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Chaplain Training Manual
Revised December 2007 North American Mission Board, SBC
Table of Contents
Objectives UNIT 1 UNIQUENESS OF CRISIS MINISTRY IN DISASTERS......................................................... 1 Introduction: History of Crisis Ministry ............................................................................. 1 What Is So Unique About a Chaplain in Disaster?............................................................. 2 Spiritual Rationale for Chaplains in Disasters .................................................................... 5 Demonstrating Compassion is Being Present in Suffering ....................................... 5 Demonstrating Compassion is Being Sensitive to Human Diversity ........................ 7 Demonstrating Compassion is Providing the Ministry of Care in Crisis ................. 8 Ministry Tasks of the Chaplain in Disasters ..................................................................... 10 Differences Between Chaplains in Disasters and Community Clergy.............................. 11 UNIT 2 OVERVIEW OF THE CRISIS RESPONSE............................................................................. 14 Understanding the Terminology and Concepts................................................................. 14 What Constitutes a Disaster? ............................................................................................ 16 Types of Disasters............................................................................................................. 17 What Happens During A Community Disaster?............................................................... 17 Who, What, When, Where, Why, and How of Crisis Response....................................... 19 Victim Classifications.............................................................................................. 20 Emerging Issues for People and Groups Involved in Disasters.............................. 20 UNIT 3 HUMAN NEEDS AND DEVELOPMENT................................................................................ 22 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs—Identifying the Crisis..................................................... 22 Physiological Needs ................................................................................................ 22 Safety and Security Needs ....................................................................................... 22 Belonging and Social Affiliation Needs .................................................................. 23 Self-Esteem Needs ................................................................................................... 23 Self-Actualization Needs ......................................................................................... 23 Identifying the Crisis ............................................................................................... 24 Stages of Human Development—The Age-Specific Human Response to Crisis............. 25 Conclusions and Applications................................................................................. 27 Eight Stages of Life Chart for Crisis Intervention .................................................. 29 UNIT 4 OVERVIEW OF THE TRAUMA RESPONSE ........................................................................ 30 Distress as the Trauma Response...................................................................................... 30 The Nature of Stress ................................................................................................ 30 The Internal Trauma Response ............................................................................... 30 Biological Factors—Physical Response ........................................................................... 32 Psychological Factors—Mental Response........................................................................ 32 Social Factors—Relational Response ............................................................................... 34 Behavioral Factors—Action Response ............................................................................. 34 Spiritual Factors—Faith Response ................................................................................... 34 Crisis Intervention as a Response to Trauma.................................................................... 35 Stress Symptoms Chart ..................................................................................................... 36
UNIT 5 THE ART OF STORY-LISTENING......................................................................................... 37 Differences Between Hearing and Listening .................................................................... 37 Ethics of Listening ............................................................................................................ 37 Ministry of Presence ......................................................................................................... 38 Ministry of Silence............................................................................................................ 38 Improving Listening Skills ............................................................................................... 39 Clarify ..................................................................................................................... 39 Paraphrase.............................................................................................................. 39 Summarize............................................................................................................... 40 Echo ........................................................................................................................ 40 Reflect...................................................................................................................... 40 UNIT 6 CRISIS INTERVENTION MODELS........................................................................................ 41 Crisis Intervention............................................................................................................. 41 National Organization for Victims Assistance (NOVA) .................................................. 42 International Critical Incident Stress Foundation (ICISF) ................................................ 43 Effective Disaster Relief Includes Trained Chaplains as Part of the ................................ 43 Interdisciplinary Team in Disasters and Other Emergencies Summary ........................................................................................................................... 45 UNIT 7 COMPASSION IN CRISIS......................................................................................................... 46 Demonstrating Compassion is Being Present in Suffering ............................................... 46 Demonstrating Compassion is Being Sensitive to Human Diversity................................ 47 Demonstrating Compassion is Providing the Ministry of Care in Crisis.......................... 48 Compassion at the Scene .................................................................................................. 49 What to Be............................................................................................................... 49 What to Have........................................................................................................... 49 What to Say ............................................................................................................. 50 What to Do .............................................................................................................. 51 Compassion Fatigue.......................................................................................................... 51 Reactions to Long-term Stress ................................................................................ 51 Signs and Symptoms of Compassion Fatigue.......................................................... 54 Basic Self-Care ................................................................................................................. 54 UNIT 8 COMFORTING GRIEF IN DISASTERS ................................................................................. 56 Elements of Grief.............................................................................................................. 56 Defining Grief ......................................................................................................... 56 A Picture of Grief .................................................................................................... 56 Losses that Lead to Grief ........................................................................................ 57 Grief Is a Process .............................................................................................................. 58 Comforting Grief .............................................................................................................. 61 Complicated Mourning ..................................................................................................... 61 Lesson Learned ................................................................................................................. 62
............................................................................................................................................................................ 72 Intentional Cultural Diversity Creates Multiple Needs ................................................ 75 Chaplains Must Recognize the “UNKNOWN GOD” in Diversity .............................. 74 Principles for Ministering in Diversity . Georgia.. 78 UNIT 11 WHAT TO DO NEXT ................................................ 73 Maintaining Personal Faith........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 72 Cultural Perspective Affect Trauma and Recovery................. 79 Advanced Training Requirements .......................................................................... 81 Agencies....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 83 Literature and Music ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 79 Training Requirements................ 77 Chart: Common Religious and Cultural Customs Concerning Death ........... ............... All rights reserved......... 2007 North American Mission Board of the Southern Baptist Convention........................................ 79 Pre-Training Requirements.. 82 Community .............................. 74 “Red Flags” for Chaplains in Diversity ................................................................................ 69 Ethics of Chaplain Interventions in Disasters ................................................................ 64 Role of Religion and Spirituality ...................... 81 Professional Organizations ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 69 What Victims Want to Say to Disaster Chaplains .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 72 Contextualized Ministry is Cross-Culturally Competent........................................ 84 2004.. 71 UNIT 10 MINISTERING IN THE MIDST OF DIVERSITY ......................... 66 Religious Coping Styles.................................................................. 72 Demonstrating Respect for Cultural Differences................................................................................... 70 Conclusion ................................................. 68 Red Flags for Disaster Chaplain Interventions ................ 76 Clarifying Cultural Needs ....... 83 Endnotes...... 67 Spiritual Interventions for Disasters ............................................................................................................................................ 79 Train-the-Trainer Requirements .................................................................. 65 Spiritual Issues and Questions from Victims and Survivors...................... 83 Contacts ........................................................................................................... 64 Overview of Spirituality in Trauma ...........................UNIT 9 SPIRITUAL DIMENSIONS OF TRAUMA.................................... 80 UNIT 12 RESOURCES FOR DISASTER RELIEF CHAPLAINS .......................................................................... 77 Summary .......... Alpharetta............... 74 “Relief” for the Chaplain in the Context of Cultural and Religious Diversity .......................................................................
who are the victims. presence. NOVA Understand the ministry of compassion Understand how to demonstrate compassion at the scene Recognize the symptoms of compassion fatigue and how to do selfcare Understand the basics of grief and loss Understand the expressions of loss Know how to comfort grief Understand the role of religion and spirituality in crisis intervention Understand the basic spiritual issues of victims and survivors Know some basic crisis interventions Understand the basics of cultural and religious diversity Understanding the principles for ministering in diversity Pre-training requirements Training requirements Advanced training requirements Train-the-Trainer Requirements Know how to get basic resources for referrals Know who to contact for resourcing help Have a detailed bibliography for books. silence Understand the art of story-listening Be aware of different crisis intervention models CISM. when to respond. articles. whose lead to follow Understand how to determine what the basic human need is during crisis intervention and how to respond with the correct intervention Understand holistically what happens to a victim during a crisis Know the difference between listening and hearing Understanding confidentiality. who are the caregivers. and internet resources Unit 6 Crisis Intervention Models Unit 7 Compassion in Disaster Crisis Unit 8 Comforting Grief in Disasters Unit 9 The Spiritual Dimensions of Trauma Unit 10 Ministering in the Midst of Diversity Unit 11 What to Do Next Unit 12 Resources for Disaster Relief Chaplains .Unit 1 Unit 2 Topic Uniqueness of Crisis Ministry in Disasters Overview of the Crisis Response Unit 3 Human Needs and Development Unit 4 Unit 5 Overview of the Trauma Response The Art of Story-Listening Unit objective Know the difference between being a church pastor and a community chaplain in disaster relief Understand the basics of crisis response – what’s crisis.
Most chaplains respond to the crises within their own organizations (the Army. racetracks. the police department). The word “chaplain” originates in fourth-century France.UNIQUENESS OF CRISIS MINISTRY IN DISASTERS UNIT 1 Introduction: History of Crisis Ministry1 The development of chaplain ministry has its roots in ancient history. but many respond to the general community during community emergencies. many have not been trained for the unique needs and issues that surround emergency disaster care. the chaplain continues to guard the sacred and to share his cape out of compassion. he was so moved by compassion for a beggar. the hospital. They prayed through human suffering. and officiated over ceremonial events. They have counseled and consulted for kings. Placement is limited only by the lack of imagination. he shared his cloak. A traditional story relates the compassion of St. professional chaplains from many arenas of service have responded to major disasters. job corps. One cold and wet night. shelters. but the disaster relief specialization has emerged during the past 15 years. parliaments. law enforcement. his cape (capella in Latin) was preserved as a holy relic and kept in a shrine that came to be known as chapele from which the English word chapel is derived. Martin of Tours. and the disenfranchised. direct victims. law enforcement chaplains. One growing specialization in chaplain ministry is disaster relief chaplaincy. institutions. Today. rescue and relief workers. From the settlement of Canaan through the period of the judges. and corporations. however. factories. the drunk driver who causes the multi-car fatality. or the terrorist who plants the bomb). albeit informally. gambling casinos. spiritual leaders provided encouragement and compassionate care to people who were constantly in crisis. resorts. professional sports teams. Military chaplains. the sick. Upon his death. In the past. business and industry. the disaster relief chaplain specialization has evolved into a major chaplain category. Religious men and women often accompanied armies into battle as priests. hospital chaplains. Disaster relief chaplains often serve multiple agencies and usually respond to the general community of victims during the crisis. and governments— for the incarcerated. healthcare. Chaplains guard what is sacred in people’s lives Chaplains have provided compassionate care throughout history Disaster relief chaplaincy is a specialized form of chaplain ministry 1 . With greater awareness for the value of spiritual care in conjunction with physical care during emergencies. chaplains are found in many settings—military. Today. and others have often ministered during difficult crises and emergencies. encouraged in despair. and even the perpetrator of crimes (the arsonist who starts the forest fire. The guardian of the chapele became known as the chapelain. rescue missions. Victims may include innocent bystanders. Chaplains sailed with Sir Francis Drake in the sixteenth century and fought with Washington during the Revolutionary War.
relief agencies have recognized the need to redefine the arena of disasters. 1997. since the advent of formalized chaplaincy organizations. the most highly recognized denominational disaster relief assemblage of many autonomous state groups. In parallel development. hospital. guiding. and restoring Chaplains include pastors and laity 2 . The need for spiritual and emotional support far exceeds the disaster location. teachers. the out-of-state corporate headquarters. Mickey Caison. The growing awareness of spiritual needs in crisis has begun to formalize the response of disaster relief chaplains. healing. chaplains. National and international disaster relief agencies are beginning to work together to coordinate spiritual care response in disasters of many kinds. 2005). 2007). social workers. upon the crash of American Airlines Flight 1420 in Little Rock. or Spiritual care is leading. wildfires (2007). It is no longer only the site/location directly impacted by the disaster. and terrorism (1995. This could include the classic approaches—interpretation. Disaster relief chaplains come from a variety of professions and ministries. counselors. and people groups who are in some way related or impacted by the disaster (e. sustaining. Furthermore. nurturing. former national director for Southern Baptist Disaster Relief. including the International Conference of Police Chaplains in 1973 and the Federation of Fire Chaplains in 1978. caring interventions. and the hope one can have through faith in Jesus Christ. With technological advances and the globalization of America. but now includes remote locations. In a very broad and inclusive way.g. listening. has cooperated with the American Red Cross in developing effective disaster relief services. hurricanes (1989. meditation—or some of the more contemporary approaches that have been influenced by training bodies such as the American Association of Pastoral Counselors and the Association of Professional Chaplains—presence. 1999. 2001). 1992.The Southern Baptist Disaster Relief organization.. nonjudgmental listening. and reflection. spiritual care incorporates all ministries that are concerned with the care and nurturing of people and their relationships within a community. institutions. the home church of the children in the bus. floods (1997. Ark. Today the SRT deploys to many mass casualty incidents with Red Cross trained volunteers. including chaplains who provide spiritual care. the American Red Cross formally began deploying the Spiritual Care Aviation Incident Response Team (now called Spiritual Response Team – SRT) disaster relief chaplain teams to airline disasters on June 1. They may be pastors. Southern Baptists are recognized disaster relief caregivers What Is So Unique About a Chaplain in Disasters? The definition of spiritual care is derived from the biblical image of the shepherd who cares for a flock. the manufacturer and factory of the faulty electrical switch). prayer. emergency response agencies have used their departmental chaplains during disasters to minister to their own personnel. reports that chaplains have provided ministry during many Southern Baptist Disaster Relief efforts following tornadoes (1996. or disaster shelter. In disasters. 2007). the departure and arrival airports. spiritual care is often pictured as providing a calm presence.
psychologists. Disaster relief chaplains may also be laity—men and women who respond to God’s call upon their lives to provide care and compassion to hurting people during the crisis of disasters. Who are some chaplains you have known? Disasters are critical events and critical events often cause crisis for those who are involved. The American Red Cross reports that 59 percent of Americans would be likely to seek counsel from a spiritual care provider in such circumstances.2 Chaplains need to utilize their particular role and skills in an intentional manner to enhance the coping capabilities and spiritual reactions to a disaster. Providing spiritual care in the wake of disasters often involves integrating spiritual responses with other kinds of help provided by emergency care responders, mental health providers, and social care agents. Such help is best managed through the framework of established crisis intervention principles. Spiritual care providers should understand how various representatives of the other caring components typically operate in consideration of these principles. Two organizations that provide significant settings for understanding how to integrate spiritual care with other care efforts during a crisis are: 1) The International Critical Incident Stress Foundation (ICISF) and 2) the National Organization for Victim Assistance (NOVA). Both of these organizations have well-established methodologies for crisis intervention and can assist chaplains in becoming more informed about how to interact with other care providers. Examples of the ICISF and NOVA models are presented in Unit 6. One unique aspect of many chaplains serving in disasters is that these providers are usually pastors or laity; therefore they do not work in a disaster environment on a routine basis and would not be considered professional disaster relief personnel. Instead, these chaplains are often volunteers from a variety of spiritual care settings who participate in training and gain significant disaster relief experience in order to be prepared for a response when spiritual needs emerge. These volunteers are usually trained and organized by organizations like The American Red Cross, The Salvation Army, Billy Graham Evangelistic Association, and other similar entities. Among Southern Baptists, state Baptist conventions recruit, train, and deploy chaplains, cooperating together with the networking leadership of Southern Baptist Disaster Relief when multistate involvement is needed. All of these entities respond to crisis out of a caring concern for those suffering injury, loss, or some other form of crisis. Chaplains in disasters provide caring ministry on the field of disasters, during and after the disaster occurrence, to any victim of the disaster, for a few seconds or for a few hours. As these caregivers receive specialized training in crisis and spiritual interventions, much of the specialized training is built upon the previous education and experience of the chaplain. In addition to the ministry of presence, ministry of compassion, and attentive listening, spiritual caregivers may choose from a number of intervention methods that are uniquely theirs as people of faith and spirituality (see pages 68, 69): Victims seek spiritual care in disaster crises
Scriptural education, insight, reinterpretation Individual and conjoint prayer Belief in intercessory prayer Unifying and explanatory worldviews Ventilative confession Faith-based social support systems Rituals and sacraments Belief in divine intervention/forgiveness Belief in a life after death Unique ethos of the crisis interventionist Uniquely confidential/privileged communications
What do disaster chaplains do? 1. 2. 3. How do disaster chaplains get their training/education? 1. 2. 3. In a few sentences, write a paragraph about why you would like to be a disaster chaplain. _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ Why do you want to be a disaster relief chaplain?
Spiritual Rationale for Chaplains in Disasters3
Demonstrating Compassion Is Being Present in Suffering W. E. Vine defines being moved with compassion as being moved in one’s inwards (bowels).4 The splanchma are the entrails of the body. Modern vernacular might translate this as having deep feelings in one’s “gut.” This is the center of one’s personal feelings and emotions—love and hate—the feelings that emanate from one’s “heart.” When the Gospels speak of Jesus’ compassion, they speak of deep, powerful emotions that far exceed the superficial feelings of regret, distress, or remorse. The English word compassion comes from two Latin words, cum and pati, which form the meaning, “suffer with.” It is “. . . a feeling of deep sympathy and sorrow for another who is stricken by suffering or misfortune, accompanied by a strong desire to alleviate the pain or remove its cause.”5 “Compassion asks us to go where it hurts, to enter into places of pain, to share in brokenness, fear, confusion, and anguish. Compassion challenges us to cry out with those in misery, to mourn with those who are lonely, to weep with those in tears. Compassion requires us to be weak with the weak, vulnerable with the vulnerable, and powerless with the powerless. Compassion means full immersion in the condition of being human.”6 Compassion enters into the suffering and pain of the one who suffers. It is more honorable than pity and more courageous than sympathy. Complete empathy for the desolation and grief of those who are suffering requires compassion. Compassion is felt in one’s “gut”
Compassion enters into the suffering and pain of the one who suffers
Disaster chaplains must The disaster relief chaplain must know his or her own biases, needs, and intentionally choose a disaster limitations and still deeply desire to identify with the disenfranchised and the relief ministry wounded, seeking to demonstrate the compassion of Christ as the priority of chaplain ministry. Merely attempting to prevent suffering or not be the cause of suffering will be inadequate. The disaster relief chaplain must approach ministry from a radically different paradigm—the chaplain must initiate and be an active participant in “being” compassion as a priority and “doing” compassion as a necessity.7 Recognizing one’s own natural instinct to excuse oneself from the crisis, the chaplain must still choose to become engaged in the suffering. The significance of being compassionate may lay in the fact that being compassionate is not an activity one naturally seeks, but an activity that one must intentionally choose, knowing that it “feels” contrary to natural instincts. The theological foundation for disaster relief chaplaincy is supported through the mandate to bear one another’s burdens (see Gal. 6:28); and therefore, “You must be compassionate just as your Father is compassionate” (Luke 6:36, NLT). The cup of cool water and the Good Samaritan also reinforce this imperative. A vital aspect of disaster chaplaincy is “the ministry of presence.” “A major premise of care amid crisis is presence. The care of souls first requires being there. Simple, empathic, listening presence is a primary pastoral act, the presupposition of all other pastoral acts.”9 The power of this ministry is in its altruistic service. If chaplains provide compassion by bearing another’s burdens, then chaplains choose to “suffer with” those who are suffering. Providing “You must be compassionate just as your Father is compassionate” (Luke 6:36, NLT) A vital aspect of disaster chaplaincy is the “ministry of presence”
God is present with the chaplain. God is “that tremendous lover. Presence may invite a sense of community within the crisis. loss. Henri Nouwen calls the incarnation of God the “divine solidarity. or may reconnect a disenfranchised person with God. and may not be able to diminish any of the pain. The difference is the mighty presence of God. The presence of God within the ministry situation empowers the chaplain to provide effective. the chaplain offers the comfort of God’s presence through words of comfort and assurance. What evidence do you have of God’s presence in suffering? What does your theology teach you? 1. pain. 2. Francis Thompson portrayed God’s presence as the “Hound of Heaven. “The heroes of the faith had one thing in common: They were all ordinary people with no power of their own. pursuing me with his love. there was no escaping God’s presence.” The chaplain cannot deny the reality of the crisis. and insufficiency. loss.” No matter where he fled. appropriate spiritual support within the context of disaster. God is present in the suffering The strength of a caregiving relationship is in the fact that one is never alone. 2. What have you witnessed? 1. The chaplain in disasters often represents the presence of God. “I am with you” In 1893. but the effect of God’s presence remains the same. or grief—during the spiritual and emotional crises of life. may lead to healing reconciliation. What have you experienced? 1.”10 Chaplains who enter into the suffering and chaos of crisis are empowered by the same presence of God to give them victory over despair. The chaplain in disasters shares God’s presence with victims and offers the same words of assurance—“I am with you. But. 3.”25 How could a disaster victim benefit from your “ministry of presence?” 6 . no matter where he hid. 3. 2. Times may change.” It is the compassionate God who chooses to be God-with-us. should not minimize the sense of loss it causes.compassion requires stepping out of one’s comfort zone and intentionally entering a place of crisis—danger. 3.
