem very common to those who are grieving. It is very much like a wound or illness that needs to be healed. disorganization. loneliness. in fact. hollowness in the stomach. weakness in the muscles. sense of going crazy. and behaviors Grief is emotional distress that is caused by perceived loss 56 . which follows the recognition of loss and is the beginning of the healing process. poor concentration. escaping by over-commitment to work. guilt.COMFORTING GRIEF IN DISASTERS64 UNIT 8 Elements of Grief Defining Grief Grief is emotional distress that is caused by perceived loss. A Picture of Grief Although there is no right way to grieve. Mourning is often defined as the cultural or public display of grief but is. crying. alienation. sense of “nothing seems real. William Worden suggested that there are four general manifestations of normal grief: feelings. preoccupation. restless over-activity. relational. loss of sexual desire. yearning. the work of healing. despair.
financial support. vision. time. job. incest). clubs or associations. talent. bonds. and intrapsychic 57 . careers. what were your 1. history and connections to the future. friendships. smell. employers. trust in church or religious organization. extended family. teachers. belongingness Spiritual Faith in God. . hope. speech. influence. feeling sensation. “beauty. relational. children. integrity. mobility. colleagues. belovedness. credibility. independence. value system. 401k. professions. step-children or step-parents. clergy. in-laws. limb. peers. marriage. significant relationships. coworkers. trusts. faith in religion. siblings. sense of worthfulness. car. pets. identity. money. mementos. jobs. “valuables”). Cognitions? 4. licenses. “innocence” (sexual assault. way of life. property. income Relational Spouse. Spiritual concerns? What manifestations of grief would be difficult for you to experience? Losses that Lead to Grief Physical “Things” (house. stocks.” physique. will to live. meaning of life. spiritual. health. values. traditions. friends. Physical sensations? 3. grandparents and grandchildren. foster children or foster parents. taste. body parts. fiancé. children leaving home. love There are many losses that lead to grief: physical. image. . resources. Feelings? Your own experiences 2. business.Think about the most painful loss you have experienced . parents. hearing. trust in clergy. Behaviors? 5. trust (infidelity). reproductive organs. institutions. teammates. cognition. memory. employees.
Chaplain Tim Van Duivendyk. important image of oneself. AIDS. homicide. Bargaining 4. MIA’s. The process of grief is dynamic—like the sea. Oates—The Grief Process—in Pastoral Care and Counseling in Grief and Separation. 1991 1. Elizabeth Kubler-Ross—Five Stages of Grief—in On Death and Dying. The journey through grief frequently returns to familiar places of pain and healing. perhaps process is the most accurate description of the grief response. Panic 3. Numbness Kubler-Ross—Five Stages of Grief Grief is a process in response to loss Worden—Four Tasks of Mourning Oates—Three predecessors 58 . Denial and isolation 2. 196965 1.Intrapsychic Plans for the future. war. no grief is expressed without the influence of environment and circumstances. still birth. and another as process. states that Kubler-Ross’s five stages are preceded by three other factors 1. mental retardation. execution. then moves on. deferred dreams. victim-perpetrator Special losses complicate the grief process Grief Is a Process There has been much written describing the grief response. genocide. To work through the pain of grief 3. Acceptance J. One has described grief in stages. To accept the reality of the loss 2. As such. it is unique to each individual. sudden infant death (SIDS). mass murder. Because grief is extremely personal. 1976. Alzheimer’s. abortion. has described the grief response as Wilderness Wandering. self-esteem Special Losses Suicide. A comparison of several notable theories regarding the grief response might be helpful. To adjust to an environment in which the deceased is missing 4. No loss is experienced in a vacuum and likewise. another as tasks. missed opportunities. it ebbs and flows. terrorism. director of Pastoral Care and Clinical Pastoral Education at Memorial Herman Hospital. William Worden—Four Tasks of Mourning—in Grief Counseling and Grief Therapy. multiple deaths. Anger 3. Shock 2. To emotionally relocate the deceased and move on with life Wayne E. Depression 5. miscarriage. death of a child.
emotional. denial—Worden’s Task #1 Shock. T. numbness—Oates’ three factors preceding KublerRoss’s stages Denial and isolation—Kubler-Ross’s Stage #1 2. For most people. Drawing on these models. Acknowledging the reality of loss Shock. the grief response may be portrayed as a journey of three parts: 1) acknowledging the reality of loss (shock and denial). and spiritual symptoms. glad o Anger—Kubler-Ross’s Stage #2 Relational symptoms o Bargaining. guilt. and the meaning of the relationship 4. mad. Reinvest in the world around you Rando—Six R Processes of Mourning . moving on. the acute pains of grief diminish and hope appears in the future. The journey is a spiral rather than a circle. Relinquish attachments to the world before the loss including assumptions that no longer hold 5. clinging. and 3) moving toward acceptance. and hope. but one draws closer to acceptance. Readjust to a new world without forgetting the old 6. always seeking to move forward in the ventures of processing grief. No two journeys are the same and each journey takes a unique amount of time to travel. dependence on God Grief—a journey from shock to acceptance 59 . In the initial moments of the journey. the victim then begins to express the pain associated with that grief and loss.A. panic. pains. 2) expressing the pain of grief. sudden appreciation o Bargaining—Kubler-Ross’s Stage #3 Spiritual symptoms o Temptation. relational. the victim struggles through a resistance toward acceptance. As the reality of the loss is embraced. faith. Expressing the pain of grief and loss Physical symptoms o Crying. fighting. Recollect the missing. aches. Rando—The Six R Processes of Mourning—in Treatment of Complicated Mourning. After revisiting places of pain and healing. the round retreats and grief plunges one again into great depths of pain and sorrow. the relationship. 1. illness o Lack of energy or uncontainable energy Emotional symptoms o Sad. Perhaps one never arrives. blaming. React to the missing 3. the victim wanders through the shock and denial of trying to acknowledge the reality of the loss. Recognize the loss 2. Each round moves higher and higher. There are physical. numbness. shame o Increased awareness of human/divine. 1993 1. perhaps even still denying the reality of the loss at times. Sometimes.
” Grief is a result of sudden. Draw a diagram of your grief journey: In disasters. unexpected. death causes “traumatic grief” My personal grief journey Critical Event 60 . Moving toward acceptance Desire to live more in the present and future than in the past Willingness to explore new relationships and activities Renewed energy that overcomes the gloom of doubt and despair Resistance o Worden’s Task #1—to accept the reality of the loss Struggle o Worden’s Task #2—to work through to the pain of grief o Worden’s Task #3—to adjust to an environment in which the deceased is missing o Depression—Kubler-Ross’s Stage #4 Hope o Worden’s Task #4—to emotionally relocate the deceased and move on with life o Acceptance—Kubler-Ross’s Stage #5 The grief process will also be affected by the circumstances of death. death tends to cause “traumatic grief. The unexpected nature of the loss tends to cause more anger. Survivors must deal with the critical incident stress issues surrounding a traumatic event before they can begin processing the individual loss of life.3. or random death. In disasters. There is no preparatory period during which survivors begin to plan for loss and grief.
