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Week 13 - Stress Transformation

# Week 13 - Stress Transformation

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05/03/2013

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# CVEN2301 Mechanics of Solids STRESS TRANSFORMATION

Chongmin Song School of Civil and Environmental Engineering The University of New South Wales
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Stress and Strain at a Point
y

Stress tensor
σ yy Plane y τ yz
 σ x τ xy τ xz    τ yx σ y τ yz  τ zx τ   zx τ zy σ z 

z

x

τ yx τ xy τ xz σ xx

τ zy

 σ x τ xy τ xz    τ yx σ y τ yz  τ   zx τ zy σ z 
Complementary property of shear

σ zz Plane x Plane z

τ ij = τ ji
(i, j = x, y, z )

3D Stresses at a Point

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Plane stresses

σzz = τzx = τzy = 0

Sign convention: Positive normal stress acts outward from all faces and positive shear stress acts upward on the right-hand face of the element.

Plane Stresses
A structural member may be subjected to both normal stress and shear stress.

Which stress do we use for design purposes?

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Along Section Plane a-a Normal stress: Shear stress: τ =0 3 .Design assumption: material behaviour (elastic/plastic/in failure) is identical along the bar.

04 / sin 60 ) = 1.8 σ= = = 375kPa A 1.04 × (0.8 N Shear force : V = 800 × sin 30 = 400 N Along Section Plane b-b Sectional area : A = 0.Along Section Plane b-b Normal force : N = 800 × cos 30 = 692.8475 × 10 -3 m 2 Shear stress : V 400 = = 217 kPa A 1.8475 × 10 -3 τ= 4 .8475 × 10 -3 Normal stress : N 692.

The equations for stress transformation provides us with unique values to be used in structural designs. 5 . • The stress states of an element will change with its orientation but are equivalent.Equivalent Stress States Stress Transformation At a specified location under a given loading: • The material behaviour (elastic/plastic/in failure) is uniquely determined.

y’ coordinates The answer is independent of ∆A 6 .EXAMPLE 1 Equilibrium (of force) in x’.

y’ coordinates Stresses on plane b-b 7 .Equilibrium (of force) in x’.

Stresses on plane b-b Equivalent stress states 8 .

Stress Transformation • Stress transformation from x. y axes to x’. y’ axes • The orientation of an inclined plane will be defined using the angle θ. • Angle θ is measured from x-axis to x’-axis in the counterclockwise direction σ yy τyx y σ y'y' τ y'x' τ x'y' σ x'x' τxy x y' x' θ σ xx θ x System 1 System 2 Stress Transformation • Consider the equilibrium of a triangular segment σyy τyx y τxy x θ σxx System 1 9 .

cos 2 θ = (1 + cos 2θ ) / 2 Normal stress : σ +σ y σ x −σ y σ x' = x cos 2θ + τ xy sin 2θ + 2 2 Stress Transformation Equilibrium in y'-direction τ x ' y ' ∆A + (τ xy ∆A sin θ ) sin θ − (σ y ∆A sin θ ) cosθ − (τ xy ∆A cos θ ) cosθ − (σ x ∆A cos θ ) sin θ = 0 τ x ' y ' = (σ y − σ x ) sin θ cos θ + τ xy (cos 2 θ − sin 2 θ ) Shear stress : τ x' y' = − σ x −σ y 2 sin 2θ + τ xy cos 2θ 10 .Stress Transformation Equilibrium in x'-direction σ x '∆A − (τ xy ∆A sin θ ) cos θ − (σ y ∆A sin θ ) sin θ − (τ xy ∆A cos θ ) sin θ − (σ x ∆A cos θ ) cos θ = 0 σ x ' = σ x cos 2 θ + σ y sin 2 θ + τ xy (2 sin θ cos θ ) Using trigonomet ric identities : sin 2θ = 2 sin θ cos θ . sin 2 θ = (1 − cos 2θ ) / 2.

Stress Transformation Normal stress in x'-direction : σ +σ y σ x −σ y σ x' = x + cos 2θ + τ xy sin 2θ 2 2 Normal stress in y'-direction (θ ← 90 + θ ) : σ +σ y σ x −σ y σ y' = x − cos 2θ − τ xy sin 2θ 2 2 y’ x’ x EXAMPLE 2 11 .

8MPa σ x −σ y Note the signs and directions of stresses 12 . y' coordinate system : σ x +σ y σ x −σ y σ x' = + cos 2θ + τ xy sin 2θ 2 2 − 80 + 50 − 80 − 50 = + cos 2(−30 ) + τ xy sin(−30 ) 2 2 = −25.8MPa σ +σ y σ x −σ y σ y' = x − cos 2θ − τ xy sin 2θ 2 2 − 80 + 50 − 80 − 50 = − cos 2( −30 ) − τ xy sin(−30 ) 2 2 = −4. y coordinate system Stresses in x'.EXAMPLE 2 Stresses in x.15MPa EXAMPLE 2 τ x' y ' = − sin 2θ + τ xy cos 2θ 2 − 80 − 50 =− + ( −25) cos 2( −30 ) 2 = −68.