13 When words have no relevance and actions have no meaning. the Cultural diversity has increased Chaplains in disasters must demonstrate compassion for all people Chaplains in disasters may even be called upon to minister to those whose political or religious prominence may be intimidating or abhorrent Sensitivity to human diversity means doing ministry with the disenfranchised of society 7 . the Holy Scriptures. the addicted. or social class? Human diversity includes the rich and famous. the Emmanuel—God with us—suffering with the victim may be the most potent act of the chaplain in disasters. clothing the naked. but what of the more fortunate—those of higher position. In the aftermath of crisis. We live in a multicultural society that is very diverse. cultural diversity increases. Here the chaplain in disasters practices the presence of God in active listening and the spoken word. or economic status. they find comfort and assurance that God hears their plea.12 During the crisis. the spoken word. the incarcerated. “Presence” is one of the most powerful acts of ministry a chaplain in disasters can provide. In many cultures. showing hospitality to strangers. religion. giving a drink to the thirsty. In the moment of crisis. Demonstrating compassion by physical and spiritual presence is the beginning of the relationship that brings comfort and healing. With the deteriorating influence of the church in culture14 and the globalization of society.Practicing God’s presence in suffering The chaplain in disasters demonstrates compassion by being present in suffering. status. Chaplains in disasters. gender. may be called upon to offer caring ministry to the outcasts of society—the homeless.15 As globalization increases. Chaplains in disasters may even be called upon to minister to those whose political or religious prominence may be intimidating or abhorrent. listening. and visiting the sick (see Matt. worship or remembrance may bring healing and new understanding to the intense suffering and acute pain of loss. and service Chaplains in disasters provide the “ministry of presence” Demonstrating Compassion is Being Sensitive to Human Diversity There is tension in balancing cultural acceptance and uncompromising convictions.” he or she sits among the wounded to bind and unbind his or her own wounds slowly and carefully so that he will be able to immediately respond to bear the burden of another who is suffering. many who are suffering desire an advocate who will plead their case before God. the spoken word. victims need to tell their stories and need to have validation of their feelings and sense of loss. too. and service. making no distinction of race. the Holy Scriptures. but chaplains must not hesitate to demonstrate compassion by ministry action. the tension rises for people of deep faith and convictions.11 The chaplain in disasters practices the presence of God through prayer. Sometimes like a “wounded healer. and in the prayer. 25:35-40). They must actively search out those in crisis. Their actions must speak of kindness and mercy borne out of compassion for all people. establishing and reestablishing the relationship by physical presence is primary to even general conversation. Most of us sense the ability of people to respond to the needs of those less fortunate. Practicing the presence of God is experienced in feeding the hungry. Often the crisis requires acts of service. The chaplain in disasters practices the presence of God through prayer. Neither political alignment nor religious position must prevent the chaplains in disasters from providing compassionate ministry action. listening.
what is the effect on the least privileged in society [the direct victims of disaster]. or anxiety over such issues as their vulnerability.17 Often the “help” is presence and encouragement. 25:34-40). providing shelter or clothing. One of the challenges chaplains in disasters will certainly face is a ministry encounter with people who do not come directly under their usual sphere of responsibility—the victims may not be patients in their hospital or members of their church. but equally often it is the action of “helping” by the practical acts of giving something to eat or drink. Robert Greenleaf says that the best test of this servant attitude is: “Do those served grow as people? Do they.” “Anyway” ministry Demonstrating Compassion Is Providing the Ministry of Care in Crisis Doing practical acts of ministry care is perhaps the most obvious demonstration of compassion. to make more bearable. “Help” is the active verb which means to give assistance or support. The chaplain may be a person of authority. to change for the better. and divine independence. but his or her response must grow out of the attitude of a servant. at least. and their loss of trust in the natural order of life. The chaplain must demonstrate compassion in servanthood in the same way Jesus fully identified Himself with humanity in His incarnation. more autonomous [more able to cope with the crisis or disaster?]. giving up privileged position. freer. become healthier [has their level of stress been mitigated?]. confusion. not be further deprived?”18 By providing encouragement In crisis and disasters. or.” not “servitude” 8 . to give relief. By assuming the attitude of the servant For the chaplain in disasters. Here the chaplain in disasters assumes the “anyway” attitude of providing care. more likely themselves to become servants? And. people often respond in fear. A significant demonstration of compassion in the ministry of care in crisis is providing encouragement through words and actions. while being served. will they benefit [was there compassion demonstrated in ministry action?]. or to serve with food or drink. a person of resources. heavenly wealth. crossing the barrier of assumed responsibility. wiser [have the circumstances been clarified?]. or a person of prominence. their grief. People in crisis need encouragement Have a servant heart Compassion is demonstrated in doing practical acts of ministry “Servanthood. and ministering to victims “anyway.”16 Sensitivity to human diversity means doing ministry with the disenfranchised of society. Most chaplains who enter the disaster relief ministry desire to “help” those in need. looking after. providing the ministry of care in crisis must arise from the servant’s heart.“leper. and doing deeds of kindness (see Matt.
In other words. rescues. they must remember three things: “First. he or she releases the victims. In crisis. empowered to move forward in spiritual and physical healing. comforting. and disappointment. if our prayers are to be true acts of friendship. whenever we long for and pray for the well-being of other people. the chaplain provides active listening to hear the fears.The chaplain in disasters must be able to convey encouragement to a soul that is despairing by saying. and chaplains offer the ministry of care through prayer. the chaplain in disasters provides encouragement by listening. they lack experience in dealing with the situation. In the crisis and confusion. and clarifying. there is peace in prayer. dialoguing. God!” In the crisis of disasters and devastation. By offering prayer “There are no atheists in foxholes. NASB). we are only asking of God what God already longs for far more than we. Victims may not understand and they may be “astonished. They meet the immediate needs of assistance in searches. In the midst of the storms of life—the disasters. we must tell God what we want for others as surely as we must ask God for ourselves. their reaction is often.” reads the bumper sticker. . He or she comforts in the silent spaces. “What can I do?” They want to meet the immediate needs of victims.” but they will experience the compassionate encouragement of the chaplain. where it is possible. A crisis may erupt when a person is faced with a problem that calls on resources or problem-solving abilities that have not previously been needed. water to the thirsty. Don’t be afraid” (Mark 6:51). if we are to be friends of God. While “being” present in the suffering of disaster victims and demonstrating sensitivity to human diversity are essential. By meeting immediate needs When chaplains step onto the disaster site. Chaplains often join with disaster relief teams to provide food to the hungry.” In anxious moments.”20 Chaplains bring the assurance of hope The chaplain in disasters releases the empowered victims to move forward in spiritual and physical healing Disaster chaplains have a desire to meet immediate needs “There are no atheists in foxholes” 9 . “Oh. frustrations. Victims of disasters “tend to feel anxious and upset because of their apparent helplessness to deal with the situation. even the non-religious person often cries out in desperate prayer. we must act in accordance with our own prayer. without worrying about the appropriateness of our asking or the probability that what we ask for we will receive. The victim of disaster often sees the chaplain as God’s representative and desires “a word of prayer. shelter for the homeless.”19 In situations such as this. Third. 8:26. and clothing to the exposed. we must not only pray for others. the crisis. . and the devastation— the chaplain must bring the assurance of hope. medical care to the injured. When chaplains pray for victims. He or she engages in dialogue as he or she asks probing questions for self-examination and reflection. and victim assessments. Christians believe that when “we do not know how to pray as we should. chaplains also have a deep desire to meet immediate needs. He or she clarifies by examining circumstances and options. “Take courage! It is I. victims often ask for the ministry of prayer. then.… the Spirit Himself intercedes for us with groanings too deep for words” (Rom. Second. .
and concerned people around the world. Frequently. “God does not intend for us to carry them by ourselves in isolation from our brothers and sisters. the chaplain in disasters may lead religious services or memorial services. These services may occur in makeshift facilities. healing.” When victims perceive losses that overwhelm their coping abilities. they often ask. . Carrying the heavy weight of death. Personalized prayers a. or standing outside the morgue. the chaplain intercedes for victims. As a minister. or destruction of property is an oppressive ordeal that is difficult to bear alone. Chaplain?” Here is the opportunity to share an appropriate testimony of the power of Christ in us. loss of home. power. but the burdens that result from emergencies and major disasters are often more than one is able to bear alone. listen to the story. Assessing the needs of this “flock” of victims. . attending to the victim’s perceived need before his or her own. NASB). Through prayer for the hurt and needy. . Figuratively it came to mean any oppressive ordeal or hardship that was difficult to bear.By leading others to Christ When disaster relief chaplains are able to demonstrate compassion by providing the ministry of care in crisis. 6:2. but personalized prayers are highly effective and comforting. The myth of self-sufficiency is not a mark of bravery but rather a sign of pride. and grace.”22 Everyone has burdens. the chaplain in disasters assumes the role of minister for people of every faith and religious tradition. promote a sense of safety and security. but meeting the immediate need. specific c. This chaplain must walk alongside. Here is the opportunity to offer hope that will be realized in spite of disaster circumstances. Invoking God’s presence. in the middle of rubble.”2324 Chaplains offer prayers for victims A chaplain is a “minister” to victims Chaplains share the burden of loss 10 . wisdom. The chaplain will be God’s voice. the ministries are brief and simple—urgent. Prayers are often spontaneous and informal. and thereby fulfill the law of Christ” (Gal. short b. they also encounter many opportunities to share the “Good News. Here is the opportunity to offer the hope of salvation. corporate prayers—all are utilized and appreciated by most. The chaplain in disasters provides caring ministry through prayerful intercession even when fear grips his or her own heart. formal prayers. Individual prayers. and allow the overflow of God’s grace in his or her own life to spill into the emptiness of those in need. spontaneous Ministry Tasks of the Chaplain in Disasters21 The task of the chaplain in disasters is to willingly enter the field of disaster and discomfort to stand with those who have been hurt and suffer losses. confronting. reconciling. The ministry of disaster relief chaplains is a response to the command: “Bear one another’s burdens. rescue workers. offering hope. “How do you get through crisis. “The word for ‘burden’ (baros) means literally ‘a heavy weight or stone’ someone is required to carry for a long distance. the chaplain must lead them to resources that will nourish their spirits and calm their trembling hearts.
emergency medical technicians (EMTs) receive specific and concise training to provide medical first The need for disaster ministry is likely Chaplains in disasters are like “spiritual paramedics”24 11 . There is little effective ministry that occurs. the chaplain in disasters ministers to all who are wounded and hurting in crises and emergencies. 2001—the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon—made it exceedingly clear that major disasters can happen and that there are not enough trained disaster relief chaplains to meet the needs of disaster victims. The events of September 11. pastors. The trauma response in disasters requires specialized training and care. Sharing the “Good News” in appropriate and sensitive ways could demonstrate compassion to victims who carry the weight of great disaster losses. but another significant problem is the prohibitive nature of extensive professional training for those who desire to be available in the event of disasters in addition to their normal responsibilities. There are several issues that become evident: There are several differences between ministering to a congregation and to the victims in a community Spiritual care in disasters is very different from that in the pastorate. or in personal crisis themselves. overwhelmed.” not “long-term care. Likewise. The question arises: can a person become effective in disaster chaplaincy with 16 hours of crisis ministry intervention training? The response is yes. Chaplains in disasters minister to any who are victimized Differences Between Chaplains in Disasters and Community Clergy26 There are often inadequate numbers of trained professional disaster relief chaplains available to handle the crisis situations that arise in the event of major disasters and emergencies. judged. As the disaster relief chaplain steps onto the field of disaster. they fail to provide appropriate ministry to the victims and often leave the scene feeling inadequate. and clergy of local congregations respond with the intention of providing compassionate care to the victims of these disasters. Unlike the local minister who primarily ministers to his own flock. the disaster chaplain’s flock is any who are victimized. sharing the love of Christ is the most helpful way to carry another’s burdens. if the training is specific and concise. they receive great comfort in knowing that chaplains share their burden out of the overflow of Christ’s love in them. he or she offers the arms of God. 3:12-13). The call to disaster ministry has become evident to more seminarians and people in ministry. When victims perceive they have no resources to bear their own burdens. hears the cries of distress. often other chaplains. for it is a heart of compassion that bears another’s burdens (see Col. discounted. or even threatened. Ministering within religious diversity is different than in the context of a church congregation. Special skills are required for disaster ministry When clergy are not skilled in addressing these issues (and many others that are equally important27). The chaplain in disasters demonstrates compassion.” For example.Sometimes. and provides strength at the point of exhaustion to those who are weary. As the representative of God. ignored. the victims feel unheard. and if the ministry intervention is intended to be “spiritual first aid.
which is more appropriately left to physicians who receive many more years of education and training. and the hidden victims (the relief workers and professional caregivers). 3. Additional seminars may also be available to those who wish to further develop crisis intervention skills.aid at the scene of the crisis incident. How will you prepare yourself to overcome these differences? 1. 12 . Chaplains in disasters are trained to provide urgent care by diffusing distress through their early intervention and cathartic ventilation. .28 Involving Southern Baptists in Disaster Relief is the basic training for all Southern Baptist disaster relief volunteers Training for disaster relief chaplaincy is urgently needed Summary: Contrasting the Differences Pastors and other Congregational Pastoral Caregivers minister to one “set” group of people on a long-term basis know the people fairly well or very well minister in “ordinary” times minister to a group of people who have like or similar religious beliefs minister to a group of people who have chosen to be a part of this group minister in the context of common cultural identities are given authority by a congregation or ecclesiastical body Disaster Relief Chaplains minister to people they have never met or do not know very well minister to victims who do not call them or choose them minister to people who are in crisis when they meet minister to a wide variety of cultural and ethnic groups of people minister to many different religious traditions minister to people who do not know “what” a disaster relief chaplain is are given authority by an institution or agency to seek an invitation by victims What are some significant differences that you will face? 1. There is no expectation for providing longterm care. 2. 2. the basic training for all Southern Baptist disaster relief volunteers. . These additional seminars are not required for basic Southern Baptist Disaster Relief chaplaincy. Differences between pastors and disaster relief chaplains The most significant difference I will face is . Involving Southern Baptists in Disaster Relief.” Southern Baptist disaster relief chaplains must also complete the seminar. I will overcome these differences by . . They are “spiritual paramedics. 3. providing appropriate spiritual care to the direct victims (the victims who live in the area of destruction). . There is an urgent need to train volunteers to be disaster relief chaplains. the indirect victims (the victims who live on the fringes of the disaster area—often inconvenienced but not radically affected by the disaster).
pastors and other congregational leaders who are accustomed to being in command will serve under the direction and leadership of others. the chain-of-command is very rigorously observed. “Chain-of-command” means following orders from above 13 . During disaster relief operations.A special issue that surfaces for pastors and other congregational leaders is chain-of-command. Being able to redefine one’s responsibilities and leadership role will be essential to the effective functioning of the overall response team. To function effectively. Disaster relief organizations often function as paramilitary organizations.
1961.OVERVIEW OF THE CRISIS RESPONSE29 UNIT 2 Understanding the Terminology and Concepts The following terms are offered to the disaster relief chaplain to provide insight from experts who approach crisis with a psychological perspective rooted primarily in science. 1964) Critical incident: a stressor event (crisis event). Defusing and Other Group Crisis Intervention Service. Jr. 1997. which appears to cause. Boston: Butterworth. a crisis response. Jeffrey T. Cross T. Hans. VA: Maternal and Children’s Health Bureau Clearinghouse. 1976. 1989. ed. one’s usual coping mechanisms have failed. agency. Stress in Health and Disease. 1995) Cultural competence: a set of congruent behaviors. 1995. Health Issues for Women of Color: A Cultural DiversityPerspective. Vienna. Caplan. agency. also known as a crisis intervention Crisis: an acute human response to an event wherein psychological homeostasis (balance) has been disrupted. dysfunction.. Dennis. 1964. Bazron. Journey Towards Cultural Competency: Lessons Learned. Principles of Preventive Psychiatry. Mitchell. accompanied by a strong desire to alleviate the pain or remove its cause Crisis response: an informed response to the emotional disruption that occurs after a critical event. Dennis and M. an event which overwhelms a person’s usual coping mechanisms (Everly & Mitchell. attitudes. 14 . and policies that come together in a system. CASSP Technical Assistance Center. Critical Incident Stress Debriefing: An Operations Manual for CISD. . Selye. and behaviors of the members of another ethnic group (Adams. vol. G. Texas Department of Health. 1999). Bazron. officially attached to a branch of the military.. & Isaacs. Everly.: Georgetown University Child Development Center. National Maternal and Child Health Resource Center on Cultural Competency.) Compassion: a feeling of deep sympathy and sorrow for another who is stricken by suffering or misfortune. Towards a Culturally Competent System of Care. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications. usually involves internal changes in terms of attitudes and values. or impairment (Caplan. I. Washington D. history. or to a family or court. 1997.C. Chaplain: a clergyman in charge of a chapel. to an institution. 3rd ed. Ellicott City. or those professionals to work effectively in cross-cultural situations (Cross. values. emphasizes the idea of effectively operating in different cultural contexts Cultural knowledge: familiarization with selected cultural characteristics. belief systems. Isaacs. 10th ed. and there are signs and/or symptoms of distress. Diane L. K. or among professionals and enables that system. refers to the qualities of openness and flexibility that people develop in relation to others (Adams. and George S. These insights may be enhanced with the addition of the perspectives of faith and spirituality that are the special focus of disaster relief chaplains. or be most associated with. MD: Chevron Publishing Company. 1989). New York: Basic Books. 1995) Adams. the most severe forms may be considered traumatic events Crisis intervention: the urgent and acute psychological support sometimes thought of as “emotional first-aid” Cross-cultural: effectively operating outside the boundaries of a particular cultural group Cultural awareness: developing sensitivity and understanding of another ethnic group. a person chosen to conduct religious exercises (Webster.
religious pluralism seeks an environment in which all faith expressions can dwell together Presence: state or fact of being present. God’s initiative in encountering people Psychology: study of mental processes and behavior. readily or excessively affected by external agencies or influences. an unexpected event that causes human suffering or creates human needs that the victims cannot alleviate without assistance (ARC) Disaster relief chaplain: a chaplain that responds to victims of disasters. familial Interdisciplinary team: a group of specialists that represent several different professions. and achieve goals Human diversity: the state of being diverse as mankind. right or wrong. grow. historical. usually unforeseen occurrence or occasion.e. to those cultural differences (National Maternal and Child Health Center on Cultural Competency. better or worse.. moral. 1997) Disaster: a calamitous event. or agencies Pluralism: a coalition of diverse ethnic. without assigning values. emotions and behavioral characteristics Psychotraumatology: study of psychological trauma in contrast to ‘traumatology” which deals with the study of physical wounds in physical medicine (Schnitt.Cultural sensitivity: knowing that cultural differences as well as similarities exist. disciplines. they can cause harm Emergency: a sudden. urgent. or social groups seeking to maintain autonomous participation in and development of their traditional culture or special interest within the confines of a common society. i. or agencies Multidisciplinary team: a group of specialists that represent several different professions. spiritual. 1993) Religious diversity: the state of representing several religious traditions Sensitivity: the state or quality of being sensitive. highly responsive Story listening: listening to the narrative that tells the story of the event. racial. intellectual. trained in crisis intervention skills Distress: prolonged or excessive negative stress reactions. as with others or in a place. disciplines. occurring suddenly and causing great damage or hardship (Webster). unalike in many characteristics— Iphysical. religious. interpreting and understanding the significance of a person’s account of the crisis event 15 . requiring immediate action Eustress: a positive stress reaction that motivates one to make positive changes.
a perceived change or a perceived loss will produce signs or symptoms of distress.” Disasters by this definition could vary greatly in extent of damage. the disaster may be perceived either as a calamitous event or a non-disaster. 1974) Suffering: to undergo or feel pain or distress. independence. 1992) What Constitutes a Disaster? The American Red Cross defines a disaster as a “situation that causes human suffering or creates human needs that the victims cannot alleviate without assistance. or endure pain. is still a loss to the victim. to sustain injury.. may be seen as a more narrow form of critical incident (a crisis event that causes a crisis response) Traumatic event: an event outside the range of usual human experience that would be markedly distressing to almost everyone (DSM-III-R [APA. no matter how real or unreal it may be. age. distress. to undergo. A trauma. A perceived loss. reputation. victimization. history— these and many other factors may affect the response. i. and origin. APA.e. or loss. injury. Disasters vary greatly in extent of damage. For some victims. the sum total of “wear and tear” that accelerates the aging process. it is essential to remember that perception greatly affects the distress a victim may experience. an exceptionally threatening or catastrophic event (WHO. victimization. dysfunction. or death. the most recent version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV. 1994) defines trauma exclusively in terms of the exposure to human suffering. Typically. personal or vicarious exposure to severe injury. be subjected to. 1987]). status. Therefore. 1956. illness. or integrity.Stress: a response characterized by physical and psychological arousal arising as a direct result of an exposure to any demand or pressure on a living organism. experience. If crisis is an acute response caused by a change in psychological homeostasis (balance). disadvantage. the non-specific response of the body to any demand made upon it (Selye. therefore. disasters affect several people or entire communities are unexpected or sudden have an element of danger cause injury or loss of human life cause property damage or loss Why is it that people experience the same disaster event and respond differently? Why do some people have such severe distress while others seem to have minimal negative reactions? Understanding. For the chaplain. loss. and origin Perception of the event will influence the reaction The perceived loss may be intrapsychic 16 . or anything unpleasant Trauma: an event outside the usual realm of human experience that would be markedly distressing to anyone who experiences it. the property loss may be secondary to the perceived loss of position. relationships. or impairment.
In 2001. wild fires. Rapes. and hazardous material spills. there are some common characteristics. structural collapses.Types of Disasters Natural Disasters Natural disasters—“acts of Natural disasters are often called “acts of God. the elderly. When destruction affects an entire community. accidents. abused children.” Southern Baptist Disaster God” Relief and other disaster relief organizations often include earthquakes. crime. There may be many dead and injured. national identity. battered people. there are issues surrounding displacement as refugees. shootings and other assaults. and property loss. floods. riots. fires. hurricanes. avalanches. and transportation vehicles of every kind. extraordinary financial or property losses through fraud or theft. and spiritual losses sustained as a result of war are overwhelming. blizzards. suicides and suicide attempts. ships. Man-made Disasters30 In recent years. and volcanic eruptions in this category. Disaster services organizations also include some conditions that result from these events—mud slides. Drowning also accounts for many disasters. and chronic community violence are now overshadowed by terrorism and bombings. The emotional. and possessions. psychological. physical. The most devastating catastrophe caused by humans is war. The numbers of people involved are often great. Man-made disasters—crimes. What would be the “community crisis need?” There may be extensive physical destruction of homes. What would be the “community crisis need?” 17 . and so on. They are crimes against people and humanity. trains. property. For many. tornadoes. disasters are health related in the form of epidemics and widely spread diseases—some through biological warfare and terrorism. and so on What Happens During a Community Disaster? Most communities have experienced some form of disaster. school violence. Other man-made disasters include industrial accidents. arson. the United States experienced disaster as a nation. Man-made disasters include accidents in airplanes. health-related. Many of these man-made disasters have a criminal component. buses. man-made disasters have captured the attention of many Americans. tidal waves. Some have experienced natural disasters and others have experienced the results of war. and accidents. In addition to loss of life and limb.
industry. The chaplain in disasters may not be able to deal with all the issues of the community. But caring interventions are necessary and effective.There may be massive numbers of displaced people and animals. What would be the “community crisis need?” There may be interruption of public utilities. one person at a time. What would be the “community crisis need?” Businesses. Recovery needs: Repair homes/businesses Remove debris Provide food/water Long-term needs: Rebuilding Financial support Jobs 18 . What would be the “community crisis need?” Individual people may have huge financial losses. What would be the “community crisis need?” There may be political confusion. What would be the “community crisis need?” There may be interruption of transportation. and so forth may suffer severe losses. The task will appear daunting—and it is. the problems and issues will remain. but he or she will certainly be needed in dealing with the disaster issues that individuals face. Either way. What would be the “community crisis need?” The immediate needs: Shelter Food/water Safety The community in disaster may fragment or draw together. employment.