chaplains must be emotionally present. Empathetic listening assures the victim that grief words and grief feelings are being heard. Chaplains are present to meet immediate needs while providing encouragement. Being present and being compassionate will be more than adequate. deceased was involved in immoral or unethical behavior at time of death. impotence. it is helpful to remember that the chaplain in disaster must be present to the suffering of those who grieve. They must listen and empathize as spiritual acts. chaplains provide the presence of God in the midst of grief. and being open and accepting of all the emotions and tears of grieving will provide the comfort that begins to offer hope for another day. incest “Special losses” often complicate mourning Categories of special losses 61 . 2) be near. deceased was involved in criminal activity. abortion. and the circumstances surrounding the loss are significant. Listening to the grief story and talking. The ministry of presence is a comfort in grief Complicated Mourning There are some situations in which the process of grief becomes very complicated. These special losses may be categorized as follows: Disenfranchised loss Suicide (victim is the perpetrator). First. Helping with practical decision making and daily duties is a demonstration of compassionate presence. deceased is the cause of an accident resulting in death. chaplains must 1) be there. specifically remembering the loss and calling it by name. To help victims feel safe and more secure.Comforting Grief Grief takes many forms and requires informed compassionate care. or extremely traumatic. chaplains provide the spiritual presence that is unique in the ethos of chaplaincy. As the chaplain prepares for disaster response. Through prayer and prayerful attitudes. Thirdly. Understanding the emotional upheaval that is being experienced is critical to providing effective ministry. miscarriage. they must be physically present. death of “significant other. rape. And.” AIDS. Comforting the grieving victim of disasters requires great sensitivity. Usually. and 3) be attentive. chaplains must share practical presence.” Many of these situations do not result in the physical death of a person. Secondly. these circumstances are considered “special losses. physical presence is essential. In response to disasters. unique.
disasters Death perceived as preventable Homicides Murder.Torture .” DON’T… Avoid the grieving person Assign guilt or blame Address “Why?” questions without necessary precautions (see page 50) Minimize the loss Change the subject away from the deceased Lessons learned in the field are practical helps DON’T… 62 . mercy) Mass murders Vehicular homicide Complicated homicides . “missing. This may intensify typical grief reactions as a result of the critical incident stress that occurs. there are some practical lessons in the form of “Do’s” and “Don’ts. there is little time to think about appropriate responses and words of comfort. manslaughter Suicide (revenge. national. sudden death Accidents. protest. it is possible that complicated mourning will occur.Dismemberment after death .” MIA’s) Multiple deaths during short time frame Line of duty deaths History of anger with the deceased of major stress and crisis of emotional and mental problems Marked dependent relationship with the deceased (primary caregiver) Lack of social support Grief reactions are intensified When grief is a result of circumstances that are extraordinary.Delayed execution Genocide (destroying an ethnic. Unexpected. or religious group) Terrorism Vanished (kidnapped. terrorism. Lessons Learned During disaster response.Sexual assault .Mutilation . From the field.
Try to talk too much Say: “I know how you feel” “It was God’s will” “(S)he’s in a better place now” “Time heals all wounds” “Be brave” “Don’t cry” “He’s at rest” “The Lord knows best” “Be glad it’s over” “You need to be strong for…” “Call me if you need anything” DO… Acknowledge the loss. . specifically Give permission to grieve Listen non-judgmentally Allow the grieving person to talk about the deceased Ask open-ended questions about the event Offer practical assistance Empower with small choices and decisions Share words of admiration for the deceased. What was the most helpful thing someone did for you when you were grieving? What was the least helpful thing someone did for you when you were grieving? 63 . . but I’m here for you” “Would you like to talk?” “(Name of deceased) loved you so much” “May your God bless you and give you strength” “I am grieving with you about ______’s death” “I know you are going to miss ________” What are some lessons you have learned when responding to death and grief? DO . if appropriate Say: “I’m so sorry” “I’m sorry for your loss” “I cannot begin to understand your pain.
67 Stress and distress affect one’s spirituality. innocence. value definition. and death. chaplains are quickly dispatched to disasters and other traumatic events. Victims of traumatic events usually reexamine their beliefs and values in terms of the crisis event. Consequently. By incorporating spirituality in the crisis response. Faith may be rejected. physical healing increases. relationships. They have a hopeful expectancy that prayer. nothingness (non-existence). future. Medical professionals and scientists recognize the positive effects of faith in responding to physical and emotional distresses. spirituality affects one’s stress and distress. life. “Horrific traumata destroy spiritual well-being. In addition to the positive effects of crises on spiritual well-being like clarity of mind.” 68 Deep spiritual losses of hope. Marlene Young lists several compelling arguments for using chaplains to mitigate distress in the crisis event: Causal explanations of trauma are a function of religion and abnormal events trigger religious attributions Religion is used as emotional support and assists cognitive structuring Religion is used by victims to cope emotionally and solve problems The potential of religious assistance is a positive operative force in coping Measures of religiosity are strong predictors and positively relate to the quality of life Prayer. transformed. mortality rates decrease. time and eternity. Others may not be specifically desirous of spiritual care but are psychologically receptive to spiritual care. Spirituality helps to define people’s value systems and understanding of being (existence). ranging from cervical cancer to stroke. spiritual guidance. there can also be a negative impact. and trust often result in post-traumatic shock disorder. and there is a positive effect on diseases.69 Trauma victims often benefit from spirituality and religion as they attempt to adapt to the crisis event. and sacraments will be helpful in alleviating their pain or sense of loss.SPIRITUAL DIMENSIONS OF TRAUMA66 UNIT 9 Overview of Spirituality in Trauma Traumatic events are an attack on meaningful systems. Many individuals instinctively seek spiritual support in crisis. and conversely. or unchanged (reaffirmed). There is much evidence of the effectiveness of religion or spiritual faith in coping with trauma. in the religious sense. may be a source of ventilation and validation for people of faith Prayer serves as a source of stress moderation Prayer is a form of spiritual processing 70 Spiritual faith has a positive effect in responding to distress Traumatic events cause people to reexamine their beliefs and values There are compelling reasons to use chaplains in crisis events 64 . and revitalization of faith. depression decreases.
and response to the transcendent. Coping—In their fight for survival. It is one’s understanding of self. Religion guides the understanding. and spirituality redefines hope and the future. integration. the victim is not aware of using the mechanisms.Whether the crisis is loss of property or death. How do you define “religion?” _______________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ The role of religion and spirituality in trauma How do you define “religion?” During and after a critical event—disaster—victims often appropriate religious and spiritual mechanisms to mitigate the enormity of crisis they are experiencing. From a Christian perspective. Critical events redefine one’s spirituality God is aware and present to the victim in traumatic events Role of Religion and Spirituality Spirituality is the essence of life—the beliefs and values that give meaning to existence and that which is held sacred. Spirituality is the understanding. people and God. integration. The living person of Jesus shares the struggle each victim encounters during crisis and trauma. there are benefits of using chaplains in crisis events that go beyond the list Marlene Young has provided. 65 . Assumptions about life and death. God. practices. the universe. Crisis shakes the very foundation of one’s being. victims use spirituality and religion to cope with the crisis situation until the crisis abates. How do you define “spirituality?” _____________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ How do you define “spirituality?” Religion could be defined as the operational system of personal or institutional beliefs and practices that intersect with the transcendent within a cultural or social setting. Many times. and response to the transcendent through participation in and with an organized faith community with shared beliefs. others. good and evil—all may be challenged and redefined. If faith is being reexamined. Healing—There is clinical evidence that religion and spirituality have positive preventive and healing effects on diseases and emotional distress. Personal values and beliefs may be shattered or transformed. chaplains have opportunities to clarify false assumptions and demonstrate true hope for the future. Chaplains are a reminder that God is aware of and present to victims in their distress. and rituals. faith is reexamined in the light of one’s spirituality. and the resulting relationships.