Principal Stresses The principal stresses represent the maximum and minimum normal stress at the point.    2  + τ xy   2 σ x −σ y   2  tan 2θ p = τ xy (σ x − σ y )/ 2 13 . two solutions exist for θ p : θ p1 and θ p 2 = 90 + θ p1 Principal Stresses Normal stress acting on principal planes σ x' = σx +σ y 2 + σ x −σ y 2 cos 2θ + τ xy sin 2θ . with θ = θ p Considerin g the case σ x − σ y > 0 and τ xy > 0 σ x −σ y sin 2θ p1 = τ xy /   2  σ x −σ y cos 2θ p1 =   2   /    2  + τ xy    2  + τ xy   2 2 ( ) σ x −σ y   2  2 σ x −σ y sin 2θ p 2 = −τ xy /   2  σ x −σ y cos 2θ p 2 = −  2   /    2  + τ xy . • Normal stress σ x' = 2 σx +σ y + σ x −σ y 2 cos 2θ + τ xy sin 2θ • Orientation of the planes of maximum and minimum normal stress (principal planes) (σ x − σ y ) 2 sin 2θ + 2τ cos 2θ = 0 dσ x ' =− p xy p dθ θ = θ 2 p τ xy (σ x − σ y )/ 2 tan 2θ p = As tan 2θ p = tan(180 + 2θ p ).

Principal Stresses Maximum in-plane normal stress σ1 = σx +σ y 2 + σ x −σ y 2 cos 2θ p1 + τ xy sin 2θ p1 2   2  + τ xy  /     = σx +σ y 2  σ x −σ y +   2  σ x −σ y +   2  σ x −σ y   2   2  + τ xy   2 = σx +σ y 2  2  + τ xy   2 Minimum in-plane normal stress σ2 = = σx +σ y 2 + σ x −σ y 2 cos 2θ p 2 + τ xy sin 2θ p 2  2  + τ xy   2 σx +σ y 2 σ x −σ y −   2  Principal Stresses Maximum/ Minimum in-plane normal stress (σ1 ≥ σ2) σ 1. 2 = σ x +σ y 2 σ x −σ y ±   2   2  + τ xy   2 Shear stress on the principal planes As tan 2θ p = sin 2θ p cos 2θ p = 2τ xy σ x −σ y . ⇒ σ x −σ y 2 sin 2θ p = τ xy cos 2θ p τ x' y' = − σ x −σ y 2 sin 2θ p + τ xy cos 2θ p = 0 No shear stress acts on the principal planes! 14 .

72 ) 2 2 = −0.72 deg x σ x +σ y σ x −σ y σ x = 3 MPa σ y = 1 MPa τ xy = 2 MPa σ 1 = 4.EXAMPLE 3 σyy =1 τ=2 y σ x = 3 MPa σ y = 1 MPa τ xy = 2 MPa τ=2 x σxx = 3 Unit: MPa Find the principal stresses and show their sense on a properly oriented element.24MPa σ +σ y σ x −σ y σ y' = x − cos 2θ − τ xy sin 2θ 2 2 3 + 1 3 −1 = − cos(2 × 31. EXAMPLE 3 Principal Direction: tan 2θ p = -0.24 MPa x' −σ y )= 2 =2 4 θ p = 31.72 σ x' = cos 2θ + τ xy sin 2θ 2 2 3 +1 3 −1 = + cos(2 × 31.72 ) − 2 sin( 2 × 31.24MPa 15 .24MPa σ 2 = −0.72 ) 2 2 = 4.72 ) + 2 sin( 2 × 31.24MPa + θ = 31.24 MPa (σ 2τ xy x y' 4.

⇒ θ s = 45 + θ p The plane for maximum shear stress is orientated 45° from principal planes. the normal stress on the planes 2 τ x' y' = − σ x −σ y of maximum shear stress σ x ' = σ y ' = σ avg = σx +σ y 2 tan 2θ s = − (σ x − σ y )/ 2 τ xy 16 . Maximum Shear Stresses Substituti ng the values for sin 2θ s and cos 2θ s into : sin 2θ + τ xy cos 2θ 2 Maximum shear stress σ −σ y   + τ xy 2 τ max =  x   2   Similarly.Maximum Shear Stress Shear stress : σ −σ y τ x' y' = − x sin 2θ + τ xy cos 2θ 2 Orientation of the plane of maximum shear stress dτ x ' y ' dθ θ = θ s tan 2θ s = − =− σ x −σ y 2 2 cos 2θ s − 2τ xy sin 2θ s = 0 1 . tan 2θ p   τ xy  tan 2θ p =   σ x −σ y / 2    (σ x −σ y / 2 ) τ xy =− ( ) 2θ s = 90 + 2θ p .

EXAMPLE 4 EXAMPLE 4 Stresses σ x = 0 σ y = 0 τ xy = −τ Maximum shear stress σ −σ y   + τ xy 2 = 0 + τ 2 = ±τ τ max =  x   2   Average normal stress 2 σ avg = σx +σ y 2 =0 Ductile materials (e. mild steel) often fail due to shear stress 17 .g.