Where. When chaplains arrived on the scene in New York City after September 11. While the intention “to help” was appreciated.Who. No chaplain should ever “show up” uninvited. In the event of criminal activity. who may be approached. many had no lodging or provision for personal needs. Think of a specific disaster and try to answer these questions: Who will respond? Who is the victim of the disaster? First responders Direct victims Indirect victims Who is “in charge” during the disaster? What happens immediately following the crisis event? What is a chaplain allowed to do during a crisis event? When does the chaplain respond to a crisis event? When does the chaplain do “crisis intervention”? Where does crisis intervention happen? When does crisis intervention stop? How does the chaplain know what intervention to use? How is responding to an airplane accident different? How does the response in a natural disaster differ from a man-made incident? How is a terrorist attack different? How is a bank robbery different? How is a school shooting different? How is a death in the workplace different? How does the “command staff” know a chaplain is qualified to do crisis intervention? Chaplains in disasters must be part of a recognized crisis intervention team Every disaster situation has an agency that has been identified and charged with the responsibility. disasters are a result of criminal activity. the additional effort that was required to find housing and parking. It is always important for chaplains to be a part of an established and recognized crisis intervention team when they respond to disasters. There are no two that result in Chaplains in disasters must exactly the same responses. the crisis intervention team leader will take primary responsibility for interfacing with security. and to maintain organization was tremendous in the wake of already exhausted personnel. In some instances. and what may be said. In these cases. and How of Crisis Response Every disaster and critical incident is unique. What. to verify credentials. where they may locate. Never “self deploy” to a disaster scene Law enforcement has jurisdiction over crime scenes 19 . When. The chaplain in disasters must quickly do some answer the 5 W +H questions general assessments and have some understanding regarding the crisis response. This type of selfdeployment often causes confusion and additional chaos for the command staff who are trying to organize the intervention efforts. law enforcement has jurisdiction and there are many prohibitions surrounding who may participate. Why.
The Southern Baptist Disaster Relief publication. but are somewhat affected by the resulting annoyances and inconveniences or have close relationships with direct victims 3.Victim Classifications Some crisis intervention organizations list as many as seven levels of victim classifications as a result of disasters. disaster relief chaplaincy. from the primary victim to the person who thinks that only by the luck-of-the-draw did he or she escape being a primary or secondary victim. Hidden victims Emerging Issues for People and Groups Involved in Disasters People and groups of people who are involved in disasters face many issues during and after the critical incident. and first responders may view successful rescue much differently than others. Direct victims 2. Direct victims—those in the immediate area of the destruction who have suffered losses 2. Hidden victims—those who respond to the disaster as first responders and relief workers. Indirect victims 3. Indirect victims—those who are not directly impacted by the disaster. emergency medical services. lists the following classification of victims of disasters: 1. including law enforcement. Involving Southern Baptists in Disaster Relief. Recognition of some of these issues will be helpful for the chaplain who interacts with people in crisis. Here are a few emerging issues for people involved in disasters: Direct Victims Immediate danger and life threatening situations Physical injury and/or pain Dislocation and separation anxiety Death of family and/or friends and survivor’s guilt Unknown future Indirect Victims and Survivors Relief and guilt Preoccupation with the disaster circumstances Imaginative reconstruction of victim’s suffering Inconvenience Family and Loved Ones “Next-of-kin” responsibilities Relief and guilt Preoccupation with the disaster circumstances Imaginative reconstruction of victim’s suffering First Responders Rescue and failed rescue Search and unfruitful search “Hero ethos” Emerging issues for people involved in disasters 20 . Direct victims may verbalize issues that appear to be in conflict with those of survivors. and disaster services Victims in disasters: 1.
network 21 .Legal responsibilities and jurisdiction Triage Disaster Relief Workers Unexpected responsibilities and tasks Inadequate resources—supplies. time. network Extended exposure to disaster and consequent bonding with community Extended separation from family and personal support “Unsung hero” Chaplains “Messiah” complex Role confusion Inadequate resources—language. language. time.
constantly changing with environmental factors which act as obstacles. According to Maslow. lower levels representing the lower. We Physiological needs Abraham Maslow’s theory “Prepotent needs” have the greatest influence over our actions Movement along the hierarchy of human needs is dynamic and changes with environmental factors Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs Safety and security needs 22 . and esteem) that must be satisfied before a person can act unselfishly. When these needs are not satisfied." Maslow set up an instinctoid hierarchic theory of needs based on five levels of basic needs. A teenager may have a need to feel that he or she is accepted by his or her peers. sleep. belonging/social affiliation. They are represented as a pyramid in Figure 1. healthy personalities. water. Safety needs are mostly psychological in nature. The movement is not linear but dynamic.” or a homeless person may need food and water. Times of emergency or chaos in the social structure (such as widespread rioting) make people aware of their safety and security needs. Physiological Needs Physiological needs are the most basic needs such as air. self-esteem. shelter). ones that have the greatest influence over our actions. These needs are prepotent. a relatively constant body temperature (clothing. food. and self-actualization. When the prepotent needs are met. and the upper point representing the more spiritual need for self-actualization. the needs for safety and security can become active. love. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs is often represented as a pyramid. safety. Within the levels of the five basic needs. "self-actualization. Maslow believed that the reason people did not move well in the direction of selfactualization is because of hindrances (disasters?) placed in their way. Safety and Security Needs When all physiological needs are satisfied and no longer dominant. An alcoholic will need to have a drink to “start the day. or as Maslow calls this level. The physiological needs are the strongest needs. Each level is characterized by specific needs within the human scope of requirements for life.HUMAN NEEDS AND DEVELOPMENT31 UNIT 3 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs—Identifying the Crisis Abraham Maslow was a psychologist. He believed that humans strive for upper levels of capabilities—fully functioning personhood. higher needs emerge and dominate a person’s attention. with the larger. more basic needs. Each person’s prepotent needs vary. there are general types of deficiency needs (physiological. safety/security. we feel motivated to alleviate them as soon as possible to establish homeostasis. a person does not feel the higher need until the demands of the lower needs have been satisfied. and so forth. The five levels of needs identified by Maslow were physiological.
giving and receiving friendship and associating with people (a social context in which to validate a person's perceived worth). emotional. appreciation Belongingness and love Our need to relate positively to other people— family. Belonging and Social Affiliation Needs When the needs for psychological and physiological well-being are satisfied. New York: Harper & Row. Religion comforts us with support and encouragement in the midst of death and the insecurity of this world. A. a person has the desire to maximize his full potential. work groups. gangs. self-fulfillment. We need to feel loved and accepted by others.need the security of a home. family. and social needs are met. the needs for esteem can be addressed. law. These involve needs for both self-esteem (from competence or mastery of a task) and for the esteem a person gets from others (attention. This involves both giving and receiving love. recognition. and belongingness can emerge. security. When these needs are not met. Maslow describes self-actualization as a person's “desire to become more and more what one is. the next level of needs for love. and alienation.” These people experience a restlessness that urges them to self-development. and freedom from fear and anxiety Physiological Our basic need for air. knowledge. Safety needs sometime motivate people to be religious. and oneness with God and the universe. to give and receive affection Safety Our need for safety. and recognition from others). associates. Esteem Needs When the first three classes of needs are satisfied.). status. Self-actualization needs Esteem needs Belonging and social affiliation needs 23 . psychological. Maslow states that people seek to overcome feelings of isolation. People who have satisfied their esteem needs feel self-confident and valued. religious groups. stability. aloneness. to become everything that one is capable of becoming. attention. friends. a person feels helpless and worthless. Maslow's Hierarchy of Human Needs. and so on. clubs. (From Maslow. 1970. shelter. and order—freedom from danger and threats. mastery. adequacy. appreciation. Self-Actualization Needs When all of the physiological. Motivation and Personality (2nd ed. sleep Figure 1. affection. affection and the sense of belonging. food. water. Self-actualization Our need to actualize or maximize our potential as humans. uniquely expressed for each individual in episodic fashion Esteem Our need for competency. Humans have a desire to belong to groups: families.
During the rescue phase. They need to perceive that they are safe from imminent danger. victims who feel relatively safe and secure become concerned about having a positive relationship with others. there is a sense of urgency to assist the victim in reducing acute physical traumatic stressors. How could you assure a victim of his or her safety and security? 1. They need the security of confidentiality and privacy. 3. Once their basic human needs are met. clothing.Identifying the Crisis The first task of the chaplain in disasters is to assess the immediate need— What is the victim’s crisis from both the victims’ perspective and from that of the caregiver. They want to know that their home and belongings are safe. Communicating and uniting with family. During the initial phase of response. When physical survival and basic needs are met. chaplains should help individuals engage personal and other available assets in order to facilitate movement toward the recovery and rebuild phases. water. 3. As victims are receptive to stabilization via spiritual resources. Congruent with Maslow’s theory. food. They want assurance of safety from impending danger and the security of qualified assistance. Victims need medical assistance and physical resources. As chaplains heighten the awareness of spiritual Victims need to perceive they are safe 24 . Such efforts also contribute to feeling connected and secure. vicitms’ basic needs are first met—air. Because disasters are a significant disruption to homeostasis. They want to know that their family and friends are safe. How could you provide for physiological needs—basic human needs? 1. spiritual care should complement efforts to meet people’s basic and social affiliation needs while helping them draw upon basic spiritual activities like prayer. Understanding need? and applying the principles from Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs will assist the chaplain in disasters to determine the crisis need of the victim. people are seldom ready to move beyond Maslow’s levels of basic needs and social affiliation needs (social affiliation is related to belonging and in this case implies that someone else has gained a strong understanding of what the victim is feeling and has experienced). When rescue Physical survival is first workers and caregivers arrive on the scene. and shelter. caregivers are able to address other presenting needs. Three phases are prevalent in disaster relief responses and are often present in other kinds of crisis interventions: 1) rescue. The primary response in disasters and other emergencies is physical survival. and/or others who have experienced the same disaster becomes important in feeling like one is part of a community with a shared identity. 2. medical injuries and issues are addressed first. Isolation and abandonment lead back to insecurity and a sense of danger. friends. and 3) rebuild. 2. 2) recovery. Victims have a need to be assured of their safety and security.
Chaplains in disasters are a “value-added” component of crisis intervention and disaster response. which allows them to introduce new coping skills. regardless of ethnicity. safety. 3. Remember. if and when they are ready to do so. Application for chaplains in disasters Stages of Human Development—The Age-Specific Human Response to Crisis Erik Erickson developed a theory for human psychosocial development that is consistent among humans. gender. This kind of ministry involves a fine balance between a keen awareness of people’s needs and a discerning sensitivity to the work of God in their lives. there are characteristic perspectives that are consistent among all humans within similar age ranges. and the ministry of care. safety. socio-economic status. thirst. 2. If spirituality is the understanding. or belonging needs. and response to the transcendence of God (see Unit 9). not therapy. Erikson identified eight basic stages of life through which the human personality is developed. Support for spiritual reflection and transformation should be afforded and readily available to persons at any stage of a disaster so they can encounter such horizons. As chaplains remain patient and respectful of a victim’s personal boundaries in the process of identifying and helping meet their needs. The basic goals are to mitigate acute distress. How could you help a victim meet belonging and social affiliation needs? 1. Chaplains in disasters have opportunities to remind victims of God’s providence and presence even as they struggle with meeting basic physiological. reduce symptoms. they facilitate crisis mitigation and contribute to creating an environment that may allow victims to experience the higher levels of Maslow’s paradigm. the opportunity for positive change often introduced by a crisis situation becomes available. increase adaptive capabilities. They are able to provide essential crisis interventions and spiritual crisis interventions. chaplains in disasters are administering psychological and spiritual first aid. Those impacted by the crisis can then employ these new insights as they move toward the later phases of a crisis experience and/or consider how to handle future crises. then. the ministry of compassion. or aloneness. or education and experience.possibilities and progress with their presence by offering helpful suggestions. and wholesome ways to think about the experience. Within each stage. positive reaction patterns. The faithful presence and devoted service of a chaplain in the early phases of a crisis often contributes to credibility for chaplains and other spiritual care agents. and facilitate continued care— all under the umbrella of spiritual care through the ministry of presence. victims are dealing with spiritual issues even as they deal with hunger. Erik Erikson’s Eight Stages of Human Development33 25 . integration. language. Spiritual needs are evident at all levels of Maslow’s pyramid. resonating with classic psychoanalysis.
gaining favor by producing things.e. With hope and will and purpose and competence. children apply their initiative and imagination in a more disciplined way—they learn through systematic education and example. attention). Children at this stage are most able to learn quickly and engage in cooperative activity— play and make things with. they develop feelings of inferiority and inadequacy. food. feeling guilt when he or she fails to reach the limits or is unsuccessful in meeting the expectations of parents or caretakers. and imagination. When they do not accomplish things at the level they perceive they should. effective ministry to all victims in distress. Human development is dynamic—ever changing and growing.As an individual grows and matures. Being totally dependent upon others for basic survival needs. the child begins to demonstrate his or her own will. The infant learns trustfulness of others and trustworthiness of self. Autonomy versus Doubt (2—3 years old) During this stage of development.. the teenager must be true to his or her own nature—“be his or her own self. to create. There is doubt about the ability to be autonomous. He or she becomes aware of limits and expectations. but still feel “safe.” He or she identifies with peers. Trust versus Mistrust (Birth—2 years old) The first developmental component of a healthy personality is cultivated in infancy. Recognizing the images of adulthood. They cooperate in effort and share labor. the teenager faces the challenge of discovering and becoming who he or she is and who he or she will be. each successive stage contributes to the overall health and wholeness of the individual. and attitudes of each successive stage will be helpful in providing compassionate.” The child is aware of his or her separateness but sudden or prolonged separation may generate anxiety through feelings of abandonment. Industry versus Inferiority (6—12 years old) During the elementary school ages. There is a struggle to be independent. to achieve. the child also experiments with retention and elimination. They are self-aware and purposeful. language. Identity versus Identity Confusion (12—18 years old) These are the years when a child wants “to be my own self” by conforming to the expectations of his or her peers—his or her significant relationships. to do. The child has a desire to be. He or she learns to hold on and to let go—“Mine!” or throw it on the floor. Consequently. They develop a sense of wanting to complete work. the infant learns to trust others to provide those needs. feelings. With muscular maturation. understanding the needs. Initiative versus Guilt (3—6 years old) With autonomy comes mobility. Teenagers expect fidelity Elementary school age children become competent Preschoolers have a purpose Toddlers test their will Infants develop hope 26 . Erikson states that the amount of trust that is developed has everything to do with the quality of the maternal relationship and little to do with the quantity of needs being met (i.
plans. It becomes incumbent upon the disaster relief chaplain to be aware of these issues and their resulting needs in order to provide the appropriate care. and spiritual despair that are typical of people in particular developmental stages. Generativity versus Stagnation (35—65 years old) The person who enters midlife is concerned about establishing and guiding the next generation—sometimes as a parent and sometimes as a caregiver or philanthropist. When he or she is confused about his or her role. emotional dysfunction. adults. Discussing feelings. cognitive inabilities. social isolation. and other self-revealing topics. withdraws. they perceive themselves as impoverished—“life has no meaning.gangs. the young adult begins developing intimacy with people in general and with a mate. They accept their life experience as their own responsibility and are comfortable in it. you’re a delinquent. the youth seeks isolation and distance. or defaults into a role that is thrust upon him or her (i. aspirations.e. he or she is able to enter into intimate personal relationships with others.” organizations that impact society. you’re bad). This is a stage of commitment and love. Within each of these age groups.. rebels. hopes. Integrity versus Despair (65+ years old) Adults who have reached this stage of development have experienced success and failure—and live with acceptance of it. When intimacy is rejected. he or she faces his or her own crisis and runs away. Conclusions and applications for chaplains in disasters Elderly have wisdom and selfacceptance Mid-lifers care about guiding and establishing the next generation Young adults love someone 27 . you’re a failure. dreams. External affirmation is less needed and there is greater awareness of participation in the community of humankind while maintaining his or her own integrity. When people fail at accomplishing these goals. to the point of defending their personal lifestyle. These are the years of careers that “make a difference. The lack of this sense of integrity causes despair—the feeling that there is no time left to start over and gain integrity. They live with wisdom born of experience and maturity born of acceptance. Intimacy versus Isolation (19—35 years old) When the teenager is more confident about his or her identity. and the elderly. An infant will need the comfort of being held more than the assurance of communion with his peers. teams. and causes that ordain the future. Assessment of needs will be enhanced as the disaster chaplain identifies issues surrounding physical necessities. there are developmental issues that are generally common to all in that age group. and groups.” The perception is that life is stagnant and nonproductive. Conclusions and Applications The human developmental stages can be generally divided into three chronological groups—children.
and radius of significant relationships.Erikson defined the stages of development. their corresponding virtues. It also provides some resources for informed crisis response by the disaster relief chaplain.32 28 . Figure 2 illustrates the crisis need and the corresponding reactions in each developmental stage.
care. some anger. fear. control. “Crisis Responses for the Eight Stages of Life. anger. “My Kind. doubt. order.” School Peer Groups Mate.” adapted from Identity and the Life Cycle. attachments Trust. establish normal routines. direction. disorientation. 2.2 Autonomy/Doubt 2-3 Initiative/Guilt 3-6 Industry/Inferiority 6 . physical contact Trust. holding hands). separation anxiety. doubt. peer relationships. stability.Crisis Responses for the Eight Stages of Life STAGES VIRTUE RADIUS OF SIGNIFICANT RELATIONS Maternal Persons Paternal Person Basic Family “Neighborhood. Norton & Company. order. disorientation. holding).65 Integrity/Despair 65+ Hope Will Purpose Competence Fidelity Love Trust. reassurance Restore attachments. provide dignity Care Wisdom Fig. anger. restore order and attachments. identity. care. order. doubt. isolation CRISIS NEED CRISIS INTERVENTION Trust/Mistrust Birth . fear Denial. stability. direction. empowerment.W. restore peer attachments. fear Fear. restore caregivers Physical contact (sitting beside). provide information Listen to stories and concerns. fear.18 Intimacy/Isolation 19 . normalcy. Erik Erikson (New York: W. privacy Trust. restore order. normalcy. control. attachments. reassurance Provide identity. privacy Empower with choices. Partners in Friendship Shared Household. abandonment Fear. empowerment. order. inadequacy Estrangement. confidence Trust. assure confidentiality. order. guilt. fear. assurance Trust. anger.” Children PSYCHOSOCIAL MODALITIES To get To give in return To hold (on) To let (go) To make (=going after) To “make like” (=playing) To make things (=completing) To make things together To be oneself (or not to be) To share being oneself To lose and find oneself in another To make be To take care of To be. restore family. abandonment Fear. confidence. Divided Labor Humankind. isolation Slight denial.35 Generativity/Stagnation 35 .12 Identity/Identity Confusion 12 . restore order. isolation Denial.1980). establish routines and order. assure confidentiality. care. empower with choices. restore primary caregiver Physical contact (sitting beside. control. routine Physical contact (carrying. direction. Naomi Paget. through having been To face not being VICTIM CRISIS REACTION Abandonment. order Trust. provide information Empower with choices. friends. denial. 29 . confidentiality Trust. Colleagues.
a stress reaction that is prolonged or excessive. Disaster relief is ministry to people experiencing critical incident stress (from major disasters). When a major distressing event occurs and there is no margin available. and socially. Distress is the destructive side of stress. Rapidly changing job markets make us feel insecure even when we’re employed. and complexity cause stress. the event is called a critical incident—an event that overwhelms a person’s usual coping mechanisms. disease. a “pileup effect” occurs when there is a lack of margin in one’s life and multiple stressors are introduced. Distress is nothing new—poverty. Stress is a response to change.”37 One or two stressors usually do not cause a major stress response. and war have always led to fear. these people must quickly adapt to new levels of equilibrium or their distress will remain greater than their eustress. however. “You will probably die from a stress-related disease if you are not involved in an accident. and relationships.”35 Stress is a response to circumstances.” Eustress enables one to perform at peak ability or exceed normal capacities. In danger. Jeffrey Mitchell says. the “father” of stress research.OVERVIEW OF THE TRAUMA RESPONSE UNIT 4 Distress as the Trauma Response The Nature of Stress34 Hans Selye. The physical response to trauma is a complicated physiological interaction between the body and the mind.36 Eustress causes one to make positive changes in one’s lifestyle while distress is destructive to one’s health. . Yet the very stressors for which we need support often put intolerable pressure on those relationships. Mobility and divorce separate us from supportive relationships that would absorb distress. When they are exposed to a critical event. vigilance.” (Selye) Distress is the destructive side of stress Stress piles up and becomes distress The physical response to trauma is a complicated physiological interaction between the body and the mind 30 . nor in imminent danger of war are suffering stress from an unprecedented number of sources. Eustress is “good stress. . sick. and frustration. when the brain receives the trauma information through one of the five senses. mentally. Study after study confirms that a healthy marriage. Debt. . Distress can cause harm. defined stress as “the nonspecific response of the body to any demand made upon it. Basically. not necessarily a negative experience. it quickly processes the information and interprets its significance based on historical evidence (memories of previous 38 Stress: “the non-specific response of the body to any demand made upon it. uncertainty. hurry. family. Life without stress is impossible. even those of us who are neither poor. or community support structure yields better health and increased longevity. emotions. emotionally. and we are experiencing change at faster and faster rates. But today. The Internal Trauma Response Most people live in a reasonably balanced state of equilibrium—physically. stress causes certain physiological changes in one’s body that prepares it for fight or flight.