2001. victims and survivors begin the journey of mourning that which was lost. In asking the questions. Such activities bring people into a shared setting where they can receive encouragement and guidance for integrating “the present crisis” with both the past and the future. 4). It allows the victim to vent his or her crisis as a hopeful response. It is equally important for the chaplain to hear and validate the questions without the necessity of an answer. By joining memories of past accomplishments. these questions became common topics at meals. and new traditions. and seminars. In doing so. The questions are difficult ones and chaplains rarely have adequate answers. religion and spirituality provide the mechanisms for searching and seeking. too? Whose fault is this? Is _____________(the perpetrator) going to be punished for this? Why doesn’t God answer my prayers? How will I know if God is telling me something? Why does God allow evil in the world? Victims and survivors ask difficult questions . Stress mitigation—Prayer provides a “listening ear” during crisis. gatherings. . Prayer provides an avenue for processing the chaos and reducing the stress through repetition. . spirituality and religion provide the tools for asking questions and problem solving. the promise of future memories. Spiritual Issues and Questions from Victims and Survivors After critical events—disasters—victims and survivors ask many spiritual questions (see page 50). fond experiences. Support—Victims use the mechanics or institutions of religion to provide emotional support in dealing with the emotional trauma of disasters and death. Why did this happen to me? Why did __________have to die? Why didn’t God take me instead? Did God do this to punish me? Does this mean I owe God my life now (now that I survived)? Why does God make so many good people suffer? Why does God let bad things happen? Why did God hurt little kids? I want to die . and meditation. and old traditions with the hope of progress. Seeking—As victims seek answers and understanding. 66 . Questions—In the chaos and confusion that results from disasters. . The availability of God or clergy or religious institutions provides spiritual and emotional support during crisis. people realize they are not alone on the path of dealing with the given crisis. why can’t I just die. Connecting—Prayer and spiritual activities help victims connect with others and God (see pages 3. victims have a need to make sense of the traumatic event. . After September 11. It is both acceptable and necessary to ask these questions. communion.
In times of distress. Clarification is always helpful for effective spiritual care. victims rely on their faith to help them make sense and meaning in chaos. in their own strength and stamina. in relationships. In these situations. religion and spirituality are essential in helping them cope during intense arousal. Emotions have reached extraordinary levels and cognitive functioning is low. in institutions. people may use their religion or spirituality in the following ways to answer the difficult questions surrounding critical events—disasters. Some victims may be expressing their faith in family. Who keeps God in line? Is there life after death? Is there really a heaven? Will _________(the perpetrator) go to hell for this? What did I do to deserve this? Did God choose me to suffer for some special reason? What good can come out of this suffering? Is there anything I can do to make God stop doing this? What’s there to live for? Why can’t __________do something to stop this? Am I special because I survived and ___________didn’t? What’s expected of me now (that I survived)? What would you ask? What questions would you ask if you were a victim or survivor? Religious Coping Styles When people are in crisis.71 The following summary is based on his research. in rescuers. Some will express faith in a combination of these. Kenneth Pargament from Bowling Green University researched religious coping mechanisms used by people in trauma. Dr. Disaster chaplains may be in danger of false assumptions if they assume the faith being expressed is in God or in religion. Benevolent religious appraisal Seeks God’s loving presence Spiritual leaders’ or affiliated members’ presence Pleas for direct intercession Acts of purification Religious helping Conversion Blaming God or spirits Religion and spirituality help people cope Do not assume that “faith” is necessarily in God or religion Coping mechanisms used by people in trauma 67 . or in natural law.
One of the ministry tasks of chaplains is that of shepherding—to be a spiritual caregiver. 68 . a person who is suicidal needs immediate suicide intervention and professional counseling. spiritual care agents in disasters may choose to provide support through other spiritual care crisis intervention methods that are uniquely theirs as people of faith and spirituality. When people suggest suicide. Disaster chaplains recognize the wisdom of referrals to people who are more highly trained to deal with special needs. Multiple mechanisms may be engaged simultaneously or spontaneously rejected. homicide. Spiritual intervention and care means leading people beside still waters and greener pastures—to a spiritually healthier and safer place. . . Chaplains affirm positive coping mechanisms and gently adjust when people suggest unhealthy means of coping with trauma and critical events. and the ministry of caring through the art of story-listening. Demonic assignment Punishment from God Religious avoidance/distraction Problem solving/deferral Problem solving/self-direction Problem solving/collaborative Chaplains in disasters can facilitate spiritual care by affirming the positive coping mechanisms being initiated by the victims. insight. or behaviors that obviously result in personal harm or a threat to others. . reinterpretation Individual and conjoint prayer Belief in intercessory prayer Unifying and explanatory worldviews Ventilative confession Faith-based social support systems Spiritual care crisis interventions . The traditional mechanisms include:72 Early intervention—Within hours of the traumatic event Cathartic ventilation—ventilation of emotions Social support—group model Problem-solving—alternative solutions and responses Cognitive reinterpretation—reinterpretation of event as non-threatening. Chaplains are shepherds who help people cope during crisis Spiritual Interventions for Disasters George Everly. . less challenging Traditional mechanisms of crisis intervention . the ministry of compassion. teaches that spiritual care interventions are additional interventions that are provided on the foundation of traditional crisis intervention mechanisms.73 Such methods include: Scriptural education. the chaplain engages other caregivers who are appropriately trained to handle such behaviors. illegal activities. For example. In addition to the ministry of presence. co-founder of the International Critical Incident Stress Foundation.
they become serious blunders that have long-lasting consequences for the victims. If you must reveal any part of a conversation. Here are some “red flags:” Red Flags Trying to “wing it” with no specific intervention plans Trying to provide interventions without a crisis team Trying to debate theological issues with traumatized victims or survivors Answering “Why?” questions without necessary precautions (see Unit 4) Failure to honor the right to free exercise of religion Failure to recognize severe or urgent stress symptoms Failure to differentiate between ongoing clinical symptoms existing for a person prior to the disaster and trauma symptoms resulting from the disaster event Ethics of Disaster Chaplaincy Interventions in Disasters Disaster chaplains have a great responsibility entrusted to them. Victims have been reduced to the most basic levels of human development—that of trust. There are three areas of particular importance. When victims ask the chaplain for other possibilities or for their personal beliefs. Integrity of character is an expectation and betrayal is damaging to the entire profession. Rituals and sacraments Belief in divine intervention/forgiveness Belief in a life after death Unique ethos of the crisis interventionist Uniquely confidential/privileged communications Christian chaplains often have opportunities to share the Good News. protectors. the chaplain is Victims and chaplains are vulnerable Guard what has been entrusted to you Maintain confidentiality 69 . healers. The first is trust. it is entirely appropriate to share one’s personal faith. Disaster chaplains desire peace and spiritual strength for victims they encounter. Disaster chaplains are often perceived as God figures—parents. victims and survivors are shaken. But the prudent caregiver is sensitive and aware of possible “red flags. “Red Flags” for Disaster Chaplain Interventions There is a sense of urgency that one experiences in the field of disasters.” When “red flags” are ignored. providers. High moral and ethical standards are expected and the crisis situation makes both victim and caregiver vulnerable to ethical mistakes. Chaplain conversations are uniquely confidential. When trauma happens. They are fearful and distrustful of the situation. Chaplains tread on thin ice when they attempt to play God. Sensitivity and respect in asking permission to share—and not coercing victims—is a skill and approach Jesus frequently used. you must have the permission of the confidant. If a person demonstrates clear and imminent danger to themselves (suicide threat) or others (homicidal threat or actual threat of other serious crimes).
