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Brain Computer Interface
from fiction to reality ...

In the futuristic vision of the Wachowski brothers’ movie trilogy “The Matrix”, humans dive into a virtual world by connecting their brains directly to a computer……..

OVERVIEW Definition General Principle Background Component Simplified model of BCI Training of BCI system Current BCI approaches EEG Based BCI BCI for Tetraplegics Brain controlled robots Present Development and Future Applications BCI for Healthy Users Advantages Computational Challenges Future Expansion Conclusion .

DEFINITION A Brain Computer Interface (BCI) is a collaboration in which a brain accepts and controls a mechanical device as a natural part of its representation of the body. .

GENERAL PRINCIPLE (a) (b) (c) (a) In healthy subjects. (b) In paralyzed people this pathway is interrupted. primary motor area sends movement commands to muscles via spinal cord. . (c) Computer based decoder translates this activity into commands for muscle control.

Signals translated into action. Using computer chips and programs. . Transmitted to computer Transformed to device control commands. Signals are amplified. Cerebral electric activity recorded.BACKGROUND Signals from an array of neurons read.


BASIC COMPONENTS The implant device. or chronic multielectrode array The signal recording and processing section An external device the subject uses to produce & control motion A feedback section to the subject .

Implant Device Conduct electricity Biocompatible material(teflon) Placed on the scalp Chemically inert Provide the electrical contact between the skin and the EEG recording apparatus AN ARRAY OF MICROELECTRODES BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE NEUROTROPHIC ELECTRODES FOR IMPLANTATION IN HUMAN PATIENTS .

Signal Processing Section Multichannel Acquisition Systems Spike Detection .


BLOCK DIAGRAM FOR LEARNING MODE TRAINING OF BCI SYSTEM Two different approaches: Pattern Recognition Approach Operant Conditioning Approach BLOCK DIAGRAM FOR LEARNING MODE .


5. Band Delta Theta Alpha Beta Gamma Frequency [Hz] 0.EEG Based BCI Electroencephalography (EEG) is a method used in measuring the electrical activity of the brain.4 4.13 13.22 22-30 . The alpha rhythm is one of the principal components of the EEG and is an indicator of the state of alertness of the brain.8 8. The basic frequency of the EEG range is classified into five bands for purposes of EEG analysis called brain rhythms .

After conducting initial studies in rats during the 1990s.Development of BCI Early work Algorithms to reconstruct movements from motor cortex neurons. which control movement were developed in 1970s. The first Intra-Cortical Brain-Computer Interface was built by implanting neurotrophiccone electrodes into monkeys. researchers developed Brain Computer Interfaces that decoded brain activity in monkeys and used the devices to reproduce monkey movements in robotic arms. Present Developments BCI for Tereaplegics Brain controlled Robot ‘BRAINGATE’ BCI ATR and HONDA’s new BCI BCI2000 .

Feedback processed and grip is EEG BCI used. Prosthetic returns force sensory information to Controller. Control scheme sends movement intention to Prosthetic Controller. Sensory & motor cortices activated during attempts.BCI for Tetraplegics 6. .

.BRAIN CONTROLLED ROBOTS Robot hand mimics subject’s finger movements. Transferred to hand shaped robot. Robot executes commands using onboard sensor readings. Signals extracted and decoded by computer program. To simulate original movement performed.

‘BRAINGATE’ BCI The ‘Braingate’ device can provide motor-impaired patients a mode of communication through the translation of thought into direct computer control. .

FEATURES OF BRAINGATE BCI Neural Interface Device. Create communication o/p using decoding software. Sensor consists of tiny chip with electrode sensors. Chip implanted on brain surface. Cable connects sensor to external signal processor. Converts neural signals to output signals. . Consists of signal sensor and external processors.

Accuracy of 85% . By tracking haemodynamic responses in brain.ATR & HONDA DEVELOP NEW BCI BCI for manipulating robots using brain signals. MRI based neural decoding. No invasive incision of head and Brain. Enables decoding natural brain activity.

stimulus presentation.BCI2000 BCI2000 is an open-source. BCI2000 also facilitates interactions with other software. and brain monitoring applications. generalpurpose system for BCI research. It can also be used for data acquisition. During operation. BCI2000 stores data in a common format (BCI2000 native or GDF). . BCI2000 also includes several tools for data import or conversion and export facilities into ASCII.

BCI APPLICATIONS Medical applications(restoration of a communication channel for patients with lockedin syndrome and the control of neuroprostheses in patients affected by spinal cord injuries ) Military applications Counter terrorism(10 times faster image search) multimedia and virtual reality applications .

Otherwise unavailable information.BCI FOR HEALTHY USERS Induced disability. Ease of use in software. Improved training or performance. Speed. Ease of use in hardware. . Confidentiality. Novelty.

which EEGs can't pick up on. There are chemical processes involved as well. Each neuron is constantly sending and receiving signals through a complex web of connections. The equipment heavy(~10 lbs.) & hence not portable.DRAWBACKS EEGs measure tiny voltage potentials. The signal is weak and prone to interference. .

.COMPUTATIONAL CHALLENGES AND FUTURE IMPLEMENTATIONS Minimally invasive surgical methods. Vision prosthesis. Next generation Neuroprosthesis. Minimal number of calibration trials. Development of telemetry chip to collect data without external cables. BCI for totally paralyzed.

BCI System is nominated for the European ICT Grand Prize. Potentially high impact technology. .CONCLUSION A potential therapeutic tool.

org/wiki/ www.wikipedia. www.wikipedia.REFERENCES www.techalone. Berlin .com www.Computer Interface Brain Computer –interface # Brain.

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