disbelief. the victim may experience regression to a childlike state or infancy (emotions become dominant). The “red alert” status might involve being hyperalert or hypervigilant to your surroundings and having an increase in physiological arousal to allow for flight or defense. Breathing. when you experience loss of control over your safety.events). chest pain.” Common distress signals or “symptoms of stress” may include the following: profuse sweating. feeling hopeless. seriously slowed thinking. However. confusion and frustration. generalized mental confusion. normal responses to preserve life. All of these responses are healthy.g. pupils dilate to take in more light and increase visual acuity. preparing the body to fight the danger actively or run away from the threat. or urination to facilitate fight or flight. This reaction prepares the entire body to deal with the threat (trauma. a logical order of emotional reactions is manifested—fear and terror.g. place. high levels of cognitive and affective arousal have also been observed. wishing to hide. Some symptoms require immediate medical attention (e. denial. defecation.40 Typically. anger. a physiological stress reaction begins. When cognitive function temporarily stops. and denial Trauma causes the cognitive functioning of the brain to become secondary. Selye called the fight or flight response the general adaptation syndrome. They may seem “lost” or “in shock. disbelief. In other words. shame or humiliation. and denial. excessive humor or silence. a person is fearful and seeks to protect himself from danger.39 When faced with a sudden. the body may relieve itself of excess materials through regurgitation. muscles tighten. nausea. seeing the birth of a child may cause a happy father to faint). After the physical danger has ebbed. difficulty breathing). An extremely happy event could cause the same response as a life-threatening event (e. If the information is processed as a threat. adrenaline pumps through the body in a lifesaving response. shakes. and the liver produces ten times more blood glucose (the fuel for muscles). recent research does indicate that different chemicals and enzymes are released into the bloodstream as a result of anger versus joy. time).. The initial cognitive response is shock. and there is a heightened state of emotional arousal. change in communications.41 In a crisis event. signs of severe shock. guilt or self-blame. The mental response to trauma parallels the physical response. your body and mind automatically go on “red alert” in an attempt to regain control. The initial cognitive response is shock. and there is a heightened state of emotional arousal 31 . 1966) is characterized by high levels of physiological and behavioral arousal. challenge. This “fight or flight” response observed in humans and animals facing danger (Lorenz. extremely negative event. excessive blood pressure. and outrage. logic. The body does not distinguish between “good” stressors or “bad” stressors. or significant change. fury. and blood pressure increase to provide more oxygen to the body. grief or sorrow. withdrawal. difficulties making decisions. logical. disorientation (to person. uncontrollable. or rational decisions. High arousal when facing danger seems to be an unlearned. sensory perceptions increase. trauma causes the cognitive functioning of the brain to become secondary.. preparatory response of the body and the mind to danger. heart rate. and predictions. stress). Victims are overwhelmed with the event and cannot make normal. In humans.
dysfunction. numbness. However. run miles without stopping. Most people live in world in which they balance their physical. or impairment become evident. People are known to physically accomplish feats which would not normally be possible—lift a car off a child. adrenaline begins to course through the body. there is physical shock. and spiritual lives. and confused. Influenced by circumstances and daily events. Self preservation dictates that sensory perception must increase and the senses become acute. Prolonged hyperarousal leads to hypersensitivity of the stress arousal centers of the brain and future stress responses become too easily activated (Every and Benson. emotional. Critical incidents are constantly occurring. Hyperarousal causes deep exhaustion and exhaustion creates more distress which often manifests itself in other ways.However. Symptomatic of this shock to the body and the need to fight or flight is the decrease of mental efficiency. becomes mentally inflexible. During a critical incident—a disaster or other traumatic event—a person’s usual coping mechanism fails and signs or symptoms of distress. social. cognitive. the body’s response is biologically visible. experiences short-term memory deficiencies. giving it energy and ability beyond its normal capabilities. In the 1930’s Walter Cannon described this response as the “fight or flight” response. There is disbelief and denial over the event because the mind is overwhelmed with the implications of the traumatic Mentally. Physically. most symptoms are typical and normal reactions to an extraordinary event.” The victim is less able to concentrate. During disasters. each aspect of their nature is called into priority. and numbness. But hyperarousal cannot be sustained indefinitely. The body relieves itself of excess fluids and material to facilitate increased action. disorientation. The heart rate increases the flow of oxygen to the muscles and the body begins to cool itself down for work by sweating or hyperventilating. dysfunction. however. The balance is dynamic in nature. Generally. most people interpret the event as a critical incident. the body instinctively prepares to fight against the danger or to flee from the threat. Critical incidents cause symptoms of distress. unless they are perceived as threatening. the human response is not a trauma response—not a response that is markedly distressing. or impairment Biological Factors—Physical Response After a shock to the system. The alarm causes hyperarousal. When faced with overwhelming danger. the body wants to “fight or flight” Reactions versus responses Rest and recovery are essential Psychological Factors—Mental Response The psychological response to critical incidents is very similar to that of the body—shock. In order to fight or flight. Rest and recovery are essential to return to a precritical incident level of functioning. disorientation. This physiological response is an emergency lifesaving response. Cognitive functioning decreases as the body prepares to “react emotionally” rather than “respond intellectually. 1989). the mind wants to deny the event 32 .
angry. and worry. When stimulated. emotions are at a peak. helplessness. 3 How are you “balanced” right now? Draw it below: Congruent with the fight or flight theory. can cause the body to positively react out of fear. Victims may “perceive” danger differently than the chaplain 33 .event—it is more than the mind can comprehend. which have taken precedence. anger. confused. Consequently. abandonment. 3. The victim may be terrified. During the “normal” circumstances of life. and disorganized. the mind and body work in a fairly balanced manner with little movement back and forth.. survival is paramount. shame.g. or vulnerability (e. or frustrated. grief. confused. Other emotions may also come into play—guilt. The threat has caused the brain and cognitive abilities to diminish so the emotions. run away from danger). but his or her emotions will be racing for self-survival. the mind or body will become dominant somewhat like the teeter-totter effect in Fig. the victim’s mind will not be logically considering the event. The victim’s perceptions affect the reactions to the actual traumatic event regardless of the chaplain’s perception or the “reality” of the event. _Cognitive Functioning_________Emotional Reactions _ During “normal” circumstances Cognitive functioning is low and emotional functioning is high in disaster circumstances Cognitive Functioning Emotional Reactions During “disaster” circumstances Fig. cognitive functioning becomes secondary to emotional functioning. during disasters. The chaplain in disasters must be very sensitive to the victim’s perceived threat of danger. Therefore. Disaster scenes are chaos and so is the mind. According to Maslow’s theory. This is a lifesaving emergency action.
alcohol. There may be visible changes in eating habits. anger. But not everyone experiences the same cultural relevance. behavioral activity may also experience a dramatic change.g. It will be important to determine what the “typical” behavior was pre–disaster. become suspicious. a person’s ethnic heritage may affect his or her reaction more than his or her age). The behavioral changes are directly related to the distress experienced in the critical event. Everyone has some family history or prior experience that informs the crisis event.Social Factors—Relational Response People are social and their social environment affects their reactions during and after disasters. And. Spirituality includes the search for meaning and purpose. Everyone has a particular personality or disposition that will affect the crisis reaction. and exploring the Disasters are a violation of value systems 34 . Chaplains in disasters provide interventions that help mitigate the excessive distress symptoms. or sleep habits. Spiritual matters include all matters of belief and values—between people and between people and God. retreat into silence. and tobacco. crying.. Behavioral Factors—Action Response Following a critical incident. Crisis often causes extreme or excessive behavior Spiritual Factors—Faith Response Disasters and other critical incidents cause a crisis of faith for many victims. everyone has some cultural orientation that adds perspective to the traumatic event. The victim may withdraw. silence. understanding the meaning of life and the cosmos. Some cultural aspects may be more dominant than others (e. communication. Sometimes the behavior is excessive—humor. The chaplain in disasters must consider many social factors as they provide spiritual interventions. or increase use of profanity. Developmental stage (Erikson’s stages) Family history or prior experience Personality type Cultural group Ethnic Gender Age Religion Language Position/authority Profession Socio-economic Education The effects of social and relational factors impact reactions in various ways Everyone relates to a specific developmental stage. There may be increases in activity or a noticeable decrease in activity.
They are listed according to the general categories in which they are demonstrated. Some responders primarily deal with medical issues (e. when disaster strikes. The Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) model for trauma recovery outlines a sequence of steps for stress reduction intervention. reassurance. Spiritual questions usually surface after victims have been assured of physiological needs and safety and security needs—when some cognitive functioning returns.. moral and ethical absolutes. doctors. Crisis interventionists are primarily concerned with the issue of stress. cognitive. systematic procedure for crisis intervention.g. war. simple or specific phobias. Some may blame God or view the disaster as divine punishment. post-traumatic character changes. and behavioral. or dissociative disorders.g. Crisis intervention is most effective when provided immediately following the crisis. adjustment disorder. CISM has adopted a standard protocol that is a specific. Victims may react to the critical incident by seeking God’s presence through the disaster chaplain. This study is particularly essential in preparing pastors and chaplains to respond to the spiritual factors that result from distress.43 Both NOVA and CISM recognize the urgency of mitigating stress and distress after critical events. long-term stress reactions may occur. acute stress disorder. Initial questions such as “Why did God do this?” are usually not spiritual questions as much as they are shock reactions of disbelief. national principles and values. emotional. Fig. famine. or if the event is extremely catastrophic and extended over a long period of time (e. nuclear fallout). Whether one is actively engaged in religion or whether one has little or nothing to do with religious matters. These may include post-traumatic reactions (e. victims have questions about their faith and God. disasters challenge people’s beliefs in God’s sovereignty. guidance. mental health workers). and concepts of good and evil. paramedics).. specifically distress. anxiety syndromes. Other long-term stress reactions may include depression.. Victims often seek spiritual support..44 Crisis responders must be aware of distress signals Mitigating distress is essential in crisis intervention Crisis intervention is most effective immediately following the crisis 35 . or diagnosis of extreme stress not otherwise specified [DESNOS]). But all responders must be aware of all possible distress signals—physical. panic attacks. If stress and distress are not reduced. Therefore. Others may blame the devil or other demons. 4 lists many stress symptoms that are associated with critical incidents. post-traumatic stress disorder. or purification.g. intercession. They may ask for prayer.transcendent. and meaning. A more detailed study of the spiritual dimensions of trauma is discussed in Unit 9. Crisis Intervention as a Response to Trauma42 The state of dysfunction that is caused by trauma and its resulting stress symptoms is the primary issue with which crisis responders must deal. Because mitigating distress is critical in crisis intervention. and some primarily deal with cognitive issues (e.g.
PHYSICAL Chest pain* Chills Diarrhea Difficulty breathing* Disorientation Dizziness Elevated blood pressure* Equilibrium problems Fainting* Fatigue Grinding of teeth Headaches Insomnia Lower back pains Muscle tremors Nausea Neck and shoulder pains Nightmares Profuse sweating Rapid heart rate* Shock symptoms* Stomach problems Thirst Twitches Uncoordinated feeling Visual difficulties Vomiting Weakness COGNITIVE Blaming someone Confusion Difficulty identifying familiar objects or people Disturbed thinking Flashbacks Heightened or lowered alertness Hypervigilance Impaired thinking Increased or decreased awareness of surroundings Intrusive images Loss of time, place, or person orientation Memory problems Nightmares Overly critical of others Overly sensitive Poor abstract thinking Poor attention Poor concentration Poor decisions Poor problem solving EMOTIONAL Abandonment Agitation Anger Anxiety Apprehension Denial Depression Emotional shock Excessive worry Fear Feeling helpless about life Feeling hopeless Feeling overwhelmed Flat affect—numbness Grief Guilt Inappropriate emotional response or lack of it Intense anger Irritability Loss of emotional control Phobias Rage Resentment Sever panic* (rare) Uncertainty BEHAVIORAL Alcohol consumption Antisocial acts* Avoiding thoughts, feelings or situations related to the event Changes in activity Changes in sexual functioning Changes in speech patterns Changes in usual communications Emotional outbursts Erratic movements Hyper-alert to environment Inability to relax Inability to rest Loss or increase in appetite Nonspecific bodily complaints Pacing Silence Startle reflex intensified Suspiciousness Withdrawal SPIRITUAL Acceptance or rejection of providence Alienation Anger directed to God Awareness of the holy Changes in religious observances Confusion regarding God Deepened spiritual awareness Emphasis on religious rites Hyper-repentance Imposed gratefulness Increased emphasis on religion Isolation Renewed search for meaning Sense of abandonment Sense of betrayal Sense of communion Sense of meaninglessness Sense of vocation in creation and providence
Fig.4. Naomi Paget, Stress in the Workplace, Marketplace Samaritans, Inc., 2000.
*Requires immediate medical intervention
THE ART OF STORY-LISTENING45 UNIT 5
Differences Between Hearing and Listening
The differences between hearing and listening may be mere semantics, but for the purposes of this study, let us agree that hearing is the physical act of sound entering the ear and resonating on the ear drum. Let us further agree that listening is the assimilation of those physical sounds and their accompanying body language with one’s own experience and integrating it into the present experience to give those sounds meaning and voice. Conversation, then, is the act of two or more people engaged in mutual listening. During this process of conversation, each person is attempting to communicate information. This interaction of communication is a distinction of humankind and is essential in the effective interactions of chaplains in disasters. Hearing is a physical act Listening is assimilating and integrating sounds and body language Conversation is mutual listening
Ethics of Listening
The chaplain in disasters is in a unique position to provide caring spiritual intervention to people who are extremely vulnerable due to the trauma they have experienced. Consequently, great care must be taken to provide a sense of safety and security. Finding privacy in the midst of chaos may seem impossible, but providing a sense of privacy may be possible through some basic interventions. Asking permission to approach, to converse, or to provide help demonstrates respect for victims’ personal space and privacy. Conversations are by invitation, not entitlement. One or two caregivers will be less threatening than a group who approaches a victim. Chaplains could advocate for victims by protecting them from intrusive questions and media mania which are discomforting and sometimes threatening. Some professionals are legally required to maintain strict confidentiality. Others are not. All chaplains in disasters are ethically bound to maintain confidentiality. Vulnerable people say and do things that are distress reactions to unusual circumstances. Chaplains should assure victims that their conversations are private (if in fact they are) and confidential. If legal or policy issues limit confidentiality, the chaplain must inform the victim. In disasters, victims view caregivers as trustful and it is incumbent upon chaplains to honor that trust. Many disaster relief chaplains have experience in pastoral counseling or therapy. They have experience in asking the clarifying questions that provide the background for the issues with which they are dealing. However, intervention in disasters is emergency spiritual first aid, and some questions are better left unasked. Chaplains must approach listening with an attitude of what do I need to know. Asking for unnecessary details is intrusive and victims may have a sense of distrust in the chaplain. Provide a sense of privacy
Confidentiality is essential
Ask questions on a “need to know” basis
There are some situations in which the chaplain must divulge information gained from a victim. Usually, these are related to whether non-disclosure would cause harm to the victim or someone else. Some caregivers are required to disclose information that threatens national security. Others are required to reveal information that involves illegal activity. Before responding to a disaster, each disaster chaplain must know which policies and statutes govern the reporting process. It would be unethical to tell a victim after the fact that you will be reporting some sensitive information to someone else.
Know the policies and statutes that govern your confidentiality
Ministry of Presence
A major premise of disaster relief chaplaincy is presence. “The ministry of presence” is immediate, humble, and intentional. Chaplains in disasters must immediately step out of their comfort zone and intentionally enter a place of crisis—danger, pain, loss, or grief—during and after the physical, emotional, and spiritual crises of life. Chaplains in disasters provide a listening presence as a spiritual act. Presence is both physical and emotional. With very few exceptions, the chaplain must be physically with the victim. Through empathetic listening, the chaplain must be emotionally present with the victim. The listener must do more than feel with the victim. The ministry of presence demands that the listener will feel into the fear, the pain, the anguish, or the isolation of the victim. Empathetic listening assures the victim that words and feelings are being heard. Many times, chaplains are so anxious to provide encouragement or to say “the right thing,” that they are busy thinking about a response and not really present to the words and feelings being expressed by the victim. Good listening means the chaplain will be present to the victim by integrating the words, the feelings, and the facts to give meaning and understanding to the experience. Who is the speaker and who is the listener? Presence may simply mean being there. Presence is grace—the gift of being there. Presence is being available, even when other commitments and obligations are significant. It is being physically present when the circumstances are uncomfortable and even dangerous. Presence is being aware of emotional upheaval and spiritual doubt and being open to its possibility for healing and growth. Presence is being accepting of the disaster victim in whatever state one finds him or her. The power of the “ministry of presence” is in its immediacy, altruistic service, and intentionality
Chaplains must “feel into” the words and feelings of the victim
Present in body and spirit
Presence is grace, availability, physical presence, awareness, openness, and acceptance
Ministry of Silence
Good listening means sometimes being silent. It is the silence that gives strength and meaning to words. “Silence is an indispensable discipline in the spiritual life. . . . Silence is a very concrete, practical, and useful discipline in all our ministerial tasks.”46 Some ground is so holy that words are inadequate and only silence is worthy of the time and place. Our words must spring forth from the fullness and presence of the Divine—the presence of God within our own Sometimes, silence is golden
express their feelings. the disaster chaplain could ask: Does it mitigate distress? Will it stabilize or reduce the symptoms of distress? Does it provide safety and security? Does it offer real hope? Will it be perceived as comforting? Will it help restore normalcy? Will it be a step toward God? If in doubt. The chaplain provides new words with or beside (para) the original words that expressed the thought (phrase). Telling the story of what has happened is an important part of diffusing the distress of the situation and chaplains must help victims tell their stories. Most often. The distress of the situation often makes it difficult for them to find accurate words to communicate their feelings. using different words but maintaining the integrity of meaning. and articulate their responses. they make assumptions about the meaning of words being used. Paraphrase A paraphrase is a restatement of the conversational text. Most victims are in shock—they are confused and disoriented. This is not the time to have complicated discussions or preach. During crisis situations and disasters.” they begin to use words to describe their experience. Before speaking. When chaplains are not aware of their own history and frames of reference.souls and spirits. telling the story will take the form of conversation (some victims find expression in prayer. The victim needs to know that the chaplain in disasters has heard and understood the meaning of his or her story. Restate the text but keep the meaning Use synonyms and questions to help clarify feelings Chaplains must develop the art of story-listening 39 . A calm presence speaks volumes in silence. Some words are better unspoken—they do not edify. music. Clarify As victims begin “telling their stories. It is best to clarify the intended meaning by using synonyms and asking open-ended questions within the immediate context of the conversation. do not say it Improving Listening Skills Most chaplains are skilled in the art of listening. most divine love penetrates the individual’s crisis. It is often helpful for the chaplain to help clarify these expressions by offering some synonyms for the words being used. one must become skilled in the art of story-listening. If in doubt. do not say it. It is often in this silence that the deepest. Their cognitive functioning is diminished and they are very emotional. These new words are verbalized to the victim. Intrusive questioning is never appropriate. or other art forms).
and misjudgment. particularly the person’s big (dominant) feelings. verbal and nonverbal. Usually. the same key words and phrases are used. Reflective empathetic listening gives strength to the listening process Reflection is the most empathetic form of listening An echo gives exact meaning to words and phrases Summarize the conversation to briefly recall the basics Story-Listening—“listening” to the narrative parts of conversations by using appropriate listening skills and putting them together as a beginning. By periodically summarizing significant points and asking occasional questions for clarification. . . They repeat words. feelings.Summarize When cognitive functioning is diminished. . what they hear. and meaning of the victim’s story. and entire stories—sometimes without a pause. victims of disasters have difficulty with concise expression of their thoughts and feelings. The skilled chaplain will echo some of these key words or phrases to assure the victim that he or she has been accurately heard—the chaplain is paying attention to what is important. they reflect back to the person. The chaplain casts back (as a mirror does) an image of the victim’s story and feelings. . middle. and future by giving them significance and meaning in a life story 40 . too painful to trust to words. misinterpretations. to the multiple levels of communication. phrases. and pain. . The chaplain: . . Echo Some words have so much power and meaning. Now and again he or she responds to these feelings. Reflective empathetic listening avoids false assumptions. there is no synonym. or summary that would do justice to them. Excessive use of echoing will be annoying and may be perceived as mockery. The disaster relief chaplain may be overwhelmed with the amount of information that is being related. attempts to listen to feelings (as well as words) including feelings that are between the lines. [disaster relief] counselors help persons begin to organize their confused inner world. . . identifying deeply with the words. [disaster chaplains] listen in depth. ”47 The disaster chaplain who develops skills in reflective empathetic listening facilitates ventilation of distress in disaster victims. Reflect Reflection returns an image to the disaster victim. meaning. paraphrase. energy. Reflection is the most empathetic form of listening. Summarizing the conversation helps both the victim and the chaplain briefly recall the basic elements of the conversation. This kind of listening is “disciplined listening”—focusing on what seems to have the most feeling. in paraphrased form.
no ongoing care will occur—the care is instantaneous. however. many have not been trained for the unique needs and issues that surround emergency disaster care. the out-of-state corporate headquarters. the victims feel unheard. the manufacturer and factory of the faulty electrical switch). or in personal crisis themselves. the home church of the kids in the bus. The events of September 11. chaplains and community clergy must be aware of the dynamics of the relationships between disaster relief agencies and must meet the qualifications and requirements of some of these agencies. In most instances. urgent. they fail to provide appropriate ministry to the victims and often leave the scene feeling inadequate. and people groups who are in some way related or impacted by the disaster (e.. With greater awareness for the value of spiritual care in conjunction with physical care during emergencies. ignored. 2001—the terrorist bombing of the World Trade Center buildings and the Pentagon—made it exceedingly clear that major disasters can happen and that there are not enough trained chaplains to meet the needs of disaster victims. Spiritual assessments are completed with little personal information and history. National and international disaster relief agencies are beginning to work together to coordinate spiritual care response in disasters of many kinds. the victims have no basis of trust. Spiritual care is provided with a sense of urgency and for the most immediate need. Victims are often people of other faith traditions and have no vocational. When chaplains are not skilled in addressing these issues (and many others that are equally important49).g. overwhelmed. The call to disaster ministry has become evident to more chaplains and to agencies that respond to crisis. Likewise. judged. With technological advances and the globalization of America. the departure and arrival airports. ethnic. or even threatened. the chaplain in disaster specialization has evolved into a major category. The need for spiritual and emotional support far exceeds a disaster site/location or hospital. institutions. but now includes remote locations. caregivers from many arenas of service have responded to major disasters. or identity from which they willingly accept care. discounted. It is no longer only the site/location directly impacted by the disaster. or social alliance with the crisis responder. thus. There are two organizations that have become the benchmark for crisis intervention training—the National Organization for Victim Assistance (NOVA) and the International Critical Incident Stress Foundation (ICISF). To minister effectively in disaster relief. relationship. The growing awareness of spiritual needs in crisis has begun to formalize the response of chaplains in disasters.CRISIS INTERVENTION MODELS48 UNIT 6 Crisis Intervention In the past. Any chaplain who will intentionally enter the arena of spiritual crisis intervention in disasters should complete the basic training provided by one of Disaster crisis intervention is a specialized form of ministry The response of chaplains in disasters is becoming formalized Major disaster can happen and there are not enough trained chaplains 41 . and finite. There is little effective ministry that occurs. relief agencies have recognized the need to redefine the arena of disasters.