Spiritual care agents should not use manipulative rhetorical devices or forceful tactics to entice victims into making choices they may later regret or ignore. Victims may be quite vulnerable during traumatic events—especially to spiritual conversions or changes. The spiritual caregiver’s primary role is to assist victims in determining their physical condition and exploring their thoughts or feelings in a manner that helps them formulate spiritual insights and responses that will reflect the affected person’s desired state of spiritual stability. Providing a good spiritual diagnosis of the situation will help the chaplain avoid coercing victims and lead him or her toward recommending meaningful spiritual responses in the disaster context. understanding the level of their needs. Lord expressed many of these feelings in a paper entitled “Out of the Depths: Help for Clergy in Ministering to Crime Victims. do not make value judgments. disaster chaplains have learned many lessons from victims and survivors. Preaching and organized teaching are usually reserved for more formal settings in the aftermath of a disaster such as funerals. Chaplains are also expected to maintain their own standards of ethical responsibility. or worship services immediately following the event. Crisis Management Briefings (CMB’s) are also excellent settings to provide significant information and organized teaching on key insights concerning disaster responses. memorial settings. they should find other appropriate spiritual caregivers.required to act in the best interests of the individuals and/or the persons(s) who may be in danger. Dr. victims will not say these things to the chaplain—they just close down. Ego makes caregivers vulnerable. retreating into their pain and grief. Connecting survivors to local churches can provide them with follow up avenues that will be available long after the chaplain has left the affected area. There are many religious rituals and practices that may be in conflict with your own beliefs and practices. A good diagnosis of the spiritual situation will depend on how well the chaplain employs his or her listening skills with victims and to the Spirit of God. and do not take sides. Prior to providing crisis interventions. tell the truth. Disaster relief chaplains should also be prepared to provide information about local churches or other available resources for assisting persons with concerns about their spiritual stability. Rev. When possible. What Victims Want to Say to Disaster Chaplains After many hours on the field of disasters and after many conversations. Most of the time. and then helping them discover the best way to initially engage their own spiritual resources and other available resources in order to overcome the challenges related to a crisis event. swallowed by the confusion and shock. Maintain confidentiality.” Guard personal standards Ego makes caregivers vulnerable Respect victim vulnerability 70 . Spiritual care in disasters involves meeting people in their desperate circumstances. chaplains should inform their team members and colleagues about any possible interventions they may not be able to provide. Richard P. Saving a life has the highest priority.
words and actions are completely inadequate. I may withdraw for awhile. I will get better in time. Victims want to say . Remind me that His eternal presence can penetrate my grief. Anger is not nice to be around. Remember me when everyone else has gone back to their normal routines— be the person who will listen to my story and pain again and again. Remind me that this is not all there is to life—I need to be reminded that there is more to life than the pain and anger and sadness I am feeling. weep. and most of the time. but please respect my reality. . but I need to work through this. or want to talk. Do not explain—even when I cry out “Why?” I am not looking for rational. Disaster chaplains seldom see the victims after the initial contact. grieve. if any. Speak about God to me as an affirmation of life. logical answers. Listen to my doubts—I have doubts and I need you to listen to my doubts. We must remember that the ministry is in the willingness to enter the place of pain and hurt and offer our presence and compassion. It might be uncomfortable for you. Do not try to talk me out of it. 71 . mourn. There are few quantitative ways to measure its effectiveness and there are few. Mention my loved one by name and remember with me. visible results while on the field. What would you have liked to have said to the person who ministered to you? _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ What would you have liked to have said to the person who ministered to you? Conclusion Providing spiritual care in disasters is a difficult task. Let me reveal my weaknesses and regression to you sometimes. Do not try to take away my pain—the pain shows me how much I have lost. I will not always be like this. Do not be afraid of my anger—I need to be honest about the pain I feel. I will not hurt myself or others and God is not threatened by my anger. Stay close to me—I need someone to lean on right now. . Stay close so I can reach out to you. I need Him to be a companion on this painful journey. but be with me as I move through it so a more meaningful faith can emerge. Be patient with me—my progress may not be as fast as you think it should be. but I want God and you to be with me in my pain.
affecting the manifestation of traumatic response. customs.S. beliefs. Contextualized Ministry Is Cross-Culturally Competent Intentional Cultural Diversity Creates Multiple Needs Culture is “the totality of socially transmitted behavior patterns. it includes communities of vocation. demographics. possessions. but they may also provide alternative interpretations to cope with traumatic events. and profession. Intentionally recognizing cultural diversity creates multiple needs and new paradigms for “normal” or “expected” crisis needs. Spanishspeaking Native American. he or she should also be sensitive to the diversity of backgrounds. but he or she will also encounter the added context of cultural diversity. Recognizing economic opportunity. spirituality. and it provides social support in safety and security. death. intellectually. behaviorally. and all other products of human work and thought characteristic of a community or population. elderly. or motivation. These multiple cultural sources may decrease the ability to develop a sense of safety and security. location. children. moderate Baptist.76 Globalization and the age of technology have created new cultural norms.77 “Corporate America’s decision to emphasize diversity is a practical choice. and with how they are influenced by various cultural identities. based on rapidly evolving U. Cambodian refugees who had been assaulted (50%) or experienced the killing of a family member (60%) rated food shortage more distressing than the death of a close relative. socially. income. conservative Republican. arts. religions. relationally.80 In a study conducted by Carlson and Rosser-Hagan (1994). Cultural references and identity influence the identification and interpretation of traumatic threats and events. sexual orientation. and so forth present in the affected community. nationality. while in the U. education.”78 The intentional emphasis on creating cultural diversity inevitably multiplies needs in crisis. cushioning people from the impact of traumatic events. the death of a child may be perceived as a predictable event.S.”79 In third world countries.MINISTERING IN THE MIDST OF DIVERSITY74 UNIT 10 The experience of trauma is the disaster relief chaplain’s primary context. Identification by dual identities is not uncommon—Japanese American. Culture is what identifies a group—physically. and spiritually Multiple cultural identities help and hinder coping mechanisms in trauma Cultural diversity multiplies needs in crisis Cultural Perspectives Affect Trauma and Recovery “Culture influences what type of event is perceived as threatening or as traumatic.”75 Greater than national identity or ethnicity. If the chaplain is to offer the greatest amount of care and to be the most effective. corporate leaders are spearheading machines for multicultural workforces and emerging-market strategies. institutions. Crisis interventions must be concerned with issues related to birth. emotionally. education..81 Most Americans can not relate to feeling distressed over food shortage. world views. power. Culture interprets events as threatening or traumatic 72 . it may be defined as traumatic.
This knowledge should be used to inform the crisis responders in the use of more appropriate interventions. Respect for cultural differences may be demonstrated in the following ways: 1. cultures have a means of integrating an individual’s trauma story with the theology. It also influences how people express their reactions to traumatic events (withdrawal. sexual orientation. language. attitudes. Ethnic heritage. embarrassment). developing sensitivity and understanding of other ethnic groups. and grief is particularly important. . sensitivity. knowledge of ethnic variations in death. concepts. Chaplains must demonstrate cultural competence. Music. “Prior to cross-cultural work. and awareness of cultural differences into their crisis response. chaplains gain an understanding of cultural perspectives. Chaplains demonstrate respect for cultural differences by demonstrating cultural competence—familiarization with significant cultural characteristics. enabling them to apply their understanding of cultural behaviors.Culture influences how people interpret the meaning of their traumatic event (fate. and social economic levels have become cultural categorizations.”82 An important aspect of crisis intervention is allowing victims to create a narrative of their crisis experience. and religion are often the product of intersecting cultures. 4. routines. traditions. the event becomes a part of a life story rather than an event which culminates a life story. “cultures can help to define healthy pathways to new lives after trauma. Demonstrating respect for cultural traditions and values during some of the greatest moments of suffering and loss is a clear demonstration of cultural sensitivity. .83 Through education. 2. political affiliation. dying. acknowledging the differences. By doing so. physical abuse. reward). The world is characterized by a high level of cultural diversity Chaplains demonstrate respect for cultural differences by demonstrating cultural competence 73 . Crisis and disasters often result in death. The routines and traditions of the culture may aid survivors of a tragedy in feeling reoriented.85 They must be able to integrate their knowledge. Vocation. chaplains also gain access to different cultures. thereby mitigating stress. providing comfort. education is needed on differences about a culture’s background history. Their behaviors. hysteria. spiritual orientation. silence. and sports have also become cultural identifications. language. 3. punishment. In disaster relief ministry. And finally.”84 Through networking and building relationships. recreation. and policies must be congruently directed towards effectively operating in a different cultural context. and promoting healing. and family structures. Chaplains must also accommodate cultural differences. stoicism. and integrating this information into their caring responses. This is particularly true when . and ethics. The chaplain demonstrates respect for cultural differences by acknowledging these differences without judgment. or mythology of the culture. Culture influences the effects of traumatic events Demonstrating Respect for Cultural Differences The modern world is characterized by a high level of cultural diversity. metaphors.