EXAMPLE 4 θ θ EXAMPLE 4 Stress element Brittle materials (e. cast iron) often fail due to normal stress 18 .g.

19 .

no shear stress will act on the element C)When the state of stress is represented in terms of the maximum in-plane shear stress. no normal stress will act on the element D)For the state of stress at a point.Principal stresses Quiz Which of the following statement is incorrect? A) The principal stresses represent the maximum and minimum normal stress at the point B) When the state of stress is represented by the principal stresses. 20 . the maximum in-plane shear stress usually associated with the average normal stress.

σ y . 4) 2 + (Eq.Mohr’s Circle of Stress A graphical solution for plane stress transformation Often convenient and easy to use.  2  + τ xy   2 21 . 1 σ x' − 2 σx +σ y = σ x −σ y 2 cos 2θ + τ xy sin 2θ (4) sin 2θ + τ xy cos 2θ (3) 2 (Eq. τ xy are known constants) σ avg = σx +σ y 2 . There are several ways of drawing a Mohr’s circle Equation for stress transformation: σ x' = σ y' = σ x +σ y 2 σx +σ y 2 + − σ x −σ y 2 σ x −σ y 2 cos 2θ + τ xy sin 2θ cos 2θ − τ xy sin 2θ (1) ( 2) (3) τ x' y' = − σ x −σ y 2 sin 2θ + τ xy cos 2θ Mohr’s Circle of Stress Rewrite Eq. 3) 2 and using cos 2 2θ + sin 2 2θ = 1 τ x' y' = − σ x −σ y σ +σ y  σ x ' − x  2  Rewritten as   + τ x' y'   2 2 ( ) 2 σ x −σ y =  2   2  + τ xy   2 (σ x' − σ avg ) + (τ ) 2 x' y' = R2 σ x −σ y R=   2  with (σ x .

σ x ' = σ x and τ x ' y ' = τ xy G : θ = 90 . and • τ is positive downward.Mohr’s Circle of Stress (σ x ' . Mohr’s Circle of Stress Reference points A : θ = 0 . σ x ' = σ y and τ x ' y ' = −τ xy A rotation of θ of the x’ axis corresponds to a rotation 2θ on the circle in the same direction 22 . τ x ' y ' ) is on a Mohr' circle having radius R (σ and centre at (σ avg .0) x' − σ avg ) + (τ ) 2 x' y ' 2 = R2 Sign Convention: • σ is positive to the right.

τxy) • Connect CA (θ=0o) and determine R • Sketch the circle σ C A τ θ=0 o Mohr’s Circle of Stress Principal stress • σ1 at point B on circle • Angle 2θp1 measured from reference line CA to CB • σ2 at point D on circle. θp1 and θp2 are 90o apart • Sketch a stress element with the principal axis (+x’) rotate by θp1 from the reference axis (+x) B D C 2θp1 θ σ A τ 23 .Mohr’s Circle of Stress Draw a Mohr’s circle • Coordinates σ. 0) • Reference point A (σx. τ (positive downward) • Centre of circle C (σavg.

Mohr’s Circle of Stress Maximum shear • τmax at point E or F • Angle 2θs1 measured from reference line CA to CE or CF • Sketch a stress element F B D C 2θs1 θ σ A τ E Mohr’s Circle of Stress Stresses on Arbitrary Plane • Measure an angle 2θ on the circle from the reference line CA in the same direction as angle θ • Determine the coordinates of P B D C A P σ τ 24 .

0) The initial point A (-12.49MPa Orientatio of principal plane n 6 2θ p 2 = tan−1 = 45 12 − 6 θ p 2 = 22.49MPa Principle stresses σ1 = 8.5 25 .49MPa σ (MPa) σ 2 = −6 − 8.49 = −14.σ x = −12MPa σy =0 τ xy = −6MPa σ avg = (σ x + σ y )/ 2 = (−12 + 0) / 2 = −6MPa The center C (-6.49 − 6 = 2.-6) Radius of the circle R = (12 − 6)2 + 62 = 8.

66MPa Draw a radial line CP at 2(30 ) = 60 counterclockwise measured from CA (θ = 0 ) 26 . 0) The initial point A (-8.σ x = −8MPa σ y = 12MPa τ xy = −6MPa σ avg = (σ x + σ y )/ 2 = (−8 + 12) / 2 = 2MPa The center C (2.-6) Radius of the circle R = (10)2 + 62 = 11.

66MPa • Face DE is 60o clockwise from the x-axis.Determine the coordinate of point P(σx’.20MPa τ x' y ' = 11.04 = 12.66cos 29. • Stresses represented by point Q From the geometry of the circle σ x' = 2 + 11.66sin 29.04 σ x' = 2 −11.66 cos 29. τx’y’) From the geometry of the circle 6 φ = tan-1 = 30.04 = −8.2MPa τ x' y ' = −11.04 = −5.66sin 29.04 = 5.96 = 29.96 10 ψ = 60 − 30.66MPa 27 .

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