nonprofit. The following sections provide a brief introduction to the two models of crisis intervention which have been mentioned.these organizations. providing direct crisis services to victims. 501(c)(3) organization of victim and witness assistance programs and practitioners. National Organization for Victim Assistance (NOVA) “The National Organization for Victim Assistance is a private. NOVA’s Community Crisis Response Team Training Manual (3d ed.”50 NOVA lists four purposes: national advocacy. mental health professionals. Today’s training is not designed to supplant basic crisis intervention training. but to lay a foundation for care during and after a disaster. criminal justice agencies and professionals.) states that the key purposes for providing crisis intervention for individuals are to: Help educate people about common crisis reactions Provide professional and peer validation Help defuse the emotional overload caused by crisis reactions Provide focus on how people can begin to cope positively with the chaos Help assess whether people need referrals Provide a method whereby people can begin to organize their thoughts Help individuals begin to address what they are experiencing now and might experience in the future Help victims and survivors begin to think about what provides meaning in their lives Provide affirmation that many confusing reactions are not uncommon or abnormal Reassure survivors that most people can cope well and encourage them to build on strengths and adaptive capacities for coping NOVA lists three basic crisis intervention strategies: Group Crisis Intervention (GCI) One-on-one intervention Education NOVA’s basic model for group crisis intervention: Safety and security (past) Validation and ventilation (present) Prediction and preparation (future) NOVA – committed to the recognition and implementation of victim rights and services Key purposes for providing crisis intervention Crisis intervention strategies Basic model for group crisis intervention 42 . and promoting better communication among its members. and others committed to the recognition and implementation of victim rights and services. serving as an educational resource to victim assistance and allied professionals. former victims and survivors. researchers.
training and support services for all emergency services professions. open membership foundation dedicated to the prevention and mitigation of disabling stress through the provision of: education. it is not incongruous that organizations. continuing education and training in emergency mental health services for psychologists.”51 ICISF’s operational manual (3d ed. Inc.International Critical Incident Stress Foundation (ICISF) “The International Critical Incident Stress Foundation.) states that some aspects of the ICISF processes include the following: Provides early intervention Provides opportunity for catharsis Provides opportunity to verbalize trauma Provides a finite behavioral structure Follows well-structured psychological progression Employs a group format to address distressing issues Provides peer support Provides interactive learning experience to reduce stress Allows for follow-up Provides action-oriented intervention ICISF lists several basic crisis intervention strategies: Crisis Management Briefing (CMB) Demobilization Defusing Debriefing (Critical Incident Stress Debriefing—CISD) One on One (1:1) Pastoral Crisis Intervention Family Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) Organizational Consultation The ICISF basic model for small group crisis intervention is CISD: Introduction (safety) Facts (cognitive) Thoughts (cognitive to emotion) Reactions (emotion) Symptoms (emotion to cognitive) Teaching (cognitive) Re-entry (direction) ICISF is dedicated to the prevention and mitigation of disabling stress Aspects of ICISF processes Crisis intervention strategies Basic model for small group crisis intervention is CISD Effective Disaster Relief Includes Trained Chaplains as Part of the Interdisciplinary Team in Disasters and Other Emergencies52 In an age of highly specialized learning and information seeking. agencies. psychiatrists. (ICISF) is a nonprofit. and people are recognizing the value of 43 . and consultation in the establishment of crisis and disaster response programs for varied organizations and communities worldwide. social workers and licensed professional counselors.
and social workers may not be able to respond to all the cultural needs of the sufferers. disaster management. fire.”53 “The Critical Incident Stress Debriefing team is made up of a partnership of mental health professionals (master’s degree or higher in mental health) and peer support personnel who are drawn from the police. blue-collar workers. There is strength in diversity when the goals are alike. the faithful. psychosocial.”54 These teams provide stress mitigation. and sensitivity to a variety of issues. disaster sites. and chaplaincy. prevention programs. and other emergency-oriented organizations. the ideal healthcare team includes professionals from a wide variety of disciplines. Mental health personnel may not be able to address the spiritual needs of victims. cheats.” She indicated that multidisciplinary teams [“multidisciplinary” and “interdisciplinary” are used interchangeably] offer more accessibility to victims. The two industry standards for crisis intervention methodology—NOVA and ICISF—prioritize the use of interdisciplinary teams in their highly effective approach and protocols. The most practical solution is to join forces with other experts to implement strategic plans when broader awareness is required. most CISD teams also invite selected members of the clergy [trained disaster relief and crisis intervention chaplains] to participate on the teams. Jesus must have realized that He and His team would be facing many disasters. Nationally appointed team leaders have the responsibility of appointing crisis intervention teams that will be informed and sensitive to a wide variety of issues and concerns. the output is increased and resources are mobilized to achieve more results. nursing. including mental health. acceptance. social work. The myriad of possible needs and complications demands that a team of “experts” in many fields accomplishes crisis intervention. and the faithless. “NOVA favors a multidisciplinary team—for credibility. Barbara Kendall. disaster relief efforts become more effective when trained chaplains are a part of the interdisciplinary team. professionals. a senior training coordinator for NOVA. Healthcare institutions have long recognized the value of interdisciplinary teams in affecting the well-being of their patients. critical incident stress recovery. and spiritual values in addition to appropriate medical care. “NOVA attempts to match the team’s attributes to the demographics of the community requesting intervention. and community resources. explained. and a referral network. dispatch. The Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) announced that patients have a right to considerate care that considers cultural. emergency medical. effectiveness. His team was comprised of men from many cultural settings and professions. There is value in collaboration—“teamwork” Disaster relief efforts become more effective with trained chaplains on the team Patients (victims) want a holistic approach to their care NOVA and ICISF include chaplains on their crisis intervention teams Jesus had a diversified “team” 44 . By effectively delegating responsibility to the most “expert” in the situation. Consequently.” One’s area of focus has become so narrow that one becomes an “expert” in a particular field without undue concern that one is not an expert in many other fields. Patients want a holistic approach to their care. In a similar manner. yet He chose diversity—liars. Holistic care requires the ministrations of an interdisciplinary team of experts. Jesus could have selected any team.collaboration—“teamwork. education. In addition to including several professional affiliations on the team. In addition.
Both NOVA and ICISF have been very successful in crisis intervention 45 . and others who have been affected by critical incidents and traumatic events. Both organizations advocate for the multidisciplinary team approach and employ strict criteria for team membership and participation. witnesses. firefighters. Both protocols have also been very effective in providing meaningful interventions for victims. survivors. law enforcement officers. and others who are frequently exposed to critical incidents and traumatic events. Southern Baptist Disaster Relief strongly recommends that any volunteer who intentionally participates in the disaster chaplaincy ministry also completes the basic crisis intervention training provided by either NOVA or ICISF.Summary The NOVA protocols and the ICISF protocols have both been very successful in dealing with the distress experienced by rescue workers.
The choice to accept the uncomfortable conditions related to this kind of caring also grows out of the center of the chaplain’s personal feelings and emotions— from one’s “guts. but an activity that one must intentionally choose.57 Therefore. Compassion is being completely present in the suffering of another One must intentionally choose to be compassionate Caregiving during and after disasters will not be for everyone “Being present in suffering” is an intentional choice to be uncomfortable Demonstrating compassion may be risky 46 . It is intentionally entering a place of crisis and full immersion in the human condition. The significance of being compassionate may lay in the fact that being compassionate is not an activity one naturally seeks. For chaplains serving in disasters. yet one who maintains the distance necessary for sustaining suffering persons in their search for an authentic understanding of the meaning of their afflictions. Merely attempting to prevent suffering or not be the cause of suffering will be inadequate. and caring acts into events of moral and spiritual significance. shelter. The emotionally healthy individual does not intentionally cause oneself unnecessary pain.g. seeking to demonstrate compassion as the priority of disaster ministry. Demonstrating compassion may be risky. knowing that it “feels” contrary to natural instincts. and limitations and still deeply desire to identify with the disenfranchised and the wounded. needs. Such intentionality is spawned by a sense of call to this kind of demanding ministry.. Only a few will choose to enter this place of suffering with victims of disasters—often these victims will be strangers. the chaplain must still choose to become engaged in the suffering. Demonstrating compassion is an act of intention and an intention to act. healing.COMPASSION IN CRISIS55 UNIT 7 Demonstrating Compassion Is Being Present in the Suffering “Compassion is the cardinal virtue of the pastoral tradition. the response of “being present in suffering” is an intentional choice to be uncomfortable. The compassionate pastor is therefore one who exemplifies a deeply felt sense of solidarity with suffering persons transcending class and culture. one must be aware that choosing to serve as a chaplain in disasters will not be for everyone. The chaplain in disasters must approach ministry from a radically different paradigm—the chaplain must initiate and be an active participant in “being” compassion as a priority and “doing” compassion as a necessity. There is a natural resistance humans have toward pain—one avoids it whenever possible. Recognizing his own natural instinct to excuse himself from the crisis. and sometimes they will be the perpetrators of the disaster itself (e. the indispensable quality that motivates and deepens all charitable. One naturally seeks safety.”58 A sense of duty or dedication to service often enhances these inner drives and forms a powerful motivation for the chaplain “to weep with those who are weeping” (Romans 12:14-21). and nourishment as self-preservation before seeking to meet the needs of others. even when it may feel very awkward to do so. the Colorado wildfire arsonist became trapped and became a psychologically traumatized victim).”56 The chaplain in disasters must know his or her own biases.
As a minister in an environment of differing cultures. understanding without compromising his or her own faith. Chaplains in disasters must integrate ethnic variations in dying. interests. disgusting. Chaplains in disasters must expand their worldview Cultural diversity is more than differences in religion. but to people whose political alignments are contrary to one’s own. caregivers will face the challenge of becoming more open to differences. to people who are criminals. faith. woundedness. and feel. unappreciative. and practices. Without coercion or force. compassion. and grief into their own personal traditions. They will be called upon to expand their worldview to include the view from eyes of different colors. they will be called upon to minister to victims from diverse people groups. to people who are arrogant. to people whose moral standards are personally questionable. When direct evangelistic conversations don’t materialize. skin color. or language 47 . and loss.59 They must be aware of their own assumptions. traditions. skin color. adopting new paradigms for “normal” grief. and religions. or language. Chaplains in disasters will face the challenges of providing caring interventions to people who are different—not just different in religion. understanding that cultural settings affect the way people think. act. and heritages.What kinds of disasters will be uncomfortable for you? Why? What kinds of disasters might be uncomfortable for you? Why? What needs to happen for you to be able to give yourself permission to decline participation in the crisis intervention? “The need” does not constitute “the call” Demonstrating Compassion Is Being Sensitive to Human Diversity Chaplains in disasters will be called upon to demonstrate compassion by being sensitive to human diversity. and witness. integrity. and be aware of the history and environment that have informed them. As cultural diversity awareness increases. Chaplains in disasters will be called upon to demonstrate compassion by being sensitive to human diversity. to people who are the outcasts of society. They will be invited to contextualize the faith expressions of those they encounter. or hostile. and culture. they engage in spiritual conversations that often lead to opportunities to share their personal faith and religious beliefs. Christian chaplains do preevangelism—laying the foundation for future opportunities to share the gospel. While they are not called to compromise their own faith. shapes. death. the Christian chaplain evangelizes the world through his or her own character. the chaplain must be informed about a multiplicity of faith groups and seek ways to allow all people to express their faith or lack of faith in meaningful ways. As chaplains minister to the spiritual needs of people.
forced into involuntary labor. Francis of Assisi. compassionate care is providing food or water. Chaplains in disasters are called to a ministry of servanthood. meeting needs. meeting immediate needs and providing assistance in the chaos. “Servanthood. The ministry of care means meeting immediate needs. spontaneous prayers are comforting 48 . medical care or shelter. This is called servitude—an attitude of the slave. which includes empathy while maintaining personal identity. Articulating the love and concern of God may be the most powerful component of providing the ministry of care in crisis. not wants.”60 How might your cultural background influence the way you provide care in disasters? How does your culture strengthen your chaplaincy ministry? What are some weaknesses you have noticed in the way you provide care based on your cultural influences? Demonstrating Compassion Is Providing the Ministry of Care in Crisis The chaplain in disasters who acts exclusively out of duty and fear is subject to an unhealthy attitude that results in resentment when people do not appreciate the “help” or burn-out when people expect more than is offered. Victims feel helpless and the chaplain empowers victims through the encouragement of listening and comforting. and intentionality in entering caring relationships.61 The attitude of servanthood demonstrates itself by providing encouragement to those who are fearful or sad. The chaplain in disasters will be a part of a multidisciplinary team. In the words of St. When chaplains offer prayerful intercession. compensate for frustration and anger with superficial sweetness. Sometimes. and agape love for all people. The chaplain in disasters who operates out of an attitude of servanthood does so out of commitment and love. genuineness by acting congruently. and provide care begrudgingly while complaining. The person with the attitude of servitude will over-identify with the problems of the victims. chaplains must “Preach the Gospel at all times and when necessary use words. genuine interest in the lives of their clients.” not “servitude” Love motivates servant ministry compassion The ministry of care provides encouragement The ministry of care meets immediate needs Personalized. allow himself or herself to be manipulated. many victims feel comforted and encouraged. Kenneth Haugk differentiates the attitude of servitude with the attitude of servanthood.They demonstrate true compassion. Victims are empowered to move forward from crisis to healing.
the utility of ventilative confession. a belief in the power of intercessory prayer. Bible.. a unifying and explanatory spiritual worldview that may serve to bring order to otherwise incomprehensible events. insight. layers for warmth. Cameras are almost universally 49 .. Some agencies. the disaster chaplain must: Be there Be near Be attentive Be willing Be compassionate What to Have Each disaster relief organization or agency has equipment requirements for caregivers. a faith-based support system. All chaplains in disasters must have proper equipment. prayer cards) Be prepared Chaplains must have proper equipment Chaplains must “be” Chaplains in disasters are strongly cautioned by their own response teams regarding proper and improper equipment.Personalized. disaster agency ID. spontaneous prayers are a demonstration of compassion. long pants or skirts (no shorts or minis). 1991).e. walkie talkies. where appropriate. PDAs Large fanny pack or small backpack Emergency equipment—flashlight. pagers. scriptural education.the pastoral crisis interventionist [disaster relief chaplain] benefits from the ability to use.62 Compassion at the Scene What to Be Demonstrating compassion at the scene of a disaster has some very practical implications. driver’s license or passport. All of these factors may make unique contributions to the reduction of manifest levels of distress (Everly & Latin. walking shoes or boots Identification—official disaster response team ID. 2002). individual and conjoint prayer. such as Christianity. provide “Go Boxes” which contain many helpful (and sometimes necessary) implements for care. . batteries Snacks Personal medications for the first 24 hours Small note pad and pen Religious articles consistent with our faith as Southern Baptists (i. credentials Telecommunication apparatus—cell phones. Some basics would include: Proper clothing—clerical garb if appropriate. the notion of divine forgiveness and even a life after death.. such as the Red Cross. To be compassionate towards the victims of disasters. …and in some religions. and reinterpretation (Brende.
Inform the victim that you will try to locate the answer as soon as possible and permissible. The chaplain should not ignore or avoid these kinds of questions because the person may need validation that it is permissible to ask such questions. One important suggestion would be to indicate that the thoughts you share are helpful to you and are offered with hope that they will also be helpful to the one who has experienced the disaster. Chaplains will be on the disaster scene and the site may be cold. but what they choose to say needs to be relevant. not necessarily seeking philosophical truths. crowded. This can be quite Do not blurt out bad news Listen more than you talk Keep your answers simple Tell the truth Provide clarification Communicate with your eyes and heart 50 . dirty. Be careful not to impose your answers on the victims but seek to help them explore questions and discover answers that will satisfy the yearning in their soul. When in doubt. . trying to answer “Why” questions can be counter-productive since the victim is usually manifesting a symptom of shock with such inquiries. Be prepared to embrace their reactions and expand on certain ideas as there is a need and opportunity to do so. “Where am I?” These are the opportunities for the chaplain to provide comfort and encouragement by clarifying the situation. Chaplains often need to say very little. Answer questions directly and truthfully. Spouses and other family members should not be brought to the disaster scene.considered inappropriate. Oversimplified answers may be perceived as hollow or shallow to a person impacted by crisis. It is best to be prepared. they will often become more interested in your insights and guidance. In attempting to give brief answers. People are usually confused and disoriented in the aftermath of disaster and may ask questions such as “What happened?”. the chaplain is often called upon to console and provide support as individuals try to process deep concerns or questions about life and death that sometimes are raised by critical events. one can seemingly generate responses that are oversimplified. “Have you seen . Short. . finding interpreters. . “Where is . 63. Be sure to let your words reflect the compassion that compelled you to be present. Remember. .” This is true in many situations and is not unusual. Anything that is bulky will be difficult to manage and should be avoided. and saying with the eyes and heart what cannot be said in words. wet. In addition to answering basic factual questions. “Am I safe?”. Victims may ask various kinds of questions in response to a disaster (see pages 62. dangerous. admit that you are not sure.?”. clear answers are better. 66. 66). Occasionally. As you build trust with people in the process of listening and offering meaningful feedback. The chaplain is the key responder in a group of care providers who is expected to have thought significantly about such matters by the very nature of their role as a spiritual care agent (see pages 65. In particular. cognitive functioning is diminished and long explanations will probably not be understood or retained. some chaplains admit they “don’t know what to say. chaplains must answer questions from victims concerning their family members or friends involved in the disaster. or dark. Listen more than talk and try to empathize with what is said.?”. What to Say Faced with disaster and the reactions of victims. 67).
Give news in small doses. Compassion fatigue is trauma-specific and the symptoms are similar to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). and physical exhaustion that occurs when several events in succession or combination impose a high degree of stress on an individual. Chaplains may help victims by providing practical help Victims may ask for specific religious interventions Compassion Fatigue Compassion fatigue results when caregivers experience a trauma event through listening to the story of the event or experience the reactions to the trauma through empathetic contact with victims or survivors and are unable to distance themselves from the event. mental health professionals and counselors. Professionals especially vulnerable to compassion fatigue include chaplains and other helping professionals—emergency services personnel. This kind of information should never be shared without proper authorization from appropriate levels of leadership. clergy. While the task of the chaplain is not necessarily one of doing rescue. Chaplains may experience compassion fatigue through empathetic contact with victims Reactions to Long-term Stress “Burnout” Burnout is the most obvious reaction to long-term stress. Some requests will be for general spiritual care. even for the chaplain.overwhelming. chaplains can provide the unique elements of spiritual care—prayer and religious rites and rituals. mental. chaplains can be very helpful in providing assistance by meeting basic physical needs. Provide this kind of information in a protected setting where victims are shielded from public view. What to Do One of the greatest frustrations that disaster relief workers face is the seeming impossibility of doing something. It is the costly result of providing care to those suffering from the consequences of traumatic events. and human services personnel. Have as much available support in proximity as possible. and allowing victims to spend time with their loved ones. Burnout could happen to the healthiest of chaplains. preparing the victim for the next bit of information. Other requests may require specific religious observances. Chaplains may be able to provide these specific religious interventions or they may find others who will. and physical exhaustion 51 . victim advocates and assistants. helping with practical decisions. medical professionals. mental. Charles Figley identified compassion fatigue as a secondary form of posttraumatic stress in Compassion Fatigue. Burnout is emotional. Chaplains can help facilitate communications by assisting with phone calls or providing directions and clarification. Such preparation for bad news helps the victim hear and accept what would otherwise be too shocking to receive. When requested. Burnout is emotional.
Those who have experienced similar critical events or trauma will be more likely to relive his or her previous experience through the current critical event. but that same personal identification may be a minus for the chaplain who becomes There are many contributing factors in burnout Symptoms of burnout vary The empathetic chaplain becomes a victim vicariously Countertransference may result from past experience. When countertransference occurs. Personal identification—The similarities between the victim and the chaplain cause the new crisis. Personal identification may be a plus for the victim as he or she seeks safety and security (trust). or physical fatigue 52 . Some similarities that result in countertransference include: Past experience—The traumatic event causes the new crisis. and survivors. needing the same post critical incident interventions as the primary victims. Emotional involvement comes from the very nature of being present to victims. Empathetic listening and compassion create the environment that causes chaplains to vicariously share the trauma of disaster victims. Suffering on behalf of another person causes the chaplain to return to a place of hurt and disappointment—perhaps even severe trauma—in his or her own life. personal identification. Experiencing the same sights and sounds of a previous critical incident may cause countertransference. the chaplain becomes a victim. Chaplains must be aware of their own history and experience. relief workers.Contributing factors in disaster chaplaincy burnout include: Professional isolation Emotional and physical drain of providing continuing empathy Ambiguous successes Erosion of idealism Lack of expected rewards63 Feeling obligated instead of called Maintaining an unrealistic pace Poor physical condition Continuous rejection Human finitude Symptoms of burnout include: Isolation Depression Apathy Pessimism Indifference Hopelessness Helplessness Physical exhaustion Irritability Cynicism Short temper Negative attitudes Countertransference Chaplains in disasters are emotionally involved with many hurting people.