the chaplain may find that his or her personal faith conflicts with the victim’s faith or values. Ministry in diversity may pose issues of concern. victims do not choose their displacement. Because victims are highly vulnerable. Victims are usually concerned about the most fundamental human needs—safety and security—and may have little or no ability to make rational or logical decisions about faith and religion. Some issues to be considered are: Give yourself some “grace” as you deal with sensitive personal issues 74 . loss. . a Muslim victim will reject ministry from a Baptist chaplain. While attempting to acknowledge and accommodate differences. but it is not a call to abandon or violate one’s personal faith and values. “I’ve responded to many disasters and seen lots of victims. A chaplain in disasters has a multiple faithgroup focus... But chaplains have an opportunity to appropriately and gently lead victims toward healthier spiritual lives. Forcing victims to talk.g. to eat. members and other affiliates have a single faithgroup focus.”86 In a local church. or a request for a “miracle” arises from a Christian value system). and reconciliation is possible. doctrinal. Without coercion (trying to force people to become Baptists). so I know exactly what you’re going through. uninvited familiarity (e. Red flags I must be especially aware of . addressing victims as “honey.” “dear.” or “good buddy”). In disaster relief. “Red Flags” for Chaplains in a Context of Diversity Chaplains must recognize some “red flags” when serving as disaster relief interventionists in the context of cultural and religious diversity. . Ministry in diversity is not a call to abandon or violate one’s personal faith “Relief” for the Chaplain in the Context of Cultural and Religious Diversity There is natural anxiety associated with providing spiritual care in the context of cultural and religious diversity. what you’re feeling. or to make life changing decisions may be perceived as unethical. and false assumptions (e. false imitation (e. Chaplains must also beware of projecting attitudes of superiority (i. the members within a congregation share commonality in faith issues.e. In general...Maintaining Personal Faith The nature of disaster relief ministry is significantly different than ministry in the local church. or chaplain—their choices are limited. Chaplains may be concerned about whether or not they will be accepted or whether or not they will want to provide intervention in some situations. issues of importance. ministering in a pluralistic environment. theological . chaplains could share the love of Christ and allow the Holy Spirit to do His work.”).g. Referrals are not the only solution. chaplains must be careful not to coerce victims in any way. . agreement with or appreciation for the ecclesiastical. attempting to more closely identify with African American victims by affecting speech patterns that are not “natural” to the non-African American chaplain). . . life without one’s home and possessions is better than not dying. Participants of a local church choose to gather under the ministrations of a particular person because of “. and what you need.g. . These are natural concerns and most care providers must address these issues before arriving on the field of service. demonstrating respect and understanding of other spiritual experiences without compromising his or her faith.
not all Anglos are Christian and not all South Americans speak Spanish). While there are many influences that create identity. environment. economic status. art.. a woman could be a mother. “I’ve been through many hurricanes so I know I can get through this one. occupation.g. dress. gender. The multiplicity of cultural sources may decrease the ability to develop a sense of safety and security (e. and age. However.”). language. a Jew. There is wide diversity within some ethnic and national entities (e. more multi-faceted understanding of an event(s). handicaps or special needs. These are usually based on observable ethnicity.g. . perceptions of time and space. CNN reporters realize that being on the scene does not necessarily mean it’s safe). a business executive. religion and spiritual beliefs. food. gender.87 Principles for Ministering in Diversity Culture is more than national identity or racial origin and is influenced by Some general principles . The intensity of traumatic events vary according to the individual’s ability to integrate such events into his or her experience (e. marital status. It is helpful to be aware of some general principles that apply in diversity. nuclear family. for the chaplain in disasters. recreation. social status. an artist. geography. adolescence.g. Culture influences the perception of threat or trauma (e. Most people are characterized by the intersection of multiple cultures (e. family of origin. 75 . an Iranian Muslim airplane pilot endured many hostile looks from passengers when he stepped into the cockpit of an American plane). language.. . there are many other issues that could be considered. and play. many elements: ethnicity. Exposure to numerous cultural influences and worldviews (during childhood. most victims will be rightfully or wrongfully “classified” by some uniquely identifying characteristics..g. Redefining one’s ministry as a spiritual care provider in diversity Respecting cultural and religious differences without compromising one’s personal beliefs Providing the freedom to the victim or client to choose or decline ministry Avoiding false assumptions regarding perceived needs Knowing and understanding the priorities of one’s own faith when ministering to diversity of religious traditions Accepting “being” as appropriate ministry when “doing” something is impossible.... physical characteristics. and a cancer survivor). Crisis interveners must quickly consider the sources of cultural identity for victims. education. climate. Generalizations for all who fall within popularly used categories cannot be made (e. music.g. after 9/11.g. an athlete. and/or adulthood) may increase the capacity of individuals to respond to serious traumatic events by providing them with a broader. age. thus providing awareness of alternative coping strategies. not all Asians are short nor are all accountants “geeks”).
spiritual care agents cannot decide for anyone how to think. Multiple cultural identities complicate trauma.g. and a quite different approach with the Gentiles—approaching them in the market. Culture can provide healing after trauma (e. Be aware that in seeking this balance. some people “keep a stiff upper lip” and others weep and wail hysterically). In doing so.. Culturally focused education must be accomplished for the specific cultural identities in the chaplain’s circle of responsibility. At Athens. many Asian cultures expect people to be stoic in the midst of crisis). He exemplifies that a chaplain can be culturally sensitive and still remain true to one’s own beliefs. Culture influences the expressions of traumatic reactions (e.. he or she is not and will never be God. Education is essential in effective ministry in cultural diversity.g. often going to the synagogue. godly counsel. Paul often found himself in life-threatening situations throughout his ministry. Culture may condemn or exalt the response of victims (e. and respect for those who hear the good news about the “UNKOWN GOD” is vital for sharing the Gospel with persons from another culture. concern. or act—even Jesus did not force others to follow him. 76 . In Acts 27.. Chaplains must also cultivate the capacity to take such initiative. appropriating Christian forgiveness allows the perpetrator of the accident to move on with life even when he or she caused the loss of a life). even when they respond in a manner that contradicts your understanding. Paul depicts that a tremendous compassion. As such. Paul led his traveling companions to trust him and eventually follow spiritual guidance acquired from an “unknown God” in order to preserve their lives. Paul used one approach with the Jews. as recorded in Acts 17:16-34. one must search for the right time to express spiritual insights and be willing to submit to proper authority. The chaplain must be able to exercise such spiritual astuteness in diverse settings and be bold in approaching people wherever they are accessible. at a memorial service. or even before community leaders who may disagree with your theological precepts. believe. Though the chaplain is a representative and ambassador for God. Paul’s ministry style also shows the importance of how timing and pace can impact ministry. and yet maintain a humble spirit. develop trust. Language interpreters must also be able to interpret cultural responses and interventions. the record of his shipwreck on the way to Rome represents how initiative. Cultural metaphors provide insights for interventions. and compassion can play a significant role in crisis response. This boldness may involve providing ministry at a shelter. in the parking lot where people gather to receive information about their disaster dilemma. at a food distribution center.g. Chaplains Must Recognize the “UNKNOWN GOD” in Diversity88 Paul’s ministry demonstrates that one can be true to the command of the Great Commission even while being sensitive to the pluralistic qualities of a listener’s or groups’ cultural setting.
in division of labor between the sexes. not harm. With a desire to help. and the ability to draw analogies from various cultures to illustrate one’s religious convictions. Chaplains in disasters must contextualize ministry 77 . patience to wait for the right time to speak. chaplains hesitantly enter the relationship. and in many other ways. how family and community are defined. and values through an understanding of how culture affects trauma and recovery. and by maintaining their personal faith while ministering in the midst of cultural and religious diversity. These are just a few of the prominent qualities that need development in responding to crisis situations. Above all. how they play. how they share resources. Clarification questions could be very helpful after initial contact is made. Clarification is an important aspect of diagnosis and preparation. the chaplain must demonstrate compassion for all persons and be prepared to engage first in tangible ministry action in order to sometimes gain a better hearing of the Gospel. The chaplain who values his or her own personal faith is the one who is able to appreciate the faith of others. a significant understanding of one’s own faith and beliefs. in how they teach their children. by acknowledging and accommodating differences. However. Clarifying Cultural Needs Many reactions to crisis events and death are cross culturally similar. traditions. Some questions might include: Is there anything special you’d like me to know about how to help you through this crisis? What would be the most helpful thing I could do for you right now? Is there anything special I could do for _______(deceased)? Is there anything special I could tell someone about how you would like __________’s body handled? Do you have any special religious needs I could help you with? Do you have any questions about what will be happening now? Do you have any religious or cultural restrictions I should be aware of? Disaster chaplains could ask clarifying questions Summary “Cultures vary in their attitude toward time.Closely following the above mentioned qualities are the needs for a chaplain to have a good understanding of the identified audience. chaplains must contextualize ministry responses to respect cultural heritage. Helping survivors and families deal with traumatic death is based on respect and care.”89 To minister effectively to victims of disasters and emergencies. chaplains may experience some anxiety as they approach victims whose cultural identity is unfamiliar or different. toward property. Chaplains must facilitate the practice of personal faith expressions for victims of many cultural entities while guarding their own personal beliefs and values.
prayers prior (RC)* Wake and Rosary (RC) Mass (RC) Anniversaries celebrated with Mass Autopsies and embalming generally prohibited (J)** No viewing of corpse (J) No funeral on Sabbath or major religious holidays (J) Music and flowers not encouraged (J) Eulogies by rabbis.Common Religious and Cultural Customs Concerning Death90 African American High involvement of funeral director Friends and family gather at home Wake Worship service – “Home Going” Shared meal after wake and funeral Funeral service and burial Cremation less accepted Deep religious faith and integration of church observances Memorial service Commemorative gifts Grief expression very emotional Mexican American High involvement of the priest in funeral plans Family and friends encouraged to be a part of the commemoration Rosary said by survivors at the home Some say rosary each night for 9 nights Some say rosary every month for a year Some say rosary on each anniversary Catholic funerals include a Mass Many commemorate the loss with promises or commitments – taken very seriously and failure to honor them is considered a sin Money gifts to help pay for funeral and burial typical Native American Medicine man. Naomi Paget. 2002. 5. *Roman Catholic **Jewish 78 . friends (J) Family members put shovel of dirt on casket (J) Mourning for one year (J) Sitting shiva – 7 day mourning for family(J) No visitors for 3 days (J) Torn garment or ribbon for a week (J) First anniversary marked by unveiling of tombstone at special ceremony (J) Fig. sacrifices at gravesite Meal and gathering of family and friends after funeral Picture or plaque displayed in home as shrine Commemoration at 49 days Ceremony twice a year at grave or home shrine Blue is color of mourning Anglo American Nuclear family plans funeral with minister Family and friends gather at home Wake or Viewing Usually open casket Funeral or memorial service to commemorate the life of the deceased Services include music and eulogies or testimonials Cremation is acceptable Black is appropriate dress Flowers and donations are acceptable to honor Confession.” Marketplace Samaritans.. Inc. communion. shaman. family. or spiritual leader moderates the funeral Some burials are non traditional – some resistance to laws of burial or cremation Call on ancestors to help deceased in transition Embalming not common Dismemberment and mutilation outside natural deterioration is taboo Sentimental things and gifts are buried with the body Burial must be in native homeland or reservation Pipes are smoked at gravesite Some significance with symbolic reference to circle Some significance in nonburial for natural passage Asian American Family elders assume responsibility for funeral Great respect for the body Warm clothes for burial Watertight caskets Stoic attitudes Grief internalized – often results in depression Open casket Poems in calligraphy left for deceased Cooked chicken placed by casket and buried with body (Chinese) Music used Band accompanies casket to cemetery Funeral route very important Location of burial plot important Monument important Some groups. “Anglo American.
gov). Complete the Emergency Management Institute’s “Introduction to Incident Command System” (ICS) 100 Module (available online at www.fema. For course offerings: a. 3. Complete the Disaster Relief Chaplain Online Training Module and print the certificate (under development).fema.namb. a.gov). 4. Check with your state disaster relief chaplain or the national coordinator for disaster relief chaplaincy.gov) 2. Register for the Disaster Relief Chaplain Advanced Course. “Incident Command System for Single Resources and Initial Action Incidents” (ICS) Level 200 Module (available online at www. Read the Disaster Relief Chaplain Training Manual www. 3.WHAT TO DO NEXT UNIT 11 Pre-training requirements for approval as a Southern Baptist Disaster Relief chaplain 1. 2. Complete Introducing Southern Baptists to Disaster Relief (provided by your state disaster relief director).org b.fema. “National Response Plan (NRP). 3. b.fema. Optional (highly recommended): Complete the following Emergency Management Institute courses: 1.gov) Date Completed _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ 79 . Acquire a formal recommendation from your state disaster relief director.net/drchaplaintrainingmanual 2. Complete the Emergency Management Institute’s two ICS courses and print the certificates: a. 2. Register for the Disaster Relief Chaplain Basic Course. Complete a Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) course (14 hours) or NOVA course (40 hours). Complete the Disaster Relief Chaplain Advanced Course (6 hours). 5. Complete the Disaster Relief Chaplain Basic Course (16 hours). www. For course offerings: a. b. Check with your state disaster relief chaplain or the national coordinator for disaster relief chaplaincy. Check the website of International Critical Incident Stress Foundation.gov).icisf. Check with your state disaster relief director or state disaster relief chaplain. Complete all Disaster Relief Chaplain Basic Course requirements and accumulate significant experience. “National Incident Management System (NIMS). quadrant coordinator. Check with the national coordinator for disaster relief chaplaincy. Training requirements for approval as a Southern Baptist Disaster Relief chaplain 1. An Introduction”(changing to “Framework”/NRF) Level 800 Module (available online at www. Plans are to offer this course annually at the spring Disaster Relief Roundtable (held the last full week of April). An Introduction” Level 700 Module (available online at www. “Introduction to Incident Command System” (ICS) Level 100 Module (available online at www. Optional (highly recommended): 1. or regional coordinator 1. b. Advanced training requirements for approval as a Southern Baptist Disaster Relief chaplain site coordinator.fema.