Critical incidents may cause chaplains to experience changes in their values and beliefs Signs and symptoms of compassion fatigue are similar to those of PTSD 53 . and/or God. true. Personal identification may result from a perceived relationship due to ethnic heritage. and have difficulty separating the victim’s experience from their own past and present experiences. victims may also become more interested in spending time with family. profession. Some changes are very temporary and victims return to pre-incident levels of functioning within a relatively typical time frame. or participating in religious activities. When chaplains are subjected to disaster response conditions such as mental and/or physical exhaustion. sharing a meal with family or friends. This can lead the chaplain to appreciate and cherish (not take for granted) the simple aspects of daily living such as having a home. and what determines appropriate and inappropriate responses). considering matters of faith. such change may be positive or negative. they may also experience changes in their values and beliefs. good. They tire easily. That which was held as sacred may have been desecrated. empathy grows and personal identification becomes more intensified. Chaplains may be overwhelmed by the conditions of the crisis with its resulting stressors and begin to interpret all of life based on the reactions or implications of a single event and its related experiences. This may also be referred to as a form of “tunnel vision. or taking time to play with a child. They may become fearful about their safety and security—this was probably a non-issue prior to the trauma. As with victims. Conversely. Changes in Values and Beliefs One of the chief characteristics of a critical incident—disaster—is the inevitable change it causes. overly identified with the victim’s crisis. language. Consequently. and burnout. or nationality. gender. they are unable to cognitively function at their highest levels. long-term stress. In this sense.” Ordinary activities pre-critical incident may lose their sense of meaning and purpose when compared to the circumstances surrounding the disaster victims. Physical fatigue—When chaplains are physically exhausted or out of shape. They may become less trustful of people. the chaplain must choose to reframe his or her understanding of the crisis event(s) by effectively incorporating such experiences into a broader perspective of life and a corresponding Christian worldview (consistent with meaningful ways to comprehend what is real. In order to remain effective in the disaster setting(s) and upon returning to one’s own personal surroundings. one becomes myopic and can only view reality through one set of lenses—disaster lenses. resulting in countertransference. The changes may be positive or negative. Victims may experience doubt and uncertainty regarding physical survival—this was an expectation pre-critical incident. This refined understanding precipitated by the “reality check” often accompanying a disaster can help the chaplain (and those he or she is able to help) avoid the temptation of being seduced by the perspective and ongoing pressures of a life untouched by tragedy. have a low resistance to excessive emotional involvement. countertransference. institutions. One’s determinations about reality and how to best perceive it may have been altered or become distorted.
mistakes increase. Disaster relief chaplains must take the initiative to mitigate their own stress during the trauma. emotionally re-experiencing the traumatic event. meditation. and persistent arousal. Effective self-care means taking care of yourself before. dreams. detachment. fats. there is a cost associated with compassion fatigue— performance declines. and spiritual. and unprescribed drugs Use relaxation techniques (e. Chaplains must initiate good lifelong habits of self-care. and personal relationships are at risk. regular physical exercise. caffeine. it is emotional. or disturbing memories of the critical incident Emotional numbing Feelings of despair and hopelessness Feelings of isolation. health deteriorates. Basic Self-Care Effective spiritual care intervention during disasters begins with preventive maintenance. prayer) Maintain healthy relationships with loved ones and associates Critical events (disasters) cause distress and crisis intervention is distressful. significant relationships. The cost is more than physical. social. Education and practice (training) will help facilitate self-care during the crisis. alcohol. and awareness of spirituality. salt. Those suffering the effects of compassion fatigue absorb the trauma through the eyes and ears of the victims to whom they provide ministry. Some indicators of compassion fatigue include: Nightmares. and after the disaster intervention. cholesterol Increase cardiovascular exercise Eliminate smoking. Self-care during disasters may include: Taking regular breaks Working in established shifts or rotations Self-care must be maintained during the disaster Basic self-care begins with preventive maintenance 54 . This includes a well-balanced diet. morale drops.g. cognitive. social withdrawal Increased sensitivity to violence Avoidance of thoughts and activities associated with the incident Increased and persistent cognitive dysfunction—difficulty concentrating Compassion fatigue has a high cost In the final analysis.. Preventive maintenance includes: Reduce refined sugars. deep breathing. during. chewing tobacco. estrangement Disconnection from loved ones.Signs and Symptoms of Compassion Fatigue Compassion fatigue is preoccupation with the victim or cumulative trauma of victims.
This might take the form of a formal CISM or NOVA group intervention or might take the form of an informal “lessons learned” discussion. sharing your experiences during formal or informal speaking opportunities. Prayer. participating in corporate worship. laughter. and days off will help restore the typical ebb and flow of pre-disaster life. inspiring new volunteers. Self-care must be an ongoing process What are some ways you are doing preventive self-care? What self-care interventions seem most helpful to you when you are in a stressful situation? 55 . engaging in hobbies and interests. personal reflection. and other spiritual interventions help provide healing and respite for the weary chaplain. learning new skills. Reconnecting with loved ones. reading Scripture. Working in teams (for support) Catharsis with other disaster relief chaplains Self-care after the critical incident (disaster) might include a thorough debriefing with the response team.
anxiety. despair. numbness. anger. and behaviors Grief is emotional distress that is caused by perceived loss 56 . dry mouth A Snapshot of Cognitions Disbelief. hopelessness. loneliness. heart palpitations. the work of healing. relief. oversensitivity to noise or light. or intrapsychic. in fact. confusion. hallucinations. searching and calling out. hollowness in the stomach. Mourning is often defined as the cultural or public display of grief but is. escaping by over-commitment to work. William Worden suggested that there are four general manifestations of normal grief: feelings. helplessness. lack of energy. dreams of the deceased. avoiding places and people. space and time confusion. and behaviors. A Picture of Grief Although there is no right way to grieve. fear. sighing. alienation. restlessness. It is very much like a wound or illness that needs to be healed. absent-mindedness. cognitions. feeling out of control A Snapshot of Physical Sensations Tightness in the chest or throat. slow thinking. A Snapshot of Feelings Sadness. emancipation. sense of going crazy. breathlessness. loss of sexual desire. relational. visiting places or carrying objects that remind the survivor of the deceased Grief manifests itself in feelings. sense of “nothing seems real. disorganization. appetite disturbances. which follows the recognition of loss and is the beginning of the healing process. self-reproach. fatigue. shock. confusion. treasuring objects that belonged to the deceased person. weakness in the muscles. spiritual. poor concentration. preoccupation. yearning. restless over-activity. sense of depersonalization. sense of presence. physical sensations. social withdrawal. crying. guilt. there are characteristics that seem very common to those who are grieving. The loss may be physical. loss of memory. cognitions. Grief is very different than mourning. physical sensations.COMFORTING GRIEF IN DISASTERS64 UNIT 8 Elements of Grief Defining Grief Grief is emotional distress that is caused by perceived loss. gastrointestinal disturbances. including me” A Snapshot of Behaviors Sleep disturbances.
belovedness. health. “beauty. car. body parts. extended family. way of life. influence. clubs or associations. trust in clergy. meaning of life. jobs. teachers. mementos. Physical sensations? 3. limb. parents. siblings. mobility. faith in religion. history and connections to the future. employees. peers. memory. cognition. foster children or foster parents. trusts. 401k. spiritual. hope. “innocence” (sexual assault. licenses. careers. sense of worthfulness. colleagues. Behaviors? 5. friends. bonds. reproductive organs. feeling sensation. stocks. “valuables”). friendships. integrity. children leaving home. time. what were your 1. . marriage. image. money. vision. Feelings? Your own experiences 2. children. hearing. love There are many losses that lead to grief: physical. financial support. trust in church or religious organization. credibility. job. speech. independence. business. employers. value system. significant relationships.Think about the most painful loss you have experienced . in-laws. Cognitions? 4. belongingness Spiritual Faith in God. traditions. incest). values. step-children or step-parents. property. smell. identity. teammates.” physique. income Relational Spouse. clergy. coworkers. taste. fiancé. relational. Spiritual concerns? What manifestations of grief would be difficult for you to experience? Losses that Lead to Grief Physical “Things” (house. pets. will to live. professions. grandparents and grandchildren. and intrapsychic 57 . talent. . resources. institutions. trust (infidelity).
Numbness Kubler-Ross—Five Stages of Grief Grief is a process in response to loss Worden—Four Tasks of Mourning Oates—Three predecessors 58 . Alzheimer’s. Panic 3. Acceptance J. Depression 5. death of a child. missed opportunities. 1976.Intrapsychic Plans for the future. mental retardation. deferred dreams. Elizabeth Kubler-Ross—Five Stages of Grief—in On Death and Dying. another as tasks. Anger 3. AIDS. The process of grief is dynamic—like the sea. then moves on. Chaplain Tim Van Duivendyk. Because grief is extremely personal. terrorism. William Worden—Four Tasks of Mourning—in Grief Counseling and Grief Therapy. has described the grief response as Wilderness Wandering. Shock 2. perhaps process is the most accurate description of the grief response. war. homicide. abortion. important image of oneself. MIA’s. A comparison of several notable theories regarding the grief response might be helpful. multiple deaths. it is unique to each individual. One has described grief in stages. As such. The journey through grief frequently returns to familiar places of pain and healing. 1991 1. 196965 1. it ebbs and flows. miscarriage. sudden infant death (SIDS). Denial and isolation 2. Bargaining 4. genocide. mass murder. To accept the reality of the loss 2. execution. no grief is expressed without the influence of environment and circumstances. director of Pastoral Care and Clinical Pastoral Education at Memorial Herman Hospital. To emotionally relocate the deceased and move on with life Wayne E. To work through the pain of grief 3. To adjust to an environment in which the deceased is missing 4. states that Kubler-Ross’s five stages are preceded by three other factors 1. self-esteem Special Losses Suicide. victim-perpetrator Special losses complicate the grief process Grief Is a Process There has been much written describing the grief response. still birth. Oates—The Grief Process—in Pastoral Care and Counseling in Grief and Separation. and another as process. No loss is experienced in a vacuum and likewise.
Each round moves higher and higher. Drawing on these models. but one draws closer to acceptance. The journey is a spiral rather than a circle. and the meaning of the relationship 4. In the initial moments of the journey. the victim wanders through the shock and denial of trying to acknowledge the reality of the loss. React to the missing 3. 2) expressing the pain of grief. relational. denial—Worden’s Task #1 Shock. numbness—Oates’ three factors preceding KublerRoss’s stages Denial and isolation—Kubler-Ross’s Stage #1 2. faith. Rando—The Six R Processes of Mourning—in Treatment of Complicated Mourning. and 3) moving toward acceptance. Recognize the loss 2. illness o Lack of energy or uncontainable energy Emotional symptoms o Sad. sudden appreciation o Bargaining—Kubler-Ross’s Stage #3 Spiritual symptoms o Temptation. moving on. aches. the acute pains of grief diminish and hope appears in the future. fighting. glad o Anger—Kubler-Ross’s Stage #2 Relational symptoms o Bargaining. 1. After revisiting places of pain and healing. blaming. the grief response may be portrayed as a journey of three parts: 1) acknowledging the reality of loss (shock and denial). perhaps even still denying the reality of the loss at times. panic. Perhaps one never arrives. dependence on God Grief—a journey from shock to acceptance 59 . Sometimes. T. Readjust to a new world without forgetting the old 6. For most people. 1993 1. No two journeys are the same and each journey takes a unique amount of time to travel. As the reality of the loss is embraced. mad. the relationship. emotional. Reinvest in the world around you Rando—Six R Processes of Mourning . Recollect the missing. Relinquish attachments to the world before the loss including assumptions that no longer hold 5. shame o Increased awareness of human/divine. the round retreats and grief plunges one again into great depths of pain and sorrow. Acknowledging the reality of loss Shock. the victim then begins to express the pain associated with that grief and loss. numbness. and hope. pains.A. the victim struggles through a resistance toward acceptance. always seeking to move forward in the ventures of processing grief. Expressing the pain of grief and loss Physical symptoms o Crying. There are physical. clinging. and spiritual symptoms. guilt.
The unexpected nature of the loss tends to cause more anger. death tends to cause “traumatic grief. Draw a diagram of your grief journey: In disasters. There is no preparatory period during which survivors begin to plan for loss and grief.3. or random death. Moving toward acceptance Desire to live more in the present and future than in the past Willingness to explore new relationships and activities Renewed energy that overcomes the gloom of doubt and despair Resistance o Worden’s Task #1—to accept the reality of the loss Struggle o Worden’s Task #2—to work through to the pain of grief o Worden’s Task #3—to adjust to an environment in which the deceased is missing o Depression—Kubler-Ross’s Stage #4 Hope o Worden’s Task #4—to emotionally relocate the deceased and move on with life o Acceptance—Kubler-Ross’s Stage #5 The grief process will also be affected by the circumstances of death. Survivors must deal with the critical incident stress issues surrounding a traumatic event before they can begin processing the individual loss of life. unexpected. death causes “traumatic grief” My personal grief journey Critical Event 60 .” Grief is a result of sudden. In disasters.
deceased was involved in immoral or unethical behavior at time of death. Chaplains are present to meet immediate needs while providing encouragement. physical presence is essential. specifically remembering the loss and calling it by name. it is helpful to remember that the chaplain in disaster must be present to the suffering of those who grieve. To help victims feel safe and more secure. chaplains must be emotionally present. The ministry of presence is a comfort in grief Complicated Mourning There are some situations in which the process of grief becomes very complicated. They must listen and empathize as spiritual acts. Empathetic listening assures the victim that grief words and grief feelings are being heard. chaplains must share practical presence. 2) be near. Understanding the emotional upheaval that is being experienced is critical to providing effective ministry. and being open and accepting of all the emotions and tears of grieving will provide the comfort that begins to offer hope for another day. or extremely traumatic. unique.Comforting Grief Grief takes many forms and requires informed compassionate care. First. chaplains provide the spiritual presence that is unique in the ethos of chaplaincy. chaplains must 1) be there. And. As the chaplain prepares for disaster response. Through prayer and prayerful attitudes. abortion. and the circumstances surrounding the loss are significant. rape. Secondly. death of “significant other. Usually. and 3) be attentive.” Many of these situations do not result in the physical death of a person. In response to disasters. deceased is the cause of an accident resulting in death. miscarriage. Helping with practical decision making and daily duties is a demonstration of compassionate presence. chaplains provide the presence of God in the midst of grief.” AIDS. impotence. these circumstances are considered “special losses. deceased was involved in criminal activity. Thirdly. Being present and being compassionate will be more than adequate. Comforting the grieving victim of disasters requires great sensitivity. they must be physically present. incest “Special losses” often complicate mourning Categories of special losses 61 . These special losses may be categorized as follows: Disenfranchised loss Suicide (victim is the perpetrator). Listening to the grief story and talking.
terrorism. it is possible that complicated mourning will occur. manslaughter Suicide (revenge. sudden death Accidents.Sexual assault . or religious group) Terrorism Vanished (kidnapped.Delayed execution Genocide (destroying an ethnic. national. Lessons Learned During disaster response. mercy) Mass murders Vehicular homicide Complicated homicides . From the field.Torture .” MIA’s) Multiple deaths during short time frame Line of duty deaths History of anger with the deceased of major stress and crisis of emotional and mental problems Marked dependent relationship with the deceased (primary caregiver) Lack of social support Grief reactions are intensified When grief is a result of circumstances that are extraordinary. there are some practical lessons in the form of “Do’s” and “Don’ts. “missing. disasters Death perceived as preventable Homicides Murder.Dismemberment after death .” DON’T… Avoid the grieving person Assign guilt or blame Address “Why?” questions without necessary precautions (see page 50) Minimize the loss Change the subject away from the deceased Lessons learned in the field are practical helps DON’T… 62 . Unexpected. This may intensify typical grief reactions as a result of the critical incident stress that occurs. protest. there is little time to think about appropriate responses and words of comfort.Mutilation .
but I’m here for you” “Would you like to talk?” “(Name of deceased) loved you so much” “May your God bless you and give you strength” “I am grieving with you about ______’s death” “I know you are going to miss ________” What are some lessons you have learned when responding to death and grief? DO . specifically Give permission to grieve Listen non-judgmentally Allow the grieving person to talk about the deceased Ask open-ended questions about the event Offer practical assistance Empower with small choices and decisions Share words of admiration for the deceased.Try to talk too much Say: “I know how you feel” “It was God’s will” “(S)he’s in a better place now” “Time heals all wounds” “Be brave” “Don’t cry” “He’s at rest” “The Lord knows best” “Be glad it’s over” “You need to be strong for…” “Call me if you need anything” DO… Acknowledge the loss. What was the most helpful thing someone did for you when you were grieving? What was the least helpful thing someone did for you when you were grieving? 63 . if appropriate Say: “I’m so sorry” “I’m sorry for your loss” “I cannot begin to understand your pain. . .
spiritual guidance.” 68 Deep spiritual losses of hope. Others may not be specifically desirous of spiritual care but are psychologically receptive to spiritual care. “Horrific traumata destroy spiritual well-being. In addition to the positive effects of crises on spiritual well-being like clarity of mind. and trust often result in post-traumatic shock disorder. physical healing increases. future. and there is a positive effect on diseases.SPIRITUAL DIMENSIONS OF TRAUMA66 UNIT 9 Overview of Spirituality in Trauma Traumatic events are an attack on meaningful systems.69 Trauma victims often benefit from spirituality and religion as they attempt to adapt to the crisis event. There is much evidence of the effectiveness of religion or spiritual faith in coping with trauma. spirituality affects one’s stress and distress. or unchanged (reaffirmed). Many individuals instinctively seek spiritual support in crisis. nothingness (non-existence). By incorporating spirituality in the crisis response. time and eternity. innocence. Faith may be rejected. Medical professionals and scientists recognize the positive effects of faith in responding to physical and emotional distresses. in the religious sense. may be a source of ventilation and validation for people of faith Prayer serves as a source of stress moderation Prayer is a form of spiritual processing 70 Spiritual faith has a positive effect in responding to distress Traumatic events cause people to reexamine their beliefs and values There are compelling reasons to use chaplains in crisis events 64 . ranging from cervical cancer to stroke. They have a hopeful expectancy that prayer. value definition. Marlene Young lists several compelling arguments for using chaplains to mitigate distress in the crisis event: Causal explanations of trauma are a function of religion and abnormal events trigger religious attributions Religion is used as emotional support and assists cognitive structuring Religion is used by victims to cope emotionally and solve problems The potential of religious assistance is a positive operative force in coping Measures of religiosity are strong predictors and positively relate to the quality of life Prayer. and sacraments will be helpful in alleviating their pain or sense of loss.67 Stress and distress affect one’s spirituality. and conversely. Spirituality helps to define people’s value systems and understanding of being (existence). and death. depression decreases. transformed. chaplains are quickly dispatched to disasters and other traumatic events. Consequently. there can also be a negative impact. and revitalization of faith. relationships. life. mortality rates decrease. Victims of traumatic events usually reexamine their beliefs and values in terms of the crisis event.
If faith is being reexamined. Chaplains are a reminder that God is aware of and present to victims in their distress. and response to the transcendent through participation in and with an organized faith community with shared beliefs. Many times. integration. It is one’s understanding of self. Spirituality is the understanding. practices. How do you define “spirituality?” _____________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ How do you define “spirituality?” Religion could be defined as the operational system of personal or institutional beliefs and practices that intersect with the transcendent within a cultural or social setting. and spirituality redefines hope and the future. The living person of Jesus shares the struggle each victim encounters during crisis and trauma. faith is reexamined in the light of one’s spirituality. the victim is not aware of using the mechanisms. Personal values and beliefs may be shattered or transformed. From a Christian perspective. Crisis shakes the very foundation of one’s being. Coping—In their fight for survival. victims use spirituality and religion to cope with the crisis situation until the crisis abates. people and God. Critical events redefine one’s spirituality God is aware and present to the victim in traumatic events Role of Religion and Spirituality Spirituality is the essence of life—the beliefs and values that give meaning to existence and that which is held sacred. integration.Whether the crisis is loss of property or death. How do you define “religion?” _______________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ The role of religion and spirituality in trauma How do you define “religion?” During and after a critical event—disaster—victims often appropriate religious and spiritual mechanisms to mitigate the enormity of crisis they are experiencing. the universe. God. Religion guides the understanding. chaplains have opportunities to clarify false assumptions and demonstrate true hope for the future. and response to the transcendent. and rituals. 65 . Assumptions about life and death. Healing—There is clinical evidence that religion and spirituality have positive preventive and healing effects on diseases and emotional distress. there are benefits of using chaplains in crisis events that go beyond the list Marlene Young has provided. good and evil—all may be challenged and redefined. others. and the resulting relationships.
Questions—In the chaos and confusion that results from disasters. . Prayer provides an avenue for processing the chaos and reducing the stress through repetition. and seminars. religion and spirituality provide the mechanisms for searching and seeking. Seeking—As victims seek answers and understanding. and old traditions with the hope of progress. Connecting—Prayer and spiritual activities help victims connect with others and God (see pages 3. and meditation. victims have a need to make sense of the traumatic event. Stress mitigation—Prayer provides a “listening ear” during crisis. communion. 66 . these questions became common topics at meals. people realize they are not alone on the path of dealing with the given crisis. 2001. The availability of God or clergy or religious institutions provides spiritual and emotional support during crisis. It allows the victim to vent his or her crisis as a hopeful response. why can’t I just die. victims and survivors begin the journey of mourning that which was lost. Support—Victims use the mechanics or institutions of religion to provide emotional support in dealing with the emotional trauma of disasters and death. Spiritual Issues and Questions from Victims and Survivors After critical events—disasters—victims and survivors ask many spiritual questions (see page 50). fond experiences. After September 11. . By joining memories of past accomplishments. The questions are difficult ones and chaplains rarely have adequate answers. spirituality and religion provide the tools for asking questions and problem solving. . It is equally important for the chaplain to hear and validate the questions without the necessity of an answer. too? Whose fault is this? Is _____________(the perpetrator) going to be punished for this? Why doesn’t God answer my prayers? How will I know if God is telling me something? Why does God allow evil in the world? Victims and survivors ask difficult questions . It is both acceptable and necessary to ask these questions. Why did this happen to me? Why did __________have to die? Why didn’t God take me instead? Did God do this to punish me? Does this mean I owe God my life now (now that I survived)? Why does God make so many good people suffer? Why does God let bad things happen? Why did God hurt little kids? I want to die . . Such activities bring people into a shared setting where they can receive encouragement and guidance for integrating “the present crisis” with both the past and the future. the promise of future memories. In doing so. In asking the questions. and new traditions. gatherings. 4).