2.nvoad. a. 6. An Introduction” (changing to “Framework”/NRF) Level 800 Module (available online at www. ____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ 80 . 4. b. Complete the Disaster Relief Chaplain Train-the-Trainer Course (14 hours).gov) 3. Plans are to offer this course annually at the spring Disaster Relief Roundtable (held the last week of April). “National Incident Management System (NIMS). Optional(highly recommended): 1. Read Billy Graham Evangelistic Association (BGEA) “His Presence in Crisis” Rapid Response training curriculum. “National Response Plan (NRP). Check with your state disaster relief chaplain or the national coordinator for disaster relief chaplaincy. Acquire a formal recommendation from your state disaster relief director and two other ministry-based references. 3.Train-the-Trainer requirements for approval as a Southern Baptist Disaster Relief chaplain trainer 1. Complete the Disaster Relief Chaplain Basic Course and Disaster Relief Chaplain Advanced Course requirements. Read National Voluntary Organizations Active in Disaster (NVOAD) “Light Our Way”(online at www. Read NYDIS Manual for New York City Religious Leaders: Spiritual Care and Mental Health for Disaster Response and Recovery (see also “NYDIS Tip Sheets”) (available online). 5. Complete the Emergency Management Institute’s two national level courses and print certificates: a.org).fema.gov) b.fema. 2. An Introduction” Level 700 Module (available online at www. Read The Salvation Army (TSA) “Emotional and Spiritual Care in Disasters Training Guide. Demonstrate adequate training capabilities and experience. 4. Register for the Disaster Relief Chaplain Train-the-Trainer Course.
org International Critical Incident Stress Foundation 10176 Baltimore National Pike. NW Washington.. DC 20010 Phone: (202) 232-6682 FAX: (202) 462-2255 www.namb. West Nyack. Ste.icisf. DC 20006 Phone: (202) 303-4498 FAX: (202) 303-0241 www.RESOURCES FOR DISASTER RELIEF CHAPLAINS UNIT 12 Agencies North American Mission Board Adult Volunteer Mobilization/Disaster Relief 4200 North Point Pkwy.redcross. NW Washington.org National Organization for Victim Assistance 1730 Park Rd.org 81 . Alpharetta. MD 21042-3652 Phone: (410) 750-9600 FAX: (410) 750-9601 www.trynova. GA 30022 (770) 410-6000 www.org Salvation Army Disaster Services 440 West Nyack Rd. NY 10994-1739 Phone: (845) 620-7200 FAX: (845) 620-7766 www.salvationarmy-usaeast.net American Red Cross American Red Cross National Headquarters Disaster Services 2025 E St. 201 Ellicott City..
IL 60173 Phone: (847) 240-1014 FAX: (847) 240-1015 www. 311 Schaumburg.AACC.org Association for Clinical Pastoral Education. 1549 Clairmont Rd. Ste.nacc.org National Association of Jewish Chaplains 901 Route 10 Whippany. NJ 07981-1156 Phone/FAX: (973) 736-9193 www.edu American Association of Pastoral Counselors 9504-A Lee Hwy. WI 53207-0473 Phone: (414) 483-4898 FAX: (414) 483-6712 www.O. Box 739 Forest.net 82 ... Woodfield Rd. Box 070473 Milwaukee.org American Association of Christian Counselors P. GA 30033-4635 Phone: (404) 320-1472 FAX: (404) 320-0849 www.Professional Organizations Association of Professional Chaplains 1701 E.aapc.org National Association of Catholic Chaplains P. VA 24551 1 800 526-8673 www. VA 22031-2303 Phone: (703) 385-6967 FAX: (703) 352-7725 www.najc. Fairfax.O.professionalchaplains. Inc. Ste. 103 Decatur.acpe.
Community Churches Associations Hospitals Counseling Centers Shelters Funeral Homes Food Banks Clothing Closets Literature and Music Prayers Memorial Services Funeral Services Dedications Other Rites and Rituals Contacts Community Churches Community Faith Group Houses of Worship Community Clergy Community Clergy Associations Law Enforcement Victim Advocates or Victim Assistants Community Support Groups Community Emergency Preparedness Agencies Department of Social Services Local Red Cross 83 .
22 (Nashville: Broadman Press. 18 84 . 1982). Key to this was praying throughout each day to attain spiritual fulfillment (Brother Lawrence. 1st ed.. Compassion (New York: Doubleday. Donald P. 42. 1979). The Practice of the Presence of God [New Kensington: Whitaker House. diss. n. 35). 17 16 15 14 13 12 Webster’s Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language. 1992) 138. Today. Vine. 2 1 ARC. Classical Pastoral Care. 1977). The New American Commentary. Vincent Hospital. Blomberg. [Worcester. Morrison. 81-82. “Ripple Effect”. the closest counterpart for lepers may be AIDS victims (Craig L. 1975).ENDNOTES Naomi Kohatsu Paget. 4.). s. social work. 1985]. The Wounded Healer (New York: Doubleday. Thomas C.” H. Servant Leadership: A Journey into the Nature of Legitimate Power and Greatness (New York: Paulist Press. (1989). New International Version unless otherwise noted. “Disaster Relief Chaplaincy for Community Clergy” (D. 11 10 9 Henri J. “Nowhere has the effect of globalization been felt more radically than in the church. 1994]). 1990). “compassion.” 12-21. 220. (Arthur Becker. 213. (1989). . 1997). “Disaster Relief Chaplaincy for Community Clergy. 1994). 8. 1-3. The chaplain is taught the significance of “being” as an ontological expression in contrast to “doing” (Thomas V.v. 2001. parish pastorates. Nouwen. Crisis Ministries (Grand Rapids: Baker Books. “help. The Compassionate Visitor [Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House. 3. 1982]. Matthew. Greenleaf. Christ and Culture (New York: Harper & Row. Richard Niebuhr. Henry Blackaby. The tension between the relevance of Christ and the culture in which one lives is an “enduring problem. 29). Dying for Change (Minneapolis: Bethany House. vol.” Henri J Nouwen. vol.v. 5 4 Webster’s Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language. in the general orientation of CPE students. and Douglas A. Ogden.” in Vine’s Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words (McLean: MacDonald Publishing Company.” Robert K. 2003). The primary didactic and clinical training and preparation a chaplain has is through CPE. Experiencing God Day-by-Day (Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers. and mental health. Brother Lawrence wrote several letters that explained how he practiced the presence of God. 13-14. Sullivan. Becker writes that a Zulu visitor may sit at the gate for hours—just being present—before beginning the relationship rebuilding that precedes the point of the visit. “Compassion. 3 W. McNeill. Paget. . 4. Golden Gate Baptist Theological Seminary. E. One of the primary objectives is to teach the chaplain the differences between chaplaincy.” Leith Anderson. Min. 22-23). 1st ed. MA: St.d. 8 7 6 All Scripture quoted is from The Holy Bible. s.
Experiencing the event may be personal or vicarious.” these disasters are caused by both men and women and are not necessarily gender specific.” 3-5.. “Disaster Relief Chaplaincy for Community Clergy. Involving Southern Baptists in Disaster Relief (Alpharetta: NAMB. Marlene Young. 1999). 27-28. 40. Erikson.) 29.” 42-44. 1980). CT: Marketplace Samaritans. 19-25. Carlson. The New American Commentary. 7-10. 29. Trauma Assessments (New York: The Guilford Press. Eve B. Poetical Works of Francis Thompson (New York: Oxford University Press. in Disaster Relief Chaplaincy Training Part I. It should be noted that while these are traditionally called “man-made disasters. 1974). Inc. Richard A. Paget. Naomi K. 14. 1990). 2000). Identity and the Life Cycle (New York: W. and when to excuse oneself from service. Restoring Margin to Overloaded Lives (Colorado Springs: Navpress. Denver.d. “Disaster Relief Chaplaincy for Community Clergy. n. Pastoral Care During and After A Disaster: Psychosocial Training for Clergy (Newtown. the exposure to human suffering. Swenson. CO. 2003). “Coordinating a Crisis Response Team. Paget.W. Norton & Company. Denver Baptist Association. 21 Timothy George. Ibid.” 8-10. Erik H. 132. Emergency Services Stress (Englewood Cliffs: Brady Prentice Hall Career & Technology. Paget. 30 (Nashville: Broadman & Holman. 1998). Involving Southern Baptists in Disaster Relief (Alpharetta. Naomi K. 25 24 Francis Thompson. GA: NAMB. North American Mission Board. how to function under chain-of-command. Paget. 26 Some other issues include how to bear witness to the Gospel without proselytizing. 32 33 34 35 36 Jeffrey T. 3. 20 19 Roberta C. Pastoral Care During and After A Disaster: Psychosocial Training for Clergy. Mitchell and Grady P. Paget. 23 22 Ibid. 89-94.. Hans Selye. 413-415. Bondi.Southern Baptist Convention. vol. 26.” The Community Crisis Response Team Training 40 41 85 . 53-107. 1994). 1969).. “Disaster Relief Chaplaincy for Community Clergy. Stress Without Distress (New York: New American Library. To Pray and to Love (Minneapolis: Fortress Press. 2003. Mitchell and Bray define trauma as an event outside the usual realm of human experience that would be markedly distressing to anyone who experienced it. 1991). 12-18. Bray. 413. 39 38 37 Mitchell and Bray. 28 27 North American Mission Board. June 5. 31 30 29 Paget. Galatians.
10-7. may evoke memories too powerful to enable him or her to enter into another’s suffering in a meaningful way. . “Disaster Relief Chaplaincy for Community Clergy. Religious pluralism would seek to create an understanding of the spiritual experience reflected in other religious expression. Rodney J. Paget. (Washington. Ezhanikatt et al. 2002).C. Mitchell and Bray. Inc. 2000). Paget. Hunter (Nashville: Abingdon Press. “Compassion. Henri J. . Young. 42 Paget.M.icisf. www. This functional diversity should be regarded as a strength rather than a weakness in chaplaincy ministry. 7-2.org. CO: Marketplace Samaritans. www. 1990). Religious pluralism creates room for various faith practices without expecting compromise of a faith doctrine or tradition. . Pluralism is not universalism. Christian Caregiving: A Way of Life (Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House. 1984). Haugk. 1984).” 32-35. . 3d ed. Religious pluralism seeks an environment in which all faith expressions can dwell together. 207. . The mission statement and purposes of the National Organization for Victim Assistance may be found at their website. The mission statement and purposes of the International Critical Incident Stress Foundation may be found at their website. The resulting understanding seeks peace and unity through reduced fear. “Disaster Relief Chaplaincy for Community Clergy. Personal history and experience may render the pastoral caregiver ineffective in a particular situation—the pastoral caregiver’s own grief. 134. . Pastoral Care During and After A Disaster: Psychosocial Training for Clergy. Nouwen.: National Organization for Victim Assistance. or social groups seeking to maintain autonomous participation in and development of their traditional culture or special interest within the confines of a common society. Paget. 43 44 45 46 47 48 Some other issues include how to function under chain-of-command and when to excuse oneself from service. Howard Clinebell. defines pluralism as “a coalition of diverse ethnic. racial. caused by a similar disaster. resistance and resentment of one another. religious. 52 51 50 49 Paget. 75.Manual. Religious pluralism is more than tolerance for other faith groups. Dave Mullis. ed. The Way of the Heart (San Francisco: Harper San Francisco. Military Chaplaincy Associate of the North American Mission Board. D. 34-38. 43-51. “Spirituality in the Workplace” (Longmont. Pastoral Care During and After A Disaster: Psychosocial Training for Clergy. Kenneth C. Young..” 44-45.. Pluralism means that the chaplain exercises their [sic] own religious faith and ministers with understanding for the religious faith of 59 58 57 56 86 . Basic Types of Pastoral Care & Counseling (Nashville: Abingdon Press. 69. 53 54 55 J. 44. 39-42.try-nova. Pastoral Care During and After A Disaster: Psychosocial Training for Clergy. Naomi K. Paget.org.” in Dictionary of Pastoral Care and Counseling. 1981). 2-6 – 2-13. It should be noted that not all pastoral caregivers will or should respond to every disaster.
236. Later. Granger Westberg popularized Lindemann’s stages of grief as pastoral wisdom in his little book.. IA: Kendall/Hunt. B. Mannion. 9-6 – 9-7. “culture. Pastoral Crisis Intervention (Ellicott City. s. (Ellicott City: Chevron Publishing Corporation. The Work of the Chaplain (Valley Forge.cfm. N. A.” in 2001: The Next Generation in Victim Assistance (Dubuque. George S. July/August 1995. 9-10).” in Traumatic Stress. and L. van der Kolk. 18-3 – 18-6. Mitchell and George S. psychiatrist and resident of the National Institute for Health Care Research. 2006). 73 72 Ibid. “Business and Industrial Chaplaincy: the Chaplain’s Ministry Plan” [D. Horrific Traumata: A Pastoral Response to the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (New York: Haworth Pastoral Press. “The Business Case for Diversity. School of Divinity. 3d ed. Defusing and Other Group Crisis Intervention Services. 70 69 68 67 Young. accessed 20 November 2001.com/public/1784. Michael T. 77 76 Young. Internet. ed. Everly Jr. Young.diversityinc. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language.” DiversityInc.. 2007). MD: Chevron Press. Kubler-Ross popularized the concept of stages of grief as she studied dying patients at the University of Chicago Hospital (Lindemann had studied those who had lost someone close to them through death). 65. diss. deVries. “Making Sense of Victimization Through a Spiritual Vision. Weisaeth (New York: Guilford Press.” He first suggested that there were discernable stages in the grief process that the grieving person must work through. Critical Incident Stress Debriefing: An Operations Manual for CISD. “Faith in Psychiatry. Good Grief. 9-29 – 9-34. 2001) 59-66. “Trauma in Cultural Perspective. published in 1962. 1996). 15-6—15-9. 60-65. Jr. 115.v.com. 117. 68-74. Duncan Sinclair. Paget and Janet R. 61 60 Haugk..others” (Dave Mullis. McCormack. 71 Jeffrey T. Naomi K. www. 1993).A. 52-59. PA: Judson Press. Everly. Pastoral Care During and After A Disaster: Psychosocial Training for Clergy. 66 65 Paget.” Psychology Today. Paget. Young. Paget. 62 63 64 Erich Lindemann affirmed Freud’s concept of “working through life’s problems” and affirmed grief as “work. Pastoral Care During and After A Disaster: Psychosocial Training for Clergy. Part 1: Shifting Demographics. 14.W. 1994). 9-9 – 9-12. 1999].Min. McFarlane. 78 87 . Regent University. 71-73.” 74 75 M. Pastoral Care During and After A Disaster: Psychosocial Training for Clergy. Referenced in Young. citing to studies done by David Larson.C.
and Culture. The most recent version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV. 15-56.e. 1994) defines trauma exclusively in terms of the exposure to human suffering.” Association of Professional Chaplains conference.” International Review of Psychiatry 2. “Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. These are defined in Unit 2.ethnicharvest. The idea of improving cross-cultural ability is reflected in several terms—cross-cultural knowledge. The Work of the Chaplain (Valley Forge. i. 10-11. 87 86 85 Ibid. and cross-cultural awareness. Religious accommodation poses difficulties for many pastoral caregivers who struggle with the issue of how to maintain personal faith integrity. Internet. 15-134 – 15-140 88 . 82 81 80 Young. therefore. Naomi K. A trauma. Chapter 11. “Maintaining Personal Faith While Ministering in the Midst of Religious and Cultural Diversity. 90 89 88 Young. Solomon Kendagor. 84 83 Young. Chemtrob.org/links/culture. may be seen as a more narrow form of critical incident (a crisis event that causes a crisis response).M. 15-64.htm.79 Young. 15-47. McCormack. 2006). PA: Judson Press. February 2002.” www. “Working Through Cultural Differences. APA. C. illness. crosscultural sensitivity.. Trauma. or death. This issue is addressed in the following subsection. Paget and Janet R. personal or vicarious exposure to severe injury. accessed 13 June 2002.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.