Benevolent religious appraisal Seeks God’s loving presence Spiritual leaders’ or affiliated members’ presence Pleas for direct intercession Acts of purification Religious helping Conversion Blaming God or spirits Religion and spirituality help people cope Do not assume that “faith” is necessarily in God or religion Coping mechanisms used by people in trauma 67 . Disaster chaplains may be in danger of false assumptions if they assume the faith being expressed is in God or in religion. in rescuers. Dr. Who keeps God in line? Is there life after death? Is there really a heaven? Will _________(the perpetrator) go to hell for this? What did I do to deserve this? Did God choose me to suffer for some special reason? What good can come out of this suffering? Is there anything I can do to make God stop doing this? What’s there to live for? Why can’t __________do something to stop this? Am I special because I survived and ___________didn’t? What’s expected of me now (that I survived)? What would you ask? What questions would you ask if you were a victim or survivor? Religious Coping Styles When people are in crisis. or in natural law. Kenneth Pargament from Bowling Green University researched religious coping mechanisms used by people in trauma. In these situations. religion and spirituality are essential in helping them cope during intense arousal. Some will express faith in a combination of these. in institutions. people may use their religion or spirituality in the following ways to answer the difficult questions surrounding critical events—disasters. Some victims may be expressing their faith in family. Clarification is always helpful for effective spiritual care.71 The following summary is based on his research. victims rely on their faith to help them make sense and meaning in chaos. in relationships. in their own strength and stamina. In times of distress. Emotions have reached extraordinary levels and cognitive functioning is low.
When people suggest suicide. spiritual care agents in disasters may choose to provide support through other spiritual care crisis intervention methods that are uniquely theirs as people of faith and spirituality. Multiple mechanisms may be engaged simultaneously or spontaneously rejected.73 Such methods include: Scriptural education. . For example. Chaplains are shepherds who help people cope during crisis Spiritual Interventions for Disasters George Everly. reinterpretation Individual and conjoint prayer Belief in intercessory prayer Unifying and explanatory worldviews Ventilative confession Faith-based social support systems Spiritual care crisis interventions . . One of the ministry tasks of chaplains is that of shepherding—to be a spiritual caregiver. The traditional mechanisms include:72 Early intervention—Within hours of the traumatic event Cathartic ventilation—ventilation of emotions Social support—group model Problem-solving—alternative solutions and responses Cognitive reinterpretation—reinterpretation of event as non-threatening. and the ministry of caring through the art of story-listening. Demonic assignment Punishment from God Religious avoidance/distraction Problem solving/deferral Problem solving/self-direction Problem solving/collaborative Chaplains in disasters can facilitate spiritual care by affirming the positive coping mechanisms being initiated by the victims. Spiritual intervention and care means leading people beside still waters and greener pastures—to a spiritually healthier and safer place. insight. the ministry of compassion. less challenging Traditional mechanisms of crisis intervention . homicide. 68 . In addition to the ministry of presence. . the chaplain engages other caregivers who are appropriately trained to handle such behaviors. teaches that spiritual care interventions are additional interventions that are provided on the foundation of traditional crisis intervention mechanisms. or behaviors that obviously result in personal harm or a threat to others. Chaplains affirm positive coping mechanisms and gently adjust when people suggest unhealthy means of coping with trauma and critical events. . co-founder of the International Critical Incident Stress Foundation. illegal activities. a person who is suicidal needs immediate suicide intervention and professional counseling. Disaster chaplains recognize the wisdom of referrals to people who are more highly trained to deal with special needs.
There are three areas of particular importance. Rituals and sacraments Belief in divine intervention/forgiveness Belief in a life after death Unique ethos of the crisis interventionist Uniquely confidential/privileged communications Christian chaplains often have opportunities to share the Good News. Disaster chaplains are often perceived as God figures—parents. the chaplain is Victims and chaplains are vulnerable Guard what has been entrusted to you Maintain confidentiality 69 . High moral and ethical standards are expected and the crisis situation makes both victim and caregiver vulnerable to ethical mistakes. But the prudent caregiver is sensitive and aware of possible “red flags. Chaplain conversations are uniquely confidential. Chaplains tread on thin ice when they attempt to play God. Integrity of character is an expectation and betrayal is damaging to the entire profession. “Red Flags” for Disaster Chaplain Interventions There is a sense of urgency that one experiences in the field of disasters. When trauma happens. The first is trust. If you must reveal any part of a conversation. you must have the permission of the confidant. healers. protectors. providers. They are fearful and distrustful of the situation. Here are some “red flags:” Red Flags Trying to “wing it” with no specific intervention plans Trying to provide interventions without a crisis team Trying to debate theological issues with traumatized victims or survivors Answering “Why?” questions without necessary precautions (see Unit 4) Failure to honor the right to free exercise of religion Failure to recognize severe or urgent stress symptoms Failure to differentiate between ongoing clinical symptoms existing for a person prior to the disaster and trauma symptoms resulting from the disaster event Ethics of Disaster Chaplaincy Interventions in Disasters Disaster chaplains have a great responsibility entrusted to them. When victims ask the chaplain for other possibilities or for their personal beliefs. Sensitivity and respect in asking permission to share—and not coercing victims—is a skill and approach Jesus frequently used. they become serious blunders that have long-lasting consequences for the victims. Disaster chaplains desire peace and spiritual strength for victims they encounter.” When “red flags” are ignored. it is entirely appropriate to share one’s personal faith. victims and survivors are shaken. Victims have been reduced to the most basic levels of human development—that of trust. If a person demonstrates clear and imminent danger to themselves (suicide threat) or others (homicidal threat or actual threat of other serious crimes).
When possible. Connecting survivors to local churches can provide them with follow up avenues that will be available long after the chaplain has left the affected area. understanding the level of their needs.required to act in the best interests of the individuals and/or the persons(s) who may be in danger. chaplains should inform their team members and colleagues about any possible interventions they may not be able to provide.” Guard personal standards Ego makes caregivers vulnerable Respect victim vulnerability 70 . There are many religious rituals and practices that may be in conflict with your own beliefs and practices. Preaching and organized teaching are usually reserved for more formal settings in the aftermath of a disaster such as funerals. Chaplains are also expected to maintain their own standards of ethical responsibility. Crisis Management Briefings (CMB’s) are also excellent settings to provide significant information and organized teaching on key insights concerning disaster responses. they should find other appropriate spiritual caregivers. Lord expressed many of these feelings in a paper entitled “Out of the Depths: Help for Clergy in Ministering to Crime Victims. and then helping them discover the best way to initially engage their own spiritual resources and other available resources in order to overcome the challenges related to a crisis event. do not make value judgments. Richard P. Spiritual care agents should not use manipulative rhetorical devices or forceful tactics to entice victims into making choices they may later regret or ignore. Most of the time. Dr. victims will not say these things to the chaplain—they just close down. Rev. Maintain confidentiality. Spiritual care in disasters involves meeting people in their desperate circumstances. swallowed by the confusion and shock. What Victims Want to Say to Disaster Chaplains After many hours on the field of disasters and after many conversations. The spiritual caregiver’s primary role is to assist victims in determining their physical condition and exploring their thoughts or feelings in a manner that helps them formulate spiritual insights and responses that will reflect the affected person’s desired state of spiritual stability. memorial settings. Ego makes caregivers vulnerable. Victims may be quite vulnerable during traumatic events—especially to spiritual conversions or changes. Providing a good spiritual diagnosis of the situation will help the chaplain avoid coercing victims and lead him or her toward recommending meaningful spiritual responses in the disaster context. Saving a life has the highest priority. A good diagnosis of the spiritual situation will depend on how well the chaplain employs his or her listening skills with victims and to the Spirit of God. disaster chaplains have learned many lessons from victims and survivors. and do not take sides. retreating into their pain and grief. or worship services immediately following the event. Prior to providing crisis interventions. Disaster relief chaplains should also be prepared to provide information about local churches or other available resources for assisting persons with concerns about their spiritual stability. tell the truth.
Do not be afraid of my anger—I need to be honest about the pain I feel. There are few quantitative ways to measure its effectiveness and there are few. Victims want to say . logical answers. and most of the time. or want to talk. . visible results while on the field. but please respect my reality. It might be uncomfortable for you. Anger is not nice to be around. We must remember that the ministry is in the willingness to enter the place of pain and hurt and offer our presence and compassion. Stay close to me—I need someone to lean on right now. I need Him to be a companion on this painful journey. I will get better in time. if any. Let me reveal my weaknesses and regression to you sometimes. I may withdraw for awhile. but be with me as I move through it so a more meaningful faith can emerge. Do not try to talk me out of it. Stay close so I can reach out to you. Remember me when everyone else has gone back to their normal routines— be the person who will listen to my story and pain again and again. grieve. Listen to my doubts—I have doubts and I need you to listen to my doubts. Do not try to take away my pain—the pain shows me how much I have lost. I will not always be like this. Speak about God to me as an affirmation of life. Disaster chaplains seldom see the victims after the initial contact. Be patient with me—my progress may not be as fast as you think it should be. What would you have liked to have said to the person who ministered to you? _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ What would you have liked to have said to the person who ministered to you? Conclusion Providing spiritual care in disasters is a difficult task. but I need to work through this. Remind me that this is not all there is to life—I need to be reminded that there is more to life than the pain and anger and sadness I am feeling. I will not hurt myself or others and God is not threatened by my anger. weep. Remind me that His eternal presence can penetrate my grief. mourn. 71 . words and actions are completely inadequate. . Do not explain—even when I cry out “Why?” I am not looking for rational. but I want God and you to be with me in my pain. Mention my loved one by name and remember with me.
behaviorally. demographics. Intentionally recognizing cultural diversity creates multiple needs and new paradigms for “normal” or “expected” crisis needs. emotionally. while in the U. and it provides social support in safety and security. These multiple cultural sources may decrease the ability to develop a sense of safety and security. children. and spiritually Multiple cultural identities help and hinder coping mechanisms in trauma Cultural diversity multiplies needs in crisis Cultural Perspectives Affect Trauma and Recovery “Culture influences what type of event is perceived as threatening or as traumatic.S. customs. Culture is what identifies a group—physically. world views. beliefs. income. or motivation.”79 In third world countries.S.76 Globalization and the age of technology have created new cultural norms. the death of a child may be perceived as a predictable event.77 “Corporate America’s decision to emphasize diversity is a practical choice. and profession. based on rapidly evolving U. education. conservative Republican. power. spirituality. arts. Identification by dual identities is not uncommon—Japanese American. he or she should also be sensitive to the diversity of backgrounds. Spanishspeaking Native American. Cambodian refugees who had been assaulted (50%) or experienced the killing of a family member (60%) rated food shortage more distressing than the death of a close relative. moderate Baptist. and so forth present in the affected community. Cultural references and identity influence the identification and interpretation of traumatic threats and events. affecting the manifestation of traumatic response. Contextualized Ministry Is Cross-Culturally Competent Intentional Cultural Diversity Creates Multiple Needs Culture is “the totality of socially transmitted behavior patterns. religions. elderly. If the chaplain is to offer the greatest amount of care and to be the most effective. relationally. sexual orientation.”75 Greater than national identity or ethnicity.. education. nationality.80 In a study conducted by Carlson and Rosser-Hagan (1994).”78 The intentional emphasis on creating cultural diversity inevitably multiplies needs in crisis. socially. cushioning people from the impact of traumatic events. but he or she will also encounter the added context of cultural diversity.81 Most Americans can not relate to feeling distressed over food shortage. death. and all other products of human work and thought characteristic of a community or population. Recognizing economic opportunity. Crisis interventions must be concerned with issues related to birth. but they may also provide alternative interpretations to cope with traumatic events. location. it may be defined as traumatic. corporate leaders are spearheading machines for multicultural workforces and emerging-market strategies. possessions. and with how they are influenced by various cultural identities. it includes communities of vocation. intellectually. Culture interprets events as threatening or traumatic 72 . institutions.MINISTERING IN THE MIDST OF DIVERSITY74 UNIT 10 The experience of trauma is the disaster relief chaplain’s primary context.
It also influences how people express their reactions to traumatic events (withdrawal. dying. Crisis and disasters often result in death. traditions. metaphors. Culture influences the effects of traumatic events Demonstrating Respect for Cultural Differences The modern world is characterized by a high level of cultural diversity. 3. chaplains gain an understanding of cultural perspectives. reward). 2. The routines and traditions of the culture may aid survivors of a tragedy in feeling reoriented. and religion are often the product of intersecting cultures. Music. “cultures can help to define healthy pathways to new lives after trauma. recreation. 4. language. and family structures. hysteria. silence. chaplains also gain access to different cultures. .”82 An important aspect of crisis intervention is allowing victims to create a narrative of their crisis experience. sensitivity. Demonstrating respect for cultural traditions and values during some of the greatest moments of suffering and loss is a clear demonstration of cultural sensitivity. and awareness of cultural differences into their crisis response. concepts. language. enabling them to apply their understanding of cultural behaviors. education is needed on differences about a culture’s background history. Chaplains must also accommodate cultural differences.83 Through education. stoicism. thereby mitigating stress. and grief is particularly important. developing sensitivity and understanding of other ethnic groups. and social economic levels have become cultural categorizations. This knowledge should be used to inform the crisis responders in the use of more appropriate interventions. physical abuse. Their behaviors. sexual orientation. . In disaster relief ministry. By doing so. and integrating this information into their caring responses. knowledge of ethnic variations in death. or mythology of the culture. acknowledging the differences. embarrassment). Chaplains demonstrate respect for cultural differences by demonstrating cultural competence—familiarization with significant cultural characteristics. and sports have also become cultural identifications. the event becomes a part of a life story rather than an event which culminates a life story. and policies must be congruently directed towards effectively operating in a different cultural context. punishment. Respect for cultural differences may be demonstrated in the following ways: 1. Vocation. providing comfort. Ethnic heritage. and promoting healing.”84 Through networking and building relationships. and ethics. cultures have a means of integrating an individual’s trauma story with the theology. This is particularly true when . spiritual orientation.Culture influences how people interpret the meaning of their traumatic event (fate. And finally. Chaplains must demonstrate cultural competence. political affiliation. routines. The chaplain demonstrates respect for cultural differences by acknowledging these differences without judgment. attitudes. The world is characterized by a high level of cultural diversity Chaplains demonstrate respect for cultural differences by demonstrating cultural competence 73 . “Prior to cross-cultural work.85 They must be able to integrate their knowledge.
what you’re feeling. but it is not a call to abandon or violate one’s personal faith and values.g. chaplains could share the love of Christ and allow the Holy Spirit to do His work.. . “I’ve responded to many disasters and seen lots of victims. demonstrating respect and understanding of other spiritual experiences without compromising his or her faith..e. chaplains must be careful not to coerce victims in any way.”). . false imitation (e. ministering in a pluralistic environment. Some issues to be considered are: Give yourself some “grace” as you deal with sensitive personal issues 74 . Ministry in diversity may pose issues of concern. .” or “good buddy”). Victims are usually concerned about the most fundamental human needs—safety and security—and may have little or no ability to make rational or logical decisions about faith and religion. Red flags I must be especially aware of . life without one’s home and possessions is better than not dying. While attempting to acknowledge and accommodate differences. “Red Flags” for Chaplains in a Context of Diversity Chaplains must recognize some “red flags” when serving as disaster relief interventionists in the context of cultural and religious diversity.. or to make life changing decisions may be perceived as unethical.” “dear. In general. A chaplain in disasters has a multiple faithgroup focus. Chaplains must also beware of projecting attitudes of superiority (i. members and other affiliates have a single faithgroup focus.. agreement with or appreciation for the ecclesiastical. . or a request for a “miracle” arises from a Christian value system).g.”86 In a local church. loss. and what you need. uninvited familiarity (e. and reconciliation is possible. Chaplains may be concerned about whether or not they will be accepted or whether or not they will want to provide intervention in some situations. Referrals are not the only solution. attempting to more closely identify with African American victims by affecting speech patterns that are not “natural” to the non-African American chaplain). . so I know exactly what you’re going through. Participants of a local church choose to gather under the ministrations of a particular person because of “.g. These are natural concerns and most care providers must address these issues before arriving on the field of service. the members within a congregation share commonality in faith issues. addressing victims as “honey. a Muslim victim will reject ministry from a Baptist chaplain. doctrinal. Forcing victims to talk. But chaplains have an opportunity to appropriately and gently lead victims toward healthier spiritual lives. and false assumptions (e. Without coercion (trying to force people to become Baptists). or chaplain—their choices are limited. to eat.Maintaining Personal Faith The nature of disaster relief ministry is significantly different than ministry in the local church. . In disaster relief. Because victims are highly vulnerable. the chaplain may find that his or her personal faith conflicts with the victim’s faith or values. victims do not choose their displacement. Ministry in diversity is not a call to abandon or violate one’s personal faith “Relief” for the Chaplain in the Context of Cultural and Religious Diversity There is natural anxiety associated with providing spiritual care in the context of cultural and religious diversity. theological . issues of importance.
“I’ve been through many hurricanes so I know I can get through this one. recreation. for the chaplain in disasters. a business executive. Exposure to numerous cultural influences and worldviews (during childhood. There is wide diversity within some ethnic and national entities (e. a woman could be a mother. language. adolescence.. handicaps or special needs. Most people are characterized by the intersection of multiple cultures (e. These are usually based on observable ethnicity.g.87 Principles for Ministering in Diversity Culture is more than national identity or racial origin and is influenced by Some general principles . Culture influences the perception of threat or trauma (e.. . after 9/11.g. marital status. many elements: ethnicity. and a cancer survivor).g. and/or adulthood) may increase the capacity of individuals to respond to serious traumatic events by providing them with a broader. climate. geography.. social status. an athlete.g. not all Anglos are Christian and not all South Americans speak Spanish). and play. food. an Iranian Muslim airplane pilot endured many hostile looks from passengers when he stepped into the cockpit of an American plane). nuclear family. CNN reporters realize that being on the scene does not necessarily mean it’s safe). and age. most victims will be rightfully or wrongfully “classified” by some uniquely identifying characteristics. a Jew. there are many other issues that could be considered. gender. . While there are many influences that create identity. Generalizations for all who fall within popularly used categories cannot be made (e.”). family of origin. education. religion and spiritual beliefs. more multi-faceted understanding of an event(s). perceptions of time and space. age. environment. physical characteristics.. Crisis interveners must quickly consider the sources of cultural identity for victims. thus providing awareness of alternative coping strategies.g. language.. art. The intensity of traumatic events vary according to the individual’s ability to integrate such events into his or her experience (e. The multiplicity of cultural sources may decrease the ability to develop a sense of safety and security (e. occupation. dress. economic status.. It is helpful to be aware of some general principles that apply in diversity.g. gender. music. However. not all Asians are short nor are all accountants “geeks”). an artist. Redefining one’s ministry as a spiritual care provider in diversity Respecting cultural and religious differences without compromising one’s personal beliefs Providing the freedom to the victim or client to choose or decline ministry Avoiding false assumptions regarding perceived needs Knowing and understanding the priorities of one’s own faith when ministering to diversity of religious traditions Accepting “being” as appropriate ministry when “doing” something is impossible. 75 .
as recorded in Acts 17:16-34. In Acts 27. Paul depicts that a tremendous compassion. 76 . spiritual care agents cannot decide for anyone how to think. and respect for those who hear the good news about the “UNKOWN GOD” is vital for sharing the Gospel with persons from another culture. In doing so. Paul’s ministry style also shows the importance of how timing and pace can impact ministry. and a quite different approach with the Gentiles—approaching them in the market. and yet maintain a humble spirit.. Language interpreters must also be able to interpret cultural responses and interventions.g. This boldness may involve providing ministry at a shelter. Multiple cultural identities complicate trauma.. Cultural metaphors provide insights for interventions. Paul used one approach with the Jews. or act—even Jesus did not force others to follow him. As such.. Paul often found himself in life-threatening situations throughout his ministry. concern. Though the chaplain is a representative and ambassador for God. Culture influences the expressions of traumatic reactions (e. develop trust. Culture can provide healing after trauma (e. He exemplifies that a chaplain can be culturally sensitive and still remain true to one’s own beliefs. believe. Be aware that in seeking this balance. Culturally focused education must be accomplished for the specific cultural identities in the chaplain’s circle of responsibility. in the parking lot where people gather to receive information about their disaster dilemma. some people “keep a stiff upper lip” and others weep and wail hysterically). many Asian cultures expect people to be stoic in the midst of crisis). appropriating Christian forgiveness allows the perpetrator of the accident to move on with life even when he or she caused the loss of a life). Chaplains Must Recognize the “UNKNOWN GOD” in Diversity88 Paul’s ministry demonstrates that one can be true to the command of the Great Commission even while being sensitive to the pluralistic qualities of a listener’s or groups’ cultural setting. at a memorial service. the record of his shipwreck on the way to Rome represents how initiative. he or she is not and will never be God. often going to the synagogue. The chaplain must be able to exercise such spiritual astuteness in diverse settings and be bold in approaching people wherever they are accessible. at a food distribution center. At Athens. one must search for the right time to express spiritual insights and be willing to submit to proper authority.g. even when they respond in a manner that contradicts your understanding.g. Paul led his traveling companions to trust him and eventually follow spiritual guidance acquired from an “unknown God” in order to preserve their lives. Culture may condemn or exalt the response of victims (e. godly counsel. and compassion can play a significant role in crisis response. Education is essential in effective ministry in cultural diversity. or even before community leaders who may disagree with your theological precepts. Chaplains must also cultivate the capacity to take such initiative.
chaplains must contextualize ministry responses to respect cultural heritage. Above all. and the ability to draw analogies from various cultures to illustrate one’s religious convictions. a significant understanding of one’s own faith and beliefs. and values through an understanding of how culture affects trauma and recovery. how they play. and in many other ways.Closely following the above mentioned qualities are the needs for a chaplain to have a good understanding of the identified audience. Chaplains must facilitate the practice of personal faith expressions for victims of many cultural entities while guarding their own personal beliefs and values. The chaplain who values his or her own personal faith is the one who is able to appreciate the faith of others. how family and community are defined. Clarification questions could be very helpful after initial contact is made. toward property. Chaplains in disasters must contextualize ministry 77 . in how they teach their children. patience to wait for the right time to speak. With a desire to help. chaplains may experience some anxiety as they approach victims whose cultural identity is unfamiliar or different. Clarification is an important aspect of diagnosis and preparation. how they share resources. by acknowledging and accommodating differences. These are just a few of the prominent qualities that need development in responding to crisis situations. However. Clarifying Cultural Needs Many reactions to crisis events and death are cross culturally similar. and by maintaining their personal faith while ministering in the midst of cultural and religious diversity. the chaplain must demonstrate compassion for all persons and be prepared to engage first in tangible ministry action in order to sometimes gain a better hearing of the Gospel. Helping survivors and families deal with traumatic death is based on respect and care. in division of labor between the sexes. Some questions might include: Is there anything special you’d like me to know about how to help you through this crisis? What would be the most helpful thing I could do for you right now? Is there anything special I could do for _______(deceased)? Is there anything special I could tell someone about how you would like __________’s body handled? Do you have any special religious needs I could help you with? Do you have any questions about what will be happening now? Do you have any religious or cultural restrictions I should be aware of? Disaster chaplains could ask clarifying questions Summary “Cultures vary in their attitude toward time. chaplains hesitantly enter the relationship. not harm.”89 To minister effectively to victims of disasters and emergencies. traditions.
family. communion. friends (J) Family members put shovel of dirt on casket (J) Mourning for one year (J) Sitting shiva – 7 day mourning for family(J) No visitors for 3 days (J) Torn garment or ribbon for a week (J) First anniversary marked by unveiling of tombstone at special ceremony (J) Fig. 5. “Anglo American. *Roman Catholic **Jewish 78 . sacrifices at gravesite Meal and gathering of family and friends after funeral Picture or plaque displayed in home as shrine Commemoration at 49 days Ceremony twice a year at grave or home shrine Blue is color of mourning Anglo American Nuclear family plans funeral with minister Family and friends gather at home Wake or Viewing Usually open casket Funeral or memorial service to commemorate the life of the deceased Services include music and eulogies or testimonials Cremation is acceptable Black is appropriate dress Flowers and donations are acceptable to honor Confession. Naomi Paget. Inc. prayers prior (RC)* Wake and Rosary (RC) Mass (RC) Anniversaries celebrated with Mass Autopsies and embalming generally prohibited (J)** No viewing of corpse (J) No funeral on Sabbath or major religious holidays (J) Music and flowers not encouraged (J) Eulogies by rabbis.Common Religious and Cultural Customs Concerning Death90 African American High involvement of funeral director Friends and family gather at home Wake Worship service – “Home Going” Shared meal after wake and funeral Funeral service and burial Cremation less accepted Deep religious faith and integration of church observances Memorial service Commemorative gifts Grief expression very emotional Mexican American High involvement of the priest in funeral plans Family and friends encouraged to be a part of the commemoration Rosary said by survivors at the home Some say rosary each night for 9 nights Some say rosary every month for a year Some say rosary on each anniversary Catholic funerals include a Mass Many commemorate the loss with promises or commitments – taken very seriously and failure to honor them is considered a sin Money gifts to help pay for funeral and burial typical Native American Medicine man. 2002. or spiritual leader moderates the funeral Some burials are non traditional – some resistance to laws of burial or cremation Call on ancestors to help deceased in transition Embalming not common Dismemberment and mutilation outside natural deterioration is taboo Sentimental things and gifts are buried with the body Burial must be in native homeland or reservation Pipes are smoked at gravesite Some significance with symbolic reference to circle Some significance in nonburial for natural passage Asian American Family elders assume responsibility for funeral Great respect for the body Warm clothes for burial Watertight caskets Stoic attitudes Grief internalized – often results in depression Open casket Poems in calligraphy left for deceased Cooked chicken placed by casket and buried with body (Chinese) Music used Band accompanies casket to cemetery Funeral route very important Location of burial plot important Monument important Some groups.. shaman.” Marketplace Samaritans.
Complete all Disaster Relief Chaplain Basic Course requirements and accumulate significant experience. Complete the Emergency Management Institute’s two ICS courses and print the certificates: a. Complete the Disaster Relief Chaplain Online Training Module and print the certificate (under development). 4. www.fema. b. Check with your state disaster relief chaplain or the national coordinator for disaster relief chaplaincy. “National Incident Management System (NIMS). Complete the Emergency Management Institute’s “Introduction to Incident Command System” (ICS) 100 Module (available online at www.namb.gov) Date Completed _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ 79 .fema. quadrant coordinator. Advanced training requirements for approval as a Southern Baptist Disaster Relief chaplain site coordinator.fema.WHAT TO DO NEXT UNIT 11 Pre-training requirements for approval as a Southern Baptist Disaster Relief chaplain 1. “Incident Command System for Single Resources and Initial Action Incidents” (ICS) Level 200 Module (available online at www.icisf. Complete Introducing Southern Baptists to Disaster Relief (provided by your state disaster relief director). An Introduction”(changing to “Framework”/NRF) Level 800 Module (available online at www. Optional (highly recommended): 1. 5. “Introduction to Incident Command System” (ICS) Level 100 Module (available online at www.gov). b. b. Complete the Disaster Relief Chaplain Advanced Course (6 hours). Register for the Disaster Relief Chaplain Advanced Course. Check the website of International Critical Incident Stress Foundation. Check with the national coordinator for disaster relief chaplaincy. Check with your state disaster relief director or state disaster relief chaplain. For course offerings: a.gov) 2. An Introduction” Level 700 Module (available online at www. Training requirements for approval as a Southern Baptist Disaster Relief chaplain 1. or regional coordinator 1. For course offerings: a. 2.fema. Acquire a formal recommendation from your state disaster relief director.gov).net/drchaplaintrainingmanual 2.fema. 2. 3.org b. 3. a. 3. Optional (highly recommended): Complete the following Emergency Management Institute courses: 1. “National Response Plan (NRP). Read the Disaster Relief Chaplain Training Manual www. Complete the Disaster Relief Chaplain Basic Course (16 hours). Check with your state disaster relief chaplain or the national coordinator for disaster relief chaplaincy. Plans are to offer this course annually at the spring Disaster Relief Roundtable (held the last full week of April). Complete a Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) course (14 hours) or NOVA course (40 hours).gov). Register for the Disaster Relief Chaplain Basic Course.
b. Complete the Disaster Relief Chaplain Basic Course and Disaster Relief Chaplain Advanced Course requirements. Complete the Disaster Relief Chaplain Train-the-Trainer Course (14 hours).fema. Plans are to offer this course annually at the spring Disaster Relief Roundtable (held the last week of April). Optional(highly recommended): 1. “National Incident Management System (NIMS). Read The Salvation Army (TSA) “Emotional and Spiritual Care in Disasters Training Guide. Read NYDIS Manual for New York City Religious Leaders: Spiritual Care and Mental Health for Disaster Response and Recovery (see also “NYDIS Tip Sheets”) (available online). Complete the Emergency Management Institute’s two national level courses and print certificates: a. Register for the Disaster Relief Chaplain Train-the-Trainer Course. 2.Train-the-Trainer requirements for approval as a Southern Baptist Disaster Relief chaplain trainer 1. “National Response Plan (NRP). 4. Read Billy Graham Evangelistic Association (BGEA) “His Presence in Crisis” Rapid Response training curriculum. 3. 5.org). ____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ 80 . Read National Voluntary Organizations Active in Disaster (NVOAD) “Light Our Way”(online at www. Check with your state disaster relief chaplain or the national coordinator for disaster relief chaplaincy. 4. Demonstrate adequate training capabilities and experience.gov) b. An Introduction” Level 700 Module (available online at www.nvoad. An Introduction” (changing to “Framework”/NRF) Level 800 Module (available online at www. 6.gov) 3. 2. Acquire a formal recommendation from your state disaster relief director and two other ministry-based references. a.fema.
. MD 21042-3652 Phone: (410) 750-9600 FAX: (410) 750-9601 www. GA 30022 (770) 410-6000 www.org International Critical Incident Stress Foundation 10176 Baltimore National Pike.org 81 . West Nyack. NW Washington.icisf.net American Red Cross American Red Cross National Headquarters Disaster Services 2025 E St. DC 20006 Phone: (202) 303-4498 FAX: (202) 303-0241 www.redcross.org Salvation Army Disaster Services 440 West Nyack Rd.RESOURCES FOR DISASTER RELIEF CHAPLAINS UNIT 12 Agencies North American Mission Board Adult Volunteer Mobilization/Disaster Relief 4200 North Point Pkwy. Ste. NW Washington. 201 Ellicott City. DC 20010 Phone: (202) 232-6682 FAX: (202) 462-2255 www. Alpharetta.namb..salvationarmy-usaeast. NY 10994-1739 Phone: (845) 620-7200 FAX: (845) 620-7766 www.org National Organization for Victim Assistance 1730 Park Rd.trynova.
professionalchaplains. Ste. Fairfax.edu American Association of Pastoral Counselors 9504-A Lee Hwy..org American Association of Christian Counselors P.org National Association of Catholic Chaplains P. VA 24551 1 800 526-8673 www. Box 739 Forest.acpe.org National Association of Jewish Chaplains 901 Route 10 Whippany. IL 60173 Phone: (847) 240-1014 FAX: (847) 240-1015 www. WI 53207-0473 Phone: (414) 483-4898 FAX: (414) 483-6712 www. 1549 Clairmont Rd. Woodfield Rd.aapc. NJ 07981-1156 Phone/FAX: (973) 736-9193 www. GA 30033-4635 Phone: (404) 320-1472 FAX: (404) 320-0849 www.najc.. 103 Decatur. 311 Schaumburg. Box 070473 Milwaukee. Inc.O. VA 22031-2303 Phone: (703) 385-6967 FAX: (703) 352-7725 www.Professional Organizations Association of Professional Chaplains 1701 E.O. Ste.AACC.nacc.org Association for Clinical Pastoral Education.net 82 .
Community Churches Associations Hospitals Counseling Centers Shelters Funeral Homes Food Banks Clothing Closets Literature and Music Prayers Memorial Services Funeral Services Dedications Other Rites and Rituals Contacts Community Churches Community Faith Group Houses of Worship Community Clergy Community Clergy Associations Law Enforcement Victim Advocates or Victim Assistants Community Support Groups Community Emergency Preparedness Agencies Department of Social Services Local Red Cross 83 .
Today. Classical Pastoral Care.” Robert K. “Disaster Relief Chaplaincy for Community Clergy” (D. Sullivan. 2001. 1985]. 17 16 15 14 13 12 Webster’s Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language. 1975). 1992) 138.d. 22-23).v. s. Experiencing God Day-by-Day (Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers. McNeill. in the general orientation of CPE students. The Wounded Healer (New York: Doubleday. MA: St. Golden Gate Baptist Theological Seminary. 5 4 Webster’s Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language. (1989). The primary didactic and clinical training and preparation a chaplain has is through CPE. Vine. the closest counterpart for lepers may be AIDS victims (Craig L. “Disaster Relief Chaplaincy for Community Clergy. New International Version unless otherwise noted. The New American Commentary. n. 1982]. Compassion (New York: Doubleday.v. Matthew. Blomberg..” Henri J Nouwen. Min. Greenleaf. 4. One of the primary objectives is to teach the chaplain the differences between chaplaincy. and mental health.ENDNOTES Naomi Kohatsu Paget. 42. Thomas C. (Arthur Becker. The Practice of the Presence of God [New Kensington: Whitaker House. Servant Leadership: A Journey into the Nature of Legitimate Power and Greatness (New York: Paulist Press. diss. “Ripple Effect”. E. Christ and Culture (New York: Harper & Row. Dying for Change (Minneapolis: Bethany House.” Leith Anderson. Brother Lawrence wrote several letters that explained how he practiced the presence of God. 18 84 . 1994). 11 10 9 Henri J. vol. Paget. “compassion. 3 W.). 1-3. [Worcester. (1989). 35).” H.” 12-21. 220. 3. 1990). 1982). social work. 29). Crisis Ministries (Grand Rapids: Baker Books. vol. Key to this was praying throughout each day to attain spiritual fulfillment (Brother Lawrence. Nouwen. and Douglas A. 4. Vincent Hospital. “help. 22 (Nashville: Broadman Press. Ogden. 81-82. The Compassionate Visitor [Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House. “Nowhere has the effect of globalization been felt more radically than in the church. Morrison. 1977). Richard Niebuhr. 8 7 6 All Scripture quoted is from The Holy Bible. Becker writes that a Zulu visitor may sit at the gate for hours—just being present—before beginning the relationship rebuilding that precedes the point of the visit. The tension between the relevance of Christ and the culture in which one lives is an “enduring problem. Donald P. Henry Blackaby. parish pastorates. 2003). 1979). The chaplain is taught the significance of “being” as an ontological expression in contrast to “doing” (Thomas V. 1st ed. 1994]).” in Vine’s Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words (McLean: MacDonald Publishing Company. . 1997). “Compassion. 213. 8. . 1st ed. 13-14. s. 2 1 ARC.
Richard A. 20 19 Roberta C. Carlson. Stress Without Distress (New York: New American Library. Norton & Company. 21 Timothy George.” 3-5. Poetical Works of Francis Thompson (New York: Oxford University Press. 25 24 Francis Thompson.) 29. 27-28. “Disaster Relief Chaplaincy for Community Clergy. Pastoral Care During and After A Disaster: Psychosocial Training for Clergy (Newtown. 1980). and when to excuse oneself from service. Restoring Margin to Overloaded Lives (Colorado Springs: Navpress. 132.Southern Baptist Convention.” these disasters are caused by both men and women and are not necessarily gender specific. 413. 53-107. The New American Commentary. 28 27 North American Mission Board. Denver. 31 30 29 Paget. Eve B.” 42-44. vol. Galatians. “Disaster Relief Chaplaincy for Community Clergy. “Disaster Relief Chaplaincy for Community Clergy. Erikson. Erik H. 89-94.. Trauma Assessments (New York: The Guilford Press. 1999). Mitchell and Grady P. Pastoral Care During and After A Disaster: Psychosocial Training for Clergy. 30 (Nashville: Broadman & Holman. n. Denver Baptist Association. North American Mission Board. 23 22 Ibid. 12-18.. 26 Some other issues include how to bear witness to the Gospel without proselytizing. Experiencing the event may be personal or vicarious. 39 38 37 Mitchell and Bray. Mitchell and Bray define trauma as an event outside the usual realm of human experience that would be markedly distressing to anyone who experienced it. Involving Southern Baptists in Disaster Relief (Alpharetta: NAMB.d. the exposure to human suffering.W. Emergency Services Stress (Englewood Cliffs: Brady Prentice Hall Career & Technology. Paget. To Pray and to Love (Minneapolis: Fortress Press. 2003. 1991). Bondi.” 8-10. June 5. Naomi K.. 1974). 32 33 34 35 36 Jeffrey T. Naomi K. Hans Selye. 1969). 7-10. in Disaster Relief Chaplaincy Training Part I. GA: NAMB. CT: Marketplace Samaritans. Swenson. Paget. 413-415. how to function under chain-of-command. Identity and the Life Cycle (New York: W. CO. Bray. It should be noted that while these are traditionally called “man-made disasters. 1990). 2003). Marlene Young.” The Community Crisis Response Team Training 40 41 85 . 19-25. 3. Paget. Paget. 1994). 1998). 26. 2000). 29. Ibid. Involving Southern Baptists in Disaster Relief (Alpharetta. 14. Inc. 40. “Coordinating a Crisis Response Team. Paget.
The mission statement and purposes of the International Critical Incident Stress Foundation may be found at their website. 42 Paget. “Spirituality in the Workplace” (Longmont.org. Religious pluralism seeks an environment in which all faith expressions can dwell together.” 32-35. Young. ed. Military Chaplaincy Associate of the North American Mission Board. Personal history and experience may render the pastoral caregiver ineffective in a particular situation—the pastoral caregiver’s own grief. may evoke memories too powerful to enable him or her to enter into another’s suffering in a meaningful way. . or social groups seeking to maintain autonomous participation in and development of their traditional culture or special interest within the confines of a common society. Kenneth C. 75. 1990). 52 51 50 49 Paget.: National Organization for Victim Assistance.. religious. 207. The resulting understanding seeks peace and unity through reduced fear..org.C. 1984).try-nova. Religious pluralism is more than tolerance for other faith groups. . Ezhanikatt et al. Paget. 2-6 – 2-13. Christian Caregiving: A Way of Life (Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House. Paget. 43 44 45 46 47 48 Some other issues include how to function under chain-of-command and when to excuse oneself from service. 43-51. Howard Clinebell. Religious pluralism creates room for various faith practices without expecting compromise of a faith doctrine or tradition. resistance and resentment of one another. 2002). Basic Types of Pastoral Care & Counseling (Nashville: Abingdon Press. 44. 134. Dave Mullis. www. The Way of the Heart (San Francisco: Harper San Francisco. racial. caused by a similar disaster. 34-38. 39-42. Nouwen. (Washington.” 44-45. defines pluralism as “a coalition of diverse ethnic. This functional diversity should be regarded as a strength rather than a weakness in chaplaincy ministry. 1981). Mitchell and Bray. Paget. Naomi K. Rodney J. 1984). . Religious pluralism would seek to create an understanding of the spiritual experience reflected in other religious expression. 69.” in Dictionary of Pastoral Care and Counseling. Young. Pluralism means that the chaplain exercises their [sic] own religious faith and ministers with understanding for the religious faith of 59 58 57 56 86 . Pastoral Care During and After A Disaster: Psychosocial Training for Clergy. “Compassion. 7-2. CO: Marketplace Samaritans.icisf.Manual. Pastoral Care During and After A Disaster: Psychosocial Training for Clergy. 53 54 55 J. Haugk. Pluralism is not universalism. .M. . www. Inc. “Disaster Relief Chaplaincy for Community Clergy. Hunter (Nashville: Abingdon Press. D. “Disaster Relief Chaplaincy for Community Clergy. Paget. . It should be noted that not all pastoral caregivers will or should respond to every disaster. 3d ed. 2000). Pastoral Care During and After A Disaster: Psychosocial Training for Clergy. 10-7. The mission statement and purposes of the National Organization for Victim Assistance may be found at their website. Henri J.
“Business and Industrial Chaplaincy: the Chaplain’s Ministry Plan” [D. Part 1: Shifting Demographics. Pastoral Care During and After A Disaster: Psychosocial Training for Clergy. 77 76 Young. Granger Westberg popularized Lindemann’s stages of grief as pastoral wisdom in his little book. Duncan Sinclair. Later. 71-73. Naomi K. 9-10). Horrific Traumata: A Pastoral Response to the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (New York: Haworth Pastoral Press. psychiatrist and resident of the National Institute for Health Care Research. 2007).com/public/1784. 65. “Faith in Psychiatry. Referenced in Young. Pastoral Crisis Intervention (Ellicott City. 62 63 64 Erich Lindemann affirmed Freud’s concept of “working through life’s problems” and affirmed grief as “work. 18-3 – 18-6. School of Divinity. deVries. 115. McFarlane.com. 14.” Psychology Today. 60-65. 61 60 Haugk. Critical Incident Stress Debriefing: An Operations Manual for CISD. van der Kolk. (Ellicott City: Chevron Publishing Corporation. 73 72 Ibid.cfm. Regent University. ed. s. Mannion.diversityinc. 1999]. July/August 1995. Internet. The Work of the Chaplain (Valley Forge. 68-74. Mitchell and George S. 15-6—15-9. Pastoral Care During and After A Disaster: Psychosocial Training for Clergy.. 9-29 – 9-34. www. published in 1962.Min. 3d ed.” DiversityInc. Kubler-Ross popularized the concept of stages of grief as she studied dying patients at the University of Chicago Hospital (Lindemann had studied those who had lost someone close to them through death).” 74 75 M. Good Grief. accessed 20 November 2001. 1993).W. Everly Jr. B. 236. Paget.” in Traumatic Stress. Weisaeth (New York: Guilford Press. “culture. 9-6 – 9-7. 70 69 68 67 Young. Defusing and Other Group Crisis Intervention Services. Paget and Janet R. Paget. “The Business Case for Diversity.others” (Dave Mullis.” in 2001: The Next Generation in Victim Assistance (Dubuque. 1994). MD: Chevron Press. N. 52-59. IA: Kendall/Hunt. citing to studies done by David Larson. Michael T. 66 65 Paget.v. 9-9 – 9-12. 78 87 .” He first suggested that there were discernable stages in the grief process that the grieving person must work through. Young. “Making Sense of Victimization Through a Spiritual Vision. 2006). Everly. “Trauma in Cultural Perspective. 71 Jeffrey T.C. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language.. Young. A. diss. Jr. McCormack. PA: Judson Press. 1996). George S.. and L. Pastoral Care During and After A Disaster: Psychosocial Training for Clergy. 117.A. 2001) 59-66.
therefore. McCormack.” Association of Professional Chaplains conference.e. Naomi K. and cross-cultural awareness. These are defined in Unit 2. and Culture. “Maintaining Personal Faith While Ministering in the Midst of Religious and Cultural Diversity. 87 86 85 Ibid. 15-134 – 15-140 88 . 90 89 88 Young. Solomon Kendagor. Internet. 15-47. crosscultural sensitivity. Chapter 11. illness. 2006). A trauma. personal or vicarious exposure to severe injury. 15-56. 15-64. C. 84 83 Young. Trauma. Paget and Janet R.org/links/culture.M.79 Young. “Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. This issue is addressed in the following subsection. APA. accessed 13 June 2002. PA: Judson Press. The idea of improving cross-cultural ability is reflected in several terms—cross-cultural knowledge.htm.ethnicharvest.” International Review of Psychiatry 2. Religious accommodation poses difficulties for many pastoral caregivers who struggle with the issue of how to maintain personal faith integrity. Chemtrob. “Working Through Cultural Differences. The most recent version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV. may be seen as a more narrow form of critical incident (a crisis event that causes a crisis response). or death. 82 81 80 Young. The Work of the Chaplain (Valley Forge.” www. February 2002. 1994) defines trauma exclusively in terms of the exposure to human suffering. 10-11. i..
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